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Sample records for estonian agricultural university

  1. Cohort Profile: Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tõnu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C; Mägi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-08-01

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged ≥18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000--represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General practitioners (GPs) and medical personnel in the special recruitment offices have recruited participants throughout the country. At baseline, the GPs performed a standardized health examination of the participants, who also donated blood samples for DNA, white blood cells and plasma tests and filled out a 16-module questionnaire on health-related topics such as lifestyle, diet and clinical diagnoses described in WHO ICD-10. A significant part of the cohort has whole genome sequencing (100), genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data (20 000) and/or NMR metabolome data (11 000) available (http://www.geenivaramu.ee/for-scientists/data-release/). The data are continuously updated through periodical linking to national electronic databases and registries. A part of the cohort has been re-contacted for follow-up purposes and resampling, and targeted invitations are possible for specific purposes, for example people with a specific diagnosis. The Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu is actively collaborating with many universities, research institutes and consortia and encourages fellow scientists worldwide to co-initiate new academic or industrial joint projects with us. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  3. Cohort Profile : Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tonu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C.; Maegi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged >= 18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000-represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General

  4. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  5. Online Estonian Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  6. Factors promoting agricultural research in Nigeria universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major findings of the study showed that funding, collaboration and ICT promote agricultural research in Nigerian universities. The study also found that agricultural sciences research is not well funded in Nigerian federal universities as lecturers do not benefit from either university funded research nor government or agency ...

  7. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  8. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  9. Selenium levels of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhamaa, P; Kantola, M; Viitak, A; Kaasik, T; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to sum up the dietary selenium intake of the Estonian people according to the serum selenium concentrations. This research compiles the information published in the literature about the levels of selenium in the serum of the Estonian people. We compare these results with the findings obtained from the analyses of serum samples gathered by us in the 1990s in Estonia. The selenium concentration in sera of 404 Estonians ranged from 26 to 116 microg/l; the mean was 75 microg/l. The selenium contents of Estonians were at a similar level as reported for Finns before the selenium supplementation of fertilizers carried out in Finland in 1984. In view of the selenium concentration in the sera, we suggest that the dietary selenium intake among the Estonian people might be scarce, and Estonian authorities should consider in their nutrition policies the possible low intake of selenium of Estonians.

  10. Valued Estonian Music CDs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Artur Kapp "Symphonische Werke", Eduard Tubin "Symphonies No.9, No.10 and No.11", "Estonian Preludes", "Eesti heliloojad. Hortus Musicus", "Eesti Muusika Päevad", "Tallinn Saxophone Quartet. Estonian Contemporary Music", "Triskele. Kolga-Jaani vaimulikud rahvalaulud", "Helmekaala. Linnupuu Anne", "Modern Fox mängib Raimond Valgret",

  11. INTRODUCTION TO ESTONIAN LINGUISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAUN, ALO; SAARESTE, ANDRUS

    THIS TEXT COMPRISES A SURVEY OF THE ESTONIAN LANGUAGE, WHICH IS GROUPED HERE WITH LIVONIAN, VOTIC, AND A PART OF WESTERN FINNISH, TO FORM THE SOUTHWESTERN BRANCH OF THE FINNIC (OR BALTO-FINNIC) LANGUAGES. THE AUTHORS' CLASSIFICATIONS AND A HISTORY OF THE STUDIES WHICH HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT IN ESTONIAN ARE PRESENTED, FOLLOWED BY A PRESENTATION OF…

  12. FOOD SECURITY AND UNIVERSITY AGRICULTURAL STUDENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OGA AMOLEGBE

    community. While there are many complex factors that influence sustainable development and food security, it is clear that education in agriculture plays an important role. Hence, this study examined the factors that determine the involvement of final year agriculture students in agricultural production after graduation.

  13. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  14. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  15. Kerala Agricultural University : Library and Information Services : VISION 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Nair, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Document is a VISION 2020 statement prepared by a State Agricultural the University (SAU) Librarian. Kerala Agricultural University in India established in 1971 appointed the first University Librarian in 1995. The library and information services provided through more than 40 campuses from 1971 were reorganized into an integrated system and a unit like those meant for research, extension, etc in SAU. The statement evaluates the library and information services under the university in a h...

  16. ESTONIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM FEATURES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcos Francisco Rodríguez Bravo

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to identify structural elements of the Estonian education system which has obtained in the last PISA 2012 international report, some results well above the average set by the OECD (494...

  17. Building New Agricultural Universities in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Juma, Calestous

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create a new generation of innovation-oriented agricultural that efficiently bring together agricultural research, training, commercialization, and extension. This paper calls for upgrading the training, extension, and commercialization functions of existing national agricultural research institutes (NARIs). This would build on a strong research tradition, ongoing training efforts, connections with the private sector and farmers, and extensive international partners...

  18. Wellbeing of Beneficiaries of the University Based Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Wellbeing of Beneficiaries of the University Based Agricultural Extension. System in Ogun State, Nigeria http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v20i2.11. Akinbile, L.A.. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. University of Ibadan. Email: lakinbile@yahoo.com, +23480232250454. Oyebode L.A.. Department of ...

