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Sample records for estonian energy strategy

  1. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  2. Estonian Air to overhaul strategy / Matt Withers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Withers, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Air on majanduslikes raskustes, mida aitaks leevendada riigipoolne toetus. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts leiab, et riik peaks omama lennufirma juhatuses esimehe kohta, et mõjutada rohkem vastuvõetavaid otsuseid ja investeeringuid

  3. Strategies for Estonian rural family enterprises. Eesti maapiirkonna pereettevõtete strateegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to analyse family businesses in rural areas, family business strategies and re-registration of sole proprietors with the Centre of Registers and Information Systems (hereinafter Commercial Register in 2009, and to provide an overview of entrepreneurship policies targeted at Estonian rural businesses. Layoffs have increased the number of unemployed; some of those who have lost employment opt for social assistance benefits, but some others decide to become entrepreneurs. Many enterprising people in Estonia have set up a family enterprise, mainly in the sphere of services, agriculture and tourism. The Estonian entrepreneurship policy supports enterprising people and approves of entrepreneurship as a promoter of national economic development. One of the most positive qualities of family enterprises is their short decision-making chain, which ensures rapid implementation of the strategy.

  4. The Strategies of Inter-Ethnic Adaptation of Estonian Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Berry

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the inter-cultural relations model of John Berry, four different groups among Russian-speakers in Estonia were differentiated in the analysis of ‘Integration monitoring 2005’. The analysis reveals that both similarities and differences exist between the characteristics of these four groups and the groups in the typology of Berry (integration, assimilation, marginalisation, separation. The differences that emerged are related to the assimilation and integration strategies, which proved to be rather restrained for Russian-speakers in the current social and political context in Estonia. The analysis gives us ground to claim that the strong ethnic connotation of the current nation-state model in Estonia hinders finding a positive place in this country even for those Russian-speakers, who, in fact, would like to integrate.

  5. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, M; Rusconi, R [ARPA Lombardia (Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardia), via Juvara 22, 20129 Milan (Italy); Bagnato, L [Department of Quantitative Methods for Business and Economic Sciences, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza dell' Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126 Milan (Italy); Caldognetto, E; Trotti, F [ARPAV (Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto), via Dominutti 8, 37135 Verona (Italy); Risica, S, E-mail: m.forte@arpalombardia.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Technology and Health Department, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y{sup -1} for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  6. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  7. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  8. Online Estonian Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  9. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  10. Selenium levels of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhamaa, P; Kantola, M; Viitak, A; Kaasik, T; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to sum up the dietary selenium intake of the Estonian people according to the serum selenium concentrations. This research compiles the information published in the literature about the levels of selenium in the serum of the Estonian people. We compare these results with the findings obtained from the analyses of serum samples gathered by us in the 1990s in Estonia. The selenium concentration in sera of 404 Estonians ranged from 26 to 116 microg/l; the mean was 75 microg/l. The selenium contents of Estonians were at a similar level as reported for Finns before the selenium supplementation of fertilizers carried out in Finland in 1984. In view of the selenium concentration in the sera, we suggest that the dietary selenium intake among the Estonian people might be scarce, and Estonian authorities should consider in their nutrition policies the possible low intake of selenium of Estonians.

  11. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  12. Energy and the environment in the Baltic Sea region: A study of cooperative action from the Estonian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Alex P.

    Due to their geographic proximity and shared natural resources, cooperation on energy-related and environmental issues is particularly important for the nine countries surrounding the Baltic Sea. Currently, two projects are underway that have placed the level of cooperation within the region under the microscope: the environmental management work undertaken by the Helsinki Commission for the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (HELCOM) and the Nord Stream pipeline project, which, when completed, will provide the direct transportation of natural gas from Russia to Germany via the Baltic seafloor. Although both have been declared inclusive and decidedly Baltic ventures by some regional actors, reception of the cooperative efforts amongst the littoral Baltic countries has been markedly different. This study addresses these varying reactions by examining Estonia's participation in and subsequent perspectives on the HELCOM and Nord Stream projects. A theoretical framework grounded in the discipline of international relations is utilized to analyze Estonia's role in the projects and its position as a small state in a regional context. The primary areas of focus are how historical experiences and current levels of cooperation in the two endeavors have shaped Estonia's responses and, ultimately, its 'realist' perception of global politics. The study concludes that Estonia appears to have more substantive participation in HELCOM than in the Nord Stream project because of the tendency of states to securitize and, thus, prioritize the energy policy area over the environmental. Estonian foreign policy behavior, however, perpetuates the state-centric and power-centered policy processes that dominate the international political system.

  13. Valued Estonian Music CDs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Artur Kapp "Symphonische Werke", Eduard Tubin "Symphonies No.9, No.10 and No.11", "Estonian Preludes", "Eesti heliloojad. Hortus Musicus", "Eesti Muusika Päevad", "Tallinn Saxophone Quartet. Estonian Contemporary Music", "Triskele. Kolga-Jaani vaimulikud rahvalaulud", "Helmekaala. Linnupuu Anne", "Modern Fox mängib Raimond Valgret",

  14. INTRODUCTION TO ESTONIAN LINGUISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAUN, ALO; SAARESTE, ANDRUS

    THIS TEXT COMPRISES A SURVEY OF THE ESTONIAN LANGUAGE, WHICH IS GROUPED HERE WITH LIVONIAN, VOTIC, AND A PART OF WESTERN FINNISH, TO FORM THE SOUTHWESTERN BRANCH OF THE FINNIC (OR BALTO-FINNIC) LANGUAGES. THE AUTHORS' CLASSIFICATIONS AND A HISTORY OF THE STUDIES WHICH HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT IN ESTONIAN ARE PRESENTED, FOLLOWED BY A PRESENTATION OF…

  15. Eesti Rahva Muuseumi strateegiad ja praktikad rahvaga suhtlemisel muuseumi algusaastatel / Estonian National Museum: Public communication strategies and practices in the initial years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Õunapuu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the museum phenomenon as the valuator of the indigenous culture in the context of the awakening national consciousness has received little attention. The evolution of the idea of the Estonian National Museum (ENM and its realization reflects the story of the Estonian people maturing into a nation. The museum was founded by a few dedicated persons and it took a long time before the general public recognised it as the museum for the Estonian people. The main purpose of this research is to ascertain how relations developed between the public and the museum in its initial years and what were the museum strategies in declaring its objectives. After the official foundation of the ENM in 1909 the museum narrative can be divided into two main parts. First, work inside the museum, the compilation and arrangement of collections. This was, above all, the work of the collection committee and organizing heritage collection trips. Collections constitute the basis of a museum – therefore the primary and most important task of the established museum was the collection of heritage items. The collections were started immediately after the foundation of the museum; within the first ten years approximately 20,000 items were collected, approximately two thirds of the items in the years 1911–1913. The phenomenon that a museum where people worked mainly without a salary for the benefit of their homeland, with the set aim to empty the whole of Estonia of heritage items parish by parish and succeeded in engaging dozens and dozens of people for this work, is probably exceptional in world history. As a result, the museum acquired not only voluminous but also valuable item collections, which reached the museum before the devastating First World War. The timing was favourable. There were enough old artefacts left, although most collectors complained in their diaries that there was nothing interesting to be found any more. However, the majority of the

  16. Strategies for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses international strategies for establishing a sustainable energy development. Proposals are given for mitigation of global warming.......The paper analyses international strategies for establishing a sustainable energy development. Proposals are given for mitigation of global warming....

  17. ESTONIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM FEATURES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcos Francisco Rodríguez Bravo

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to identify structural elements of the Estonian education system which has obtained in the last PISA 2012 international report, some results well above the average set by the OECD (494...

  18. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  19. Hawaii energy strategy report, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This is a report on the Hawaii Energy Strategy Program. The topics of the report include the a description of the program including an overview, objectives, policy statement and purpose and objectives; energy strategy policy development; energy strategy projects; current energy situation; modeling Hawaii`s energy future; energy forecasts; reducing energy demand; scenario assessment, and recommendations.

  20. Hawaii energy strategy: Executive summary, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This is an executive summary to a report on the Hawaii Energy Strategy Program. The topics of the report include the a description of the program including an overview, objectives, policy statement and purpose and objectives; energy strategy policy development; energy strategy projects; current energy situation; modeling Hawaii`s energy future; energy forecasts; reducing energy demand; scenario assessment, and recommendations.

  1. Angola - towards an energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-26

    Despite an abundant endowment of energy resources, Angola's people and its economy suffer from lack of reliable energy supplies. In 2003, the country emerged from almost three decades of civil war that left much of its infrastructure destroyed or damaged and a large part of its population displaced. Increasing access to modern energy sources in a sustainable manner would help improve livelihoods directly, as well as indirectly through the promotion of economic development. At the request of the Angolan government in 2005, the IEA conducted a survey of the Angolan energy sector and energy policies. The request spurred several visits to Angola by IEA teams who met with energy sector officials and other stakeholders collecting documentation in the capital, Luanda and in Lubango. The results of these efforts are an independent review of the major energy policy issues facing the country. While Angola faces many energy challenges, there are lessons in this analysis that are applicable in many other developing countries. This inclusive review on Angola focuses on areas for priority action and hones in on energy sub-sectors likely to play the largest role in meeting domestic demand for modern energy services: notably electricity and oil products. As biomass currently plays an immense role in meeting the bulk of the energy needs of Angolan households, this sub-sector is also featured, with emphasis on improving the sustainability of this renewable energy source. A realistic update on Angola's present day energy situation is offered and the main priorities which could form the basis of an effective overall energy strategy are presented.

  2. Estonian Airi uued soodsad pakkumised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi kodulehelt on võimalik osta lennupileteid koostööpartnerite poolt pakutavatele mandritevahelistele lendudele ning broneerida internetis hotellituba Euroopa suurima hotelli broneerimise teenust pakkuva ettevõtte Booking.com kaudu

  3. Estonian Air sai lennukilisa / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2007-01-01

    Lennukompanii Estonian Air liisib kolm uut lennukit. Kommenteerib Rein Loik. Vt. samas intervjuud SAS-i asepresidendi Per Jensen Mölleriga, kes eitab spekulatsioone, et SAS võiks airBalticu ja Estonian Airi liita

  4. [Mati Erelt. Estonian Language] / Katrin Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Estonian language / [Estonian Academy of Sciences] ; edited by Mati Erelt.Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2003. 412, [1] lk. : ill., kaart. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series, 0868-4731 ; vol. 1)

  5. Energy strategy: Roadmap to consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    The United States lacks a comprehensive approach to policy-making in the energy realm. Today, as in the past, individual constituency groups tend to focus on their particular aspect of the energy challenge. Many employ a decide-announce-defend'' approach to policy-making, setting out to secure a unilateral advantage for themselves. By so doing, they inevitably pit interest against interest. The result is a polarization of constituencies, and shortsighted policies designed to address the issue of the moment. The American Energy Assurance Council (AEAC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1987 for the sole purpose of facilitating progress toward a fair efficient wise, stable, and consensus-based national energy strategy. AEAC does not have a substantive policy agencies. Rather, we are committed to supporting a process whereby the many stakeholders and policy makers concerned with energy-related issues can come together in productive discourse, thereby overcoming ignorance of each other's positions. The Council seeks to act as a facilitative body, providing a safe'' context for inventive and creative thinking. We attempt to build a store of common knowledge, and to build on that store according to mutually agreed-upon groundrules, and employing sophisticated approaches to facilitation and mediation. This report, the National Energy Consensus Experiment (NECE), was an ambitious experiment in consensus-building. We learned a great deal from it, both in terms of substance and process, and we are convinced that it holds important lessons for others who may seek to build consensus in the public policy realm.

  6. Energy strategy: Roadmap to consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    The United States lacks a comprehensive approach to policy-making in the energy realm. Today, as in the past, individual constituency groups tend to focus on their particular aspect of the energy challenge. Many employ a ``decide-announce-defend`` approach to policy-making, setting out to secure a unilateral advantage for themselves. By so doing, they inevitably pit interest against interest. The result is a polarization of constituencies, and shortsighted policies designed to address the issue of the moment. The American Energy Assurance Council (AEAC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1987 for the sole purpose of facilitating progress toward a fair efficient wise, stable, and consensus-based national energy strategy. AEAC does not have a substantive policy agencies. Rather, we are committed to supporting a process whereby the many stakeholders and policy makers concerned with energy-related issues can come together in productive discourse, thereby overcoming ignorance of each other`s positions. The Council seeks to act as a facilitative body, providing a ``safe`` context for inventive and creative thinking. We attempt to build a store of common knowledge, and to build on that store according to mutually agreed-upon groundrules, and employing sophisticated approaches to facilitation and mediation. This report, the National Energy Consensus Experiment (NECE), was an ambitious experiment in consensus-building. We learned a great deal from it, both in terms of substance and process, and we are convinced that it holds important lessons for others who may seek to build consensus in the public policy realm.

  7. PROBLEMS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCE STRATEGY AND THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Danilov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Data of energy saving politics strategy in the light of the principles of global energy safety system are presented. Theoretical base of energy efficiency and energy saving (integral energy – ecological analysis is worked out. The realization and efficiency results of action of energy saving by the example of Sverdlovsk Region are cited. Practical significance of main principle of energy efficiency economics – energy capacity reduction by Gross Returns increasing – is determined.

  8. A renewable energy strategy for Lao PDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milattanapheng, Chantho; Sysoulath, Hatsady; Green, Joanta; Kurukulasuriya, Mahinda

    2010-09-15

    The Government of Lao PDR (GoL) has set up the vision to 2020 ''to secure an adequate power supply throughout the country to facilitate national socio-economic development objectives in an environmentally sustainable manner''. To ensure achieving this goal, the government institutions have introduced various policies and strategies for supporting energy sector development. Lao PDR is in the process of developing a renewable energy strategy. A renewable energy strategy would facilitate the increase in the overall use and more effective use of renewable energy. This paper will discuss the salient points of the new renewable energy strategy.

  9. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  10. Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based......This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy...... on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development will be possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements...

  11. Motivational Underpinnings of Estonian Folk Dance Practices among the Estonian Diaspora over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Eha Rüütel; Iivi Zajedova; Angela Arraste

    2013-01-01

    This article is a part of a wider research on Estonian folk dance, aiming to map the emergence of folk dance groups and to study the practices and role of folk dance among the Estonian diaspora. The article sets out to explore incentives contributing to intergenerational transmission of Estonian folk dance tradition. 54 interviews (21 men and 33 women aged 38 to 87) were carried out with Estonians living in Australia, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden and the United States. The analysis ...

  12. Cohort Profile : Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tonu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C.; Maegi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged >= 18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000-represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General

  13. Transportation energy strategy: Project {number_sign}5 of the Hawaii Energy Strategy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This study was prepared for the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) as part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Authority and responsibility for energy planning activities, such as the Hawaii Energy Strategy, rests with the State Energy Resources Coordinator, who is the Director of DBEDT. Hawaii Energy Strategy Study No. 5, Transportation Energy Strategy Development, was prepared to: collect and synthesize information on the present and future use of energy in Hawaii`s transportation sector, examine the potential of energy conservation to affect future energy demand; analyze the possibility of satisfying a portion of the state`s future transportation energy demand through alternative fuels; and recommend a program targeting energy use in the state`s transportation sector to help achieve state goals. The analyses and conclusions of this report should be assessed in relation to the other Hawaii Energy Strategy Studies in developing a comprehensive state energy program. 56 figs., 87 tabs.

  14. Cultural Change and the Operational Energy Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    CULTURAL CHANGE AND THE OPERATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY by Colonel Steven L. Allen United States Army Dr. Richard Meinhart ...Cultural Change and the Operational Energy Strategy by Colonel Steven L. Allen United States Army United States... Army War College Class of 2012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited This manuscript is submitted

  15. Energy strategy for ETH Zurich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulouchos, K.; Casciaro, C.; Froehlich, K.; Hellweg, S.; Leibundgut, J.; Spreng, D. (eds.)

    2008-04-15

    This report published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, reports on how the Energy Science Center of the ETH Zurich embarked on the task of adjusting its plans for future energy-related teaching and research to match the magnitude of the challenges in the national and global arena. Strategic considerations for a future sustainable energy system as well as an assessment of the ETH's strengths and its prospects for continuing research in areas highly relevant for the future are dealt with. It is noted that the Energy Science Center has contributed significantly to the integration of specialists and disciplines and has already become indispensable for the co-ordination of energy-relevant activities in research and teaching at the ETH in Zurich. Strategic goals are discussed, as are the challenges placed on the centre. Research done in the areas of energy supply and its use are discussed, as are interactions with society and the environment. Energy education at the ETH is examined and visions for a transformation path are discussed, as are the implications for the ETH itself.

  16. A perfect match: Nuclear energy and the National Energy Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    In the course of developing the National Energy Strategy, the Department of Energy held 15 public hearings, heard from more than 375 witnesses and received more than 1000 written comments. In April 1990, the Department published an Interim Report on the National Energy Strategy, which compiles those public comments. The National Energy Strategy must be based on actual experience and factual analysis of our energy, economic and environmental situation. This report by the Nuclear Power Oversight committee, which represents electric utilities and other organizations involved in supplying electricity from nuclear energy to the American people, provides such an analysis. The conclusions here are based on hard facts and actual worldwide experience. This analysis of all the available data supports -- indeed, dictates -- expanded reliance on nuclear energy in this nation's energy supply to achieve the President's goals. 33 figs.

  17. Schults suurendas kaalu Estonian Airis / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees, AS-i Cresco üks omanikke Olev Schults ostis ärimees Tõnu Laagilt tema osaluse Crescos ja selle tütarfirmades, saades täieliku kontrolli Cresco ja ühtlasi Estonian Airi 17-protsendilise osaluse üle

  18. Estonian Air andis muutustest teada / Mart Relve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Relve, Mart, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Autor peab kahetsusväärseks, et Äripäev süüdistab Estonian Air'i avalikkuse eest info varjamises ning kasutab oma väidete tõestuseks avalikkuses jutuks olnud fakte. Vt. samas: Estonian Air saanud meedias kriitikat

  19. Rapid prototyping of energy management charging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciulavu, Oana [Hella Electronics Romania, Timisoara (Romania); Starkmuth, Timo; Jesolowitz, Reinhard [Hella KGaA Hueck und Co., Lippstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an approach to develop charging strategies to support a vehicle energy management aiming for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and decreased fuel consumption by using the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environment. (orig.)

  20. Editorial : Introduction to Energy Strategy Reviews theme issue “Nuclear energy today & strategies for tomorrow”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogner, H.H.; Weijermars, R.

    2013-01-01

    Finding the optimum energy supply system is one of the aims of energy strategy research and nuclear energy is a much debated real option. Proponents of nuclear energy argue that there are no technologies without risks and that nuclear power is needed for meeting growing energy demand in the emerging

  1. Romania needs a strategy for thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leca Aureliu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector in Romania consists of three sub-sectors: electricity, natural gas and heat. Among these, the sub-sector of thermal energy is in the most precarious situation because it has been neglected for a long time. This sub-sector is particularly important both due to the amount of final heat consumption (of over 50% of final energy consumption, and to the fact that it has a direct negative effect on the population, industry and services. This paper presents the main directions for developing a modern strategy of the thermal energy sub-sector, which would fit into Romania’s Energy Strategy that is still in preparation This is based on the author’s 50 years of experience in this field that includes knowledge about the processes and the equipment of thermal energy, expertise in the management and restructuring of energy companies and also knowledge of the specific legislation. It is therefore recommended, following the European regulations and practices, the promotion and upgrading of district heating systems using efficient cogeneration, using trigeneration in Romania, modernizing buildings in terms of energy use, using of renewable energy sources for heating, especially biomass, and modernizing the energy consumption of rural settlements.

  2. A vision for a continental energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R. [Borden Ladner Gervais LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tobin, B. [Fraser Milner Casgrain LLP. Toronto, ON (Canada); Angevine, G. [Angevine Economic Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fryer, K.; Martin, L.T. [Fraser Inst., Vancouver, BC (Canada)] (eds.)

    2008-02-15

    This paper presented a vision with respect to a continental energy strategy and the principles and goals that must underlie such a strategy. These principles include relying on signals emanating from energy markets to guide investment; limiting the role of government to that of ensuring that the policy and institutional framework is conducive to the development and operation of competitive and innovative energy markets; and ensuring free and open energy trade in energy commodities, both within the continent and with the rest of the world. The paper also identified a number of important factors that, would shape and condition continental energy development and trade. The paper provided an overview of the North American energy use and supply situation for the following resources: oil; natural gas; electricity; coal; nuclear power; hydroelectricity; geothermal energy; wind power; solar power; and ethanol. It also discussed the contribution of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) through increased natural gas exports. It was concluded that given the petroleum resources of the three countries and their increased value because of higher oil and gas prices, there was considerable incentive for Canada, the United States, and Mexico to streamline regulations in order to facilitate the efficient development, transportation, and use of the continent's energy resources in accordance with market conditions. 38 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs.

  3. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  4. Energy conservation strategies among American college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundes, L.; Lemke, D. [Department of Sociology, McDaniel College, 2 College Hill, Westminster, MD 21157-4390 (United States); Kulow, A. [Department of Biology, McDaniel College, Westminster, MD 21157-4390 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This research compares both attitudes and recycling behaviors in a sample of college males and females (N?=?302), a demographic group whose behaviors and willingness to adopt environmentally sound policies will become the dominant force for environmental reform in the USA in approaching decades. Consistent with prior research, women were significantly more likely to support strategies for energy conservation and were much more apt to always recycle. Among males (but not females), frequent recyclers of plastic were more supportive of energy conservation strategies, while for women, the link between attitudes and behavior is weaker, perhaps due to women's purported community-welfare orientation. In addition, because the strategies that received the most support from both sexes, walking to work or school, and purchasing and cooking with local produce, may reflect the resulting health benefits as much as concern for environmental sustainability, we should consider marketing the link between environmental altruism and personal wellbeing among young populations.

  5. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  6. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  7. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  8. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  9. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  10. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  11. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

  12. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  13. Prosumers strategy for DHC energy flow optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasek Lubomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the proposal of discrete model of district heating and cooling system (DHC for energy flow optimization. The aim is to achieve the best solution of the objective function, usually determined by minimizing the production and distribution costs and providing meets the needs of energy consumers. The model also introduces the idea of general prosumers strategy, where all active elements within the modern DHC system are representing by prosumers object. The prosumers are perceived as objects able to actively participate in the planning of production and consumption of energy. It is assumed that the general behaviour of the object in DHC is the same, no matter how they differ in sizes and designs. Thus, all the objects are defined by two characteristics - the ability to produce and consume. The model based on this basic principle, of course, with the most accurate information about the particular values at a time, object properties and other, should provide tools for simulation and control of modern DHC, possibly superior units as Smart Energy Grids - understood as a system integrating Smart Grids (electricity and Smart Thermal Grids (heat a cool.

  14. Estonian Literature in the Schools of the Estonian-Russian Population (Changes in Literacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Loone

    1997-01-01

    Describes how Estonian language and literature have been taught at Russian-language schools in Estonia. Notes a lack of interesting reading materials, and describes how this instruction could be improved. (SR)

  15. Energy in Ireland: context, strategy and research; Energie en Irlande: contexte, strategie et recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A

    2008-01-15

    In the present day situation of sudden awareness about climatic change and announced fossil fuels shortage, Ireland has defined a new strategy for its energy future. Context: Ireland is strongly dependent of oil and gas imports which increase regularly to meet the demand. A small part of the electricity consumed is imported from Ulster. The share of renewable energies remains weak but is increasing significantly. Therefore, from 1990 to 2006, the proportion of renewable energies increased from 1.9% (mainly of hydroelectric origin) to 4.5%. Wind power represents now the main renewable energy source. The transportation sector is the most energy consuming and the biggest source of greenhouse gases. Strategy: the Irish policy is driven by pluri-annual strategic plans which define the objectives and means. Priority is given to the security of supplies at affordable prices: 8.5 billion euros will be invested during the 2007-2013 era for the modernization of existing energy infrastructures and companies, and in a lesser extent for the development of renewable energy sources. During this period, 415 million euros more will be devoted to the research, development and demonstration (RD and D) of new energy solutions. Research: in 2005 the energy RD and D expenses reached 12.8 million euros shared between 54% for R and D and 46% for demonstration projects. Half of the financing is given to higher education schools and is devoted to energy saving purposes (33%) and to renewable energies (29%, mainly wind power and biomass). Academic research gives a particular attention to ocean energy which represents an important potential resource in Ireland and which has already led to the creation of innovative companies. The integration of renewable energy sources to the power grid and the stability of supplies are also the object of active researches. (J.S.)

  16. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  17. Valued Estonian Music CDs / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Arvo Pärt "Summa", Lepo Sumera "Chamber Music", "Baltic Voices 1.", "Sequenzen - Europäische Orgelmusik des 20. Jahrhundrets mit...", "El silenco ئ Silence. Kuldar and Marje Sink. Songs of Mother and Son", "Riho Sibul. Estonian Dream Big Band", "Rull's Royce ئ Rull's Choice"

  18. English in the Estonian Multicultural Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzari, Lorena

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the spread of English is not closely associated to a discourse of linguistic imperialism, basing the thesis on a case study in Estonia. Surveys of three generations of Estonians indicated that all welcomed English as a means of communications and technology in the modern world, reacting against the imposition of Russian language and…

  19. Research on Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the fuel economy and reduce emissions of hybrid electric vehicles, energy management strategy has received high attention. In this paper, by analyzing the deficiency of existing energy management strategy for hybrid cars, it not only puts forward the minimal equivalent fuel consumption adaptive strategy, but also is the first time to consider the driving dynamics target simultaneously, and to explain the future development direction of China’s hybrid energy management strategy.

  20. Improved immunization strategy to reduce energy consumption on nodes traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiazheng; Zhao, Dongyan; Long, Keping; Zheng, Yongrong

    2017-04-01

    The increasing requirement of transmission network sizes would result in huge energy consumption with communication traffic. Green communication technologies are expected to help in reducing energy consumption impact to environment. Therefore, it is important to design energy-efficient strategy that can decrease energy consumption. This paper proposes to use the acquaintance and improved targeted immunization strategies from complex systems to resolve energy consumption issues and uses traffic as measure standard to obtain a stable threshold. The simulation results show that the improved control strategy is better and more effective to save as much energy as possible.

  1. Capacity value of energy storage considering control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nian; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    In power systems, energy storage effectively improves the reliability of the system and smooths out the fluctuations of intermittent energy. However, the installed capacity value of energy storage cannot effectively measure the contribution of energy storage to the generator adequacy of power systems. To achieve a variety of purposes, several control strategies may be utilized in energy storage systems. The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of different energy storage control strategies on the generation adequacy. This paper presents the capacity value of energy storage to quantitatively estimate the contribution of energy storage on the generation adequacy. Four different control strategies are considered in the experimental method to study the capacity value of energy storage. Finally, the analysis of the influence factors on the capacity value under different control strategies is given.

  2. Estonian MEPs : common energy policy unlikely

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi liikmed Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Andres Tarand kahtlevad, kas Euroopa Liit on valmis pakkuma ühtset energiapoliitikat. Energeetiline julgeolek Euroopas. Baltimaade ja Skandinaavia energeetikaalane koostöö

  3. Strategies for Energy Efficient Remodeling: SEER 2003 Case Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The goal of the Strategies for Energy Efficiency in Remodeling (SEER) project is to provide information, based on research and case studies, to remodelers and consumers about opportunities to increase home energy performance.

  4. Estonian Middle Semantics with Evidence from Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve-Anneli Vihman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents arguments for recognizing a middle voice in Estonian. The claim that the semantics of middle-marked verbs differs in a substantial way from the semantics of other intransitive constructions leads to the examination of the discourse pragmatics of these constructions, and the relationship between discourse patterns and their valency and argument properties. Various topicality measures show that the argument participant in middle clauses lies between that of the sole participant (S in intransitive clauses and the O of active transitive clauses. The results regarding the discourse behaviour of middle arguments constitute new evidence for the view that middle constructions differ from ordinary intransitive verbs, despite structural similarities, and mark a unique range on the scale of transitivity exhibited by verbs in Estonian.

  5. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS) proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004). Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF) military hierarchy (N=2570). The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples....

  6. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  7. Department of Defense 2016 Operational Energy Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    operational energy needs. 15 2014 QDR, p 25. Army M1 tanks during an exercise in South Korea In partnership with the Combatant Commands (CCMDs...operational energy , are an enduring challenge. While rising U.S. production of oil and gas and decreasing oil imports may bolster the Nation’s energy ...understands the importance of improving energy use in combat and peacetime missions carried out around the globe every day. The Department will pursue a

  8. A Romanian energy system model and a nuclear reduction strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gota, Dan-Ioan; Lund, Henrik; Miclea, Liviu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the Romanian energy system with the purpose of providing a tool for the analysis of future sustainable energy strategies. The model represents the total national energy system and is detailed to the level of hourly demand and production in order to be able to analyse...... the consequences of adding fluctuating renewable energy sources to the system. The model has been implemented into the EnergyPLAN tool and has been validated in order to determine if it can be used as a reference model for other simulations. In EnergyPLAN, two different future strategy scenarios for the Romanian...... energy system are compared to the actual data of Romania of year 2008. First, a comparison is made between the 2008 model and the 2013 strategy scenario corresponding to the grid of the Romanian transmission system operator (TSO) Transelectrica. Then, a comparison is made to a second strategy scenario...

  9. Some remarks on reported evidentiality in French and in Estonian: A contrastive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Treikelder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the multiple meanings of the French conditional, the marking of mediated information is generally pointed out in the studies treating this mood in French. In Estonian there is a specialized grammatical(ized form for marking reported evidentiality – the quotative mood. Our paper aims to study the contrast between the use of evidentiality strategies in French and Estonian. The analysis will be based on a translated parallel corpus and on different types of texts and studies of monolingual corpora of both languages.In typological studies the French conditional and the Estonian grammatical evidentials are considered as belonging to the same type of evidentiality, that of reported information (Aikhenvald 2006. However, it appears that they tend to be used in different types of discourse. This observation has served as a starting point for our study: the aim of our contrastive analysis is to find out whether these divergences are confirmed by translated texts, whether they also reveal semantic differences between these evidentiality markers, and which strategies are used in the translations in both directions.

  10. Worldwide Engagement for Sustainable Energy Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Thirty-five years after the Agency's founding, the IEA responsibility for ensuring access to global oil supplies is still a core mandate -- but new energy-related concerns have arisen. Energy security is no longer only about oil. And the industrialised nations of the world are no longer the only major consumers of energy. Climate change driven by greenhouse gas emissions -- 60% of which derive from energy production or use -- is a growing threat. So energy policy was tasked with a new objective: to cut greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining economic growth.

  11. Worldwide Engagement for Sustainable Energy Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Almost 40 years after the Agency’s founding, the IEA responsibility for ensuring access to global oil supplies is still a core mandate. Yet over the course of its history, the IEA’s responsibilities have expanded along with both the international energy economy and conceptions of energy security itself. Our mission to promote secure and sustainable energy provision spans the energy mix. At the same time, a changing global energy map means that the industrialised nations of the world no longer dominate energy consumption. The IEA must work in close co-operation with partner countries and organisations worldwide to achieve its three core objectives: energy security, economic prosperity, and environmental sustainability. Working toward international commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause global climate change; facilitating energy technology exchange, innovation and deployment; improving modern energy access to the billions of people who are without it; bolstering both cleanliness and security through energy efficiency; and promoting flexible and functioning energy markets – these efforts complement our traditional core responsibilities of mitigating the effects of supply disruptions and improving statistical transparency.

  12. Strategy for Danish wind energy research; Startegi for dansk vindenergiforskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the strategy for Danish wind energy research is to support future prioritizations - primarily as regards publicly funded programs. Most recent energy political objectives formulated in 2004 by the Danish Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs state: 'The objective of the governmental energy policy is to create efficient energy markets within a framework that secures cost efficiency, security of supplies, environmental considerations and efficient use of energy. The markets must be transparent and the competition must be fair. This will secure the energy consumers the lowest possible energy prices.' The wind energy strategy mirrors user needs and is, among other things, based upon a number of interviews with interested parties and a hearing on the strategy draft. (BA)

  13. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In this study the influence of the personalized supply air temperature control strategy on energy consumption and the energy-saving potentials of a personalized ventilation system have been investigated by means of simulations with IDA-ICE software. GenOpt software was used to determine the optimal...... supply air temperature. The simulated office room was located in a cold climate. The results reveal that the supply air temperature control strategy has a marked influence on energy consumption. The energy consumption with personalized ventilation may increase substantially (in the range: 61......–268%) compared to mixing ventilation alone if energy-saving strategies are not applied. The results show that the best supply air temperature control strategy is to provide air constantly at 20 °C. The most effective way of saving energy with personalized ventilation is to extend the upper room operative...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  15. Cohort Profile: Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tõnu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C; Mägi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-08-01

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged ≥18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000--represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General practitioners (GPs) and medical personnel in the special recruitment offices have recruited participants throughout the country. At baseline, the GPs performed a standardized health examination of the participants, who also donated blood samples for DNA, white blood cells and plasma tests and filled out a 16-module questionnaire on health-related topics such as lifestyle, diet and clinical diagnoses described in WHO ICD-10. A significant part of the cohort has whole genome sequencing (100), genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data (20 000) and/or NMR metabolome data (11 000) available (http://www.geenivaramu.ee/for-scientists/data-release/). The data are continuously updated through periodical linking to national electronic databases and registries. A part of the cohort has been re-contacted for follow-up purposes and resampling, and targeted invitations are possible for specific purposes, for example people with a specific diagnosis. The Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu is actively collaborating with many universities, research institutes and consortia and encourages fellow scientists worldwide to co-initiate new academic or industrial joint projects with us. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Strategy for increased development of bio-energy; Strategi for oekt utbygging av bioenergi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    The goal for the bio-energy strategy is to secure goal-oriented and coordinated effort towards increased development of bio-energy by 14 TWh within 2020. The increase in development of bio-energy is important because it reduces greenhouse gases, contribute to industrial and commercial development and strengthen the reliability of energy supply

  17. A Novel Strategy for Optimising Decentralised Energy Exchange for Prosumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Sha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The realization of the Smart Grid vision will change the way of producing and distributing electrical energy. It paves the road for end-users to become pro-active in the distribution system and, equipped with renewable energy generators such as a photovoltaic panel, to become a so called “prosumer”. The prosumer is engaged in both energy production and consumption. Prosumers’ energy can be transmitted and exchanged as a commodity between end-users, disrupting the traditional utility model. The appeal of such scenario lies in the engagement of the end user, in facilitating the introduction and optimization of renewables, and in engaging the end-user in its energy management. To facilitate the transition to a prosumers’ governed grid, we propose a novel strategy for optimizing decentralized energy exchange in digitalized power grids, i.e., the Smart Grid. The strategy considers prosumer’s involvement, energy loss of delivery, network topology, and physical constraints of distribution networks. To evaluate the solution, we build a simulation program and design three meaningful evaluation cases according to different energy flow patterns. The simulation results indicate that, compared to traditional power distribution system, the maximum reduction of energy loss, energy costs, energy provided by the electric utility based using the proposed strategy can reach 51 % , 66 % , 97.5 % , depending on the strategy. Moreover, the proportion of energy self-satisfaction approaches reaches 98 % .

