WorldWideScience

Sample records for estonian military units

  1. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Motivational Underpinnings of Estonian Folk Dance Practices among the Estonian Diaspora over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Eha Rüütel; Iivi Zajedova; Angela Arraste

    2013-01-01

    This article is a part of a wider research on Estonian folk dance, aiming to map the emergence of folk dance groups and to study the practices and role of folk dance among the Estonian diaspora. The article sets out to explore incentives contributing to intergenerational transmission of Estonian folk dance tradition. 54 interviews (21 men and 33 women aged 38 to 87) were carried out with Estonians living in Australia, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden and the United States. The analysis ...

  3. Role of the Military, Unit III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on the role of the military in Wyoming history provides activities which focus on the system of forts which began in 1849, Indian conflicts, World War II, and the Army and Air National Guard. Student activities include illustrating various battles, locating major Wyoming forts on a map, field trips to F.E. Warren Air Force Base and Fort…

  4. Cohesion in Multinational Military Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    based on the values stressed in Confucian philosophy teachings . For people with a high 19 Long Term Orientation score social obligations...Cohesion and Performance in Multinational Units? An old idiom offers that “birds of a feather flock together,” another one says that “opposites attract

  5. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  6. Night Air Combat. A United States Military-Technical Revolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Merrick

    1997-01-01

    ... our apparent advantage over potential adversaries. Understanding how the United States reached the critical jump in military effectiveness through the application of night air combat technologies is critical to project future military revolutions...

  7. Online Estonian Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  8. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  9. Future United States Military Organizational Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babb, William

    2001-01-01

    .... This has lead to much discussion of a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). One question that arises in that discussion is whether or not the military is properly organized to meet these future challenges...

  10. Selenium levels of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhamaa, P; Kantola, M; Viitak, A; Kaasik, T; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to sum up the dietary selenium intake of the Estonian people according to the serum selenium concentrations. This research compiles the information published in the literature about the levels of selenium in the serum of the Estonian people. We compare these results with the findings obtained from the analyses of serum samples gathered by us in the 1990s in Estonia. The selenium concentration in sera of 404 Estonians ranged from 26 to 116 microg/l; the mean was 75 microg/l. The selenium contents of Estonians were at a similar level as reported for Finns before the selenium supplementation of fertilizers carried out in Finland in 1984. In view of the selenium concentration in the sera, we suggest that the dietary selenium intake among the Estonian people might be scarce, and Estonian authorities should consider in their nutrition policies the possible low intake of selenium of Estonians.

  11. Sociometric approaches for managing military units and predicting of behavior of military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudro, Nataliya M.; Puzikova, Svetlana M.

    2017-09-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan military service becomes attractive primarily for that category of people who have no opportunity to acquire high quality vocational or higher education, decent income by the speciality available, or those who have not yet identified themselves professionally and socially. Its a serious problem how to ensure ability of military units to execute their service duties in conditions of more and more increasing requirements for professional competences of military personnel, increased intellectualization of military service when the quality of "human material" often is not corresponding to the required standards. This problem in the national and foreign science is still being developed and has no final solutions accessible for the scientific society. This article presents an effort to offer specialists in the military administration area one of probable tools to forecast successfulness of execution of professional tasks by military units based on results of sociometric studies and algorithms of plotting Bayesian networks. Using these tools a military leader will be able to evaluate effectiveness of his managerial activity, correct mechanisms of individual and mentoring activity with regard to individual servicemen, provide an opportunity to eliminate risks of failing to fulfill professional tasks on time and failing to ensure combat readiness of entrusted military team.

  12. Valued Estonian Music CDs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Artur Kapp "Symphonische Werke", Eduard Tubin "Symphonies No.9, No.10 and No.11", "Estonian Preludes", "Eesti heliloojad. Hortus Musicus", "Eesti Muusika Päevad", "Tallinn Saxophone Quartet. Estonian Contemporary Music", "Triskele. Kolga-Jaani vaimulikud rahvalaulud", "Helmekaala. Linnupuu Anne", "Modern Fox mängib Raimond Valgret",

  13. INTRODUCTION TO ESTONIAN LINGUISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAUN, ALO; SAARESTE, ANDRUS

    THIS TEXT COMPRISES A SURVEY OF THE ESTONIAN LANGUAGE, WHICH IS GROUPED HERE WITH LIVONIAN, VOTIC, AND A PART OF WESTERN FINNISH, TO FORM THE SOUTHWESTERN BRANCH OF THE FINNIC (OR BALTO-FINNIC) LANGUAGES. THE AUTHORS' CLASSIFICATIONS AND A HISTORY OF THE STUDIES WHICH HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT IN ESTONIAN ARE PRESENTED, FOLLOWED BY A PRESENTATION OF…

  14. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS) proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004). Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF) military hierarchy (N=2570). The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples....

  15. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  16. United States Civil Military Relations: Defense Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Brazilian Intelligence System in Comparative Perspective,” in Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone (Princeton, NJ...G. Dawson III (College Station , TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2002), 4–5. 7 Ibid. 3 Even here, though, there was political infighting over...62 Charles Tustin Kamps, “Operation Eagle Claw: The Iran Hostage Rescue Mission,” Air & Space Power Journal (September 2006), 3

  17. Operation United Assistance: infectious disease threats to deployed military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clinton K; Yun, Heather C; Markelz, Ana Elizabeth; Okulicz, Jason F; Vento, Todd J; Burgess, Timothy H; Cardile, Anthony P; Miller, R Scott

    2015-06-01

    As part of the international response to control the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the Department of Defense has deployed military personnel to train Liberians to manage the disease and build treatment units and a hospital for health care volunteers. These steps have assisted in providing a robust medical system and augment Ebola diagnostic capability within the affected nations. In order to prepare for the deployment of U.S. military personnel, the infectious disease risks of the regions must be determined. This evaluation allows for the establishment of appropriate force health protection posture for personnel while deployed, as well as management plans for illnesses presenting after redeployment. Our objective was to detail the epidemiology and infectious disease risks for military personnel in West Africa, particularly for Liberia, along with lessons learned from prior deployments. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. ASPECTS OF LOGISTIC PLANNING IN A MILITARY UNIT AT PEACETIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The inter-conditioning of the management processes within the economic domain with those belonging to military logistics generates a modern approach of logistics management, in the context of creating the necessary circumstances for fulfilling the objectives of interoperability with the western military structures. Logistic planning proves useful in identifying risks and accurately determining the costs and benefits implied by providing logistic support at the appropriate time and place. Without clear and consistent focus on efficient logistic planning, the military organization might be caught in the whirlwind of unpredictable events, not being able to influence them properly, in order to fulfill in an adequate manner its operational goals. Thus, through the aspects revealed below, we set out to deal only with the relevant issues outlining the concept and process of logistics management and present the details of the planning activity in the military unit at peacetime.

  19. ESTONIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM FEATURES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcos Francisco Rodríguez Bravo

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to identify structural elements of the Estonian education system which has obtained in the last PISA 2012 international report, some results well above the average set by the OECD (494...

  20. Unit cohesion, traumatic exposure and mental health of military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesarajah, J; Waller, M; Zheng, W Y; Dobson, A J

    2016-06-01

    The benefit of military unit cohesion to morale and psychological resilience is well established. But it remains unclear whether unit cohesion modifies the association between deployment-related traumatic exposure and mental health problems. To examine the association between unit cohesion, traumatic exposure and poor mental health [symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress and alcohol dependency] and assess whether the relationship between traumatic exposure and poor mental health differs by level of unit cohesion. A self-reported cross-sectional survey of Australian military personnel deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan between 2001 and 2009. Among 11411 participants, those with low levels of unit cohesion had higher odds of PTSD symptoms [aOR (95% CI): 2.54 (1.88, 3.42)], very high psychological distress [aOR (95% CI): 4.28 (3.04, 6.02)] and a high level of alcohol problems [aOR (95% CI): 1.71 (1.32, 2.22)] compared with those reporting high unit cohesion on deployment. Higher exposure to traumatic events on deployment was associated with greater risk of PTSD symptoms, very high levels of psychological distress and high levels of alcohol problems in this cohort. However, there was no evidence of a statistically significant interaction between unit cohesion and traumatic exposures in influencing poor mental health. Our findings suggest that both unit cohesion and traumatic exposure are independently associated with poor mental health. Efforts to improve military unit cohesion may help to improve the mental health resilience of military personnel, regardless of their level of traumatic exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dockery, Jr, Leon W

    2006-01-01

    ... became available in Afghanistan. The primary methodology of this thesis centers on case studies of the military presence of the Soviet Union/Russia and the United States in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Afghanistan...

  2. Continental United States Military Housing Inspections Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    other family members. Balfour Beatty Communities owns and manages all of the privatized housing at NS Mayport, a total of 962 family housing units...and their dependents. Balfour Beatty Communities owns and manages all of the privatized housing at Fort Gordon, a total of 1,080 family housing...family housing12—and had received congressional approval to do so. However, at the time of our inspections, Balfour Beatty Communities disagreed

  3. An outbreak of trichinellosis in a military unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Vladan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In December 2001, an outbreak of trichinellosis spreaded in a military unit. The aim of this paper was to show possibilities and consequences of trichinellosis infestations in military units during peace time, as well as to improve knowledge and awareness of medical corps personnel, commanders and soldiers about this disease. Methods. A descriptive and analytical epidemiological models were used to find out a source of outbreak and to identify the ways of its transmission. Results. This outbreak was caused by the contaminated raw smoked sausage which had not undergone health inspection and brought from civilians to a military unit. Thirty-eight persons were exposed, twenty-one affected and hospitalized. The most frequent symptoms reported were fever (76.2%, myalgia (76.2%, palpebral edema (42.8%, face edema (19.0% and diarrhea (14.3%. Test for indirect immunofluorescence was positive in 14.3% and ELISA test was positive in 28.6% of the patients. Eosinophilia was present in 85.7% of the affected. IgE values were increased in 28.6% and CPK values were increased in 61.9% of the diseased. All of the 17 exposed undiseased had negative laboratory analyses for trichinellosis. Conclusion. We propose intensifying health education and continuing the implementation of duly supervised and evaluated self-check programs. A well-tuned, fast-reacting epidemiological monitoring system has to be obligatory.

  4. Unit Cohesion and the Military's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rea, Theresa

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Defense policy of excluding known homosexuals from military service is partially based on the assumption that homosexual service members pose a threat to the cohesion of a military unit...

  5. Factors Favoring Military Unions in the United States Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-19

    threat to national security that a public law is required to make that action illegal and punishable by fine or imprisonment. Europea Militar Unions ...I AD-A116 753 ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA F/G51 IACTORS FAVORING ML TARY UNIONS IN THE UNITED STATES ARMED FOR--ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED N...Military Unions in the US Armed Forces 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(o) LTC. Thomas P. Easum, Jr. 9

  6. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    minority in the south, which fears that the new nationalist Kyrgyz leadership may re-ignite ethnic tension in the hugely overpopulated and impoverished...global presence. With the terrorist threat based in some of the most remote locations on earth , the United States seeks to establish a military

  7. Native American Historic Context for the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane K

    2006-01-01

    The United States Military Academy (USMA) is required by Federal laws, Executive Orders, and implementing regulations to conduct consultations with Native American tribes under specific circumstances...

  8. The Role of the United States in Definition of Japan Military Doctrine 1945—2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Evdokimov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of the United States in forming military doctrine of Japan from 1945 to 2010. The article also examined the influence of Samurai military tradition on military and ideological training of Japanese army and Navy since the late 19th to mid 20th century, the history of development of strategic relations between the United States and Japan after the Second World War in military, economic and political fields. Documents on political and economic development of Japan from 1945 to the present day have been explored; factors which have had a huge impact on the formation of a new military doctrine have been examined.

  9. 75 FR 20827 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Department of the Army Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA) AGENCY: Department of the... advisory committee meeting will take place: 1. Name of Committee: United States Military Academy Board of...). Members of the Board will be provided updates on Academy issues. 6. Agenda: The Academy leadership will...

  10. A constraint programming solution for the military unit path finding problem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter the authors present an algorithm to solve the Dynamic Military Unit Path Finding Problem (DMUPFP) which is based on Stentz’s well-known D* algorithm to solve dynamic path finding problems. The Military Unit Path Finding Problem...

  11. Recent research on permethrin-treated United States military uniforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    History is replete with examples of arthropod-borne illnesses affecting the outcome of military conflicts. Therefore, protection of our U.S. military is paramount when they are deployed on missions throughout the world. A part of the system to protect military personnel consists of wearing permeth...

  12. Estonian Airi uued soodsad pakkumised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi kodulehelt on võimalik osta lennupileteid koostööpartnerite poolt pakutavatele mandritevahelistele lendudele ning broneerida internetis hotellituba Euroopa suurima hotelli broneerimise teenust pakkuva ettevõtte Booking.com kaudu

  13. Influence of Military Training and Standardized Nutrition in Military Unit on Soldiers' Nutritional Status and Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Andrzej; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Kłos, Anna; Kłos, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Tomczak, A, Bertrandt, J, Kłos, A, and Kłos, K. Influence of military training and standardized nutrition in military unit on soldiers' nutritional status and physical fitness. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2774-2780, 2016-Despite suspension of conscription in Polish Army, trainings of soldiers are still carried out. It is expected that they will be effective and will contribute to obtaining optimum level of psychophysical efficiency that enables fulfillment of military tasks. Total of 60 soldiers took part in the study. During the 9-month military service, soldiers had 200 hours of physical training and basic military training (shooting, drill, anti-chemical training, topography, general tactics, and military equipment operation). The training lasted 8 hours everyday. To assess fitness level, 4 trials were done: long jump, pull-ups, sit-ups, and 1,000 m run. Evaluation of food was based on the analysis of full board menus using the "Tables of composition and nutritional value of food products." Energy value was assessed, and content of basic nutrients was calculated. Assessment of nutritional status was based on anthropometric measurements, such as body height, body mass, and thickness of 4 selected skinfolds. Body height and body mass were the basis for the body mass index calculation. Soldiers serving in the mechanized infantry unit, after completing the training, got better results only in 1,000 m run (from 250.3 to 233.61 seconds). During the research, an average energy value of a daily food ration planned for consumption was 4,504 kcal. This value consisted of 13.2% of energy from protein, 31.9% of energy from fat, and 54.9% from carbohydrates. In the course of military service, percentage of subjects indicating overweight increased from 10.2 to 25.4%.

  14. Estonian Air sai lennukilisa / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2007-01-01

    Lennukompanii Estonian Air liisib kolm uut lennukit. Kommenteerib Rein Loik. Vt. samas intervjuud SAS-i asepresidendi Per Jensen Mölleriga, kes eitab spekulatsioone, et SAS võiks airBalticu ja Estonian Airi liita

  15. [Mati Erelt. Estonian Language] / Katrin Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Estonian language / [Estonian Academy of Sciences] ; edited by Mati Erelt.Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2003. 412, [1] lk. : ill., kaart. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series, 0868-4731 ; vol. 1)

  16. The Potential for Religious Conflict in the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Indian members of the Native American Church take peyote , Wiccans observe pagan rites on military bases, and Muslim chaplains serve Muslim soldiers who...American, Peyote , Islam, Muslim, homosexuality, media, Republican, Democrat, conservative, liberal 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...controversy increases when, for instance, Indian members of the Native American Church take peyote , Wiccans observe pagan rites on military bases, and

  17. Epidemiology of ankle sprain at the United States Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Brian R; Belmont, Philip J; Cameron, Kenneth L; Deberardino, Thomas M; Owens, Brett D

    2010-04-01

    Ankle sprain is a common injury in athletic populations that results in significant time lost to injury. The incidence rates (IRs) of ankle ligament sprains are influenced by gender, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), physical conditioning, level of competition, type of sport, and athlete exposure to sport. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A longitudinal cohort study was performed to determine the effect of risk factors for ankle sprain at the United States Military Academy between 2005 and 2007. A total 614 cadets sustained new ankle sprains during 10 511 person-years at risk, resulting in an overall IR of 58.4 per 1000 person-years. Women (96.4), compared with men (52.7), had a significantly increased rate ratio (IRR) for ankle sprain of 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-2.20). Men with ankle sprains had higher mean height, weight, and BMI than uninjured men (P cheerleading, and men's/women's basketball, soccer, and lacrosse had the highest ankle sprain IR. Higher mean height and weight in men, increased BMI in men, greater physical conditioning in men, and athlete exposure to selected sports were all risk factors for ankle sprain.

  18. The Effects of Exhaustive Military Activities in Man. The Performance of Small Isolated Military Units in Extreme Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Means of Rapid Recuperation [les Effets d’activites militaires prolongees sur ’homme. Changements physiologiques et iochimiques. Moyens possibles de...isolated military units especially under extreme climatic conditions present a series of problems. Most nations do have such units dedicated to these...coastline and its deep fjords by dogsledges. The patrolled coastline thus expands to about 40.000 km. The weather during winter is a harsh Arctic climate

  19. 75 FR 19877 - Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Aviation Regulation No. 100- 2] RIN 2120-AJ54 Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are... from U.S. military and civilian personnel (U.S. personnel) who are assigned outside the United States... for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in Support of U.S...

  20. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  1. Unemployment hysteresis in the “Nordic Kitten”: Evidence from five Estonian regions

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Unemployment hysteresis is a much discussed and researched topic in macroeconomics. The present paper examined unemployment hysteresis in five Estonian regions. It used two panel data methods, namely, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS) test and the Fourier Im-Pesaran-Shin (FIPS) test. The originality and value of this paper is that this is the first study that uses the panel unit root tests to examine unemployment dynamics in the Estonian regions. The findings revea...

  2. Reflections on the United States military 1941-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandels, Mary; Eveleigh, Douglas E

    2009-09-01

    This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol). This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis.Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did. In particular was her love

  3. Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveleigh Douglas E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol. This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis. Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did

  4. Relationship between Leadership and Characteristics of Learning Organizations in Deployed Military Units: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eileen Van Aken; Geert Letens; Raffaella Di Schiena; Jennifer Farris

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that military units operating in the context of risky missions display the characteristics of a Learning Organization. The present work provides preliminary exploratory evidence about the association between Learning Organization characteristics and leadership styles used by military leaders in the field. Based on the literature, we hypothesized that higher Learning Organization characteristics would be associated with a more transformational style of leadership th...

  5. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Arthur D.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education II series publication entitled "Military Aerospace." Sections in the guide include objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching, instructional aids, projects, and further reading. A separate sheet is…

  6. Teaching Psychology at the United States Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Johnston

    Psychology instruction through the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, is described, along with faculty development and teaching philosophy. Courses offered by the department are part of an integrated curriculum in the behavioral sciences, with the central focus being leadership development.…

  7. The United States Military and the War on Drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randolph, David E

    1992-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought wrenching changes to the U.S. Armed Forces. At a time when declining budgets and building down are the order of the day, there is one area where the military's role is actually growing: the war on drugs...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The term “military or naval...

  9. 75 FR 9763 - Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Aviation Regulation No. 100-2] RIN 2120-AJ54 Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are... renewals from U.S. military and civilian personnel (U.S. personnel) who are assigned outside the United... activities that have resulted in overseas assignments for both military and civilian personnel. Because of...

  10. Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Herzog

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2007, the Estonian Government moved a memorial commemorating the Soviet liberation of the country from the Nazis to a less prominent and visible location in Tallinn. This decision triggered rioting among Russian-speaking minorities and cyber terrorism targeting Estonia's critical economic and political infrastructure. Drawing upon the Estonian cyber attacks, this article argues that globalization and the Internet have enabled transnational groups—such as the Russian diaspora—to avenge their grievances by threatening the sovereignty of nation-states in cyberspace. Sophisticated and virtually untraceable political "hacktivists" may now possess the ability to disrupt or destroy government operations, banking transactions, city power grids, and even military weapon systems. Fortunately, western countries banded together to effectively combat the Estonian cyber attacks and minimize their effects. However, this article concludes that in the age of globalization, interdependence, and digital interconnectedness, nation-states must engage in increased cooperative cyber-defense activities to counter and prevent devastating Internet attacks and their implications.

  11. The United States Special Operations Command Civil Military Engagement Program - A Model for Military-Interagency Low Cost / Small Footprint Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-02

    Interagency Coordination Centers (JIACs), Interagency Task Forces ( IATFs ) are found within GCCs and subordinate military units in an attempt to bridge...Interagency Tasks Forces ( IATFs ) that exist at each Geographic Combatant Command (GCC). Rather, this chapter serves to highlight the Civil Military

  12. Cohort Profile : Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tonu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C.; Maegi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged >= 18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000-represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General

  13. United States Military Retirement Migration: Patterns and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-27

    This research addresses these questions and in the pro- cess, specifies some of the components relating to the spa - tial distribution of military...study of retirees found that retirement migration is not linked to the labor market . Those who migrate following retirement do so for a wide variety of...15 to 20 minutes. Consequently, because of the success of the pretest, the revisions to the questionnaire were primarily of a cosmetic nature. A

  14. Sub state Unconventional Warfare: Expanding United States Military Political Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    de Colombia FID Foreign Internal Defense FM Field Manual GVN Government of South Vietnam ICP Indochinese Communist Party ISIL Islamic State of Iraq...abound throughout the world. Hezbollah, Hamas, ISIL, and the Taliban in the Middle East, the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) in South...describing what UW consists of, and how it is applied, in FM 31-21 (1969). “Unconventional warfare consists of military, political, psychological , or

  15. Model describing the effect of employment of the United States military in a complex emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donald S

    2005-01-01

    The end of the Cold War vastly altered the worldwide political landscape. With the loss of a main competitor, the United States (US) military has had to adapt its strategic, operational, and tactical doctrines to an ever-increasing variety of non-traditional missions, including humanitarian operations. Complex emergencies (CEs) are defined in this paper from a political and military perspective, various factors that contribute to their development are described, and issues resulting from the employment of US military forces are discussed. A model was developed to illustrate the course of a humanitarian emergency and the potential impact of a military response. The US intervention in Haiti, Northern Iraq, Kosovo, Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda serve as examples. A CE develops when there is civil conflict, loss of national governmental authority, a mass population movement, and massive economic failure, each leading to a general decline in food security. The military can alleviate a CE in four ways: (1) provide security for relief efforts; (2) enforce negotiated settlements; (3) provide security for non-combatants; and/or (4) employ logistical capabilities. The model incorporates Norton and Miskel's taxonomy of identifying failing states and helps illustrate the factors that lead to a CE. The model can be used to determine if and when military intervention will have the greatest impact. The model demonstrates that early military intervention and mission assignment within the core competencies of the forces can reverse the course of a CE. Further study will be needed to verify the model.

  16. Factors affecting chronically short military occupational skill (MOS) specialties in USMC Reserve Units

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciatore, Anthony J.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) manning levels within Selective Marine Corps Reserve (SMCR) units are of interest to the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) because of the impact shortages have on unit operational capabilities. The goals of this study are to: (1) identify chronically short MOSs in SMCR units; (2) explore demographic influences on SMCR manning levels; and (3) determine the influence of the Montgomery 61 Bill (MGIB) Stipend o...

  17. Compliance with Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis Recommendations for Wounded United States Military Personnel Admitted to a Military Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Elizabeth A.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Tribble, David R.; Lloyd, Bradley A.; Warkentien, Tyler E.; Shaikh, Faraz; Li, Ping; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria chemoprophylaxis is used as a preventive measure in military personnel deployed to malaria-endemic countries. However, limited information is available on compliance with chemoprophylaxis among trauma patients during hospitalization and after discharge. Therefore, we assessed antimalarial primary chemoprophylaxis and presumptive antirelapse therapy (primaquine) compliance among wounded United States military personnel after medical evacuation from Afghanistan (June 2009–August 2011) to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Landstuhl, Germany, and then to three U.S. military hospitals. Among admissions at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, 74% of 2,540 patients were prescribed primary chemoprophylaxis and < 1% were prescribed primaquine. After transfer of 1,331 patients to U.S. hospitals, 93% received primary chemoprophylaxis and 33% received primaquine. Of 751 trauma patients with available post-admission data, 42% received primary chemoprophylaxis for four weeks, 33% received primaquine for 14 days, and 17% received both. These antimalarial chemoprophylaxis prescription rates suggest that improved protocols to continue malaria chemoprophylaxis in accordance with force protection guidelines are needed. PMID:24732457

  18. Contractors on Deployed Military Operations: United Kingdom Policy and Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    defense outsourcing statistics indicates that the MoD most closely matches DoD trends. As Figure 1 shows, the number of UK MoD “ public private partnerships ” (PPP...International Statistics on Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in Defense. with the premise that “there are no military core competencies, and that all...and scope of MoD’s “ public private partnerships ” program. The second analyses the premises underpinning the “government orthodoxy” and the

  19. Transformation Deja Vu? A Comparison of Military Improvements of Israel (1967-1973) and the United States (1990-2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-06

    Transformation Déjà Vu ? A Comparison of Military Improvements of Israel (1967-1973) and the United States (1990-2002) Major William A. Forkner, USAF...Transformation Déjà Vu ? A Comparison of Military Improvements of Israel (1967-1973) and the United States (1990-2002) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  20. Military, University, and Police Agency Command and Staff Colleges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard H.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses three models of command and staff colleges (CSC). Five university models, five United States Military models, and one police agency model are discussed. The 11 CSCs provide leadership development in various training and education programs all leading to the increased capabilities of leaders and potential leaders for public…

  1. Developing Leaders of Character at the United States Military Academy: A Relational Developmental Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callina, Kristina Schmid; Ryan, Diane; Murray, Elise D.; Colby, Anne; Damon, William; Matthews, Michael; Lerner, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on the processes of character development within diverse contexts. In this article, the authors use the United States Military Academy at West Point (USMA) as a sample case for understanding character development processes within an institution of higher education. The authors present a discussion of relational…

  2. Engineering Resilience Into The Marine Expeditionary Units Resupply System Through Military Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    to the resilience of the MEU platoons and squads. 14. SUBJECT TERMS systems engineering , modeling, foraging, energy, water, resupply, ExtendSim... ENGINEERING RESILIENCE INTO THE MARINE EXPEDITIONARY UNITS RESUPPLY SYSTEM THROUGH MILITARY FORAGING Yuan Wei Soh Major, Republic of Singapore... SYSTEMS ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 2017 Approved by: Alejandro S. Hernandez Thesis Advisor Paul T

  3. The Role of the United States Military in Counterdrug Operations in the Year 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodges, Adele

    1997-01-01

    .... in doing this, he enrolled the use of many Federal agencies to include the military. The drug threat remains a threat to the United States as many countries abroad continue to depend on the income from illegal drug products for their livelihood...

  4. Schults suurendas kaalu Estonian Airis / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees, AS-i Cresco üks omanikke Olev Schults ostis ärimees Tõnu Laagilt tema osaluse Crescos ja selle tütarfirmades, saades täieliku kontrolli Cresco ja ühtlasi Estonian Airi 17-protsendilise osaluse üle

  5. Estonian Air andis muutustest teada / Mart Relve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Relve, Mart, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Autor peab kahetsusväärseks, et Äripäev süüdistab Estonian Air'i avalikkuse eest info varjamises ning kasutab oma väidete tõestuseks avalikkuses jutuks olnud fakte. Vt. samas: Estonian Air saanud meedias kriitikat

  6. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  7. Changing of the Guard: Nation Building and the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Earth . At the same time as many American leaders were exploring the possibility of a peace dividend, the United States military sought a relevant...value of every dollar spent on operations in the Middle East. The success of these operations will be measured by the respective countries‘ capacity...Rumsfeld ―that son of a bitch,‖ or ―that asshole.‖ 14 According to Woodward, ―strong, forceful military advice was bleached out of the system. The

  8. United Nations Sanctions Against Iraq and Iraq's Current Military Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brackett, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The United Nations Sanctions against Iraq from 1990 to 2000 have had little impact on Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capabilities in researching and developing nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons...

  9. Is cohesion within military units associated with post-deployment behavioral and mental health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Joshua; Setodji, Claude M; Vaughan, Christine A

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies suggest that cohesion among members of military units has a positive impact on behavioral and mental health sequelae of combat deployment. However, these studies have not distinguished variation in cohesion across units from variation in perception of cohesion across individuals within units. A sample of U.S. Marines was assessed before and after deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan in 2010 or 2011. Within-group centering was used to distinguish unit-level from individual-level associations of cohesion with four behavioral and mental health outcomes assessed after deployment: alcohol misuse, violation of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a positive screen for depression. Unit-level cohesion is associated positively with alcohol misuse (OR=1.86, 95% CI 1.05-3.29) and negatively with UCMJ violations (OR=0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.83) but not with probable PTSD (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.60-1.6) or a positive screen for depression (OR=1.00 95% CI 0.58-1.72). Lower perception of cohesion relative to the other members of the same unit is associated with higher likelihood of UCMJ violations, probable PTSD and a positive screen for depression. Data on all members of the studied units were not available. Distinguishing unit-level from individual-level variation in cohesion among military unit members reveals more varied associations with behavioral and mental health outcomes of deployment than have been reported in previous studies, in which these levels have been collapsed. Associations between individual-level variation in cohesion and mental health outcomes may result from pre-existing traits related to both perception of cohesion and risk for psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 32 CFR 884.6 - Requests by Federal authorities for military personnel stationed within the United States and its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests by Federal authorities for military personnel stationed within the United States and its possessions. 884.6 Section 884.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO...

  11. Continental United States Military Housing Inspection National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    lead, copper, microbial (total coliform ) contamination, and chlorine residue. The water samples were collected from buildings selected at random...selected locations from 23 accompanied housing and 4 units in the barracks for lead, copper, total coliform , E. Coli, and residual chlorine. The... coliform and E. Coli bacteria. All drinking water quality test results were below applicable action levels for community water suppliers. The same 27

  12. [The organization of emergency actions for ocular burns in conditions of military unit (of the ship)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, É V; Chernysh, V F

    2014-06-01

    Prehospital services for ocular burns are delivered by servicemen as self or mutual management and also by paramedic. Every case of ocular burn should be considered as severe one. The patient, shortly after the first aid, should be transported to the medical company or medical unit. Under conditions of medical unit military doctor has to organize an ophthalmological working space (ophthalmological comer) with the necessary equipment. Eye irrigation has to be made for chemical ocular burns. Military doctor should consider any previous irrigation as insufficient. For severe ocular burns during evacuation to the hospital it is necessary to perform a simple blepharorrhaphy or (if the condition of lids allows) to make a hermetic seal with aid of aid-band. Doctor's obligations should also include prophylaxis of ocular burns.

  13. Entrepreneurial Expeditionary Economics and the United States Military. Right Task, Wrong Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    the United States of America 2011, Redefining America’s Military Leadership. Washington, DC: U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, February 8, 2011, http...community defense initiatives, and the expansions ofPRTs, suggests that there is a creeping militarization of aid. An Oxfam report highlights that...this report are: Action Aid, Afghanaid, CARE, Christian Aid, Concern Worldwide, Norwegian Refugee Council, Oxfam and Trocaire. 52 US Army Combined Arms

  14. Can and Should the United States Preserve A Military Capability for Revolutionary Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    relentlessly into more costly intervencions . This concern ignores the fact that the United States has for many years been providing a modest level of...34 "ad" crisis management" in opposition to what was increasingly viewed as the bankrupt notion of "massive retaliation." That notion had. failed to deter...considerable capacity to learn, the military organizations responsible for assessing crisis and threat situations are burdened with long-standing

  15. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  16. Estonian Air to overhaul strategy / Matt Withers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Withers, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Air on majanduslikes raskustes, mida aitaks leevendada riigipoolne toetus. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts leiab, et riik peaks omama lennufirma juhatuses esimehe kohta, et mõjutada rohkem vastuvõetavaid otsuseid ja investeeringuid

  17. Reports and maps of the Military Geology Unit, 1942-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, William; Bonham, Selma

    1997-01-01

    Included here are reports and maps which were prepared in the Military Geology Unit of the U. S. Geological Survey from 1942 through 1975. In addition to the references prepared primarily for military use and listed here, more than 200 reports of more general geologic interest were prepared for publication as Survey bulletins and professional papers and in outside journals. These reports are listed in "Publications of the Geological Survey" and other bibliographies. Military Geology reports generally include basic subjects such as rock types, soils, water resources, landforms and vegetation, as well as interpretive subjects such as suitability of terrain for cross-country movement and for construction of roads and airfields in areas throughout the world. Reports on specific areas range from generalized texts with small scab maps derived from published sources to detailed texts with large-scale maps commonly based on photo-interpretation and, especially for Alaska and western Pacific islands, involving field mapping. Other reports treat topics of interest in military geology without reference to specific areas. A number of reports covering the moon include the first photogeologic map of the near side.Authors are cited for some kinds of reports; however, many intelligence reports were published anonymously. Most of the reports were prepared by teams made up mainly of geologists but commonly including soils scientists, botanists, climatologists and geographers. Nearly all the soil scientists and climatologists were members of the World Soil Geography Unit, Soil Survey, Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Manuscripts from this Unit were passed through a common review and other processing, as were the manuscripts originating in the Military Geology office, to be issued under the aegis of the latter. In some instances where it has not been possible to list all authors, names of project supervisors are given.File copies of many of the Military

  18. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  19. Longitudinal study of sleep patterns of United States Military Academy cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2010-12-01

    The study provided an opportunity to observe sleep patterns in a college-age population attending the United States Military Academy. This 4-year longitudinal study investigated sleep patterns of cadets. A stratified sample of 80 cadets had sleep patterns monitored using actigraphy for 8 months: one month in both fall and spring academic semesters over a 4-year period. Data were collected at the United States Military Academy, West Point, NY. Participants were members of the class of 2007 (n˜1300) ranging in age from 17 to 22 when entering USMA. A sample of the class (n=80) wore wrist activity monitors and completed activity logs for one month in fall and spring academic semesters for the 4-year period. On average over the 4 years, cadets sleptdebt. Cadets slept more during fall than spring semesters. Male and female cadet sleep patterns varied dramatically, with males consistently receiving less sleep than females (˜21 m for nighttime sleep and ˜23 m for daily sleep). Cadet sleep at USMA is related to academic year, semester, season, sex, school day or weekend, and day of the week. These students suffer from chronic sleep debt. Restrictions imposed by the military academy limit the generalizability of the findings to other college age populations.