  19. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Milani, L.; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188?200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-ass...

  20. A Case Study of Construction of Special Database on Urban Agriculture in Library of Beijing University of Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qianning

    2013-01-01

    With the development of urban agriculture and digital library, the theoretical research and exploitation of special database on urban agriculture has become an inevitable trend. On the basis of analyzing the advantages of the special database on urban agriculture constructed by the library of Beijing University of Agriculture, the author has analyzed the status and the problems of the special database on urban agriculture developed by Beijing University of Agriculture and proposed the develop...

  1. The Conflicts of Agriculture: Exploring the Agricultural Ideologies of University Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Enns, Kellie J.

    2017-01-01

    American agriculturalists are divided on a variety of issues related to production and consumption of food. Broadly speaking, two groups have emerged along two ideological lines: agrarian populism, which articulates conventional agricultural values, and neo-agrarianism, which shares some nonconventional agricultural values. Although both groups…

  2. Wellbeing of Beneficiaries of the University Based Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the wellbeing of farmers under the University Based Agricultural Extension System in selected communities in Ogun State. Multistage sampling procedure was deployed in sampling 60 each of UBAES and ADP beneficiaries. Interview schedule was used to gather data which was analyzed using both ...

  3. Earnings of Kansas State University Agriculture Graduates: 1978–88

    OpenAIRE

    Barkley, Andrew P.

    1992-01-01

    Survey data were utilized to identify salary determinants of agriculture graduates at Kansas State University. Findings include a secular decline in real annual starting salaries for Bachelor of Science degree holders. Salary determinants include major field, double major, job location, type of occupation, grade point average, sex, marital status, and highest degree earned. Implications for teaching, advising, and curricula change are discussed.

  4. Water quality and fish diversity of Federal University of Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality and fish diversity of Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta reservoir. ... At the river channel and the floodplain sites, traps, cast nets (2.55cm mesh), seine nets (2.55 x 2 cm mesh), monofilament nylon gillnets (15.55 cm mesh), and hook ... The water quality parameters were favourable for fish production.

  5. Attendance motivations and visitor segments within a university agricultural festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla Barbieri; Yasuharu Katsube; Christine. Tew

    2010-01-01

    Festivals attract a variety of visitors driven by a complex set of motivations. The objective of this study was to identify and classify motivations for attending the South Farm Showcase (SFS), a university-based agricultural festival in Missouri. The study further developed a motivation-based segmentation of festival visitors and examined their distinct...

  6. Residues of persistent organic pollutants in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs were analysed in selected Estonian soils. The sample collection included agricultural-rural (Ahja, Eerika, industrial-urban (Kohtla-Järve, Muuga, Kunda, and reference sites (Lahemaa and Vilsandi. The PCB concentrations were greater in Ahja-1982 and Kohtla-Järve station 1, while Eerika, other Kohtla-Järve, Muuga Port, Kunda, Lahemaa, and Vilsandi Island concentrations were low. Organochlorine pesticides were slightly higher at Kohtla-Järve stations and PBDEs at Kunda stations. Overall, the predominant contaminants were PCBs (0.43–89 ng/g dw, followed by OCPs (0.21–16 ng/g dw and PBDEs (< 0.01–3.2 ng/g dw. The occurrence of 4,4'-DDT in some samples indicated recent contamination by DDT of Estonian soils. The PBDEs in Estonian soils were reported for the first time.

  7. JOB SATISFACTION AND RELATED CHARACTERISTICS OF BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, A. Rashid; Ahmad, Muzaffer

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to focus on the extent of job satisfaction and its relationship with other characteristics of Bangladesh agricultural University (BAU) graduates in Bangladesh labour market. Further, it aims at exploring important characteristics which have influence on job satisfaction- of BAU graduates. The related characteristics include age, place of birth, year of graduation, highest degree, academic excellence, place of posting, professional training, publications, length of ser...

  8. Butterflies of Kerala Agricultural University (KAU campus, Thrissur, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Aneesh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to understand the species richness of butterflies in the Kerala Agricultural University main campus. The area lies between 10032 -10033 N and 76016-76017 E and is located very close to the Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary. A total of 139 species in six families were recorded from the campus. Family Nymphalidae dominated with 44 species followed by Lycaenidae (35, Hesperiidae (34, Pieridae (13, Papilionidae (12 and Riodinidae (1

  9. User Education and Information Literacy in Agricultural Universities of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six of the agricultural universities in India teach user education and information literacy (IL. This article evaluates these courses and investigates if and how the course curriculum blends research and technical writing skills effectively. Unfortunately, the courses lack uniformity in teaching IL and technical writing skills. Since the universities are under state government control, they are unable to provide uniform curricula throughout India. There is also a need for a credited course on IL, integrating ICT and computer skills, and another course for research and technical writing.