  18. Energy's role in competitiveness: Context and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.

    1990-02-01

    This study of competitiveness has three objectives. The first objective is to explain how macroeconomic and microeconomic factors can affect structural change in the US economy and how energy is linked to these factors. The second objective is to provide an explanation of how many individual decision makers, in responding to higher energy prices, have changed the structure of the economy. This structural change, and the effect it has had on energy use, is estimated for the US economy. A major component of these changes results from changes in US trade with other countries, which gives rise to the third objective. The third objective is to develop a research design that will allow a better understanding of the role that energy plays in the competitiveness of goods in world trade. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Bidding strategy for an energy storage facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies operation decisions of energy storage facilities in perfectly and imperfectly competitive markets. In a perfectly competitive market, the storage facility is operated to maximize the social welfare. However, in a imperfectly competitive market, the storage facility operates...

  20. Crafting the Department of Defense Energy Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The third key objective is aimed at reducing the risk to national security due to global climate change . The foremost...from the burning of fossil fuels.58 There are two basic types of strategies to combat the threat of global climate change – they are adaptation ...and mitigation. Adaptation involves taking steps to adapt to known or forecast effects due to changing climate . This may include hardening U.S

  1. Power and Energy Strategy White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Northwest McNair Avenue, Suite 100, Fort Sill, OK 73503-5001 Commander, U.S. Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca/Commandant, U.S. Army...Energy Storage • Vertical axis wind turbines • LEED redesign/retrofit buildings with green roofs. • POM Funding for >25% Renewable Generation

  2. Energy Strategy of Russia in the Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashulin Danila A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the energy strategy of Russia in the conditions of the current economic crisis. The special attention is paid to current trends in the sphere of international relations having a decisive influence on the formation of Russia’s energy strategy. The authors point to the crisis of the modern world, the deepening of interstate contradictions, the expansion of confrontation, the revision of the uniform principles of trade, established by the World Trade Organization, the changes in the global financial system. The authors investigate the possibility of political arrangements between the leading suppliers of oil on the destabilization of the oil market in order to achieve geopolitical goals. In the article special attention is also paid to the issue of political motivation of anti-Russian sanctions directed at impeding Russia’s development and its Fuel & Energy Complex, in particular. Today, against the background of the current political situation, the energy strategy of Russia is exposed to adjustment. The country has the important task of ensuring technological independence of the energy sector on the basis of import substitution of the equipment, diversification of the directions of export of energy resources, preservation of leading positions in the world market of peaceful nuclear energy, etc. The authors conclude that the energy strategy of Russia is important part of foreign policy strategy of the country, and it is focused on practical cooperation with all countries and is aimed at protecting interests of the state.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy - Critical Materials Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    The Critical Materials Strategy builds on the Department’s previous work in this area and provides a foundation for future action. This Strategy is a first step toward a comprehensive response to the challenges before us. We hope it will also encourage others to engage in a dialogue about these issues and work together to achieve our Nation’s clean energy goals.

  4. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least...... that a least‐cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy, Heating strategy, Heat savings, District heating, Smart energy......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...

  5. Facilitating Regional Energy Transition Strategies: Toward a Typology of Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Lotte M. Lutz; Daniel J. Lang; Henrik von Wehrden

    2017-01-01

    The regional level is essential for the use of renewable energies since on this level national political goals are harmonized with implementation activities. Hence, regional strategies can, we argue, be useful. Yet, these strategies must be tailored to meet a variety of contextual conditions. Within this study, we identified natural and socio-economic conditions that need to be considered when developing regional strategies for Energiewende. Focusing on these conditions, we conducted a multiv...

  6. An energy strategy for France; Une strategie energetique pour la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, N.

    2003-10-01

    The present report endeavors tpo make a synthesis of the debate about energy to deduce numerous measures devoted to define the French energy strategy for the short, middle and long term. Two parts are studied in this report. In the first one, the landscape of energy is set, the market is tackled, the energy supply and demand are object of controversy. In the second part, the objective for an energy policy are summarized, elements for the control of energy demand are studied, the energy supply is equally tackled. (N.C.)

  7. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  8. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  9. Toward Defect Engineering Strategies to Optimize Energy and Electronic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstratia N. Sgourou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological requirement to optimize materials for energy and electronic materials has led to the use of defect engineering strategies. These strategies take advantage of the impact of composition, disorder, structure, and mechanical strain on the material properties. In the present review, we highlight key strategies presently employed or considered to tune the properties of energy and electronic materials. We consider examples from electronic materials (silicon and germanium, photocatalysis (titanium oxide, solid oxide fuel cells (cerium oxide, and nuclear materials (nanocomposites.

  10. Smart grid strategy - the future intelligent energy system. [Denmark]; Smart grid-strategi - fremtidens intelligente energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The Government's Smart Grid Strategy brings Danish consumers a big step closer to managing their own energy consumption. The strategy, combines electricity meters read on an hourly basis with variable tariffs and a data hub. It will make it possible for consumers to use the power when it is least expensive. ''Today we set the course for developing a smart energy network that will reduce the cost of converting to sustainable energy, cut electricity bills and create brand new products consumers will welcome,'' says Minister of Climate, Energy and Building Martin Lidegaard. Encouraging consumers to use energy more efficiently is a key aspect of the strategy. The remote-read electricity meters are crucial if consumers are to play a role in optimising the flexible energy network. (LN)

  11. Energy scope of handoff strategies in macro-femtocell environments

    KAUST Repository

    Leon, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Energy consumption in downlink mode is becoming an important topic as cellular communications grow into a large scale enterprise. The search for high rates keeping energy constraints low has put forward the idea that cells with smaller size may improve not only the capacity of the network, but also reduce the amount of energy that is needed to achieve such capacities. When using heterogeneous networks, users can be encouraged to handoff to a femtocell, that offers better capacity per unit energy spent, by means of different handoff strategies. These strategies may also improve the energy use of the network if the handoff priority is given to both, capacity, and energy use. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  13. Demand and Supply Side Management Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Hajizadeh, Amin; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    operational scenarios. Afterwards, the SSM strategy based on adaptive fuzzy control is proposed to control of power flow between hybrid renewable sources and PEVs of the main building for a short time interval. Moreover, an fuzzy sliding power control strategy for the controlling of battery energy storage......This paper proposes simultaneous Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) Strategies for smart Zero Energy Building (ZEB). The proposed DSM algorithm based upon game theory determines the optimal reference power of each power units during time interval of 5 min under three...... is introduced to keep the balance between the requested power from building, PEV and output power of hybrid power generation resources. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the capability of the proposed power and energy flow control strategy....

  14. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of switching between Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Hein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The central research question of the present paper is ‘What variables influence switching (code-switching and code-blending between Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian among bimodal bilinguals in a school environment?’ The data from guided discussions involving deaf and hearing students indicated that bimodal bilinguals predominantly code-blend, i.e. simultaneously produce speech and signs. The main function of switching among the students was to emphasise a constituent in a clause, but they also switched to express themselves in an original way. In some utterances, it proved difficult to apply a single function to a switch, thus a sequential turn-by-turn analysis was employed. A deaf student’s level of switching was influenced most by the hearing status of the interlocutor, and the amount of switching by the interlocutor.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.03

  15. Strategies on biomass energies in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xenakis, E. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-08-01

    The main EU programmes, supporting the renewable deployment, are the research and development programmes JOULE, THERMIE and FAIR, included in the 4th framework programme, the ALTENER programme and the `Community Support Framework` programme. Research and development (R and E) activity within the JOULE and THERMIE programmes are divided into five areas, of which the third concerns the renewable energies. The support could range from 40 to 100 % of the cost. JOULE programme is research oriented, while the THERMIE programme is demonstration oriented. The FAIR programme is also a specific research and development programme for agriculture and agrifood industry. It could cover, among others, projects in connection with the biogas exploitation. The ALTENER programme provides support for the so called `software` actions, promoting renewables, mainly training and information actions, including events like the present one. Furthermode, it provides support for technical specifications, creation of infrastructure for the promotion of renewables and so on. ALTENER does not support investments. Finally the `Community Support Framework` programme promoting the regional development, could, in some cases, support traditional technology investments in relation to renewables. (au)

  16. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

  17. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Milani, L.; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188?200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-ass...

  18. Energy technology perspectives - scenarios and strategies to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-03

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  19. Energy technology perspectives: scenarios and strategies to 2050 [Russian version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  20. Energy Optimal Control Strategy of PHEV Based on PMP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiezhou Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the global voice of “energy saving” and the current boom in the development of energy storage technology at home and abroad, energy optimal control of the whole hybrid electric vehicle power system, as one of the core technologies of electric vehicles, is bound to become a hot target of “clean energy” vehicle development and research. This paper considers the constraints to the performance of energy storage system in Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV, from which lithium-ion battery frequently charges/discharges, PHEV largely consumes energy of fuel, and their are difficulty in energy recovery and other issues in a single cycle; the research uses lithium-ion battery combined with super-capacitor (SC, which is hybrid energy storage system (Li-SC HESS, working together with internal combustion engine (ICE to drive PHEV. Combined with PSO-PI controller and Li-SC HESS internal power limited management approach, the research proposes the PHEV energy optimal control strategy. It is based on revised Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP algorithm, which establishes the PHEV vehicle simulation model through ADVISOR software and verifies the effectiveness and feasibility. Finally, the results show that the energy optimization control strategy can improve the instantaneity of tracking PHEV minimum fuel consumption track, implement energy saving, and prolong the life of lithium-ion batteries and thereby can improve hybrid energy storage system performance.

  1. Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pietrosanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary energy source and equipped with energy storage, under the assumption that the statistical distribution of load durations is known. By including the variability of the load in the cost function, it was possible to define the optimality criteria for the power flow of the storage. Numerical calculations have been performed obtaining the control strategies associated with the global minimum in energy costs, for a wide range of initial conditions of the system. The results of the calculations have been tested on a MATLAB/Simulink model of a rubber tyre gantry (RTG crane equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS and subjected to a test cycle, which corresponds to the real operation of a crane in the Port of Felixstowe. The results of the model show increased energy savings and reduced peak power demand with respect to existing control strategies, indicating considerable potential savings for port operators in terms of energy and maintenance costs.

  2. Dispatch Strategy Development for Grid-tied Household Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Joseph

    The prevalence of renewable generation will increase in the next several decades and offset conventional generation more and more. Yet this increase is not coming without challenges. Solar, wind, and even some water resources are intermittent and unpredictable, and thereby create scheduling challenges due to their inherent "uncontrolled" nature. To effectively manage these distributed renewable assets, new control algorithms must be developed for applications including energy management, bridge power, and system stability. This can be completed through a centralized control center though efforts are being made to parallel the control architecture with the organization of the renewable assets themselves--namely, distributed controls. Building energy management systems are being employed to control localized energy generation, storage, and use to reduce disruption on the net utility load. One such example is VOLTTRONTM, an agent-based platform for building energy control in real time. In this thesis, algorithms developed in VOLTTRON simulate a home energy management system that consists of a solar PV array, a lithium-ion battery bank, and the grid. Dispatch strategies are implemented to reduce energy charges from overall consumption (/kWh) and demand charges (/kW). Dispatch strategies for implementing storage devices are tuned on a month-to-month basis to provide a meaningful economic advantage under simulated scenarios to explore algorithm sensitivity to changing external factors. VOLTTRON agents provide automated real-time optimization of dispatch strategies to efficiently manage energy supply and demand, lower consumer costs associated with energy usage, and reduce load on the utility grid.

  3. “... if there’s a party, then there’s definitely alcohol”. Construction of partying practices and abstinence in Estonian youth forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parder Mari-Liisa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Adolescents’ abstinence from alcohol has not been much researched in terms of providing suggestions for prevention strategies. This study aims to fill that gap by offering a practice theory-inspired analysis of how the unwritten rules of partying practices are communicated between posters of Estonian youth forums.

  4. Facilitating Regional Energy Transition Strategies: Toward a Typology of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte M. Lutz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regional level is essential for the use of renewable energies since on this level national political goals are harmonized with implementation activities. Hence, regional strategies can, we argue, be useful. Yet, these strategies must be tailored to meet a variety of contextual conditions. Within this study, we identified natural and socio-economic conditions that need to be considered when developing regional strategies for Energiewende. Focusing on these conditions, we conducted a multivariate statistical analysis of all 412 German districts (Landkreise. We identified nine energy context types characterized by different renewable energy potentials and socio-economic conditions. We propose to develop one generic regional energy transition strategy for each of the energy context types. These can serve as a governance tool that operationalizes and allocates national Energiewende goals according to regional contextual conditions. Moreover, the energy context types may support regional decision makers by allowing them to prioritize steps in the transition process, to establish networks with, and to learn from, similar regions.

  5. External Macroeconomic Shocks and the Estonian economy: How did the Russian Financial Crisis affect Estonian Unemployment and Foreign Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Eamets; Urmas Varblane; Kaja Sostra

    2003-01-01

    In this empirical paper we examine how the Russian financial crisis affected Estonian unemployment and foreign trade. In our interpretation the Russian crisis caused depression in the Estonian economy, but at the same time it also caused a relatively fast reallocation of trade. Eastward export flows (largely foodstuffs) declined drastically while exports to Finland and Sweden largely increased. Several manufacturing firms went into bankruptcy and foreign investors benefited from relatively lo...

  6. Avoidable mortality in Estonia: exploring the differences in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburin, A; Lai, T; Leinsalu, M

    2011-11-01

    A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia. Descriptive study. Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for Estonian and non-Estonian men and women aged 0-74 years in 2005-2007. The ethnic TLE gap was decomposed by age and cause of death (classified as preventable or treatable). The TLE of non-Estonian men was 3.53 years less than that of Estonian men, and the TLE of non-Estonian women was 1.36 years less than that of Estonian women. Preventable causes of death contributed 2.19 years to the gap for men and 0.78 years to the gap for women, while treatable causes contributed 0.67 and 0.33 years, respectively. Cardiorespiratory conditions were the major treatable causes of death, with ischaemic heart disease alone contributing 0.29 and 0.08 years to the gap for men and women, respectively. Conditions related to alcohol and substance use represented the largest proportion of preventable causes of death. Inequalities in health behaviours underlie the ethnic TLE gap in Estonia, rather than inequalities in access to health care or the quality of health care. Public health interventions should prioritize primary prevention aimed at alcohol and substance use, and should be implemented in conjunction with wider social policy measures. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy saving strategies in an actual confectionery plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimaldi, C.N.; Lunghi, P.; Mariani, F. [Universita di Perugia, Dip. di Ingegneria Industriale, Perugia (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The achievements of a more rational use of energy can be difficult when large and complex industrial plants are considered. In the present work, an example is given of how a well-focused energy analysis, based on experimental data, can help to point out possible relevant energy savings. In particular, two different refrigeration systems have been examined for a confectionery plant in different seasons, atmospheric and production conditions, allowing us to understand the actual operation. Based on the analysis of the results, energy saving strategies have been proposed and discussed. (Author)

  8. Estonian Airi Boeing sattus kaks korda hädaolukorda / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi Boeing ES-ABL sattus 2011. aasta algus kahel korral ohtlikku olukorda. Lennuamet tegi Estonian Airile ettekirjutuse, kuid seda pole ameti kodulehel avaldatud. Lennufirma kapteni ja lennuohutuse inspektori Andreas Kari, lennuameti selgitusi

  9. Acquisition of compounds in Estonian and Russian: Frequency, productivity, transparency and simplicity effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reili Argus; Victoria Kazakovskaya

    2013-01-01

    ... – Estonian and Russian. Longitudinal data on three Russian and two Estonian typically-developing monolingual children and their caregivers was analysed and compared in relation to first emergence, the development...

  10. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  11. Energy Storage System with Voltage Equalization Strategy for Wind Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an energy storage system with voltage equalization strategy for wind energy conversion is presented. The proposed energy storage system provides a voltage equalization strategy for series-connected lead-acid batteries to increase their total storage capacity and lifecycle. In order to draw the maximum power from the wind energy, a perturbation-and-observation method and digital signal processor (DSP are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In the proposed energy storage system, all power switches have zero-voltage-switching (ZVS feature at turn-on transition. Therefore, the conversion efficiency can be increased. Finally, a prototype energy storage system for wind energy conversion is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed energy storage system for wind energy conversion.

  12. Community energy management in Sitka, Alaska: What strategies can help increase energy independence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Trista. Patterson

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes practical energy management strategies that could help communities in southeast Alaska move closer to energy independence while utilizing local resources more effectively. Our analysis focuses primarily on Sitka, Alaska, yet could be relevant to other communities having similar energy structures that rely primarily on hydroelectric power...

  13. Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anish Kumar

    To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In

  14. Strategies for the Management of Surplus Electricity Production from Fluctuating Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper disusses and analyses different national strategies for renewable energy sources and energy effciency.......The paper disusses and analyses different national strategies for renewable energy sources and energy effciency....

  15. Operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Marquis, Laurent; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    Inspection and maintenance costs are a significant contributor to the cost of energy for wave energy converters. There are different operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters. Maintenance can be performed after failure (corrective) or before a breakdown (preventive) occurs....... Furthermore, a helicopter and boats can be used to transport equipment and personnel to the device, or the whole device can be towed to a harbour for operation and maintenance actions. This article describes, among others, a risk-based inspection and maintenance planning approach where the overall repair...... and maintenance costs estimations for wave energy converter applications including real weather data and damage accumulation. Furthermore, uncertainties related with costs, structural damage accumulation, inspection accuracy and different maintenance strategies can be included. This article contains a case study...

  16. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  17. Strategy for reducing the energy consumption in buildings; Denmark; Strategi for reduktion af energiforbruget i bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-15

    Today, Denmark has some of the most strict energy requirements in the world for new buildings. The long-term vision is that all new buildings shall be plus-energy buildings, i.e. they generate more energy than they consume. At the same time, the energy consumption in the existing buildings shall be reduced significantly. The strategy presents initiatives that shall contribute to reduce the energy consumption in both new buildings and in the existing buildings. The initiatives are eg. still stricter energy requirements for new buildings, stricter building codes for the existing buildings, economic incentives, better education, improvements of accounting of the energy consumption, and innovation. All the initiatives must secure that any reduction in energy consumption does not affect the indoor climate negatively. (ln)

  18. Energy flexibility in the buildings. Status and strategy; Energifleksibilitet i bygningsmassen. Status og strategi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soegnen, Ole-Gunnar

    1998-12-31

    According to this publication, Norway is now about to consume more energy than the country produces and the authorities realize that there is a need for increased energy flexibility in buildings. Traditionally, energy flexibility in buildings is defined as the possibility of using several energy sources for heating. The net total floor area in Norwegian buildings is 313 million m{sup 2}. Dwellings account for 65%, commercial buildings for 35%. Private dwellings in small houses account for 57%. Conditions are such that improvement in the energy consumption can be achieved faster by measures aiming at existing buildings rather than at new buildings. House owners and energy suppliers maintain that the prices of electricity and oil are a barrier for the introduction of new renewable energy sources. The superior strategy is that all measures suggested should contribute to the authorities` target of a sustainable development, in the climate policy and the energy supply policy. 9 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Microsatellite, blood group and transferrin protein diversity of Estonian dairy cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VÄRV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates genetic diversity within and among three Estonian dairy cattle breeds (Estonian Native, Estonian Red and Estonian Holstein. A total of 36 markers (25 microsatellites, 10 blood group systems and transferrin protein were investigated and the within-breed diversity was quantified by expected heterozygosity, number of private alleles and mean allelic richness. The population structure was studied by computing the inbreeding coefficients, breed differentiation and relationships were investigated with random drift-based measures and a factorial correspondence analysis. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree was drawn summarising allele sharing distances for 195 individuals of the Estonian breeds, Western Finncattle, and Danish Jersey. The Estonian breeds displayed generally similar levels of within-population diversity. Depending on the set of markers used 6.2 or 4.3% of the total genetic variation can be explained by differences among the breeds. Construction of the tree for individuals revealed a distinctive pattern of grouping for Estonian Holstein, Estonian Red and Danish Jersey, but Estonian Native and Western Finncattle appeared on the same branches. This indicates that the gene pool of Estonian Native largely overlaps with that of Western Finncattle. However, our genetic marker analysis shows that the three Estonian breeds are genetically differentiated, suggesting that the current gene pool of Estonian dairy cattle is diverse.;

  20. Adapting the Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS-36) for Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommik, Carita; Luik, Piret

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS-36) for Estonian secondary school students in order to develop a valid instrument to measure students' attitudes within the Estonian educational context. The SATS-36 was administered to Estonian-speaking secondary school students before their compulsory…

  1. Joakim Helenius: Estonian Air võtku eeskuju airBalticust / Siim Sultson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sultson, Siim

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi ühe võimaliku nõukogu esimehe Jaokim Heleniuse hinnangul on väikeste lennufirmade, nagu Estonian Air ja airBaltic jaoks päris palju tegutsemisruumi. Estonian Airil tuleb leida oma nišš ja kindel, kuid omanäoline strateegia

  2. SAS tahab Estonian Airi liita lätlaste firmaga airBaltic / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    SAS plaanib Estonian Airi ja Läti firma airBalticu liitmisega luua uue lennufirma. Autori hinnangul viitavad Estonian Airi laienemisplaanidele kriipsu peale tõmbamine ja SAS-i investeeringud airBalticusse sellele, et ühendamise käigus "neelab" Läti firma Estonian Airi

  3. Optimal residential water conservation strategies considering related energy in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lund, Jay R.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, residential water use is a much more energy intensive user. Based on this, we analyze the increased willingness to adopt water conservation strategies if energy cost is included in the customers' utility function. Using a Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses and probability distribution functions for parameters affecting water and water-related energy use in 10 different locations in California, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills and costs given both water and energy price shocks. Results can provide an upper bound of household savings for customers with well-behaved preferences, and show greater adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances when energy is accounted, resulting in an overall 24% reduction in indoor water use that represents a 30% reduction in water-related energy use and a 53% reduction in household water-related CO2 emissions. Previous use patterns and water and energy rate structures can affect greatly the potential benefits for customers and so their behavior. Given that water and energy are somewhat complementary goods for customers, we use results of the optimization to obtain own-price and cross-price elasticities of residential water use by simulating increases in water and energy prices. While the results are highly influenced by assumptions due to lack of empirical data, the method presented has no precedent in the literature and hopefully will stimulate the collection of additional relevant data.

  4. Energy efficiency in Serbia national energy efficiency program: Strategy and priorities for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy system in Serbia, in the whole energy chain, from exploitation of primary energy sources, transformations in electric power plants and district heating plants, energy (electric and heat transmission and distribution to final users, and up to final energy consumption, is faced with a number of irrational and inefficient behavior and processes. In order to fight with such situation National Energy Efficiency Program, financed by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection has been founded in 2001. Basic facts about status of energy sector in Serbia, with special emphasis on the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources have been given in the review paper published in the issue No. 2, 2006 of this journal. In present paper new strategy and priorities of the National Energy Efficiency Program for the future period from 2006 to 2008, and beyond, is presented. This strategy and priorities are mainly based on the same concept and principles as previous, but new reality and new and more simulative economic and financial environment in energy sector made by the Energy low (accepted by Parliament in 2004 and Strategy of Development of Energy Sector in Republic Serbia up to 2015 (accepted by the Parliament in May 2005, have been taken into account. Also, responsibilities that are formulated in the Energy Community Treaty signed by the South-East European countries, and also coming from documents and directives of the European Community and Kyoto Protocol are included in new strategy. Once again necessity of legislative framework and influence of regulations and standards, as well as of the governmental support, has been pointed out if increased energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources are expected. .

  5. A Candidate Army Energy and Water Management Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier, Donald F; Westervelt, Eileen T

    2004-01-01

    .... This work augments on-going energy and water management initiatives within the Army by developing a new candidate Army level strategy that responds to anticipated legislation; reflects current DOD and DA requirements, vision, and values in light of the current world situation; incorporates sound science and management principles; and organizes and focuses efforts into an integrated program.

  6. A novel multimode hybrid energy storage system and its energy management strategy for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Zhou, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel topology of multimode hybrid energy storage system (HESS) and its energy management strategy for electric vehicles (EVs). Compared to the conventional HESS, the proposed multimode HESS has more operating modes and thus it could in further enhance the efficiency of the system. The rule-based control strategy and the power-balancing strategy are developed for the energy management strategy to realize mode selection and power distribution. Generally, the DC-DC converter will operate at peak efficiency to convey the energy from the batteries to the UCs. Otherwise, the pure battery mode or the pure ultracapacitors (UCs) mode will be utilized without the DC-DC converter. To extend the battery life, the UCs have the highest priority to recycle the energy and the batteries are isolated from being recharged directly during regenerative braking. Simulations and experiments are established to validate the proposed multimode HESS and its energy management strategy. The results reveal that the energy losses in the DC-DC converter, the total energy consumption and the overall system efficiency of the proposed multimode HESS are improved compared to the conventional HESS.

  7. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  8. Communication strategies for two models of discrete energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    in a battery and transmissions are interrupted if the battery runs out of energy. We address communication in slot-based energy harvesting systems, where the transmitter communicates with ON-OFF signaling: in each slot it can either choose to transmit (ON) or stay silent (OFF). Two different models...... of harvesting and communication are addressed. In the first model an energy quantum can arrive, with a certain probability, in each slot. The second model is based on a frame of size F: energy arrives periodically over F slots, in batches containing a random number of energy quanta. We devise achievable...... strategies and compare the slot- with the frame-based model in the case of an errorless transmission channel. Additionally, for the slot-based model and channel with errors, we provide a new proof of the capacity achieved by the save-and-transmit scheme....

  9. European national strategies to move towards very low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    of official subsidies or via private investment organisations. Another possibility is lower taxes for low energy buildings or the introduction of CO2 taxes. Furthermore mandatory certification schemes are expected to promote very low energy buildings by introduction of grades restricted to buildings with very....... A strategy for improved energy efficiency of existing buildings is a necessity if the energy consumption is to be reduced significantly over a limited period of time. The life time of buildings ranges from 50 to 100 years and improvement of the existing building stock will thus have much higher impact than...... is an effective instrument to achieve highly energy efficient buildings, as well as a valuable tool and guideline for the construction sector....

  10. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey energy and minerals science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on current population and consumption trends, the Nation's use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth place further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting-edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to energy and minerals research are well established. Based on five interrelated goals, this plan establishes a comprehensive science strategy. It provides a structure that identifies the most critical aspects of energy and mineral resources for the coming decade. * Goal 1. - Understand fundamental Earth processes that form energy and mineral resources. * Goal 2. - Understand the environmental behavior of energy and mineral resources and their waste products. * Goal 3. - Provide inventories and assessments of energy and mineral resources. * Goal 4. - Understand the effects of energy and mineral development on natural resources. * Goal 5. - Understand the availability and reliability of energy and mineral resource supplies. Within each goal, multiple, scalable actions are identified. The level of specificity and complexity of these actions varies, consistent with the reality that even a modest refocus can yield large payoffs in the near term whereas more ambitious plans may take years to reach fruition. As such, prioritization of actions is largely dependent on policy direction, available resources, and the sequencing of prerequisite steps that will

  12. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estonian Airi president : uus äristrateegia toob ettevõttele edu / Borge Thornbech ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornbech, Borge

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Air asutas regionaalsete lendude korraldamiseks ettevõtte Estonian Air Regional, idee on arendada tegevust lühidistantsidel ja luua ühenduslüli lennukompanii Euroopa-liinide vahel. Kommenteerivad Olev Schults, Oleg Harlamov, Rein Mark. Vt. samas: Kõik aktsionärid vannuvad Estonian Airile truudust; Estonian Air kaalub Tartu lennuliini avamist. Kaart: Reisijate jagunemine sihtkohtade vahel. Graafikud: Estonian Air kukkus kahjumisse

  14. Formulation of market strategies for Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The ANL Energy and Environmental Systems Division has undertaken studies of implementation mechanisms and commercialization prospects for ''integrated community energy systems.'' Real Estate Research Corp. was commissioned to formulate marketing strategies appropriate to the implementation of ICES in the U.S. Objectives of this assignment are to: assist ICES program managers in formulating market strategies for the acceptance and widespread application of ICES systems; provide sufficient background information on the processes of development so that marketing strategies can be suitably tailored to particular concerns and characteristics of development projects; establish an information system for identifying areas, subareas, sites, or projects with substantial growth and development activity, as potential candidates for the application of ICES; test the information system to determine its potential usefulness for identifying candidate sites; and provide recommendations on strategies and techniques that might be used in a comprehensive marketing program for application of ICES systems. Chapter 2 presents information on the development process, which is used as a framework for other elements of the report. The project information system for identifying candidate projects for ICES applications is described in Chapter 3, and that system is subjected to a limited test and evaluation in Chapter 4. Description of the characteristics of development process appears in Chapter 5, and discussion of the formulation of marketing strategies in Chapter 6, and presentation of marketing techniques as part of an ICES marketing program in Chapter 7.

  15. Network switching strategy for energy conservation in heterogeneous networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujae; Choi, Wooyeol; Baek, Seungjae

    2017-01-01

    In heterogeneous networks (HetNets), the large-scale deployment of small base stations (BSs) together with traditional macro BSs is an economical and efficient solution that is employed to address the exponential growth in mobile data traffic. In dense HetNets, network switching, i.e., handovers, plays a critical role in connecting a mobile terminal (MT) to the best of all accessible networks. In the existing literature, a handover decision is made using various handover metrics such as the signal-to-noise ratio, data rate, and movement speed. However, there are few studies on handovers that focus on energy efficiency in HetNets. In this paper, we propose a handover strategy that helps to minimize energy consumption at BSs in HetNets without compromising the quality of service (QoS) of each MT. The proposed handover strategy aims to capture the effect of the stochastic behavior of handover parameters and the expected energy consumption due to handover execution when making a handover decision. To identify the validity of the proposed handover strategy, we formulate a handover problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP), by which the effects of the stochastic behaviors of handover parameters and consequential handover energy consumption can be accurately reflected when making a handover decision. In the CMDP, the aim is to minimize the energy consumption to service an MT over the lifetime of its connection, and the constraint is to guarantee the QoS requirements of the MT given in terms of the transmission delay and call-dropping probability. We find an optimal policy for the CMDP using a combination of the Lagrangian method and value iteration. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed handover strategy.

  16. Network switching strategy for energy conservation in heterogeneous networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujae Song

    Full Text Available In heterogeneous networks (HetNets, the large-scale deployment of small base stations (BSs together with traditional macro BSs is an economical and efficient solution that is employed to address the exponential growth in mobile data traffic. In dense HetNets, network switching, i.e., handovers, plays a critical role in connecting a mobile terminal (MT to the best of all accessible networks. In the existing literature, a handover decision is made using various handover metrics such as the signal-to-noise ratio, data rate, and movement speed. However, there are few studies on handovers that focus on energy efficiency in HetNets. In this paper, we propose a handover strategy that helps to minimize energy consumption at BSs in HetNets without compromising the quality of service (QoS of each MT. The proposed handover strategy aims to capture the effect of the stochastic behavior of handover parameters and the expected energy consumption due to handover execution when making a handover decision. To identify the validity of the proposed handover strategy, we formulate a handover problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP, by which the effects of the stochastic behaviors of handover parameters and consequential handover energy consumption can be accurately reflected when making a handover decision. In the CMDP, the aim is to minimize the energy consumption to service an MT over the lifetime of its connection, and the constraint is to guarantee the QoS requirements of the MT given in terms of the transmission delay and call-dropping probability. We find an optimal policy for the CMDP using a combination of the Lagrangian method and value iteration. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed handover strategy.

  17. Research on energy strategy and Chinese energy investment in the middle east

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiling

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East is a key node of “One Belt and One Road strategy”. Energy investment is an important part of Chinese investment in the Middle East. The political turmoil in the Middle East has brought the political risks to Chinese investors. In the future, with the globalization of Chinese resource distribution and the expansion of Chinese outward investment, it is significant for China to ensure its energy security. Based on the analysis of the situation of Chinese energy strategy in the Middle East, this paper tries to put forward some suggestion about Chinese energy investment in the Middle East in order to protect Chinese energy security effectively.

  18. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  19. National Energy Strategy: A compilation of public comments; Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    This Report presents a compilation of what the American people themselves had to say about problems, prospects, and preferences in energy. The Report draws on the National Energy Strategy public hearing record and accompanying documents. In all, 379 witnesses appeared at the hearings to exchange views with the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Deputy Under Secretary of Energy, and Cabinet officers of other Federal agencies. Written submissions came from more than 1,000 individuals and organizations. Transcripts of the oral testimony and question-and-answer (Q-and-A) sessions, as well as prepared statements submitted for the record and all other written submissions, form the basis for this compilation. Citations of these sources in this document use a system of identifying symbols explained below and in the accompanying box. The Report is organized into four general subject areas concerning: (1) efficiency in energy use, (2) the various forms of energy supply, (3) energy and the environment, and (4) the underlying foundations of science, education, and technology transfer. Each of these, in turn, is subdivided into sections addressing specific topics --- such as (in the case of energy efficiency) energy use in the transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, respectively. 416 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Department of Defense Energy Strategy: Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lengyel, Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    .... military combat power. High energy consumption, increased competition for limited energy supplies, ever-increasing energy costs, and the lack of a comprehensive Energy Strategy and oversight of energy issues in the DoD...

  1. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  2. Residues of persistent organic pollutants in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs were analysed in selected Estonian soils. The sample collection included agricultural-rural (Ahja, Eerika, industrial-urban (Kohtla-Järve, Muuga, Kunda, and reference sites (Lahemaa and Vilsandi. The PCB concentrations were greater in Ahja-1982 and Kohtla-Järve station 1, while Eerika, other Kohtla-Järve, Muuga Port, Kunda, Lahemaa, and Vilsandi Island concentrations were low. Organochlorine pesticides were slightly higher at Kohtla-Järve stations and PBDEs at Kunda stations. Overall, the predominant contaminants were PCBs (0.43–89 ng/g dw, followed by OCPs (0.21–16 ng/g dw and PBDEs (< 0.01–3.2 ng/g dw. The occurrence of 4,4'-DDT in some samples indicated recent contamination by DDT of Estonian soils. The PBDEs in Estonian soils were reported for the first time.

  3. Energy cost saving strategies in distributed power networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcheukam Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study energy cost saving strategies in power networks in presence of prosumers. Three tips are considered: (i distributed power network architecture, (ii peak energy shaving with the integration of prosumers’ contribution, (iii Electric vehicles self-charging by means of prosumers’ production. The proposed distributed power network architecture reduces significantly the transmission costs and can reduce significantly the global energy cost up to 42 percent. Different types of prosumer who use self-charging photovoltaic systems, are able to intelligently buy energy from, or sell it, to the power grid. Therein, prosumers interact in a distributed environment during the purchase or sale of electric power using a double auction with negotiation mechanism. Using a two-step combined learning and optimization scheme, each prosumer can learn its optimal bidding strategy and forecast its energy production, consumption and storage. Our simulation results, conducted for the region of Sicily in Italy, show that the integration of prosumers can reduce peak hour costs up to 19 percent and 6 percent for eligible prosumers with electric vehicles.