  20. A Cross-Cultural Study of Collectivism: A Comparison of American, Estonian, and Russian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Allik, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the theory that collectivism consists of at least three subtypes focused on the relations with family, peers, and society using a cross-cultural sample from the United States, Estonia, and Russia. Finds that the Estonian sample was the least collectivistic within the three subtypes and the Russian samples were the most collectivistic.…

  1. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  2. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  3. Eesti pagulaskirjanduse keskus ja perifeeria / The centre and periphery of Estonian exile literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Olesk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how and why the centre and periphery of Estonian exile literature were formed. The centre developed in Sweden with the founding of the Estonian Writers’ Union Abroad in 1945 in Stockholm, and the Estonian Writers’ Cooperative in 1951 in Lund. Exile literature with the most enduring artistic merit was published in this Lund-Stockholm axis. The Writers’ Cooperative was a well-managed publishing house that took into account readers’ requests. Almost all significant writers in exile issued their works through the Cooperative. Writers whose works were rejected by the Cooperative formed the pheriphery of exile literature. The boundary between the two was not rigid, with movement from one grouping to the other, although the centre remained united. In 1957, writers of the younger generation on the periphery founded the literary magazine Mana, which devoted a great deal of space to literature published in the homeland, unlike the centre. This relationship with homeland literature differentiated the centre from the periphery. The writers of the centre did not visit the occupied homeland or publicly recognize the works of writers from Soviet Estonia. For them, it was vital to maintain control over the purity and viability of exile literature. Exile publishing flourished in the 1940s and 1950s, as homesickness and limited fluency in local languages increased interest in books written in Estonian. Later, this interest inevitably and steadily decreased. The younger generation of exiles often read in the language of the country where they had settled. It was possible to send only a very few books to the homeland. Leading writers-in-exile Bernard Kangro, Karl Ristikivi, Valev Uibopuu, Kalju Lepik, Ilmar Talve and others did their utmost to publish and distribute their works because they regarded literature as the foundation of national identity. It was necessary to protect this identity, and any competition with homeland

  4. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  5. Estonian Literature in the Schools of the Estonian-Russian Population (Changes in Literacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Loone

    1997-01-01

    Describes how Estonian language and literature have been taught at Russian-language schools in Estonia. Notes a lack of interesting reading materials, and describes how this instruction could be improved. (SR)

  6. Initiation and continuation of long-acting reversible contraception in the United States military healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles, Daniel P; Roberts, Timothy A; Klein, David A

    2016-09-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception is more effective for pregnancy prevention than shorter-acting contraceptive methods and has the potential to reduce healthcare disparities and costs. However, long-acting reversible contraception is underused in the United States. One population of interest is beneficiaries of the United States military healthcare system who have access to universal healthcare, including no-cost, no-copay contraception with unlimited method switching, and comprise a large, actual use cohort. Efforts to increase long-acting reversible contraception initiation and continuation in this population may improve health outcomes and mitigate the profound consequences of unintended or mistimed pregnancy on readiness and cost to the military. We aimed to determine long-acting reversible contraception initiation and continuation rates among the diverse population with universal healthcare who are enrolled in the US military healthcare system. This study is a retrospective cohort of >1.7 million women, aged 14-40 years, who were enrolled in the US military healthcare system, TRICARE Prime, between October 2009 and September 2014. Individuals were assessed for long-acting reversible contraception initiation and continuation with the use of medical billing records. Method continuation and factors that were associated with early method discontinuation were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazard models. During the study dates, 188,533 women initiated long-acting reversible contraception. Of these, 74.6% women selected intrauterine contraceptives. Method initiation rates remained relatively stable (41.7-50.1/1000 women/year) for intrauterine methods, although the rate for subdermal implants increased from 6.1-23.0/1000 women/year. In analysis of women who selected intrauterine contraceptives, 61.2% continued their method at 36 months, and 48.8% continued at 60 months. Among women who selected the implant, 32.0% continued their

  7. Unemployment hysteresis in the “Nordic Kitten”: Evidence from five Estonian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuoka Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment hysteresis is a much discussed and researched topic in macroeconomics. The present paper examined unemployment hysteresis in five Estonian regions. It used two panel data methods, namely, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS test and the Fourier Im-Pesaran-Shin (FIPS test. The originality and value of this paper is that this is the first study that uses the panel unit root tests to examine unemployment dynamics in the Estonian regions. The findings revealed that the unemployment rates in the Estonian regions could be best described as a stationary process. This result is in line with the natural rate hypothesis. A research implication is that this study has illustrated that nonlinear tests could be an appropriate approach to examine unemployment hysteresis because other methods may fail to reject the null hypothesis. A practical implication of this study is that it sheds light on the nature of unemployment dynamics in Estonia at the regional level. As the findings revealed, the unemployment rates in the Estonian regions had the meanreversion property. Therefore, the higher-than-normal unemployment rates are likely to return to the natural level even in the absence of intervention policies initiated by the government or policy makers.

  8. Relationship between Leadership and Characteristics of Learning Organizations in Deployed Military Units: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Van Aken

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that military units operating in the context of risky missions display the characteristics of a Learning Organization. The present work provides preliminary exploratory evidence about the association between Learning Organization characteristics and leadership styles used by military leaders in the field. Based on the literature, we hypothesized that higher Learning Organization characteristics would be associated with a more transformational style of leadership that inspires followers. With this purpose, the five characteristics of a Learning Organization as defined by Peter Senge (Systems Thinking, Team Learning, Shared Vision, Mental Models, and Personal Mastery and leadership styles as defined by the multifactor leadership model of Bass and Avolio (Transformational, Transactional, and Passive-Avoidant, were measured among commanding officers who had recently served in a mission abroad. Associations with organizational outcomes (Extra-Effort, Effectiveness, and Satisfaction were also investigated for both Learning Organization characteristics and leadership styles. The correlations showed that Learning Organization characteristics were highly related to Transformational leadership dimensions, and also with Transactional leadership based on Contingent Rewards; meanwhile no association was found with a Passive-Avoidant leadership. Organizational outcomes were also related to Transformational leadership, Contingent Rewards and to various characteristics of a Learning Organization. Implications of these results, as well as avenues for future research, are also discussed.

  9. Effect of Mandatory Unit and Individual Physical Training on Fitness in Military Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy T; Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of additional individual physical training (PT) in addition to mandatory unit PT as well as other risk factors on physical fitness. A cross-sectional design. This study was conducted on a US military installation. Participants were 6290 male and 558 female active duty US Army soldiers in 3 light infantry brigades. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires asking about individual characteristics, PT, and physical fitness. Cut points were established for soldiers scoring within the top 33% for each of the 3 Army Physical Fitness Test events (2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups) and top 50% in each of the tests combined for overall performance. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate analyses were calculated. Variables impacting physical fitness performance of men and women included increased body mass index, leading unit PT sessions, and individual distance running mileage. Other variables impacting physical performance for men included increased age, smoking, and individual resistance training. Soldiers performing additional individual PT demonstrated a positive influence on fitness compared to unit PT participation alone. Increased age and being overweight/obese negatively influenced physical fitness. To enhance fitness performance through unit PT, running by ability groups and resistance training should be encouraged by leadership.

  10. Valued Estonian Music CDs / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Arvo Pärt "Summa", Lepo Sumera "Chamber Music", "Baltic Voices 1.", "Sequenzen - Europäische Orgelmusik des 20. Jahrhundrets mit...", "El silenco ئ Silence. Kuldar and Marje Sink. Songs of Mother and Son", "Riho Sibul. Estonian Dream Big Band", "Rull's Royce ئ Rull's Choice"

  11. English in the Estonian Multicultural Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzari, Lorena

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the spread of English is not closely associated to a discourse of linguistic imperialism, basing the thesis on a case study in Estonia. Surveys of three generations of Estonians indicated that all welcomed English as a means of communications and technology in the modern world, reacting against the imposition of Russian language and…

  12. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  13. 75 FR 62439 - The Entire United States and U.S. Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... result of Public Law 106-50, the Veterans Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development Act of 1999...-00006] The Entire United States and U.S. Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan... Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan. Program (MREIDL), dated 10/01/2010. DATES: Effective Date: 10/01...

  14. Mental Health and Resilience: Soldiers’ Perceptions about Psychotherapy, Medication, and Barriers to Care in the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    treatment and etiology of psychological disorders relate to seeking professional help at a military mental health clinic and to general healthcare...beliefs about six different disorders or diseases (Cocaine Addiction, Mental Retardation , AIDS, Psychosis, Depression, and Cancer). The PDAQ has three...08-2-0702 TITLE: Mental Health and Resilience: Soldiers’ Perceptions about Psychotherapy, Medication, and Barriers to Care in the United

  15. [Organisational peculiarities and principles of medical-psychological rehabilitation of military personnel of special units of the Ministry of Defence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trishkin, D V; Titov, I G; Nechiporuk, S A

    2015-06-01

    The authors presented information about current state of organization of medical and psychological rehabilitation at sanatorium stage of military servicemen of special units of the Russian Defense Ministry, information about rehabilitation treatment techniques, and physical and psychological rehabilitation, natural and premature medicinal factors.

  16. Autochthonous Chagas disease in the southern United States: A case report of suspected residential and military exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N; Woc-Colburn, L; Gunter, S M; Gorchakov, R; Murray, K O; Rossmann, S; Garcia, M N

    2017-09-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic infection that can result in a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we present the epidemiologic details of a suspected locally acquired transmission case originating from the southern United States. This is the first published report of Chagas disease in a young, healthy United States veteran with repeat triatomine exposures in Arizona. Military personnel and Arizona residents should be aware of their Chagas disease transmission risks. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Functional and Mental Health Status of United Kingdom Military Amputees Postrehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladlow, Peter; Phillip, Rhodri; Etherington, John; Coppack, Russell; Bilzon, James; McGuigan, M Polly; Bennett, Alexander N

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the functional and mental health status of severely injured traumatic amputees from the United Kingdom military at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway and to compare these data with the published normative data. Retrospective independent group comparison of descriptive rehabilitation data recorded postrehabilitation. A military complex trauma rehabilitation center. Amputees (N=65; mean age, 29±6 y) were evaluated at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway; of these, 54 were operationally (combat) injured (23 unilateral, 23 bilateral, 8 triple) and 11 nonoperationally injured (all unilateral). Continuous ∼4-week inpatient, physician-led, interdisciplinary rehabilitation followed by ∼4-weeks of patient-led, home-based rehabilitation. The New Injury Severity Score at the point of injury was used as the baseline reference. The 6-minute walk test, Amputee Mobility Predictor with Prosthesis, Special Interest Group in Amputee Medicine, Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre mobility and activity of daily living scores as well as depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7), mental health support, and pain scores were recorded at discharge and compared with the published normative data. The mean New Injury Severity Score was 40±15. After 34±14 months of rehabilitation, amputees achieved a mean 6-minute walk distance of 489±117 m compared with age-matched normative distances of 459 to 738 m. The 2 unilateral groups walked (544 m) significantly further (P>.05) than did the bilateral amputee (445±104 m) and triple amputee (387±99 m) groups. All groups demonstrated mean functional mobility scores consistent with scores of either active adults or community ambulators with limb loss. In total, 85% could walk/run independently and 95% could walk and perform activities of daily living independently with an aid/adaptation. No significant difference in mental health outcome was reported between the

  18. Macrostructure in the narratives of Estonian children with typical development and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without language impairment (LI). A clinical group of 18 children with LI (ages 6-8) and a control group of 216 TD children (ages 6-7), divided into 3 language competence subgroups, participated in the study. Narratives were analyzed for the presence of SG components and quantity of story information units. Estonian children's narratives reflected age-expected SG structures similar to those of children in English-speaking countries. The analyses revealed significant group influences for the setting category, demonstrating the superior skills of TD children with high language competence in starting stories, compared with their peers. The quantity of story information units differed significantly between the high and low language competence TD subgroups, likewise between the control and the clinical groups. The contrasts between stories of TD children and between TD and LI children are discussed. The findings support the suitability of the SG model in terms of quantity of story information units for language assessment.

  19. A New Type of Great Power Relationship Between the United States and China: The Military Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    naval activity in its economic exclusion zone (EEZ), including what the British call “military data gather- ing,” is a kind of tactical/battlefield...Germany, Imperial Japan, or the Soviet Union. This degree of slow professional military conver- gence is unlikely to produce fast and decisive results...expansion of its International Military and Educational Training (IMET) programs (such as happened with Indonesia, Malaysia , Cambodia, the

  20. Estonian Middle Semantics with Evidence from Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve-Anneli Vihman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents arguments for recognizing a middle voice in Estonian. The claim that the semantics of middle-marked verbs differs in a substantial way from the semantics of other intransitive constructions leads to the examination of the discourse pragmatics of these constructions, and the relationship between discourse patterns and their valency and argument properties. Various topicality measures show that the argument participant in middle clauses lies between that of the sole participant (S in intransitive clauses and the O of active transitive clauses. The results regarding the discourse behaviour of middle arguments constitute new evidence for the view that middle constructions differ from ordinary intransitive verbs, despite structural similarities, and mark a unique range on the scale of transitivity exhibited by verbs in Estonian.

  1. 21st Century Military Reform: Will the United States Be Prepared to Face Future Threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    participation and international partnership to ensure security and prosperity across the globe. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Military Reform, downsize , strategy...years later, Lieutenant General James Doolittle was the Eighth Air Force Commanding General.20 The careers and accomplishments of these three iconic ...Brookings Institute, 1995. Brasher, Bart Implosion : Downsizing the U.S. Military, 1987-2015. Westport, CT : Greenwood Press, 2000. Cartwright

  2. United States Security Assistance Training of Latin American Militaries: Intentions and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    military aid... has tended (1) to force weak nations into devoting huge percentages of their vital capital to armaments; (2) to entrench...los Derechos Humanos en Colombia y el Papel del Gobierno y las Fuerzas Armadas para su Defensa," Military Review. (Hispanic Edition) 60-82. (April

  3. Development of New Repellents and Improved Permethrin-Treated Uniforms for the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    History contains numerous examples of the impact of arthropod-borne illnesses on the outcome of military conflicts. Therefore, protection of our US military is paramount when they are deployed on missions throughout the world. Two components of the Department of Defense system for personal protect...

  4. The Economic Saving Provided From Starting The Activity Of Primary Heath Service In A Military Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker TURKER

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the economic saving after starting the activities of examination and pharmacy in a infirmary. The study was descriptive one and performed in a military base at 2002. During 2002, 3329 patients visited the infirmary. Distribution of the patients was as follows; privates (2162, 64.9%, noncommissioned officer (216, 6.4%, officers (32, 1,0%, personnel families (883, 26.5%, civil servants (20, 0.6% and retired personnel (16, 0.4%. 2437 of the the patients (73.2% were treated on the base. The earnings resulted from infirmary visits constituted 79.0% (10.722.800.000 TL of the total earnings (13.580.800.000 TL. Because of starting primary health service in the base, it had been unnecessary to direct most of the patients (73.2% to the second stage health units. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 291-295

  5. Spin, Unit Climate, and Aggression: Near Term, Long Term, and Reciprocal Predictors of Violence Among Workers in Military Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    report Northrop Grumman Time-dependent analyses of suicide risk indicators among military social media users Jun 2015 – Sep 2105 Role: PI...differences in within-person variability in emotional state, known as “spin”) and group level variables (e.g., unit climate) hypothesized to impact...effort includes both individual level variables (e.g., differences in within-person variability in emotional state, known as “spin”) and group level

  6. Condition and Organization of Everyday Life in the Military Units of the Southwestern, Stalingrad and Don fronts (1942–1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Khlynina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to various aspects of the condition and organization of the everyday life of military units of the Southwestern, Stalingrad and Don fronts in 1942–1943 years. The looks of the questions of food and clothing supplies, ensure domestic needs and recreation. At the base of the article are documents of the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, recorded memories participants in the events of that time, published sources.

  7. Learning from Our Military History: The United States Army, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and the Potential for Operational Art and Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    the Dragon : Doctrine and the US Army after Vietnam,” The RUSI Journal (December 1997): 45. 76Herbert, 59. 47...hardly maintained once units arrived to Iraq.221 Rather, the efforts to manage the war, to ensure 220Thomas A. Ball , “Bureaucratic Decision Making in...Counterinsurgency Lessons for the Future.” Military Review 86, no. 2 (March-April 2006): 9-23. Ball , Thomas A. Bureaucratic Decision Making in Troop Rotation

  8. Authentic science in education: Studies in course-based research at the United States Military Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anthony M.

    This dissertation consists of two studies at the United States Military Academy. Both studies involve the use of Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs). These experiences give students the ability to engage in undergraduate research at an early point in their academic career by replacing traditional laboratory activities with semester-long research projects. Both studies show an implementation of this type of instruction from the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE). Study 1 shows the specific method of implementation at the military academy and explores learning-based outcomes. Primarily the outcome of critical thinking is demonstrated. Critical thinking is a construct that many curriculum developers and instructors want to foster within their students but often lack clear definitions or evaluation plans. This study gives a definition of critical thinking and an outcome of a critical thinking test. Significant gains in critical thinking are observed by students participating in the CURE as well as significant gains in three affective factors (Interest in Science/Chemistry, Authenticity, Perceived Learning). The gains in critical thinking are then further statistically linked to students’ perceptions of how authentically they saw the research in the course. If they felt that the course was demonstrating more authentic science practices, they gained significantly more in their critical thinking scores. The second study in this dissertation adds an additional transfer focus to the instructional materials that the CURE was meant to support. The treatment group in this study received instruction that was framed expansively. The expansively framed instruction showed students ways that the material was applicable outside of the course. The assessments and instructional materials of this study were transfer assessments with contrasting cases. Instances of negative or “overzealous transfer” were also reported. Findings suggest

  9. Estonian Road to Effective Defense: Civil-Military Dimension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lahtein, Harry

    2002-01-01

    ...: the continued enlargement of the European Union (EU) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). From the time they were formed, these structures have guaranteed peace, stable social development and economic growth for the member nations...

  10. A Content Analysis of Army Newspapers Based in the Continental United States (CONUS) to Determine Editorial Differences Between Military and Civilian Editors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swiergosz, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A content analysis of four civilian enterprise Army newspapers published in the United States was conducted to determine if editorial differences in content and tone existed between military and civilian editors...

  11. Experience using Collaborative Technology with the United Nations and Multi-National Militaries: Rim of the Pacific 2000 Strong Angel Exercise in Humanitarian Assistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adkins, Mark; Kruse, John; Damianos, Laurie E; Brooks, JoAnn; Younger, Robert; Rasmussen, Eric; Rennie, Yelena M; Oshika, Beatrice; Nunamaker, Jr., Jay F

    2006-01-01

    .... RIMPAC 2000's Strong Angel set out to satisfy three goals: (1) Develop a mutual understanding of respective capabilities, limitations and expectations among multinational militaries and the main United Nations relief agencies; (2...

  12. Cohort Profile: Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tõnu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C; Mägi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-08-01

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged ≥18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000--represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General practitioners (GPs) and medical personnel in the special recruitment offices have recruited participants throughout the country. At baseline, the GPs performed a standardized health examination of the participants, who also donated blood samples for DNA, white blood cells and plasma tests and filled out a 16-module questionnaire on health-related topics such as lifestyle, diet and clinical diagnoses described in WHO ICD-10. A significant part of the cohort has whole genome sequencing (100), genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data (20 000) and/or NMR metabolome data (11 000) available (http://www.geenivaramu.ee/for-scientists/data-release/). The data are continuously updated through periodical linking to national electronic databases and registries. A part of the cohort has been re-contacted for follow-up purposes and resampling, and targeted invitations are possible for specific purposes, for example people with a specific diagnosis. The Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu is actively collaborating with many universities, research institutes and consortia and encourages fellow scientists worldwide to co-initiate new academic or industrial joint projects with us. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Proliferation of Russian Military Equipment: Implications for United States Air and Space Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwast, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Russia is flooding world markets with military equipment. This flood of equipment is acting like a fuel source for terrorist organizations and countries around the world to use force against their enemies...

  14. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  15. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  16. Human Rights and United States Military Humanitarian and Civic Assistance in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    hearts and minds of local populations by seeing to the provision of their basic needs, such as potable water and healthcare. These projects, many...Socialist Deputy Questions U.S. Troop Presence,” G1. 102 Ibid.; “Deputy Aguas Rejects U.S. Military Presence,” [text] Quito, Quito Radio [Spanish], 2300 GMT...online: www.humanrights- usa.net/statements/0425RtoD.htm Accessed 3 September 2003. “Deputy Aguas Rejects U.S. Military Presence,” [text] Quito, Quito

  17. Has Goldwater-Nichols Improved the United States Military’s Ability to Meet Strategic Objectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    respective service Chief or Statf. (3:499-505) One important point was that this act did not proviae tor a military Chairman of the Joint Chiers of Start...wanted a single point of contact in the military to provide that information to him. (7:73-75) 9 The position of Cnairman of the Joint Chiers of Staff...the Joint Chiers of Start. Goldwater-Nichois was the culmination of over three years of work by both the Senate and House of Representatives Committees

  18. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of switching between Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Hein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The central research question of the present paper is ‘What variables influence switching (code-switching and code-blending between Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian among bimodal bilinguals in a school environment?’ The data from guided discussions involving deaf and hearing students indicated that bimodal bilinguals predominantly code-blend, i.e. simultaneously produce speech and signs. The main function of switching among the students was to emphasise a constituent in a clause, but they also switched to express themselves in an original way. In some utterances, it proved difficult to apply a single function to a switch, thus a sequential turn-by-turn analysis was employed. A deaf student’s level of switching was influenced most by the hearing status of the interlocutor, and the amount of switching by the interlocutor.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.03

  19. 76 FR 31308 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    .... Agenda: The Academy leadership will provide the Board updates on the following: Military Program... later than five working days prior to the next meeting in order to provide time for member consideration... the floor or speak to any issue under consideration by the Board. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The...

  20. The United States Military’s Role in Combating Transnational Organized Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    transnational crime and violent extremism. Separately from the formerly referred to Colombian case, the Peruvian military battled the Shining Path (Sendero... literature does not suggest that further development into a hybrid organization that shares goals and dogma is inevitable or even probable. The final merger

  1. Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information...Military Hwnau Rt> souNe Rt"Cords/Offidal ~lilitarr Pe:rsouuel f ile (OMPF) and ~iedicaJ Rt"Cords/SuUce Treatment Records (STR). Persoanel records ofmilitaty

  2. Constraint-based solver for the Military unit path finding problem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the first phase development of a path finding simulation in a military environment. This concept demonstrator can be used for mission planning by constructing what if scenarios to investigate trade-offs such as location...

  3. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Milani, L.; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188?200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-ass...

  4. The Military and Society. Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (5th), United States Air Force Academy, 5-6 October 1972,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    a 24. ( Sep -Oct 1 changing society. ’ Martin B Calif.: Glencoe The Military at Perhaps the most critical element in this rationale, from the point of... Sep -Oct 1973). 93-103. ’ Martin B. Hickman, ed., The Military and American Society (Beverly Hills. Calif.: Glencoe Press, 1971 ); Steven E. Ambrose and...the Sword: The Career of General Peyton 155 156 A erospace Historia C. March, 1966; and The War to End All Wars: The American Military cluded the

  5. External Macroeconomic Shocks and the Estonian economy: How did the Russian Financial Crisis affect Estonian Unemployment and Foreign Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Eamets; Urmas Varblane; Kaja Sostra

    2003-01-01

    In this empirical paper we examine how the Russian financial crisis affected Estonian unemployment and foreign trade. In our interpretation the Russian crisis caused depression in the Estonian economy, but at the same time it also caused a relatively fast reallocation of trade. Eastward export flows (largely foodstuffs) declined drastically while exports to Finland and Sweden largely increased. Several manufacturing firms went into bankruptcy and foreign investors benefited from relatively lo...

  6. Avoidable mortality in Estonia: exploring the differences in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburin, A; Lai, T; Leinsalu, M

    2011-11-01

    A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia. Descriptive study. Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for Estonian and non-Estonian men and women aged 0-74 years in 2005-2007. The ethnic TLE gap was decomposed by age and cause of death (classified as preventable or treatable). The TLE of non-Estonian men was 3.53 years less than that of Estonian men, and the TLE of non-Estonian women was 1.36 years less than that of Estonian women. Preventable causes of death contributed 2.19 years to the gap for men and 0.78 years to the gap for women, while treatable causes contributed 0.67 and 0.33 years, respectively. Cardiorespiratory conditions were the major treatable causes of death, with ischaemic heart disease alone contributing 0.29 and 0.08 years to the gap for men and women, respectively. Conditions related to alcohol and substance use represented the largest proportion of preventable causes of death. Inequalities in health behaviours underlie the ethnic TLE gap in Estonia, rather than inequalities in access to health care or the quality of health care. Public health interventions should prioritize primary prevention aimed at alcohol and substance use, and should be implemented in conjunction with wider social policy measures. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estonian Airi Boeing sattus kaks korda hädaolukorda / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi Boeing ES-ABL sattus 2011. aasta algus kahel korral ohtlikku olukorda. Lennuamet tegi Estonian Airile ettekirjutuse, kuid seda pole ameti kodulehel avaldatud. Lennufirma kapteni ja lennuohutuse inspektori Andreas Kari, lennuameti selgitusi

  8. Acquisition of compounds in Estonian and Russian: Frequency, productivity, transparency and simplicity effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reili Argus; Victoria Kazakovskaya

    2013-01-01

    ... – Estonian and Russian. Longitudinal data on three Russian and two Estonian typically-developing monolingual children and their caregivers was analysed and compared in relation to first emergence, the development...

  9. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  10. Impact of Mindfulness Training on Physiological Measures of Stress and Objective Measures of Attention Control in a Military Helicopter Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meland, Anders; Ishimatsu, Kazuma; Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Wagstaff, Anthony; Fonne, Vivianne; Garde, Anne Helene; Harris, Anette

    2015-10-02

    Objective: This study sought to determine if mindfulness training (MT) has a measurable impact on stress and attentional control as measured by objective physiological and psychological means. Background: Periods of persistent, intensive work demands are known to compromise recovery and attentional capacity. The effects of 4-month MT on salivary cortisol and performance on 2 computer-based cognitive tasks were tested on a military helicopter unit exposed to a prolonged period of high workload. Methods: MT participants were compared to a wait list control group on levels of saliva cortisol and performance on a go-no go test and a test of stimulus-driven attentional capture. Participants also reported mental demands on the go-no go test, time of wakeup, sleep duration, quality of sleep, outcome expectancies, physical activity level, self-perceived mindfulness, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Results: The results from a mixed between-within analysis revealed that the MT participants compared to the control group had a larger pre to post increase in high- and low-cortisol slopes, and decrease in perceived mental demand imposed by the go-no go test. Conclusion: MT alleviates some of the physiological stress response and the subjective mental demands of challenging tasks in a military helicopter unit during a period of high workload.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus colonization of healthy military service members in the United States and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Todd J; Calvano, Tatjana P; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Rini, Elizabeth A; Tully, Charla C; Landrum, Michael L; Zera, Wendy; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Beckius, Miriam L; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Murray, Clinton K

    2013-07-16

    Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individuals while deployed. We conducted a pilot study to screen non-deployed and deployed healthy military service members for MRSA/MSSA colonization at various anatomic sites and assessed isolates for molecular differences. Colonization point-prevalence of 101 military personnel in the US and 100 in Afghanistan was determined by swabbing 7 anatomic sites. US-based individuals had received no antibiotics within 30 days, and Afghanistan-deployed personnel were taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis. Isolates underwent identification and testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type (PFT). 4 individuals in the US (4 isolates- 3 oropharynx, 1 perirectal) and 4 in Afghanistan (6 isolates- 2 oropharynx, 2 nare, 1 hand, 1 foot) were colonized with MRSA. Among US-based personnel, 3 had USA300 (1 PVL+) and 1 USA700. Among Afghanistan-based personnel, 1 had USA300 (PVL+), 1 USA800 and 2 USA1000. MSSA was present in 40 (71 isolates-25 oropharynx, 15 nare) of the US-based and 32 (65 isolates- 16 oropharynx, 24 nare) of the Afghanistan-based individuals. 56 (79%) US and 41(63%) Afghanistan-based individuals had MSSA isolates recovered from extra-nare sites. The most common MSSA PFTs were USA200 (9 isolates) in the US and USA800 (7 isolates) in Afghanistan. MRSA/MSSA isolates were susceptible to doxycycline in all but 3 personnel (1 US, 2 Afghanistan; all were MSSA isolates that carried tetM). MRSA and MSSA colonization of military personnel was not associated with deployment status or doxycycline exposure. Higher S. aureus oropharynx colonization rates were observed and may warrant changes in decolonization practices.

  12. The United States Humanitarian Demining Program: Civil-Military Relations in Humanitarian Demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    developed during a period of hostile actions in an extremely complex environment. Following the hostilities and subsequent NATO-led bombing campaign...June 1999, the major concern for the people was returning to their homes before the early Balkan winter— snowfall often occurred in September giving the...an extremely limited interaction where both the people and the military gained very little. During the post 9/11 period in Afghanistan, provincial

  13. Universities, the military, and the means of destruction in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Langley

    2008-01-01

    High-technology weapons and their support platforms, together with robotic vehicles and satellite-based communications systems, have come to dominate how many nations frame their defense policies and wage war. The resulting technological dependence creates a number of problems for governments, not least the growing military budgets which are required to procure such means of waging war, but also the costly research and development which underpins such devices. Increasingly governments and mil...

  14. For God or Country? Religious Tensions Within the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    evangelism. Local churches also provide the spiritual family for new believers to be nurtured and disciple [sic]. They are the Lord’s strategy to...likely involve particular religious rituals or practices, the continued debate over sexual orientation and homosexual service in the military, bio...debate continues throughout the country regarding sexual orientation and homosexual marriage, it is inevitable that groups challenging DoD’s “Don’t Ask

  15. United States Military Support to American Strategic Goals in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    attack on the metropolitan territory of either of the parties, or on the island territories under its jurisdiction in the Pacific Ocean , its armed forces...deployable force in the Pacific under USARPAC is in Alaska. These “ Artic Warriors” state that they are USPACOM’s “Strategic Response Force.”90 However...addressed this cultural understanding in Joint Vision 2020. They stated, “A deep understanding of the cultural, political, military, and economic

  16. Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Kate; Grossman, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    To estimate unintended pregnancy rates among a representative sample of 7,225 active-duty women in the U.S. military in 2008 and to compare these rates with 2005 and with the U.S. population. Cross-sectional data came from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel (Health Related Behaviors Survey). For all women and by key subgroups, unintended pregnancy rates per 1,000 women were calculated and compared with rates reported in the 2005 Health Related Behaviors Survey. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression to test for associations between unintended pregnancy and key subgroups was also performed. Finally, an age-standardized unintended pregnancy rate was calculated to adjust for differences in age composition between the military and U.S. populations for better comparison with the general U.S. rate. Eleven percent of women reported an unintended pregnancy in the prior 12 months. The 2008 self-reported unintended pregnancy rate was 105 per 1,000 women, an increase from 2005 (97/1,000 women). Younger, less educated, nonwhite, and married or cohabitating women had significantly higher rates of unintended pregnancy compared with their counterparts. Rates did not differ between women deployed in the prior 12 months and nondeployed women. The age-standardized rate was 78 per 1,000 women (95% confidence interval 77-79), which is 50% higher than the general U.S. population (52/1,000 women). Unintended pregnancy rates in the military are high and have increased in most key subgroups since the 2005 survey. Efforts are needed to help servicewomen prevent unintended pregnancy, including during deployment. II.