  10. Estonian Airi uued soodsad pakkumised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi kodulehelt on võimalik osta lennupileteid koostööpartnerite poolt pakutavatele mandritevahelistele lendudele ning broneerida internetis hotellituba Euroopa suurima hotelli broneerimise teenust pakkuva ettevõtte Booking.com kaudu

  11. Estonian Air sai lennukilisa / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2007-01-01

    Lennukompanii Estonian Air liisib kolm uut lennukit. Kommenteerib Rein Loik. Vt. samas intervjuud SAS-i asepresidendi Per Jensen Mölleriga, kes eitab spekulatsioone, et SAS võiks airBalticu ja Estonian Airi liita

  12. [Mati Erelt. Estonian Language] / Katrin Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Estonian language / [Estonian Academy of Sciences] ; edited by Mati Erelt.Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2003. 412, [1] lk. : ill., kaart. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series, 0868-4731 ; vol. 1)

  13. Filtration Systems Design for Universal Oils in Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Majdan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three filtration systems using the tractor hydraulic circuit were proposed and verified during the tractors operation. Using the tractor-implement hydraulic system and filter body with accessories the universally useful filtration systems were designed. The designed filtration systems are the second stage of universal oil filtration whereas the first stage is the standard tractor filter. The decrease in the content of iron reached the values 25.53 %, 32.95 % and 41.55 % and the average decrease in oil contamination characterized by average value of decrease in content of iron, copper and silicium reached values 24.3 %, 24.7 % and 35.53 % in dependence on the filtration system and an oil contamination level. The decrease in contamination level verified the ability of designed filtration systems for agricultural tractors.

  14. Väliseestlased ja nende keel. Pidepunkte uurimisloost / A study of the Estonian language in diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Viikberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The varieties of the Estonian language outside Estonia, differing from standard Estonian spoken in Estonia, are regional and generally oral language variants, influenced by local factors and variable intergenerational use. Containing loans from the dominant language, the oral language of the older generation still retains features either redundant or marginal in the current Estonian language geographic area. The first written documents on expatriate Estonians date back to the 19th century, but it was only after the Republic of Estonia was established in 1918 that a wider interest was taken in compatriots living abroad. In 1928, the Expatriate Estonian Society (Välis-Eesti Ühing was founded and the Expatriate Estonian Congress (Välis-Eesti kongress started to be held every five years. After Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, the word väliseestlane ’expatriate Estonian’ was used only in connection with Estonians living outside the Soviet Union. In the 1950s and 1960s, linguists became specifically interested in the Estonian settlements of Caucasus, Siberia and Ussuriland. Scholars, hoping to find in Siberia or Caucasus the archaic language of former settlers still alive, discovered that vernacular Estonian was not influenced so much by archaisms (caused by separation from the homeland as influences from long-term contact with other languages.Since the late 1990s, the study of the varieties of Estonian used outside Estonia has taken a new direction. This can be recognised by the increased interest in the varieties of Estonian in various new countries of residence (e.g. Denmark, Finland, Germany. The focus of interest moving to western countries did not mean a loss of interest in the areas of the former Soviet empire. In 1996, the Centre for Migration and Diaspora Studies was set up in the Tartu University Institute of Geography. Presently, one of the prestigious research projects (2010−2013 of Finno-Ugric languages, the EU

  15. Estonian Language of Technology as a Factor Supporting the Evolution of Engineering Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi, Vahur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Casual mention of teaching technology subjects in Estonian schools dates back several centuries. Navigation and construction were amongthe earliest professional skills that were taught. As both of them required mathematical thinking skills, teaching the subjects was usually accompanied by explaining the principles of mathematics. The first technology book in Estonian was published about two centuries ago and it dealed with geodesy. The earliest Estonian glossaries of technological terminology were published in the fields of physics and chemistry. The rise of Estonian as a language of higher education and science in the country came about in the 1920s and 1930s. Faculty members of the Tallinn School of Technology then published the first textbooks composed in the Estonian language for students of technology. The Estonian Society for Technology and the Estonian Association of Engineers became seriously involved in linguistic activities. Together with the Vocational Teachers’ Assembly of Tartu they published an illustrated technology glossary for machinery and tools terms. It was followed by a glossary of construction and building terms, compiled under the lead of the University of Technology. In addition, journals of technology introducedinnovations in the lexicon of technology to the general public. The postwar period in the development of the lexicon of technical terms was of little significance at first. A surge in language creativity could be detected in the 1960s, when terminology became a target of constantly growing attention to the development of technology lexicon. Series of technology glossaries were published. This tendency has continued to this day.

  16. Spiders of Kerala Agricultural University Campus, Thrissur, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Adarsh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 86 species of spiders belonging to 56 genera of 20 families have been recorded from the Kerala Agricultural University (KAU campus, Thrissur, Kerala, southern India.  This represents 5.1% of the total spiders’ species and 33.33% of the total families of spiders recorded in India.  The dominant spider family at KAU campus is Araneidae with 18 species of nine genera. Salticidae is represented by 14 species of 13 genera.  Out of 252 endemic spiders of India, 16 have been reported from KAU campus.  Guild structure analysis shows spiders belonging to seven types of feeding guilds present in KAU campus.  Orb-web builders are the dominant feeding guild accounting for 34%, followed by stalkers (22%, ground runners (20%, ambushers (8%, scattered line weavers (8%, foliage runners (7% and sheet-web builders (1%. 