  4. Energy Management Strategies for Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondin Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on hybrid energy management for a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV with a parallel architecture. The proposed strategy focuses on the reduction of Nitric Oxides (NOx emissions that represents a key issue to meet diesel emissions standards. The strategy is split in two separated functions aiming at limiting the NOx in steady-state and transient operating conditions. The first functions, control the torque split between the engine and the electric motor. This energy management is based on the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS where an additional degree of freedom is introduced to tune the optimization tradeoffs from the pure fuel economy case to the pure NOx limitation case. The second function adapts the torque split ratio between the motor and the engine, initially computed from the optimal control strategy during transient operations where NOx are produced. The engine torque correction relies on mean value models for the EGR system dynamics and for the NOx formation. This paper applies a methodology based on Software in the Loop (SiL and Hardware in the Loop (HiL simulations in order to understand the system performance according to the powertrain configurations and also to tune the proposed energy management strategy. The simulation results are confirmed by experiments performed on Hybrid-Hardware in the Loop (Hy-HiL test bench. This work shows the potential of using the hybrid architecture to limit NOx emissions by choosing the best operating point and by limiting the engine dynamics. The NOx reduction has limited impact on fuel consumption.

  5. Energy Security Strategies: An Analysis of Tanzania and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Crisis-and-its- Impact -on- the-Business-Environment-EN-04032015.pdf. Cissé, Daouda. Globalisation and Sustainable Africa-China Trade: What Role Play the...depends. In addition to the competition among parties, a factor that can have an impact on strategy choice is the presence of programmatic elites in...of decision makers is expected to have a significant impact on how a government chooses to develop the country’s energy sector. 3. Economic

  6. Strategy on review method for JENDL High Energy File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Naoki [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Status on review method and problems for a High Energy File of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-HE File) has been described. Measurements on differential and integral data relevant to the review work for the JENDL-HE File have been examined from a viewpoint of data quality and applicability. In order to achieve the work effectively, strategy on development of standard review method has been discussed as well as necessity of tools to be used in the review scheme. (author)

  7. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-08-27

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  8. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  9. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop). We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and appropriate association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these challenges by relating the original scenario to an exaggerated version in which the dissipated thermal energy is associated with perceptible warmth. Using these exaggerations, teachers infer that thermal energy is present to a lesser degree in the original scenario. They use this exaggeration strategy to track and conserve energy in dissipative scenarios.

  10. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Daane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop. We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and appropriate association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these challenges by relating the original scenario to an exaggerated version in which the dissipated thermal energy is associated with perceptible warmth. Using these exaggerations, teachers infer that thermal energy is present to a lesser degree in the original scenario. They use this exaggeration strategy to track and conserve energy in dissipative scenarios.

  11. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Ecological Greenhouses: Experiences from Murcia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario Becerril

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a continuous growth in ecological agriculture (EA in recent years. It is recognized as a production system with rational energy use and low demand for fossil fuels. There are many studies relating to this subject, in contrast to the few studies regarding the use of energy and its impact on the environment in ecological greenhouses. This article analyzes the strategies adopted by a Transformational Agricultural Society (Sociedad Agraria de Transformación in order to improve energy efficiency in ecological greenhouses, with regards to the use of fossil fuels. The methodology is based on the Working With People (WWP Model, which involves social learning processes over 30 years in one of the largest regions of ecological crops in Spain. The results show that the measures taken to manage the greenhouses have achieved a decrease of over 80% in terms of fossil fuel consumption. The experience demonstrates that EA, as opposed to conventional agriculture (CA, is a system with great potential when it comes to reducing energy consumption and environmental improvements through various strategies.

  12. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy Qing

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through

  13. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  14. An inplementation strategy for the utilization of wind energy in Estonia. Phase 1: Pre-feasibility study and project identification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report presents the results of a pre-feasibility and project identification study with the purpose of investigating the possibilities for wind energy in Estonia and to recommend on possible actions, as outlined in Letters of Interest from the Estonian Ministries of Economy and Environment in 1995. Wind as source of energy in Estonia appears not yet to have been analyzed in detail. Available data indicates that wind can constitute a viable domestic source of energy, as average wind speeds of about 6 m/s (at 10 m) are reported at many coastal regions of Estonia. With state-of-the-art wind energy technology this means cost of wind produced electricity about 0.7-0.8 EEK/kWh - comparable to the cost of electricity from a modern coal-fired power plant. Two types of grids exist in these regions: On the mainland and on islands with sea cable grid connected wind turbines can be implemented. On islands without sea cable wind turbines can be connected to the diesel powered local grids. As a first step it is proposed to undertake the detailed planning and feasibility study of grid connected wind energy demonstrations in the framework of the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement. If the decision is made to implement this wind energy demonstration project, a certain proportion of grant money should be allocated for the demonstration. Subsequent steps in the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement should include the detailed planning and feasibility studies of autonomous wind energy demonstration and the associated capacity building. (EG)

  15. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Information technology (IT) is becoming increasingly pervasive throughout society as more data is digitally processed, stored, and transferred. The infrastructure that supports IT activity is growing accordingly, and data center energy demands haveincreased by nearly a factor of four over the past decade. Data centers house IT equipment and require significantly more energy to operate per unit floor area thanconventional buildings. The economic and environmental ramifications of continued data center growth motivate the need to explore energy-efficient methods to operate these buildings. A substantial portion of data center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat that is generated by the IT equipment. Using economizers to introduce large airflow rates of outside air during favorable weather could substantially reduce the energy consumption of data center cooling. Cooling buildings with economizers is an established energy saving measure, but in data centers this strategy is not widely used, partly owing to concerns that the large airflow rates would lead to increased indoor levels of airborne particles, which could damage IT equipment. The environmental conditions typical of data centers and the associated potential for equipment failure, however, are not well characterized. This barrier to economizer implementation illustrates the general relationship between energy use and indoor air quality in building design and operation. This dissertation investigates how building design and operation influence energy use and indoor air quality in data centers and provides strategies to improve both design goals simultaneously.As an initial step toward understanding data center air quality, measurements of particle concentrations were made at multiple operating northern California data centers. Ratios of measured particle concentrations in conventional data centers to the corresponding outside concentrations were significantly lower than those reported in the literature

  16. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  17. About the development strategies of power plant in energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinea, Adelaida Mihaela

    2017-12-01

    The paper aims at identifying and assessing the revenues and costs incurred by various modernization and modernization-development strategies for a power plant in order to optimize the electric and thermal energy are produced and to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the main performance indicators. The Romanian energy system and the energy market have gone a long transition way, from the vertically integrated model, the responsibility for the delivery of the electricity comes exclusively to a state monopoly, to a decentralized system, characterized by the decentralization of production and transport, respectively distribution activities. Romania chose the liberal market model where the relations between the actors in the market - producers and suppliers free to make sales and purchase transactions for electrical energy - are mostly governed by contracts, which may be either bilaterally negotiated or are already regulated. Therefore, the importance of understanding the development trend of the Romanian energy market lies in its economic effects upon the solutions which could be adopted for the evolution of the cogeneration power plant in question.

  18. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  19. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Estonian Golf & Country Club'i etnomodernistlik golfikeskus ja klubihoone Jõelähtmel. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuristuudio Siim & Kreis. Autor Andres Siim. Konstruktor: Resand. Sisekujundaja Juta Lember (SAB Lember & Padar). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis ja 3 sisevaadet

  20. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is fixed in the…

  1. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...

  2. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  3. Top 10 Estonian albums of 2004 / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Arvo Pärt "Pro et contra", Various composers "Baltic Voices 2", Raimo Kangro "Displays", Toivo Tulev "Be Lost in the Call", Indrek Vau and Mati Mikalai "Estonian Trumpet Music", Erdmann/Sooäär "Dessert Time, Peer Gynt & Other Stories", Alo Mattiisen "50 parimat laulu", Riho Sibul "Must", Rein Rannap "Tantsib klaveril", Eesti Keeled "Kella tiksumist..."

  4. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  5. Value Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Tammik, Anu

    2017-01-01

    For systematic implementation of value education in educational institutions, the national programme "Values Development in Estonian Society 2009-2013" (Ministry of Education and Research 2009) was prepared in Estonia. However, it was launched only in 2010, and the authors intended to ascertain the values of the heads of preschool child…

  6. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  7. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  8. Parasiitluse viljad: Estonian Air ja Eesti riik / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Autori hinnangul oli Estonian Airi erastamise puhul tegemist ratsionaalse, kuid parasiitliku lähenemisega kasu teenimise eesmärgil, samuti oli riigipoolne viga läbimõtlematu suhtumine riigile kuuluvasse Tallinna lennujaama, samas on aga lennuühendus Eesti kui Euroopa nurgas asuva väikeriigi jaoks strateegiliselt oluline

  9. Kas Bombardier lennutab Estonian Airi üles? / Henrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Air on saanud oma käsutusse kaks kolmest ostetud lennukist Bombardier CRJ900, millega saavutatakse Boeing 737-ga võrreldes oluline kütuse kokkuhoid. 20 aastaga on müüdud CRJ-seeria lennukeid juba üle 1700

  10. Energy Thermodynamics Revisited: Energy intake strategies for optimizing athlete body composition and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Benardot

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of physical activity is that it results in an increased rate of energy expenditure and, as a result of metabolic inefficiencies that lead to high heat production, an increase in the requirement to dissipate the added heat through sweat.  Nevertheless, surveys commonly find that athletes fail to optimally satisfy both energy and fluid needs, causing them to perform at levels below their conditioned capacities.  To some extent this problem results from an excess reliance on the sensations of ‘hunger’ and ‘thirst’ to guide energy and fluid intakes, but there are also common misunderstandings of the best eating strategies for achieving optimal body composition and performance.  The need to improve the strength-to-weight ratio to enable an enhanced ability to overcome sport-related resistance can be misinterpreted as a need to be ‘small’, which may result in an under-consumption of energy through restrained eating and special ‘diets’.  The outcome, however, is nearly always the precise opposite of the desired effect, with lower strength-to-weight ratios that result in an ever-increasing downward spiral in energy and fluid consumption.  This paper focuses on within-day energy balance eating and drinking strategies that are now successfully followed by many elite-level athletes.  These strategies can help athletes avoid the common errors of under-consumption while simultaneously improving both body composition and performance.

  11. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. The National Energy Strategy: A balanced program?. Proceedings of the nineteenth annual Illinois energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The Nineteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference was held in Chicago, Illinois November 1991. It was organized by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago with major support provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Illinois Commerce Commission, the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, and the Citizens Council on Energy Resources. The conference program was developed by a planning committee who drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The members of the planning committee were brought together for a full-day session where they were asked to assess the political, economic, and social impacts of the proposed National Energy Strategy as it relates to Illinois and the Midwest region. Within this context, the planning committee identified several major issues including: (1) Is the proposed plan a balanced strategy; (2) What are the NES impacts on the transportation sector; (3) What are the opportunities for improved efficiency in the Electric Utility Sector; and (4) What is the role of advanced research and development.

  13. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  14. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  15. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...... governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new...... buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating...

  16. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  17. Factorial structure of SILL revisited: adaptation of SILL for Estonian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Saks

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to contribute to the understanding of the taxonomy of language learning strategies (Oxford 1990: 14–22 and its measuring instrument, the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, through the adaptation process of the Estonian version. The translated version of the SILL was pilot-tested with a sample of 337 tertiary students. Cronbach’s alpha (0.91 reveals an acceptable reliability of the instrument. The t-test that was conducted in addition to descriptive analysis, to check for gender differences, did not reveal any significant differences. The results of the exploratory factor analysis did not support the 2- or 6-factor structures but the 9-factor analysis provides a good comparison to similar studies published in 1995 (Oxford, Burry-Stock 1995. The ethnic and gender differences of the results are discussed from the cultural perspective.

  18. Optimal strategies for operating energy storage in an arbitrage market

    OpenAIRE

    Flatley, Lisa; MacKay, R. S.; Waterson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We characterize cost-minimizing operating strategies for an energy\\ud store over a given interval of time [0, T]. The cost functional here can represent, for example, a traditional economic cost or a penalty for time-variation of the output from a storage-assisted wind farm or more general imbalance between supply and demand. Our analysis allows for leakage, operating inefficiencies and general cost functionals. In the case where the cost of a store depends only on its instantaneous power out...

  19. Energy management strategy for fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on prediction of energy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, Mauro G.; Costa-Castelló, Ramon; Roda, Vicente; Nigro, Norberto M.; Junco, Sergio; Feroldi, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Offering high efficiency and producing zero emissions Fuel Cells (FCs) represent an excellent alternative to internal combustion engines for powering vehicles to alleviate the growing pollution in urban environments. Due to inherent limitations of FCs which lead to slow transient response, FC-based vehicles incorporate an energy storage system to cover the fast power variations. This paper considers a FC/supercapacitor platform that configures a hard constrained powertrain providing an adverse scenario for the energy management strategy (EMS) in terms of fuel economy and drivability. Focusing on palliating this problem, this paper presents a novel EMS based on the estimation of short-term future energy demand and aiming at maintaining the state of energy of the supercapacitor between two limits, which are computed online. Such limits are designed to prevent active constraint situations of both FC and supercapacitor, avoiding the use of friction brakes and situations of non-power compliance in a short future horizon. Simulation and experimentation in a case study corresponding to a hybrid electric bus show improvements on hydrogen consumption and power compliance compared to the widely reported Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy. Also, the comparison with the optimal strategy via Dynamic Programming shows a room for improvement to the real-time strategies.

  20. Renewable Energy Innovation Policy. Success Criteria and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy technology (RET) innovation involves new, improved processes, as well as strategies to accelerate RET development, ranging from breakthroughs with basic technology inventions and improved research, development and deployment (RDD) systems, to improved market mechanisms and commercialisation. In order to achieve RET innovation, a country needs to put in place the right policy approaches, frameworks, governance and policy instruments. This working paper was compiled to assist countries with policy development in order to strengthen renewable energy innovation, primarily through a discussion of design criteria for innovation policy frameworks. The report identifies broad success criteria for innovation policy in the sector and suggests strategic policy approaches to advance RET innovation in the context of constrained options, competition for resources, and national economic development goals. For renewable energy innovation policy regimes to be succeed, they must satisfy two broad criteria: (a) promotion of sustained multi-stakeholder engagement around an achievable, shared vision; and (b) appropriate positioning of a country or region to anticipate and benefit from renewable energy technology flows.

  1. [Strategies for successful weight reduction - focus on energy balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, M; Bornstein, S R; Barthel, A; Blüher, M

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity and related health problems is increasing worldwide and also in Germany. It is well known that substantial and sustained weight loss is difficult to accomplish. Therefore, a variety of studies has been performed in order to specify causes for weight gain and create hypotheses for better treatment options. Key factors of this problem are an adaptation of energy metabolism, especially resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise thermogenesis and diet induced thermogenesis. The extremely high failure rate (> 80%) to keep the reduced weight after successful weight loss is due to adaptation processes of the body to maintain body energy stores. This so called "adaptive thermogenesis" is defined as a smaller than predicted change of energy expenditure in response to changes in energy balance. Adaptive thermogenesis appears to be a major reason for weight regain. The foremost objective of weight-loss programs is the reduction in body fat. However, a concomitant decline in lean tissue can frequently be observed. Since lean body mass (LBM) represents a key determinant of RMR it follows that a decrease in lean tissue could counteract the progress of weight loss. Therefore, with respect to long-term effectiveness of weight reduction programs, the loss of fat mass while maintaining LBM and RMR seems desirable. In this paper we will discuss the mechanisms of adaptive thermogenesis and develop therapeutic strategies with respect to avoiding weight regain successful weight reduction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Representing energy efficiency diagnosis strategies in cognitive work analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Antony; Jamieson, Greg A

    2017-03-01

    This article describes challenges encountered in applying Jens Rasmussen's Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) framework to the practice of energy efficiency Monitoring & Targeting (M&T). Eight theoretic issues encountered in the analysis are described with respect to Rasmussen's work and the modeling solutions we adopted. We grappled with how to usefully apply Work Domain Analysis (WDA) to analyze categories of domains with secondary purposes and no ideal grain of decomposition. This difficulty encouraged us to pursue Control Task (ConTA) and Strategies (StrA) analysis, which are under-explored as bases for interface design. In ConTA we found M&T was best represented by two interlinked work functions; one controlling energy, the other maintaining knowledge representations. From StrA, we identified a popular representation-dependent strategy and inferred information required to diagnose faults in system performance and knowledge representation. This article presents and discusses excerpts from our analysis, and outlines their application to diagnosis support tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isamaalaulud ja okupatsioonirežiim – nostalgia, utoopia ja reaalsus. Estonian Patriotic Songs and the Occupational Regime – Nostalgia, Utopia and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanni Labi

    2012-04-01

    certain aspects that help shed light on what followed can be pointed out. Through the events that took place during the national awakening, emphasis was placed on Russia’s role in the formation and development of the Estonian people, where cultural figures devoted to the people – such as Lydia Koidula - and their work were supported; patriotic songs were at the core of their activities. Formally, the patriotic repertoire was close to the characteristics of the only permitted art style in the Soviet Union – socialist realism : both are folksy, traditional, typical, historicist, pathetic and optimistic. At the same time it can be assumed that when the ruling power didn’t allow or tolerate even the most miniscule of deviances from the official line in no sphere of life, they had to make this official line concede in certain superficial manners to the real customs and endeavours of the people, in order to guarantee its own authority. So the patriotic repertoire remained, but the official treatment of its nostalgia and utopia was different than that of the people. The Soviet authorities’ strategy to achieve their aims – to level out and assimilate peoples and cultures – shaped the Estonian national identity and culture in a crucial manner: the patriotic songs were preserved because they were a permitted phenomenon through which the ideas forbidden in other areas could be expressed, and resistance to the ideological pressure helped preserve the Estonian people’s cultural memory. It can thus be claimed that the patriotic tinge which to this day can be sensed in the Estonian singing tradition is a result of Estonia’s political history.

  4. Factors Predicting Suicide among Russians in Estonia in Comparison with Estonians: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. Methods The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. Results The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Conclusion Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption. PMID:17171808

  5. Factors predicting suicide among Russians in Estonia in comparison with Estonians: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-12-01

    To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity (Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption.

  6. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  7. CLUPEA HARENGUS MEMBRAS: ABOUT THE ETYMOLOGY OF A CERTAIN FISH NAME IN ESTONIAN, LATVIAN AND LIVONIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Uibo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the names of Clupea harengus membras will be considered in Estonian, (Salaca Livonian and Latvian (respectively räim, reńǵ and reņģe ‘Baltic herring’. It will be shown that the source of all of these words is the Estonian-Swedish strämg (sträηg, or its preceding word shape *sträimg. The Latvian reņģe is borrowed from Estonian-Swedish through Salaca Livonian. Paul Ariste proposed an adequate etymology for the Estonian räim as early as 1933.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Critical Materials Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, D.; Diamond, D.; Li, J.; Sandalow, D.; Telleen, P.; Wanner, B.

    2010-12-01

    materials strategy, based upon additional events and information, by the end of 2011.DOE's strategy with respect to critical materials rests on three pillars. First, diversified global supply chains are essential. To manage supply risk, multiple sources of materials are required. This means taking steps to facilitate extraction, processing and manufacturing here in the United States, as well as encouraging other nations to expedite alternative supplies. In all cases, extraction and processing should be done in an environmentally sound manner. Second, substitutes must be developed. Research leading to material and technology substitutes will improve flexibility and help meet the material needs of the clean energy economy. Third, recycling, reuse and more efficient use could significantly lower world demand for newly extracted materials. Research into recycling processes coupled with well-designed policies will help make recycling economically viable over time.The scope of this report is limited. It does not address the material needs of the entire economy, the entire energy sector or even all clean energy technologies. Time and resource limitations precluded a comprehensive scope. Among the topics that merit additional research are the use of rare earth metals in catalytic converters and in petroleum refining. These topics are discussed briefly in Chapter 2.

  9. A U.S. Strategy for Timely Fusion Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mickey

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide energy demand is expected to explode in the latter half of this century. In anticipation of this demand, the U.S. DOE recently asked the National Academy of Science to provide guidance on a long-term strategic plan assuming that ``economical fusion energy within the next several decades is a U.S. strategic interest. ``Delivering on such a plan will require an R&D program that delivers key data and understanding on the building blocks of a) burning plasma physics, b) optimization of the coupled core-edge solution, and c) fusion nuclear science to inform the design of a cost-attractive DEMO reactor in this time frame. Such a program should leverage existing facilities in the U.S. program including ITER, provide substantive motivation for an expanding R&D scope (and funding), and enable timely redirection of resources within the program as appropriate (and endorsed by DOE and the fusion community). This paper will outline a potential strategy that provides world-leading opportunities for the research community in a range of areas while delivering on key milestones required for timely fusion energy development. Supported by General Atomics internal funding.

  10. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 2: Fossil energy in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keeville, H. [and others

    1993-12-01

    In Task 2, the authors establish a baseline for evaluating energy use in Hawaii, and examine key energy and economic indicators. They provide a detailed look at fossil energy imports by type, current and possible sources of oil, gas and coal, quality considerations, and processing/transformation. They present time series data on petroleum product consumption by end-use sector, though they caution the reader that the data is imperfect. They discuss fuel substitutability to identify those end-use categories that are most easily switched to other fuels. They then define and analyze sequential scenarios of fuel substitution in Hawaii and their impacts on patterns of demand. They also discuss energy security--what it means to Hawaii, what it means to neighboring economies, whether it is possible to achieve energy security. 95 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. Energy management action plan: Developing a strategy for overcoming institutional barriers to municipal energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Energy offices working to improve efficiency of local government facilities face not only technical tasks, but institutional barriers, such as budget structures that do not reward efficiency, a low awareness of energy issues, and purchasing procedures based only on minimizing initial cost. The bureau, in working to remove such barriers in San Francisco, has identified 37 institutional barriers in areas such as operations & maintenance, purchasing, and facility design; these barriers were then reorganized into three groupings-- policy & attitudes, budget & incentives, and awareness & information-- and mapped. This map shows that the barriers mutually reinforce each other, and that a holistic approach is required for permanent change. The city`s recreation & parks department was used as a model department, and information about facility energy use was compiled into a departmental energy review. Staff interviews showed how barriers affect conservation. The bureau then generated ideas for projects to remove specific barriers and rated them according to potential impact and the resources required to implement them. Four of the six projects selected focused on maintenance staff: a cost- sharing lighting retrofit program, a boiler efficiency program, a departmental energy tracking system, and a budgetary incentive program for conservation. The other two projects are city-wide: promotion of a new term contract supplying energy-efficient light materials, and publication/distribution of ENERGY NEWS newsletter. A general methodology, the EMAP Strategy Guide, has been created to assist other energy offices in developing EMAPs.

  12. Estonian Air püüdis viimase hetkeni Top Toursi päästa / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air kaalus Top Toursile appiminekut, sest reisifirma oli Estonian Airil üks olulisemaid koostööpartnereid. Abi oleks puudutanud ennekõike uutele lendudele allahindluse tegemist, räägiti ka võimalikust krediidist

  13. Implementation of Energy Strategies in Communities – Results within the Context of IEA Annex 63

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiefelbein, Jan; Slotterback, Carissa S.; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    the energy and urban planning can act more efficiently to successfully support the implementation of energy strategies within urban areas. Within the IEA Energy in Buildings and Communities (EBC) Program, the Annex 63 – Implementation of Energy Strategies in Communities – aims at giving recommendations...

  14. Estonian National Security Strategy: Current and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    of thought and behavior that we, most of us, offer a great resistance to acting on it in practice “ John Maynard Keynes The US is a main NATO...Association of Colleges and Schools , 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional...Association of Colleges and Schools , 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional

  15. Power generation assets. Energy constraints, upper bounds and hedging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enge, Thomas

    2010-09-20

    The overall topic of this thesis is the valuation of power generation assets under energy and risk constraints. Our focus is on the modeling aspect i.e. to find the right balance between accuracy and computational feasibility. We define a new not yet investigated unit commitment problem that introduces an energy constraint to a thermal power plant. We define a continuous stochastic dynamic program with a nested mixed integer program (MIP). We introduce a fast implementation approach by replacing the MIP with an efficient matrix calculation and use principal component analysis to reduce the number of risk factors. We also provide a fast heuristic valuation approach for comparison. As both models can only provide lower bounds of the asset value, we investigate the theory of upper bounds for a proper validation of our power plant results. We review the primal dual algorithm for swing options by Meinshausen and Hambly and in particular clarify their notation and implementation. Then we provide an extension for swing options with multiple exercises at the same stage that we developed together with Prof. Bender, University of Braunschweig. We outline Prof. Bender's proof and describe the implementation in detail. Finally we provide a risk analysis for our thermal power plant. In particular we investigate strategies to reduce spot price risk to which power plants are significantly exposed. First, we focus on the measurement of spot price risk and propose three appropriate risk figures (Forward delta as opposed to Futures delta, synthetic spot delta and Earnings-at-Risk) and illustrate their application using a business case. Second we suggest risk mitigation strategies for both periods, before and in delivery. The latter tries to alter the dispatch policy i.e. pick less risky hours and accept a (desirably only slightly) smaller return. We introduce a benchmark that weighs risk versus return and that we will call EaR-efficient option value. We propose a mitigation

  16. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  17. Critical Success Factors and information needs in Estonian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiki Tibar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the study on the critical success factors and related information needs in Estonian industry conducted in 1999. Data were collected by interviews with 27 managers and engineers from 16 manufacturing companies in various industries. Most of the critical success factors taken up were related to marketing, information management, quality management, product development and technological innovations. The information needs of managers and engineers were related to competitors, customers, markets, technology, regulations, etc. Some identified CSFs expressed also priorities for development by Estonian economic authorities: to support the implementation of new technologies and introduction of quality management methods. The finding that information management was perceived as a very critical area supports the result of the recent Finnish study on CSFs.

  18. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  19. Exhibition of photography from the Estonian diaspora / Ellu Maar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maar, Ellu, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Photography from the Estonian Diaspora / Väliseesti foto" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8.10.-19.11.2010, kuraatorid Eha Komissarov ja Ellu Maar. Näitus tutvustas 1944. a. Eestist lahkunud või juba võõrsil sündinud fotograafide (Eric Soovere, Karl Hintzer, Priit Vesilind, Rein Välme jt.) loomingut ja valikut väliseesti fotoarhiividest

  20. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  1. Optimal strategies for electric energy contract decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haili

    2000-10-01

    The power industry restructuring in various countries in recent years has created an environment where trading of electric energy is conducted in a market environment. In such an environment, electric power companies compete for the market share through spot and bilateral markets. Being profit driven, electric power companies need to make decisions on spot market bidding, contract evaluation, and risk management. New methods and software tools are required to meet these upcoming needs. In this research, bidding strategy and contract pricing are studied from a market participant's viewpoint; new methods are developed to guide a market participant in spot and bilateral market operation. A supplier's spot market bidding decision is studied. Stochastic optimization is formulated to calculate a supplier's optimal bids in a single time period. This decision making problem is also formulated as a Markov Decision Process. All the competitors are represented by their bidding parameters with corresponding probabilities. A systematic method is developed to calculate transition probabilities and rewards. The optimal strategy is calculated to maximize the expected reward over a planning horizon. Besides the spot market, a power producer can also trade in the bilateral markets. Bidding strategies in a bilateral market are studied with game theory techniques. Necessary and sufficient conditions of Nash Equilibrium (NE) bidding strategy are derived based on the generators' cost and the loads' willingness to pay. The study shows that in any NE, market efficiency is achieved. Furthermore, all Nash equilibria are revenue equivalent for the generators. The pricing of "Flexible" contracts, which allow delivery flexibility over a period of time with a fixed total amount of electricity to be delivered, is analyzed based on the no-arbitrage pricing principle. The proposed algorithm calculates the price based on the optimality condition of the stochastic optimization formulation

  2. Efficient strategy to support renewable energy. Integration in overall climate and energy security policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess-Schmidt, H.S.; Hansen, Martin Bo; Bergman, E. [Copenhagen Economics, Copenhagen (Denmark); Soederholm, P. [Luleae Univ. of Technology, Luleae (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    This report reviews how the Nordic countries can develop a strategy for renewable energy that delivers efficiently on the two underlying policy objectives of climate change and energy security challenges. The overarching elements in the evaluation of existing polices and the policy recommendations that follows from the analysis falls into three main parts: 1) Expanding renewable energy is not an end in itself, but a tool to deliver on the two real policy targets: climate change and energy security. 2) Too much policy focus at the Nordic and EU level is dedicated to boost renewable energy share of energy production in the near term, and insufficient resources are allocated to develop future low carbon technologies, which are required when CO{sub 2} abatement targets become more ambitious. 3) The long term nature of the challenges and huge investments in low carbon technologies required to deliver on long term targets puts a very high premium on policies that reduces policy risks as perceived by investors. The report was commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers and written by Copenhagen Economics. (Author)

  3. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  4. Efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. VASILIEV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the efficiency of Estonian grain farms after Estonia’s transition to a market economy and during the accession period to the European Union (EU. The non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used to estimate the total technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000–2004. Mean total technical efficiency varied from 0.70 to 0.78. Of the grain farms 62% are operating under increasing returns to scale. Solely based on the DEA model it is not possible to determine optimum farm scale and the range of Estonian farm sizes operating efficiently is extensive. The most pure technically efficient farms were the smallest and the largest but the productivity of small farms is low compared to larger farms because of their small scale. Therefore, they are the least competitive. Since pre-accession period to the EU, large input slacks of capital have replaced the former excessive use of labour and land. This raises the question about the effects on efficiency of the EU’s investment support schemes in new member states.;

  5. Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Herzog

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2007, the Estonian Government moved a memorial commemorating the Soviet liberation of the country from the Nazis to a less prominent and visible location in Tallinn. This decision triggered rioting among Russian-speaking minorities and cyber terrorism targeting Estonia's critical economic and political infrastructure. Drawing upon the Estonian cyber attacks, this article argues that globalization and the Internet have enabled transnational groups—such as the Russian diaspora—to avenge their grievances by threatening the sovereignty of nation-states in cyberspace. Sophisticated and virtually untraceable political "hacktivists" may now possess the ability to disrupt or destroy government operations, banking transactions, city power grids, and even military weapon systems. Fortunately, western countries banded together to effectively combat the Estonian cyber attacks and minimize their effects. However, this article concludes that in the age of globalization, interdependence, and digital interconnectedness, nation-states must engage in increased cooperative cyber-defense activities to counter and prevent devastating Internet attacks and their implications.

  6. Contrasting Strategies of Photosynthetic Energy Utilization Drive Lifestyle Strategies in Ecologically Important Picoeukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly H. Halsey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency with which absorbed light is converted to net growth is a key property for estimating global carbon production. We previously showed that, despite considerable evolutionary distance, Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae and Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae share a common strategy of photosynthetic energy utilization and nearly identical light energy conversion efficiencies. These findings suggested that a single model might be appropriate for describing relationships between measures of phytoplankton production. This conclusion was further evaluated for Ostreococcus tauri RCC1558 and Micromonas pusilla RCC299 (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae, two picoeukaryotes with contrasting geographic distributions and swimming abilities. Nutrient-dependent photosynthetic efficiencies in O. tauri were similar to the previously studied larger algae. Specifically, absorption-normalized gross oxygen and carbon production and net carbon production were independent of nutrient limited growth rate. In contrast, all measures of photosynthetic efficiency were strongly dependent on nutrient availability in M. pusilla. This marked difference was accompanied by a diminished relationship between Chla:C and nutrient limited growth rate and a remarkably greater efficiency of gross-to-net energy conversion than the other organisms studied. These results suggest that the cost-benefit of decoupling pigment concentration from nutrient availability enables motile organisms to rapidly exploit more frequent encounters with micro-scale nutrient patches in open ocean environments.

  7. Intervention strategies for energy efficient municipal buildings: Influencing energy decisions throughout buildings` lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The current energy-related decisionmaking processes that take place during the lifetimes of municipal buildings in San Francisco do not reflect our ideal picture of energy efficiency as a part of staff awareness and standard practice. Two key problems that undermine the success of energy efficiency programs are lost opportunities and incomplete actions. These problems can be caused by technology-related issues, but often the causes are institutional barriers (organizational or procedural {open_quotes}people problems{close_quotes}). Energy efficient decisions are not being made because of a lack of awareness or policy mandate, or because financial resources are not available to decisionmakers. The Bureau of Energy Conservation (BEC) is working to solve such problems in the City & County of San Francisco through the Intervention Strategies project. In the first phase of the project, using the framework of the building lifetime, we learned how energy efficiency in San Francisco municipal buildings can be influenced through delivering services to support decisionmakers; at key points in the process of funding, designing, constructing and maintaining them. The second phase of the project involved choosing and implementing five pilot projects. Through staff interviews, we learned how decisions that impact energy use are made at various levels. We compiled information about city staff and their needs, and resources available to meet those needs. We then designed actions to deliver appropriate services to staff at these key access points. BEC implemented five pilot projects corresponding to various stages in the building`s lifetime. These were: Bond Guidelines, Energy Efficient Design Practices, Commissioning, Motor Efficiency, and Facilities Condition Monitoring Program.

  8. Using a height-weight classification for analysis of food energy and main nutrient contents in 24-hours menus of 17-23-year-old Estonian female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jana; Kaarma, Helje; Koskel, Säde

    2007-03-01

    The study is focused on creating an anthropometric model that would enable to associate the body build peculiarities with nutritional variables. Thirty-six body measurements and 12 skinfolds were measured on 131 17-23-year-old female students of the University of Tartu, and 12 body composition characteristics were calculated. The subjects had to submit descriptions of their 24-hour menus. Nutrient intake was determined using the Micro-Nutrica software and the food composition database; the energy (in kcal) and main nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) content in the subjects' 24-hour menus were calculated. All body measurements were compared with nutritional variables, and 29 anthropometric variables were found that showed statistically significant correlations with at least one nutrient characteristic. The amount of food consumed correlated positively with body density and negatively with weight, circumferences, skinfolds and all indicators of body fat content (r reached 0.32). To associate body size, shape and composition with the amount of food consumed, a 5 SD height and weight classification was used, which consisted of three classes of concordance between height and weight (small, medium, large) and two classes of disconcordance - pyknomorphs and leptomorphs. All the 29 body measurements and nutrient variables were distributed systematically between the different classes. The pyknomorphous class with its greater body fat content and smaller density contrasted clearly with the class of leptomorphs. Food consumption in total as well as per 1 kg of body weight was smaller in pykniks than in leptosomes. Protein consumption did not reveal statistically significant differences. In small, medium and large classes, consumption of energy, fats and carbohydrates could not be proved about protein consumption. One should not overestimate the significance of BMI in nutritional studies. BMI characterises only obesity and cannot replace the characterisation of

  9. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  10. Estonian Air jäi kolmest Fokkerist ilma / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Estonian Airil ei õnnestunud saada kolme väiksemat reaktiivlennukit, lennuparki püütakse mitmekesistada järgmistel aastatel. Sel aastal loodetakse saada juurde ühe Boeing 737-300. Lisa: Boeing: Estonian Air on tasemel

  11. STRATEGI KONVERSI ENERGI DI PT. LION METAL WORKS Tbk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Sudradjad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} PT Lion Metal Works is a company producing office equipment, racking system, building material, security and fireproof safe, and cold forming. The production activity has high dependence on the usage of diesel, which influences the quality of the product and the cost of total business. The price fluctuation is one of the reasons for the company to convert the usage of diesel to some energy alternatives. Gas is the best alternative to replace diesel due to some advantages such as price, installation cost, distribution issue, calorie level, and environmental issue. There are some resistances from internal organization emerge in the implementation of the conversion. The alternatives strategy has been explored to reduce the resistances considering the goal of the organization, the actors (department in the company, and the type of resistance using analytical hierarchy process method. The priority strategy is establishing a new division for handling the conversion program and installing the gas facility gradually.