  17. United States military service members and their tattoos: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R Gregory; Bahroo, Bhagwan A; Soumoff, Alyssa

    2013-08-01

    To explore the characteristics of military service tattoos a descriptive study was conducted at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to collect information from a convenience sample. An investigator-developed questionnaire provided the data for this study. Over the ensuing 12 month-period the researchers collected 126 questionnaires. Typical respondents were enlisted men with at least one deployment to an area of combat operations. Among the respondents, 57% acquired their tattoos before their deployment. One-quarter of the respondents reported only one tattoo, leaving the majority with multiple tattoos. Men received their first tattoo at an earlier age than women. The most common tattoo listed a person's name. Respondents did not regret their tattoos and rarely acquired the body art under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Little evidence was found to support a connection between tattoos and deployment. Few regretted their decisions and most all approached the tattoo experience free of any mind-altering substance. All this seems to suggest that military tattoos are a well-accepted means of self-expression. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Microsatellite, blood group and transferrin protein diversity of Estonian dairy cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VÄRV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates genetic diversity within and among three Estonian dairy cattle breeds (Estonian Native, Estonian Red and Estonian Holstein. A total of 36 markers (25 microsatellites, 10 blood group systems and transferrin protein were investigated and the within-breed diversity was quantified by expected heterozygosity, number of private alleles and mean allelic richness. The population structure was studied by computing the inbreeding coefficients, breed differentiation and relationships were investigated with random drift-based measures and a factorial correspondence analysis. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree was drawn summarising allele sharing distances for 195 individuals of the Estonian breeds, Western Finncattle, and Danish Jersey. The Estonian breeds displayed generally similar levels of within-population diversity. Depending on the set of markers used 6.2 or 4.3% of the total genetic variation can be explained by differences among the breeds. Construction of the tree for individuals revealed a distinctive pattern of grouping for Estonian Holstein, Estonian Red and Danish Jersey, but Estonian Native and Western Finncattle appeared on the same branches. This indicates that the gene pool of Estonian Native largely overlaps with that of Western Finncattle. However, our genetic marker analysis shows that the three Estonian breeds are genetically differentiated, suggesting that the current gene pool of Estonian dairy cattle is diverse.;

  19. Adapting the Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS-36) for Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommik, Carita; Luik, Piret

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS-36) for Estonian secondary school students in order to develop a valid instrument to measure students' attitudes within the Estonian educational context. The SATS-36 was administered to Estonian-speaking secondary school students before their compulsory…

  20. Joakim Helenius: Estonian Air võtku eeskuju airBalticust / Siim Sultson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sultson, Siim

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi ühe võimaliku nõukogu esimehe Jaokim Heleniuse hinnangul on väikeste lennufirmade, nagu Estonian Air ja airBaltic jaoks päris palju tegutsemisruumi. Estonian Airil tuleb leida oma nišš ja kindel, kuid omanäoline strateegia

  1. SAS tahab Estonian Airi liita lätlaste firmaga airBaltic / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    SAS plaanib Estonian Airi ja Läti firma airBalticu liitmisega luua uue lennufirma. Autori hinnangul viitavad Estonian Airi laienemisplaanidele kriipsu peale tõmbamine ja SAS-i investeeringud airBalticusse sellele, et ühendamise käigus "neelab" Läti firma Estonian Airi

  2. Preliminary Development of the Commander’s Unit Analysis Profile: A leadership Tool for the Small Military Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    in which the soldiers in a unit can express their reactions about the Army as a whole or about their unit in particular. One type of self-report that...representative of the entire unit rather than just those who are willing to express themselves spontaneously. Questionnaires can be administered in such a way...language so that they were apt to be understood by soldiers with minimal reading skills. In some cases, idiomatic phrasing was used to improve

  3. United States and German Military Cemeteries in Italy – Cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmson, Birgit

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The US and German military cemeteries in Italy differ greatly from one another in style and message. Art-historical methods such as stylistic analysis and iconographic interpretation along with historical research are used to explore the ideological character of each nation’s cemeteries. These, in turn, are used to illuminate aspects of the respective cultures at the time of their design and construction. The results reveal post World War II US society becoming more conformist and politically conservative and German society undergoing a redefinition of its values.

  4. Combating Drug Trafficking: Variation in the United States’ Military Cooperation with Colombia and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    equipment like “aircraft and helicopters, night vision goggles, rigid hull inflatable boats, and protective ensembles, as well as tactical communications...http://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia- usa -bases-idUSTRE59T1S720091030. 172 Ibid. 173 Bronstein, “Colombia, U.S. Sign Military Cooperation...2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia- usa -bases- idUSTRE59T1S720091030. Christian Science Monitor. “Colombia Rallies to U.S. Support by

  5. Reflections on moral care when conducting qualitative research about suicide in the United States military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Marcela; Mancías, Saraí; LeFeber, Tirzah

    2017-09-01

    Critical suicidology (White, Marsh, Kral, & Morris, 2016 ) offers a critique of positivism as the mainstream rhetoric of scientific research. In this article, the authors add a critique to the moral detachment of scientific inquiry (Wilkinson & Kleinman, 2016 ) in suicidology. They provide a discussion at the intersection of theory and research when considering moral care of all stakeholders in the implementation of suicide research toward the development of more humanitarian policies and program alternatives. The authors reflect upon their experience of conducting an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Finlay, 2011 ) on suicide in the U.S. military.

  6. A Framework for Developing Management Goals for Species at Risk and Application to Military Installations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Westervelt, James D. [ERDC-CERL

    2009-01-01

    A decision framework for setting management goals for species at risk is presented. Species at risk are those whose potential future rarity is of concern. Listing these species as threatened or endangered could potentially result in significant restrictions to activities in resource management areas in order to maintain those species. The management areas in the example application are United States (US) military installations, which are concerned about potential restrictions to military training capacity if species at risk become regulated under the US Endangered Species Act. The decision framework, designed to foster proactive management, has nine steps: identify species at risk on and near the management area, describe available information and potential information gaps for each species, determine the potential distribution of species and their habitat, select metrics for describing species status, assess the status of local population or metapopulation, conduct threat assessment, set and prioritize management goals, develop species management plans, and develop criteria for ending special species management where possible. This framework will aid resource managers in setting management goals that minimally impact human activities while reducing the likelihood that species at risk will become rare in the near future. The benefits of the proactive management set forth in this formal decision framework are that it is impartial, provides a clear procedure, calls for identification of causal relationships that may not be obvious, provides a way to target the most urgent needs, reduces costs, enhances public confidence, and, most importantly, decreases the chance of species becoming more rare.

  7. Framework for Developing Management goals for Species at Risk and Application to Military Installations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Westervelt, James D. [ERDC-CERL

    2009-01-01

    A decision framework for setting management goals for species at risk is presented. Species at risk are those whose potential future rarity is of concern. Listing these species as threatened or endangered could potentially result in significant restrictions to activities in resource management areas in order to maintain those species. The decision framework, designed to foster proactive management, has nine steps: identify species at risk on and near the management area, describe available information and potential information gaps for each species, determine the potential distribution of species and their habitat, select metrics for describing species status, assess the status of local population or metapopulation, conduct threat assessment, set and prioritize management goals, develop species management plans, and develop criteria for ending special species management where possible. This framework will aid resource managers in setting management goals that minimally impact human activities while reducing the likelihood that species at risk will become rare in the near future. The management areas in many of the examples are United States (US) military installations, which are concerned about potential restrictions to military training capacity if species at risk become regulated under the US Endangered Species Act. The benefits of the proactive management set forth in this formal decision framework are that it is impartial, provides a clear procedure, calls for identification of causal relationships that may not be obvious, provides a way to target the most urgent needs, reduces costs, enhances public confidence, and, most importantly, decreases the chance of species becoming more rare.

  8. [Medical and technical means for united circle of evacuation measures in military-medical organisations of the Ministry of Defence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Shchegolev, A V; Vertii, B D

    2015-06-01

    Experts of the medical service of the Armed Forces carried out an analysis of capabilities of modern Russian enterprises and their innovative projects regarding creation of unified means of evacuation of wounded and providing to them necessary types of emergency care with the use of existing and future special and regular means of transport for medical evacuation. As a result of the work of industrial enterprises of the OAO Kazan "Vertoletniy Zavod", "Zarechie", "Vysota" was created a device for the medical evacuation of severe wounded patients. The device is designed for medical evacuation of severe wounded patients from the military medical unit to the site providing comprehensive medical care with maintenance of vital functions and monitoring of his condition. Testing was conducted on the products of regular vehicles medical company of one of the brigades of the Western Military District. The device was presented at the special tactical exercises the Armed Forces Medical Service "Frontier-2014", "Innovation Day" of the Defence Ministry in 2014.

  9. Occurrence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in military unit stationed in the combat zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Slaviša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it has been recognized as a separate disease during the Korean war hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS has often been discovered among the members of different armies in various countries, military personnel being the highest risk group for the disease. In the period from March to May 1999 we treated 6 soldiers coming from the military formation stationed at Kosovo and Metohia. The reaction of indirect hemagglutination test proved the presence of antibodies against Hantavira in each of them. They were infected during the stay in a dugout in the area with great population of field rodents. Only one patient was slightly ill, on the admission to the hospitalall. The others had severe clinical and laboratory findings: several days lasting fever, strong abdominal pain, as well as the pain in the loins dyspeptical discomfort, manifold increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine values, thrombocytopenia, etc. Oliguria occurred in 4 patients. Hemorrhagic manifestations were slight (epistaxis, petechial rash conjunctival injection, or absent. Because of the aggravation of the acute renal failure, hemodialysis was performed in 3 patients, while other 3 underwent conservative treatment. Two of the patients had severe anemia because of which transfusions of erythrocytes and plasma were performed. Complications occurred in 2 patients (convulsive crises and lung infections. All patients recovered completely.

  10. Estonian Airi president : uus äristrateegia toob ettevõttele edu / Borge Thornbech ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornbech, Borge

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Air asutas regionaalsete lendude korraldamiseks ettevõtte Estonian Air Regional, idee on arendada tegevust lühidistantsidel ja luua ühenduslüli lennukompanii Euroopa-liinide vahel. Kommenteerivad Olev Schults, Oleg Harlamov, Rein Mark. Vt. samas: Kõik aktsionärid vannuvad Estonian Airile truudust; Estonian Air kaalub Tartu lennuliini avamist. Kaart: Reisijate jagunemine sihtkohtade vahel. Graafikud: Estonian Air kukkus kahjumisse

  11. [The policy of the United States Army Military Government in Korea toward public health and medicine in occupied South Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J S

    2000-12-01

    After the liberation from Japanese colonial rule in August 1945, the United States of America established Military Government in Korea(USAMGIK) south the 38th parallel. The public health and medical policy of the USAMGIK was defined by the USA's general policy toward Korea, and followed national interests of USA after the end of the World War II. The basic objectives of the early occupational period were two; the protection of the occupation troops, the prevention of acute epidemic diseases and unrest in the populace. However, after the switch of occupation policy to the establishment of pro-American anti-Communist nation in Korea since June 1946, the basic objectives turned into 'the establishment of the influence of American medicine in Korean medical system.' During the occupation period, USAMGIK trained several pro-American right - wing doctors who formed the clique of policy makers in the independent government, and established many quasi - American public health and medical systems in Korea.

  12. US MILITARY OVERSEAS BASES- HOW THEY BEGAN AND THE ENDURING NEED FOR FORWARD BASED UNITED STATES TROOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    military posture has since been an enduring concern with each new administration entering the presidential office. The current presidential... military personnel.”30 His administration would also appear as reneging on a security commitment the US assumed after WW I, instilling fear...disposition of military overseas posture. This administration needs to acquire a full comprehensive understand of all the military does at home and

  13. A waterborne outbreak of leptospirosis among United States military personnel in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, A; Ryan, A; Bloys, W; Thomas, R; Deniega, B; Watts, D

    1990-09-01

    A waterborne outbreak of leptospirosis occurred among US military personnel during September 1987, on the island of Okinawa, Japan. Micro-agglutination titres for leptospiral antigen of greater than or equal to 200 were detected in hospitalized adult males averaging 22.5 years of age with symptoms compatible with leptospirosis. Epidemiological findings revealed two case clusters distinguished by time and place of exposure. The overall attack rates among recreational swimmers and combat skills training participants were 467/1000 (7/15) and 183/1000 (15/82), respectively. Swallowing of water differentiated individuals with laboratory-confirmed infection from those with no infection, while water immersion alone did not appear to result in leptospiral infection. Additionally, subnormal rainfall may have contributed to the risk of exposure associated with this outbreak.

  14. Residues of persistent organic pollutants in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs were analysed in selected Estonian soils. The sample collection included agricultural-rural (Ahja, Eerika, industrial-urban (Kohtla-Järve, Muuga, Kunda, and reference sites (Lahemaa and Vilsandi. The PCB concentrations were greater in Ahja-1982 and Kohtla-Järve station 1, while Eerika, other Kohtla-Järve, Muuga Port, Kunda, Lahemaa, and Vilsandi Island concentrations were low. Organochlorine pesticides were slightly higher at Kohtla-Järve stations and PBDEs at Kunda stations. Overall, the predominant contaminants were PCBs (0.43–89 ng/g dw, followed by OCPs (0.21–16 ng/g dw and PBDEs (< 0.01–3.2 ng/g dw. The occurrence of 4,4'-DDT in some samples indicated recent contamination by DDT of Estonian soils. The PBDEs in Estonian soils were reported for the first time.

  15. Determinants of stress fracture risk in United States Military Academy cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Felicia; Ruffing, Jamie; Zion, Marsha; Uhorchak, John; Ralston, Stuart; Tendy, Susan; McGuigan, Fiona E A; Lindsay, Robert; Nieves, Jeri

    2013-08-01

    Prior studies have identified some risk factors for stress fracture in athletes and military recruits. To determine whether historical factors, physical measures, biochemical variables of skeletal metabolism, genetic factors, bone density (BMD) and bone size could predict risk of stress fracture over 4 years in physically fit cadets at the US Military Academy (USMA). Baseline surveys, assessments of height, weight, scores on the Army Physical Fitness Test, and peripheral BMD were obtained in all cadets (755 men, 136 women), and central BMD in a subset. Blood samples were analyzed for variables of calcium homeostasis, bone turnover, and selected hormones and genetic factors. Stress fractures were adjudicated by review of orthopedic notes and imaging reports. 5.7% of male and 19.1% of female cadets had at least 1 stress fracture (58% metatarsal and 29% tibial), most within 3 months of entry to USMA. In males, risk of stress fracture was higher in those who exercised stress fracture risk was seen in those with shorter time since menarche (RR 1.44 per year; CI 1.19, 1.73) and smaller femoral neck diameter (RR 1.16; CI 1.01, 1.33.). Although prior physical training in men, length of prior estrogen exposure in women and leg bone dimensions in both genders played a role, the maximum variance explained by all of these factors was below 10%. We conclude these factors play a minor role in the development of stress fractures in physically fit USMA cadets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The United States’ Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terror: A Military Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    they detonated two massive bombs at United States embassies in Dar es Salaam , Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. In those attacks, 224 people lost their......solidified the United States’ long-term commitment to combat terroristic threats. Various supporting literature including reports prepared for congress

  17. Armenian Expedition of Emperor Constantius II in 338/339 A.D. and Military Units of Thracian Expeditionary Army at the Near East: on the Late Roman Military Organization in the Mid-4th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    10.15688/jvolsu4.2017.5.26

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the history of military corps, which Roman emperor Constantius II sent to Great Armenia in 338/339 A.D. for to fight with the Persians. The main evidence on Constantius II’s Persian expedition are preserved in the works of prominent Armenian historians, that are Moses Khorenatsi and Pawstos Buzand. Constantius II held this campaign in order to free Armenia from the Persians and to bring back its state freedom. According to Moses Khorenatsi and Pawstos Buzand, Constantius II sent in Armenia bodyguards, who were representatives of Armenian noble families allied to the Romans, but the Roman regular forces themselves collected in Galatia (the Asia Minor, moved in Mesopotamia and Atropatene (south of modern Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan. As the author supposes, Roman troops arrived in Armenia and took part in fight with the Persians, strictly due to Roman military help Armenian naχarars could expel the Persians from Armenia. In this connection the author poses a question – which military units arrived at the Roman Near East (in Mesopotamia from the Asia Minor and how Constantius II’s military campaign in Armenia influenced on the further development of Roman-Persian frontier and its defence system. On the ground of epigraphic data (inscriptions from Mesopotamia and Arabia author made a conclusion that in 338/339 A.D. Constantius II moved at the Near East military units which previously were parts of Thracian expeditionary army and garrisoned in Thracia, since inscriptions under discussion mention soldiers who bear Thracian names that reveal their Thracian origin.

  18. Outcomes After Post-Traumatic AKI Requiring RRT in United States Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanos, Jonathan A; Yuan, Christina M; Little, Dustin J; Oliver, David K; Howard, Steven R; Abbott, Kevin C; Olson, Stephen W

    2015-10-07

    Mortality and CKD risk have not been described in military casualties with post-traumatic AKI requiring RRT suffered in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. This is a retrospective case series of post-traumatic AKI requiring RRT in 51 military health care beneficiaries (October 7, 2001-December 1, 2013), evacuated to the National Capital Region, documenting in-hospital mortality and subsequent CKD. Participants were identified using electronic medical and procedure records. Age at injury was 26±6 years; of the participants, 50 were men, 16% were black, 67% were white, and 88% of injuries were caused by blast or projectiles. Presumed AKI cause was acute tubular necrosis in 98%, with rhabdomyolysis in 72%. Sixty-day all-cause mortality was 22% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 12% to 35%), significantly less than the 50% predicted historical mortality (P<0.001). The VA/NIH Acute Renal Failure Trial Network AKI integer score predicted 60-day mortality risk was 33% (range, 6%-96%) (n=49). Of these, nine died (mortality, 18%; 95% CI, 10% to 32%), with predicted risks significantly miscalibrated (P<0.001). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for the AKI integer score was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.88), not significantly different than the AKI integer score model cohort (P=0.27). Of the 40 survivors, one had ESRD caused by cortical necrosis. Of the remaining 39, median time to last follow-up serum creatinine was 1158 days (range, 99-3316 days), serum creatinine was 0.85±0.24 mg/dl, and eGFR was 118±23 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). No eGFR was <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), but it may be overestimated because of large/medium amputations in 54%. Twenty-five percent (n=36) had proteinuria; one was diagnosed with CKD stage 2. Despite severe injuries, participants had better in-hospital survival than predicted historically and by AKI integer score. No patient who recovered renal function had an eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at last follow-up, but 23% had proteinuria

  19. Designating Earth's Moon as a United Nations World Heritage Site - Permanently Protected from Commercial or Military Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes that Earth's Moon, in its entirety, be designated a United Nations World Heritage Site (WHS), permanently protected from any and all commercial or military utilization and reserved exclusively for scientific and aesthetic purposes. The paper discusses: 1) the extraordinary importance of the Moon for science, culture, and religion - past, present and future; 2) the history of proposals to exploit the Moon for commercial and military purposes and the shortcomings of this colonial, exploitation paradigm; and 3) the necessity, policy mechanisms, and political dynamics of designating the Moon as a World Heritage Site, permanently protected from commercial and/or military uses. The first part of the paper discusses the extraordinary importance of the Moon as it exists today - as a scientific laboratory, a source of beauty and inspiration throughout human evolution, a source for artistic expression, and as an object that is considered sacred by many cultures. Next, the paper traces the history of specific proposals for the exploitation of the Moon for commercial and/or military purposes - including plans by the U.S. Air Force in 1959 to detonate a nuclear explosion on the Moon, proposals to strip-mine the lunar regolith for helium-3 and rocket-fuel hydrogen; construction of solar power plants to transmit energy to Earth, and proposals to use the lunar surface as a billboard upon which to project commercial advertisements visible from Earth. The profound ethical, legal, and scientific shortcomings of this exploitation paradigm are described as an emerging Extraterrestrial Manifest Destiny that we have a collective obligation to challenge and constrain. The paper proposes that space exploration be infused with an ethical commitment to compassion, reverence, conservation, and non-interference to abiotic and biotic systems alike; as opposed to the expansion and extraterrestrial imposition of the colonization, exploitation, domination, and despoliation

  20. Species Profile: Eastern Indigo Snake (Drymarchon corals couperi) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallam, Charlotte

    1998-01-01

    The eastern indigo snake (Dtymarchon corais couperi) is an uncommon, large-bodied snake occurring in the southeastern United States, primarily in southern Alabama and Georgia and most of Florida. The U.S...

  1. Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups Abroad: Implications for the United States Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ochmanek, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to help defense planners anticipate the types of demands that future operations against terrorists will place on the armed forces of the United States, particularly...

  2. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  3. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Estonian Golf & Country Club'i etnomodernistlik golfikeskus ja klubihoone Jõelähtmel. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuristuudio Siim & Kreis. Autor Andres Siim. Konstruktor: Resand. Sisekujundaja Juta Lember (SAB Lember & Padar). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis ja 3 sisevaadet

  4. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is fixed in the…

  5. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...

  6. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  7. Top 10 Estonian albums of 2004 / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Arvo Pärt "Pro et contra", Various composers "Baltic Voices 2", Raimo Kangro "Displays", Toivo Tulev "Be Lost in the Call", Indrek Vau and Mati Mikalai "Estonian Trumpet Music", Erdmann/Sooäär "Dessert Time, Peer Gynt & Other Stories", Alo Mattiisen "50 parimat laulu", Riho Sibul "Must", Rein Rannap "Tantsib klaveril", Eesti Keeled "Kella tiksumist..."

  8. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  9. Value Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Tammik, Anu

    2017-01-01

    For systematic implementation of value education in educational institutions, the national programme "Values Development in Estonian Society 2009-2013" (Ministry of Education and Research 2009) was prepared in Estonia. However, it was launched only in 2010, and the authors intended to ascertain the values of the heads of preschool child…

  10. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  11. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  12. Parasiitluse viljad: Estonian Air ja Eesti riik / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Autori hinnangul oli Estonian Airi erastamise puhul tegemist ratsionaalse, kuid parasiitliku lähenemisega kasu teenimise eesmärgil, samuti oli riigipoolne viga läbimõtlematu suhtumine riigile kuuluvasse Tallinna lennujaama, samas on aga lennuühendus Eesti kui Euroopa nurgas asuva väikeriigi jaoks strateegiliselt oluline

  13. Kas Bombardier lennutab Estonian Airi üles? / Henrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Air on saanud oma käsutusse kaks kolmest ostetud lennukist Bombardier CRJ900, millega saavutatakse Boeing 737-ga võrreldes oluline kütuse kokkuhoid. 20 aastaga on müüdud CRJ-seeria lennukeid juba üle 1700

  14. The impact of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience on PTSD in treatment-seeking military personnel with PTSD: The role of posttraumatic cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yinyin; Gallagher, Thea; McLean, Carmen P; Tannahill, Hallie S; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Foa, Edna B

    2017-03-01

    The personal resources of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience have been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are unclear. We hypothesized that negative posttraumatic cognitions, which are associated with PTSD, mediate the relationships between these personal resources and PTSD. The relationship between PTSD symptom severity and a latent factor comprised of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 366 treatment-seeking active duty military personnel with PTSD following deployments to or near Iraq or Afghanistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test whether posttraumatic cognitions mediated this relationship. The SEM model indicated that (1) a robust latent variable named personal resources (indicated by social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience) was negatively associated with PTSD severity; (2) personal resources were negatively associated with negative posttraumatic cognitions; (3) negative posttraumatic cognitions fully mediated the association between personal resources and PTSD severity. The final SEM mediation model showed a highly satisfactory fit [χ2 (22) = 16.344, p = 0.798; χ2/df = 0.743; CFI = 1; RMSEA = 0.000]. These findings suggest that among active duty military personnel seeking treatment for PTSD, personal resources (social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience) may mitigate PTSD severity by reducing negative posttraumatic cognitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Winning the Peace: Institutionalizing Provincial Reconstruction Teams in the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    23 homeless ; and the country was largely helpless to support its population as a result of the massively drained resources by 13 years of war.2...Faryab (Norway), Jawzjan (Turkey), Herat (Italy), Badghis (Spain), Ghor (Lithuania), Helmand (United Kingdom), Bamyan ( Australia ), Wardak (Turkey...Parwan ( South Korea), and Logar (Czech Republic) provinces.7 Concept of Operations As described in JP 3-07, in the continuum of offensive

  16. Putting a Price on Strategy: Implementing a Prediction Market in a Modern Military Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Departments/IS/Research/ FX /JIFX/JIFX.html. 24 (JIFX/TSOA/RELIEF) into one market with each project the subject of four separate contracts. In total...not participating, all markets Reasons for not participating by market can be further expounded by the makeup of the unit and their responses. For...Market would mirror the MCIA market contracts with only a few exceptions. Another unique aspect of this market was the makeup of the participants, with

  17. India’s Military Aviation Market: Opportunities for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    and resources. When resources—hard currency— were available, India was able to buy aircraft from the West, most notably the United Kingdom and France ...in both areas, American firms are competitive. The Indian government over­ turned an IAF decision to acquire AS 550 Eurocopters and instead...been one of the allegations about the cancellation of the award of a helicopter deal to Eurocopter ).37 The opportunity, therefore, exists to succeed

  18. Adaptation to Stress: An Investigation into the Lives of United States Military Families with a Child Who Is Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Moira A.; Russo, Theresa J.

    2003-01-01

    This study surveyed 253 military families with children who have disabilities to determine if they experienced difficulties in adapting to military life. Responses indicated that 25 percent of children with disabilities were 3 years or younger and 75 percent were age 4 through 6 years. Twenty-one families reported not having adjusted to military…

  19. Assisting Children and Families with Military-Related Disruptions: The United States Marine Corps School Liaison Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Pasch, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Military families face a number of unique challenges, including frequent relocations and school transitions, as well as extended separations from loved ones. The military, schools, and communities have been working together to build the capacity of children, youth, and families to successfully cope with the stressors they encounter. Most branches…

  20. Factors Predicting Suicide among Russians in Estonia in Comparison with Estonians: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. Methods The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. Results The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Conclusion Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption. PMID:17171808

  1. Factors predicting suicide among Russians in Estonia in comparison with Estonians: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-12-01

    To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity (Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption.

  2. Air Power and Warfare. The Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (8th), United States Air Force Academy, 18-20 October 1978,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    element of this farce, which really is hilarious , was the examination of Sir Hiram Maxim by Lord Esher, who was a very shrewd cookie indeed. Sir Hiram...Great Fatherland War). Voprosy Istorii, No. 2, 1974, pp. 81-99. 27. Jean Alexander, Russian Aircraft Since 1940 (London: Putnam . 1975), pp, 295-304...borough and P. M. Bowers, United States Military Aircraft Since 1908, Putnam . London.1963, pp. 466-769. 7. David Irving, The Mare’s Nest, Kimber

  3. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  4. CLUPEA HARENGUS MEMBRAS: ABOUT THE ETYMOLOGY OF A CERTAIN FISH NAME IN ESTONIAN, LATVIAN AND LIVONIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Uibo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the names of Clupea harengus membras will be considered in Estonian, (Salaca Livonian and Latvian (respectively räim, reńǵ and reņģe ‘Baltic herring’. It will be shown that the source of all of these words is the Estonian-Swedish strämg (sträηg, or its preceding word shape *sträimg. The Latvian reņģe is borrowed from Estonian-Swedish through Salaca Livonian. Paul Ariste proposed an adequate etymology for the Estonian räim as early as 1933.

  5. Estonian Air püüdis viimase hetkeni Top Toursi päästa / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air kaalus Top Toursile appiminekut, sest reisifirma oli Estonian Airil üks olulisemaid koostööpartnereid. Abi oleks puudutanud ennekõike uutele lendudele allahindluse tegemist, räägiti ka võimalikust krediidist

  6. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Brian; Lopman, Benjamin A; Alcala, Ashley N; Riddle, Mark S; Porter, Chad K

    2016-01-01

    Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking. Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998-June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters) were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations. The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326) and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105) encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries.

  7. Critical Success Factors and information needs in Estonian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiki Tibar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the study on the critical success factors and related information needs in Estonian industry conducted in 1999. Data were collected by interviews with 27 managers and engineers from 16 manufacturing companies in various industries. Most of the critical success factors taken up were related to marketing, information management, quality management, product development and technological innovations. The information needs of managers and engineers were related to competitors, customers, markets, technology, regulations, etc. Some identified CSFs expressed also priorities for development by Estonian economic authorities: to support the implementation of new technologies and introduction of quality management methods. The finding that information management was perceived as a very critical area supports the result of the recent Finnish study on CSFs.

  8. The Civil-Military Gap in the United States. Does It Exist, Why, and Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    attacks on 9/11, the underlying issues they raised remain salient. Spe- cifically, there is a potential for a civil-military gap to undermine mili ...Thomas McNaugher, David Kassing, and Lauri Zeman provided support and encouragement throughout the project’s duration and beyond. Sally Morton and...the changes in the mili - tary, he notes, first and foremost has been the termination of the draft, which has produced a military that is increasingly

  9. Cancer risk and all-cause mortality among Norwegian military United Nations peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Leif Aage; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Borud, Einar Kristian

    2014-08-01

    Media reports of leukaemia and other cancers among European United Nations (UN) peacekeepers who served in the Balkans, and a scientific finding of excess Hodgkin lymphoma among Italian UN peacekeepers who served in Bosnia, suggested a link between cancer incidence and depleted uranium (DU) exposure. This spurred several studies on cancer risk among UN peacekeepers who served in the Balkans. Although these studies turned out to be negative, the debate about possible cancers and other health risks caused by DU exposure continues. The aim of the present study was to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 6076 (4.4% women) Norwegian military UN peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011. The cohort was followed for cancer incidence and mortality from 1999 to 2011. Standardised incidence ratios for cancer (SIR) and mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated from national rates. Sixty-nine cancer cases and 38 deaths were observed during follow-up. Cancer incidence in the cohort was similar to that in the general Norwegian population. No cancers in the overall cohort significantly exceeded incidence rates in the general Norwegian population, but there was an elevated SIR for melanoma of skin in men of 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-3.40). A fivefold increased incidence of bladder cancer was observed among men who served in Kosovo for ≥ 1 year, based on 2 excess cases (SIR=5.27; 95% CI 1.09-15.4). All-cause mortality was half the expected rate (SMR=0.49; 95% CI 0.35-0.67). Our study did not support the suggestion that UN peacekeeping service in Kosovo is associated with increased cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exhibition of photography from the Estonian diaspora / Ellu Maar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maar, Ellu, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Photography from the Estonian Diaspora / Väliseesti foto" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8.10.-19.11.2010, kuraatorid Eha Komissarov ja Ellu Maar. Näitus tutvustas 1944. a. Eestist lahkunud või juba võõrsil sündinud fotograafide (Eric Soovere, Karl Hintzer, Priit Vesilind, Rein Välme jt.) loomingut ja valikut väliseesti fotoarhiividest

  11. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  12. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  13. Efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. VASILIEV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the efficiency of Estonian grain farms after Estonia’s transition to a market economy and during the accession period to the European Union (EU. The non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used to estimate the total technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000–2004. Mean total technical efficiency varied from 0.70 to 0.78. Of the grain farms 62% are operating under increasing returns to scale. Solely based on the DEA model it is not possible to determine optimum farm scale and the range of Estonian farm sizes operating efficiently is extensive. The most pure technically efficient farms were the smallest and the largest but the productivity of small farms is low compared to larger farms because of their small scale. Therefore, they are the least competitive. Since pre-accession period to the EU, large input slacks of capital have replaced the former excessive use of labour and land. This raises the question about the effects on efficiency of the EU’s investment support schemes in new member states.;

  14. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  15. Estonian Air jäi kolmest Fokkerist ilma / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Estonian Airil ei õnnestunud saada kolme väiksemat reaktiivlennukit, lennuparki püütakse mitmekesistada järgmistel aastatel. Sel aastal loodetakse saada juurde ühe Boeing 737-300. Lisa: Boeing: Estonian Air on tasemel

  16. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  17. 32 CFR 575.1 - Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.1 Military Academy. (a) Organization and administration. (1) The United States Military Academy is under the general direction and supervision of the Department of the Army. The... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Academy. 575.1 Section 575.1 National...