  17. Spectral radiation of tree leaves in Bogor Agricultural University campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika Purbaya, Deki; Badriyah Rushayati, Siti; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik

    2017-01-01

    Every anthropogenic activities that use fossil fuels will produce pollutants such as greenhouse gases. CO2 with other greenhouse gases increase urban air temperatures through the greenhouse effect. The aims of this study are to measure spectral radiation of several species of trees leaves in Bogor Agricultural University Campus and determine types of trees that are effective in absorbing CO2. Data was statistically analyzed based on the order of spectral radiation value. Meanwhile, grouping the ability of species to absorb CO2 was done based on normal curve distribution. Spectral radiation value is inversely proportional to the ability of plants to absorb CO2. The tree species classified as having a high ability to absorb CO2 is Tamrindus indica, Adenanthera pavoniana, Samanea saman, and Ceiba pentandra whereas the species classified as low capacity in absorbing CO2 is Annona murricata, Pterocarpus indicus, Acacia mangium, and Canangium odoratum, the rest classified as having moderate capability.

  18. Motivational Underpinnings of Estonian Folk Dance Practices among the Estonian Diaspora over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Eha Rüütel; Iivi Zajedova; Angela Arraste

    2013-01-01

    This article is a part of a wider research on Estonian folk dance, aiming to map the emergence of folk dance groups and to study the practices and role of folk dance among the Estonian diaspora. The article sets out to explore incentives contributing to intergenerational transmission of Estonian folk dance tradition. 54 interviews (21 men and 33 women aged 38 to 87) were carried out with Estonians living in Australia, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden and the United States. The analysis ...

  19. Schults suurendas kaalu Estonian Airis / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees, AS-i Cresco üks omanikke Olev Schults ostis ärimees Tõnu Laagilt tema osaluse Crescos ja selle tütarfirmades, saades täieliku kontrolli Cresco ja ühtlasi Estonian Airi 17-protsendilise osaluse üle

  20. Estonian Air andis muutustest teada / Mart Relve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Relve, Mart, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Autor peab kahetsusväärseks, et Äripäev süüdistab Estonian Air'i avalikkuse eest info varjamises ning kasutab oma väidete tõestuseks avalikkuses jutuks olnud fakte. Vt. samas: Estonian Air saanud meedias kriitikat

  1. Training in online search skills at Sokoine University of Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEEAL and AGORA databases form an important part of the electronic resources at Sokoine National Agricultural Library in Tanzania (SNAL). This paper presents strategies that SNAL has used to ensure that students, academic staff and researchers at SNAL develop effective online search strategies that help them make ...

  2. Food Security and University Agricultural Students Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security and its relationship to sustainable agricultural and rural development have increasingly become matters of concern for developing countries and for the international community. While there are many complex factors that influence sustainable development and food security, it is clear that education in ...

  3. Development of Electric Competitive Sports in Agriculture Universities of Hebei Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Feng Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the development of electric competitive sports in agriculture universities of Hebei province. Agriculture universities of Hebei province should improve the theoretic study on electronic competitive sports while promoting the practical development according to the features of higher education. With governments, they should perfect laws and regulations on electronic competitive sports and build supervising and feedback mechanism in each step of the sports’ d...

  4. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  5. Estonian Air to overhaul strategy / Matt Withers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Withers, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Air on majanduslikes raskustes, mida aitaks leevendada riigipoolne toetus. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts leiab, et riik peaks omama lennufirma juhatuses esimehe kohta, et mõjutada rohkem vastuvõetavaid otsuseid ja investeeringuid

  6. Climate-smart agriculture: possible roles of agricultural universities in a strengthened Norwegian climate change engagement in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synnevaag, Gry; Lambrou, Jayne Patricia

    2012-02-15

    The recent rise in the number of food insecure people in the world, coupled with incidences of crop failure due to adverse weather, have made world leaders increasingly aware that future climate change may severely limit our ability to feed the growing population towards 2050. So far, in addition to industrial emission control, Norwegian efforts to restrict climate change have focused on mitigation through forest protection (REDD+) and clean energy (Energy+). A third area of attention is climate-smart agriculture. Producing food in a more 'climate smart' way is seen as having three advantages: 1) Providing food for an increasing population, 2) maintaining food production under a changing climate, and 3) reducing greenhouse gas emission from agriculture while absorbing carbon in vegetation and soil. This report explores how Norway can support Africa's efforts to make agriculture more climate-smart through support to African universities.Among the three benefits of climate-smart agriculture, African farmers will be most inclined to focus on the two first, the production increase and the adaptation. Mitigation may require external support. African leaders are in the forefront of developing policies and institutional arrangements for climate-smart agriculture. Among other initiatives, the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme under the African Union is in the process of preparing member states for substantial investments in agriculture. Capacity building and the generation of new knowledge are essential for the achievement of climate-smart agriculture. Given the long history of Norwegian support to agricultural research and higher agricultural education in several African countries, Norway can, without doubt, make significant contributions to African food security, now and in the future.Norwegian support to climate-smart agriculture can be based on its experience with REDD+ and Energy+ initiatives. The possible roles include: 1) Human