  12. The national strategy synthesis on the research in the energy domain; La synthese de la strategie nationale sur la recherche dans le domaine de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The energy research strategy takes into account two main orientations: the identification, the design and the industrial validation of new technologies generating no or less greenhouse gases, progresses relative to the today technologies in order to decrease the energy consumption. The report discusses the following axis of research: technologies of poor greenhouse gases emission and alternative energy resources, the nuclear energy for the electric power production, the biomass, the photovoltaic energy by the development of less expensive technologies, the CO{sub 2} capture and storage, the energy efficiency, the energy storage, the transport sector and the fuel cells development. (A.L.B.)

  13. Energy reserves mobilization: Strategies of three decapod species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Yamila Eliana; De los Angeles Pereira, Nair; López Greco, Laura Susana; Lovrich, Gustavo Alejandro; Fernández Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2017-01-01

    In food deprivation assays, several different responses have been observed in crustaceans. However, studying energy reserves utilization among more than one species during the same starvation period has not yet been performed, particularly to discern whether the responses are due to intrinsic and/or environmental factors. We hypothesize that decapod species with similar feeding habits have the same strategies in the use of energetic reserves during starvation, even though they inhabit different environments. The aim of this study was to compare the energy reserves mobilization of three decapods species (Cherax quadricarinatus, Palaemon argentinus and Munida gregaria) with similar feeding habits, exposed to similar food deprivation conditions. The crayfish, shrimp and squat-lobster were experimentally kept at continuous feeding or continuous starvation throughout 15 days. Every 3rd day, the midgut gland index (MGI), and the glycogen, lipid and protein contents were measured in the midgut gland (MG) and pleon muscle. Palaemon argentinus mobilized more reserves during starvation, followed by C. quadricarinatus, and the last M. gregaria. The starved shrimps presented low MGI, whereas MG showed a reduction in glycogen (from day 6 to 15), lipid (from day 3 to 15), and protein levels (at day 9 and 15) while in their muscle, lipid reserves decreased at days 3 and 6. In C. quadricarinatus, the most affected parameters in the MG were MGI, glycogen (from day 6 to 15), and lipids (at day 12 and 15). In the MG of M. gregaria only the glycogen was reduced during fasting from 3 to 15 days. Even though the three studied species have similar feeding habitats, we found that their energetic profile utilization is different and it could be explained by the habitat, life span, temperature, organ/tissue, and metabolism of the species. Our results may be useful to understand the several different responses of crustaceans during starvation. PMID:28886062

  14. Energy reserves mobilization: Strategies of three decapod species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, Hernán Javier; Rodríguez, Yamila Eliana; De Los Angeles Pereira, Nair; López Greco, Laura Susana; Lovrich, Gustavo Alejandro; Fernández Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2017-01-01

    In food deprivation assays, several different responses have been observed in crustaceans. However, studying energy reserves utilization among more than one species during the same starvation period has not yet been performed, particularly to discern whether the responses are due to intrinsic and/or environmental factors. We hypothesize that decapod species with similar feeding habits have the same strategies in the use of energetic reserves during starvation, even though they inhabit different environments. The aim of this study was to compare the energy reserves mobilization of three decapods species (Cherax quadricarinatus, Palaemon argentinus and Munida gregaria) with similar feeding habits, exposed to similar food deprivation conditions. The crayfish, shrimp and squat-lobster were experimentally kept at continuous feeding or continuous starvation throughout 15 days. Every 3rd day, the midgut gland index (MGI), and the glycogen, lipid and protein contents were measured in the midgut gland (MG) and pleon muscle. Palaemon argentinus mobilized more reserves during starvation, followed by C. quadricarinatus, and the last M. gregaria. The starved shrimps presented low MGI, whereas MG showed a reduction in glycogen (from day 6 to 15), lipid (from day 3 to 15), and protein levels (at day 9 and 15) while in their muscle, lipid reserves decreased at days 3 and 6. In C. quadricarinatus, the most affected parameters in the MG were MGI, glycogen (from day 6 to 15), and lipids (at day 12 and 15). In the MG of M. gregaria only the glycogen was reduced during fasting from 3 to 15 days. Even though the three studied species have similar feeding habitats, we found that their energetic profile utilization is different and it could be explained by the habitat, life span, temperature, organ/tissue, and metabolism of the species. Our results may be useful to understand the several different responses of crustaceans during starvation.

  15. Energy reserves mobilization: Strategies of three decapod species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Javier Sacristán

    Full Text Available In food deprivation assays, several different responses have been observed in crustaceans. However, studying energy reserves utilization among more than one species during the same starvation period has not yet been performed, particularly to discern whether the responses are due to intrinsic and/or environmental factors. We hypothesize that decapod species with similar feeding habits have the same strategies in the use of energetic reserves during starvation, even though they inhabit different environments. The aim of this study was to compare the energy reserves mobilization of three decapods species (Cherax quadricarinatus, Palaemon argentinus and Munida gregaria with similar feeding habits, exposed to similar food deprivation conditions. The crayfish, shrimp and squat-lobster were experimentally kept at continuous feeding or continuous starvation throughout 15 days. Every 3rd day, the midgut gland index (MGI, and the glycogen, lipid and protein contents were measured in the midgut gland (MG and pleon muscle. Palaemon argentinus mobilized more reserves during starvation, followed by C. quadricarinatus, and the last M. gregaria. The starved shrimps presented low MGI, whereas MG showed a reduction in glycogen (from day 6 to 15, lipid (from day 3 to 15, and protein levels (at day 9 and 15 while in their muscle, lipid reserves decreased at days 3 and 6. In C. quadricarinatus, the most affected parameters in the MG were MGI, glycogen (from day 6 to 15, and lipids (at day 12 and 15. In the MG of M. gregaria only the glycogen was reduced during fasting from 3 to 15 days. Even though the three studied species have similar feeding habitats, we found that their energetic profile utilization is different and it could be explained by the habitat, life span, temperature, organ/tissue, and metabolism of the species. Our results may be useful to understand the several different responses of crustaceans during starvation.

  16. The Participation Triangle : Involving Generation Y in energy strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, I.C.O.

    2017-01-01

    The liberalization of the Dutch energy market has led to a change of relation between energy companies and their customers. At the same time, the Dutch energy policy expects energy companies to contribute to an energy supply that is cleaner, smarter and more varied, and available at any time at

  17. Energy strategy 2050. From coal, oil and gas to green energy; Danish Government's energy policy; Energistrategi 2050 - fra kul, olie og gas til groen energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Danish Government's ''Energy strategy 2050'' describes how the country can achieve its independence from coal, oil and gas by the year 2050 and significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The strategy contains a raft of initiatives that will reduce the energy industry's use of fossil fuels by 33 % in 2020, compared with 2009. The reduction will put Denmark well on its way to complete independence of fossil fuels by 2050. The strategy calls for a significant increase in renewable energy obtained from wind, biomass and biogas which over the next decade will increase the share of renewable to 33 % of energy consumption, if the initiatives in the strategy are implemented. The strategy offers an economically responsible path to the conversion of the Danish energy supply, and includes specific initiatives, that are all fully financed and which will not damage the nation's competitiveness. Homeowners will experience moderate increases in the costs of heat and electricity, but will also be given opportunities to lower their energy expenses through greater efficiency. Companies can expect added expenses amounting to 0.1 % of the rise in their gross revenue growth by 2020. (ln)

  18. Improved Control Strategy for Microgrid Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Dou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultracapacitors (UCs, with their features of high power density and high current charge-discharge, have become the best choice for dynamic power compensation to improve the stability of microgrids and are increasingly being applied in microgrids. This paper presents the control of an energy storage system (ESS based on ultracapacitors in the context of grid-connected microgrids. The ESS is composed of DC/AC and DC/DC converters tied by a dc link. An improved dynamic model for the ESS is proposed. Based on the proposed model a Proportional-Integral-Resonant (PIR DC link voltage controller is proposed to maintain the DC link voltage through the charging-discharging control of ultracapacitors, capable of working properly under all operating conditions. An extra double frequency component is injected into the UC current by a R controller to dynamically compensate for DC instantaneous power and double frequency AC instantaneous power due to unbalanced grid conditions and disturbances. This feature maintains the DC link voltage constant under unbalanced conditions and increases the degrees of freedom of the DC/AC converter and thus facilitates the application of UCs in microgrids. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  19. Strategies for commercializing customer thermal-energy storage. [64 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.H.

    1976-12-01

    This report presents strategies for commercializing customer thermal storage. Four storage techniques are evaluated: space heating, air conditioning, hot-water heating, and interruptible hot-water heating. The storage systems involved store off-peak electric energy for thermal applications during peak load hours. Analyses of both storage techniques and principal parties affected by storage indicate four barriers: the absence of (1) commercially available air conditioning storage devices, (2) appropriate rates, (3) information on both rates and devices, and (4) widespread utility support. Development of appropriate rates is the key to commercialization. The criteria used to evaluate rate types are: maximum combined utility and customer benefits, ease of commercialization, and practical feasibility. Four rate types--demand charges, time-of-use rates, and two forms of load management rates (a monthly credit and an off-peak discount)--plus the possibility of utility ownership are considered. The best rate types for each storage option are: for hot-water heating, a monthly credit for allowing utility interruptions or an off-peak price discount for storage; for space heating, an off-peak discount contingent upon meeting utility requirements; and for air conditioning, an off-peak discount plus monthly credit.

  20. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  1. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  2. Scaling-up energy conservation initiatives : Barriers and local strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doren, D.; Giezen, M.; Driessen, P. P J; Runhaar, H. A C

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation in residential and commercial buildings is considered a key challenge and opportunity for low-carbon urban development. In cities worldwide, energy conservation initiatives have been realized that demonstrate the social, financial, and environmental benefits that energy

  3. Optimizing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies to suppress energy cannibalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J.M. [Queen' s Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Energy cannibalism refers to an effect where rapid growth of an entire energy producing (or conserving) technology industry creates a need for energy that uses (or cannibalizes) the energy of existing power plants or devices. For the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies to grow while remaining net greenhouse gas emission mitigators, they must grow at a rate slower than the inverse of their energy payback time. This constraint exposes a current market failure that significantly undervalues the physical reality of embodied energy in products or processes deployed to mitigate GHG emissions and indicates potential solutions. (author)

  4. Energy efficiency optimum strategies for low carbon development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sound energy efficiency policies play a critical role in fighting climate change. They are considered vital to reducing energy bills and reducing emissions and air pollution, while also improving energy security and sovereignty, and increasing access to energy. However, there are still significant barriers to the effective ...

  5. Seltsi muuseumist riigi keskmuuseumiks: ikka ajutiste lahendustega / Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Aru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the presentThe Estonian National Museum was founded in Tartu in 1909 as part of the national movement. With its activities and connections in society, the ENM helped create Estonian society, the nation’s collective memory and identity.The ENM has always been – despite the changing locations, names, and content – one of the symbols of national identity. But at the same time, ENM has never had its own building designed specially for the museum’s purposes.Since 1909 there have been several attempts to establish a home for the ENM. At first (1909–1923, Estonian society wanted to establish the museum in the center of Tartu. The museum was intended to become a key institution of the growing nation and establishing the nation’s identity.At last in 1923 the ENM secured the Raadi manor, outside the center of the city, in a beautiful park, near the lake with its boats and water attractions. In this manor the first permanent exhibition of mainly 19th century Estonian peasant life was compiled, and the ENM operated in the Raadi manor from 1923–1940 as the “Estonian’s own museum” The years of alternating occupations, World War II, and political terror damaged and destroyed the whole society. The Raadi manor was destroyed in the war too, and the ENM itself was divided into two parts – the State Ethnographic Museum and the State Literary Museum. The collections of the ENM were given to Tallinn and to many different places inside and outside Tartu. Then began “the period of temporary location” that continues today. The museum is located in several places in the city of Tartu.In 1988, the prior name of the State Ethnographic Museum – the Estonian National Museum – was reinstated. Since the 1990s there have been many attempts to secure a special building for the ENM. Now, at last, as a result of serious economic pressure, we are closer to this goal than ever. During the last five

  6. Väliseestlased ja nende keel. Pidepunkte uurimisloost / A study of the Estonian language in diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Viikberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The varieties of the Estonian language outside Estonia, differing from standard Estonian spoken in Estonia, are regional and generally oral language variants, influenced by local factors and variable intergenerational use. Containing loans from the dominant language, the oral language of the older generation still retains features either redundant or marginal in the current Estonian language geographic area. The first written documents on expatriate Estonians date back to the 19th century, but it was only after the Republic of Estonia was established in 1918 that a wider interest was taken in compatriots living abroad. In 1928, the Expatriate Estonian Society (Välis-Eesti Ühing was founded and the Expatriate Estonian Congress (Välis-Eesti kongress started to be held every five years. After Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, the word väliseestlane ’expatriate Estonian’ was used only in connection with Estonians living outside the Soviet Union. In the 1950s and 1960s, linguists became specifically interested in the Estonian settlements of Caucasus, Siberia and Ussuriland. Scholars, hoping to find in Siberia or Caucasus the archaic language of former settlers still alive, discovered that vernacular Estonian was not influenced so much by archaisms (caused by separation from the homeland as influences from long-term contact with other languages.Since the late 1990s, the study of the varieties of Estonian used outside Estonia has taken a new direction. This can be recognised by the increased interest in the varieties of Estonian in various new countries of residence (e.g. Denmark, Finland, Germany. The focus of interest moving to western countries did not mean a loss of interest in the areas of the former Soviet empire. In 1996, the Centre for Migration and Diaspora Studies was set up in the Tartu University Institute of Geography. Presently, one of the prestigious research projects (2010−2013 of Finno-Ugric languages, the EU

  7. Trade Union Responses to Transnational Labour Mobility in the Finnish-Estonian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolle Alho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines trade union strategies in relation to labor migration in Estonia and Finland, drawing on face-to-face interviews with trade unionists and official union statements. The study considers the national trade union strategies located in two separate but interconnected localities that represent different approaches to market economy. Previous research suggests that the national industrial relations system is a key factor in explaining unions’ labor migration strategies. Unions operating in liberal market economies are claimed to be more open toward immigration and more inclusive toward immigrants than unions in coordinated markets. This study analyzes the extent to which this theory holds in the context of Estonia and Finland—Finland representing a coordinated market economy and Estonia a liberal market economy. Furthermore, the analysis examines how the emergence of a translocal labor market, resulting from the geographical vicinity and linguistic affinity between Finland and Estonia as well as from free mobility within the EU, is reflected in trade union approaches to labor migration. The study finds that Finnish trade union strategies influence labor mobility, whereas Estonian trade unions remain bystanders in the issue.

  8. Cleantech Venture Investors and Energy Policy Risk: An Exploratory Analysis of Regulatory Risk Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bürer, Mary Jean; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The energy industry is a typical example of a heavily regulated industry, and particularly large incumbent energy firms have developed significant expertise in non-market strategies (or corporate political activity). New entrants to the energy industry, such as clean energy technology ventures, are also exposed to regulatory risk (and opportunity), but they do not have the means to engage in non-market strategies to a similar extent as large incumbent firms. On the other hand, the success of ...

  9. Sustainable Development Strategies of Biomass Energy in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Z.; Huang, B. R.

    2017-10-01

    The development of biomass energy industry can effectively improve the rural environment and alleviate the shortage of living energy in rural areas, especially in mountain areas. In order to make clear the current situation of biomass energy industry development in Beijing, this paper analyzed the status of biomass resources and biomass energy utilization and discussed the factors hindering the development of biomass energy industry in Beijing. Based on the analysis, suggestions for promoting sustainable development of Biomass Energy Industry in Beijing are put forward.

  10. Keeping the Future Bright: Department of Defense (DOD) Sustainable Energy Strategy for Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    on cost , operations and force structure. • Identify opportunities to deploy renewable and alternative energy sources for facilities and deployed forces...reduce the cost of operations .2 The Department developed an installation sustainable energy strategy designed to assure energy independence and...President Carter elevated the energy availability discussion during a televised energy 2 ProCon.org, “History of Alternative Energy and Fossil Fuel

  11. Design of Energy Efficient SMISMO-ELS Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally mechanical linked meter-in and meterout spool valves are used for velocity control of hydraulic differential cylinders. However with the demand for energy efficient systems the individual meter-in and meter-out valves draws massive attention. This paper propose an energy efficient...... actuator control and combines this with energy efficient system control. Finally energy neutral performance improvments are suggested for the subjacent actuator in an ELS system....

  12. Estonian Language of Technology as a Factor Supporting the Evolution of Engineering Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi, Vahur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Casual mention of teaching technology subjects in Estonian schools dates back several centuries. Navigation and construction were amongthe earliest professional skills that were taught. As both of them required mathematical thinking skills, teaching the subjects was usually accompanied by explaining the principles of mathematics. The first technology book in Estonian was published about two centuries ago and it dealed with geodesy. The earliest Estonian glossaries of technological terminology were published in the fields of physics and chemistry. The rise of Estonian as a language of higher education and science in the country came about in the 1920s and 1930s. Faculty members of the Tallinn School of Technology then published the first textbooks composed in the Estonian language for students of technology. The Estonian Society for Technology and the Estonian Association of Engineers became seriously involved in linguistic activities. Together with the Vocational Teachers’ Assembly of Tartu they published an illustrated technology glossary for machinery and tools terms. It was followed by a glossary of construction and building terms, compiled under the lead of the University of Technology. In addition, journals of technology introducedinnovations in the lexicon of technology to the general public. The postwar period in the development of the lexicon of technical terms was of little significance at first. A surge in language creativity could be detected in the 1960s, when terminology became a target of constantly growing attention to the development of technology lexicon. Series of technology glossaries were published. This tendency has continued to this day.

  13. Meso-level analysis, the missing link in energy strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.

    Energy is essential for human societies. Energy systems, though, are also associated with several adverse environmental effects. So far societies have been unable to successfully change their energy systems in a way that addresses environmental and health concerns. Lack of policy consensus often

  14. Development strategy of alternative energy responding to Climate Change Concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh; Moon, Young Seok; Cho, Gyeong Lyeob [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Since UNICEF (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) has adopted in Brazil, June 1992, there have been four times of COPS taken place to discuss more detailed and realistic international action plan for regulating greenhouse gas emission and reduction scheme. Due to this, the direction of future energy policy has been changed in a large scale. The reduction of greenhouse gas is the most urgent issue at present rather than the stable supply of energy in the past. It is natural that improving energy efficiency and developing clean alternative energy have been a major issue. In case of the advanced countries, the energy policy has been changed to the harmonization of so called 3E, environmental conservation, economic growth, and energy security from the economic growth oriented energy policy and has tried to enhance industrial competition through developing new technology and alternative energy for improving energy efficiency. Alternative energy, called as new renewable energy, does not have to concern about its exhaustion and is the only clean future energy source. Therefore this is an important project that should be implemented with a long-term vision and interest by the people as well as the government. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA DUE TO PROMOTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Golub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available According to European Strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy, which guidelines are described in two documents: ‘’Green Paper: a European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy’’ and ‘’White Paper: Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy’’, it is predicted that share of renewable energy resources in total energy balance will raise from present 6% up to 15% until 2015. Croatia, as candidate country for EU admittance, with growing dependency upon imported energy because of continuous depletion of own energy resources, prior oil and gas, needs to follow EU strategic aims to achieve diversification of energy sources and implement and promote renewable energy resources. This paper presents strategy of geothermal resources development in Republic of Croatia for the period of 2007-2030 in cascade and cogeneration principle of energy utilization. These projections of geothermal energy development are part of comprehensive Strategy of Mineral Resources Development which is made by Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering for Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship.

  16. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA DUE TO PROMOTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Miroslav; Kurevija, Tomislav

    2007-01-01

    According to European Strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy, which guidelines are described in two documents: ‘’Green Paper: a European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy’’ and ‘’White Paper: Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy’’, it is predicted that share of renewable energy resources in total energy balance will raise from present 6% up to 15% until 2015. Croatia, as candidate country for EU admittance, with growing dependency upon impo...

  17. Summarizing background report for Energy Strategy 2025; Sammenfattende baggrundsrapport for Energistrategi 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    The Danish Government's long-term energy strategy follows up on the political agreement of 29 March 2004. The energy strategy is a coherent formulation of the Government's long-term energy policy. The pivotal point for the energy strategy is liberalized energy markets and market based tools for obtaining goals such as efficiency, security of supply and environment. The focus is increasingly on the substantial business potential within development of new and more efficient energy technology, in which Denmark takes up several globally strong positions. Furthermore, transportation energy consumption has been included directly in an energy strategy for the first time. At the same time as the energy strategy is presented, a summarizing background report from the Danish Energy Agency with facts, analyses and evaluations is published, as well as a report from energinet.dk that summarizes the system responsibilities' input to that part of the energy strategy that deals with power infrastructure. (BA)

  18. Devising the right energy efficiency strategy for homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, L.; Hull, A. [Eaga Partnership Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Eaga Partnership Ltd. was established in 1990 and has gained a reputation as a national program manager with a specialty in retrofit energy efficiency. Eaga acquired Homeworks in 2003, which motivates homeowners to conserve energy through energy efficiency. This presentation described Eaga's current customer view and how it plans to grow across Canada. Their current markets include paying customers, social landlords, First Nations, remote rural areas, and disadvantaged low income groups. The motivating factors for energy conservation and efficiency include reduced energy costs, time saving, improved home values, better health, better air quality, safety and reduced greenhouse gases. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  19. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas...

  20. Report on the national strategy of research in the energy domain; Rapport sur la strategie nationale de recherche dans le domaine energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This report presents the energy situation in France and the place of the research in the energy policy. It discusses the political and legal context, the strategy orientations, the energy efficiency, the renewable energies, the fossil energies, the nuclear energy and the socio-economic factors. The actors of the energy research are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Energy demand modelling in transport for Ukrainian national energy strategy creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, V.A.; Dounaev, V. [Victoria Software developers Group (Ukraine); Perchuk, V. [Inst. of Energy Saving Problems (Ukraine)

    1996-12-01

    Among the main functions of the Ukrainian Government there are creation and implementation of economy and social development strategy for Ukraine, coordination of all economy sectors` activity, including the most important long-term solutions by means of which the Government aspires to satisfy the public interests. These tasks are complicated by the current state of economy, that is characterized by the ineffective structure serviced the former Soviet Union as a whole and by the intensive decline because of separation from the USSR, breaking of old economic ties, and attempts to proceed to market relations at all levels. Fuel and energy sectors are the most important components of the Ukrainian economy and key factors of industry`s and population`s vital activity providing. (EG)

  2. Evaluation strategy of regenerative braking energy for supercapacitor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhongyue; Cao, Junyi; Cao, Binggang; Chen, Wen

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion and increase the driving range of electric vehicles, the regenerative energy captured during braking process is stored in the energy storage devices and then will be re-used. Due to the high power density of supercapacitors, they are employed to withstand high current in the short time and essentially capture more regenerative energy. The measuring methods for regenerative energy should be investigated to estimate the energy conversion efficiency and performance of electric vehicles. Based on the analysis of the regenerative braking energy system of a supercapacitor vehicle, an evaluation system for energy recovery in the braking process is established using USB portable data-acquisition devices. Experiments under various braking conditions are carried out. The results verify the higher efficiency of energy regeneration system using supercapacitors and the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method. It is also demonstrated that the maximum regenerative energy conversion efficiency can reach to 88%. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy Management strategies for Smart Home Regarding Uncertainties: State of the art, Trends, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi, Mojtaba; Hajizadeh, Amin; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    The advent of Smart grid and high-energy demand for electricity has provided new opportunities for energy management systems (EMSs) in a smart home (SH). Energy management strategies play a key role in performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy resources, Heat Pumps (HP......), and Plug-in Electrical Vehicle (PEV) energy storages. This paper presents a critical review and analysis of different energy management strategies for SH to handle the uncertainties involved in renewable energy resources, home load demands, PEV charging requirements, and household comfort. In addition......, the present paper provides a comprehensive study of work on EMS, with a focus on stochastic modeling approaches and their effect on SH operations and outcomes. This review of different stochastic energy management strategies will be entirely helpful for SH development....

  4. Energy-saving occupant behaviours in offices: change strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulville, M.; Jones, K.; Huebner, G.; Powell-Greig, J.

    2016-01-01

    As regulated energy consumption in buildings is reduced; the proportional importance of unregulated energy consumption increases. Reducing unregulated energy use in the commercial office requires an understanding of the factors that influence workplace behaviour. To date these factors have been assumed to be similar to those that influence behaviour in the home. However, the social dynamics of the workplace are different to that in the home. This study examined the degree to which theories of...

  5. Energy-saving Occupant Behaviour in Offices: Change Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mulville, Mark; Jones, Keith; Huebner, Gesche; Powell-Grieg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    As regulated energy consumption in buildings is reduced, the proportional importance of unregulated energy consumption increases. Reducing unregulated energy use in the commercial office requires an understanding of the factors that influence workplace behaviour. To date these factors have been assumed to be similar to those that influence behaviour in the home. However, the social dynamics of the workplace are different to those in the home. This study examines the degree to which theories o...

  6. Energy-saving occupant behaviours in offices: change strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mulville, M.; Jones, K.; Huebner, G.; Powell-Greig, J.

    2016-01-01

    As regulated energy consumption in buildings is reduced, the proportional importance of unregulated energy consumption increases. Reducing unregulated energy use in the commercial office requires an understanding of the factors that influence workplace behaviour. To date these factors have been assumed to be similar to those that influence behaviour in the home. However, the social dynamics of the workplace are different to those in the home. This study examines the degree to which theories o...

  7. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management.

  8. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  9. Survival of the Unfit: Path Dependence and the Estonian Oil Shale Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik

    2009-01-15

    Estonia is the only country in the world, which is totally dependent on oil shale in its energy system. Although this fossil fuel exists in enormous quantities around the world, it has so far not been utilized on a larger scale. The reasons for this have been both economic and, in recent times, ecological. It can therefore be argued that in most cases, oil shale represents an inferior solution compared to other energy sources. This work examines why a technology utilizing oil shale has developed in Estonia and why Estonia appears not to be in a position to switch to other energy sources. In this work it is claimed that oil shale actually has been an appropriate solution to short-term concerns, despite the fact that its long-term drawbacks have been identified. These circumstances led to path dependence. Once the technology was in place, it advanced along its learning curve producing a satisfactory outcome, but not an optimal one. However, this situation has been accepted due to the extremely turbulent institutional environment Estonia has undergone in the 20th century. In Sweden, a somewhat similar (but smaller) oil shale industry was shut down in the 1960s because of poor economic performance, but also because of the competition from other energy sources. Such competition did not take place in Estonia, in part due to the specific institutional set-up of the Soviet Union. This made it possible for the Estonian oil shale industry to develop further, causing the present lock-in. Today the existing infrastructure, the knowledge-base, and the particular socio-political circumstances of Estonia effectively prevent change. Furthermore, it is argued that because there was only little oil shale-related technology developed outside Estonia, most technology had to be developed domestically. This in turn has forced the Estonian oil shale industry to make several highly inconvenient alliances in order to gain room to manoeuvre. Partially as a result of this, there is today

  10. Using an energy management strategy to drive improved business results and improve manufacturing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, Marc

    2010-09-15

    Energy typically represents the single largest controllable cost in manufacturing, and is under constant scrutiny by all levels of management. In this paper we will examine the role and components of an energy management strategy, and focus on the benefits of looking at the strategy from a business perspective. We will then examine the role that an effective program, either existing or new, can play in a collaborative manufacturing environment, and how these improvements can reduce energy requirements while maintaining, or improving productivity.

  11. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  12. A Novel Strategy for Optimising Decentralised Energy Exchange for Prosumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sha, Ang; Aiello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The realization of the Smart Grid vision will change the way of producing and distributing electrical energy. It paves the road for end-users to become pro-active in the distribution system and, equipped with renewable energy generators such as a photovoltaic panel, to become a so called “prosumer”.

  13. Exploring the sustainability of estonian forestry: the socioeconomic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbel-Piirsalu, Evelin; Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Forestry as an important industry has both direct as well as indirect effects on the Estonian economy. It is therefore essential that it is sustainably managed so that it can continue to contribute to the economy in the future. The first aim of this article is to establish the situation regarding felling and regeneration in Estonia. As the available forestry statistics display discrepancies and lack consistency, it was as a necessary first step to gather information about and analyze the validity and reliability of the prime data to make the data sets useful for comparison over time and establish the current trends in Estonian forestry. However, with the help of interviews we are able to show that economic instability in Estonia brings with it increased logging rates and hinders investments into regeneration and maintenance. The problems are particularly pronounced in private forestry. Second, the article seeks to explain the socioeconomic reasons behind this situation. Economic problems among private owners, a liberal forestry policy, together with rapid land reform and weak enforcement of forestry legislation are some of the reasons that can explain the forestry trends in Estonia.

  14. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  15. Lower Ordovician Leetse Formation in the North Estonian Klint area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemliher, Jüri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of the Leetse Formation were studied in order to find out the conodont biozonation, grain-size distribution, and glauconite mineral properties and their variations along the North Estonian Klint. On the basis of the conodont zonation of the Saka section, combined with earlier data, it was found that the Leetse Formation belongs to the Paroistodus proteus, Prioniodus elegans, and Oepikodus evae zones of various thickness and completeness along the North Estonian Klint. The Pr. elegans Zone of the Saka section was found to be remarkably complete and correlate well with equivalent intervals of sections in the St. Petersburg Region. Poorly lithified glauconitic sandstones of the Leetse Formation vary lithologically vertically as well as laterally. The Leetse Formation in the west has been repeatedly redeposited and is depleted in suspended fraction, while in the east it is more homogeneous and represents continuous shallow-water conditions. Glauconite is represented by a potassium-rich variety (about 9% K2O and most likely forms at least two discrete modifications. Laterally, glauconite of the Leetse Formation in the western part of the klint contains less K than that of the eastern part, indicating faster sedimentation. The d(001 value of glauconite diminishes upwards in the sequence, indicating acceleration of the sedimentation rate.

  16. Promotion of renewable energies in Algeria: Strategies and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambouli, Amine Boudghene [Department of Electronics, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Faculty, University of Sciences and Technology of Oran, BP 1505, EL M' Naouer, Oran 31000 (Algeria)

    2011-02-15

    During the last few years, political support for renewable energies has been growing continuously both at the national and international level and most scientists now agree that the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are perfectly placed to play a leading role in the lucrative future solar and wind power industries. The interest for the development of renewable energies was perceived very early in Algeria with the creation of the solar energy institute as soon as 1962. Algeria plays a very important role in world energy markets, both as a significant hydrocarbons producer and exporter, as well as a key participant in the renewable energy market. Due to its geographical location, Algeria holds one of the highest solar reservoirs in the world. This paper deals with a review of the present renewable energy (RE) situation and assessed present and future potential of RE sources in Algeria. It also discusses the trends and expectation in solar and wind systems applications and the aspects of future implementation of renewable energies making emphasis on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region status. The problem related to the use of RES and polices to enhance the use of these sources are also analysed in this paper. In addition the available capacity building, the technical know-how for each RE sources technology and localising manufacturing of RE equipments have been defined. (author)

  17. Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the key gaps and barriers to implementing residential energy efficiency strategies in the U.S. market, as identified in sessions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America 2010 Residential Energy Efficiency Meeting held in Denver, Colorado, on July 20-22, 2010.

  18. Examination of implementation strategies for the Building Energy Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Lawrence J.

    1980-03-01

    Since the passage of the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act, research has been concentrated in two distinct areas. The first area of research has involved developing the energy budget standards for different building types and climatic conditions, and refining computer programs which will be needed to evaluate the energy consumption of proposed building designs. The second major area of research has been related to developing plans for implementing these standards once they are developed. The approaches taken in each of these two areas and the problems that were encountered are described and the proposed standards are briefly examined.

  19. Energy Management Strategy Based on Multiple Operating States for a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Energy Storage DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge for DC microgrids with stochastic renewable sources and volatility loads to achieve better operation performance. This study proposes an energy management strategy based on multiple operating states for a DC microgrid, which is comprised of a photovoltaic (PV array, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC system, and a battery bank. This proposed strategy can share the power properly and keep the bus voltage steady under different operating states (the state of charge (SOC of the battery bank, loading conditions, and PV array output power. In addition, a microgrids test platform is established. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy, the strategy is implemented in a hardware system and experimentally tested under different operating states. The experimental results illustrate the good performance of the proposed control strategy for the DC microgrid under different scenarios of power generation and load demand.

  20. [Marge Rennit. Eesti muuseumid / Estonian museums] / Tapio Mäkeläinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäkeläinen, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustus: Eesti muuseumid = Estonian museums / [Eesti Muuseumiühing ; koostaja Marge Rennit ; tõlkija Tiina Mällo ; toimetaja Ivi Tammaru ; eessõna: Piret Õunapuu ; kujundaja Marek Allvee]. Tallinn : Oomen, 2008

  1. IS THE ESTONIAN MODEL APPLICABLE TO ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN ADOPTING THE EURO?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I Radu; M-L Ciupac-Ulici; A Petcu

    2013-01-01

    .... Since the Euro adoption process is a controversial one, in this paper the authors aim to express their concerns regarding the major changes driven from other member states of the Euro Area, i.e. the Estonian model...

  2. SAS paneb Estonian Airi kiirmüüki / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2009-01-01

    Majandusraskustes lennufirma SAS kavatseb loobuda osalustest kõigis lennufirmades, mis ei sobi kokku nende uue tegevuskavaga. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts arvab, et riik peaks leidma Estonian Airile kodumaised partnerid

  3. Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision...

  4. Estonian Air andis Berliini liinil loobumisvõidu / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2006-01-01

    Estonian Air sulgeb 2007. aasta jaanuarist Tallinn-Berliin liini, mille võtab üle odavlennufirma easyJet. Diagramm: Lennureisijate arv Tallinn-Berliin. Vt. samas: easyJet kehv alternatiiv. Kommenteerivad Rein Loik ja Mati Feldmann

  5. Trading Strategies for Distribution Company with Stochastic Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to address the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) engaged in the transmission-level (TL) markets. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is presented to formulate the gaming framework between the PDISCO and markets. The lower...

  6. Toward effective strategies for energy efficient network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart; van Vliet, H.; Abadi, A.; Bauer e.a., D.