  18. Defining the Information within Military Information Operations: Utilizing a Case Study of the Jammu and Kashmir Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bookard, Joe D

    2006-01-01

    The current operating environment requires the United States military to conduct military information operations throughout the conflict spectrum, during all phases, and across various military operations...

  19. Norovirus GII.17 Outbreak Linked to an Infected Post-Symptomatic Food Worker in a French Military Unit Located in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marc-Antoine; Corcostégui, Simon-Pierre; De Broucker, Charles-Arnaud; Cabre, Olivier; Watier-Grillot, Stéphanie; Perelle, Sylvie; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Pommier de Santi, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    In February 2016, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a French military unit located in Poitiers, France. Attack rate was of 34% (103/300). A case-control study identified association between illness and cake consumption. Stool samples were tested positive for Norovirus GII.17 for one patient and one post-symptomatic food worker (FW). The FW presented vomiting one day before cake preparation. The NoV strain was probably spread through food worker hand contact. Prevention of Norovirus foodborne outbreaks implies new guidelines for FWs management in France and Europe.

  20. Väliseestlased ja nende keel. Pidepunkte uurimisloost / A study of the Estonian language in diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Viikberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The varieties of the Estonian language outside Estonia, differing from standard Estonian spoken in Estonia, are regional and generally oral language variants, influenced by local factors and variable intergenerational use. Containing loans from the dominant language, the oral language of the older generation still retains features either redundant or marginal in the current Estonian language geographic area. The first written documents on expatriate Estonians date back to the 19th century, but it was only after the Republic of Estonia was established in 1918 that a wider interest was taken in compatriots living abroad. In 1928, the Expatriate Estonian Society (Välis-Eesti Ühing was founded and the Expatriate Estonian Congress (Välis-Eesti kongress started to be held every five years. After Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, the word väliseestlane ’expatriate Estonian’ was used only in connection with Estonians living outside the Soviet Union. In the 1950s and 1960s, linguists became specifically interested in the Estonian settlements of Caucasus, Siberia and Ussuriland. Scholars, hoping to find in Siberia or Caucasus the archaic language of former settlers still alive, discovered that vernacular Estonian was not influenced so much by archaisms (caused by separation from the homeland as influences from long-term contact with other languages.Since the late 1990s, the study of the varieties of Estonian used outside Estonia has taken a new direction. This can be recognised by the increased interest in the varieties of Estonian in various new countries of residence (e.g. Denmark, Finland, Germany. The focus of interest moving to western countries did not mean a loss of interest in the areas of the former Soviet empire. In 1996, the Centre for Migration and Diaspora Studies was set up in the Tartu University Institute of Geography. Presently, one of the prestigious research projects (2010−2013 of Finno-Ugric languages, the EU

  1. Examining the relationship between coping strategies and suicidal desire in a sample of United States military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazem, Lauren R; Law, Keyne C; Green, Bradley A; Anestis, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Suicidal desire in the military has been previously examined through the lens of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). However, no research has examined the impact of specific coping strategies on perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation in a large population of individuals serving in the US military. Furthermore, the factor structure of previously utilized coping clusters did not apply to our sample of military personnel. Therefore, we found a three-factor solution to be tested in this sample. We hypothesized that specific types of coping behavior clusters (Adaptive and Maladaptive) would predict both IPTS constructs and suicidal ideation. Results indicated that Adaptive and Maladaptive coping clusters predicted the IPTS constructs in the hypothesized directions. However, only the Maladaptive cluster predicted suicidal ideation. These findings implicate the need for further research and suicide prevention efforts focusing on coping strategies, specifically those that are maladaptive in nature, in relation to suicidal ideation in military members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Brian; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Alcala, Ashley N.; Riddle, Mark S.; Porter, Chad K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking. Methods Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998–June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters) were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations. Results The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326) and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105) encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others. Conclusions Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries. PMID:27115602

  3. Psychological Safety During Military Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermser, Frederik; Täuber, Susanne; Essens, Peter; Molleman, Henricus; Beeres, Robert; Bakx, Gwendolyn; de Waard, Erik; Rietjens, Sebastiaan

    Increased military cooperation between member states of the European Union is a political given. The Netherlands and Germany form a spearhead in this process by integrating entire military units (i.e., brigades, battalions, companies) into higher-order units of the respective other nation (i.e.,

  4. Estonian Language of Technology as a Factor Supporting the Evolution of Engineering Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi, Vahur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Casual mention of teaching technology subjects in Estonian schools dates back several centuries. Navigation and construction were amongthe earliest professional skills that were taught. As both of them required mathematical thinking skills, teaching the subjects was usually accompanied by explaining the principles of mathematics. The first technology book in Estonian was published about two centuries ago and it dealed with geodesy. The earliest Estonian glossaries of technological terminology were published in the fields of physics and chemistry. The rise of Estonian as a language of higher education and science in the country came about in the 1920s and 1930s. Faculty members of the Tallinn School of Technology then published the first textbooks composed in the Estonian language for students of technology. The Estonian Society for Technology and the Estonian Association of Engineers became seriously involved in linguistic activities. Together with the Vocational Teachers’ Assembly of Tartu they published an illustrated technology glossary for machinery and tools terms. It was followed by a glossary of construction and building terms, compiled under the lead of the University of Technology. In addition, journals of technology introducedinnovations in the lexicon of technology to the general public. The postwar period in the development of the lexicon of technical terms was of little significance at first. A surge in language creativity could be detected in the 1960s, when terminology became a target of constantly growing attention to the development of technology lexicon. Series of technology glossaries were published. This tendency has continued to this day.

  5. The Sexual Harassment-Suicide Connection in the U.S. Military: Contextual Effects of Hostile Work Environment and Trusted Unit Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James

    2017-10-03

    Sexual harassment has been associated with suicidal behaviors, and with the rise in suicides in the U.S. military, sexual harassment's role in suicide has been of growing interest. Lacking are studies that examine group- or unit-level variables in the relationship of sexual harassment to suicidal behaviors (thoughts, plans, and attempts). In this study, survey data from soldiers (12,567 soldiers in 180 company-sized units) who completed the Unit Risk Inventory administered during calendar year 2010 were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. At the individual level, sexual harassment was associated with a fivefold increase for risk of suicide. Reporting that leaders could be trusted was associated with a decreased suicide risk by about one-third. There was no statistically significant interaction between sexual harassment and trusted leaders in predicting the suicidal behaviors. At the group level, units or companies having higher levels of sexual harassment also had soldiers three times more at risk for suicide. A cross-leveling effect was also observed: Among units having higher levels of sexual harassment, the negative correlation (buffering effect of unit leaders on suicidal behaviors) was diminished. Implications of findings for preventing sexual harassment and suicide risk are discussed. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  6. Space Power, The Revolution in Military Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Space power is the true revolution in military affairs. With the United States undisputed as the world leader in space, it is the responsibility of America's military to ensure we retain space superiority...

  7. Towards Reengineering the United States Department of Defense: A Financial Case for a Functionally-Aligned, Unified Military Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    expression of a possible truth even as proponents for “jointness” decry initiatives that might actually draw the services closer or recoil at the...Operations Interceptors/ Radars Supported 50 2.5. ISR Operations UAVs 2.6. Base Operations Support & Service-wide Support Activities...Tactical Missiles 3.4. Air and Missile Defense Interceptors/ Radars 4. Military Construction Square Feet Maintained (M) 5

  8. IED Campaign in the U.S. Homeland: Are U.S. Military EOD Units Prepared to Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    time and maximize time for crew refit and rest cycles rather than standing by to respond from their home military installation. 4. The federal or...EOD Company attempted to utilize cell phones as a primary means of communication for coordination of 95 operations with canine teams and other...resulted in Tamerlan Tzarnaev’s death also involved the use of multiple explosive devices.176 In fact, 45 bomb technicians and 40 canine handlers from

  9. The Impact to NATO and the United States of the European Union’s Military Rapid-Reaction Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-31

    military capability ( Powaski , 2001). On the practical side, in addition to the aforementioned EU shortfalls identified by the Kosovo campaign, outside NATO...unsupportable ( Powaski 2001). What non-NATO capabilities the EU has in place today are largely in the context of the WEU. Thesis Question The...arms, the EU members’ annual defense budgets collectively amount to approximately $148 billion, roughly half of the US 2001 defense budget ( Powaski

  10. Exploring the sustainability of estonian forestry: the socioeconomic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbel-Piirsalu, Evelin; Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Forestry as an important industry has both direct as well as indirect effects on the Estonian economy. It is therefore essential that it is sustainably managed so that it can continue to contribute to the economy in the future. The first aim of this article is to establish the situation regarding felling and regeneration in Estonia. As the available forestry statistics display discrepancies and lack consistency, it was as a necessary first step to gather information about and analyze the validity and reliability of the prime data to make the data sets useful for comparison over time and establish the current trends in Estonian forestry. However, with the help of interviews we are able to show that economic instability in Estonia brings with it increased logging rates and hinders investments into regeneration and maintenance. The problems are particularly pronounced in private forestry. Second, the article seeks to explain the socioeconomic reasons behind this situation. Economic problems among private owners, a liberal forestry policy, together with rapid land reform and weak enforcement of forestry legislation are some of the reasons that can explain the forestry trends in Estonia.

  11. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  12. Lower Ordovician Leetse Formation in the North Estonian Klint area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemliher, Jüri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of the Leetse Formation were studied in order to find out the conodont biozonation, grain-size distribution, and glauconite mineral properties and their variations along the North Estonian Klint. On the basis of the conodont zonation of the Saka section, combined with earlier data, it was found that the Leetse Formation belongs to the Paroistodus proteus, Prioniodus elegans, and Oepikodus evae zones of various thickness and completeness along the North Estonian Klint. The Pr. elegans Zone of the Saka section was found to be remarkably complete and correlate well with equivalent intervals of sections in the St. Petersburg Region. Poorly lithified glauconitic sandstones of the Leetse Formation vary lithologically vertically as well as laterally. The Leetse Formation in the west has been repeatedly redeposited and is depleted in suspended fraction, while in the east it is more homogeneous and represents continuous shallow-water conditions. Glauconite is represented by a potassium-rich variety (about 9% K2O and most likely forms at least two discrete modifications. Laterally, glauconite of the Leetse Formation in the western part of the klint contains less K than that of the eastern part, indicating faster sedimentation. The d(001 value of glauconite diminishes upwards in the sequence, indicating acceleration of the sedimentation rate.

  13. Military Mothers in Parenting and Children's Resilience in Military Families

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Rachel; Stevelink, Sharon AM; Dandeker, Christopher; Fear, Nicola T

    2016-01-01

    Women’s roles, rights, and responsibilities within the United Kingdom (UK) Armed Forces have changed substantially since the First World War. The unique challenges faced by female personnel have previously been an understudied topic. As the percentage of female personnel in the military increases, the concept of motherhood in the military has acquired a higher profile. This chapter outlines the experiences of being a military mother. It begins with a brief review of the pressures faced by ser...

  14. [Marge Rennit. Eesti muuseumid / Estonian museums] / Tapio Mäkeläinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäkeläinen, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustus: Eesti muuseumid = Estonian museums / [Eesti Muuseumiühing ; koostaja Marge Rennit ; tõlkija Tiina Mällo ; toimetaja Ivi Tammaru ; eessõna: Piret Õunapuu ; kujundaja Marek Allvee]. Tallinn : Oomen, 2008

  15. IS THE ESTONIAN MODEL APPLICABLE TO ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN ADOPTING THE EURO?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I Radu; M-L Ciupac-Ulici; A Petcu

    2013-01-01

    .... Since the Euro adoption process is a controversial one, in this paper the authors aim to express their concerns regarding the major changes driven from other member states of the Euro Area, i.e. the Estonian model...

  16. SAS paneb Estonian Airi kiirmüüki / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2009-01-01

    Majandusraskustes lennufirma SAS kavatseb loobuda osalustest kõigis lennufirmades, mis ei sobi kokku nende uue tegevuskavaga. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts arvab, et riik peaks leidma Estonian Airile kodumaised partnerid

  17. Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision...

  18. Estonian Air andis Berliini liinil loobumisvõidu / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2006-01-01

    Estonian Air sulgeb 2007. aasta jaanuarist Tallinn-Berliin liini, mille võtab üle odavlennufirma easyJet. Diagramm: Lennureisijate arv Tallinn-Berliin. Vt. samas: easyJet kehv alternatiiv. Kommenteerivad Rein Loik ja Mati Feldmann

  19. Military surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Dean

    2012-01-01

    Military surveillance offers a crucial entry point into the study of surveillance. Historically, the importance of military organizations in state formation meant that many techniques of surveillance that would later migrate into the civilian sphere would bear the imprint of military origins. Moreover, military campaigns were instrumental in developing forms of discipline, communication and surveillance that were to have far-reaching implications for whole societies. Thus, both technologicall...

  20. Russian-Estonian economic and investment cooperation during the crisis: dynamics and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, a...

  1. Implementing the CASPiE course-based research experience at the United States Military Academy: Affective responses and effects on critical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anthony Michael

    The Center for Authentic Science Practices in Education (CASPiE) pioneered a course-based research experience approach to teaching chemistry laboratory courses. The method had previously been studied in a variety of institutional settings. Recently, the United States Military Academy at West Point decided to develop CASPiE-style modules for the introductory honors chemistry course. This research setting presents clean experimental-control comparisons and a group of faculty who were completely new to the method. Equipping students with authentic research experiences early in their education is important regardless of the institution. However, cadets at a military academy must make decisions relatively early (the outset of their second year) as to what their career trajectory will be as eventual officers. In the new CASPiE-based experience, cadets are given the opportunity to select from one of three different modules (analytical chemistry, toxicology, and chemical engineering) in which to participate during the course. These three modules represent subsections of an overall Army waste-to-energy research project. Cadets generate unique hypotheses, real data, and research posters towards the advancement of the project. Posters are then presented in a session. that includes an audience of project stakeholders, course instructors, and other academy faculty and staff. Here, I will present my research methods, evaluative procedures, and findings in the affective domain, critical thinking, and laboratory content comprehension.

  2. Media representation of feminism in estonian journalism : A qualitative analysis over the newsarticles of Eesti Peavaleht

    OpenAIRE

    Berendsen, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Estonian society, as a short history of gender studies, and the introduction of the termsfeminism or feminist, only started to appear in media during the second half of the 1990s.Nevertheless, the public opinion and attitudes about feminism among Estonian society arenot clear, while sexual discrimination is still a frequent occurrence (Estonia, 2013). Thearchive of the biggest Estonian daily newspaper Eesti Paevaleht includes articles aboutfeminism written in the last 15 years that will be an...

  3. Iseseisvusdeklaratsioonid 1776–1918. The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An Example of the Civilizing Force of Hypocrisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hent Kalmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty has been characterised as a form of “organized hypocrisy”, a system governed by a set of rules that are generally recognised as binding and yet are continually infringed upon by the most powerful actors. This idea can be extended to analyse the role of sovereignty within the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was nominally governed by a Constitution which endowed the Union Republics with the right of secession, but there was no realistic possibility of exercising this right. One should not rush to conclude, however, that the actual wording of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 was entirely without relevance. As Jon Elster has argued, hypocrisy can have a “civilizing force” when the need to appear impartial and to retain public credibility forces actors to choose a strategy they would not choose otherwise. A good example of this kind of argumentative constraint is offered by the dilemma faced by the Soviet leadership after the mid-1980s, as it became reluctant to use military force to suppress independence movements within the Baltic States while, at the same time, promising to give more weight to the Soviet Constitution and respect the “sovereignty” of the Union Republics. In this setting, the ambiguity of the word “sovereignty” could be played upon by a whole gamut of political movements in order to further their agenda, from local communists eager to expand their autonomy within the Soviet system to those making an explicit bid for the restoration of independence. Significant legal and political changes could be justified as mere conclusions from the constitutionally recognised status of the Union Republics – a strategy which was all the more effective as Moscow struggled to formulate an alternative line of constitutional interpretation that could be used to counter the Baltic claims. This exchange of opinions escalated into a constitutional conflict in November 1988, when the Estonian Supreme Soviet responded to

  4. The Death of Military Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Military Court of Appeals ruled in United States v. Beeker that “the use or possession of marihuana was service connected because the use or...possession . . . of marihuana and narcotics has a special military significance since their use has ‘disastrous effects on the health, morale and fitness

  5. Cognitive Apprenticeship in Military Teacher Induction: Facilitating the Transition from War Fighter to Educator at the United States Air Force Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Thomas T.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined teacher induction in the military undergraduate education context. The U.S. Air Force Academy relies on approximately 520 military and civilian instructors to educate nearly 4000 future military officers each year. It is imperative to our nation's security that these educators be highly skilled and…

  6. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Oras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  7. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Oras

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  8. Illegal Immigration: Is the Use of Military Force in Policing the United states' Border with Mexico a Viable Option?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, David

    2001-01-01

    Illegal immigration across the United States' borders, in particular the Southern Border with Mexico, has been a continual problem confronting our local, state and national political decision makers...

  9. 78 FR 66607 - Military Family Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... veterans and military spouses. My Administration is also taking action to improve mental health care and... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9048 of October 31, 2013 Military Family Month, 2013 By the President of the... women of the United States military do not serve alone. Standing alongside them are husbands and wives...

  10. Early vocabulary in full term and preterm Estonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Haan, Elis

    2013-09-01

    Preterm birth is considered to be a high risk factor for child development and early vocabulary can be used as an indicator for later development. The aim of the present study is to compare the size of early vocabulary, proportional use of different word categories, and mean length of utterance (henceforth MLU) of preterm and full term children. The sample consisted of 40 preterm (corrected ages 16-25 months) and two matched groups of full term children. First full term group consisted of 120 children who were matched by age and gender. Second full term group consisted of 109 children who were matched by age, gender and size of productive vocabulary. The data for this study were gathered using the Estonian adaptation of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. Full term children who were matched by age and gender had larger vocabulary as compared to the preterm children's vocabulary (U = 1758.5, p = 0.01). Poisson regression yielded that age, gender, and preterm birth explained significantly the variance in the vocabulary size. Poisson regressions showed that all three variables explained significantly variance in proportional use of social terms and predicates. Age had significant effect for proportional use of common nouns. Age and preterm birth had a significant effect on the proportional use of function words. MLU was shorter in preterm than in full term children (U = 1125.0, p = 0.002). Estonian preterm children's vocabulary is slightly smaller than full term children's vocabulary. There is a difference in the proportions of word categories used, as preterm children use more social terms, and less predicates, and function words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Military Strategy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    peninsula, to the Carribean Sea, and to the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. All airplanes were held at ch> air fields with missiles and bombs loaded. One...Introduction / / Foreword to the Third Edition / / ’ Foreword to the Second Edition Introduction Chapter I. ^?Gener«l Conceptsj, General... The class essence of bourgeois military strategy The class essence of Soviet military strategy Chapter II.^ The Military Strategy of Imperialist

  12. Satellite vegetation index data as a tool to forecast population dynamics of medically important mosquitoes at military installations in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Anyamba, Assaf; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Maloney, Francis A; Cobb, Kristin; Stanwix, Erin; Humphries, Jeri; Spring, Alexandra; Pagac, Benedict; Miller, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    The United States faces many existing and emerging mosquito-borne disease threats, such as West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever. An important component of strategic prevention and control plans for these and other mosquito-borne diseases is forecasting the distribution, timing, and abundance of mosquito vector populations. Populations of many medically important mosquito species are closely tied to climate, and historical climate-population associations may be used to predict future population dynamics. Using 2003-2005 U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine mosquito surveillance data, we looked at populations of several known mosquito vectors of West Nile virus, as well as possible mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, at continental U.S. military installations. We compared population changes with concurrent patterns for a satellite-derived index of climate (normalized difference vegetation index) and observed instances of population changes appearing to be direct responses to climate. These preliminary findings are important first steps in developing an automated, climate-driven, early warning system to flag regions of the United States at elevated risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission.

  13. 76 FR 27217 - Military Spouse Appreciation Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Administration released the report on military families, Strengthening our Military Families: Meeting America's... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8669 of May 5, 2011 Military Spouse Appreciation Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Military spouses serve...

  14. The Effect of the 2008 War on Estonian Public Confidence in International Organisations: A Mixed Methods Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen; Melchior, Inge; Gugushvili, Alexi

    2014-01-01

    When the so-called 5 Day War between Russia and Georgia occurred in the summer of 2008, the Estonian public reaction was especially passionate. Two major explanations stem from the strong identification of Estonians with the situation of Georgia (post-Soviet state, small country, Russian

  15. Jäätmetega kimpus Estonian Cell annab muda põldudele kompostiks / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Kundas asuv Estonian Celli tehas jagab ümberkaudsetele talunikele jäätmetest lahtisaamiseks kompostimissegu. Seadused ei sätesta, kuidas Estonian Cellis tekkivaid jäätmeid töödelda. Kommenteerib Peeter Eek: Aasta läbi ei saa muda põllule viia

  16. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  17. Acquisition of compounds in Estonian and Russian: Frequency, productivity, transparency and simplicity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the early phases of acquisition of noun compounds in two typologically different languages – Estonian and Russian. Longitudinal data on three Russian and two Estonian typically-developing monolingual children and their caregivers was analysed and compared in relation to first emergence, the development of different compound types, productivity, frequency, simplicity and transparency of compounds, and also to the impact of morphological wealth in the input on the output. Although the frequency of compounds is somewhat different in the two languages being observed, the first compounds emerge in the speech of Estonian and Russian children almost at the same age and quite early, at the end of the second year of life. In both Estonian and Russian, children first acquire productive pat- terns in both languages, Estonian and Russian, respectively. Factors such as simplicity and frequency are intertwined in the acquisition process. Simple structures occur at the same time as frequent ones but it cannot just be assumed that simplicity is a stronger factor influencing the choice of first noun compounds than frequency. Frequency effects are not straightforward: there are differences in the individual usage of compounds by the caregivers, and the frequency of compounds in child-directed speech does not always seem to be reflected in the speech of the children. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.02

  18. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  19. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  20. Modeling the Unites States government's economic cost of noise-induced hearing loss for a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Jennifer B; Weathersby, Paul K; Rodriguez, Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of developing economic cost models for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). First, we outline an economic model of NIHL for a population of US Navy sailors with an "industrial"-type noise exposure. Next, we describe the effect on NIHL-related cost of varying the two central model inputs--the noise-exposure level and the duration of exposure. Such an analysis can help prioritize promising areas, to which limited resources to reduce NIHL-related costs should be devoted. NIHL-related costs borne by the US government were computed on a yearly basis using a finite element approach that took into account varying levels of susceptibility to NIHL. Predicted hearing thresholds for the population were computed with ANSI S3.44-1996 and then used as the basis for the calculation of NIHL-related costs. Annual and cumulative costs were tracked. Noise-exposure level and duration were systematically varied to determine their effects on the expected lifetime NIHL-related cost of a specific US Navy sailor population. Our nominal noise-exposure case [93 dB(A) for six years] yielded a total expected lifetime cost of US $13,472 per sailor, with plausible lower and upper bounds of US $2,500 and US $26,000. Starting with the nominal case, a decrease of 50% in exposure level or duration would yield cost savings of approximately 23% and 19%, respectively. We concluded that a reduction in noise level would be more somewhat more cost-effective than the same percentage reduction in years of exposure. Our economic cost model can be used to estimate the changes in NIHL-related costs that would result from changes in noise-exposure level and/or duration for a single military population. Although the model is limited at present, suggestions are provided for adapting it to civilian populations.

  1. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  2. The Absurdity of Moderation in War: Is Military Force a Credible Means to Compel United States Political Will in the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    34Hubris and Nemesis : Kosovo and the Pattern of Western Military Ascendency and Defeat," In War Over Kosovo: Politics and Strategy in a Global Age...ends could 4 Anatol Lieven, "Hubris and Nemesis : Kosovo and the Pattern of Western Military...New York: Praeger, 1967. Lieven, Anatol. "Hubris and Nemesis : Kosovo and the Pattern of Western Military Ascendency and Defeat," in War Over Kosovo

  3. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409: Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the dissemination area of the tale, which remains outside Western Europe: apart from the Estonian versions there are Sami, Karelian, Vepsian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian versions. While in almost all the Estonian versions the main protagonist is transformed into a wolf, in most of the versions written down in other areas and ethnic groups, another animal or bird replaces the wolf. The author is of the opinion that the Finnic area is central to the distribution of the folk tale The Woman as Wolf. The animal the woman is transformed into in the plot would not have been a wolf in earlier times. The article provides an explanation why the wolf is predominant in Estonian written sources. For that purpose the ways in which the wolf and werewolf were perceived in earlier Estonian folk belief are introduced. At the end of the article interpretation of the folk tale is provided. The author states that the plot and some of the motifs found in this folk tale reflect the difficulties women had in submitting to the norms and values of patriarchal order within their society.

  4. MODELLING DICLOFENAC AND IBUPROFEN RESIDUES IN MAJOR ESTONIAN SEASIDE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erki Lember

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model was developed to model the fate of two common pharmaceutical residues: diclofenac and ibuprofen in eight Estonian seaside cities that discharge their wastewaters directly into the Baltic Sea. The consumption rates of the active ingredients of diclofenac and ibuprofen from 2006-2014 were analysed. A decrease of 19.9% for diclofenac consumption and an increase of 14.1% for ibuprofen were found. The fate of diclofenac and ibuprofen were modelled by considering the human metabolism removal rate for pharmaceuticals, the removal rate of diclofenac and ibuprofen in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP and annual flow rates. An average decrease from 1 to 0.8 µg/l (decrease of 20% for diclofenac and an increase from 11.4 to 13.4 µg/l (increase of 14.9% for ibuprofen for the concentration in the effluents of the WWTP were modelled. The model gives us a good overview about the theoretical concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in the environment and is helpful for evaluating environmental impacts.

  5. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veebel Viljar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016 will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks Report 2016. Also, the arguments why some topics have played or are currently playing key role in the Estonian security perception will be presented and discussed.

  6. Estonian and Russian Federation amoxicillin formulations: a comparative study of in vitro dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnikova, O; Matto, V; Meos, A

    2008-06-01

    The in vitro dissolution properties were compared for four different formulations from the Estonian drug market and four from the Russian Federation drug market. Seven of the eight formulations tested released at least 75% or 80% amoxicillin during 30- or 90-min dissolution tests (37 degrees C, purified water, 75 rpm), respectively. One marketed Russian Federation formulation released 74% amoxicillin over a 90-min period. The present study shows that, in general, the in vitro dissolution properties of the Russian Federation amoxicillin formulations are, with some minor exceptions, comparable to those of the Estonian formulations. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  7. Pushing the Limits of Military Coercion Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2011-01-01

    The centrality of military coercion in contemporary Western crisis and conflict management constitutes a major policy problem because the United States and its allies are poor at translating their overwhelming military superiority into adversary compliance. The standard explanation provided...... military coercion works and how the practical problems involved could be addressed. Our understanding of military coercion would be increased markedly if only coercion theorists would make a greater efforts to do three things, namely (1) provide clear operational definitions of key concepts and variables...... the principal theoretical propositions with a firmer empirical foundation and make military coercion theory more useful for policy makers....

  8. An electronic health record based model predicts statin adherence, LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease in the United States Military Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Joseph E; Bazemore, Taylor C; Alo, Celan; Monahan, Patrick B; Voora, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (or "statins") are important and commonly used medications to lower cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease. Nearly half of patients stop taking statin medications one year after they are prescribed leading to higher cholesterol, increased cardiovascular risk, and costs due to excess hospitalizations. Identifying which patients are at highest risk for not adhering to long-term statin therapy is an important step towards individualizing interventions to improve adherence. Electronic health records (EHR) are an increasingly common source of data that are challenging to analyze but have potential for generating more accurate predictions of disease risk. The aim of this study was to build an EHR based model for statin adherence and link this model to biologic and clinical outcomes in patients receiving statin therapy. We gathered EHR data from the Military Health System which maintains administrative data for active duty, retirees, and dependents of the United States armed forces military that receive health care benefits. Data were gathered from patients prescribed their first statin prescription in 2005 and 2006. Baseline billing, laboratory, and pharmacy claims data were collected from the two years leading up to the first statin prescription and summarized using non-negative matrix factorization. Follow up statin prescription refill data was used to define the adherence outcome (> 80 percent days covered). The subsequent factors to emerge from this model were then used to build cross-validated, predictive models of 1) overall disease risk using coalescent regression and 2) statin adherence (using random forest regression). The predicted statin adherence for each patient was subsequently used to correlate with cholesterol lowering and hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease during the 5 year follow up period using Cox regression. The analytical dataset included 138 731 individuals and 1840 potential baseline predictors that

  9. Transformational leadership and group potency in small military units: The mediating role of group identification and cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Guiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined an exploratory model to assess the relationship between transformational leadership and group potency and analyze the mediating role of group identification and cohesion. The research was conducted with squads of the Spanish Army. The sample was composed of 243 members of 51 squads of operational units. Our findings highlighted the importance of the transformational leadership style of command of non-commissioned officers (NCOs due to its positive relationship with the group potency of the squad. We also analyzed the indirect relationships between transformational leadership and group identification and group cohesion and found that the latter variables played a mediating role between transformational leadership and group potency. The conclusions of this study are relevant due to the growing importance of transformational leadership and actions implemented at lower levels of the command chain for the success of missions of security organizations and defense.

  10. The Transgender Military Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dietert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been studies that focus on the experiences of the gay and lesbian population serving in the United States military, few have focused on the experience of active duty transgender service members. Transgender individuals transgress the binary conception of gender by deviating from societal gender norms associated with assigned sex at birth. The Department of Defense has set policies and standards that reflect a binary conception of gender, with a focus on conformity. We argue that able-bodied gender variant service personnel are just as capable of serving their country as anyone else. Because of the repercussions associated with active duty transgender military personnel, our sample is small and involves nine clandestine service members and two international service members who wanted to share their stories from a different perspective. Snowball sampling was aimed at finding current active duty and reserve transgender service members. Using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires, data were collected from active duty transgender service personnel throughout the United States and two from international militaries that allow transgender people to serve. Data collection focused on the overall experiences of the participants along with questions regarding workplace discrimination, suggestions for policy changes, and their views about the overturn of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Our findings add to a growing source of information about the transgender military experience in the U.S. armed forces and the importance of overturning discriminatory workplace policies that negatively impact transgender service members.