  7. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  8. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  9. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  10. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  11. Estonian universities struggle for students / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2005-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Mailis Reps usub, et ülikoolilõpetajate arv kahaneb 2015. aastaks praeguselt 11 000-lt 6000-ni. Kõrg- ja ülikoolid avavad välistudengite ligimeelitamiseks järjest rohkem inglisekeelseid õppevorme

  12. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  13. A Study of The Ohio State University College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences' Ecological-Paradigm Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert Agunga; James J. Connors; Hsing-Ying Chen

    2005-01-01

    ... business. From 1994 to 2000, The Ohio State University College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences experimented with an "Ecological Paradigm Model" as a logical framework illustrating...

  14. Developing institutional collaboration between Wageningen university and the Chinese academy of agricultural sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, A.B.; Lin, Z.; Qu, L.; Jacobsen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific co-operation between the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and Wageningen University (WU) has been underway since 1990, especially in the field of plant sciences. In 2001, CAAS and WU initiated a formal joint PhD training programme to further structure their co-operation.

  15. The Study on "Academic Game"-Oriented English Course Model for Postgraduates in Agricultural Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinrong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the questionnaire survey on learning motivation and learning needs of postgraduates and their demands and suggestions on English teaching, the paper makes a beneficial exploration on English course model for postgraduates in agricultural universities. Under the guidance of academic game theory, the "language skills+…

  16. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  17. Estonian Literature in the Schools of the Estonian-Russian Population (Changes in Literacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Loone

    1997-01-01

    Describes how Estonian language and literature have been taught at Russian-language schools in Estonia. Notes a lack of interesting reading materials, and describes how this instruction could be improved. (SR)

  18. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  19. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  20. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  1. Valued Estonian Music CDs / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Arvo Pärt "Summa", Lepo Sumera "Chamber Music", "Baltic Voices 1.", "Sequenzen - Europäische Orgelmusik des 20. Jahrhundrets mit...", "El silenco ئ Silence. Kuldar and Marje Sink. Songs of Mother and Son", "Riho Sibul. Estonian Dream Big Band", "Rull's Royce ئ Rull's Choice"

  2. English in the Estonian Multicultural Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzari, Lorena

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the spread of English is not closely associated to a discourse of linguistic imperialism, basing the thesis on a case study in Estonia. Surveys of three generations of Estonians indicated that all welcomed English as a means of communications and technology in the modern world, reacting against the imposition of Russian language and…

  3. Strategies for Estonian rural family enterprises. Eesti maapiirkonna pereettevõtete strateegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to analyse family businesses in rural areas, family business strategies and re-registration of sole proprietors with the Centre of Registers and Information Systems (hereinafter Commercial Register in 2009, and to provide an overview of entrepreneurship policies targeted at Estonian rural businesses. Layoffs have increased the number of unemployed; some of those who have lost employment opt for social assistance benefits, but some others decide to become entrepreneurs. Many enterprising people in Estonia have set up a family enterprise, mainly in the sphere of services, agriculture and tourism. The Estonian entrepreneurship policy supports enterprising people and approves of entrepreneurship as a promoter of national economic development. One of the most positive qualities of family enterprises is their short decision-making chain, which ensures rapid implementation of the strategy.

  4. Awareness about E-Learning among Agricultural Research Scholars of Banaras Hindu University

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji Lal Bairwa; Kerobim Lakra; Pradeep Joliya; Saket Kushwaha; Dheeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    The present study is emphasized on find out the awareness level and perception about e- learning among agricultural research scholars at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) India. This research study is based on the primary source of data which was collected from fifty respondents through structured questionnaire during the year 2013. Statistical tools such as frequency, percentage, and standard deviation were used to analyze the data for making interpretation. In this study, i...

  5. Carbon Stock in Integrated Field Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa; Tika Mutiasari; Henrie Buchori; Muhajir Utomo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the amount of carbon stock and CO2 plant uptake in the Integrated Field Laboratory (IFL) Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung. The research was conducted from April to November 2015. The study was arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD), consisting of five land units as treatment with four replications for each treatment. Biomass of woody plants was estimated using allometric equation, biomass of understorey plants was estimate...

  6. Agriculture Students’ Ability to Write Past Tense at Taman Siswa University of Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Hayati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to describe the third semester agriculture students’ ability to write simple sentences using simple past tense at Taman Siswa University Padang. This research was limited in three sentence forms; affirmative, negative and interrogative. Descriptive research was used in this study where the population was the third semester agriculture students at Taman Siswa University of Padang. The total number of the sample was 63 students. The finding showed that the ability of the third semester agriculture students of Taman Siswa University of Padang to write simple sentences using simple past tense was moderate. It could be seen that 70.97% students have moderate ability. In detail the percentages of each of form sentence were; 64.52% have moderate ability to write simple sentences in simple past tense of (verbal affirmative, 74.20% have moderate ability to write simple sentences in simple past tense of (verbal negative sentences, and 77.42% have moderate ability to write simple sentences in simple past tense of (verbal interrogative sentences. Based on the research finding, it is suggested to the teachers to give more explanation about past tense and explain the usage of mechanics.  The students are suggested to learn more about past tense and use mechanics correctly.