    2010-01-01

    Trade-offs in efficiency, equity and acceptability arise as a central feature in traffic management. Today's urban traffic network management strategies focus on overall system performance and often overlook the interests of the individual road user. In addition, the emphasis is on travel time

  7. Rahvusliku ajaloo tõlgendusi eesti draamas ja teatris 1970.–1980. aastatel. Interpretations of National History in Estonian Drama and Theatre in the 1970s–1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available According to theatre scholar Freddie Rokem, theatre portraying or performing historical events is seeking to overcome both the separation and the exclusion from the past, as well as ’striving to create a community where the events from this past will matter again’. This article covers the topic of interpretations of national history in Estonian theatre and in original dramaturgy during the Soviet era, with the focus on aspects like national self-reflection and the relationship to the common past. The main focus is on the 1970s, with examples from Rein Saluri’s, Mati Unt’s and Jaan Kaplinski’s drama productions. During the period in question, re-tellings of national history on Estonian theatre stages were clothed in metaphors, allusions and secret codes – Aesopian language. Within the Soviet cultural context, I analyse if and to what extent theatre of the time displayed resistance, political theatre or social allegory. Theatre was also connected with the principle of playing or playfulness, which on one hand indicates national resistance, national endurance, and a certain survival strategy, but on the other hand indicates the Estonian as being an involuntary homo ludens – the Playing Man, who through various enforced roles is trying to adjust to the whirlwinds of history. Saluri’s first play, the intellectual drama Külalised (The Guests, opens with an allusion to a drama classic the world over, William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, adding a powerful national-symbolic background to the play. The role-play which permeates and structures the play (The Host–The Guest however, displays allegorical references to changes in the status and self-image of Estonians. In Unt’s play Peaproov (Dress Rehearsal, the principle of playing/acting sheds ironic light on the makers of an historical film and their readiness to create superficially flashy interpretations at any cost: this take acts as an estranging and generalising reflection in a context

  8. Unemployment hysteresis in the “Nordic Kitten”: Evidence from five Estonian regions

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Unemployment hysteresis is a much discussed and researched topic in macroeconomics. The present paper examined unemployment hysteresis in five Estonian regions. It used two panel data methods, namely, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS) test and the Fourier Im-Pesaran-Shin (FIPS) test. The originality and value of this paper is that this is the first study that uses the panel unit root tests to examine unemployment dynamics in the Estonian regions. The findings revea...

  9. Russian-Estonian economic and investment cooperation during the crisis: dynamics and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, a...

  10. Two Stage Analysis of Successful Change Implementation of Knowledge Management Strategies in Energy Companies from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Gabriel Ceptureanu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the effects of knowledge management strategies toward organizational change in Romanian companies from the energy sector. This study explored a new vision to implement these types of organizational changes successfully in companies from the Romanian sector of energy and obtain their early benefits by using knowledge management strategies and also reveal the mediating effect of organizational learning and readiness for change. The results highlighted how energy companies can implement an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP-based change effectively through KM strategies. The results are equally valuable for all Romanian organizations that are currently changing their working environment.

  11. Media representation of feminism in estonian journalism : A qualitative analysis over the newsarticles of Eesti Peavaleht

    OpenAIRE

    Berendsen, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Estonian society, as a short history of gender studies, and the introduction of the termsfeminism or feminist, only started to appear in media during the second half of the 1990s.Nevertheless, the public opinion and attitudes about feminism among Estonian society arenot clear, while sexual discrimination is still a frequent occurrence (Estonia, 2013). Thearchive of the biggest Estonian daily newspaper Eesti Paevaleht includes articles aboutfeminism written in the last 15 years that will be an...

  12. Energy and water sector policy strategies for drought mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, Andjelka; Vugrin, Eric D.; Loose, Verne W.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-03-01

    Tensions between the energy and water sectors occur when demand for electric power is high and water supply levels are low. There are several regions of the country, such as the western and southwestern states, where the confluence of energy and water is always strained due to population growth. However, for much of the country, this tension occurs at particular times of year (e.g., summer) or when a region is suffering from drought conditions. This report discusses prior work on the interdependencies between energy and water. It identifies the types of power plants that are most likely to be susceptible to water shortages, the regions of the country where this is most likely to occur, and policy options that can be applied in both the energy and water sectors to address the issue. The policy options are designed to be applied in the near term, applicable to all areas of the country, and to ease the tension between the energy and water sectors by addressing peak power demand or decreased water supply.

  13. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  14. Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practices Governments and utility companies have developed a great deal of strategies and plans on how to cope with energy saving in households, since this represents a major issue for climate change remediation. Many...... of these governance initiatives tend to re-produce the idea of technical potentials, and have difficulties in coping with the challenge of establishing a social context for embedding energy saving actions in local households. Our aim in this paper is to explore how energy strategies and plans may be anchored...... context to explore successful intersections between energy planning practices and household practices. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to bridge between household and energy planning practices. This bridging is based on the conceptualisation of the house as the stage of household practices...

  15. China's increasing economy and the impacts on its energy strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Concha Velásquez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work enters into the topic of one of the world's most increasing economy, the economy of China. It will treat the question, how a country, hence a political system which was such closed and had a quite small economical standard and growth rate was able to improve in a tremendous way. This present fact discovers various questions, such like: How is it possible that a closed socialist state can improve its economical increase and international trade in a tremendous way? How is an increase in trade and production combined with energy consumption? How can China secure its energy sources in order to secure its production and energy household? The document starts with the theory of free trade to step into that topic.

  16. Wave energy technology. Strategy for research, development and demonstration 2012; Boelgekraftteknologi. Strategi for forskning, udvikling og demonstration 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, K.; Krogh, J.; Kofoed, J.P. [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark); Jensen, N.E.H. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Friis-Madsen, E. [Boelgekraftforeningen, Hurup (Denmark); Mikkelsen, B.V. [Hanstholm Havneforum (Denmark); Jensen, A. [DanWEC, Thisted (Denmark)

    2012-06-15

    The vision for Danish development of wave energy technology is that Danish industrial and commercial firms gain skills for marketing of competitive wave energy technologies in both the Danish and the international market. Utilization of wave power is a prerequisite for that there in the future can be built offshore energy parks at greater sea depths. The development of wave energy technology should from 2030 at the latest provide the opportunity for cost-effective, sustainable electricity from offshore energy parks in Denmark. This strategy contains a detailed development plan and overview of the investment required to achieve the expected technological development. The objective to produce 1500 GWh / year at a reduced price of 0.10 DKK / kWh compared to pure offshore wind power will require a public investment of approx. 1.5 billion DKK over the next 20 years. This investment will, at the reduced electricity production cost alone, be paid back in 10 years. (LN)

  17. A Strategy for American Power: Energy, Climate and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    example is the prize idea set forth by Richard Branson and Al Gore for a technology that can remove one billion tons of carbon dioxide from the...private sector is the $25 million prize established by Al Gore and Richard Branson for the develop- ment of a technology to extract at least one...power outages from natural disasters derail our nation. how We Make the strategy Work • Leadership is essential: the next president of the United

  18. Energy security for Canada: A comparison of the self-sufficiency and continental strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rastgardani, Taymaz

    2007-01-01

    While the topic of ‘energy security’ has attracted considerable public attention in recent times, the various issues of relevance have been poorly conceptualized within a policy framework for the Canadian people. Arguably, Canada has lacked an energy security strategy in recent years even as the country’s energy security environment has been rapidly changing. This study takes a strategic view of energy security in the sense that it treats the issue as a matter of national interest. Paradoxica...

  19. Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As distinct from gas generation from biological/ organic wastes the biomass by biological conversion process, which is limited to non-lignaceous matter, the thermo chemical conversion route also termed gasification can process any solid organic matter. Harnessing of energy through gasification route is not only providing to ...

  20. Strategies to reduce energy use in dairy milking facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Murphy, M.; Shalloo, L.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess how, and to what extent do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. The impact of future electricity price tariffs on dairy farm energy costs was quantified and the

  1. Benchmarking as a strategy policy tool for energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Nijkamp, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyse to what extent benchmarking is a valuable tool in strategic energy policy analysis. First, the theory on benchmarking is concisely presented, e.g., by discussing the benchmark wheel and the benchmark path. Next, some results of surveys among business firms are presented. To

  2. Automation Power Energy Management Strategy for Mobile Telecom Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jong-Ching; Chen, Jung-Chin; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Huang, Yi-Chao

    The aim of this research is to study the power energy cost reduction of the mobile telecom industry through the supervisor control and data acquisition (SCADA) system application during globalization and liberalization competition. Yet this management system can be proposed functions: operating monitors, the analysis on load characteristics and dropping the cost of management.

  3. Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy from biological organic waste as an aspect of sustainable waste management is probably the most contentious. Solid and liquid wastes are a rapidly growing problem worldwide. Among the clean sources of fuels for power generation, natural gas has been exploited largely due to significant availability in the specific ...

  4. Per-energy capacity and handoff strategies in macro-femto cells environment

    KAUST Repository

    Leon, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    The effect of smaller cells being placed in a heterogenous network can improve the way energy is spent in a system. Handoff strategies, bandwidth allocation and path loss calculations in different scenarios show how this is possible as the size of the cell is decreased. As a result, users can experience the same or better capacities while maximising the capacity per unit energy spent. The per-energy capacity metric is introduced as a suitable handoff strategy that considers the energy spent as an important criterion. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. An optimal strategy for energy allocation in a multiple resource environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D Brian; Leard, Benjamin P; Tongen, Anthony

    2010-07-01

    We consider a model for a population in discrete time with nonoverlapping generations that has fecundity proportional to the amounts of two essential resources obtained up to a saturating level. A population's strategy defines how individuals divide their total available energy between efforts to obtain the two resources. We assume that the total amount of each resource obtained is a positive, increasing, concave down function of the total energy exerted toward the resource. By considering two competing subpopulations that have different energy allocation strategies, we characterize the stability of all possible equilibria and find a unique optimal strategy where a fixed subpopulation resists invasion by a small competing subpopulation using any other strategy. Except when one of the resources is readily obtained above the saturation level, this optimal strategy is to divide effort equally between the resources. We illustrate the behavior of the model, directly showing the effects of an invading subpopulation with pairwise invasibility plots.

  6. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Daane, Abigail R; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop). We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and productive association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these ch...

  7. Energy Management Strategies for a Pneumatic-Hybrid Engine Based on Sliding Window Pattern Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivanco, A; Colin, G; Chamaillard, Y; Charlet, A; Higelin, P

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents energy management strategies for a new hybrid pneumatic engine concept which is specific by its configuration in that it is not the vehicle but only the engine itself which is hybridized...

  8. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  9. A Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy for Reduced CPU Energy on Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve energy saving and reduce the total cost of ownership, green storage has become the first priority for data center. Detecting and deleting the redundant data are the key factors to the reduction of the energy consumption of CPU, while high performance stable chunking strategy provides the groundwork for detecting redundant data. The existing chunking algorithm greatly reduces the system performance when confronted with big data and it wastes a lot of energy. Factors affecting the chunking performance are analyzed and discussed in the paper and a new fingerprint signature calculation is implemented. Furthermore, a Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy (BCCS is put forward. This strategy reduces the cost of signature computation in chunking process to improve the system performance and cuts down the energy consumption of the cloud storage data center. On the basis of relevant test scenarios and test data of this paper, the advantages of the chunking strategy are verified.

  10. Examination of commercial aviation operational energy conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    Forty-seven fuel conservation strategies are identified for commercial aviation and the fuel saving potential, costs, constraints, and current implementation levels of these options are examined. This assessment is based on a comprehensive review of published data and discussions with representatives from industry and government. Analyses were performed to quantify the fuel saving potential of each option, and to assess the fuel savings achieved to date by the airline industry. Those options requiring further government support for option implementation were identified, rated, and ranked in accordance with a rating methodology developed in the study. Finally, recommendations are made for future government efforts in the area of fuel conservation in commercial aviation.

  11. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  12. Energy Efficient Strategy for Throughput Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network lifetime and throughput are one of the prime concerns while designing routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, most of the existing schemes are either geared towards prolonging network lifetime or improving throughput. This paper presents an energy efficient routing scheme for throughput improvement in WSN. The proposed scheme exploits multilayer cluster design for energy efficient forwarding node selection, cluster heads rotation and both inter- and intra-cluster routing. To improve throughput, we rotate the role of cluster head among various nodes based on two threshold levels which reduces the number of dropped packets. We conducted simulations in the NS2 simulator to validate the performance of the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate the performance efficiency of the proposed scheme in terms of various metrics compared to similar approaches published in the literature.

  13. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Grasielli; Simão, Daniel H; Pellenz, Marcelo E; Souza, Richard D; Jamhour, Edgard; Penna, Manoel C; Brante, Glauber; Chang, Bruno S

    2017-03-31

    Underwater acoustic networks (UAN) allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC) codes and fountain codes (FC) for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K -distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielli Barreto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic networks (UAN allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC codes and fountain codes (FC for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K-distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortino, S.E. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  16. Energy efficient strategy for throughput improvement in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sohail; Minhas, Abid Ali; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Shehzad; Saleem, Kashif

    2015-01-23

    Network lifetime and throughput are one of the prime concerns while designing routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, most of the existing schemes are either geared towards prolonging network lifetime or improving throughput. This paper presents an energy efficient routing scheme for throughput improvement in WSN. The proposed scheme exploits multilayer cluster design for energy efficient forwarding node selection, cluster heads rotation and both inter- and intra-cluster routing. To improve throughput, we rotate the role of cluster head among various nodes based on two threshold levels which reduces the number of dropped packets. We conducted simulations in the NS2 simulator to validate the performance of the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate the performance efficiency of the proposed scheme in terms of various metrics compared to similar approaches published in the literature.

  17. Experimental assessment of an energy management strategy on a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tazelaar, Edwin; Veenhuizen, Bram

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell hybrid power trains comprise an energy storage to supply peaks in the power demand and to facilitate regenerative braking. In terms of control systems, the presence of storage provides additional freedom to minimize the vehicle’s fuel consumption. In a previous paper [1] an analytical solution to the energy management problem for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems was derived and compared with existing strategies like the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) [1–4]. A...

  18. Control Strategies to Conserve Energy in All-Air Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-14

    York, ASHRAE, Inc. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers. "Standards for Natural and Mechanical Ventilation ...or REPoRT a P61mO0 COVERED 1 Control Strategies to Conserve Energy in All-Air Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning THESIS 14Systems o ~~~sGOG...Morrison, William James (M. S., Civil Engineering) Control Strategies to Conserve Energy in All-Air Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems Report

  19. United States Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Strategy and Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Operational Analysis Support Team, Operations Analysis Division ( OAD ), Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Analysis of Logistics Related Casualties for...life cycle cost analysis for new systems include calculation of the fully burdened cost of fuel (FBCF) during Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) and...needed to provide 114,000 British thermal units (BTU), which is the normal energy content of a gallon of gasoline . General Services Administration

  20. Energy management strategies for combined heat and electric power micro-grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarić Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy production from variable renewable energy sources such as wind and solar has resulted in several challenges related to the system reliability and efficiency. In order to ensure the supply-demand balance under the conditions of higher variability the micro-grid concept of active distribution networks arising as a promising one. However, to achieve all the potential benefits that micro-gird concept offer, it is important to determine optimal operating strategies for micro-grids. The present paper compares three energy management strategies, aimed at ensuring economical micro-grid operation, to find a compromise between the complexity of strategy and its efficiency. The first strategy combines optimization technique and an additional rule while the second strategy is based on the pure optimization approach. The third strategy uses model based predictive control scheme to take into account uncertainties in renewable generation and energy consumption. In order to compare the strategies with respect to cost effectiveness, a residential micro-grid comprising photovoltaic modules, thermal energy storage system, thermal loads, electrical loads as well as combined heat and power plant, is considered.

  1. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Oras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  2. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Oras

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  3. Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, J.J.; Bobbert, M.F.; Foster, C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pacing strategies on performance times in the 1000 m time trial event and the 4000 m pursuit event in track cycling. For this purpose, we simulated these events with a model based on the flow of energy in cycling. Different strategies in

  4. Control strategy of a novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the high fuel prices, the demands for energy saving and green emission of engineering machinery have been increased rapidly. Due to the complex working condition and frequent load changing, the efficiency of the hydraulic excavator is low. The aim of this article is to propose a control strategy for energy recovery system of hydraulic excavator driven by the parallel hybrid system. The mathematical models of the main components and the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built. Then, according to the load characteristic, a control strategy based on the working condition and state of charge of the battery is given. The co-simulation for the hybrid hydraulic excavator system is established. The results show that the proposed energy recovery system and control strategy can not only improve the energy recovery efficiency but also reduce fuel consumption and emission of the power system.

  5. Early vocabulary in full term and preterm Estonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Haan, Elis

    2013-09-01

    Preterm birth is considered to be a high risk factor for child development and early vocabulary can be used as an indicator for later development. The aim of the present study is to compare the size of early vocabulary, proportional use of different word categories, and mean length of utterance (henceforth MLU) of preterm and full term children. The sample consisted of 40 preterm (corrected ages 16-25 months) and two matched groups of full term children. First full term group consisted of 120 children who were matched by age and gender. Second full term group consisted of 109 children who were matched by age, gender and size of productive vocabulary. The data for this study were gathered using the Estonian adaptation of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. Full term children who were matched by age and gender had larger vocabulary as compared to the preterm children's vocabulary (U = 1758.5, p = 0.01). Poisson regression yielded that age, gender, and preterm birth explained significantly the variance in the vocabulary size. Poisson regressions showed that all three variables explained significantly variance in proportional use of social terms and predicates. Age had significant effect for proportional use of common nouns. Age and preterm birth had a significant effect on the proportional use of function words. MLU was shorter in preterm than in full term children (U = 1125.0, p = 0.002). Estonian preterm children's vocabulary is slightly smaller than full term children's vocabulary. There is a difference in the proportions of word categories used, as preterm children use more social terms, and less predicates, and function words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Green ICT & energy from smart to wise strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Appelman, Jaco H; Warnier, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the connection between the growing body of literature on sustainability and the topics of energy and ICT. It aims to show how stakeholders active in this area need to play their part ensuring that the ICT-sector evolves towards a sector that can lead through "greening by IT" and also shows that it can "green its own IT" as well. This is the first book that integrates two seemingly incompatible approaches to sustainability: efficiency and effectiveness. The book builds on the efficiency initiatives already taken by industry, but it is not a "how-to-do-it manual". It offers in

  7. Photovoltaic Array Reconfiguration Strategy for Maximization of Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula dos Santos Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic reconfiguration method for electrical connections in a Series-Parallel connected photovoltaic array under partial shading conditions. It is desirable to extract the maximum energy from the array, but it does not occur in situations where the modules have different points of operation caused by shading. The proposed method is then characterized by the maintenance of the PV array dimensions, that is; no module is removed or added to the array. Furthermore, the control algorithm is based on the Rough Sets Theory, which allows the fast and efficient implementation of a control system, comprising rules that identify the system optimal configuration.

  8. Trading strategies for distribution company with stochastic distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui; Korpås, Magnus; Pinson, Pierre; Østergaard, Jacob; Khodayar, Mohammad E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to address the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) engaged in the transmission-level (TL) markets. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is presented to formulate the gaming framework between the PDISCO and markets. The lower-level (LL) problems include the TL day-ahead market and scenario-based real-time markets, respectively with the objectives of maximizing social welfare and minimizing operation cost. The upper-level (UL) problem is to maximize the PDISCO’s profit across these markets. The PDISCO’s strategic offers/bids interactively influence the outcomes of each market. Since the LL problems are linear and convex, while the UL problem is non-linear and non-convex, an equivalent primal–dual approach is used to reformulate this bilevel model to a solvable mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified by case studies.

  9. Impact of Fluctuating Energy Prices on the Operation Strategy of a Trigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Balić

    2015-09-01

    The optimization method is based on two criteria – energy and economic criterion, which were applied hierarchically. Therefore, two optimal operation strategies are introduced. A mixed integer non-linear programming model provides energy and cost savings up to 32% and 28% respectively in comparison with conventional system. In addition, optimal capacity of trigeneration system is explored.

  10. Department of Energy--Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Program: Geothermal Risk Mitigation Strategies Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-02-15

    An overview of general financial issues for renewable energy investments; geothermal energy investment barriers and risks; and recommendations for incentives and instruments to be considered to stimulate investment in geothermal energy development.

  11. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used...... for hydrological and meteorological applications. We adapted methods of gap filling for NEE (net ecosystem exchange of carbon) to energy fluxes and applied them to data sets available from the EUROFLUX and AmeriFlux eddy covariance databases. The average data coverage for the sites selected was 69% and 75......% for latent heat (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H). The methods were based on mean diurnal variations (half-hourly binned means of fluxes based on previous and subsequent days, MDV) and look-up tables for fluxes during assorted meteorological conditions (LookUp), and the impact of different gap filling methods...

  12. Comparative Analysis of China’s Energy Strategy in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Poshtich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the influence of the energy factor on formulating China’s political and economic strategy towards Central Asia. Therefore, the article provides the profound analysis of the PRC energy strategy in the region, namely its principles, goals, objectives and mechanisms. The article also examines the key areas of energy cooperation between China and the five Central Asian states, as well as the major joint energy projects. Moreover, the article takes a close look at the Silk Road Economic Belt as one of the largest and most ambitious Chinese economic projects, for it is directly relevant to the development of energy cooperation in the region. The author also analyses the prospects as well as possible problems of further energy cooperation between China and Central Asian states. 

  13. Energy Conservation in Dissipative Processes: Teacher Expectations and Strategies Associated with Imperceptible Thermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in…

  14. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  15. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-01-01

    Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as "industry bread", is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the produ...

  17. A Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy for Reduced CPU Energy on Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhou; ShuDao Zhang; Ying Zhang(School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, P.R. China); JiaHao Tan

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve energy saving and reduce the total cost of ownership, green storage has become the first priority for data center. Detecting and deleting the redundant data are the key factors to the reduction of the energy consumption of CPU, while high performance stable chunking strategy provides the groundwork for detecting redundant data. The existing chunking algorithm greatly reduces the system performance when confronted with big data and it wastes a lot of energy. Factors affecti...

  18. Evolution Of The Operational Energy Strategy And Its Consideration In The Defense Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    deployed forces associated with heavy reliance upon significant quantities of operational energy , specifically fossil fuels • Identified where...looking to mitigate these growing risk by 38 reducing our reliance of fossil fuel. Moreover, the 2016 Operational Energy Strategy reiterates that...plan maintains that all MAF personnel are empowered to recommend or suggest ideas on ways that energy can be conserved. Consequently , these ideas are

  19. The impact of energy efficiency on choosing the strategy of technical policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshin Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses two variants of the strategy for the development of technical policy. These variants depend on the energy efficiency requirements of the materials and building structures. Strategy 1 is Economy variant and Strategy 2 is Pragmatic variant. To analyze the feasibility of the proposed types of strategies at the initial stage, we chose 10 most common types of apartment buildings in the Samara region. All other criteria were secondary: building height and, as a consequence, an elevator (elevators available, total area, material and engineering aspects of the roof, foundation and engineering systems.

  20. Investigation of energy management strategies for photovoltaic systems - An analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, R. C.; Eltimsahy, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in formulating energy management strategies for stand-alone PV systems, developing an analytical tool that can be used to investigate these strategies, applying this tool to determine the proper control algorithms and control variables (controller inputs and outputs) for a range of applications, and quantifying the relative performance and economics when compared to systems that do not apply energy management. The analysis technique developed may be broadly applied to a variety of systems to determine the most appropriate energy management strategies, control variables and algorithms. The only inputs required are statistical distributions for stochastic energy inputs and outputs of the system and the system's device characteristics (efficiency and ratings). Although the formulation was originally driven by stand-alone PV system needs, the techniques are also applicable to hybrid and grid connected systems.

  1. An integrated strategy for sustainable forest-energy-environment interactions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, J-F K; Salami, A T; Siyanbola, W O

    2003-10-01

    The Nigerian forests have been subjected to unguarded exploitation over the years. Although there is overwhelming empirical evidence, which show that Nigeria's forest, may soon vanish, available statistics have shown its increasing importance in the energy sector. With increasing population come the attendant demands on the biotic environment through increased land clearing, deforestation, devegetation, decertification, with attendant soil erosion, flooding, sand dune formation, and changes in the micro-climate with consequent loss of biological productivity and associated socio-economic and socio-political problems in the country. There is therefore the need to adopt measures that will shift the attention of the Nigerian populace from the forest to satisfy their energy needs. However, such measures that will address the challenges confronting the forestry, forest-based energy systems and the environment should be consistent with the development needs, resources and priorities of the nation. Hence, for sustainable forest-energy-environment interactions, a holistic and integrated strategy that can be adopted to minimise the observed forest depletion must take cognisance of options from various land use practices, energy and forest sectors. The focus of this paper is on a strategy of options from both the energy and forest sectors. Based on the socio-economic, socio-political and environmental analyses of various options from the energy and forest sectors, the philosophy behind the mosaic approach to sustainable development has been considered in developing the proposed strategy. Policy measures to implement this strategy of options in the national development programs are also suggested.

  2. An Improved Dispatch Strategy of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Energy System with High Penetration Level of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As more and more renewable energy sources (RES integrated into the conventional distribution system, how to make the current electric grid more reliable and efficient is becoming an important topic the world must face. In order to achieve these goals, grid-connected hybrid energy systems (HES which contain battery energy storage systems (BESS and many other advanced technologies have been developed and applied. Many benefits of BESS, such as high density of energy and power, have fast response in energy time-shift, frequency regulation, and so on. This paper focuses on the fluctuation alleviation and power quality improvement of grid-connected HES with high penetration level of RES. A multistage dispatch strategy of BESS for HES is proposed in this paper to mitigate the randomness and intermittence of the power flowed in HES because of high penetration level of RES integration. Four other conventional strategies are also discussed for evaluating the performance of the method proposed in this paper. Detailed cases and corresponding discussions are implemented, and the results show that the method proposed in this paper is more effective and robust than the other conventional strategies.

  3. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  4. Russia-EU: in search of an energy strategy; Russie-UE: quelles strategies energetiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyou, C. [Documentation Francaise, 75 - Paris (France); Verluise, P. [Geopolitique de l' Union europeenne, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-02-15

    EU member states have become increasingly dependent on Russian oil. Moreover, their industries are seeing the agreements signed during the Yeltsin years being called into question... and the price they have to pay for the opportunities they once dreamed of is increasing as well. On the other hand Russia is now deriving significant financial and strategic advantage from its oil. Claiming protection of its own interests, it wants to impose its control over extraction and its monopoly of transport while also profiting from the opening up of European markets to establish itself there. The resulting strategies seem a priori incompatible. (authors)

  5. The Effect of the 2008 War on Estonian Public Confidence in International Organisations: A Mixed Methods Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen; Melchior, Inge; Gugushvili, Alexi

    2014-01-01

    When the so-called 5 Day War between Russia and Georgia occurred in the summer of 2008, the Estonian public reaction was especially passionate. Two major explanations stem from the strong identification of Estonians with the situation of Georgia (post-Soviet state, small country, Russian

  6. Jäätmetega kimpus Estonian Cell annab muda põldudele kompostiks / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Kundas asuv Estonian Celli tehas jagab ümberkaudsetele talunikele jäätmetest lahtisaamiseks kompostimissegu. Seadused ei sätesta, kuidas Estonian Cellis tekkivaid jäätmeid töödelda. Kommenteerib Peeter Eek: Aasta läbi ei saa muda põllule viia

  7. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  8. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  9. Iseseisvusdeklaratsioonid 1776–1918. The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An Example of the Civilizing Force of Hypocrisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hent Kalmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty has been characterised as a form of “organized hypocrisy”, a system governed by a set of rules that are generally recognised as binding and yet are continually infringed upon by the most powerful actors. This idea can be extended to analyse the role of sovereignty within the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was nominally governed by a Constitution which endowed the Union Republics with the right of secession, but there was no realistic possibility of exercising this right. One should not rush to conclude, however, that the actual wording of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 was entirely without relevance. As Jon Elster has argued, hypocrisy can have a “civilizing force” when the need to appear impartial and to retain public credibility forces actors to choose a strategy they would not choose otherwise. A good example of this kind of argumentative constraint is offered by the dilemma faced by the Soviet leadership after the mid-1980s, as it became reluctant to use military force to suppress independence movements within the Baltic States while, at the same time, promising to give more weight to the Soviet Constitution and respect the “sovereignty” of the Union Republics. In this setting, the ambiguity of the word “sovereignty” could be played upon by a whole gamut of political movements in order to further their agenda, from local communists eager to expand their autonomy within the Soviet system to those making an explicit bid for the restoration of independence. Significant legal and political changes could be justified as mere conclusions from the constitutionally recognised status of the Union Republics – a strategy which was all the more effective as Moscow struggled to formulate an alternative line of constitutional interpretation that could be used to counter the Baltic claims. This exchange of opinions escalated into a constitutional conflict in November 1988, when the Estonian Supreme Soviet responded to

  10. Energy implications of water reduction strategies in Kraft process : part 2 : results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos-Espejel, E.; Marinova, M.; Barapour, S.; Paris, J. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    2010-05-15

    This article discussed the results obtained using a methodology for determining optimal water reduction strategies in a kraft pulp mill. The methodology used a 5-step procedure to analyze water utilization, benchmark consumption rates, identify restrictions, and assess the implications of water closure on heat recovery processes. This case study evaluated 4 potential strategies for simultaneous reductions in water, steam, and cooling requirements. Strategies included: (1) the reuse of condensates from the evaporators, (2) the reuse of whitewater, (3) the reuse of bleaching filtrate, and (4) the use of vacuum pumps to seal water. A trade-off analysis compared the strategies with results obtained using an optimized heat exchanger network. Results of the study showed that the proposed water reduction strategies saved 24 per cent of total water, 14 MW of steam, and 13.1 MW of cooling demand. Results demonstrated that water closure strategies must form a central part of process energy optimization projects. 9 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  11. Optimization of control strategies for stand-alone renewable energy systems with hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza. Calle Maria de Luna, 3. E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Contreras, Javier [Applied Mechanics and Project Engineering Department, University of Castilla, La Mancha. Campus Universitario s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents a novel strategy, optimized by genetic algorithms, to control stand-alone hybrid renewable electrical systems with hydrogen storage. The strategy optimizes the control of the hybrid system minimizing the total cost throughout its lifetime. The optimized hybrid system can be composed of renewable sources (wind, PV and hydro), batteries, fuel cell, AC generator and electrolyzer. If the renewable sources produce more energy than the one required by the loads, the spare energy can be used either to charge the batteries or to produce H{sub 2} in the electrolyzer. The control strategy optimizes how the spare energy is used. If the amount of energy demanded by the loads is higher than the one produced by the renewable sources, the control strategy determines the most economical way to meet the energy deficit. The optimization of the various system control parameters is done using genetic algorithms. This paper explains the strategy developed and shows its application to a PV-diesel-battery-hydrogen system. (author)

  12. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  13. Member State approach towards a strategy for passive/very low-energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbøl, Susanne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    . The survey shows that many European countries already have taken national actions towards implementing requirements at the level of very low-energy buildings within a time frame of 5-12 years but only a few European Member States (MS) have plans for strengthening the requirements to the existing buildings...... of the current national approach in this area EuroACE has initiated a survey. The scope was to create an overview of current and planned strategies in the European countries regarding the implementation of requirements towards very low-energy buildings (on passive level or similar) in their national legislation...... by introducing a request to MS to: define very low-energy buildings at national level, to draw up a national strategy towards this level of energy performance, and to put focus on upgrading energy performance of the existing building stock....

  14. Acquisition of compounds in Estonian and Russian: Frequency, productivity, transparency and simplicity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the early phases of acquisition of noun compounds in two typologically different languages – Estonian and Russian. Longitudinal data on three Russian and two Estonian typically-developing monolingual children and their caregivers was analysed and compared in relation to first emergence, the development of different compound types, productivity, frequency, simplicity and transparency of compounds, and also to the impact of morphological wealth in the input on the output. Although the frequency of compounds is somewhat different in the two languages being observed, the first compounds emerge in the speech of Estonian and Russian children almost at the same age and quite early, at the end of the second year of life. In both Estonian and Russian, children first acquire productive pat- terns in both languages, Estonian and Russian, respectively. Factors such as simplicity and frequency are intertwined in the acquisition process. Simple structures occur at the same time as frequent ones but it cannot just be assumed that simplicity is a stronger factor influencing the choice of first noun compounds than frequency. Frequency effects are not straightforward: there are differences in the individual usage of compounds by the caregivers, and the frequency of compounds in child-directed speech does not always seem to be reflected in the speech of the children. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.02

  15. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  16. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  17. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  18. New energy strategies for the 21st century: A Russian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margulov, G.D. [International Fuel and Energy Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-01

    The new energy strategy developed by Russian scientists and specialists working in the International Fuel and Energy Association is a doctrine for the further liberalization of the energy sector; pooling of new know-how and efforts of the world community for economic progress; rejecting established stereotypes of lifestyles based on inefficient energy use thereby improving the quality of life; increasing the role and responsibilities of the individual in the process of arresting environment degradation; ensuring gradual decreases in energy consumption at existing costs; and reducing social divides. The article outlines the two stages of the strategy for the development of the energy sector, the first until the year 2030, the second extending to the middle of the 21st century. The first stage will give priority to natural gas usage and intensification of energy conservation measures, the second will tackle the problems of balancing the shares of petroleum, coal and natural gas, develop new and renewable energy and strengthen the resource-technological base of the coal industry and of nuclear energy. The importance of interaction with the government, the international community, social organisations and with the energy sector companies and commercial banks is discussed. 1 ref.

  19. Nevada`s energy research strategy. Progress report, September 30, 1991--September 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNelis, D.N.

    1992-10-01

    This document was produced by the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) under a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research as part of the DOE-Experimental Program for the Simulation of Competitive Research (DOE-EPSCoR). The document develops Nevada`s strategies for the UCCSN to broaden and deepen energy-related research over the next five years in hydrology sciences, environmental biology and chemistry, chemical physics, and global change. A strategy was also developed to support energy-related research with education and human resources in science, math and engineering. A key concept of these strategies is continued success under the DOE-EPSCOR program. Participation in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Basic Energy Science and Global Climate Change programs in collaboration with the Nevada Test Site and DOE multi-program laboratories is also part of Nevada`s strategy for success in energy-related research.

  20. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  1. Investigation of energy management strategies for photovoltaic systems - A predictive control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, R. C.; Eltimsahy, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the formulation of energy management strategies for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, taking into account a basic control algorithm for a possible predictive, (and adaptive) controller. The control system controls the flow of energy in the system according to the amount of energy available, and predicts the appropriate control set-points based on the energy (insolation) available by using an appropriate system model. Aspects of adaptation to the conditions of the system are also considered. Attention is given to a statistical analysis technique, the analysis inputs, the analysis procedure, and details regarding the basic control algorithm.

  2. Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Din Salar Salah Muhy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of applying renewable energy strategies in Kurdistan Region of Iraq to overcome the shortage of electricity supply. Finding alternative renewable sources could overcome the problem. The renewable energy will reduce CO2 emission in the cities which considers the main source of pollution. That will participate in reducing the effect of global warming. The study tries to investigate the direct solar renewable energy through two of the main renewable energy categories to produce electricity based on a survey of literature review. Photovoltaic and wind power technologies are possible to be conducted in the region to overcome power shortage.

  3. The study on the control strategy of micro grid considering the economy of energy storage operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Liu, Yiqun; Wang, Xin; Li, Bei; Zeng, Ming

    2017-08-01

    To optimize the running of micro grid to guarantee the supply and demand balance of electricity, and to promote the utilization of renewable energy. The control strategy of micro grid energy storage system is studied. Firstly, the mixed integer linear programming model is established based on the receding horizon control. Secondly, the modified cuckoo search algorithm is proposed to calculate the model. Finally, a case study is carried out to study the signal characteristic of micro grid and batteries under the optimal control strategy, and the convergence of the modified cuckoo search algorithm is compared with others to verify the validity of the proposed model and method. The results show that, different micro grid running targets can affect the control strategy of energy storage system, which further affect the signal characteristics of the micro grid. Meanwhile, the convergent speed, computing time and the economy of the modified cuckoo search algorithm are improved compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm and differential evolution algorithm.