  11. The problems and development potential of revenue autonomy in Estonian municipalities. Kohalike omavalitsuste tuluautonoomia probleemid ja arenguvõimalused Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a regionally heterogeneous country like Estonia, it is a difficult task to create a local government revenue structure that guarantees even supply of public services across the entire country and, at the same time, revenue autonomy for the municipalities. In the theoretical part of the current article the suitability of different sources of own revenues are analysed in the context of Estonian municipalities. The empirical part of the article compares the financing principles of Estonian municipalities with other EU countries. Finally, the proportions of different own sources of revenues in the budgets of Estonian local governments are examined and suggestions are made for changing the current system

  12. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  13. Military Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    of Defense United States of America Environment, Energy Security and Sustainability Symposium (May 9-12, 2011) Military Adaptation to Climate Change ...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Adaptation to Climate Change 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... climate change . …” Remarks at the Halifax International Security Forum, Halifax, Nova Scotia Nov 2009 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review For the first

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS): Pathophysiology in Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldi, Marlit; Ani, Raivo; Vaher, Heisl; Eller, Triin; Hion, Tuuliki; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the roles of age, obesity, smoking, alcohol, pathoanatomy and -physiology in Estonian's OSAS. For this 164 randomly chosen such patients were selected in different regions of Estonia. They underwent naso-oropharyngeal examination, physical examination of craniofacial abnormalities, and polysomnography. They also completed a self-reported questionnaire about smoking, alcohol use, excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, concentration disorders, and recurrent upper-airway diseases. The patients (129 men; 35 women) aged between 19 and 75 years (mean 47+/-12), BMI between 21 and 49 (mean 30.5+/-5.15), AHI between 5 and 105 (33+/-22). The results showed that there was a high percentage of naso-oropharyngeal disorders, such as: recurrent upper-airway diseases (54.2%), nasal breathing disorders (63.5%), and hypertrophy of tonsils (57%). There was also a high percentage of general characteristics, such as alcohol use (64%), excessive daytime sleepiness (85.5%), overweight (63%), and hypertension (51.2%). The regression summary for the dependent variable AHI if p-level=0.0042 (R=0.63347013) included age, BMI, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, nasal obstruction, hypertrophy of pharyngeal muscles, tongue level, submental fat and slow-wave sleep (S3+S4%). In conclusion recurrent upper-airway diseases, nasal obstruction, and hypertrophy of tonsils in combination with smoking and alcohol caused the changes in the pharyngeal and lingual muscles. The latter gives rise to such sleep apnea-related problems as heart complaints, hypertension, headache and shortage of slow-wave sleep (SWS). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estonian Cell peab suu kasumist puhtaks pühkima / Kaisa Tahlfeld, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Cell saatis valitsusele pöördumise, milles palutakse teha parandusi elektrienergiaga seonduvates seadustes, mis aitaksid ettevõtet energia hinnatõusu ajal. Elektri hinnatõusu tõttu on muutunud küsitavaks ka Nitroferti tehase edasine eksisteerimine

  16. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend...

  17. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  18. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  19. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  20. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  1. Trends in tobacco use among Estonian and Russian youth in Tallinn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurk, E; Mittelmark, M B; Suurorg, L; Tur, I; Luiga, E

    1999-12-01

    Smoking behaviour and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were examined in three cross-sectional surveys from 1991/92, 1993/94, and 1995/96. The study population comprised 3,185 Estonian and Russian adolescents from 17 schools in Tallinn, Estonia. Prevalence of ever-smoking girls increased by 13 percentage points versus 2% among boys during the study period. Mean ages of the first experimentation with tobacco and exposure to ETS did not change significantly. Regular smoking increased significantly from 1991/92 to 1995/96. Detailed analyses for the 1995/96 survey showed that among ethnic Estonians, compared with ethnic Russians, the prevalence of ever-smokers and regular smoking were higher, mean age for the first experimentation was younger, and on average, Estonians smoked more cigarettes per week. The smoking trend among adolescents in Estonia is worsening; especially among Estonian youth. This study identifies a compelling need for national and community-wide efforts to deter adolescents from smoking and to reduce the exposure to ETS.

  2. Ethnic Identity, Ethnic Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Esteem toward Others among Estonian and Russian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Aune

    2000-01-01

    Investigated ethnic identity in relation to self-esteem and esteem toward others and attitudes toward one's own and other ethnic groups among Estonian and Russian adolescents. Found significant differences between majority and minority groups in ethnic pride and ethnic differentiation and with their correlation to self-esteem and esteem toward…

  3. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  4. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  5. Estonian Air võitis reisijaid juurde. Samas turuosa vähenes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi turuosa vähenes Tallinna lennujaamas regulaarliinidel 2010. aastal võrreldes 2009. aastaga 3,9% võrra, lende toimus 1,8% rohkem kui 2009. a. Lendude toimumise protsent oli 98,1, väljumise täpsus oli 86,7%. Andmeid ka 2010. aasta detsembrikuu kohta

  6. Estonian Air lendab üle võimete / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Viimastel aastatel on Estonian Airil kasvanud nii lendude kui ka reisijate hulk, kuid lennukite arv on jäänud samaks. Tabel. Kaart: Lendude arv sihtkohtadesse nädalas. Kommenteerib Kristina Traks. Küsimustele vastab Mart Relve. Vt. samas: Lennukipuudus sunnib liine sulgema

  7. The Estonian diaspora in South-West Russia in the 1920—30s: migration results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupin Yuri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the spatial features of the settling of Russian Estonians in the Northwest region at the “zenith” of diaspora on the basis of 1920, 1926, and 1939 censuses. The author identifies the principal settling areas and points out the geographical preconditions for the rapid decline of the diaspora.

  8. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  9. Estonian Airi ümber käib lehmakauplemine / Tõnu Lilleorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Tõnu

    2008-01-01

    Skandinaavia lennukompanii SAS saatis Eesti valitsusele kirja, milles teatab, et on nõus raskustes Estonian Airile lisainvesteeringuid tegema vaid siis, kui riik müüb SAS-ile oma osaluse, 34%. Vt. samas: SAS ei taha lennufirma eest maksta üle 150 miljoni. Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad, omanikud

  10. United States Military Assistance Programs C-130B's to Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study in Policy, Decision Making & Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroer, D. J

    1997-01-01

    This case study will examine decision making in U.S. Military Assistance Programs in the form of C-l3OB transfers to the Sub-Saharan countries of Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa from 1994 to present...

  11. The Role of the United States Military in the Development of Vector Control Products, Including Insect Repellents, Insecticides, and Bed Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    II.) In addition, at least four service members in OIF/OEF have acquired visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. infantum protozoa (Myles et al. 2007... leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These...significantly affected recent U.S. military operations include leishmaniasis and sand fly fever (both transmitted by sand flies) (Aronson et al

  12. The U.S. Army School of the Americas and its Impact on United States-Latin America Military Relations in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-08

    Spanish Crown was based--the military, the larnded gentry, and the Church-.were all repre- sented during the colonization of Latin America. The...Board, addressed this issue and conciuded that Latin American duty inhibits officer careers, thus preventing quality 5 Cristobal A. Nava, A., Colonel...Policy." Military issues research memorandum, U.F, Army War College, 24 June 1977. (DDC Doc AD A047575.) Cristobal A. Navas A, Questionnaire response to

  13. Korea to Kalimantan and Beyond: The Employment of United States Army Forces in Military Civic Action in the Pacific Command Area of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-09

    opportunity for MCA than did the preceeding countries. Laos is contiguous to the People’s Republic of China and all of the states on the Indochinese...solution slowed Comunist inroads only slightly more than the previous military action had. 5 6 The history of MCA in Laos begins two short years after...influences (North Vietnam and the People’s Republic of China ). However, it cannot be said that military forces were ineffective in their mission

  14. THE DAMAGING EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL: CHRONIC AND PATTERN ALCOHOL USE EXPLAIN WHY SEXUAL ASSAULT FIGURES HAVE NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DROPPED IN THE UNITED STATES MILITARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    demographics, prevalence rates of prior military sexual abuse or perpetration, military culture as a promoter, emphasis on violence and hyper... masculinity .22 While it is clear these factors do bare some relevance, it is not the full picture. A Systemic Lens is Required Research on the topic...affect areas of the brain that lead to violence . Alcohol related brain damage during adolescence further sets the stage for antisocial behavior and

  15. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  16. Melanoma incidence rates in active duty military personnel compared with a population-based registry in the United States, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, C Suzanne; Efird, Jimmy T; Toland, Amanda E; Lewis, Denise R; Phillips, Christopher J

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether incidence rates of malignant cutaneous melanoma in U.S. Department of Defense active duty military personnel differed from rates in the U.S. general population between 2000 and 2007. The study population included active duty military personnel and the general population aged 18 to 56 years. Data were obtained from the U.S. Department of Defense medical data systems and from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program. Melanoma risk was estimated by incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Melanoma risk was higher among active duty personnel than the general population (IRR = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-1.86). Incidence rates were higher for white military personnel than for white rates in general population (36.89 and 23.05 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). Rates were also increased for military men and women compared with SEER (men, 25.32 and 16.53 per 100,000; women, 30.00 and 17.55 per 100,000). Air Force service personnel had the highest rates and Army had the lowest. Melanoma rates were marginally higher among active duty military personnel than the general population between 2000 and 2007. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    the military, impact unit morale, and take a large emotional toll on the involved friends, family, and commanders. As noted before with continued...Graduate students continue to receive awards, stipends and recognitions for their contributions and research results. • As in previous years, we held...funded autism study – it covers autism spectrum disorders. He was not aware that DOD had this subject in their portfolio. He will be working with Dr

  18. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    policy of recruiting units on a national basis, with the old Germanic nations of Württemberg, Bavaria, Saxony , and especially Prussia all sending their...the landed nobility or the recent relevant tactical experience of the combat officer. From a synthesis of the two approaches emerges a picture of...complete picture of overall military effectiveness. One must address the interrelationship between the four levels of war. Without this aspect, one can

  19. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  20. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  1. Neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States – response and comment on reporting of headaches as adverse events after smallpox vaccination among military and civilian personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumm Walter R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate reporting of adverse events occurring after vaccination is an important component of determining risk-benefit ratios for vaccinations. Controversy has developed over alleged underreporting of adverse events within U.S. military samples. This report examines the accuracy of adverse event rates recently published for headaches, and examines the issue of underreporting of headaches as a function of civilian or military sources and as a function of passive versus active surveillance. Methods A report by Sejvar et al was examined closely for accuracy with respect to the reporting of neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States. Rates for headaches were reported by several scholarly sources, in addition to Sejvar et al, permitting a comparison of reporting rates as a function of source and type of surveillance. Results Several major errors or omissions were identified in Sejvar et al. The count of civilian subjects vaccinated and the totals of both civilians and military personnel vaccinated were reported incorrectly by Sejvar et al. Counts of headaches reported in VAERS were lower (n = 95 for Sejvar et al than for Casey et al (n = 111 even though the former allegedly used 665,000 subjects while the latter used fewer than 40,000 subjects, with both using approximately the same civilian sources. Consequently, rates of nearly 20 neurologic adverse events reported by Sejvar et al were also incorrectly calculated. Underreporting of headaches after smallpox vaccination appears to increase for military samples and for passive adverse event reporting systems. Conclusion Until revised or corrected, the rates of neurologic adverse events after smallpox vaccinated reported by Sejvar et al must be deemed invalid. The concept of determining overall rates of adverse events by combining small civilian samples with large military samples appears to be invalid. Reports of headaches as adverse events

  2. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  3. [Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918 (Das Baltikum in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 5). Hrsg. von Jaan Ross. Böhlau Verlag. Köln, Weimar und Wien 2012

  4. Estonian Business Schooli magistriharidus nüüd ka koju kätte / Madis Habakuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis

    2007-01-01

    Sügisest hakkab Estonian Business School koos Mainori Kõrgkooliga pakkuma magistriõpet majandushariduseta inimestele, kus soovijatel on võimalus õppida EBSi Master of Business Administration programmi järgi

  5. The State, the Museum and the Ethnographer in Constructing National Heritage: Defining Estonian National Costumes in the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Nõmmela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I attempt to analyse the way in which the Estonian national costume, as heritage, was defined through the cooperation of the state, the museum and ethnographers in the 1930s. The nationalist state wished to strengthen the national identity of Estonia. The Estonian National Museum (ENM as a repository of memory and knowledge availed its resources to support cultural propaganda. The ethnographer Helmi Kurrik, a woman of strong will and keen interest in folk textiles, managed to fulfil her obligation at the expense of her own health. The primary result of her labours was a handbook entitled Eesti rahvarõivad (Estonian Folk Costumes (1938 which has influenced general knowledge of folk costumes in Estonia up to the present day – the ‘right’ national costumes are believed to derive from authentic ethnographical folk costumes held in the Estonian National Museum.

  6. The Rocky Road towards Professional Autonomy: The Estonian Journalists’ Organization in the Political Turmoil of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Lauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the relationships between journalists, politics and the state from the perspective of collective autonomy, that of the professional organization of journalists. The case of Estonian Journalists’ Union demonstrates the complexity and historical contingency of professional autonomy of journalism. The development of the Estonian journalists’ organization occurred as a sequence of transformations from the Estonian Journalists’ Association to the Estonian Journalists’ Union to the Soviet type journalists’ union, and lastly to an independent trade union. This sequence was disrupted by several fatal breakdowns that changed not only the character of the association, but also professional values, the whole occupational ideology and the conditions of the existence of journalism as a profession in Estonia.

  7. Väärikas Estonian Air jäi kampaaniaga hätta / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air müüs veebikaupluse cherry.ee kaudu soodsaid kinkekaarte. Vastuolu tekkis asjaolust, et nõudlus kinkekaartide järele oli suurem kui pakkumine. Lennukompanii katkestas soodsate kinkekaartide müügi

  8. Kanada rahastaja tõi Estonian Airi ostu lähemale / Rivo Sarapik ; kommenteerinud Andrus Ansip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air ja Bombardier sõlmisid lennukite hanke lepingu, tingimused ja hind jäid samaks, muutus vaid lennukite tarneaeg. Ostu rahastab Kanada finantseerimisasutus. Uued lennukid saabuvad Eestisse 2011. a. jaanuaris

  9. 1988. aasta suveräänsusdeklaratsioon: silmakirjalikkuse tsiviliseeriv mõju / The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An example of the civilising force of hypocrisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hent-Raul Kalmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty has been characterised as a form of “organised hypocrisy”, a system governed by a set of rules that are generally recognised as binding and yet continually infringed by the most powerful actors. This idea can be extended to analyse the role of sovereignty within the Soviet Union. The latter was also nominally governed by a constitution which endowed the Union Republics with the right of secession, but there was no realistic possibility of exercising this right. One should not rush to conclude, however, that the letter of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 was entirely without relevance. As Jon Elster has argued, hypocrisy can be a “civilising force” when the need to appear impartial and retain public credibility forces actors to choose a strategy they would not have chosen otherwise. A good example of this kind of argumentative constraint is offered by the dilemma faced by the Soviet leadership after the mid-1980s, as it became reluctant to use military force to suppress independence movements within the Baltic States while, at the same time, promising to give more weight to the Soviet Constitution and respect the “sovereignty” of the Union Republics. In this setting, the ambiguity of the word “sovereignty” could be used by a whole gamut of political movements in order to further their agenda, from local communists eager to expand their autonomy within the Soviet system to those making an explicit bid for the restoration of independence. Significant legal and political changes could be justified as mere conclusions from the constitutionally recognised status of the Union Republics — a strategy which was all the more effective as Moscow struggled to formulate an alternative line of constitutional interpretation that could be used to counter the Baltic claims. This exchange of opinions escalated into a constitutional conflict in November 1988 when the Estonian Supreme Soviet responded to proposed amendments to the Soviet

  10. Testing the Visual Soil Assessment tool on Estonian farm fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintam, Endla; Are, Mihkel; Selge, Are

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality estimation plays important role in decision making on farm as well on policy level. Sustaining the production ability and good health of the soil the chemical, physical and biological indicators should be taken into account. The system to use soil chemical parameters is usually quite well established in most European counties, including Estonia. However, measuring soil physical properties, such bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, structural stability ect is time consuming, needs special tools and is highly weather dependent. In that reason these parameters are excluded from controllable quality parameters in policy in Estonia. Within the project "Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience" (iSQAPER) the visual soil assessment (VSA) tool was developed for easy detection of soil quality as well the different soil friendly agricultural management practices (AMP) were detected. The aim of current study was to test the VSA tool on Estonian farm fields under different management practices and compare the results with laboratory measurements. The main focus was set on soil physical parameters. Next to the VSA, the undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depth of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm. The study revealed that results of a visually assessed soil physical parameters, such a soil structure, soil structural stability, soil porosity, presence of tillage pan, were confirmed by laboratory measurements in most cases. Soil water stable structure measurement on field (on 1 cm2 net in one 1 l box with 4-6 cm air dry clods for 5-10 min) underestimated very well structured soil on grassland and overestimated the structure aggregates stability of compacted soil. The slightly better soil quality was detected under no-tillage compared to ploughed soils. However, the ploughed soil got higher quality points compared with minimum tillage. The slurry application (organic manuring) had

  11. Evolving Military Intelligence: The Effect of the Military Intelligence Service (MIS) and the Military Intelligence Organization (MIO) During the Korean and Vietnam Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    2 because members of every team conducted administrative and operational tasks.8 Military Intelligence Organization The MIO, developed in 1955...Divisions, RG 337, Entry 30B- 300, National Archives and Records Administration . 10 Marc Powe and Edward Wilson, The Evolution of American Military ...165th Military Intelligence Company or the 527th Military Intelligence Company; administrative units of non-CIC and non-ASA soldiers whose

  12. Military Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    610 Washington Street Dedham, Massachusetts 02026 Telephone: (617) 326-8220 Editor: Hal Gershanoff $36.00 Journal of Political and Military...Andersen-Gott Kr 60 Revista General de Marina (M) Ministerio da Marina Montalban 2, Madrid 14 Spain Revista Maritima Brasileria (Q) Ministerio da

  13. Military Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article…

  14. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.

  15. Memorandum About the Science and Ethics Review of USDA Protocol for Laboratory Evaluation of Bite Protection from Repellent-treated Clothing for the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the scientific aspects of the proposed research for a special efficacy study to assess etofenprox-treated U.S. Military uniforms in terms of the recommendations of the EPA and of the EPA Human Studies Review Board.

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Pt. 61, SFAR 100-1 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-1—Relief for U.S. Military and.... Expiration date. This Special Federal Aviation Regulation No.100-1 expires June 20, 2010, unless sooner...

  17. An Organizational Assessment of the United States Military’s Ability to Control the Electromagnetic Spectrum in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    counter to research describing organizations that effectively adapt to dynamic environments. Organizational consultants Schoonhoven and Jelinek...within EW counters research on organizations that effectively adapt to dynamic environments. Schoonhoven and Jelinek’s (1990) identify that formal... Schoonhoven & Jelinek, 1990, p. 253) U.S. military organizations that execute EW within the large DoD structure are diverse, geographically

  18. Translating Sexual Assault Prevention from a College Campus to a United States Military Installation: Piloting the Know-Your-Power Bystander Social Marketing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn J.; Stapleton, Jane G.

    2012-01-01

    One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a…

  19. Strategies for Estonian rural family enterprises. Eesti maapiirkonna pereettevõtete strateegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to analyse family businesses in rural areas, family business strategies and re-registration of sole proprietors with the Centre of Registers and Information Systems (hereinafter Commercial Register in 2009, and to provide an overview of entrepreneurship policies targeted at Estonian rural businesses. Layoffs have increased the number of unemployed; some of those who have lost employment opt for social assistance benefits, but some others decide to become entrepreneurs. Many enterprising people in Estonia have set up a family enterprise, mainly in the sphere of services, agriculture and tourism. The Estonian entrepreneurship policy supports enterprising people and approves of entrepreneurship as a promoter of national economic development. One of the most positive qualities of family enterprises is their short decision-making chain, which ensures rapid implementation of the strategy.

  20. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: the Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  1. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: The Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  2. English military slang: definition, means of formation and thematic classification

    OpenAIRE

    MITCHELL PETER DZHONOVICH

    2014-01-01

    Global instability with military interventions in various Muslim countries by coalitions headed by the USA has led to an increase in interest toward the armed forces of the United States and their coalition partners -foremost, the UK and other countries of the (British) Commonwealth of Nations. For those working in the sphere of military interpreting, the interest is in language and, in particular, military speak. The article considers the notion of English military slang as a separate vocabu...

  3. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children...... spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0...

  4. Job satisfaction and organizational trust as antecedents of organizational commitment in Finnish and Estonian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Kemell, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study examines three well-known leadership themes – organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organizational trust – from the perspective of Finnish and Estonian small and medium –sized enterprises (SMEs). The object of the study is to increase knowledge about organizational commitment and job attitudes affecting the formation of commitment. The study is cross-sectional, using previously gathered SME survey data. Organizational commitment is understood as a multidime...

  5. No association between vitamin D and β-cell autoimmunity in Finnish and Estonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert-Hartwall, L; Honkanen, J; Härkönen, T; Ilonen, J; Simell, O; Peet, A; Tillmann, V; Lamberg-Allardt, C; Virtanen, S M; Knip, M; Vaarala, O

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties, such as regulation of FOXP3 expression and regulatory T-cell activity. Our aim was to investigate whether plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations associate with the development of β-cell autoimmunity and the transcriptional activity of FOXP3 or vitamin D3 convertase gene (CYP27B1) in CD4+ memory T cells. We studied 83 Finnish and 32 Estonian children participating in the DIABIMMUNE and DIPP studies. Twenty-nine Finnish and six Estonian children tested positive for at least one diabetes-associated autoantibody. The plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)₂D were analysed with an enzyme immunoassay. Gene expression of FOXP3 and CYP27B1 in the isolated CD4+ memory T cells was studied with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Vitamin D status did not differ between subjects positive and negative for β-cell autoantibodies. Finnish children had higher vitamin D status than Estonian children (p Estonian CD4+ memory T-cell samples than in Finnish samples (p < 0.01) even when including in both groups only children with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 50-80 nmol/L (p < 0.001). These findings do not support a crucial role of circulating 25(OH)D as a regulator of β-cell autoimmunity or FOXP3 expression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Laretei, Käbi. Eksiil; Toona, Elin. Lotukata; Park, Eeva. Naeru õpilane; Luik, Viivi. Inimese kapike; Laaman, Ilona. Vesi ahjus; Viiding, Juhan (Üdi, Jüri). Kogutud luuletused; Paju, Juhan. Katkenud romaan; Paju, Juhan. Hõõguv rist; Estonian short stories / toim. Kajar Pruul ja Darlene Reddaway; Traat, Mats. Kartaago kiirrong; Kauksi Ülle. Säng; Kross, Jaan. Paigallend; Puhvel, Madli. Symbol of dawn; Kaplinski, Jaan. Võimaluste võimalikkus; Kaplinski, Jaan. Usk on uskmatus

  7. Field Demonstration for Biodegradable Military Multipurpose Grease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhee, In-Sik

    2001-01-01

    Soils and ground water at many military facilities throughout the United States have been contaminated with petroleum based products, such as engine oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels, often...

  8. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  9. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  10. Level of knowledge and sources of information about the rheumatoid arthritis in Estonian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põlluste, Kaja; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to find out how many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) know about several aspects of disease, to explain the associations between the level of self-rated knowledge and patients' background and health status and to compare the importance of the main sources of information. A random sample (n = 1,259) of adult Estonian RA patients was selected from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund Database. The patients completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included information about their socio-demographic and disease characteristics, use of health services, information about the disease, and sources of information. Regression analysis was used to calculate the associations between the independent variables and level of self-rated knowledge about several aspects of RA. The results of the study indicated that the self-reported ratings of knowledge about the disease in Estonian RA patients were rather low. Health professionals were mentioned as the primary sources of information, but the longer disease history and more frequent use of health services as considerable predictors of higher ratings of knowledge refer to role of personal experience in obtaining knowledge about the disease as well.

  11. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  12. Some remarks on reported evidentiality in French and in Estonian: A contrastive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Treikelder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the multiple meanings of the French conditional, the marking of mediated information is generally pointed out in the studies treating this mood in French. In Estonian there is a specialized grammatical(ized form for marking reported evidentiality – the quotative mood. Our paper aims to study the contrast between the use of evidentiality strategies in French and Estonian. The analysis will be based on a translated parallel corpus and on different types of texts and studies of monolingual corpora of both languages.In typological studies the French conditional and the Estonian grammatical evidentials are considered as belonging to the same type of evidentiality, that of reported information (Aikhenvald 2006. However, it appears that they tend to be used in different types of discourse. This observation has served as a starting point for our study: the aim of our contrastive analysis is to find out whether these divergences are confirmed by translated texts, whether they also reveal semantic differences between these evidentiality markers, and which strategies are used in the translations in both directions.

  13. Defense Department Cyber Efforts: More Detailed Guidance Needed to Ensure Military Services Develop Appropriate Cyberspace Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Military Services Develop Appropriate Cyberspace Capabilities GAO-11-421 United States Government Accountability Office GAO Report...Ensure Military Services Develop Appropriate Cyberspace Capabilities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S... Military Services Develop Appropriate Cyberspace Capabilities Why GAO Did This Study The U.S. military depends heavily on computer networks, and

  14. Cultural Dimensions of Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    cross-cultural awareness training in various commercial sectors, the field of cross-cultural communication (also known as intercultural communication...advanced language skills, and culture and regional expertise with the goals to promote a rethinking of culture and intercultural competence, and how... Intercultural Competence” (Center for Languages, Cultures, and Regional Studies, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY), 4. 34Headquarters

  15. German Command’s Guidelines on Training of Wehrmacht’s Military Units at Soviet-German Front Based on the Front-line Experience in 1941-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendrikov Evgeniy Aleksandrovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the guidelines of the training division of the General Staff of German land forces on improving the fighting techniques of Wehrmacht’s military units on the basis of the front-line experience gained in armed hostilities with the Red Army in 1941-1942. The study of archives allowed the author to reveal drawbacks and shortcomings of Wehrmacht’s military units training in the period preceding the second major German advance in Summer of 1942. In particular, the following drawbacks were revealed: incatious movement through monitored terrains, insufficient camouflage security, lack of proper skills in overhead shooting, poor field engineering of the infantry, poor land navigation, defeat of tank attacks and finally, tank combating at close range. The article also contains the characteristics of profound and thorough training of German command for the summer campaign of 1942, which covered all major issues such as the actions of reconnaissance forces, the organization of officers and non-commissioned officers’ training, close combat instructions, training of infantry’s field engineering, night training, making reports etc. At the end of the article the author comes to the conclusion that despite the intensified training and correction of previous mistakes, German command failed to achieve radical turning point in the war, which ended in the total defeat of fascist Germany.

  16. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  17. Eesti antiigitõlke traditsioonid / Traditions of Estonian Translation from Ancient Greek and Latin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Päll

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of translating ancient Greek and Roman authors into Estonian is short, beginning with first attempts at the end of the 18 th century and the close adaptations of two Anacreontic poems (21 and 24 by the first Estonian poet Kristjan Jaak Peterson (in 1818, which remained in manuscript for a long time. The continuous history of printed translations began in 1878 with the translations from Homer by Jaan Bergmann. At present, a new, extensive and regularly updated bibliography with a database of earlier translations is being created (EAB 2012, which also includes the translations in the journals and more extensive citations in articles, as printing separate books with ancient literature started very late (1908 and was very rare in the beginning.  The periods in Estonian translation reflect the history of the country. Almost every period has its own specific trends, beginning with the focus on Greek and the role of periodicals in the first, resembling the patchwork-model of translation that has been described by Karl Eimermacher. Alongside the wish to entertain and educate, we see a strong tendency to use these translations for the development of Estonian national identity by comparing the Estonian epic “Kalevipoeg” to Homer’s epics and translating pieces from Tacitus’ “Germania” as early references to Estonia and thereby extending Estonia’s written history.  The 1920s and 1930s bring first attempts to create a canon, with a stress on Latin and the translations made for school, as well as the development of verse translation. However, all this was disrupted by the almost total abandonment of the classical tradition during the war and the Stalinist period. The comeback in the 1960s brought the translation of central authors from the classical canon (Homer, Vergil, Sophocles, supported by other activities of canon-building (anticipated partly in the 1920s and 1930s: the composition of anthologies and histories of literature

  18. MILITARY LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT: THE FIVE POINT STAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erasmus

    Bundeswehr and the role it plays in managing relationships (social skill).14. The next section explores the United Kingdom's model of leadership development in their armed forces. The United Kingdom: Perspectives on a time-honoured society's approach to military leadership character development. The United Kingdom ...

  19. The Ethics of Ethnographic Attraction: Reflections on the Production of the Finno-Ugric Exhibitions at the Estonian National Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Leete

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We intend to explore the production of the Finno-Ugric exhibitions at the Estonian National Museum. Our particular aim is to reveal methodological changes of ethnographic reproduction and to contextualise the museum’s current efforts in ideologically positioning of the permanent exhibition. Through historical–hermeneutical analysis we plan to establish particular museological trends at the Estonian National Museum that have led curators to the current ideological position. The history of the Finno-Ugric displays at the Estonian National Museum and comparative analysis of international museological practices enable us to reveal and interpret different approaches to ethnographic reconstructions. When exhibiting indigenous cultures, one needs to balance ethnographic charisma with the ethics of display. In order to employ the approach of ethical attraction, curators must comprehend indigenous cultural logic while building up ethnographic representations.

  20. Cigarette Prices in Military Retail: A Review and Proposal for Advancing Military Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Williams, Larry N.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States (US) and has been demonstrated to significantly harm the combat readiness of military personnel. Unfortunately, recent research demonstrated that cigarettes are sold at substantial discounts in military retail outlets. In fact, the military is the only retailer which consistently loses money on tobacco. Cheap tobacco prices have been identified by enlisted personnel and Department of Defense health policy experts as promoting a culture of tobacco use in the US Military. This paper provides an analysis of why current military tobacco pricing policy has failed to eliminate cheap tobacco prices as an incentive for use. A rationale for increasing tobacco prices also is presented along with recommendations for improved military tobacco control policy. PMID:23756017

  1. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the diss...

  2. 20 CFR 1002.60 - Does USERRA cover an individual attending a military service academy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... service academies: The United States Military Academy (West Point, New York), the United States Naval... military service academy? 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... Uniformed Services § 1002.60 Does USERRA cover an individual attending a military service academy? Yes...

  3. Noor-Eesti rollist eesti kirjandus- ja kultuuriloos. The Role of Young Estonia in Estonian Literary and Cultural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Olesk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 20th century on, the activities of the Young Estonia literary movement have had a significant influence on the development of Estonian culture. The group published five Young Estonia albums (1905–1915, the magazine Young Estonia, devoted to science, literature, and the arts (1910– 1911, and the newspaper Vaba Sõna (1914–1916, Free Word. The core of the group was composed of five or six active writers who maintained lively interactions with art and theatre circles. The publications of the Young Estonia Press brought about a revolutionary turn in the design and printing styles of the Estonian-language book. The questions of Young Estonia’s role and meaning have intrigued the Estonian cultural public at different times and in different ways. Young Estonia brought to cultural consciousness liberal views on the interpretation of art as well as an elitist aesthetics. At different times their openness to Europe irritated both the nationalist-minded and internationalists; thus the reception of the Young Estonia movement has been polemical throughout Estonian cultural history. Elapsed time has both opened the way for broader generalizations and, conversely, created a need to reconstruct the cultural context of the beginning of the 20th century. Polemic around Young Estonia was certainly caused by the group as a whole; however, in this article the role of individual members is also highlighted. It is emphasized that the political and aesthetic ideas of the Young Estonians changed synchronously with social conditions, from the 1905 Russian revolution to the world war that ravaged Europe. If the early part of this period saw a more social and nationalist bent to their thinking, then in the years of reaction, positions were taken that were more in keeping with l’art pour l’art. Young Estonia was not a hierarchical organization; rather, its small core group was composed of a narrow circle of friends with various

  4. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  5. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  6. Names in Estonian Folk Astronomy - from 'Bird's Way' to 'Milky Way'

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Kuperjanov

    2002-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the different names for the Milky Way and the accompanying beliefs and myths, based on the material in the Estonian Folklore Archives. Astronomically speaking, the Milky Way is a big stellar system – a galaxy. All stellar systems of similar type are called galaxies. Our sun is a fairly common star, lying at the outskirts of the Galaxy. The core of the Galaxy is located in the Sagittarius Constellation where the Milky Way is widest and brightest, but i...

  7. Freedom from theory? An attempt to analyse Sten Karling’s views on (Estonian) art history

    OpenAIRE

    Krista Kodres

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a Swedish-born art historian Sten Ingvar Karling who was a professor in the Estonian national University of Tartu from 1933 to 1940. Karling published a great number of texts on local art history that were based on substantial archival inquiry, careful observation and stylistic systematisation of works of art. Karling’s discussions about the nature of art were brief and he hardly stressed the need for theoretical self-reflection. It is, however, obvious that his presen...

  8. Developments in production of synthetic fuels out of Estonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, Indrek

    2010-09-15

    Estonia is still the world leader in utilization of oil shale. Enefit has cooperated with Outotec to develop a new generation of solid heat carrier technology - Enefit280, which is more efficient, environmentally friendlier and has higher unit capacity. Breakeven price of oil produced in Enefit280 process is competitive with conventional oils. The new technology has advantages that allow easy adaptation to other oil shales around the world. Hydrotreated shale oil liquids have similar properties to crude oil cuts. Design for a shale oil hydrotreater unit can use process concepts, hardware components, and catalysts commercially proven in petroleum refining services.