  7. Estonian Middle Semantics with Evidence from Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve-Anneli Vihman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents arguments for recognizing a middle voice in Estonian. The claim that the semantics of middle-marked verbs differs in a substantial way from the semantics of other intransitive constructions leads to the examination of the discourse pragmatics of these constructions, and the relationship between discourse patterns and their valency and argument properties. Various topicality measures show that the argument participant in middle clauses lies between that of the sole participant (S in intransitive clauses and the O of active transitive clauses. The results regarding the discourse behaviour of middle arguments constitute new evidence for the view that middle constructions differ from ordinary intransitive verbs, despite structural similarities, and mark a unique range on the scale of transitivity exhibited by verbs in Estonian.

  8. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS) proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004). Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF) military hierarchy (N=2570). The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples....

  9. Agro-students' appraisal of online registration of academic courses in the Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O A Lawal-Adebowale; O Oyekunle

    2014-01-01

      With integration of information technology tool for academic course registration in the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, the study assessed the agro-students' appraisal of the online tool...

  10. Ten Years' Chinese-Canadian Collaboration in Undergraduate Education in Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University of China: Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songliang; Caldwell, Claude; Wei, Liqing; Su, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University-Nova Scotia Agricultural College (FAFU-NSAC) 2 + 2 undergraduate program initiated in 2003 is a model for creative collaboration between China and Canada in undergraduate education. This paper addresses the achievements of the program development and highlights the process for successful curriculum…

  11. Academic Achievement and Personality Traits of Faculty Members of Indian Agricultural Universities: Their Effect on Teaching and Research Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, P.; Reddy, K. M.; Rao, R. V. S.; Dhandapani, A.; Siva, G. Samba; Ramakrishna, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to assess academic achievement, teaching aptitude and research attitude of Indian agricultural universities' faculty, to predict indicators for successful teachers and researchers, and thereby enhancing the quality of higher agricultural education. Methodology: Five hundred faculty members were selected to…

  12. Carbon Stock in Integrated Field Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the amount of carbon stock and CO2 plant uptake in the Integrated Field Laboratory (IFL Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung. The research was conducted from April to November 2015. The study was arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD, consisting of five land units as treatment with four replications for each treatment. Biomass of woody plants was estimated using allometric equation, biomass of understorey plants was estimated using plant dry weight equation, and organic C content in plants and soils were analyzed using a Walkey and Black method. The results showed that land unit consisting of densely woody plants significantly affects total biomass of woody plants, organic C content in woody plants and total carbon content (above and below ground. The highest amount of woody plant biomass was observed in land unit 5, i.e. 1,196.88 Mg ha-1, and above ground total carbon was 437.19 Mg ha-1. IFL Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung has a total carbon stock of 2,051.90 Mg and capacity to take up total CO2 of 6,656.88 Mg.

  13. Contributions of the College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, to education, research, and technology transfer in watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene Sander

    2000-01-01

    The College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, has been heavily involved in providing research, education, and outreach concerning the management of watersheds. The Barr Report of 1956, a cooperative effort of the Salt River Project, the State Land Department and the University of Arizona, was a significant beginning that addressed the productivity of watersheds in...

  14. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  15. The risk of motor neurone disease and multiple sclerosis is different in Estonians and Russians. Data from South Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Paju, K; Oöpik, M; Lüüs, S; Kalbe, I; Kaasik, A E

    1999-03-01

    Epidemiological studies were performed in South Estonia to establish the prevalence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) and motor neurone disease (MND). The case finding method included information from the hospital records of the central hospital in the region-the University Hospital (for MS from 1942 to 1989), from all neurologists in the region, from the Estonian MS Society and Association of Muscular Disorders, and from nursing homes in the region. The prevalence day was 31 December 1989. MND incidence was established for the period of 1986-1995. The results demonstrated high prevalence rates of MS among native Estonians (55.3 per 100 000), somewhat lower prevalence among native-born representatives of other nationalities (43.6 per 100 000) and the lowest prevalence rate of MS among non-Estonian immigrants (26.6 per 100 000). The differences were not statistically significant. The results for MND demonstrated the opposite pattern. The mean annual incidence rate of MND for 10 years was statistically significantly higher among people of other nationalities (2.5 per 100 000) and Russians (2.6 per 100 000), and lower in native-born Estonians (1.1 per 100 000). No differences in health care or clinical picture were established. The reasons for the demonstrated differences in MND incidence remain unclear. Copyright 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  16. Noor-Eesti rollist eesti kirjandus- ja kultuuriloos. The Role of Young Estonia in Estonian Literary and Cultural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Olesk