  4. Control Strategies for Distributed Energy Resources to Maximize the Use of Wind Power in Rural Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Samaan, Nader A.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Chunlian; Zhang, Yu

    2011-10-10

    The focus of this paper is to design control strategies for distributed energy resources (DERs) to maximize the use of wind power in a rural microgrid. In such a system, it may be economical to harness wind power to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels for electricity production. In this work, we develop control strategies for DERs, including diesel generators, energy storage and demand response, to achieve high penetration of wind energy in a rural microgrid. Combinations of centralized (direct control) and decentralized (autonomous response) control strategies are investigated. Detailed dynamic models for a rural microgrid are built to conduct simulations. The system response to large disturbances and frequency regulation are tested. It is shown that optimal control coordination of DERs can be achieved to maintain system frequency while maximizing wind power usage and reducing the wear and tear on fossil fueled generators.

  5. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  6. Geometric Process-Based Maintenance and Optimization Strategy for the Energy Storage Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is critical for improving energy structure and reducing environment pollution. But its strong fluctuation and randomness have a serious effect on the stability of the microgrid without the coordination of the energy storage batteries. The main factors that influence the development of the energy storage system are the lack of valid operation and maintenance management as well as the cost control. By analyzing the typical characteristics of the energy storage batteries in their life cycle, the geometric process-based model including the deteriorating system and the improving system is firstly built for describing the operation process, the preventive maintenance process, and the corrective maintenance process. In addition, this paper proposes an optimized management strategy, which aims to minimize the long-run average cost of the energy storage batteries by defining the time interval of the detection and preventive maintenance process as well as the optimal corrective maintenance times, subjected to the state of health and the reliability conditions. The simulation is taken under the built model by applying the proposed energy storage batteries’ optimized management strategy, which verifies the effectiveness and applicability of the management strategy, denoting its obvious practicality on the current application.

  7. Cautious but committed: moving toward adaptive planning and operation strategies for renewable energy's wildlife implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppel, Johann; Dahmen, Marie; Helfrich, Jennifer; Schuster, Eva; Bulling, Lea

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife planning for renewable energy must cope with the uncertainties of potential wildlife impacts. Unfortunately, the environmental policies which instigate renewable energy and those which protect wildlife are not coherently aligned-creating a green versus green dilemma. Thus, climate mitigation efforts trigger renewable energy development, but then face substantial barriers from biodiversity protection instruments and practices. This article briefly reviews wind energy and wildlife interactions, highlighting the lively debated effects on bats. Today, planning and siting of renewable energy are guided by the precautionary principle in an attempt to carefully address wildlife challenges. However, this planning attitude creates limitations as it struggles to negotiate the aforementioned green versus green dilemma. More adaptive planning and management strategies and practices hold the potential to reconcile these discrepancies to some degree. This adaptive approach is discussed using facets of case studies from policy, planning, siting, and operational stages of wind energy in Germany and the United States, with one case showing adaptive planning in action for solar energy as well. This article attempts to highlight the benefits of more adaptive approaches as well as the possible shortcomings, such as reduced planning security for renewable energy developers. In conclusion, these studies show that adaptive planning and operation strategies can be designed to supplement and enhance the precautionary principle in wildlife planning for green energy.

  8. Strategy and development means of the energy efficiency and renewable energies sources in France; Strategie et moyens de developpement de l'efficacite energetique et des sources d'energies renouvelables en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, Y.

    2000-09-01

    In the framework of the renewable energies development policy and the energy mastership wanted by the Government, a document has been asked by the Prime Minister. It evaluates the development prospects at long and medium dated, of the main chains of renewable energies production taking into account the national developable deposits size, the technologies assessment, the environmental impacts and the competition facing the traditional energies. It evaluates the measures leading to an increasing efficiency. Measures concerning the regulations, the budget, and the fiscality are also discussed. From these analysis, a national strategy for actions in favor the renewable energies, are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  9. A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.

  10. Flexible and Inflexible Energy Engagements – a Study of the Danish Smart Grid Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea; Gad, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    According to many visions for smart grids, consumers will come to play a more ‘active’ role in the energy systems of tomorrow. In this paper, we examine how the future ‘flexible electricity consumer’ is imagined in the Danish National Smart Grid Strategy. Our analysis of reports produced by the n......According to many visions for smart grids, consumers will come to play a more ‘active’ role in the energy systems of tomorrow. In this paper, we examine how the future ‘flexible electricity consumer’ is imagined in the Danish National Smart Grid Strategy. Our analysis of reports produced...

  11. A Review of Optimal Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Panday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of an alternative energy source along with the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs appeals for optimal power split between them for minimum fuel consumption and maximum power utilization. Hence HEVs provide better fuel economy compared to ICE based vehicles/conventional vehicle. Energy management strategies are the algorithms that decide the power split between engine and motor in order to improve the fuel economy and optimize the performance of HEVs. This paper describes various energy management strategies available in the literature. A lot of research work has been conducted for energy optimization and the same is extended for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs. This paper concentrates on the battery powered hybrid vehicles. Numerous methods are introduced in the literature and based on these, several control strategies are proposed. These control strategies are summarized here in a coherent framework. This paper will serve as a ready reference for the researchers working in the area of energy optimization of hybrid vehicles.

  12. Strategies of diversification in regulated energy markets: the natural gas and electric power industries in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Gonzalez, Gerado; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Eibenschutz Hartman, Juan

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show a structured and systematic approach to analyze the strategies of diversification undertaken by the State-owned companies Petroleos Mexicanos and Comision Federal de Electricidad, during the period 1938-2006, in the Mexican energy market that has been strongly dominated by the State control. Furthermore, we explore the future of these strategies by using a Strengthens, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) matrix. This analyze also include changes in regulation that should happen in order to consolidated the proposed strategies. (auth)

  13. Research on the control strategy of distributed energy resources inverter based on improved virtual synchronous generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Hai

    2017-08-22

    This paper focus on the power fluctuations of the virtual synchronous generator(VSG) during the transition process. An improved virtual synchronous generator(IVSG) control strategy based on feed-forward compensation is proposed. Adjustable parameter of the compensation section can be modified to achieve the goal of reducing the order of the system. It can effectively suppress the power fluctuations of the VSG in transient process. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for distributed energy resources inverter, the simulation model is set up in MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and physical experiment platform is established. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed IVSG control strategy.

  14. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409: Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the dissemination area of the tale, which remains outside Western Europe: apart from the Estonian versions there are Sami, Karelian, Vepsian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian versions. While in almost all the Estonian versions the main protagonist is transformed into a wolf, in most of the versions written down in other areas and ethnic groups, another animal or bird replaces the wolf. The author is of the opinion that the Finnic area is central to the distribution of the folk tale The Woman as Wolf. The animal the woman is transformed into in the plot would not have been a wolf in earlier times. The article provides an explanation why the wolf is predominant in Estonian written sources. For that purpose the ways in which the wolf and werewolf were perceived in earlier Estonian folk belief are introduced. At the end of the article interpretation of the folk tale is provided. The author states that the plot and some of the motifs found in this folk tale reflect the difficulties women had in submitting to the norms and values of patriarchal order within their society.

  15. Research on Chinese Energy Investment in Turkey under the Silk Road Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiling

    2017-11-01

    In the context of China’s peaceful rise, the Silk Road strategy will promote China participation in Global trade and investment. The Turkish government has announced a new incentive plan to attract investor. Therefore, Chinese energy investment in Turkey is facing some precious opportunities. However, cultural differences, Turkey’s domestic economic problems, political turmoil and other multiple factors bring severe challenges to China’s energy investment in Turkey, which requires a constructive response.

  16. A Review of Optimal Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2014-01-01

    Presence of an alternative energy source along with the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) appeals for optimal power split between them for minimum fuel consumption and maximum power utilization. Hence HEVs provide better fuel economy compared to ICE based vehicles/conventional vehicle. Energy management strategies are the algorithms that decide the power split between engine and motor in order to improve the fuel economy and optimize the performa...

  17. Analysis of handoff strategies in macro-femto cells environment based on per-energy capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Leon, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Placing smaller cells in a heterogeneous network can be beneficial in terms of energy because better capacities can be obtained for a given energy constraint. These type of deployments not only highlight the need for appropriate metrics to evaluate how well energy is being spent, but also raise important issues that need to be taken into account when analysing the overall use of energy. In this study, handoff strategies, bandwidth allocation and path loss calculations in different scenarios, illustrate how energy can be consumed in a more efficient way when cell size is decreased. As a result, users can experience higher capacities while spending less energy, depending whether they handoff or not, increasing the overall performance of the network. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  18. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  19. Biodynamics. Effect of pacing strategy on energy expenditure during a 1500-m cycling time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Florentina J; De Koning, Jos J; Meijer, Emiel; Teunissen, Lennart; Foster, Carl

    2007-12-01

    A critical assumption in modeling optimal pacing strategy is that the amount of anaerobic energy that can be produced during a time trial is a constant value, independent of pacing strategy. To test this assumption, the effect of manipulations of pacing strategy on anaerobic work produced during a 1500-m cycling time trial was studied. Additionally, the effect of pacing strategy on aerobic and total work was studied. Nine well-trained cyclists performed three 1500-m cycle ergometer time trials with different strategies (conservative (SUB), even paced (EVEN), and aggressive (SUPRA)). Anaerobic work, aerobic work, and total work were calculated on the basis of V O2, RER, gross efficiency, and external power output. ANOVA showed that total anaerobic work did not differ per strategy (EVEN: 27,604 +/- 1103 J, SUB: 26,495 +/- 1958 J, and SUPRA: 26,949 +/- 2062 J). No differences in aerobic work (EVEN: 28,266 +/- 1623 J,SUB: 27,950 +/- 1418 J, SUPRA: 27,844 +/- 1965 J) were evident, either. Subjects were able to accomplish significantly (P < 0.05) more total work during EVEN (55,870 +/- 2245 J) than during SUB and SUPRA (54,444 +/- 2306 and 54,794 +/- 2402 J, respectively). No difference in anaerobic and aerobic work was found per pacing strategy. Though relevant for sports performance, the differences in total work were relatively small (approximately 2%), considering the broad range of imposed strategies. The assumption that anaerobic work is a constant value, independent of pacing strategy, seems valid in the range of different strategies that are currently simulated in the energy flow models.

  20. MODELLING DICLOFENAC AND IBUPROFEN RESIDUES IN MAJOR ESTONIAN SEASIDE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erki Lember

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model was developed to model the fate of two common pharmaceutical residues: diclofenac and ibuprofen in eight Estonian seaside cities that discharge their wastewaters directly into the Baltic Sea. The consumption rates of the active ingredients of diclofenac and ibuprofen from 2006-2014 were analysed. A decrease of 19.9% for diclofenac consumption and an increase of 14.1% for ibuprofen were found. The fate of diclofenac and ibuprofen were modelled by considering the human metabolism removal rate for pharmaceuticals, the removal rate of diclofenac and ibuprofen in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP and annual flow rates. An average decrease from 1 to 0.8 µg/l (decrease of 20% for diclofenac and an increase from 11.4 to 13.4 µg/l (increase of 14.9% for ibuprofen for the concentration in the effluents of the WWTP were modelled. The model gives us a good overview about the theoretical concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in the environment and is helpful for evaluating environmental impacts.

  1. Review of models and actors in energy mix optimization – can leader visions and decisions align with optimum model strategies for our future energy systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Taylor, P.; Bahn, O.; Das, S.R.; Wei, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational behavior and stakeholder processes continually influence energy strategy choices and decisions. Although theoretical optimizations can provide guidance for energy mix decisions from a pure physical systems engineering point of view, these solutions might not be optimal from a

  2. Strategies for achieving healthy energy balance among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Groesbeck P; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2007-10-01

    Low-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1) their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2) their attitudes toward CDC's suggested physical activity strategies, and 3) their suggestions on how to achieve CDC's strategies within their own environment. A qualitative method (focus groups) was used to conduct the study during 2005. Prestudy meetings were held with African American lay health workers to formulate a focus group topic guide, establish inclusion criteria for focus group participants, select meeting sites and times, and determine group segmentation guidelines. Focus groups were divided into two phases. All discussions and focus group meetings were held in community centers within African American neighborhoods in the Mississippi Delta and were led by trained African American moderators. Phase I focus groups identified the following themes: overeating, low self-esteem, low income, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy methods of food preparation, a poor working definition of healthy energy balance, and superficial knowledge of strategies for achieving healthy energy balance. Phase 2 focus groups identified a preference for social support-based strategies for increasing physical activity levels. Energy balance strategies targeting low-income, rural African Americans in the Deep South may be more effective if they emphasize social interaction at the community and family levels and incorporate the concept of community volunteerism.

  3. An Energy-Efficient Sleep Strategy for Target Tracking Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan FENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is very important for sensor networks since sensor nodes have limited energy supply from battery. So far, many researches have been focused on this issue, while less emphasis was placed on the optimal sleep time of each node. This paper proposed an adaptive energy conservation strategy for target tracking based on a grid network structure, where each node autonomously determines when and if to sleep. It allows sensor nodes far away from targets to sleep to save energy and guarantee the tracking accuracy. The proposed approach extend network lifetime by adopting an adaptive sleep scheduling scheme that combines the local power management (PM and the adaptive coordinate PM strategies to schedule the activities of sensor nodes. And each node can choose an optimal sleep time so as to make system adaptive and energy-efficient. We show the performance of our approach in terms of energy drop, comparing it to a naive approach, dynamic PM with fixed sleep time and the coordinate PM strategies. From the experimental results, it is readily seen that the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  4. Energy consumption analysis for various memristive networks under different learning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Dong [Center for Brain Inspired Computing Research (CBICR), Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Ziyang; Tang, Pei [Optical Memory National Engineering Research Center, Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Guoqi, E-mail: liguoqi@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Brain Inspired Computing Research (CBICR), Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Pei, Jing, E-mail: peij@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Brain Inspired Computing Research (CBICR), Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Optical Memory National Engineering Research Center, Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-02-22

    Highlights: • Estimation methodology for energy consumed by memristor is established. • Energy comparisons for different learning strategies in various networks are touched. • Less-pulses and low-power-first modulation methods are energy efficient. • Proper decreasing the memristor modulation precision reduces the energy consumption. • Helpful solutions for power improving in memristive systems are proposed. - Abstract: Recently, various memristive systems emerge to emulate the efficient computing paradigm of the brain cortex; whereas, how to make them energy efficient still remains unclear, especially from an overall perspective. Here, a systematical and bottom-up energy consumption analysis is demonstrated, including the memristor device level and the network learning level. We propose an energy estimating methodology when modulating the memristive synapses, which is simulated in three typical neural networks with different synaptic structures and learning strategies for both offline and online learning. These results provide an in-depth insight to create energy efficient brain-inspired neuromorphic devices in the future.

  5. Research on the business QoS and trustworthy and controllable strategies mechanism for energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Lu, Meiling; Zhang, Dahua; Zhou, Liang; Li, Likang

    2017-01-01

    Energy internet is a kind of power sharing network, which can realize the bidirectional flow of energy information on the basis of the existing power grid. It puts forward higher requirements for reliability and controllability of information communication, and all kinds of business QoS of the backbone network. So the research of business QoS and trustworthy and controllable strategies mechanism have an important significance for the development of energy internet. This paper mainly studies how to use the software defined network (SDN) to achieve business QoS, and provide QoS support for all kinds of business of the energy internet. Combined with the current development situation of the energy internet in our country, this paper researches the trustworthy and controllable strategies mechanism for energy internet, and proposes the transition scheme of the IPv6 credible network architecture based on SDN. This coordinates the contradiction between the growing demand for energy internet applications and the limitations of the energy internet technology itself.

  6. Eesti pagulaskirjanduse keskus ja perifeeria / The centre and periphery of Estonian exile literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Olesk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how and why the centre and periphery of Estonian exile literature were formed. The centre developed in Sweden with the founding of the Estonian Writers’ Union Abroad in 1945 in Stockholm, and the Estonian Writers’ Cooperative in 1951 in Lund. Exile literature with the most enduring artistic merit was published in this Lund-Stockholm axis. The Writers’ Cooperative was a well-managed publishing house that took into account readers’ requests. Almost all significant writers in exile issued their works through the Cooperative. Writers whose works were rejected by the Cooperative formed the pheriphery of exile literature. The boundary between the two was not rigid, with movement from one grouping to the other, although the centre remained united. In 1957, writers of the younger generation on the periphery founded the literary magazine Mana, which devoted a great deal of space to literature published in the homeland, unlike the centre. This relationship with homeland literature differentiated the centre from the periphery. The writers of the centre did not visit the occupied homeland or publicly recognize the works of writers from Soviet Estonia. For them, it was vital to maintain control over the purity and viability of exile literature. Exile publishing flourished in the 1940s and 1950s, as homesickness and limited fluency in local languages increased interest in books written in Estonian. Later, this interest inevitably and steadily decreased. The younger generation of exiles often read in the language of the country where they had settled. It was possible to send only a very few books to the homeland. Leading writers-in-exile Bernard Kangro, Karl Ristikivi, Valev Uibopuu, Kalju Lepik, Ilmar Talve and others did their utmost to publish and distribute their works because they regarded literature as the foundation of national identity. It was necessary to protect this identity, and any competition with homeland

  7. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veebel Viljar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016 will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks Report 2016. Also, the arguments why some topics have played or are currently playing key role in the Estonian security perception will be presented and discussed.

  8. Estonian and Russian Federation amoxicillin formulations: a comparative study of in vitro dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnikova, O; Matto, V; Meos, A

    2008-06-01

    The in vitro dissolution properties were compared for four different formulations from the Estonian drug market and four from the Russian Federation drug market. Seven of the eight formulations tested released at least 75% or 80% amoxicillin during 30- or 90-min dissolution tests (37 degrees C, purified water, 75 rpm), respectively. One marketed Russian Federation formulation released 74% amoxicillin over a 90-min period. The present study shows that, in general, the in vitro dissolution properties of the Russian Federation amoxicillin formulations are, with some minor exceptions, comparable to those of the Estonian formulations. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  9. Conflicting Interest in the Production of Wind Energy: Public Demand for Shores without Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Müürsepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to countries with longer experience in the field, Estonia has not actively included public opinion into the planning process of new wind farms. Wind farms in Estonia are built mainly on the coast, 90% of which is covered with natural surface. The paper investigates, using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM, the willingness of Estonian inhabitants to pay for preserving the Estonian coastal zone wind turbines free. Total demand of Estonian adult population for Estonian shores in their natural condition without wind turbines is found to be considerable 23.4 million euro annually. The demand of the population for the preservation of the nature underlines the need for changes in national strategies for the wind power sector.

  10. Energy Thermodynamics Revisited: Energy intake strategies for optimizing athlete body composition and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Benardot, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A key feature of physical activity is that it results in an increased rate of energy expenditure and, as a result of metabolic inefficiencies that lead to high heat production, an increase in the requirement to dissipate the added heat through sweat.  Nevertheless, surveys commonly find that athletes fail to optimally satisfy both energy and fluid needs, causing them to perform at levels below their conditioned capacities.  To some extent this problem results from an excess reliance on the se...

  11. Niche public transport operational and capital investment strategies to minimize fares in the light of increased energy costs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letebele, MO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available substitution, where motorized travel is necessary. Alternatives include improved operational strategies, fleet acquisition strategies and alternative energy sources. The paper critically examines the extent to which improved public transport operational...

  12. Turbine Control Strategy using Wave Prediction to Optimise Power Take Off of Overtopping Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Knapp, Wilfried; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the control strategy used on Wave Dragon overtopping wave energy converter. The nature of overtopping requires that for optimum performance the water level in the reservoir must be controlled by controlling the turbine outflows. A history of the simulations performed is included...

  13. Implementation of an optimal control energy management strategy in a hybrid truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullem, D. van; Keulen, T. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Energy Management Strategies for hybrid powertrains control the power split, between the engine and electric motor, of a hybrid vehicle, with fuel consumption or emission minimization as objective. Optimal control theory can be applied to rewrite the optimization problem to an optimization

  14. Priorities and strategies for the implementation of sustainable energy policy as seen by Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The paper deals with priorities and strategies of energy policy in connection with power production combined with population rising. The global emission of carbon dioxide, is discussed in this connection. According to the author, the most suitable form of energy for generation, transportation, conversion and consumption, is electricity. Various types of energy resources together with the high voltage direct current transmission are dealt with. The efficiency of systems for power generation and transmission together with the conversion efficiency of different types of static induction thyristors, are discussed. 8 figs.

  15. Design of Energy Storage Control Strategy to Improve the PV System Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Mingyu; Yang, Zilong; Wang, Yibo

    2016-01-01

    Random fluctuation of PV power is becoming a more and more serious problem affecting the power quality and stability of grid as the PV penetration keeps increasing recent years. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposed a control strategy of energy storage system based on Model Predictive Control...... (MPC). By the continuous optimizing of MPC, we can obtain the system parameters accurately, and then calculate the energy storage power. At the same time, this control took state of charge (SOC) and other parameters into account to ensure the health and stability of the energy storage units. Finally...

  16. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    energy density storage unit and power density storage unit in reasonable fashion. Primary control introduces change rate of voltage as virtual information carrier, and urges supercapacitor unit to pick up major dynamic power immediately in the load switching moment, by setting sensitivity of different......In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...

  17. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by

  18. Long-term energy capture and the effects of optimizing wind turbine operating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. H.; Formica, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of increasing energy capture without affecting the turbine design were investigated. The emphasis was on optimizing the wind turbine operating strategy. The operating strategy embodies the startup and shutdown algorithm as well as the algorithm for determining when to yaw (rotate) the axis of the turbine more directly into the wind. Using data collected at a number of sites, the time-dependent simulation of a MOD-2 wind turbine using various, site-dependent operating strategies provided evidence that site-specific fine tuning can produce significant increases in long-term energy capture as well as reduce the number of start-stop cycles and yawing maneuvers, which may result in reduced fatigue and subsequent maintenance.

  19. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  20. Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, J J; Bobbert, M F; Foster, C

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pacing strategies on performance times in the 1000 m time trial event and the 4000 m pursuit event in track cycling. For this purpose, we simulated these events with a model based on the flow of energy in cycling. Different strategies in distributing the available anaerobic energy were evaluated and we compared model predictions of split times and final times with values achieved by cyclists during championships. The best result at the 1000 m time trial was obtained when the cyclist had the highest anaerobic peak power output and used an 'all-out' strategy. The fastest time on the 4000 m pursuit was achieved with an 'all-out' start at a high level of initial power output, followed by a constant anaerobic power output after 12 seconds, resulting in an evenly paced race. The results show that even small variations in pacing strategy may have substantial effects on performance. There seems to be an opportunity to gain a competitive advantage when individual athletes experiment with small variations in pacing strategy to find the precise individual strategy that works best under specific conditions.

  1. Energy balanced strategies for maximizing the lifetime of sparsely deployed underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanjiang; Guo, Zhongwen; Wu, Kaishun; Hong, Feng; Feng, Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWA-SNs) are envisioned to perform monitoring tasks over the large portion of the world covered by oceans. Due to economics and the large area of the ocean, UWA-SNs are mainly sparsely deployed networks nowadays. The limited battery resources is a big challenge for the deployment of such long-term sensor networks. Unbalanced battery energy consumption will lead to early energy depletion of nodes, which partitions the whole networks and impairs the integrity of the monitoring datasets or even results in the collapse of the entire networks. On the contrary, balanced energy dissipation of nodes can prolong the lifetime of such networks. In this paper, we focus on the energy balance dissipation problem of two types of sparsely deployed UWA-SNs: underwater moored monitoring systems and sparsely deployed two-dimensional UWA-SNs. We first analyze the reasons of unbalanced energy consumption in such networks, then we propose two energy balanced strategies to maximize the lifetime of networks both in shallow and deep water. Finally, we evaluate our methods by simulations and the results show that the two strategies can achieve balanced energy consumption per node while at the same time prolong the networks lifetime.

  2. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Barriers to and strategies for promoting energy-efficient lift and escalator technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetschke, Elisabeth; Hirzel, Simon

    2010-02-25

    According to prior findings of the E4 project, considerable savings potential exists both for lifts and escalators that could be realized if appropriate technology is implemented. However, energy-efficient technology is slowly diffusing the market - a phenomenon that could be explained by barriers present in the market. A barrier is defined as a mechanism that inhibits a decision or behavior that appears to be both energy-efficient and economically efficient and thereby prevents investment in energy-efficient technologies. This document has two aims. First, it will identify influential barriers in the European lift and escalator market. This analysis is based on the literature as well as a study including interviews as well as group discussions with relevant stakeholders. Second, strategies and measures to overcome the barriers identified in the first step are outlined. Major barriers to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies identified in this paper include a lack of monitoring energy consumption of installations and a lack of awareness of as well as knowledge about energy-efficient technology. Thus, installations and components are usually chosen without a (comprehensive) assessment of their energy consumption and without considering life-cycle approaches. On top of this, split incentives are a regularly occurring barrier. Various stakeholders are influential in the decisionmaking process about an installation or its components. However, those who will later pay for the energy consumption often are not involved in this process. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that the number of new lifts and escalators installed each year is relatively low compared to the existing stock. Thus, it is very important to discuss enhancement of energy efficiency also for the existing stock. Based on our analyses, several recommendations are developed in this paper that could contribute to a market transformation in the lift and escalator market. First of all, a

  3. Objectives and strategies for energy revolution in the context of tackling climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change mitigation and CO2 emission reduction have promoted the revolutionary transformation in energy system. The core content of energy system revolutionary transformation is to replace the high-carbon energy system dominated by fossil energy with low-carbon energy system dominated by new and renewable energy and finally realize the near-zero emission of CO2. The new energy system transformation has also led to a reform in global economic and social development patterns. Developing low-carbon economy becomes the fundamental strategy of sustainable development under climate risk management and the only solution to getting on the road from industrial civilization to ecological civilization. China intends to achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions around 2030 and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20% by 2030. Guided by the targets, China directs its economy development to a low-carbon pattern. Therefore, new and renewable power capacity need to reach 1300 GW, and the electricity generated should be 4 times of that in 2013 with a continuous increase rate of 6%–8% around 2030. The pace of energy substitution need to be accelerated and efficient, safe, clean, and low-carbon energy supply and consumption systems should be established besides strengthened energy conservation and improved energy efficient. Therefore, reform need be deepened, favorable policy system and market mechanism for energy revolution and low-carbon development need be established, energy pricing mechanism should be reformed, and national carbon market should be formed to provide a favorable policy and market environment for low-carbon technology innovation and industry development.

  4. An Optimal Transmission Strategy for Joint Wireless Information and Energy Transfer in MIMO Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingcheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal resource allocation strategy for MIMO relay system is considered in simultaneous wireless information and energy transfer network, where two users with multiple antennas communicate with each other assisted by an energy harvesting MIMO relay that gathers energy from the received signal by applying time switching scheme and forwards the received signal by using the harvesting energy. It is focused on the precoder design and resource allocation strategies for the system to allocate the resources among the nodes in decode-and-forward (DF mode. Specifically, optimal precoder design and energy transfer strategy in MIMO relay channel are firstly proposed. Then, we formulate the resource allocation optimization problem. The closed-form solutions for the time and power allocation are derived. It is revealed that the solution can flexibly allocate the resource for the MIMO relay channel to maximize the sum rate of the system. Simulation results demonstrated that the performance of the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional fixed method.

  5. Strategy Design of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Smoothing Wind Power Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing contribution of wind power plants, the reliability and security of modern power systems have become a huge challenge due to the uncertainty and intermittency of wind energy sources. In this paper, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS consisting of battery and supercapacitor is built to smooth the power fluctuations of wind power. A power allocation strategy is proposed to give full play to the respective advantages of the two energy storage components. In the proposed strategy, the low-frequency and high-frequency components of wind power fluctuations are absorbed by battery groups and supercapacitor groups, respectively. By inhibiting the low-frequency components of supercapacitor current, the times of charging-discharging of battery groups can be significantly reduced. A DC/AC converter is applied to achieve the power exchange between the HESS and the grid. Adjustment rules for regulating state-of-charge (SOC of energy storage elements are designed to avoid overcharge and deep discharge considering the safety and the high efficiency of the energy storage elements. Experimental results on the test platform verify the effectiveness of the proposed power allocation strategy in DC/AC converter and battery SOC adjustment rules for regulating SOC levels.

  6. Department of Defense Operational Energy Strategy: A Content Analysis of Energy Literature from 1973-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    It was this Act that made the fuel efficiency labeling for new car sales a requirement as well as other initiatives like the major appliance ...label depicting the automobile’s fuel efficiency, major appliance energy labels, light efficiency standards for new buildings, and allowing right...www.detrick.army.mil/responsible/images/zerohierarchy.png The Reality Although the DoD aspires to be a major player in the development of reliable sources of

  7. Energy demand hourly simulations and energy saving strategies in greenhouses for the Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priarone, A.; Fossa, M.; Paietta, E.; Rolando, D.

    2017-01-01

    This research has been devoted to the selection of the most favourable plant solutions for ventilation, heating and cooling, thermo-hygrometric control of a greenhouse, in the framework of the energy saving and the environmental protection. The identified plant solutions include shading of glazing surfaces, natural ventilation by means of controlled opening windows, forced convection of external air and forced convection of air treated by the HVAC system for both heating and cooling. The selected solution combines HVAC system to a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP), which is an innovative renewable technology applied to greenhouse buildings. The energy demand and thermal loads of the greenhouse to fulfil the requested internal design conditions have been evaluated through an hourly numerical simulation, using the Energy Plus (E-plus) software. The overall heat balance of the greenhouse also includes the latent heat exchange due to crop evapotranspiration, accounted through an original iterative calculation procedure that combines the E-plus dynamic simulations and the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The obtained hourly thermal loads have been used to size the borehole field for the geothermal heat pump by using a dedicated GCHP hourly simulation tool.

  8. Perspectives of energy technologies: scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista; Perspectives des technologies de l'energie: scenarios et strategies a l'horizon 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Every two years, the International Energy Agency (IEA) publishes the 'Energy Technology Perspectives' (ETP) report which analyses the foreseeable energy scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista and stresses on the best available technologies. For the first time, the IEA describes in this study a scenario allowing to divide by two the CO{sub 2} emissions at the world scale, i.e. compatible with the 'factor 4' scenario of industrialized countries. The study estimates the R and D needs and the necessary additional investments to meet the different tendentious and voluntaristic scenarios proposed by the IEA. This 15. session of the cycle of energy-climate conferences aimed at presenting, from the ETP 2008 study, a thorough examination of the present day situation and perspectives of existing or future 'clean' energy technologies through the analysis of several scenarios. An examination of the interpretation of these scenarios at the France and European levels is made in order to define what should be the trends of public policies and international cooperation. This document gathers the transparencies of the two presentations given during this conference. The first presentation by Pieter Boot, Director of the Office of Sustainable Energy Policy and Technology of IEA, makes a synthesis of the ETP study and presents the recommendations of the agency. The second presentation by Olivier Appert, President of the French institute of petroleum (IFP), gives a counterpoint of the first presentation by considering the financing and acceptance aspects, in particular from the French point of view. Finally a debate with the audience completes the presentations. (J.S.)

  9. Regional variation in energy storage strategies in American glass eels from Eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Mélanie; Bernatchez, Louis; Tremblay, Réjean; Audet, Céline

    2015-10-01

    Energy status was analyzed in glass eels captured during two early waves of arrival at the mouths of the Mersey River, Nova Scotia, Canada (MR), and Grande-Rivière-Blanche, Québec, Canada (GRB), and according to their salinity preference (freshwater, brackish, or saltwater). Glass eels captured in the GRB estuary were larger, more pigmented, and exhibited higher whole-body glycogen, phospholipid, and sterol and wax ester contents. Those from MR had a higher condition index and a higher whole-body triacylglycerol content, suggesting different patterns of storage and/or use of energy reserves. Within a river, a delay of two weeks in estuarine arrival was characterized by significantly lower energy reserves. No differences in energy storage were observed according to salinity preference. Thus, the results revealed the occurrence of different energy storage strategies according to glass eel migration distance and duration, but not according to salinity preference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Empowered? Evaluating Japan's national energy strategy under the DPJ administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Scott, E-mail: valentine@pp.u-tokyo.ac.j [Graduate School of Public Policy (GraSPP), University of Tokyo, 620 Administration Bureau Building No. 2, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 02-03J Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Matsuura, Masahiro, E-mail: matsuura@pp.u-tokyo.ac.j [Graduate School of Public Policy (GraSPP), University of Tokyo, 620 Administration Bureau Building No. 2, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    In August 2009, after 54 years of virtually unbroken rule, Japan's Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) was ousted from power by the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). The DPJ's campaign platform included a pledge to facilitate extreme reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Yet, at the COP16 meeting in Cancun, Japan announced that it would not accept further emission reduction targets without broader commitment from all nations. This paper seeks to explain this dichotomy by employing a targeted stakeholder evaluation based on surveys with 321 Japanese citizens to assess the extent to which influential stakeholder groups in Japan supports a potentially costly transition to a low-carbon energy infrastructure amidst severe economic challenges that the nation faces. Findings help explain Japan's adversarial role in COP16 negotiations in Cancun, despite the stated GHG reduction ambitions of Japan's current ruling party. The analysis concludes that if the DPJ does embrace aggressive CO{sub 2} reduction targets in the future, the strategic focus will likely mirror the former ruling party's energy policy of bolstering nuclear power generation capacity and promoting energy efficiency improvements while exhibiting lukewarm commitment to supporting capacity development in alternative sources of energy supply such as solar panels and wind turbines. - Research highlights: {yields} Public consensus exists regarding which energy policy goals are important in Japan. {yields} Minor perceptual differences are not of a catalytic nature. {yields} Public consensus does not deviate significantly from past LDP energy policy. {yields} Unlikely that the DPJ will pursue costly energy transition initiatives. {yields} Likely that the DPJ energy strategy will be substantively similar to LDP strategy. {yields} Any differences in strategy will focus on CO{sub 2} reduction magnitude not substance.

  11. Cooperative Energy Management of Hybrid DC Renewable Grid Using Decentralized Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Beykverdi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempted to control a hybrid DC microgrid in islanded operation mode using decentralized power management strategies. Proposed adaptive I/V characteristic for hybrid photovoltaic (PV and battery energy storage system (BESS and wind turbine generator (WTG adapts the distributed energy resources (DER behavior independently in accordance with the load demand. Hence, the PV module can spend its maximum power on load demand and spend the extra power for charging the BESS, which will regulate DC bus voltage and maintain the power balance within the microgrid. When load demand is beyond the maximum generation power of PV unit, WTG will supply the energy shortage. The proposed control system was applied on the DC microgrid in order to achieve control objectives through a decentralized procedure, without telecommunication links. In order to validate the proposed strategies, the control system was implemented on a DC microgrid within MATLAB/SIMULINK, where the simulation results were analyzed and validated.

  12. Energy implications of water reduction strategies in Kraft process : part 1 : methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos-Espejel, E.; Marinova, M.; Barapour, S.; Paris, J. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    2010-05-15

    This article described a methodology developed to study water and energy interactions during a kraft pulping process at an operating mill. The methodology used process integration tools to analyze water utilization and evaluate opportunities for water savings. A thermal analysis of the kraft process was conducted, and potential water restrictions were considered. The water reduction potential of the process was assessed. A computerized simulation of the proposed water reduction strategies was then designed in order to develop operational changes for the process. The energy implications of water closure on the internal heat recovery system were also assessed, and a trade-off analysis was conducted. Data were obtained from a kraft pulp mill located in eastern Canada. The methodology identified the impact of water reduction strategies on direct energy savings as well as on other potential constraints that may be affected by water re-utilization. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Energy in a changing environment: Do ``big dog`` strategies always work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.S.K.