  9. The American Military Advisor: Dealing with Senior Foreign Officials in the Islamic World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metrinko, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    "The American Military Advisor: Dealing with Senior Foreign Officials in the Islamic World" is a comprehensive guide for American military officers assigned as advisors to regional officials in places very different from the United States...

  10. Enhancing Resilience in Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Nelson, Sonya; DeYoung, Lcdr Peter

    2017-02-01

    A systematic, evidence-based training program to support active duty military personnel through building unit-level resiliency in preparation for anticipated individual times of crisis is needed. Mental health nurses and social workers in the military possess critical training and expertise in identifying and supporting individual and community resilience factors. Their knowledge of the protective aspects of resilience can and should be used to educate all active duty military personnel, ensure military leaders are knowledgeable in how best to support their units, and provide research on the effectiveness of pre-combat resilience training. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(2), 44-48.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Modeliranje kretanja automobilskih jedinica realnim vojnim saobraćajnim tokom u koloni / Movement modeling of real military column traffic automobile units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir S. Gordić

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan model za ocenu efikasnosti i optimizaciju kretanja organizovanog vojnog saobraćajnog toka u koloni. Razrađeni i usavršeni model obezbeđuje brzu i jednostavnu realizaciju istraživanja motorizovanih kolona različitih karakteristika. Prikazani su model, metodologija i rezultati imitacionog modeliranja realnog organizovanog vojnog saobraćajnog toka automobilskih jedinica u koloni. Rad predstavlja originalan doprinos istraživanju realnog vojnog saobraćajnog toka u koloni. / Target of this research was appraisal efficiency and optimization developments of organized column traffic. Elaborated and perfected model provides quick and simple target research realization for the motorized columns with different characteristics. In this work, model, methodology and results of imitation modeling, for real organized column traffic, have been shown. Work represents an original contribution to effective military column traffic.

  12. Civil-military relations and sexual assault

    OpenAIRE

    Bluhm, Brandi K.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Bureau of Justice Statistics' Criminal Victimization Survey reported that there were 284,350 rapes or sexual assaults in the United States in 2014. In the same year, the Department of Defense (DOD) Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (SAPRO) estimated that 18,900 sexual assaults occurred in the military. In recent years, Congress has been increasing pressure on the military to improve sexual assault prevention and respons...

  13. Preventing Genocide: A Framework for Military Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-10

    from ever happening again. Those responsible were brought to justice by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg on November 20, 1945. 5 The... Nuremberg ,” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007069, (accessed January 17, 2012). 6...against humanity, which were defined by the 1945 London Charter of the International Military Tribunal ( Nuremberg Charter), Article 6(c) as “murder

  14. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  15. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  16. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, M; Rusconi, R [ARPA Lombardia (Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardia), via Juvara 22, 20129 Milan (Italy); Bagnato, L [Department of Quantitative Methods for Business and Economic Sciences, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza dell' Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126 Milan (Italy); Caldognetto, E; Trotti, F [ARPAV (Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto), via Dominutti 8, 37135 Verona (Italy); Risica, S, E-mail: m.forte@arpalombardia.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Technology and Health Department, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y{sup -1} for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  17. The risk of motor neurone disease and multiple sclerosis is different in Estonians and Russians. Data from South Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Paju, K; Oöpik, M; Lüüs, S; Kalbe, I; Kaasik, A E

    1999-03-01

    Epidemiological studies were performed in South Estonia to establish the prevalence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) and motor neurone disease (MND). The case finding method included information from the hospital records of the central hospital in the region-the University Hospital (for MS from 1942 to 1989), from all neurologists in the region, from the Estonian MS Society and Association of Muscular Disorders, and from nursing homes in the region. The prevalence day was 31 December 1989. MND incidence was established for the period of 1986-1995. The results demonstrated high prevalence rates of MS among native Estonians (55.3 per 100 000), somewhat lower prevalence among native-born representatives of other nationalities (43.6 per 100 000) and the lowest prevalence rate of MS among non-Estonian immigrants (26.6 per 100 000). The differences were not statistically significant. The results for MND demonstrated the opposite pattern. The mean annual incidence rate of MND for 10 years was statistically significantly higher among people of other nationalities (2.5 per 100 000) and Russians (2.6 per 100 000), and lower in native-born Estonians (1.1 per 100 000). No differences in health care or clinical picture were established. The reasons for the demonstrated differences in MND incidence remain unclear. Copyright 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  18. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  19. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  20. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  1. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  2. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  3. External factors and the interference of L1 Estonian on L2 English pronunciation: An apparent-time study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Ader

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on external factors of second language learning (L2 and their effect on L2 sound production. The aim was to find out whether young adults whose first language (L1 is Estonian speak L2 English with less accent than older speakers of L1 Estonian. Prior studies have claimed that more exposure to the target language lessens the effect of L1 interference (internal factors (e.g. Piske et al. 2001, Muñoz, Llanes 2014. An apparent-time study was imple- mented in order to test whether a change in learner setting (i.e. limited exposure to the target language vs. abundant exposure shows any evidence which can be explained by such external factors. Data was elicited from the speech samples of 97 speakers of L1 Estonian and L1 interference effects were analysed sound by sound. The results show that the younger generation displays less L1 Estonian interference than the older generation. Both greater exposure to the target language and earlier age of L2 learning onset correlate with the ability to produce more sounds target-like.

  4. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  5. [New approaches to assessment of military personnel health status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivashchenko, P P; Ivanov, V V; Grigor'ev, S G; Baranovskiĭ, A M

    2013-05-01

    For the first time were suggested some indices such as the index of ratio of one unit's (higher/highest formation) hospitalization, lost worktime, discharge and mortality to the primary morbidity for one military unit and the same index of ratio to the same criteria for the group of military unit. The mentioned peculiarities are intended for impartial and comprehensive estimation of Armed Forces of the Russian Federation military personnel health status and medical units (establishments) activity. These indices include as criteria of diseases prevalence, morbidity, hospitalization, discharge and mortality characteristics. Employment of the new tools provides the possibility of the military health care system analysis by means of such health status components as military labor character peculiarities of medical support, as well as medical service forces and resources availability in the Army, Navy and Air Force.

  6. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961. Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images. A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e

  7. Behind the Curtains of e-State: Determinants of Online Sexual Harassment among Estonian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kalmus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the risk of receiving online sexual messages and experiencing harm among Estonian children. In particular, the paper examines the association between receiving sexual messages and behavioural, psychological and demographic characteristics, and the social mediation of children’s Internet use. Estonian data from EU Kids Online survey are used, involving 780 children aged 11-16. Results demonstrate that 19% of children who use the Internet have received online sexual messages, and 6% have felt disturbed. The probability of receiving sexual messages online is higher for children with risky online and offline behaviour and psychological difficulties. Perceiving online messages as sexually harassing is higher among children with excessive Internet use, lower levels of parental monitoring and higher levels of peer mediation of Internet use. The risk of exposure to harassing sexual messages also differs by age and, more notably, by the minority status. Mediation by parents and teachers plays an insignificant role in reducing teenagers’ risks of receiving sexual messages.

  8. Detection and genetic characterization of relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Geller

    Full Text Available During the years 2008-2010 I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected from 64 sites in mainland Estonia and on the island Saaremaa. Presence of B. miyamotoi was found in 0.9% (23/2622 of ticks. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks differed significantly, 2.7% (15/561 and 0.4% (8/2061, respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in found South-Eastern Estonia in an area of I. persulcatus and I. ricinus sympatry and varied from 1.4% (1/73 to 2.8% (5/178. Co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. group spirochetes and tick-borne encephalitis virus were also revealed. Genetic characterization of partial 16S rRNA, p66 and glpQ genes demonstrated that Estonian sequences belong to two types of B. miyamotoi and cluster with sequences from Europe and the European part of Russia, as well as with sequences from Siberia, Asia and Japan, here designated as European and Asian types, respectively. Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions.

  9. Cultural Value Differences, Value Stereotypes, and Diverging Identities in Intergroup Conflicts: The Estonian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Dobewall

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    An examination of the relationship between cultural values, value stereotypes and social identities in Estonia, where intergroup conflicts triggered riots in the capital
    Tallinn in April 2007, using data from the European Social Survey on cultural differences and value trends as the background to a survey exploring perceived
    group values and assessed social identities among ethnic Estonians and members of the Russian-speaking minority. The study, conducted in summer 2008, found
    agreement across both ethnic groups about the values of a typical group member, but no accuracy in their attribution. The Estonian students (n = 152 avoided
    Eastern-European identification, while the Russian-speaking students (n = 54 did not want to give up Estonia’s Soviet past. We found that attributed rather than
    self-rated value differences between groups caused the conflicts, whilst diverging identities were found to make value stereotypes more extreme.

  10. Linking a Population Biobank with National Health Registries—The Estonian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Leitsalu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Estonian population-based biobank, with 52,000 participants’ genetic and health data, is the largest epidemiological cohort in the Baltic region. Participants were recruited through a network of medical professionals throughout Estonia (population 1.34 million. Unique legislation as well as a broad consent form give the Estonian Genome Center, a research institute of the University of Tartu, permission to re-contact participants and to retrieve participants’ data from national registries and databases. In addition to two re-contacting projects to update the health data of participants, extensive clinical characterizations have been retrieved from national registries and hospital databases regularly since 2010. Acquiring data from electronic health records and registries has provided a means to update and enhance the database of the Genome Center in a timely manner and at low cost. The resulting database allows a wide spectrum of genomic and epidemiological research to be conducted with the aim of benefitting public health. Future plans include linking the genome center database with the national health information system through X-road and exchanging data in real time, as well as using the genetic data and the technical infrastructure available for piloting personalized medicine in Estonia.

  11. Locally calibrated wave hindcasts in the Estonian coastal sea in 1966–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Suursaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wave parameters were studied in four differently exposed fetch-limited Estonian coastal sea locations: the Harilaid Peninsula facing W–NW, Letipea N–NE, Matsi SW and Kõiguste SE. Based on high-quality measurements of waves with the bottom-mounted Recording Doppler Current Profiler in 2006–2011, a model for significant wave height was calibrated separately for those locations. Using wind forcing data from Estonian coastal meteorological stations, a set of hindcasts was obtained over the period of 1966–2011. The wave heights showed some quasi-periodic cycles with a high stage in 1980–1995, and probably also from 2007; a prevailing overall decrease in the mean wave height; an increase in high wave events at the windward coasts of West Estonia but a decrease at the northern and southeastern coasts. The spatially contrasting results for differently exposed coasts reflect the corresponding variations in local wind, which are probably caused by changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure patterns above Northern Europe and a poleward shift of cyclones’ trajectories. Although featuring outstanding calibration results, the long-term wave hindcast may be impacted by possible inhomogeneities in the older wind data.

  12. Intestinal lactoflora in Estonian and Norwegian patients with antibiotic associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Rätsep, Merle; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lõivukene, Krista; Mändar, Reet; Jaanimäe, Liis; Löhr, Iren H; Natås, Olav B; Naaber, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The disruption of intestinal microbiota is an important risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile caused antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The role of intestinal lactoflora in protection against C. difficile is unclear. Fecal samples (n = 74) from AAD patients were investigated for C. difficile and lactobacilli by culture and real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and sequencing of 16S rRNA. In C. difficile negative cases we found somewhat higher counts of intestinal Lactobacilli (5.02 vs. 2.15 CFU log(10)/g; p = 0.053) by culture and more frequently Lactobacillus plantarum (33.3% vs. 9.4%; p = 0.03) as compared with positive ones. Results of total counts of lactobacilli comparing Estonian and Norwegian samples were conflicting by culture and PCR. We found higher colonization of Norwegian AAD patients with L. plantarum (21% vs. 5%, p = 0.053) and Estonians with Lactobacillus gasseri (19% vs. 2%, p = 0.023). Particular lactobacilli (e.g. L. plantarum) may have a role in protection against C. difficile, whereas the meaning of total counts of lactobacilli remains questionable. In different persons and nations, different lactobacilli species may have a protective role against C. difficile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  14. Linking a population biobank with national health registries-the estonian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Alavere, Helene; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Leego, Erkki; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-04-16

    The Estonian population-based biobank, with 52,000 participants' genetic and health data, is the largest epidemiological cohort in the Baltic region. Participants were recruited through a network of medical professionals throughout Estonia (population 1.34 million). Unique legislation as well as a broad consent form give the Estonian Genome Center, a research institute of the University of Tartu, permission to re-contact participants and to retrieve participants' data from national registries and databases. In addition to two re-contacting projects to update the health data of participants, extensive clinical characterizations have been retrieved from national registries and hospital databases regularly since 2010. Acquiring data from electronic health records and registries has provided a means to update and enhance the database of the Genome Center in a timely manner and at low cost. The resulting database allows a wide spectrum of genomic and epidemiological research to be conducted with the aim of benefitting public health. Future plans include linking the genome center database with the national health information system through X-road and exchanging data in real time, as well as using the genetic data and the technical infrastructure available for piloting personalized medicine in Estonia.

  15. Groundwater flow model of the Estonian oil shale mining area towards to innovative system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, H. [Tallinn Univ. of Technology (Estonia). Dept. of Mining

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the Estonian groundwater regime are anticipated as oil shale deposits are mined. This paper described a dynamic groundwater flow model used to develop a 3-D groundwater elevation map of the Estonian oil shale mining area. The model was used to provide preliminary estimations of water inflow into the working underground mine areas. The model included 9 closed underground mines, 5 active mine sites, and 2 small open-cast sites. The closed mine sites were filled with water flowing in from the working mine sites. New mines and dewatering programs are planned for the future. A database from observation wells installed within the Keila-Kukruse aquifer was used to extract outputs and determine time steps. The model included 35 pumping stations from the active mine sites. The hydraulic properties for each model layer were defined in 4 model zones. Results of the model showed higher water in-flows from the closed underground sites than earlier predictions had anticipated. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  16. BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN FIVE FINNOUGRIC LANGUAGES AND ESTONIAN SIGN LANGUAGE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Hollman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare five Finno-Ugric languages – Estonian,Finnish, Hungarian, Udmurt and Komi-Zyrian – and the Estonian Sign Language (unclassified in different aspects: established basic colour terms, the proportion of basic colour terms and different colour terms in the collected word-corpora, the cognitive salience index values in the list task and the number of dominant colour tiles in the colour naming task. The data was collected, using the field method of Davies and Corbett, from all languages under consideration, providing a distinctive foundation for linguistic comparison. We argue that Finno-Ugric languages seem to possess relatively large colour vocabularies,especially due to their rich variety of word-formation types,e.g. the composition of compound words. All of the languages under consideration have developed to Stage VI or VII, possessing 7 to 11lexicalised basic colour terms. The cognitive salience index helps to distinguish primary and secondary basic colour terms, showing certain comprehensive patterns which are similar to Russian and English.

  17. Distribution of charophyte species in Estonian coastal water (NE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaire Torn

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Charophytes constitute a group of macrophytes that usually inhabit soft bottoms with shallow water. They occur mostly in fresh-water environments but can also be found in brackish waters. Due to their requirement for clear water they are considered sensitive to eutrophication and therefore often used as an indicator for good water quality. The diverse structure of the Estonian coastline with its numerous sheltered bays and shallow, soft-bottom archipelago areas coupled with low salinity conditions provides an excellent habitat for charophytes. To date, seven species have been described in Estonian coastal waters, NE Baltic Sea. Last systematic investigations on charophyte distribution date back 20-30 years. During the summer of 2001 the locations where charophytes have previously been found were revisited and new sites sampled, to describe the present distribution of quantitative and qualitative parameters of charophyte species. Sampling was performed mainly by SCUBA diving; occurrence, abundance and wet weight biomass were estimated for each location. Six species of charophytes were identified. Compared to previously recorded material, no significant changes in the distribution pattern of charophytes were found. The dependence of charophyte distribution on environmental settings was tested, with depth and substrate quality explaining most of the variability in distribution. Salinity within observed range had minor influence on charophytes.

  18. Freedom from theory? An attempt to analyse Sten Karling’s views on (Estonian art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Kodres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a Swedish-born art historian Sten Ingvar Karling who was a professor in the Estonian national University of Tartu from 1933 to 1940. Karling published a great number of texts on local art history that were based on substantial archival inquiry, careful observation and stylistic systematisation of works of art. Karling’s discussions about the nature of art were brief and he hardly stressed the need for theoretical self-reflection. It is, however, obvious that his presentation and evaluation of artistic material was theory based. His ideas of art as an expression of 'will of art' and 'spirit of the time' and his views about change of styles mostly originated from the Vienna school of art history. At the same time he was a promoter of the concept of Baltic-Nordic artedominium, the construction that confronted the concept of German-dominated artistic past of the Baltic countries. Thus Karling’s logic of the 'construction of (Estonian heritage' was coherent with the aim to strengthen one's own national identity through a new positive art historical narrative that took place intensively in the whole of Europe over the 1920-1930s.

  19. Vene kirjandus venestusaja eesti koolides. Russian Literature in the Estonian Schools of the Russification Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give an overview of literary instruction in schools of the russification era at the beginning of the 20th century in Estonia; this was likewise the curriculum of literary study offered to the generation of educated youth which included the Young Estonians. Based on official documents, archival materials, and memoirs, and through analyses of anthologies, literary histories, and teaching methods in use at the time, we attempt to reconstruct the outlines of literary reading and requirements for students in various types of schools. When, as a result of school reform, Russian became the language of instruction; lessons in Russian became central in the curriculum, alongside the word of God; selections from Russian literature were read in the original language. In the lower grades, teaching was by the so-called ”natural method”, intended to guarantee swift achievement of fluency in ”living Russian language”; this was later replaced by systematic textual analysis, which distinguished between belles lettres and other types of texts. However, the study of literature was always subordinated to the goals of language instruction. In institutions of secondary education, study of Russian literature was separate from language instruction. Indeed, Russian literature was the only literature systematically studied in high schools (though one must keep in mind that not all schools completely followed the official program. Private schools were especially noticeable for their greater freedom, though all of them had to take general curriculum directives into account. Reading of literary texts connected with other languages thus had to remain almost purely illustrative. In view of the above, in the upper grades of elementary school and high school, students obtained a thorough introduction to the Russian classics. According to the official school curriculum, Russian literary history ended with Nikolai Gogol. Attempts were made to ignore

  20. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  1. Military Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Military Sexual Trauma Overview Programs & Services Articles & Fact Sheets Other Resources ... local Veterans Benefits Administration Regional Office . Overview Military sexual trauma (MST) is the term that the Department of ...

  2. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernasconi, Jeffrey J

    2007-01-01

    .... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...

  3. TRICARE, Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Claim Get Proof of TRICARE Coverage View My Military Health Record Less TRICARE Enrollment Freeze Starting Dec. ... Disaster Information Download a Form Go Paperless My Military Health Records Multimedia Center Plan Information Kits Recoupment ...

  4. Posse Comitatus and the Use of the Military in Denying Terrorist Access to the United States Along the Border with Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Greg A

    2005-01-01

    .... The largely unsecured border we share with Mexico is an enticing avenue for illegal immigrants and drug smugglers but also, and more importantly, for potential terrorists hostile to the United States...

  5. A Methodology for Assessing the Impact of Sea Level Rise on Representative Military Installation in the Southwestern United States (RC-1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Units   Low   Brick  Masonry  Units   Low   Metal   studs  and  corrugated  sheathing   Low   Drywall  (Gypsum  board...protection 0 Hinterland type (i.e. earthen, asphalt ) 0 Structure condition (i.e. signs of failure or damage, erosion of hinterland) Structure...and subsurface condition (i.e. wear , potholes, erosion) Infrastructure Olaracteristics and Condition - Potable Water Systems 611 Component elevations

  6. Deployment of military mothers: supportive and nonsupportive military programs, processes, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Petra; Turner, Annette; Agazio, Janice; Throop, Meryia; Padden, Diane; Greiner, Shawna; Hillier, Shannon L

    2013-07-01

    Military mothers and their children cope with unique issues when mothers are deployed. In this article, we present mothers' perspectives on how military resources affected them, their children, and their caregivers during deployment. Mothers described beneficial features of military programs such as family readiness groups and behavioral health care, processes such as unit support, and policies on length and timing of deployments. Aspects that were not supportive included inflexibility in family care plans, using personal leave time and funds for transporting children, denial of release to resolve caretaker issues, and limited time for reintegration. We offer recommendations for enhanced support to these families that the military could provide. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take Action Volunteer Mark Your Calendar Donate Twitter Facebook Instagram Donate Appreciating Military Families: Meet the Wilsons This ... MilitaryFamily.org © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better ...

  8. Military-industrial complexities, university research, and neoliberal economy

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides an analysis of the militarization of scientific research and the scale and consequences of military and defence related research on university campuses in the United States and United Kingdom. It achieves this through an analysis of the historical background to the complex forms of articulation which have developed between the military, industry and university research. Particular consideration is given to developments in the United States from 1940, including concerns expr...

  9. The experience of an United Nations Military Observer in Western Sahara / A experiência de observador militar da ONU no Saara Ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio de Souza Ferreira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Western Sahara issue is the most recent, lasting and unresolved case of decolonization in African continent, in the midst of the 21st Century. It is a non- governed territory, located in the northwest portion of Saharan Africa and it has been under UN custody since 1991, when MINURSO had been established. In this regard, this article has as main motivation to communicate the experience of an UN Military Observer, emphasizing peculiar and practical aspects, as well as perceptions in the performance of this appointment. It is an internal vision of the reality of the Peace Operation, the individual and the professional of the UN. In order to do so, this article uses a qualitative approach deploying methodologies such as participant observation and the descriptive case study. It comprises an introduction, which aims to enlighten the reader to the question, a characterization of the area, a historical review of the case, a section of exposure of the methodology and the experience of one of the authors as a UN Military Observer in the Western Sahara itself. Finally, considerations are made at the conclusion. A questão do Saara Ocidental constitui o caso de descolonização mais recente, duradouro e não-resolvido do continente africano, em pleno século XXI. Trata-se de um território não-governado, localizado na porção noroeste da África Saariana e encontra-se sob custódia da ONU desde 1991, quando da implantação da MINURSO. Nesse contexto, o presente artigo tem como principal motivação comunicar a experiência no exercício da função de observador militar da ONU, sublinhando aspectos peculiares e práticos, bem como percepções no desempenho dessa função. É uma visão interna da realidade de uma Operação de Paz, do indivíduo e do profissional da Organização. Para tanto, o artigo utiliza abordagem qualitativa na metodologia empregada e aspectos da observação participante e do estudo de caso descritivo. É composto por uma

  10. [The military odyssey of Norman Bethune].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C A

    2000-04-01

    While visiting the People's Republic of China in 1982, I became aware of the work of the Canadian, Norman Bethune, as a military surgeon. Bethune first served as a stretcher - bearer in an ambulance unit and later as a medical officer with the Allies during the First World War. He also participated in the Spanish Civil War as a military physician. He died in China while serving with Mao Tsetung's Eighth Route Army, fighting the Japanese invaders in Yen'an. Bethune pioneered the use of whole blood transfusions in combat areas, first in Spain and then in China. In the annals of Chinese military history, he has been given an honored place as a military surgeon and a martyr. He is also credited in China, with improving the practice of battlefield medicine, as an organizer, teacher and innovator. Bethune's fame in China is now spreading to Canada.

  11. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti Pärna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Methods Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Results Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends. From 1982 to 2014, the biggest decline of current smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively and 35–44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends. Mean age of smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. Conclusions In 1982–2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  12. Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meremäe, Kadrin; Roasto, Mati; Kuusik, Sirje; Ots, Meelis; Henno, Merike

    2012-08-01

    In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over recent years are also presented. Twenty-six edible fat brands, available in the Estonian retail market in 2011, were purchased and FA compositions were analyzed by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the dominant group of FAs for all blended spreads (49.6 to 65.8%), and for the majority of shortenings (from 21.1 to 54.6%). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the dominant group of FAs for the majority of margarines, ranging from 25.3% to 50.5%. The total TFA for blended spreads varied from 1.18% to 9.08%, for margarines from 0.04% to 34.96% and for shortenings from 0.14% to 39.50%. Octadecenoic (C18:1) isomers were the main TFA found. Compared to 2008/2009, the industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) content in several of the dietary fat brands was much reduced in 2011. This voluntary reformulation was probably a response to consumer demand associated with a public health campaign directed against IP-TFA in Estonian foods, and were mainly achieved by replacing TFA with SFA C12:0-C16:0. Present paper is directed toward public health related institutions and food industries producing foods with potentially high contents of trans fatty acids (TFA). According to the public concern TFA content in domestic blended spreads has declined significantly over the past 3 y in Estonia. The reduction in the TFA content was achieved by replacing TFA with saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C12:0-C16:0). To shift food composition toward healthier product formulations, mandatory labeling of the sum of IP-TFA and SFA (C12:0-C16:0) was recommended. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Detection of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Ehrlichia muris in Estonian ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Geller, Julia; Katargina, Olga; Värv, Kairi; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    So far neglected bacteria like Candidatud Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Ehrlichia muris-like agents get increased attention in the recent past. Ixodid ticks were demonstrated to harbor both of these pathogens. Estonia is populated by two medically important tick species, I. ricinus and I. persulcatus. In this study the presence of E. muris and Candidatus N. mikurensis in these two tick species was investigated. Tick DNA was analyzed by nested PCR and subsequent sequencing for the presence of 16S rRNA of E. muris and Candidatus N. mikurensis. Positive samples were further confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the partial groESL-operon. The obtained partial groESL sequences were used for construction of a maximum likelihood tree. In total, 776 ticks from 36 collection sites situated in 7 counties on the mainland of Estonia and 2 sites situated in one county on the island Saaremaa were collected. 548 were I. ricinus and 228 were I. persulcatus. Only in 5 counties (11 sites) samples positive for the Anaplasmataceae 16S rRNA gene were found. The percentage of Candidatus N. mikurensis positive ticks varied from 1% to 9.1% at different sites. In Eastern and South-Eastern Estonia, the area where I. ricinus and I. persulcatus are sympatric, no Candidatus N. mikurensis was found. Ticks carrying E. muris were found in three counties, the site-specific percentage of positive ticks varied from 1.2% to 25.6%. This is the first study revealing the presence of Candidatus N. mikurensis and E. muris in Estonian ticks. Candidatus N. mikurensis was found only in the western part of the country exclusively in I. ricinus and the phylogenetic analysis revealed close relatedness of the Estonian sequences to other European Candidatus N. mikurensis strains. E. muris was detected mostly in I. persulcatus and only in one I. ricinus in the sympatric area of both tick species. This is in correspondence with the observation that this pathogen is more often found in I. persulcatus than in I

  14. Re-conceptualizing mother tongue tuition of Estonian abroad as a transnational phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Siiner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The governmental initiative called the Compatriots Programme, which supports language tuition in Estonian schools and societies abroad, reveals an increased interest in developing intergenerational language transmission in the growing Estonian diaspora. This transnational language political activity signals a new era in language policy, where nation states are increasingly decentralized by migration. The evaluation of the program furthermore reveals that organizing such schools requires a willingness to take language political agency, typically conducted by well-educated and well-integrated resourceful transnational multilingual parents. The present article outlines the results of an ethnographic study of the process of establishing the Estonian School in Copenhagen. This step has demanded a change in the mindset still prevailing in Estonia that language political activities, such as planning language acquisition, are solely the responsibility of the state. Since the prevailing language ideology in Denmark is not favorable towards multilingualism in migrant languages, intergenerational language transmission furthermore presupposes a feeling of ownership of the language and high language self-esteem. "Hargmaise keelepoliitika sünd. Eesti keeleõppe korraldamise võimalikkusest välismaal Taani näitel" Hargmaisus, kasvav väljarändajate arv ja sellega ka eesti keele rääkijate hulk välismaal on jätnud oma jälje eesti keelepoliitikale. Kui varem uuriti peamiselt seda, kuidas eesti keel muukeelses kontekstis muutub, siis viimasel kümnendil on riik asunud aktiivselt toetama eesti keele jätkuvat kasutamist välismaal, rahastades rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil haridusprogramme. Kuid millised faktorid määravad selle, kas uus eestlaste põlvkond oskab ja tahab eesti keelt rääkida? Artikkel hindab etnograafilises ja sotsiolingvistilises võtmes Kopenhaagenis kolm aastat tegutsenud Eesti Kooli ja Lasteklubi näitel, millised on keelekasutust

  15. Russian Basic Course: Military Situations, Exercises 1-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Thirty-five military situations treated in this volume provide exercises in the use of practical military terminology received from the United States Army General School. Each exercise is devoted to a specific topic, and in each case lists of new words and idioms together with their English equivalents are provided. Lessons consist primarily of…

  16. 40 CFR 5.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX... for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ...

  17. 24 CFR 3.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military and merchant marine... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 3.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ...

  18. 14 CFR 1253.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... Coverage § 1253.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do... military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ...

  19. 13 CFR 113.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine... Financial Assistance Coverage § 113.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title... individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ...

  20. 36 CFR 1211.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1211.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant...

  1. 41 CFR 101-4.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage § 101-4.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do... military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military and merchant...

  2. 32 CFR 196.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant...

  3. 34 CFR 106.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.13 Military and merchant marine educational... individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. (Authority: Secs. 901, 902...

  4. 45 CFR 618.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 618.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ...

  5. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 2555.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant...

  6. 18 CFR 1317.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1317.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military and merchant...

  7. 38 CFR 23.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 23.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant...

  8. 31 CFR 28.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 28.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX... for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ...

  9. Construction of cryptographic information protection in automated control systems for rapid reaction military forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Evseev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to realizations of military operations are analyzed. The main factors that directly affect the construction and operation of information security subsystems in prospective automated command and control military systems are described. Possible ways of the construction of cryptographic subsystems of information protection in automated operation management systems for united military force groups are investigated.

  10. Perceived job demands during military deployment : What soldiers say in Afghanistan (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Euwema, M.

    2012-01-01

    Military deployment is inherently demanding and military organizations have to prepare their personnel for a broad range of operational demands. So far, it remains unclear how perceptions of operational demands differ between distinct military units. Using a cross-sectional design, this study

  11. School Climate, Deployment, and Mental Health among Students in Military-Connected Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Astor, Ron Avi; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Benbenishty, Rami; Berkowitz, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    Research has found that when compared with civilian students, military-connected students in the United States have more negative mental health outcomes, stemming from the stress of military life events (i.e., deployment). To date, studies on military-connected youth have not examined the role of protective factors within the school environment,…

  12. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  13. Sovietisation and the Estonian National Museum during 1940s-1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Konksi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the impacts of the policy of the 1940s-1950s Soviet authority on the Estonian National Museum. The first, introductory part observes the general frameworks of the (ethnographical museums in the Soviet Union, thus providing an overview of the goal of Sovietisation policy – what was the system’s perception of the institution that the ENM was supposed to become. The main part of the article focuses on Sovietisation practice in the ENM: what kind of reorganisation took place within the work of the museum in connection with political changes, whether and how the new norms were adapted to and to what extent they were adopted. The source material used for the treatment of the subject matter comprises, in addition to the ENM’s archive materials, the memories of three ethnologists who worked in the ENM during the observed period.

  14. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  15. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factorial structure of SILL revisited: adaptation of SILL for Estonian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Saks

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to contribute to the understanding of the taxonomy of language learning strategies (Oxford 1990: 14–22 and its measuring instrument, the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, through the adaptation process of the Estonian version. The translated version of the SILL was pilot-tested with a sample of 337 tertiary students. Cronbach’s alpha (0.91 reveals an acceptable reliability of the instrument. The t-test that was conducted in addition to descriptive analysis, to check for gender differences, did not reveal any significant differences. The results of the exploratory factor analysis did not support the 2- or 6-factor structures but the 9-factor analysis provides a good comparison to similar studies published in 1995 (Oxford, Burry-Stock 1995. The ethnic and gender differences of the results are discussed from the cultural perspective.