    2012-04-01

    Estonian literary life; Gustav Suits became the first university professor of Estonian literature. The Young Estonians had shown their force and established a place for themselves. In Estonian criticism today, approaches drawn from postcolonialism (such as self-colonization have often been used. In this article, analysis is based rather, and alternatively, on cultural influence and culture transfer. In a time of great cultural ruptures, searching for external models from European modernist culture was the only way imaginable for Young Estonia. One of the most important questions in this regard is the role of German and Russian culture, and this topic is elaborated upon in the current collection of articles. In order to provide a context for the articles in this collection, the co-editors initially provide a panoramic overview of the reception of Young Estonia in the different periods of Estonian history (Young Estonia’s contemporaries, 1905–1915; the Estonian republic, 1918–1940; Soviet Estonia and the literature of the exile 1944–1991. For example, in the Stalinist period in the 1950s, Young Estonia was condemned along with other decadent-bourgeois movements; at the same time, Estonian literary scholars in exile focused their research on the major figures of Young Estonia, particularly Gustav Suits. In the 1960s through the 1980s, the Young Estonians became widely anthologized authors – Young Estonia was canonized, though its political and social context could only be broached with caution. On the 100th anniversary of Young Estonia (2005, it once again became a focus of interest for Estonian literary studies; topics formerly difficult to discuss due to censorship or the lack of sources came to the fore. Based on Young Estonia’s clarion call, ”More European culture!” researchers began systematically to search for a European context for the Estonian intellectual world at the beginning of the 21st century. Literary scholars were joined in this search by

  17. Optimizing acoustic conditions for two lecture rooms in Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha Eldakdoky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the acoustic conditions inside two lecture rooms in faculty of agriculture, Cairo University, based on field measurements and simulation technique. Ambient noise and reverberation time were measured in the unoccupied rooms. The measurement results were utilized for validating the results of CATT software that was used to estimate occupied reverberation time, STI and C50. These parameters were analysed in comparison with rooms’ properties, optimal reverberation time and maximum acceptable noise for learning spaces. The results demonstrated that acoustic design of the first room is far from the recommended values, whereas the second room includes many defects. For optimizing the rooms’ performance, acoustic treatments were proposed and explored. Results clarified that reducing the excessive reverberation to the optimal value, either by increasing room absorption or decreasing room volume, significantly optimizes speech intelligibility. The results also clarified that reforming the ceiling eliminated the shadow and increased the early reflections.

  18. Postponing Labor in Fisheries, Tourism and Agriculture Sectors: Rural Eastern Indonesian University Students in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foertsch, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    This paper explores the migration of Eastern Indonesian university students who come to Java for education. Often from rural, economically disadvantaged regions such as the Kei Islands in Southeast Maluku, and Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT), these young adults delay joining fisheries, agriculture, or tourism sectors. Instead, these relatively high-performing students travel to the “center of the country” seeking skills and experiences promised by higher education in Javanese urban centers. This qualitative, anthropological research complements other, more technical and economic approaches. Based on interview and observational data, a complicated portrait emerges of these bright young people from fishing and farming communities in Maluku and NTT. Many idealistically plan to return to their home communities, hoping to improve local fishing and farming methods or to work as teachers, civil servants, or tour guides. Others do not intend to return home, where they think jobs are scarce and traditional livelihoods unattractive. Analysis of this generation’s perspective has critical implications for educators and policymakers wishing to prevent a “brain drain” of their educated native sons and daughters, whose experience and skills could contribute importantly to the various socio-economic demands present in island regions, including fisheries and agriculture, conservation, tourism, and employment.

  19. Mobile Learning Bridging the Gap in Agricultural Extension Service Delivery: Experiences from Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Camilius; Mlozi, Malongo; Haug, Ruth; Tumbo, Siza

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of mobile phones offers a noble environment where farmers can learn informally anywhere, anytime and at any location. This is an innovative way to address some of the weakness of conventional agricultural extension service. Few empirical studies have reported on the development of mobile phone application to support blended…

  20. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  1. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  2. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  3. Investment needs and possibilities in Estonian agricultural sector / Grete Sommer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sommer, Grete

    2003-01-01

    Viimase kümne aasta investeeringute puudulikkust arvestades oleks aastatel 2004-2006 põllumajandussektorisse vaja investeerida 10 381 miljonit krooni ehk 3 460 miljonit krooni aastas, väidab autor. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  4. Estonian agriculture works to increase exports / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Eesti põllumajanduse seisust. Eesti Toiduainetööstuse Liit, tootjad ja kaubandusketid algatasid kampaania Eesti toidu populariseerimiseks ning kodumaist kaupa hakkab eristama Eesti rahvuslipu värvides märgistus

  5. Estonian agriculture after accession : CAP impact / Mati Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Mati, 1945-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti on olnud üks liberaalsema hinna- ja väliskaubanduse korraldusega riike maailmas. Ühinemine ühtse põllumajanduspoliitikaga tähendab aga eelkõige kõrget interventsiooniastet toodete mahu ja hindade kujundamisel ning konservatiivset toiduainete väliskaubanduse korraldust. Tabelid. Graafikud. Diagrammid