    1997-11-01

    There have been a number of innovative retail wheeling pilot programs offered by investor-owned utilities and their local regulators. These programs are providing retail consumers with energy options heretofore unavailable. These offerings are just the beginning. The business environment in the energy business is rapidly changing with new entrants vying for their share of the new business. The question is what should be the strategies used by these new entrants and how should they be applied. The answer can be found by examining the lessons learned from recent pilot projects, applying one of three generic strategies offered by Michael Porter, and looking for the resultant opportunities. Each part of the answer is described below. In addition, advice for the energy engineer is provided and recommendations for the buyer are offered.

  14. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto,Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven

    2003-08-26

    The effect of heat-island reduction (HIR) strategies on annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area is calculated, using an hourly building energy simulation model. Results show that ratepayers could realize potential annual energy savings of over $11M from the effects of HIR strategies. The residential sector accounts for over half (59%) of the total savings, offices 13% and retail stores 28%. Savings from cool roofs are about 20%, shade trees 30%, wind shielding of trees 37%, and ambient cooling by trees and reflective surfaces 12%. These results are preliminary and highly sensitive to the relative price of gas and electricity. Potential annual electricity savings are estimated at about 150GWh and potential peak-power avoidance at 250MW.

  15. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Finn, P.

    2011-01-01

    that almost all (not, vert, similar97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day......In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate......-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual...

  16. Robustness Improvement of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage System in Microgrids Using an Energy Shaping Passivity-Based Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES systems, in which the proportional-integral (PI method is usually used to control the SMESs, have been used in microgrids for improving the control performance. However, the robustness of PI-based SMES controllers may be unsatisfactory due to the high nonlinearity and coupling of the SMES system. In this study, the energy shaping passivity (ESP-based control strategy, which is a novel nonlinear control based on the methodology of interconnection and damping assignment (IDA, is proposed for robustness improvement of SMES systems. A step-by-step design of the ESP-based method considering the robustness of SMES systems is presented. A comparative analysis of the performance between ESP-based and PI control strategies is shown. Simulation and experimental results prove that the ESP-based strategy achieves the stronger robustness toward the system parameter uncertainties than the conventional PI control. Besides, the use of ESP-based control method can reduce the eddy current losses of a SMES system due to the significant reduction of 2nd and 3rd harmonics of superconducting coil DC current.

  17. The problems and development potential of revenue autonomy in Estonian municipalities. Kohalike omavalitsuste tuluautonoomia probleemid ja arenguvõimalused Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a regionally heterogeneous country like Estonia, it is a difficult task to create a local government revenue structure that guarantees even supply of public services across the entire country and, at the same time, revenue autonomy for the municipalities. In the theoretical part of the current article the suitability of different sources of own revenues are analysed in the context of Estonian municipalities. The empirical part of the article compares the financing principles of Estonian municipalities with other EU countries. Finally, the proportions of different own sources of revenues in the budgets of Estonian local governments are examined and suggestions are made for changing the current system

  18. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  19. Energy research and technology development data collection strategies. The case of Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doukas, Haris; Papadopoulou, Alexandra G.; Nychtis, Christos; Psarras, John [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Decision Support Systems Lab (EPU-NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, 15773 Athens (Greece); Van Beeck, Nicole [SenterNovem, 21 Swentiboldstraat Street, Sittard (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    The European Union (EU) from the beginning of 2007 has focused its emphasis on the development of a new policy that puts energy back at the heart of EU action. Indeed, it has very often been stated that the difficulty and complexity of achieving green energy targets in the EU will require strengthened measures to promote implementation of new energy technologies (NET), as well as measures to support the related energy Research and Technology Development (R and TD). Often forgotten is the fact, that most of all, a European-wide co-ordinated forum is needed to continuously develop and sophisticate the monitoring and methodology results, bringing together specialised statisticians, energy researchers and experts on energy socio-economics. Today a nebulous picture prevails on the existence of categorized data with regards to energy Research and Technology Development (R and TD) expenditure. In this context, aim of this paper is the presentation of energy R and TD data collection strategies, as well as the related findings for the Greek energy market. (author)

  20. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  1. Internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers-An assessment of the marine energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovdal, Nicolai, E-mail: nicolai.lovdal@iot.ntnu.n [Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Neumann, Frank, E-mail: frank@wave-energy-centre.or [Wave Energy Centre, Av. Manuel Maia, 36, r/c Dto., 1000-201 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers. - Research highlights: {yields} Industry barriers identified as access to capital and supportive political schemes. {yields} International entrepreneurship is used to overcome industry barriers. {yields} Start-ups in emerging energy industries 'shop' national support schemes. {yields} Future research to provide policy advice should adapt to the international reality. {yields} Research based on a worldwide survey of wave and tidal energy device developers.

  2. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  3. Climate Change and Energy Sustainability. Which Innovations in European Strategies and Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effects of climate change on urban areas have pushed more and more policy-makers and urban planners to deal with the management of territorial transformations in a systemic and multi-sector perspective, due to the complexity of the issue. In order to enhance the urban governance of climate change and cope with environmental sustainability, the concept of resilience can be used. In this perspective, the present work has a double purpose: on the one hand to reflect on he need to adopt a new comprehension/interpretive approach to the study of the city, which embraces the concept of resilience, and on the other hand to perform a reading of European strategies and plans oriented to mitigate the effects of climate change and to achieve the goals of energy and environmental sustainability. This paper describes some of the results of the knowledge framework of the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory financed by PON 04A2_00120 R & C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015 aimed at supporting local authorities in the development of strategies for the reduction of energy consumption through actions designed to change behavior (in terms of use and energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment and infrastructure. The paper is divided into three parts: the first is oriented to the definition of the new comprehension/interpretive approach; the second illustrates a series of recent innovations in planning tools of some European States due to the adoption of the concept of resilience; the third, finally, describes and compares the most innovative energy and environmental strategies aimed at contrasting and/or mitigate the effects of climate change, promoted in some European and Italian cities.

  4. Formation of the US global energy strategy in 1991-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Vladimirovich Ponomarev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the formation of US global energy strategy in the timeframe of 1991-2015 and shifting emphasis in strategic documents indicating new regional priorities. Provisions concerning international energy interests of the United States can be traced back to the very first national security strategy and appear to be inherent core element of the American foreign policy. Due to domestic energy consumption patterns and cold war era strategic perception of fuel reserves US policy has been extensively centered on hydrocarbon resources. It proceeded from initial focus on the Persian Gulf to a global level commitment to ensure all-out output growth and transfer routs diversification for oil and gas exports in a number of key regions including the Caspian, and the Gulf of Guinea. By mid 2000s the US had become increasingly concerned with countering international influence and limiting regional clout of great powers that were pursuing independent policy and relying on state control of national energy companies and foreign energy assets, labeled as «resource nationalism». At the dawn of a new decade climate change in the Arctic and the rise of Indo-Asia-Pacific as a new global foremost transport and economic hub brought these rich in resources and critical in terms of resources shipping maritime domains to the forefront of US policy. Although the US prepares to assume the role of energy exporting country in the wake of shale oil and gas revolution that didn’t cause revision of this strategy but is merely supplementing it with a new international leverage. Revealed continuity rests on interpretation of unconstrained extraction and transit of hydrocarbon supplies to the world market and safety of the transit spaces as essential prerequisites for the stability of the US-centric global economy and entire postbipolar world order. Significant reliance on military instruments to maintain regional security regimes for international energy exports

  5. Optimization of Key Parameters of Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using DIRECT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Hao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rule-based logic threshold control strategy has been frequently used in energy management strategies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs owing to its convenience in adjusting parameters, real-time performance, stability, and robustness. However, the logic threshold control parameters cannot usually ensure the best vehicle performance at different driving cycles and conditions. For this reason, the optimization of key parameters is important to improve the fuel economy, dynamic performance, and drivability. In principle, this is a multiparameter nonlinear optimization problem. The logic threshold energy management strategy for an all-wheel-drive HEV is comprehensively analyzed and developed in this study. Seven key parameters to be optimized are extracted. The optimization model of key parameters is proposed from the perspective of fuel economy. The global optimization method, DIRECT algorithm, which has good real-time performance, low computational burden, rapid convergence, is selected to optimize the extracted key parameters globally. The results show that with the optimized parameters, the engine operates more at the high efficiency range resulting into a fuel savings of 7% compared with non-optimized parameters. The proposed method can provide guidance for calibrating the parameters of the vehicle energy management strategy from the perspective of fuel economy.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS): Pathophysiology in Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldi, Marlit; Ani, Raivo; Vaher, Heisl; Eller, Triin; Hion, Tuuliki; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the roles of age, obesity, smoking, alcohol, pathoanatomy and -physiology in Estonian's OSAS. For this 164 randomly chosen such patients were selected in different regions of Estonia. They underwent naso-oropharyngeal examination, physical examination of craniofacial abnormalities, and polysomnography. They also completed a self-reported questionnaire about smoking, alcohol use, excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, concentration disorders, and recurrent upper-airway diseases. The patients (129 men; 35 women) aged between 19 and 75 years (mean 47+/-12), BMI between 21 and 49 (mean 30.5+/-5.15), AHI between 5 and 105 (33+/-22). The results showed that there was a high percentage of naso-oropharyngeal disorders, such as: recurrent upper-airway diseases (54.2%), nasal breathing disorders (63.5%), and hypertrophy of tonsils (57%). There was also a high percentage of general characteristics, such as alcohol use (64%), excessive daytime sleepiness (85.5%), overweight (63%), and hypertension (51.2%). The regression summary for the dependent variable AHI if p-level=0.0042 (R=0.63347013) included age, BMI, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, nasal obstruction, hypertrophy of pharyngeal muscles, tongue level, submental fat and slow-wave sleep (S3+S4%). In conclusion recurrent upper-airway diseases, nasal obstruction, and hypertrophy of tonsils in combination with smoking and alcohol caused the changes in the pharyngeal and lingual muscles. The latter gives rise to such sleep apnea-related problems as heart complaints, hypertension, headache and shortage of slow-wave sleep (SWS). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estonian Cell peab suu kasumist puhtaks pühkima / Kaisa Tahlfeld, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Cell saatis valitsusele pöördumise, milles palutakse teha parandusi elektrienergiaga seonduvates seadustes, mis aitaksid ettevõtet energia hinnatõusu ajal. Elektri hinnatõusu tõttu on muutunud küsitavaks ka Nitroferti tehase edasine eksisteerimine

  8. Unemployment hysteresis in the “Nordic Kitten”: Evidence from five Estonian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuoka Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment hysteresis is a much discussed and researched topic in macroeconomics. The present paper examined unemployment hysteresis in five Estonian regions. It used two panel data methods, namely, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS test and the Fourier Im-Pesaran-Shin (FIPS test. The originality and value of this paper is that this is the first study that uses the panel unit root tests to examine unemployment dynamics in the Estonian regions. The findings revealed that the unemployment rates in the Estonian regions could be best described as a stationary process. This result is in line with the natural rate hypothesis. A research implication is that this study has illustrated that nonlinear tests could be an appropriate approach to examine unemployment hysteresis because other methods may fail to reject the null hypothesis. A practical implication of this study is that it sheds light on the nature of unemployment dynamics in Estonia at the regional level. As the findings revealed, the unemployment rates in the Estonian regions had the meanreversion property. Therefore, the higher-than-normal unemployment rates are likely to return to the natural level even in the absence of intervention policies initiated by the government or policy makers.

  9. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend...

  10. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  11. A Cross-Cultural Study of Collectivism: A Comparison of American, Estonian, and Russian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Allik, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the theory that collectivism consists of at least three subtypes focused on the relations with family, peers, and society using a cross-cultural sample from the United States, Estonia, and Russia. Finds that the Estonian sample was the least collectivistic within the three subtypes and the Russian samples were the most collectivistic.…

  12. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  13. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  14. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  15. Trends in tobacco use among Estonian and Russian youth in Tallinn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurk, E; Mittelmark, M B; Suurorg, L; Tur, I; Luiga, E

    1999-12-01

    Smoking behaviour and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were examined in three cross-sectional surveys from 1991/92, 1993/94, and 1995/96. The study population comprised 3,185 Estonian and Russian adolescents from 17 schools in Tallinn, Estonia. Prevalence of ever-smoking girls increased by 13 percentage points versus 2% among boys during the study period. Mean ages of the first experimentation with tobacco and exposure to ETS did not change significantly. Regular smoking increased significantly from 1991/92 to 1995/96. Detailed analyses for the 1995/96 survey showed that among ethnic Estonians, compared with ethnic Russians, the prevalence of ever-smokers and regular smoking were higher, mean age for the first experimentation was younger, and on average, Estonians smoked more cigarettes per week. The smoking trend among adolescents in Estonia is worsening; especially among Estonian youth. This study identifies a compelling need for national and community-wide efforts to deter adolescents from smoking and to reduce the exposure to ETS.

  16. Ethnic Identity, Ethnic Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Esteem toward Others among Estonian and Russian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Aune

    2000-01-01

    Investigated ethnic identity in relation to self-esteem and esteem toward others and attitudes toward one's own and other ethnic groups among Estonian and Russian adolescents. Found significant differences between majority and minority groups in ethnic pride and ethnic differentiation and with their correlation to self-esteem and esteem toward…

  17. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  18. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  19. Estonian Air võitis reisijaid juurde. Samas turuosa vähenes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi turuosa vähenes Tallinna lennujaamas regulaarliinidel 2010. aastal võrreldes 2009. aastaga 3,9% võrra, lende toimus 1,8% rohkem kui 2009. a. Lendude toimumise protsent oli 98,1, väljumise täpsus oli 86,7%. Andmeid ka 2010. aasta detsembrikuu kohta

  20. Estonian Air lendab üle võimete / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Viimastel aastatel on Estonian Airil kasvanud nii lendude kui ka reisijate hulk, kuid lennukite arv on jäänud samaks. Tabel. Kaart: Lendude arv sihtkohtadesse nädalas. Kommenteerib Kristina Traks. Küsimustele vastab Mart Relve. Vt. samas: Lennukipuudus sunnib liine sulgema

  1. The Estonian diaspora in South-West Russia in the 1920—30s: migration results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupin Yuri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the spatial features of the settling of Russian Estonians in the Northwest region at the “zenith” of diaspora on the basis of 1920, 1926, and 1939 censuses. The author identifies the principal settling areas and points out the geographical preconditions for the rapid decline of the diaspora.

  2. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  3. Estonian Airi ümber käib lehmakauplemine / Tõnu Lilleorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Tõnu

    2008-01-01

    Skandinaavia lennukompanii SAS saatis Eesti valitsusele kirja, milles teatab, et on nõus raskustes Estonian Airile lisainvesteeringuid tegema vaid siis, kui riik müüb SAS-ile oma osaluse, 34%. Vt. samas: SAS ei taha lennufirma eest maksta üle 150 miljoni. Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad, omanikud

  4. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldu, Yemane W., E-mail: ywweldem@ucalgary.ca [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Assefa, Getachew [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Athena Chair in Life Cycle Assessment in Design (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  5. NWEA incentive strategy for wind energy. Basic data for 2007-2020; NWEA strategie stimulering windenergie. Basisgegevens voor 2007-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleijne, H.; Verheij, F. [KEMA Consulting, Arnhem (Netherlands); Coenraads, R.; Coulomb, L.; Rathmann, M.; Rooijmans, P. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-02-16

    The Dutch Wind Energy Association (NWEA) aims to formulate a strategy for stimulating onshore and offshore wind energy that can be used in the political world and the government. A brief overview is provided of the main parameters that influence the development of wind energy in the Netherlands. [mk]. [Dutch] De Nederlandse Wind Energie Associatie (NWEA) wil een strategie formuleren voor de stimulering van onshore en offshore windenergie die gebruikt kan worden richting politiek en rijksoverheid. Een beknopt overzicht wordt gegeven van de belangrijkste parameters die van invloed zijn op de ontwikkeling van windenergie in Nederland.

  6. Effect of passive cooling strategies on overheating in low energy residential buildings for Danish climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Avantaggiato, Marta; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    creating not negligible thermal discomfort. In the present work the effect of passive strategies, such as solar shading and natural night-time ventilation, are evaluated through computer simulations. The analyses are performed for 1½-storey single-family house in Copenhagen’s climate. The main result......Climate changes have progressively produced an increase of outdoors temperature resulting in tangible warmer summers even in cold climate regions. An increased interest for passive cooling strategies is rising in order to overcome the newly low energy buildings’ overheating issue. The growing level...

  7. The impact of translucent fabric shades and control strategies on energy savings and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankanapon, Pimonmart

    Translucent fabric shades provide opportunities for building occupants to control sunlight penetration for heat reduction, thermal comfort, and visual quality. Regulating shades affects building energy and can potentially reduce the size of mechanical cooling systems. Shades are not normally included in energy model studies during the design process, even though shades potential impact energy use. This is because the occupants normally leave shades closed a large fraction of the time, but models are generally performed with no shades. Automatic shade control is now available, so it is necessary to understand the impact of shades on visual quality and their energy saving potential in order to optimize their overall performance. There are very limited studies that have address shades and their integrated performance on energy consumption and visual quality. Most of these do not reflected modern shade types and their application. The goals of this study are: First, to determine the impact of shades on total, heating, cooling and lighting energy savings with different design and operation parameters. Second, to study and develop different automatic shade control strategies to promote and optimize energy savings and visual quality. A simulation-based approach using EnergyPlus in a parametric study provide better understanding energy savings under different shade conditions. The parametric runs addressed various building parameters such as geometry, orientation, site climate, glazing/shade properties, and shade control strategies with integrated lighting control. The impact of shades was determined for total building and space heating, cooling and lighting energy savings. The effect of shades on visual quality was studied using EnergyPlus, AGI32 and DAYSIM for several indices such as daylight glare index (DGI), work plane illuminance, luminance ratios and view. Different shade control strategies and integrated lighting control were considered with two translucent fabric

  8. Instrumentation strategies for energy conservation in broiler barns with ventilation air solar pre-heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeau, Sebastien; Barrington, Suzelle [Department of Bioresource Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    At the present consumption rate, world fossil-fuel reserves are expected to be depleted by 2050 unless their consumption is optimized and supplemented with renewable energy sources. The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of a simple data acquisition system installed to conduct an energy balance and identify energy saving strategies in two commercial broilers barns with ventilation air solar pre-heaters. Located near Montreal, Canada, the two identical barns were instrumented for inside and outside air conditions, ventilation rate and energy recovery by the solar air pre-heaters. Whereas the temperature, relative humidity and radiation sensors were reliable, inside air temperature stratification complicated energy balance analyses and broiler heat production rate calculations. Lack of room air mixing resulted in the loss of 25 and 15% of the generated heater load and recovered solar energy. The proper monitoring of all environmental conditions required their measurement every 5 rather than 20 min. Instead of using a data transmission service found to be unreliable in rural areas, all data loggers were downloaded onto a portable computer every 45 days during regular instrument maintenance. Accordingly, room air mixing is recommended to facilitate energy balance studies and improve the efficient use of heating energies. (author)

  9. Strategies towards a 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in the Future Climate Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    , create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects etc. are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100 per cent renewable energy systems will be technically possible in the future, and may even be economically beneficial compared...... energy system by the year 2050 are presented. Two short term transition target years in the process towards this goal are analysed for 2015 and 2030. The analyses reveal that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socioeconomic effects......Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100 per cent renewable...

  10. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  11. Towards Energy Demand Reduction in Social Housing Buildings: Envelope System Optimization Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Esquivias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the potential for the reduction of energy demand in residential buildings by acting on the exterior envelope, both in newly constructed buildings and in the retrofitting of existing stock. It focuses on analysing social housing buildings in Mediterranean areas and on quantifying the scope of that reduction in the application of different envelope design strategies, with the purpose of prioritizing their application based on their energy efficiency. The analyses and quantifications were made by means of the generation of energy models with the TRNSYS tool for simple or combined solutions, identifying possible potentials for reduction of the energy demand from 20% to 25%, basically by acting on the windows. The case study was a newly built social housing building of a closed block type located in Seville (Spain. Its constructive techniques and the insulation level of its envelope are standardized for current buildings widespread across Mediterranean Europe.

  12. Intelligent energy allocation strategy for PHEV charging station using gravitational search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Imran; Vasant, Pandian M.; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2014-10-01

    Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and increase penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector are gaining popularity. The development of the smart grid environment focusing on PHEVs may also heal some of the prevailing grid problems by enabling the implementation of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) concept. Intelligent energy management is an important issue which has already drawn much attention to researchers. Most of these works require formulation of mathematical models which extensively use computational intelligence-based optimization techniques to solve many technical problems. Higher penetration of PHEVs require adequate charging infrastructure as well as smart charging strategies. We used Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) to intelligently allocate energy to the PHEVs considering constraints such as energy price, remaining battery capacity, and remaining charging time.

  13. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  14. Optimization of the service strategy in a queueing system with energy harvesting and customers’ impatience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A single-server queueing system with an infinite buffer is considered. The service of a customer is possible only in the presence of at least one unit of energy, and during the service the number of available units decreases by one. New units of energy arrive in the system at random instants of time if the finite buffer for maintenance of energy is not full. Customers are impatient and leave the system without service after a random amount of waiting time. Such a queueing system describes, e.g., the operation of a sensor node which harvests energy necessary for information transmission from the environment. Aiming to minimize the loss of customers due to their impatience (and maximize the throughput of the system, a new strategy of control by providing service is proposed. This strategy suggests that service temporarily stops if the number of customers or units of energy in the system becomes zero. The server is switched off (is in sleep mode for some time. This time finishes (the server wakes up if both the number of customers in the buffer and the number of energy units reach some fixed threshold values or when the number of energy units reaches some threshold value and there are customers in the buffer. Arrival flows of customers and energy units are assumed to be described by an independent Markovian arrival process. The service time has a phase-type distribution. The system behavior is described by a multi-dimensional Markov chain. The generator of this Markov chain is derived. The ergodicity condition is presented. Expressions for key performance measures are given. Numerical results illustrating the dependence of a customer’s loss probability on the thresholds defining the discipline of waking up the server are provided. The importance of the account of correlation in arrival processes is numerically illustrated.

  15. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  16. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  17. Chained lightning: part III--Emerging technology, novel therapeutic strategies, and new energy modalities for radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Daniel J; Liu, Charles Y; Chen, Joseph C T; Pagnini, Paul G; Yu, Cheng; Wang, Michael Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2007-12-01

    Radiosurgery is fundamentally the harnessing of energy and delivering it to a focal target for a therapeutic effect. The evolution of radiosurgical technology and practice has served toward refining methodologies for better conformal energy delivery. In the past, this has resulted in developing strategies for improved beam generation and delivery. Ultimately, however, our current instrumentation and treatment modalities may be approaching a practical limit with regard to further optimizing energy containment. In looking forward, several strategies are emerging to circumvent these limitations and improve conformal radiosurgery. Refinement of imaging techniques through functional imaging and nanoprobes for cancer detection may benefit lesion localization and targeting. Methods for enhancing the biological effect while reducing radiation-induced changes are being examined through dose fractionation schedules. Radiosensitizers and photosensitizers are being investigated as agents for modulating the biological response of tissues to radiation and alternative energy forms. Discovery of new energy modalities is being pursued through development of microplanar beams, free electron lasers, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. The exploration of these future possibilities will provide the tools for radiosurgical treatment of a broader spectrum of diseases for the next generation.

  18. Changing Strategies in Global Wind Energy Shipping, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    , the paper reviews different wind energy markets globally. Subsequently, a number of supply chain set-ups serviced by the shipping, logistics, and supply chain management industry are reviewed. Finally, winning business models and strategies of current as well as emerging supply chain constituencies......Within the global wind energy market, a number of derived industries support the continued expansion of the ever larger onshore and offshore wind farms. One such derived industry is that of shipping, logistics, and supply chain management. Based on extensive case study work performed since 2009...

  19. Report on energy trends in the 90`s -- Implications for company strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes the content of the conference held on May 6--8, 1992, in Dallas, Texas. Three panel discussions were held on international issues and outlook: Emerging trends in Latin America; Update on the former Soviet Union; and Balancing world energy markets. The sessions on company strategies and perspectives included presentations by Enserch Corp., Union Pacific Resources, Union Texas Petroleum Holdings, Inc., and Triton Energy Corp. These sessions included the current position of the company, problems with development of specific fields, sharing the risks of exploratory drilling, commitment to domestic exploration, and international ventures in exploration.

  20. Capacity building strategies and policy for desalination using renewable energies in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Hacene; Abdellah, Ouagued [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, BP151 (Algeria); Ghaffour, Noreddine [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C. 133, Muscat (Oman)

    2009-05-15

    The integration of renewable resources in desalination and water purification is becoming increasingly attractive. This is justified by the fact that areas of fresh water shortages have plenty of solar energy and these technologies have low operating and maintenance costs. In this paper, an overview of capacity building strategy and policy for desalination in Algeria is presented. Importance of training and education on renewable energies is also outlined. The contribution of the Middle East Desalination Research Center in capacity building and research and development in desalination in Algeria is also presented. (author)

  1. Comparison of strategies for model predictive control for home heating in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogler-Finck, Pierre Jacques Camille; Popovski, Petar; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    Model predictive control is seen as one of the key future enabler in increasing energy efficiency in buildings. This paper presents a comparison of the performance of the control for different formulations of the objective function. This comparison is made in a simulation study on a single building...... using historical weather and power system data from Denmark. Trade-offs between energy consumption, comfort and incurred CO2 emissions depending on the chosen objective function are quantified, highlighting the need to carefully select the strategy used in future design and implementation, rather than...

  2. Promotion Potentiality and Optimal Strategies Analysis of Provincial Energy Efficiency in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpeng Liu

    2016-08-01

    should be integrated afresh to promote the energy efficiency level. Some optimal strategies on energy efficiency promotion are discussed, finally, aiming to provide effective references for the Chinese government to make relative policies. The study proposes a new perspective for provincial energy efficiency research which can also provide a reference for other countries.

  3. Modeling and control strategies for energy management system in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available These days, electric vehicle (EV is using fuel cell as a prime source of energy because of its high promising performance and clean source of energy. However, due to low dynamic performance it alone cannot meet the fast changing load requirement during acceleration or sudden uphill, deceleration or sudden downhill. Therefore, in EV, main source is used in appropriate combination with auxiliary source. This article presents a comprehensive state-of-the-art of control strategies for maintaining constant DC bus voltage under transient load condition. It also presents a complete modeling by including boost converter modeling with main source and buck boost converter modeling with auxiliary source. Further, the dynamic evolution controller and Lyapunov-based control strategies for EV has been discussed with drive cycle.

  4. Determining an energy-optimal thermal management strategy for electric driven vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchaneck, Andre; Probst, Tobias; Puente Leon, Fernando [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Information Technology (IIIT)

    2012-11-01

    In electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles, thermal management may have a significant impact on vehicle range. Therefore, optimal thermal management strategies are required. In this paper a method for determining an energy-optimal control strategy for thermal power generation in electric driven vehicles is presented considering all controlled devices (pumps, valves, fans, and the like) as well as influences like ambient temperature, vehicle speed, motor and battery and cooling cycle temperatures. The method is designed to be generic to increase the thermal management development process speed and to achieve the maximal energy reduction for any electric driven vehicle (e.g., by waste heat utilization). Based on simulations of a prototype electric vehicle with an advanced cooling cycle structure, the potential of the method is shown. (orig.)

  5. An adaptive feedback linearization strategy for variable speed wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciaga, F.; Puleston, P.F.; Battaiotto, P.E.; Mantz, R.J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Depto. de Electrotecnia, La Plata (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a control strategy based on adaptive feedback linearization intended for variable speed grid-connected wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The proposed adaptive control law accomplishes energy capture maximization by tracking the wind speed fluctuations. In addition, it linearizes the system even in the presence of turbine model uncertainties, allowing the closed-loop dynamic behaviour to be determined by a simple tuning of the controller parameters. Particularly, the attention is focused on WECS with slip power recovery, which use a power conversion stage as a rotor-controlled double-output induction generator. However, the concepts behind the proposed control strategy are general and can be easily extended to other WECS configurations. (Author)

  6. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  7. Micro-breaks matter : A diary study on the effects of energy management strategies on occupational well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Brailsford, Holly A.; Parker, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Organizational researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in self-regulatory strategies employees can use at work to sustain or improve their occupational well-being. A recent cross-sectional study on energy management strategies suggested that many work-related strategies (e.g.,

  8. [Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918 (Das Baltikum in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 5). Hrsg. von Jaan Ross. Böhlau Verlag. Köln, Weimar und Wien 2012

  9. Estonian Business Schooli magistriharidus nüüd ka koju kätte / Madis Habakuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis

    2007-01-01

    Sügisest hakkab Estonian Business School koos Mainori Kõrgkooliga pakkuma magistriõpet majandushariduseta inimestele, kus soovijatel on võimalus õppida EBSi Master of Business Administration programmi järgi

  10. The State, the Museum and the Ethnographer in Constructing National Heritage: Defining Estonian National Costumes in the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Nõmmela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I attempt to analyse the way in which the Estonian national costume, as heritage, was defined through the cooperation of the state, the museum and ethnographers in the 1930s. The nationalist state wished to strengthen the national identity of Estonia. The Estonian National Museum (ENM as a repository of memory and knowledge availed its resources to support cultural propaganda. The ethnographer Helmi Kurrik, a woman of strong will and keen interest in folk textiles, managed to fulfil her obligation at the expense of her own health. The primary result of her labours was a handbook entitled Eesti rahvarõivad (Estonian Folk Costumes (1938 which has influenced general knowledge of folk costumes in Estonia up to the present day – the ‘right’ national costumes are believed to derive from authentic ethnographical folk costumes held in the Estonian National Museum.

  11. The Rocky Road towards Professional Autonomy: The Estonian Journalists’ Organization in the Political Turmoil of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Lauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the relationships between journalists, politics and the state from the perspective of collective autonomy, that of the professional organization of journalists. The case of Estonian Journalists’ Union demonstrates the complexity and historical contingency of professional autonomy of journalism. The development of the Estonian journalists’ organization occurred as a sequence of transformations from the Estonian Journalists’ Association to the Estonian Journalists’ Union to the Soviet type journalists’ union, and lastly to an independent trade union. This sequence was disrupted by several fatal breakdowns that changed not only the character of the association, but also professional values, the whole occupational ideology and the conditions of the existence of journalism as a profession in Estonia.

  12. Väärikas Estonian Air jäi kampaaniaga hätta / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air müüs veebikaupluse cherry.ee kaudu soodsaid kinkekaarte. Vastuolu tekkis asjaolust, et nõudlus kinkekaartide järele oli suurem kui pakkumine. Lennukompanii katkestas soodsate kinkekaartide müügi

  13. Kanada rahastaja tõi Estonian Airi ostu lähemale / Rivo Sarapik ; kommenteerinud Andrus Ansip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air ja Bombardier sõlmisid lennukite hanke lepingu, tingimused ja hind jäid samaks, muutus vaid lennukite tarneaeg. Ostu rahastab Kanada finantseerimisasutus. Uued lennukid saabuvad Eestisse 2011. a. jaanuaris

  14. Parametric design and protective strategy of energy module for SG-III high power laser

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Ke Fu; Qing Shi Hong; Pan Yuan; Yao Zeng Gan; Pi Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Liang Fu; Zhou Pei Zhang; Li Yi Zheng; Chen De Huai

    2001-01-01

    The author presented the circuitry design and principle of parameters choice of the energy module for SG-III high power laser. All possible faults of high pulsed power supply were analyzed in detail. Based on the analysis and computation, the protective strategy and technology was put forward. It is helpful for the design and safe operation of high power supply and laser amplifier system. The experiments showed that the manufactured pulsed power supply met the system requirements

  15. Development of a localisation strategy for the South African Wind Energy Industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available . This has been the case for many wind-energy companies and industry growth may happen through acquisitions, organic growth, mergers and other business processes. However, for such an evolutionary path to grow, a stable home market is required... promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. Lewis and Wiser first examined strategies for local industry development, including models for wind-turbine manufacturing, technology acquisition and incentives for technology transfers...

  16. Design of a Load Torque Based Control Strategy for Improving Electric Tractor Motor Energy Conversion Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Mengnan Liu; Liyou Xu; Zhili Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the electrical conversion efficiency of an electric tractor motor, a load torque based control strategy (LTCS) is designed in this paper by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). By mathematically modeling electric-mechanical performance and theoretical energy waste of the electric motor, as well as the transmission characteristics of the drivetrain, the objective function, control relationship, and analytical platform are established. Torque and rotation spe...

  17. A Parallel Energy-Sharing Control Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Rumzi Nik Idris

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel energy-sharing control strategy for the application of fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs. The hybrid source discussed consists of a fuel cells (FCs generator and energy storage units (ESUs which composed by the battery and ultracapacitor (UC modules. A direct current (DC bus is used to interface between the energy sources and the electric vehicles (EV propulsion system (loads. Energy sources are connected to the DC bus using of power electronics converters. A total of six control loops are designed in the supervisory system in order to regulate the DC bus voltage, control of current flow and to monitor the state of charge (SOC of each energy storage device at the same time. Proportional plus integral (PI controllers are employed to regulate the output from each control loop referring to their reference signals. The proposed energy control system is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Results indicated that the proposed parallel energy-sharing control system is capable to provide a practical hybrid vehicle in respond to the vehicle traction response and avoids the FC and battery from overstressed at the same time.

  18. Energy-Efficient Transmission Strategy by Using Optimal Stopping Approach for Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile networks, transmission energy consumption dominates the major part of network energy consumption. To reduce energy consumption for data transmission is an important topic for constructing green mobile networks. According to Shannon formula, when the transmission power is constant, the better the channel quality is, the greater the transmission rate is. Then, more data will be delivered in a given period. And energy consumption per bit data transmitted will be reduced. Because channel quality varies with time randomly, it is a good opportunity for decreasing energy consumption to deliver data in the best channel quality. However, data has delay demand. The sending terminal cannot wait for the best channel quality unlimitedly. Actually, sending terminal has to select an optimal time to deliver data before data exceeds delay. For this, this paper obtains the optimal transmission rate threshold at each detection slot time by using optimal stopping approach. Then, sending terminal determines whether current time is the optimal time through comparing current transmission rate with the corresponding rate threshold, thus realizing energy-efficient transmission strategy, so as to decrease average energy consumption per bit data transmitted.

  19. Assessment of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Strategies of a Double Skin Façade in a Monsoon Climate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongwan Koo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As climate change and global warming have become two of the most significant environmental issues today, the double-skin façade (DSF is getting considerable attention as an energy-efficient passive design. This study is aimed at assessing the seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF targeting library facilities in the climate region with hot summers and cold winters. Toward this end, this study was conducted in four steps: (i establishment of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (ii application of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (iii analysis of energy saving effect by season; and (iv life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analyses for selecting an optimal DSF. Results show that a shaft box DSF energy model (EMS #2, which applied winter strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 4.13%, while a multi-story DSF energy model (EMM #5, which applied summer strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 12.67%. In terms of savings to investment ratio (SIR40 and breakeven point (BEP40, the multi-story DSF (3.20; 9 years was superior. The results of this study can be used for (i seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF in East Asian monsoon climates, and (ii as a guideline for the application of a DSF both in existing and new buildings.