  17. Comparative analysis of idiom selection and sequencing 5 in Estonian basic school EFL coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Anita Forssten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the selection and sequencing of the idioms encountered in two locally-produced and international coursebook series currently employed in Estonian basic schools. It is hypothesized that there exists a positive correlation between idioms’ difficulty and coursebooks’ language proficiency level. The hypothesis is tested through a statistical analysis of the idioms found which are categorized in terms of their analysability into three categories where category 1 includes analysable semi-literal idioms, category 2 comprises analysable semi-transparent idioms, and category 3 encompasses non-analysable opaque idioms, and then analysed through an online language corpus (British National Corpus. The results of the study reveal that the coursebook authors under discussion have disregarded idioms’ frequency as a criterion for selection or sequencing, whereas the factor utilized to some extent is the degree of analysability.

  18. Mobility of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Cr in some Estonian soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irha, Natalya

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The sorption capacity of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr to five Estonian soils was evaluated using spiked subsoil samples in laboratory experiments. The experimental sorption data fitted well to the linear Freundlich isotherm. The sorption of metals in subsoil depended on the soil type, e.g., mineral composition. The results indicate that the content of quartz and carbonates is important in affecting the metal sorption capacity of subsoil. On the basis of our data the possibility of penetration in depth and accumulation of mobile metals was evaluated. It was concluded that increase in dissolved Cd and accumulation of other metals in the subsoil of Podzol is expected. The accumulation of Pb could be the main process for soils with a high amount of dolomite.

  19. Grammar School Students’ Opinions on the Art Curriculum: An Estonian, Portuguese and Slovenian Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Zupančič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the attitude of grammar school students towards the art curriculum. It first provides an overview of the characteristics of contemporary art education, with an emphasis on the postmodern art curriculum and on linking course content with students’ interests. The study is based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method, with a sample comprising 387 Slovenian, Estonian and Portuguese students. It was established that the students place the highest value on developing creativity, and are less interested in art history content and learning about the basics of the formal art language. They are attracted to contemporary topics, such as graffiti, multicultural art, the use of new media, and digital technologies. The results of the study provide opportunities for future comparative analyses and starting points for updating art curricula.

  20. Whole-word frequency and inflectional paradigm size facilitate Estonian case-inflected noun processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõo, Kaidi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Baayen, R Harald

    2018-02-15

    Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect. These findings fit well with the evidence for frequency effects of word n-grams in languages with little inflectional morphology, such as English. Apparently, the amount of information on word use in the mental lexicon is substantially larger than was previously thought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stroke awareness in two Estonian cities: better knowledge in subjects with advanced age and higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Liisa; Väli, Merle; Tomson, Kadi; Piirsoo, Erika; Schneider, Siim; Kõrv, Janika

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess stroke awareness of the Estonian population. Investigators were asked to fill in an original, closed-ended multiple-choice questionnaire about the definition, risk factors, symptoms and behavior at the onset of stroke by randomly selected subjects in public places of the two biggest cities in Estonia (Tallinn and Tartu). The study included 355 persons. Most of the respondents knew that stroke is an acute disease and that one should call the ambulance at the onset of a stroke. Speech disorder and paresis were the best known symptoms, while hypertension was the best known risk factor. There were no differences between the sexes, but advanced age and higher level of education were related to higher awareness. The overall knowledge was better compared to many other studies. Future awareness campaigns should be addressed to younger subjects with lower education. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Fractal and multifractal analysis of complex networks: Estonian network of payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2017-12-01

    Complex networks have gained much attention from different areas of knowledge in recent years. Particularly, the structures and dynamics of such systems have attracted considerable interest. Complex networks may have characteristics of multifractality. In this study, we analyze fractal and multifractal properties of a novel network: the large scale economic network of payments of Estonia, where companies are represented by nodes and the payments done between companies are represented by links. We present a fractal scaling analysis and examine the multifractal behavior of this network by using a sandbox algorithm. Our results indicate the existence of multifractality in this network and consequently, the existence of multifractality in the Estonian economy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes multifractality of a complex network of payments.

  3. A Clash of Military Traditions: Meritocracy, Modernization, and Neo-Traditional Challenges to the United States of America’s Foreign Internal Defense (FID) Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    helpful in negotiating the labyrinth of post-war reconstruction issues. Coyne’s argument is that “policymakers and occupiers face an array of...been fighting various conflicts that fall under the umbrella of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) in ways that reflect the fact that the shadow of...TRADITIONS: MERITOCRACY, MODERNIZATION, AND NEO-TRADITIONAL CHALLENGES TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERCIA’S FOREIGN INTERNAL DEFENSE (FID) POLICY

  4. Check Your Privacy Rights at the Front Gate: Consensual Sodomy Regulation in Today’s Military Following United States v. Marcum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-04

    nature,’ were limited to anal intercourse") . Today, however, this definition has been commonly expanded to include fellatio , cunnilingus and bestiality...her); United States v. Henderson, 34 M.J. 174, 176 (C.M.A. 1992) (holding that consensual heterosexual fellatio is not protected by a right to...Supreme Court citing the Missouri Supreme Court, which stated that the phrase, "embraced sodomy, bestiality, buggery, fellatio , and cunnilingus within its

  5. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  6. Observations on Occupation and Military Governance: An Analysis of the American Occupation of Japan and Germany in World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duray, Jr, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Prior to the current Global War on Terror (GWOT), the United States military had not participated in occupation and military governance mission on as a massive a scale as that experienced in World War II...

  7. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana em centro de treinamento militar localizado na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis in military training unit localized in Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval P. Brandão-Filho

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorreu em 1996 em unidade de treinamento militar situada na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, com o registro de 26 casos humanos. Um inquérito epidemiológico foi realizado através da realização de levantamento entomológico e da aplicação do Teste de Montenegro. Lutzomyia choti apresentou predominância de 89,9% dos flebótomos identificados. De 545 homens que participaram de treinamentos no período, 24,1% (incluindo os casos clínicos foram positivo para o Teste de Montenegro.An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis has been occurred in military training unit localized in 'Zona da Mata' of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where were registered 26 human cases. An epidemiological survey was carried out by entomological investigation and Montenegro skin test (MST. Lutzomyia choti presents predominance (89.9% in sandflies identified. Out of 545 men who realized training activities were 24.12% positive to MST.

  8. SPECIFIC SUBJECTS OF LICENSE ACADEMIC PROGRAM - AN IMPORTANT STAGE OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE MILITARY LEADERS AT NATIONAL MILITARY UNIVERSITY, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Stoyanova PETROVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an approved request by the Head of National Military University it is conducting research on motivation in military formations of the example of Vasil Levski National Military University in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. Subject of the study is motivation for training and military activities of the cadets and the objects of the study are students in professional military direction in "Organization and management of military units at the tactical level," Land forces faculty at the National Military University of Bulgaria. The article presents results of the study at second item - "Do you agree that the study of specialized topics is an important stage of your professional development of future military leader?". The interviewees were cadets who graduated through the following academic years - 2013/2014, 2014/2015, 2015/2016.

  9. Mutational analysis of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes among Estonian osteogenesis imperfecta patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Reimann, Ene; Prans, Ele; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare

    2017-08-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen α1 and α2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile of 100% of OI families in the country. We performed mutational analysis of peripheral blood gDNA of 30 unrelated Estonian OI patients using Sanger sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, including all intron-exon junctions and 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions, to identify causative OI mutations. We identified COL1A1/2 mutations in 86.67% of patients (26/30). 76.92% of discovered mutations were located in the COL1A1 (n = 20) and 23.08% in the COL1A2 (n = 6) gene. Half of the COL1A1/2 mutations appeared to be novel. The percentage of quantitative COL1A1/2 mutations was 69.23%. Glycine substitution with serine was the most prevalent among missense mutations. All qualitative mutations were situated in the chain domain of pro-α1/2 chains. Our study shows that among the Estonian OI population, the range of collagen I mutations is quite high, which agrees with other described OI cohorts of Northern Europe. The Estonian OI cohort differs due to the high number of quantitative variants and simple missense variants, which are mostly Gly to Ser substitutions and do not extend the chain domain of COL1A1/2 products.

  10. Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    .... Reported escalations in criminal activity and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some law makers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the Mexico-United States border region...

  11. Forward Military Presence: A Matter of Strategic Culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Basham, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    .... The research within this paper offers for consideration the possibility that United States policy toward forward military presence is guided by a developing strategic culture based upon an underlying...

  12. The military physician and contested medical humanitarianism: a dueling identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart

    2014-11-01

    A critical issue in the study of humanitarianism is who counts as a medical humanitarian. Military physicians are often characterized as caught between the potentially incompatible roles of physician and military professional. Medical NGOs, such as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), have also vociferously rejected military medical humanitarianism: questioning the mandate, skills, and appropriateness of military involvement in humanitarian medicine as well as the potential impact on 'humanitarian space'. Yet many military doctors contest this. Consequently this study examines the ways in which primarily British military physicians identify and manage their identities as both medical humanitarians and soldiers. The research utilized a mixed method, grounded theory approach involving systematic document searches/expert identification of a core literature of 300 policy and peer reviewed documents, plus grey literature and 53 formal medical post operational reports from units serving in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2004 and 2012. Semi structured interviews involved purposive sampling (34 respondents) ranging from a former Surgeon General to more junior staff. Methods also included an analysis of the original data and literature from the 2003 Medical Services Delphi study (involving an additional 40 experts and an extensive literature review) on military medical identity/future roles as well as direct observation of military doctors in Iraq and Afghanistan (two, 2 month research trips). The research concluded that military physicians conceived of themselves as autonomous medical humanitarians with an individual morality rooted in civilian medical ethics that facilitated resistance to the potentially hegemonic military identity. Nevertheless military physicians were part of a medical organization with fundamentally different priorities from those of civilian humanitarian physicians. Furthermore, the perceived emergence of multiple civilian 'humanitarianisms' has

  13. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  14. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  15. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

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  18. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  19. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global......If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...

  20. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  3. Military Review, v71 n3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Rhodes by Major Samuel S. Wood Jr.. US Army Mow IVEdlor19 Force Protection: Military Police major BrUxe M. K Edbr ai ~Affmim En Experience in Panama...undamaged. the United States emerged from the war as an economic colossus Robert F. Baumann Combat Studies Institute. USACGS.

  4. Kolm Eesti Robinsoni: Daniel Defoe romaan eesti tõlkes / Three Estonian Robinsons: Daniel Defoe’s Novel in Estonian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene-Reet Soovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses three Estonian translations of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe into Estonian with the focus on the completeness of the translated texts and the characterisation given to these in paratextual information. While there are several translations and versions of the tex t available in E stonian that have either used a mediating language or do not proceed directly from Defoe’s novel, three editions explicitly list Defoe’s English-language Robinson Crusoe as their source text. These are Rudolf Sirge’s translation from 1950 and two editions translated by Valter Rummel that appeared in 1984 (reprinted in 2001 and 2007, respectively. The article sets out to discover the main differences between the three editions and the possible reasons that may have triggered their publication in Estonia at those particular times. In order to approach the issues, a general framework derived from descriptive translation studies is employed with an emphasis on Gideon Toury’s chrestomatic treatment of translation norms. Thus an attempt is made to detect the preliminary translational norms regarding translation policy, particularly the choice of texts to be translated, as well as the matricial norms that concern the fullness of the translated text and are part of operational norms manifested in the translator’s decisions which, in two of the cases at hand, may also have been decisions made by the editor or the censor. Rudolf Sirge’s translation appeared at a time when Estonia had fairly recently been incorporated into the Soviet Union and there was a lack of children’s literature ideologically appreciated by the regime. This may account for the packaging of the book as a work with a strong didactic bent, while its primary audience was taken to be children and young adults for whom the protagonist served as an example of a hard-working and tenacious hero to be emulated by young Soviets. The target text has been considerably shortened as

  5. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ayesha Siddiqa , Military Inc.: Inside Paki- stan’s Military Economy , London: Pluto Press, 2007; Nawaz, 2008b; Dennis Kux, The United...20060427181948ndybl ehs0.8380701.html Siddiqa , Ayesha , Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy , London: Pluto Press, 2007. Siddiqui, Rehana, “The Pakistani...of the military and intelligence agencies. All of these options augur more instability inside and outside Pakistan and

  6. New York-Tidewater Chapters' History of Military Medicine Award. The military odyssey of Norman Bethune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C A

    1999-04-01

    While visiting the Peoples Republic of China in 1982, I became aware of the work of the Canadian, Norman Bethune, as a military surgeon. Bethune first served as a stretcher-bearer in an ambulance unit and later as a medical officer with the Allies during the First World War. He also participated in the Spanish Civil War as a military physician. He died in China while serving with Mao Tse-tung's 8th Route Army, fighting the Japanese invaders in Yenan. Bethune pioneered the use of whole blood transfusions in combat areas, first in Spain and then in China. In the annals of Chinese military history, he has been given an honored place as a military surgeon and a martyr. He is also credited in China with improving the practice of battlefield medicine, as an organizer, teacher, and innovator. Bethune's fame in China is now spreading to Canada.

  7. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  8. Temporal trends in dietary supplement prescriptions of United States military service members suggest a decrease in pyridoxine and increase in vitamin D supplements from 2005 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; T Jean, Rosenie; Austin, Krista G; Steelman, Ryan A; Gannon, Julia; Farina, Emily K; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-10-01

    Dietary supplements (DSs) can be obtained over-the-counter but can also be prescribed by health-care providers for therapeutic reasons. Few studies have documented this later source despite the fact that 79% of physicians and 82% of nurses have recommended DSs to patients. This investigation assessed prevalence and temporal trends in oral DS prescriptions filled by all United States service members (SMs) from 2005 to 2013 (n = 1 427 080 ± 22 139, mean ± standard deviation (SD)/y). We hypothesize that there would be temporal variations in specific types of DSs. Data obtained from Department of Defense Pharmacy Data Transaction System were grouped by American Hospital Formulary System pharmacologic-therapeutic classifications and prevalence examined over time. About 11% of SMs filled one or more DS prescriptions of 235 180 ± 4926 (mean ± SD) prescriptions/y over the 9-year period. Curve-fitting techniques indicated significant linear declines over time for multivitamins (P = .004), iron preparations (P vitamin B and B complex vitamins (P vitamin C (P vitamin E indicating a decline in early years and leveling off in later years, and vitamin D indicating little change in early years followed by a large rise subsequently (P < .001). This study identified temporal trends in specific DS categories that may be associated with changing perceptions of prescribers and/or patients of the appropriate roles of DSs in medicine and public health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The long-term consequences of military deployment: a 5-year cohort study of United kingdom reservists deployed to Iraq in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Hatch, Stephani L; Jones, Margaret; Hull, Lisa; Jones, Norman; Greenberg, Neil; Dandeker, Christopher; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon

    2012-12-15

    Reserve and National Guard forces have been mobilized to an unprecedented degree in recent overseas conflicts. There is concern that rates of psychological problems may continue to rise for many years after deployment. The authors conducted a cohort study of 552 United Kingdom Reservists who deployed to Iraq in 2003 and 391 nondeployed Reservists. Measures of mental health and social functioning were collected a mean of 16 months and 4.8 years after return from possible deployment. At the first follow-up, deployment was associated with increased common mental disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and poor general health. By the second follow-up, those who had deployed were no longer at increased risk for common mental disorder or poor general health and had good levels of social functioning. However, those who deployed continued to have over twice the odds of PTSD (odds ratio = 2.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 5.62) and were more likely to report actual or serious consideration of separation from their partner. In conclusion, the authors found that the majority of mental health and social problems following deployment are transient. However, Reservists who deployed in the Iraq War remain at increased risk of PTSD and relationship problems 5 years after their tour of duty.

  10. With or without articles? A comparison of article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hint

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the use and functions of definite and indefinite article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish. Our main aim is to explore whether the factors that explain the choice of particular determiner forms are similar in Estonian and Finnish. We use a picture-sequence based elicitation experiment to collect spoken narratives from adult native speakers of Estonian and Finnish, and apply non-parametric tree and forest models to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that number of mention and animacy are important predictor variables in both languages, but their exact effect is divergent. We also find that in Finnish, case of the determiner NP proves to be an important factor, while in Estonian, syntactic role of the NP explains some aspects of determiner form choice. Nevertheless, the overall usage frequency of determiners is modest in the Estonian and Finnish data, and the process of grammaticalizing articles is only in initial stages in both languages. *** Artikliga, artiklita? Eesti ja soome keele artiklilaadsete määratlejate võrdlus Siinses uurimuses analüüsime võrdlevalt artiklilaadseid definiitseid ja indefiniitseid määratlejaid eesti ja soome keeles. Eelkõige kõrvutame eesti keele definiitset määratlejat see ja soome keele definiitseid määratlejaid se ja tämä ning eesti ja soome indefiniitset määratlejat üks/yks(i. Samuti vaatleme eesti keele possessiivpronoomeni oma ning soome 3sg possessiivsufiksi (-nsa/-nsä, -Vn referentsiaalseid omadusi. Uurimuse põhieesmärgiks on selgitada, millised on peamised määratlejate kasutust mõjutavad keelelised faktorid eesti ja soome keeles ning kas need faktorid on keeliti sarnased või erinevad. Ühtlasi otsime vastust küsimusele, kas eesti ja soome keeles on põhjust rääkida määratlejate grammatisatsioonist artikliteks. Uuritav keelematerjal pärineb pildiseeria põhjal kogutud suulistest narratiividest. Uurimuses osales 20 eesti ja 20 soome keele

  11. Military Bases and Conservation Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Ankeny

    2007-09-01

    Over time, DoD is likely to be one of the largest buyers and sellers in a water quality trading market. The Department of Defense (DoD) operates military bases that resemble small cities in infrastructure. As units redeploy, bases are likely to find themselves well within their environmental limits at the originating base and potentially bumping against limits such as nitrate and phosphate loading at the destination base. Stricter rules and heavier loadings in growing watersheds also present challenges to local bases and municipalities as regulators clamp down on loadings from existing Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) to meet water quality standards.

  12. Grupuskulaarne identiteediloome paremäärmuslaste võrgusuhtluses / The Formation of Groupuscular Identity in the Web Communication of the Estonian Extreme Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Liis Madisson

    2015-06-01

    core Estonianness“ and protect it from foreign influences; the belief that the world order (including Estonian power structures are controlled by a secret alliance between Zionists and Masonic orders; the danger of mixing races and cultures; the need to exert strong state control over a range of areas of life; euroskepticism.  According to the authors of this article non-institutionalized extreme right movements operating in hypermedia have been most extensively examined by Roger Griffin’s research. Griffin has developed the concept of the groupuscule, which can be defined as small, political, (though almost never directly partypolitical unit in the context of contemporary extreme right-wing politics, and which strive toward revolutionary, ideological, organizational, and activist goals, the overall purpose of which is to overcome the decadence of the liberal democratic system.  Groupuscules can have diverse physical manifestations: webpages, magazines, and why not also underground meetings of extreme-right cell groups. Indeed, according to Griffin, groupuscules can be treated as non-nuclear cellular networks without a leader. The communication of groupuscules reflects the characteristics of hypermedia itself: nonhierarchical or network-like structure, internal multiplicity, the lack of a centre or a central axis of organization, fluidity, and temporariness, all of which are most often connected with the abstract textuality of the hypermedia environment.  In our view, the main limitation of Griffin’s account of groupuscules is the undertheorization of communication both within and among groupuscules. Too little attention has been directed to the primary mechanisms of meaning-creation, which organize navigation on the groupuscular information field and the development of hierarchies. In this article we aim to supplement Griffin’s theory of the groupsucule by means of a cultural-semiotic approach, particularly through the concepts of the semiosphere and the code text

  13. THE MILITARY GLIDER REVISITED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The military glider has, arguably, enjoyed the briefest life span of any major military equipment type - spanning not much more than a decade and a half from the entry into production of the first, to the demise of the concept as such. Dur- ing its heyday, however, the glider was instru- mental in not a few spectacular ...

  14. Movies and the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    planned as a Rorschach test . He is what people who believe in military values can see as the true military hero-the red-blooded American who loves to...noble struggle. of the movies produced during World War I met the test of greatness. The great films about the war would be made in later years by

  15. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    South' or utilising new technologies to overcome the prohibitive costs of current systems. Analysing the philosophical, strategic and budgetary underpinnings of these alternatives, he concludes that a more radical break from current military organisational practices is needed which would allow them......If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  16. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  17. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...... South' or utilising new technologies to overcome the prohibitive costs of current systems. Analysing the philosophical, strategic and budgetary underpinnings of these alternatives, he concludes that a more radical break from current military organisational practices is needed which would allow them...

  18. Survival of the Unfit: Path Dependence and the Estonian Oil Shale Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik

    2009-01-15

    Estonia is the only country in the world, which is totally dependent on oil shale in its energy system. Although this fossil fuel exists in enormous quantities around the world, it has so far not been utilized on a larger scale. The reasons for this have been both economic and, in recent times, ecological. It can therefore be argued that in most cases, oil shale represents an inferior solution compared to other energy sources. This work examines why a technology utilizing oil shale has developed in Estonia and why Estonia appears not to be in a position to switch to other energy sources. In this work it is claimed that oil shale actually has been an appropriate solution to short-term concerns, despite the fact that its long-term drawbacks have been identified. These circumstances led to path dependence. Once the technology was in place, it advanced along its learning curve producing a satisfactory outcome, but not an optimal one. However, this situation has been accepted due to the extremely turbulent institutional environment Estonia has undergone in the 20th century. In Sweden, a somewhat similar (but smaller) oil shale industry was shut down in the 1960s because of poor economic performance, but also because of the competition from other energy sources. Such competition did not take place in Estonia, in part due to the specific institutional set-up of the Soviet Union. This made it possible for the Estonian oil shale industry to develop further, causing the present lock-in. Today the existing infrastructure, the knowledge-base, and the particular socio-political circumstances of Estonia effectively prevent change. Furthermore, it is argued that because there was only little oil shale-related technology developed outside Estonia, most technology had to be developed domestically. This in turn has forced the Estonian oil shale industry to make several highly inconvenient alliances in order to gain room to manoeuvre. Partially as a result of this, there is today

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  20. Russia-Ukraine balance of military power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokull Johannesson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Russia-Ukraine conflict is the most serious test of European security in the 21st century and the forgone conclusion is that Russia can easily prevail in the conflict, but this has not been the case. This article uses balance of military power analysis to report findings on the plausible outcome of a war between Ukraine and Russia. I report findings based on realist theoretical perspectives that indicate Russian victory is unlikely because of relative balance of power where Russia has to face multiple threats diverting its military power while Ukraine can concentrate its military power for a single purpose. The findings suggest implication for policy in Russia, Ukraine, EU and the United States of America.

  1. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee

    2014-01-01

    What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...

  2. Sleep and Academic Performance in U.S. Military Training and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G.; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Dyche, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the effects of military training regimes, which might include some degree of sleep deprivation, on sleep-wake schedules. We report a 4-year longitudinal study of sleep patterns of cadets at the United States Military Academy and the consequences of an extension of sleep from 6 to 8 hr per night at the United States Navy's…

  3. Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Military Housing Privatization Initiative in Selected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    existing units and construct 840 new units on the installation in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Transfer of operations took place in November 1999...Washington. Transfer of operations occurred April 2002. Fort Meade, Maryland Awarded December 2001 to Picerne Military Housing. Picerne Military

  4. Military Medical Revolution: Military Trauma System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    noted in the 1996 Military Medi- cine TCCC article were not new but rather were built on observations and recommendations of earlier authors;7Y11 these...Milit Med. 1987;152:617 622. 12. Holcomb JB, McMullen NR, Pearse L, et al. Causes of death in Special Operations Forces in the Global War on Terror

  5. The application of CRM to military operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Dale E.; Williams, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed content of the CRM training component of the C-5 Aircrew Training System (ATS) was left to the discretion of the contractor. As a part of determining what the content should be, United Airlines Services Corporation has made an effort to understand how the needs of MAC crews compare with those of civilian airline crews. There are distinct similarities between the crew roles in the cockpits of civilian airliners and military air transports. Many of the attitudes and behaviors exhibited by civil and military crew members are comparable, hence much of the training in the field referred to as Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is equally appropriate to civil or military aircrews. At the same time, there are significant differences which require assessment to determine if modifications to what might be termed generic CRM are necessary. The investigation enabled the definition and specification of CRM training which is believed to address the needs of the C-5 operational community. The study has concentrated largely on military airlift, but the training objectives and course content of the CRM training are readily adaptable to a wider range of military cockpits than are found in strategic airlift. For instance, CRM training focusing on communication, leadership, situational awareness, and crew coordination is just as appropriate, with some modification, to the pilots manning a flight to Tactical Airlift Command A-7's as it is to the pilots, flight engineers, and loadmasters crewing a C-5.

  6. STATIC AND DYNAMIC STATES: THE CASE OF ESTONIAN STATIVE COLOUR EXPRESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geda Paulsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to account for stative situations through the example of structurally different but semantically close colour expressions: the Estonian stative verbs derived from colour adjectives and colour adjectives appearing as the predicative. Stative verbs are assumed to be similar to copula constructions, with the aspectual distinction of temporary/permanent property. In this article, the stative colour expressions are analysed using the linguistic diagnostics developed for the determination of ontological properties of different types of states – the sc. Davidsonian and Kimian states(see e.g. Maienborn 2003. Analysis reveals that the copula construction with colour adjective as predicative is ambiguous, inclining to the Kimian states but also assigning properties characteristic to the Davidsonian states; the stative colour verbs, in turn, are true examples of Davidsonian states. In addition to the examination of the stative properties, the conceptual structure analysis of the colour expressions instantiating stative and dynamic states is given. The observer’s evaluation of the coloured object as a mental image is treated as part of the lexical information of the colour statives. Also, sentential and contextual phenomena of the colour statives are discussed.

  7. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmets, L; Samm, A; Sisask, M; Kõlves, K; Aasvee, K; Värnik, A

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)." It aimed at describing and analyzing how the sexual behaviors of 13- to 15-year-old Estonian school children were associated with self-reported depressive feelings and suicidality. Distinctive behavioral traits in relation to age of first sexual intercourse were also investigated. Self-reported questionnaires from school children (n = 3,055) were analyzed. In total, 15.2% of school children reported being nonvirgin. Among 13-year-olds, 2.9% of girls and 6.8% of boys were nonvirgins. Approximately 25% of the 15-year-old girls and boys were nonvirgins. The likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal ideation increased significantly in both genders with loss of virginity. Boys who had lost their virginity at 13 years or younger were 4.2 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts; comparable girls were 7.8 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Compared to virgins, youths who had lost their virginity reported poor self-assessed health and more risk behaviors in themselves and their peers. Experiences of sexual intercourse increased the odds ratios for depressive feelings and suicidality. The earlier sexual intercourse was initiated, the greater were the odds of lower mental well-being. Risk behaviors emerged as a complex phenomenon requiring complex prevention.

  8. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  9. Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: A collective story of Estonian adult educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Larissa; Karu, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    Adult Education has many values, including experiences and co-operation among people, and the fact that adult education is full of stories from adult educators, which can help to understand trends in the past and developments in the present. Established in 1991 as part of a more general regional cooperation among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8), Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education has been mutually enriching and has resulted in the growth of a professional network. The cooperation has led participants through a time of new sources of values, knowledge and contacts, socialisation and transformation, inspiration and challenges, which has influenced their experiences and professional identities. This paper is based on the results of a study entitled "Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: Experience and stories" and focuses on the experiences and professional identities of two generations of Estonian adult educators. The empirical data for the study were collected using narrative-biographical interviews. The paper discusses two research questions: (1) What is the perception and influence of experiences for adult educators? and (2) How have their experiences influenced the professional identity of adult educators?

  10. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Estonian medical students with sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Triin; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko; Veldi, Marlit

    2006-01-01

    High emotional stress in medical students has been observed in many studies. Our aim in this article was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among Estonian medical students and to find relationships between sleep complaints and emotional symptoms. The study group consisted of 413 medical students, ages 19-33 years, at the University of Tartu. Each was asked to complete two questionnaires: the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q), containing 28 questions, and the Questionnaire on Sleep and Daytime Habits, with 25 questions. The anxiety and depression subscales from the EST-Q were applied. From the study group, 21.9% students had symptoms of anxiety, and 30.6% had symptoms of depression. The frequency of anxiety and depressive symptoms was higher in females. In regression and multiple regression analysis, we determined which sleep problems were related to emotional symptoms. The associations were different for men and women. In women, anxiety remained significantly related to waking up because of nightmares and feeling tired in the morning; depressive symptoms were related to difficulties in getting to sleep at night, waking up because of nightmares and nocturnal eating habits, daytime sleepiness, and sleepiness during school lessons. In men, significant relations were clear only for depression: difficulties in falling asleep at night before an exam and subjective sleep quality. The study demonstrated that a high percentage of medical students had emotional symptoms. We found that some sleep problems indicated underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. A study of bovine mastitis, milking procedures and management practices on 25 Estonian dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonova Irina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis prevalence, milking procedures and management practices were investigated in 25 big dairy herds supplying milk to an Estonian dairy company. The aim of the study was to provide information for the company to be used in their new udder health improvement program to be set up after the completion of this study. Methods Quarter milk samples were collected from 3,166 cows for bacterial analysis and SCC (somatic cell counting. During the farm visit the veterinarian filled in a questionnaire about milking procedures and management practices with the help of farm managers. If the milk SCC of a cow or of a quarter exceeded 200,000/ml, the cow was defined as having mastitis. Results The percentage of cows having inflammation in one or more quarters measured by SCC (200,000/ml was 52.7%. Corynebacterium bovis, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacterial isolates. Women as farm owners, and participating in the milking, were associated with lower mastitis prevalence on the farm. Peat bedding was associated with higher mastitis prevalence. Conclusion We demonstrated relatively high mastitis prevalence in this study. Contagious bacteria (eg. S. aureus, C. bovis, S. agalactiae and coagulase negative staphylococci caused most of the infections. These infections are usually spread from cow to cow at milking if the milking hygiene is not good enough. The mastitis situation could be improved by improving milking procedures and hygiene.

  12. Trade Union Responses to Transnational Labour Mobility in the Finnish-Estonian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolle Alho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines trade union strategies in relation to labor migration in Estonia and Finland, drawing on face-to-face interviews with trade unionists and official union statements. The study considers the national trade union strategies located in two separate but interconnected localities that represent different approaches to market economy. Previous research suggests that the national industrial relations system is a key factor in explaining unions’ labor migration strategies. Unions operating in liberal market economies are claimed to be more open toward immigration and more inclusive toward immigrants than unions in coordinated markets. This study analyzes the extent to which this theory holds in the context of Estonia and Finland—Finland representing a coordinated market economy and Estonia a liberal market economy. Furthermore, the analysis examines how the emergence of a translocal labor market, resulting from the geographical vicinity and linguistic affinity between Finland and Estonia as well as from free mobility within the EU, is reflected in trade union approaches to labor migration. The study finds that Finnish trade union strategies influence labor mobility, whereas Estonian trade unions remain bystanders in the issue.

  13. Omaeluloolisus nullindatel / Estonian Life Writing of the 2000s as a Continuity Over the Post-Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of the (literary culture of the 2000s is a sudden increase in the publication of works of life writing in different genres. Although life writing as a phenomenon has received considerably more critical attention in recent years, it has not yet settled within the literary canon, and theoretical debates concerning its diverse textual practises are still in initial phases. The current article provides an overview of Estonian life writing of the 2000s, viewing the emergence of new forms, themes and perspectives as a continuity within the wider framework of the post-Soviet period and in comparison with some recent developments and theoretical foci of life writing studies in general.The processes of the construction of subjectivity and identity in a number of autobiographical writings published in the first half of the 2000s can be traced back to the emergence of Estonian “memorial culture” in the late 1980s and 1990s, where oral and written testimonial accounts of personal experience focusing on the period of the Soviet occupation played an important role in the process of dismantling the official Soviet discourses of history and contributed to the process of regaining independence. A number of life writing texts by well-known Estonian literary figures published in the mid-2000s employ modes of collective and individual self-conception and self-reflection similar to those prevalent in the texts of life stories. No longer employed for the purposes of implementing socio-political change, these works confirm and consolidate such modes of identification and self-representation within the framework of (literary culture. Another important trend of Estonian life writing of the 2000s involves “textual games”, where lived experience and the construction of fictional worlds are intertwined in a complex and self-conscious manner. Visible most strongly in the work of Tõnu Õnnepalu and Madis Kõiv, this feature of Estonian life

  14. Seltsi muuseumist riigi keskmuuseumiks: ikka ajutiste lahendustega / Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Aru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the presentThe Estonian National Museum was founded in Tartu in 1909 as part of the national movement. With its activities and connections in society, the ENM helped create Estonian society, the nation’s collective memory and identity.The ENM has always been – despite the changing locations, names, and content – one of the symbols of national identity. But at the same time, ENM has never had its own building designed specially for the museum’s purposes.Since 1909 there have been several attempts to establish a home for the ENM. At first (1909–1923, Estonian society wanted to establish the museum in the center of Tartu. The museum was intended to become a key institution of the growing nation and establishing the nation’s identity.At last in 1923 the ENM secured the Raadi manor, outside the center of the city, in a beautiful park, near the lake with its boats and water attractions. In this manor the first permanent exhibition of mainly 19th century Estonian peasant life was compiled, and the ENM operated in the Raadi manor from 1923–1940 as the “Estonian’s own museum” The years of alternating occupations, World War II, and political terror damaged and destroyed the whole society. The Raadi manor was destroyed in the war too, and the ENM itself was divided into two parts – the State Ethnographic Museum and the State Literary Museum. The collections of the ENM were given to Tallinn and to many different places inside and outside Tartu. Then began “the period of temporary location” that continues today. The museum is located in several places in the city of Tartu.In 1988, the prior name of the State Ethnographic Museum – the Estonian National Museum – was reinstated. Since the 1990s there have been many attempts to secure a special building for the ENM. Now, at last, as a result of serious economic pressure, we are closer to this goal than ever. During the last five

  15. The Nature and Nurture of Military Genius: Developing Senior Strategic Leaders for the Postmodern Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Clausewitz, On War, 100. 32 Clausewitz, On War, 100. 33 Clausewitz, On War, 100. 34 Hans Eysenck , Genius: The Natural History of Creativity (Cambridge...United States." Military Education Commission. London: Eyre and Spottiswode for H.M.S.O., 1970. 198. Eysenck , Hans. Genius: The Natural History of

  16. 75 FR 31505 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... South Korea, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Thailand, Chile, and Malaysia... aircraft fuel cells for end use by the Japanese Ministry of Defense. No significant military equipment (SME... helicopters in the inventory of the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence. No significant military equipment (SME...

  17. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Loading... Close Yeah, keep it Undo Close This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue Watch Queue Queue Remove ... Queue Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe ...

  18. Forecasting military expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Böhmelt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To what extent do frequently cited determinants of military spending allow us to predict and forecast future levels of expenditure? The authors draw on the data and specifications of a recent model on military expenditure and assess the predictive power of its variables using in-sample predictions, out-of-sample forecasts and Bayesian model averaging. To this end, this paper provides guidelines for prediction exercises in general using these three techniques. More substantially, however, the findings emphasize that previous levels of military spending as well as a country’s institutional and economic characteristics particularly improve our ability to predict future levels of investment in the military. Variables pertaining to the international security environment also matter, but seem less important. In addition, the results highlight that the updated model, which drops weak predictors, is not only more parsimonious, but also slightly more accurate than the original specification.

  19. Military Geodesy and Geospace Science Unit One

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    zenith tube (PZT) * The Danjon astrolabe . The VZT is designed to be oriented in the plane of the local meridian to measure zenith distances of stars as...variation. The Danjon astrolabe is an optical instrument involving visual observation rather than the use of a photographic plate. Another source of polar...camera, prismatic astrolabe -- which all contain 1-veling devices. When properly adjusted, the vertical axis of the instrument coincides with the direc

  20. Military Implications of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    political complications. What has to be studiously avoided during this dialogue is the generation of a sense of favouritism , suspicion and conspiracy. When...22nd. In between, we played musical headquarters. We changed headquarters three different times because the civilian component couldn’t agree with the

  1. Resilience among military youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Much research on children in military families has taken a deficit approach--that is, it has portrayed these children as a population susceptible to psychological damage from the hardships of military life, such as frequent moves and separation from their parents during deployment. But M. Ann Easterbrooks, Kenneth Ginsburg, and Richard M. Lerner observe that most military children turn out just fine. They argue that, to better serve military children, we must understand the sources of strength that help them cope with adversity and thrive. In other words, we must understand their resilience. The authors stress that resilience is not a personal trait but a product of the relationships between children and the people and resources around them. In this sense, military life, along with its hardships, offers many sources for resilience--for example, a strong sense of belonging to a supportive community with a shared mission and values. Similarly, children whose parents are deployed may build their self-confidence by taking on new responsibilities in the family, and moving offers opportunities for adventure and personal growth. As the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan drew more and more service members into combat, the military and civilian groups alike rolled out dozens of programs aimed at boosting military children's resilience. Although the authors applaud this effort, they also note that few of these programs have been based on scientific evidence of what works, and few have been rigorously evaluated for their effectiveness. They call for a program of sustained research to boost our understanding of military children's resilience.

  2. [The Russian Armed Forces Military Medical Service: condition and ways of improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisun, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 the main efforts of the Medical Service were aimed at the following tasks: optimization of management system of military medical service, improvement of medical evacuation system, medical service security for military contingents, assigned according to territory principle to military-medical facilities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, implementation of innovations at all stages of medical evacuation in peace- and wartime, security of combat and mobilization readiness of regulatory bodies of the Medical Service, medical military units and military medical facilities, medical service of troops battle training, improvement of material and technical resources, security of regular pharmacy and equipment supply, activation of research work in the Medical Service interests. Lines of military medicine development in 2014 are: transfer of treatment facilities that are not used by the Ministry of Defence into the Federal Biomedical Agency till the end of 2014, prevention of pneumonia and meningitis in military personnel, improvement of early diagnosis system, medical service for military contingents according to territory principle, improvement of diagnostic and treatment work in military-medical units and subunits and military-medical facilities by means of development of material and technical resources, monitor the implementation of innovative diagnostic and treatment technologies, completion of construction projects of central military hospitals and etc.

  3. Bernhard Linde. Noor-Eesti vooriülem. Bernhard Linde. Leader of the Young Estonian Pack

    OpenAIRE

    Jaanus Kulli

    2012-01-01

    Bernhard Linde (1886–1954) was a recognized and prolific Estonian theatre critic of the first quarter of the 20th century, who mediated and propagated western as well as eastern European theatrical innovations. In addition, he was active as a literary and art critic, publisher, and proponent of libraries, to a modest extent he was a prose writer and poet. Unquestionably, however, Bernhard Linde’s most prominent role was as one of the founding members of the literary movement Young Estonia. He...

  4. Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale short form (SWN-K): reliability and validity in an Estonian speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Liina; Mõttus, René; Jaanson, Peeter; Pilli, Raine; Mägi, Kairi; Maron, Eduard

    2013-09-11

    The Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale short form (SWN-K) is a self-rating scale developed to measure mentally ill patients' well-being under the antipsychotic drug treatment. This paper reports on adaptation and psychometric properties of the instrument in an Estonian psychiatric sample. In a naturalistic study design, 124 inpatients or outpatients suffering from the first psychotic episode or chronic psychotic illness completed the translated SWN-K instrument. Item content analysis, internal consistency analysis, exploratory principal components analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to construct the Estonian version of the SWN-K (SWN-K-E). Additionally, socio-demographic and clinical data, observer-rated psychopathology, medication side effects, daily antipsychotic drug dosages, and general functioning were assessed at two time points, at baseline and after a 29-week period; the associations of the SWN-K-E scores with these variables were explored. After having selected 20 items for the Estonian adaptation, the internal consistency of the total SWN-K-E was 0.93 and the subscale consistencies ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for the adapted scale scores, with the correlation of the total score over about 6 months being r = 0.70. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the presence of a higher-order factor (general well-being) and five first-order factors (mental functioning, physical functioning, social integration, emotional regulation, and self-control); the model fitted the data well. The results indicated a moderate-high correlations r = 0.54 between the SWN-K-E total score and the evaluation how satisfied patients were with their lives in generally. No significant correlations were found between the overall subjective well-being score and age, severity of the psychopathology, drug adverse effects, or prescribed drug dosage. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the Estonian

  5. Military applications of automatic speech recognition and future requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Bruno; Cupples, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    An updated summary of the state-of-the-art of automatic speech recognition and its relevance to military applications is provided. A number of potential systems for military applications are under development. These include: (1) digital narrowband communication systems; (2) automatic speech verification; (3) on-line cartographic processing unit; (4) word recognition for militarized tactical data system; and (5) voice recognition and synthesis for aircraft cockpit.

  6. FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Kristy N. Kamarck. CRS Report RL34397, Traditional and Roth Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs): A Primer, by John J. Topoleski. Previously discussed...either civilian or military providers. Non-formulary medicines generally are not available at military pharmacies. It is DOD policy to use generic...requires most males between the ages of 18 and 26 who are citizens or residents of the United States to register with Selective Service. Women in the

  7. Reintegration of the Iraqi Military in Post-Conflict Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited REINTEGRATION OF THE IRAQI MILITARY IN POST...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Reintegration of the Iraqi Military in Post-Conflict Era. 6. AUTHOR(S) Ertürk, Sait 5...process of the United States led coalition is to be successful . The fulcrum of power in Iraq has always been the internecine ethnic, religious, and

  8. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  9. Private military and security companies policy in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gwatiwa Tshepo

    to the United Nations (UN) in Somalia. They also provide services to international military organisations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the United States Africa Command (US AFRICOM) in Sudan, Somalia and West. Africa. All the aforementioned are the major international security partners of the.

  10. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Mixotrophy in Pyroleae (Ericaceae) from Estonian boreal forests does not vary with light or tissue age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Félix; Puttsepp, Ülle; Lang, Mait; Luud, Aarne; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Palancade, Cécile; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-09-01

    In temperate forests, some green plants, namely pyroloids (Pyroleae, Ericaceae) and some orchids, independently evolved a mode of nutrition mixing photosynthates and carbon gained from their mycorrhizal fungi (mixotrophy). Fungal carbon is more enriched in 13C than photosynthates, allowing estimation of the proportion of carbon acquired heterotrophically from fungi in plant biomass. Based on 13C enrichment, mixotrophic orchids have previously been shown to increase shoot autotrophy level over the growth season and with environmental light availability. But little is known about the plasticity of use of photosynthetic versus fungal carbon in pyroloids. Plasticity of mixotrophy with leaf age or light level (estimated from canopy openness) was investigated in pyroloids from three Estonian boreal forests. Bulk leaf 13C enrichment of five pyroloid species was compared with that of control autotrophic plants along temporal series (over one growth season) and environmental light gradients (n=405 samples). Mixotrophic 13C enrichment was detected at studied sites for Pyrola chlorantha and Orthilia secunda (except at one site for the latter), but not for Chimaphila umbellata, Pyrola rotundifolia and Moneses uniflora. Enrichment with 13C did not vary over the growth season or between leaves from current and previous years. Finally, although one co-occurring mixotrophic orchid showed 13C depletion with increasing light availability, as expected for mixotrophs, all pyroloids responded identically to autotrophic control plants along light gradients. A phylogenetic trend previously observed is further supported: mixotrophy is rarely supported by 13C enrichment in the Chimaphila + Moneses clade, whereas it is frequent in the Pyrola + Orthilia clade. Moreover, pyroloid mixotrophy does not respond plastically to ageing or to light level. This contrasts with the usual view of a convergent evolution with orchids, and casts doubt on the way pyroloids use the carbon gained from their

  12. Personality traits and eating habits in a large sample of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Deary, Ian J; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Diet has health consequences, which makes knowing the psychological correlates of dietary habits important. Associations between dietary habits and personality traits were examined in a large sample of Estonians (N = 1,691) aged between 18 and 89 years. Dietary habits were measured using 11 items, which grouped into two factors reflecting (a) health aware and (b) traditional dietary patterns. The health aware diet factor was defined by eating more cereal and dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits. The traditional diet factor was defined by eating more potatoes, meat and meat products, and bread. Personality was assessed by participants themselves and by people who knew them well. The questionnaire used was the NEO Personality Inventory-3, which measures the Five-Factor Model personality broad traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, along with six facets for each trait. Gender, age and educational level were controlled for. Higher scores on the health aware diet factor were associated with lower Neuroticism, and higher Extraversion, Openness and Conscientiousness (effect sizes were modest: r = .11 to 0.17 in self-ratings, and r = .08 to 0.11 in informant-ratings, ps < 0.01 or lower). Higher scores on the traditional diet factor were related to lower levels of Openness (r = -0.14 and -0.13, p < .001, self- and informant-ratings, respectively). Endorsement of healthy and avoidance of traditional dietary items are associated with people's personality trait levels, especially higher Openness. The results may inform dietary interventions with respect to possible barriers to diet change.

  13. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  14. Prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in Estonian, Latvian, and Russian (Leningrad region) pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pilar Ortiz; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Sokolova, Yulia; Roasto, Mati; Berzins, Aivars; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Tonsils of 457 fattening pigs from Estonia (n = 151), Latvia (n = 109), and the Leningrad Region of Russia (n = 197) were collected between 2004 and 2007 to study the prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in slaughter pigs. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated by selective and cold enrichment. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were identified by PCR targeting the chromosomal genes ail and inv, respectively. The presence of the virulence plasmid was confirmed by PCR targeting the virF gene of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The prevalence of ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was 89% in Estonia, 64% in Latvia, and 34% in Russia, with 81% of ail-positive samples being virF-positive. A statistically significant (p Estonian and Latvian pigs and between pigs from Latvia and the Leningrad Region of Russia was observed when assuming randomized sampling. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 was the only pathogenic type found. The prevalence of inv and virF-positive Y. pseudotuberculosis was higher in Russia (7%) than in Latvia (5%) and Estonia (1%), with a statistically significant difference between pigs from Estonia and the Leningrad Region of Russia when assuming both randomized sampling and clustering at farms. All Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates were bioserotype 2/O:3. A total of eight pigs (2%), one pig from Latvia and seven pigs from the Leningrad Region of Russia, carried both pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils. Cold enrichment was found to be a more efficient method compared to selective enrichment to isolate both species. Pigs seem to be an important reservoir of human enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 2/O:3 in these countries.

  15. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasmäe Birgit

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001 for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%, Streptococcus uberis (19.1% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%. In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%. Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.

  16. Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25-54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008-09. Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The Estonian Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 56.3-64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI = 15.4-22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI = 14.4-20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI = 11.3-17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.2-7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI = 0.6-2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. The majority of 554 men aged 25-54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008-09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  18. Economic modelling of the capture-transport-sink scenario of industrial CO2 emissions: The Estonian-Latvian cross-border case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shogenova, A.; Shogenov, K.; Pomeranceva, R.; Nulle, I.; Neele, F.; Hendriks, C.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial CO2 emissions and opportunities for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Region were studied within the EU GeoCapacity project supported by the European Union Framework Programme 6. Estonia produces the largest amounts of CO2 emissions in the region, due to the combustion of Estonian oil

  19. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  20. “... if there’s a party, then there’s definitely alcohol”. Construction of partying practices and abstinence in Estonian youth forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parder Mari-Liisa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Adolescents’ abstinence from alcohol has not been much researched in terms of providing suggestions for prevention strategies. This study aims to fill that gap by offering a practice theory-inspired analysis of how the unwritten rules of partying practices are communicated between posters of Estonian youth forums.

  1. A Silent Finn, a Silent Finno-Ugric, or a Silent Nordic? A Comparative Study of Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; de Geer, Boel; Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu

    2003-01-01

    Compared verbal characteristics of family interaction in the stereotypically tongue-tied Nordic region of the Western world. Compared mothers' and early adolescents' talkativeness and monologuing and mothers' conversational dominance emerging in real-life video recordings in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish monolingual and bilingual families. (VWL)

  2. Health-related quality of life of Estonian adolescents: reliability and validity of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viira, Roomet; Koka, Andre

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales among Estonian adolescents. Gender differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were also investigated. The 654 adolescents (309 boys and 345 girls) aged 13-14 years (M age = 13.57 years, SD = 0.62) completed Estonian version of the PedsQL™ 4.0. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis for a five-factor model of the Estonian version of PedsQL™ 4.0 approached the criteria of acceptable fit after setting error covariance to be free between some of the items within physical health, emotional functioning and social functioning subscales. Cronbach's alpha coefficients exceeded the minimum criterion of 0.70 for all subscales except for days missed from school because of illness subscale. With regard to gender differences, consistent with previous studies, girls reported lower level on total score of HRQoL as well as its aspects of physical health, emotional functioning and psychosocial health. The present study revealed that after some modifications, the PedsQL™ 4.0 could be considered as suitable instrument to measure HRQoL among Estonian adolescents. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Corporate Governance from the Perspective of Stakeholder Theory and in Light of Perceptions among Estonian Owners and Managers of Relations with Stakeholders / Mari Kooskora

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kooskora, Mari, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Äriühingute valitsemise kontseptsioon ja teoreetiline taust; Eesti omanike ja tippjuhtide ootused suhetes erinevate huvigruppidega ning äriühingute valitsemine huvigruppide teooriast lähtudes. Skeem: The stakeholder model. Tabelid: Contractual and community stakeholders; Overview of how perceptions of the main stakeholder groups among Estonian business leaders between 1995-2004 have changed

  4. Characterisation of Estonian Kukersite by spectroscopy and pyrolysis: Evidence for abundant alkyl phenolic moieties in an Ordovician, marine, Type II/I kerogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Casadevall, E.; Tegelaar, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    The kerogen of a sample of Estonian Kukersite (Ordovician) was examined by spectroscopic (solid state 13C NMR, FTIR) and pyrolytic ('off-line', flash) methods. This revealed an important contribution of long, linear alkyl chains in Kukersite kerogen. The hydrocarbons formed upon pyrolysis are

  5. Omaeluloolisus eesti teatris: Merle Karusoo lavastustest. Life Narratives and Estonian Theatre: The Productions of Merle Karusoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Any consideration of Estonian theatre from the point of view of biographical theatre needs to include the work of playwright and director Merle Karusoo. Productions based on various life narratives (diaries, letters, biographical interviews form the core of her work that can be defined as biographical or memory theatre. Her work has also been viewed within the context of community theatre or political theatre; Karusoo has herself referred to her work as sociological theatre. Life narratives have functioned in Karusoo’s productions as the basis for restoring oppressed or denied collective discourses of memory. Her productions emerged within the framework of the more general process of restoration of historical heritage and the rehabilitation of collective memory at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. Life story can be viewed as the essence of Merle Karusoo’s theatre. The personal in the life story in the production activates the emotional memory of the audience; for older generations such theatre facilitates a legitimisation of remembering one’s life story in entirety, and for younger generations it functions as a vehicle of collective, historical and national memory. The current article outlines the main stages of Karusoo’s biographical theatre, highlights major productions of each stage and provides an overview of their reception. Karusoo’s theatre dates back to 1980s. Productions based on life stories of the generations born in 1950s and 1960s, Meie elulood (Our Biographies and Kui ruumid on täis ... (Full Rooms both in 1982, mediated fragments of life stories of 16 drama students, focusing on the processes of self-conception and -reflection of young persons. In the context of the Soviet regime that exerted firm ideological control over the private lives of its citizens, Karusoo’s productions struck an especially powerful and unusual chord. Karusoo’s biographical theatre has gathered momentum and assumed a more

  6. Euroopa-ihalusest taasiseseisvusperioodi autobiograafiates / European Identifications in Post-Soviet Estonian Life Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kurvet-Käosaar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel käsitleb Euroopat kui identiteedi ja minaduse sõlmpunkti ja enesevahenduse mõõdet kolmes omaelulookirjutuslikus teoses, mille autoritel on väljapaistev positsioon eesti (kirjanduskultuuris: Jaan Krossi „Kallid kaasteelised“ (2003a, 2008, Jaan Kaplinski „Isale“ (2003 ja Tõnu Õnnepalu „Flandria päevik“ (2007. Artikkel keskendub sellele, kuidas küsimused suhestumise trajektooridest Euroopa mäluruumiga haakuvad Krossi, Kaplinski ja Õnnepalu teostes esiletuleva enesemääratlusliku raamiga, neist lähtuvate vastastikuse kõnetuse võimaluste ja oma aegruumi tunnetuse pidepunktidega. Kuigi tegemist on eesti keeles ilmunud ning eesti kultuuriruumi lugejale suunatud teostega, seostuvad neis väljajoonistuvad enesemääratluse teljed viimastel aastakümnetel hoogustunud laiemate aruteludega ühtse Euroopa mäluraami ning identiteedi võimalikkusest ja selle toimimise tingimustest.   In recent years, the question of the possibility of a shared frame of memory and identity in Europe, its desired manifestations and practices for attaining it as well as its obstacles and limitations to it have gained prominence in scholarly debates in a number of disciplines. In terms of the division between the East and West of Europe, these discussions take as their starting point the collapse of the Soviet system in 1989 as well as the European Union enlargement in 2004. Far from uniform, the exceedingly complex and contrasting ranges of arguments have put forward a varied palette of perspectives and suggestions about possible and desirable implications of Europe in different socio-political and cultural configurations. Taking these debates as my starting point, the current article offers an analysis of three life writing works by contemporary Estonian authors and intellectuals, Kallid kaasteelised (Dear Fellow Travellers, 2003, 2008 by Jaan Kross, Isale (To My Father, 2003 by Jaan Kaplinski and Flandria päevik (The Flemish Diary

  7. U.S. Military Stop Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    deployment cycle. While Stop Movement originally applied to all assigned personnel in a deploying unit, exceptions have emerged over the past several...dates that are sooner than what was originally planned, the more soldiers who will be affected by Stop Loss. The relationship between the number of...00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Military Stop Loss Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  8. USSR Report, Military Affairs, No. 1711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-05

    the facility’s civil defense chief, his deputy and the civil defense engineer had a poor knowlodge of the responsi- Sbilitieso and there was no...Russean No 3, Mar 82 (signed to press 10 Mar 82) pp 1-2 (Full-text translated articles published in this report are indicated with an asterisk (C...excerpted translation - with a double asterisk (A*)] (Text] CONTENTS Page CENTRAL MILITARY PROBLEMS *The United States-A Nuclear Threat to Peace - A

  9. Japan: Implications of an Expanded Military Role,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-03

    served by diplomatic, economic and foreign assistance strategies. The Fukuda and Ohira " doctrines " emphasized the role of non-military policy in...encourage it to expand economic assistance under the comprehensive security doctrine . Weinstein is criticizing U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union; he...the United States. The second category of opinion which developed centered -~ on support for a policy line orginally set forth In the Yoshida Doctrine

  10. Two Decades of Estonian Police and the (Irrelevance of Police Models for the Development of Safety Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Suve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Police models are designed to improve safety in society. Although Estonia has not deliberately used any (combination of police models for developing its policies of safety and its police reforms since the country regained independence, its safety has improved considerably during the last couple of decades. The scholarly discussions about police models are overwhelmingly about the possible effects of different models on safety management and about their application to particular countries. However, countries like Estonia with no consistent conceptions of police have received little attention in academic literature. We aim to fill this gap by analysing the developments of the Estonian police in its philosophical, strategic, tactical and organisational dimensions over the period between 1991 and 2013. The analysed materials include the official police development plans, legislation, statutes, training programs and statistics about the police. Our analysis shows that although safety in Estonia has improved considerably, developments of the Estonian police are characterised by internal discrepancies and inconsistencies. In view of this, we put forth some hypotheses for further studies regarding policy development in a situation where policy is not explicitly stated or where organisational reforms are seen not as “simple” or “complex” problems, but as “wicked” problems.

  11. Diversity of Helicobacter pylori genotypes among Estonian and Russian patients with perforated peptic ulcer, living in Southern Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillakivi, T; Aro, H; Ustav, M; Peetsalu, M; Peetsalu, A; Mikelsaar, M

    2001-02-05

    To compare the genomic variation of Helicobacter pylori in samples obtained from patients with perforated peptic ulcer, living in the same area of Estonia but belonging to different nationalities, 50 non-consecutive patients (32 Estonians and 18 Russians) admitted in the Tartu University Hospital in 1997-1999 were studied. Gastric samples of antral mucosa were obtained during operation and analysed histologically and with PCR for detection of different genotypes of H. pylori (cagA and vacA s and m subtypes). Among the 50 perforated peptic ulcer patients with histologically proven H. pylori colonisation no sample of gastric mucosa showed the s1b subtype of the vacA gene. The perforated peptic ulcer patients were mainly infected with cagA (82%) and s1 (98%) genotypes of H. pylori. The distribution of s1a/m1, s1a/m2 and s2/m2 subtypes of vacA genes was statistically different in Estonian and Russian patients (PEstonian and Russian patients with perforated peptic ulcer from Southern Estonia.

  12. HIV incidence in the Estonian population in 2013 determined using the HIV-1 limiting antigen avidity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodla, P; Simmons, R; Huik, K; Pauskar, M; Jõgeda, E-L; Rajasaar, H; Kallaste, E; Maimets, M; Avi, R; Murphy, G; Porter, K; Lutsar, I

    2017-08-01

    Estonia has one the highest number of new HIV diagnoses in the European Union, mainly among injecting drug users and heterosexuals. Little is known of HIV incidence, which is crucial for limiting the epidemic. Using a recent HIV infection testing algorithm (RITA) assay, we aimed to estimate HIV incidence in 2013. All individuals aged ≥18 years newly-diagnosed with HIV in Estonia January- December 2013, except blood donors and those undergoing antenatal screening, were included. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the Estonian Health Board and the Estonian HIV-positive patient database. Serum samples were tested for recent infection using the LAg-avidity EIA assay. HIV incidence was estimated based on previously published methods. Of 69,115 tested subjects, 286 (0.41%) were newly-diagnosed with HIV with median age of 33 years (IQR: 28-42) and 65% male. Self-reported routes of HIV transmission were mostly heterosexual contact (n = 157, 53%) and injecting drug use (n = 62, 21%); 64 (22%) were with unknown risk group. Eighty two (36%) were assigned recent, resulting in estimated HIV incidence of 0.06%, corresponding to 642 new infections in 2013 among the non-screened population. Incidence was highest (1.48%) among people who inject drugs. These high HIV incidence estimates in Estonia call for urgent action of renewed targeted public health promotion and HIV testing campaigns. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  13. Isamaalaulud ja okupatsioonirežiim – nostalgia, utoopia ja reaalsus. Estonian Patriotic Songs and the Occupational Regime – Nostalgia, Utopia and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanni Labi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Estonian knowledge of history emanates from the fact that constituting an independent nation has for the most part been nothing but a utopia, and was a reality for a relatively short time. When it comes to selfidentification though, the expression ’a singing people’ is often used by the Estonians to describe themselves. Nostalgia for freedom is reflected in the Estonian culture of almost all periods and is carried on by the singing tradition, where patriotic songs emerge independent of different musical tastes within a particular generation and form an important part of a common Estonian repertoire. Patriotic songs occupy a central place in several fields of Estonian culture: besides music culture also in popular culture,and literary history – the works of poetry which have gained the most popularity are those which when put to music have been the most widely spread among the people. The main part of the most popular Estonian patriotic songs are choral songs from the national awakening at the end of the 19th century. Despite the national programmes aiming to wipe out ‘bourgeois nationalism’, they were sung at the song festivals in the Soviet era and were published in song books, expressing the people’s nostalgia for freedom lost. After the end of the Second World War, there was an attempt at launching a kind of patriotic new creation, where patriotism was merged with Soviet pathos; the aim was to show that the people’s utopia was in fact communism, but not a single one of those songs made it into the people’s common repertoire. Only the patriotic songs composed in the 1980s during the so-called new national awakening reached a popularity comparable to that of the old songs. The discourse on ’Estonianness’ and the shaping of a matching repertoire under imperial Russian rule took place under very different circumstances than its preservation and development in the second half of the 20th century under Soviet occupation, but

  14. Use of a national database as a tool to identify primary medication non-adherence: The Estonian ePrescription system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laius, Ott; Pisarev, Heti; Volmer, Daisy; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare; Maasalu, Katre

    2017-10-05

    Medication adherence can be divided into primary and secondary adherence. Primary medication non-adherence (PMN) occurs when a patient does not obtain medicine with their initial prescription. Secondary non-adherence measures prescription refills among patients who previously filled their first prescription. While secondary non-adherence has been studied thoroughly, PMN has been assessed less extensively, due to lack of available data. Estonian ePrescription system might prove a valuable tool for this. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMN and the interval between prescribing and dispensing of medicines using the Estonian ePrescriptions database to establish its potential use for this purpose and for other qualitative drug utilization research measures. Osteoporosis medicines were used as an example. The Estonian Prescription Centre was used to evaluate if patients purchase medicines after initial prescription of osteoporosis medicine. Prescriptions from 2012 to 2015 of all patients over 18 were included. PMN was defined as the first prescription not being dispensed before it expired (60 days). The rate of PMN was calculated. Estonian ePrescription System enabled fast evaluation of PMN of osteoporosis patients based on data about prescribing, dispensing and time intervals in-between. Of patients who started osteoporosis treatment 13.1% were primary non-adherent. Of primary non-adherent patients 42% still started treatment at some point during the study. Of patients who did purchase their first prescription 80.4% did so within a week and 95% within 25 days. The Estonian ePrescription system is a useful tool for monitoring PMN. The PMN of osteoporosis medicines was identified as lower than previously reported. More similar type of studies about other groups of medicines would be needed to understand the pattern of PMN and give valuable information to healthcare specialists about how to increase initiation of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Enable and Succeed, Force and Fail: Military Intervention to Enable Democratization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    government.44 The Japanese colonial administration relied on its military officers and pro-Japanese collaborators to fill its ranks. After repatriation...the Kennedy administration and Johnson’s thereafter, the United States poured economic and military aid into South Korea and strongly affirmed its... military advantage when compared to the South Korean armed forces.143 As the Carter administration finalized the details of the withdrawal plan

  16. The Future of the Russian Military: Constraints, Trends, and Factors Affecting Stability and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-03

    military: their characteristics, extent and probable future impact. Section II deals with comparisons and contrasts within the new Russian military today...from the ’new structures’. I’m your military astrologer -parapsychologist!", Armlia (Army), No 14, July, 1992. Figure (3). Wife to Officer-husband: "Do we...examination of some of the serious problems which exist at unit levels in the Russian armed forces, which, in the author’s experience, were probably not

  17. Military Youth and the Deployment Cycle: Emotional Health Consequences and Recommendations for Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Lemmon, Keith M.; Bodzy, Mary; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Spirito, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The United States military force includes over 2.2 million volunteer service members. Three out of five service members who are deployed or are preparing for deployment have spouses and/or children. Stressors associated with the deployment cycle can lead to depression, anxiety, and behavior problems in children, as well as psychological distress in the military spouse. Further, the emotional and behavioral health of family members can affect the psychological functioning of the military servi...

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the Military Leadership Styles of Ernest J. King and Chester W. Nimitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies ATTN: Fort...sentinel image that most Americans want and expect in military leaders. In fact, throughout my military career, I have been in organizations in which...routinely complete a psychological profile test akin to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ) assessment or some similar pre-employment

  19. Enlisting in the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Beaver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that enlistment in the U.S. military is completely voluntary, there has been a great deal of interest in identifying the various factors that might explain why some people join the military, whereas others do not. The current study expanded on this line of literature by estimating the extent to which genetic and environmental factors explained variance in the liability for lifetime participation in the military. Analysis of twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health revealed that 82% of the variance was the result of genetic factors, 18% of the variance was the result of nonshared environmental factors, and none of the variance was accounted for by shared environmental factors. In light of a number of limitations, replication studies are needed to determine the robustness of these findings and whether they are generalizable to other samples and populations.

  20. A gendered perspective on military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Nilsson, Johanna; Berkel, Laverne

    2014-01-01

    Military deployment, especially in combat or dangerous areas, can have a strong influence on subsequent mental health. This effect may be intensified as a result of the potential stigma that admission of mental health problems indicates weakness. Additional mental health issues exist for female soldiers from the National Guard who are pulled from non-military environments to work under dangerous conditions far from home and traditional social support. Minimal documentation is available about the day-to-day, gendered experiences of deployment for this group of female soldiers. To provide background for appropriate training and support, the aim of this study was to understand better the experiences of military deployment for women in the National Guard. We used content analysis to analyze individual, semi-structured interviews with a sample of 42 women from 7 U.S. National Guard units who were deployed in combat areas. Four general themes emerged about deployment experience: the general environment of stress, heterogeneous job responsibilities, home comes with you, and gendered stress. Military efforts are needed to address gender-specific issues associated with deployment and to develop resilience training that will optimize the mental health of female soldiers.