  20. Balancing Power Output and Structural Fatigue of Wave Energy Converters by Means of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of electricity produced by wave energy converters (WECs, the benefit of selling electricity as well as the investment costs of the structure has to be considered. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the control strategy for a WEC with respect to both energy output and structural fatigue loads. Different active and passive control strategies are implemented (proportional (P controller, proportional-integral (PI controller, proportional-integral-derivative with memory compensation (PID controller, model predictive control (MPC and maximum energy controller (MEC, and load time-series resulting from numerical simulations are used to design structural parts based on fatigue analysis using rain-flow counting, Stress-Number (SN curves and Miner’s rule. The objective of the methodology is to obtain a cost-effective WEC with a more comprehensive analysis of a WEC based on a combination of well known control strategies and standardised fatigue methods. The presented method is then applied to a particular case study, the Wavestar WEC, for a specific location in the North Sea. Results, which are based on numerical simulations, show the importance of balancing the gained power against structural fatigue. Based on a simple cost model, the PI controller is shown as a viable solution.

  1. Contrasting energy allocation strategies of two sympatric Merluccius species in an upwelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J; Fernandez-Peralta, L; Quintanilla, L F; Hidalgo, M; Presas, C; Salmeron, F; Puerto, M A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the somatic growth and energy allocation strategy of two sympatric hake species (Merluccius polli and Merluccius senegalensis), coexisting under the strong influence of the Mauritanian upwelling. The results revealed that ontogeny, bathymetry, geography and reproduction shaped the differences found between the condition dynamics of the two species. Aside from species-specific differences, individuals were observed in better condition in the northernmost area (more influenced by the permanent upwelling) and in the deepest waters, probably the most favourable habitat for Merluccius spp. Both species also displayed contrasting trade-offs in energy allocation probably due to the dissimilarity of their habitats, which favours the existence of divergent adaptive strategies in response to different ontogenic requirements. It was hypothesized that M. polli invests in mass and energy reserves while sacrificing growth, as larger sizes may not provide an ecological advantage in a deeper and more stable environment. Moreover, M. senegalensis capitalizes on a steady growth without major disruptions, enabling earlier spawning at the expense of a lower somatic mass, which is fitting to a less stable shallower environment. This study sheds new light on differences in the biological traits and life strategies of Merluccius spp., which permit their overlap in a complex upwelling system and may contribute to the long-lasting scientific-based management of these species. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. A Simple Operating Strategy of Small-Scale Battery Energy Storages for Energy Arbitrage under Dynamic Pricing Tariffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Telaretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Price arbitrage involves taking advantage of an electricity price difference, storing electricity during low-prices times, and selling it back to the grid during high-prices periods. This strategy can be exploited by customers in presence of dynamic pricing schemes, such as hourly electricity prices, where the customer electricity cost may vary at any hour of day, and power consumption can be managed in a more flexible and economical manner, taking advantage of the price differential. Instead of modifying their energy consumption, customers can install storage systems to reduce their electricity bill, shifting the energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. This paper develops a detailed storage model linking together technical, economic and electricity market parameters. The proposed operating strategy aims to maximize the profit of the storage owner (electricity customer under simplifying assumptions, by determining the optimal charge/discharge schedule. The model can be applied to several kinds of storages, although the simulations refer to three kinds of batteries: lead-acid, lithium-ion (Li-ion and sodium-sulfur (NaS batteries. Unlike literature reviews, often requiring an estimate of the end-user load profile, the proposed operation strategy is able to properly identify the battery-charging schedule, relying only on the hourly price profile, regardless of the specific facility’s consumption, thanks to some simplifying assumptions in the sizing and the operation of the battery. This could be particularly useful when the customer load profile cannot be scheduled with sufficient reliability, because of the uncertainty inherent in load forecasting. The motivation behind this research is that storage devices can help to lower the average electricity prices, increasing flexibility and fostering the integration of renewable sources into the power system.

  3. Evaluation of energy strategies in South Africa using a multi-attribute decision analysis approach. (Afrikaans text)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Well co-ordinated planning is essential for reliable energy supply. This implies that the size of resources, foreign input, technological progress and future demand has to be considered. Realistic comparison of various energy strategies demands that account be taken of the economic, health, and security impact as well as the impact on natural surroundings. A model calculating the requirements and impact of supplying energy to meet a predetermined future energy demand was developed for South African circumstances. This model is supported by an evaluation mechanism based on multi-attribute utility theory, which enables the comparison of energy strategies in terms of the norms of energy provision. The viability of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by comparison a high oil import, low coal consumption strategy to a low oil import strategy supported by nuclear power for electricity supply and an additional SASOL for the provision of petroleum.

  4. Performance comparison of two fuel cell hybrid buses with different powertrain and energy management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Languang; Gao, Dawei; Xie, Qicheng

    In order to assess the influences of different powertrain structures and energy management strategies on the performance of hybrid fuel cell buses (FCB), two buses (FCB A and FCB B) were constructed with a "energy hybrid structure" and "power hybrid structure", respectively. Different energy management strategies were investigated based on analysis of the two systems. And the two buses were compared with each other in a bus cycle and constant speed testing. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) in FCB A showed an advantage in fuel economy for it worked usually in the high efficient range of the PEMFC engine. The hydrogen consumption rate in the cycle testing was 7.9 kg/100 km and 9.8 kg/100 km for FCB A and FCB B, and in the 40 kmph constant speed testing it was 3.3 kg/100 km and 4.0 kg/100 km, respectively. The fuel economy could be improved when the hydrogen and air supply subsystems are optimized and controlled with an advanced algorithm. It could also benefit from a braking energy regeneration system. Compared with FCB A, the PEMFC in FCB B worked under unfavorable operation conditions because its working range was comparatively wide, and the power changing rate was relatively large from a statistical point of view, which resulted in performance recession of the PEMFC in FCB B. After a mileage of 7000 km, the output power of the PEMFC in FCB B was reduced by 10%, compared with 2.4% in FCB A. An advanced energy management strategy is necessary to split the power between the PEMFC and a battery suitable for long durability of a PEMFC.

  5. Evaluation of Strategies to Reducing Traction Energy Consumption of Metro Systems Using an Optimal Train Control Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Su

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid to the energy efficiency in metro systems to reduce the operational cost and to advocate the sustainability of railway systems. Classical research has studied the energy-efficient operational strategy and the energy-efficient system design separately to reduce the traction energy consumption. This paper aims to combine the operational strategies and the system design by analyzing how the infrastructure and vehicle parameters of metro systems influence the operational traction energy consumption. Firstly, a solution approach to the optimal train control model is introduced, which is used to design the Optimal Train Control Simulator(OTCS. Then, based on the OTCS, the performance of some important energy-efficient system design strategies is investigated to reduce the trains’ traction energy consumption, including reduction of the train mass, improvement of the kinematic resistance, the design of the energy-saving gradient, increasing the maximum traction and braking forces, introducing regenerative braking and timetable optimization. As for these energy-efficient strategies, the performances are finally evaluated using the OTCS with the practical operational data of the Beijing Yizhuang metro line. The proposed approach gives an example to quantitatively analyze the energy reduction of different strategies in the system design procedure, which may help the decision makers to have an overview of the energy-efficient performances and then to make decisions by balancing the costs and the benefits.

  6. Systems dynamics (SD) strategy for Small Modular Reactor (SMR) marketing - Conquest at the MIT Energy Laboratory (Pres. MIT Energy Initiative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, T. H. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This reactor has the specification as the power is 330 MWt pressurized water reactor (PWR) with integral steam generators and advanced safety features. In the plant design, it is planned for electricity generation of 100 MWe and thermal applications of seawater desalination where the life span is a 60-year operation design and three-year refueling cycle. Regarding of the licensing, the standard design was approved from the Korean regulator in mid-2012 and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a plan to build a demonstration plant to operate from 2017. According to the previous study of the marketing strategy of the Canadian small reactor, Safe LOW-POwer Kritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) reactor had been investigated in 1988. Therefore, it is interesting to compare SMART and SLOWPOKE. In this work, it is to find out the strategy of the successful marketing of SMART and suggest continuous marketing prospects. There are specifications and parameters of SMART in Tables 1 and 2. The public acceptance (PA) had been studies as safety-public interpretation, SLOWPOKE safety-experience and process, and economics in the previous paper of the SLOWPOKE, which was about the marketing strategy for the commercial nuclear reactor. The highly cognitive networking based dynamical modeling was discussed where the system is treated by a complex and non-linear way. The linear networking of the interested issue was changed by the SD algorithm where the feedback and multiple connections are added to the original networking theory. The non-linear method has shown the complexity of the marketing strategy, especially for the NPP which is the very expensive and safety focused facility.

  7. Testing the Visual Soil Assessment tool on Estonian farm fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintam, Endla; Are, Mihkel; Selge, Are

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality estimation plays important role in decision making on farm as well on policy level. Sustaining the production ability and good health of the soil the chemical, physical and biological indicators should be taken into account. The system to use soil chemical parameters is usually quite well established in most European counties, including Estonia. However, measuring soil physical properties, such bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, structural stability ect is time consuming, needs special tools and is highly weather dependent. In that reason these parameters are excluded from controllable quality parameters in policy in Estonia. Within the project "Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience" (iSQAPER) the visual soil assessment (VSA) tool was developed for easy detection of soil quality as well the different soil friendly agricultural management practices (AMP) were detected. The aim of current study was to test the VSA tool on Estonian farm fields under different management practices and compare the results with laboratory measurements. The main focus was set on soil physical parameters. Next to the VSA, the undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depth of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm. The study revealed that results of a visually assessed soil physical parameters, such a soil structure, soil structural stability, soil porosity, presence of tillage pan, were confirmed by laboratory measurements in most cases. Soil water stable structure measurement on field (on 1 cm2 net in one 1 l box with 4-6 cm air dry clods for 5-10 min) underestimated very well structured soil on grassland and overestimated the structure aggregates stability of compacted soil. The slightly better soil quality was detected under no-tillage compared to ploughed soils. However, the ploughed soil got higher quality points compared with minimum tillage. The slurry application (organic manuring) had

  8. Social Optimization and Pricing Policy in Cognitive Radio Networks with an Energy Saving Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of wireless application results in an increase in demand for spectrum resource and communication energy. In this paper, we firstly introduce a novel energy saving strategy in cognitive radio networks (CRNs and then propose an appropriate pricing policy for secondary user (SU packets. We analyze the behavior of data packets in a discrete-time single-server priority queue under multiple-vacation discipline. With the help of a Quasi-Birth-Death (QBD process model, we obtain the joint distribution for the number of SU packets and the state of base station (BS via the Matrix-Geometric Solution method. We assess the average latency of SU packets and the energy saving ratio of system. According to a natural reward-cost structure, we study the individually optimal behavior and the socially optimal behavior of the energy saving strategy and use an optimization algorithm based on standard particle swarm optimization (SPSO method to search the socially optimal arrival rate of SU packets. By comparing the individually optimal behavior and the socially optimal behavior, we impose an appropriate admission fee to SU packets. Finally, we present numerical results to show the impacts of system parameters on the system performance and the pricing policy.

  9. The Influence of BMW Group Energy Strategy Communication on Corporate Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Jurum Kipke

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of BMW Group energystrategy communication in order to build excellent BMWcorporate image worldwide with the purpose of analyzing thecurrent situation regarding this topic on the Croatian car marketas well as analyzing the possible influence of BMW environmentprotection care and energy strategy on BMW corporateimage in the Republic of Croatia.To ensure sufficient supply of energy in order to meet the futureneeds, the BMW's chosen priorities worldwide are to promoteefficient use of today's available energy sources and to developinnovative solutions for the future. The company usesthese elements in building the desirable BMW corporate image.On the basis of the conducted surve, it was more than obviousthat these activities still do not play a large role in building agood BMW corporate image among BMW customers in Croatia.Obviously, there is great possibility for the BMW Group toimprove its corporate image in Croatia and on the similar marketsboth with the application of intensive environmental careand the energy strategy communication.

  10. Nash Equilibrium of an Energy Saving Strategy with Dual Rate Transmission in Wireless Regional Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqiang Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless regional area network (WRAN adopts centralized network architecture and is currently one of the most typical cognitive radio networks. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the communication networks with the constraint of spectrum resource utilization, a working sleep mechanism is introduced into the base station (BS, and a novel energy saving strategy with dual rate transmission is proposed. Combining the multiple-vacation queue and priority queue, using the quasi-birth-death process and the matrix-geometric solution method, we assess the average latency and the forced termination probability of secondary user packets, as well as the energy saving ratio and the channel utilization of system. Based on the revenue-expenditure structure, a profit function is built, and then the Nash equilibrium behavior and the socially optimal behavior are investigated. With the help of the particle swarm optimization, an intelligent optimization algorithm to search the socially optimal arrival rate of secondary user packets is presented. In order to unify the arrival rates of secondary user packets with Nash equilibrium and social optimization, a reasonable pricing policy is formulated. In addition, system experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the energy saving strategy and the rationality of the pricing policy.

  11. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler's typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house's need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  12. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler`s typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house`s need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  13. Online energy management strategy of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles based on data fusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daming; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Gao, Fei; Ravey, Alexandre; Matraji, Imad; Godoy Simões, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Energy management strategy plays a key role for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs), it directly affects the efficiency and performance of energy storages in FCHEVs. For example, by using a suitable energy distribution controller, the fuel cell system can be maintained in a high efficiency region and thus saving hydrogen consumption. In this paper, an energy management strategy for online driving cycles is proposed based on a combination of the parameters from three offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers using data fusion approach. The fuzzy logic controllers are respectively optimized for three typical driving scenarios: highway, suburban and city in offline. To classify patterns of online driving cycles, a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM) is used to provide probabilistic classification results. Based on the classification results of the online driving cycle, the parameters of each offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers are then fused using Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory, in order to calculate the final parameters for the online fuzzy logic controller. Three experimental validations using Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) platform with different-sized FCHEVs have been performed. Experimental comparison results show that, the proposed PSVM-DS based online controller can achieve a relatively stable operation and a higher efficiency of fuel cell system in real driving cycles.

  14. Indian Energy Policy and Strategy: Pre- and Post-Copenhagen 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Shenoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanIndia is an extraordinarily diverse democratic country with one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It is the world’s sixth largest consumer of energy. Interest in its energy policies and strategies is escalating due to their huge impact on geopolitical relations, global energy prices and climate change. Its current per capita energy consumption and GHG emission values are low; however, these are bound to increase if it continues on the path of development that the West has followed. If India is to ‘leapfrog’ the already well-trodden path to one that ensures sustainable development, it is imperative for the country to redefine its development paradigm in order to ensure inclusive growth. Unsustainable subsidies, poor reform implementation, distorted energy prices and inadequate investment in renewables are some of the major constraints that the Indian government needs to re-examine so as to increase energy security and provide a framework for transition to a low-carbon economy. In addition to innovative energy policies such as the National Solar Mission, the National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency and the National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, India needs to adopt a framework for decoupled growth, which we consider as an increase in the quality of life for its citizens without an increase in environmental damage. Since 2008 India has demonstrated that it is serious about changing its growth pattern and moving towards clean energy alternatives. However, this vision will not be fully realised unless the global North provides technical and financial assistance to collectively mitigate the adverse impact of global warming and subsequent climate change.

  15. Strategy Guideline: Energy Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Badger, L. [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline explains the benefits of evaluating and identifying energy efficiency retrofit measures that could be made during renovation and maintenance of multifamily buildings. It focuses on low-rise multifamily structures (three or fewer stories) in a cold climate. These benefits lie primarily in reduced energy use, lower operating and maintenance costs, improved durability of the structure, and increased occupant comfort. This guideline focuses on retrofit measures for roof repair or replacement, exterior wall repair or gut rehab, and eating system maintenance. All buildings are assumed to have a flat ceiling and a trussed roof, wood- or steel-framed exterior walls, and one or more single or staged boilers. Estimated energy savings realized from the retrofits will vary, depending on the size and condition of the building, the extent of efficiency improvements, the efficiency of the heating equipment, the cost and type of fuel, and the climate location.

  16. An Energy-Efficient Target-Tracking Strategy for Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hamid; Masoudimansour, Walid; Aghdam, Amir G; Sayrafian-Pour, Kamran

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an energy-efficient strategy is proposed for tracking a moving target in an environment with obstacles, using a network of mobile sensors. Typically, the most dominant sources of energy consumption in a mobile sensor network are sensing, communication, and movement. The proposed algorithm first divides the field into a grid of sufficiently small cells. The grid is then represented by a graph whose edges are properly weighted to reflect the energy consumption of sensors. The proposed technique searches for near-optimal locations for the sensors in different time instants to route information from the target to destination, using a shortest path algorithm. Simulations confirm the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Clean Energy Manufacturing: U.S. Competitiveness and State Policy Strategies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2014-02-01

    The capital intensive nature of clean energy technologies suggests that manufacturing clean energy equipment has the potential to support state and local economic development efforts. However, manufacturing siting decisions tend to be complex and multi-variable decision processes that require in-depth knowledge of specific markets, the logistical requirements of a given technology, and insight into global clean tech trends. This presentation highlights the potential of manufacturing in supporting economic development opportunities while also providing examples of the financial considerations affecting manufacturing facility siting decisions for wind turbine blades and solar PV. The presentation also includes discussion of other more qualitative drivers of facility siting decisions as gleaned from NREL industry interviews and discusses strategies state and local policymakers may employee to bolster their chances of successfully attracting clean energy manufacturers to their localities.

  18. The Energy Integration Strategies in the Great Caribbean: Multiple Processes and Regional Leadership in Dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Moncada Guevara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate, through the paradigm of the complex interdependency that the energy integration processes in the Caribbean during the 21st Century have been multiple, given the integrationist traditions and the strategic regional leadership interests displayed by Venezuela, Mexico and the United States. Therefore, gendas proposed to supply the energy demand in the region deepen the existence of hegemonic projects in dispute. In the first part, political, economic and military aspects of the integration processes in the Caribbean are defined. Then, energy agendas of the 90’s with the Hemisphere Integration Strategy are characterized. Finally, the most recent experience of CARICOM on the matter is analyzed and it is concluded that the region is going through a period of recomposition of the regional powers.

  19. Antiikvärsimõõdud eesti tõlgetes 19. sajandi lõpul – 20. sajandi esimesel poolel / Ancient Meters in Estonian Translations at the End of the 19th Century – the First Half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Kristiina Lotman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ancient verse has also been translated into Estonian with different non-equimetrical strategies, from the very beginning the equimetrical way of translation has prevailed, the purpose of which has been to convey the meter of a source text in the target text. Ancient meters are found in the Estonian tradition of translation from the end of the 19th century, when several authors undertook the translation of voluminous hexametrical texts. During the following decades, hexameter became an important meter both in original and translated poetry, first in accentual-syllabic or syllabic-accentual versification systems, later different quantitative forms were added. In the case of Estonian quantitative hexameter, a two-way evolution can be observed: the aim of the first direction is to accommodate hexameter in the prosodic reality of the Estonian language and develop a form that allows licences in the metrical structure rather than deform language, the aim of the second is to create a verse form, which, first of all, follows the patterns of ancient verse and, if necessary, forms artificial rules of quantity in order to accommodate Estonian language with the structure of hexameter.The incidence of other ancient meters, including different Ionic and Aeolic verse forms, is  considerably  lower.  During  the  obser  ved  period,  Aeolic meter s  are  conveyed  in  two  dif  fe -rent forms: in syllabic-accentual verse, where quantity plays only a rhythmic role, and syllabic-accentual-quantitative form, where the number of syllables is always strictly fixed, the distribution  of  accent s  is  governed  by  cer tain  rule s,  while  quantit y  is  more  impor tant  in strong positions and less regulated in weak positions.At the same time, we come across non-equimetrical translations as well, where instead of the original meter some other verse form has been chosen for the translation. Such rendition can be a functional

  20. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two......In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced...... partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW...

  1. Power and Energy Management Strategy for Solid State Transformer Interfaced DC Microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xunwei

    As a result of more and more applications of renewable energy into our ordinary life, how to construct a microgrid (MG) based on the distributed renewable energy resources and energy storages, and then to supply a reliable and flexible power to the conventional power system are the hottest topics nowadays. Comparing to the AC microgrid (AC MG), DC microgrid (DC MG) gets more attentions, because it has its own advantages, such as high efficiency, easy to integrate the DC energy sources and energy storages, and so on. Furthermore, the interaction between DC MG system and the distribution system is also an important and practical issue. In Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM), the Solid State Transformer (SST) is built, which can transform the distribution system to the low AC and DC system directly (usually home application level). Thus, the SST gives a new promising solution for low voltage level MG to interface the distribution level system instead of the traditional transformer. So a SST interfaced DC MG is proposed. However, it also brings new challenges in the design and control fields for this system because the system gets more complicated, which includes distributed energy sources and storages, load, and SST. The purpose of this dissertation is to design a reliable and flexible SST interfaced DC MG based on the renewable energy sources and energy storages, which can operate in islanding mode and SST-enabled mode. Dual Half Bridge (DHB) is selected as the topology for DC/DC converter in DC MG. The DHB operation procedure and average model are analyzed, which is the basis for the system modeling, control and operation. Furthermore, two novel power and energy management strategies are proposed. The first one is a distributed energy management strategy for the DC MG operating in the SST-enabled mode. In this method, the system is not only in distributed control to increase the system reliability, but the power sharing

  2. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L.; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M.; Lentink, Corine R.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships among employees’ use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries). Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands). This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being. PMID:28912741

  3. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M; Lentink, Corine R

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships among employees' use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries). Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands). This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being.

  4. System dynamics analysis of strategies to reduce energy use in aluminum-intensive sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Nicholson, Scott; 25-29 June 2017, Carpenter, Alberta

    2017-07-13

    Aluminum is one of the most widely used materials in industry, with applications in buildings, vehicles, aircraft, and consumer products. Its ubiquity is also on the rise: aluminum is beginning to supplant steel in lightweight vehicles and aircraft, and is used in many green or LEED-certified buildings. Although aluminum tends to be highly recycled, particularly by manufacturers of aluminum products, the sector as a whole is still far from a closed system. As a result, the increase in aluminum consumption also means an increase in primary aluminum production-an energy-intensive process-and an increase in consumption of the raw material bauxite, which in the U.S. is almost entirely imported. Our objectives for this study are to identify and analyze aluminum sector technologies and practices that reduce the energy required to manufacture aluminum products and reduce U.S. dependence on imported aluminum and bauxite. To accomplish these objectives, we will develop a system dynamics (SD) model of aluminum production, use and recycling in key application areas, including aerospace, ground vehicles and consumer products. The model will cover the entire aluminum supply chain as it exists in the U.S., from bauxite importing and refining, to the manufacture of products, to the product use phase and end-of-life processing steps. Aluminum flows throughout the model will be determined by the annual domestic demand for each application area as well as demand projections that extend to 2030. Energy consumption will be tracked based on the flows of aluminum through each step of the supply chain. Using the SD model, we will evaluate several technologies and practices that have the potential to reduce energy consumption and reliance on imported bauxite. These include implementation of advanced primary aluminum production technologies, increased recycling within and between application areas, increased material efficiency and increased product lifetimes. Each of these strategies

  5. Integrating air quality, water and climate concerns into China's energy strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei

    As the world's top carbon emitter, China also suffers from serious air pollution and increasingly severe water stress. My dissertation focuses on a variety of energy strategies in China and examines potential synergies and tradeoffs between air quality, water conservation and carbon mitigation objectives. It includes four analytical chapters. Chapter 2 and 3 examines the air quality and climate implications of a variety policy options in the near term and at the 2030 time horizon, respectively. Based on an integrated assessment using regional air pollution model and epidemiological evidence, I find that improving industrial energy efficiency is the most effective near-term strategy to curb air pollution and carbon emissions, while electrifying end-use sectors (e.g. vehicles and residential stoves) with decarbonized electricity will likely become the favorable co-control strategy in 2030. These two chapters hence provide a scientific basis for policymakers in China to coordinate air pollution and carbon mitigation strategies. Chapter 4 and 5 then examines the role of electricity transmission, as a critical element of the electrification strategy, in the nexus of air pollution, water stress and carbon emissions. Chapter 4 evaluates the potential air quality and climate benefits of long-distance electricity transmission in China in the near term. I find that transmitting a hybrid mix of renewable and coal power can be a cost-effective energy transfer strategy to curb air pollution impacts and carbon emissions, because it not only utilizes zero-carbon renewable resources in the west, but also displaces coal power generation and associated air pollution impacts in highly populated eastern regions. Chapter 5 studies the potential tradeoffs in the transmission system designs to achieve air quality or water conservation benefits from a decarbonized generation system. Since air pollution and water stress are severe in eastern and northern China respectively, I find that an

  6. Fan cycling strategies and heat pipe heat exchangers provide energy efficient dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirey, D.B. III [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This article describes two methods to reduce energy consumption and peak demand in buildings that require humidity control that were demonstrated at the Salvador Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida. The first method centered on alternative indoor fan cycling strategies and the second method involved the use of heat pipe heat exchangers. Both approaches increased the dehumidification performance of the existing air-conditioning systems and provided substantial savings. Simple, low cost alternative fan cycling strategies were used. When possible, auto fan control replaced constant fan operation to avoid excess fan energy consumption, ventilation load and compressor operation. The alternative fan control strategies reduced indoor humidity fluctuations in all zones, and significantly reduced overall humidity levels in the museum lobby and storage area. An HPHX was installed within one of the two gallery RTUs to improve the unit`s dehumidification performance. The passive HPHX significantly reduced electric reheat and compressor operation while maintaining the precise temperature and humidity requirements within the gallery. The second gallery RTU now operates primarily as a back-up unit to the heat pipe-assisted air-conditioning unit.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  8. Energy policy as a survival strategy of the nation; Energiepolitik als Ueberlebensstrategie der Nation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melisch, R.; Schroecke, H.; Schulien, S.; Thuene, W.

    2006-07-01

    The authors of the book under consideration present a collection of contributions to the theme 'Energy policy as a survival strategy of the nation': These contributions are: (a) Working group 'German energy policy and economic politics'; (b) Which energy supply for Germany?; (c) The future of hydrogen technology; (d) Power supply systems on the basis of hydrogen and carbon dioxide; (e) A way out of the dependence from petroleum; (f) Inability of German infrastructure projects; (g) How Germany was forced to give up its domestic energy basis; (h) Plundering and destruction of the science in Germany; (i) Separation of Europe from the compulsory system of America; (j) The secret of ozone hole; (k) Does carbon dioxide destroy the climate?; (l) With climatic protection into the climatic catastrophe. Or - how much lies can be burdened to the mankind?; (m) Natural radioactivity and nuclear power stations; (n) Technology as cultural performance; (o) Humiliation and renascent of Germany; (p) Energy supply for people and economy as a task of survival; (q) Necessary standards for economy and technology; (r) The 68s and the destruction of the German nuclear industry; (s) Final fight for the last reserves of oil.

  9. Strategies and Challenges for Energy Efficient Retrofitting: Study of the Empire State Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, B.; Mukherjee, M.

    2013-11-01

    Operational and maintenance cost of existing buildings is escalating making it tough for both the owner and the tenants. Retrofitting them with state of the art technologies help them to keep pace with amended recent code provisions and thus extending the older building stocks one more chance to live responsively. Retrofitted iconic buildings can thus retain their status in commerce driven real estate sector. It helps in reducing green house gas emission as well. World's iconic skyscraper, the Empire State Building (ESB), has undergone an exemplary retrofit process since 2008 to reduce its energy demands. To achieve the goal of operational cost and energy consumption reduction, stiff challenges had taken care in a systematic manner to realize benefit throughout the entire lifespan of the ESB. Least disturbances to the tenant and on-site component handling strategies required precise planning. The present paper explores strategies and process adopted for retrofitting the ESB, and derived insightful guidelines towards operational cost savings and energy efficiency of existing buildings through retrofitting.

  10. Assessment of control strategies for fault ride through of SCIG-based wind energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing penetration of wind energy into the power grid, researchers have started focusing more on control and coordination of wind energy conversion systems (WECS with the other components at system level, especially during fault. It is important to implement a suitable fault ride through control strategy to avoid tripping of the generators when the power system is subjected to voltage dips normally below 90% of nominal voltage. The dips below 90% may lead to a significant loss of generation and frequency collapse, followed by a blackout. This article implements and assesses the methodologies to deal with such situations for squirrel cage induction generator-based wind energy conversion systems employing fully rated power electronic converters. Three distinct control techniques—namely, balanced positive sequence control, positive negative sequence control, and dual current control—have been simulated and applied to grid side converter of SCIG-based WECS. The performance of all the three control strategies has been compared and presented in this work. During this study, the system is subjected to the most common unsymmetrical line to ground (LG fault and most severe symmetrical LLL fault on grid for the purpose of anaysis.

  11. Energy Management Strategies based on efficiency map for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feroldi, Diego; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The addition of a fast auxiliary power source like a supercapacitor bank in fuel cell-based vehicles has a great potential because permits a significant reduction of the hydrogen consumption and an improvement of the vehicle efficiency. The Energy Management Strategies, commanding the power split between the power sources in the hybrid arrangement to fulfil the power requirement, perform a fundamental role to achieve this objective. In this work, three strategies based on the knowledge of the fuel cell efficiency map are proposed. These strategies are attractive due to the relative simplicity of the real time implementation and the good performance. The strategies are tested both in a simulation environment and in an experimental setup using a 1.2-kW PEM fuel cell. The results, in terms of hydrogen consumption, are compared with an optimal case, which is assessed trough an advantageous technique also introduced in this work and with a pure fuel cell vehicle as well. This comparative reveals high efficiency and good performance, allowing to save up to 26% of hydrogen in urban scenarios. (author)

  12. Energy Management Strategies based on efficiency map for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroldi, Diego; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi

    The addition of a fast auxiliary power source like a supercapacitor bank in fuel cell-based vehicles has a great potential because permits a significant reduction of the hydrogen consumption and an improvement of the vehicle efficiency. The Energy Management Strategies, commanding the power split between the power sources in the hybrid arrangement to fulfil the power requirement, perform a fundamental role to achieve this objective. In this work, three strategies based on the knowledge of the fuel cell efficiency map are proposed. These strategies are attractive due to the relative simplicity of the real time implementation and the good performance. The strategies are tested both in a simulation environment and in an experimental setup using a 1.2-kW PEM fuel cell. The results, in terms of hydrogen consumption, are compared with an optimal case, which is assessed trough an advantageous technique also introduced in this work and with a pure fuel cell vehicle as well. This comparative reveals high efficiency and good performance, allowing to save up to 26% of hydrogen in urban scenarios.

  13. Evaluation of a spectral subtraction strategy to suppress reverberant energy in cochlear implant devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Runge, Christina; Tahmina, Qudsia; Hu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The smearing effects of room reverberation can significantly impair the ability of cochlear implant (CI) listeners to understand speech. To ameliorate the effects of reverberation, current dereverberation algorithms focus on recovering the direct sound from the reverberated signal by inverse filtering the reverberation process. This contribution describes and evaluates a spectral subtraction (SS) strategy capable of suppressing late reflections. Late reflections are the most detrimental to speech intelligibility by CI listeners as reverberation increases. By tackling only the late part of reflections, it is shown that users of CI devices can benefit from the proposed strategy even in highly reverberant rooms. The proposed strategy is also compared against an ideal reverberant (binary) masking approach. Speech intelligibility results indicate that the proposed SS solution is able to suppress additive reverberant energy to a degree comparable to that achieved by an ideal binary mask. The added advantage is that the SS strategy proposed in this work can allow for a potentially real-time implementation in clinical CI processors. PMID:26233012

  14. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  15. A control strategy for a variable-speed wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, A.; Rajagopalan, V.; Veillette, D.

    1980-01-01

    In this article, a method of calculating an optimal control strategy for a variable-speed wind power generation scheme incorporating a squirrel cage induction machine and operating in a self-excited induction generator mode is discussed. This scheme also uses a conventional three-phase thyristor rectifier, a line-commutated inverter and an economical auxiliary commutated-voltage-source inverter. The three regulated variables are: (1) drive speed as a function of available mechanical energy by manipulating the resistive torque developed by induction generator; (2) induction motor power consumption during start-up of the wind machine of vertical axis type; (3) operating slip of the induction machine, thereby limiting start-up and braking currents. The developed strategy is also suitable for any other variable-speed drive system incorporating an induction machine.

  16. Selection of energy source and evolutionary stable strategies for power plants under financial intervention of government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-03-01

    Currently, many socially responsible governments adopt economic incentives and deterrents to manage environmental impacts of electricity suppliers. Considering the Stackelberg leadership of the government, the government's role in the competition of power plants in an electricity market is investigated. A one-population evolutionary game model of power plants is developed to study how their production strategy depends on tariffs levied by the government. We establish that a unique evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) for the population exists. Numerical examples demonstrate that revenue maximization and environment protection policies of the government significantly affect the production ESS of competitive power plants. The results reveal that the government can introduce a green energy source as an ESS of the competitive power plants by imposing appropriate tariffs.

  17. An Energy-Based Control Strategy for Battery Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study on Microgrid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESSs with proportional-integral (PI control methods have been widely studied in microgrids (MGs. However, the performance of PI control methods might be unsatisfactory for BESSs due to the nonlinear characteristics of the system. To overcome this problem, an energy-based (EB control method is applied to control the converter of a BESS in this study. The EB method is a robust nonlinear control method based on passivity theory with good performance in both transient and steady states. The detailed design process of the EB method in the BESS by adopting an interconnection and damping assignment (IDA strategy is described. The design process comprises three steps: the construction of the port-controlled Hamiltonian model, the determination of the equilibrium point and the solution of the undetermined matrix. In addition, integral action is combined to eliminate the steady state error generated by the model mismatch. To establish the correctness and validity of the proposed method, we implement several case simulation studies based on a test MG system and compare the control performance of the EB and PI methods carefully. The case simulation results demonstrate that the EB method has better tracking and anti-disturbance performance compared with the classic PI method. Moreover, the proposed EB method shows stronger robustness to the uncertainty of system parameters.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Promotion Strategies in the Industry of Energy Drinks in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks remain one of the most dynamic segments of soft drinks. Recent developments indicate that companies are extending their activities. The fact that the category of energy drinks is so successful is leading to a highly competitive environment. Therefore, to increase profit and to create a firm position in such a competitive market, promotion policies and its strategies and forms by companies should be properly understood and implemented.  To this end, this part of the paper will review literature from various authors for purposes of understanding the role of drafting and implementing promotion strategies and marketing itself in companies in general. Data from theoretical aspect have served as guidance in conducting the practical part of this paper on the ground.  In the second part of the paper, a practical research was conducted; a survey questionnaire with owners of two energy drink producers in Kosovo was carried out, i.e., “Golden Eagle” and “Red Rain”. As a result of primary data we have obtained from the survey, we established the extent of the basic knowledge of these companies. At first, regarding marketing in general, but also on promotion and promotion strategies in particular. Also, there were selected 30 customers of these two companies from the random sample to see whether there was an impact of promotion forms that these companies used on their choosing of products.  Finally, from the data obtained from primary and secondary sources we managed to come to certain specific and meaningful conclusions both in terms of the companies we studied, but also about other companies of the same or other similar sectors.

  19. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: the Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  20. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: The Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.