  6. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of switching between Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Hein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The central research question of the present paper is ‘What variables influence switching (code-switching and code-blending between Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian among bimodal bilinguals in a school environment?’ The data from guided discussions involving deaf and hearing students indicated that bimodal bilinguals predominantly code-blend, i.e. simultaneously produce speech and signs. The main function of switching among the students was to emphasise a constituent in a clause, but they also switched to express themselves in an original way. In some utterances, it proved difficult to apply a single function to a switch, thus a sequential turn-by-turn analysis was employed. A deaf student’s level of switching was influenced most by the hearing status of the interlocutor, and the amount of switching by the interlocutor.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.03

  7. Eesti antiigitõlke traditsioonid / Traditions of Estonian Translation from Ancient Greek and Latin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Päll

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of translating ancient Greek and Roman authors into Estonian is short, beginning with first attempts at the end of the 18 th century and the close adaptations of two Anacreontic poems (21 and 24 by the first Estonian poet Kristjan Jaak Peterson (in 1818, which remained in manuscript for a long time. The continuous history of printed translations began in 1878 with the translations from Homer by Jaan Bergmann. At present, a new, extensive and regularly updated bibliography with a database of earlier translations is being created (EAB 2012, which also includes the translations in the journals and more extensive citations in articles, as printing separate books with ancient literature started very late (1908 and was very rare in the beginning.  The periods in Estonian translation reflect the history of the country. Almost every period has its own specific trends, beginning with the focus on Greek and the role of periodicals in the first, resembling the patchwork-model of translation that has been described by Karl Eimermacher. Alongside the wish to entertain and educate, we see a strong tendency to use these translations for the development of Estonian national identity by comparing the Estonian epic “Kalevipoeg” to Homer’s epics and translating pieces from Tacitus’ “Germania” as early references to Estonia and thereby extending Estonia’s written history.  The 1920s and 1930s bring first attempts to create a canon, with a stress on Latin and the translations made for school, as well as the development of verse translation. However, all this was disrupted by the almost total abandonment of the classical tradition during the war and the Stalinist period. The comeback in the 1960s brought the translation of central authors from the classical canon (Homer, Vergil, Sophocles, supported by other activities of canon-building (anticipated partly in the 1920s and 1930s: the composition of anthologies and histories of literature

  8. Comprehensive UAV agricultural remote-sensing research at Texas A M University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Valasek, John; Murray, Seth C.; Bishop, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have advantages over manned vehicles for agricultural remote sensing. Flying UAVs is less expensive, is more flexible in scheduling, enables lower altitudes, uses lower speeds, and provides better spatial resolution for imaging. The main disadvantage is that, at lower altitudes and speeds, only small areas can be imaged. However, on large farms with contiguous fields, high-quality images can be collected regularly by using UAVs with appropriate sensing technologies that enable high-quality image mosaics to be created with sufficient metadata and ground-control points. In the United States, rules governing the use of aircraft are promulgated and enforced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and rules governing UAVs are currently in flux. Operators must apply for appropriate permissions to fly UAVs. In the summer of 2015 Texas A&M University's agricultural research agency, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, embarked on a comprehensive program of remote sensing with UAVs at its 568-ha Brazos Bottom Research Farm. This farm is made up of numerous fields where various crops are grown in plots or complete fields. The crops include cotton, corn, sorghum, and wheat. After gaining FAA permission to fly at the farm, the research team used multiple fixed-wing and rotary-wing UAVs along with various sensors to collect images over all parts of the farm at least once per week. This article reports on details of flight operations and sensing and analysis protocols, and it includes some lessons learned in the process of developing a UAV remote-sensing effort of this sort.

  9. Functions on the Job in Relation to Data, People, and Things among Agricultural Students from Southern Land-Grant Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekeri, Andrew A.; Warren, Rueben

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses data from a sample of agriculture graduates from selected land-grant universities in the south to examine workers' functions on the job in relation to data, people, and things as described in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Tabular analysis was conducted using gamma and Pearson's correlation as measures of association.…

  10. Making Agriculture Curricula Competence-Oriented While Inserting Issues on Gender and Climate Change at Vietnamese Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Phung, L.D.; Le, An V.; Ngo, An T.; Tran, Hang M.T.; Pham, Son H.; Wals, A.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many academic curricula suffer from a teacher­ centred focus on knowledge transfer and do not consider the societal needs for competences. This paper reflects on the transformation from theory­ centred towards competency-oriented curricula at three Vietnamese Agriculture Universities with support of

  11. The Role of Student Engagement in the Success of Study of Scholarship Awardee Students of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Farchaini Budi; Sumarwan, Ujang; Qayim, Ibnul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the effect of student characteristics, internal factors and external factors on student engagement and the success of scholarship awardee's study in Bogor Agricultural University. The theory used in this study is that the success study of the scholarship awardee is affected by the student characteristics, internal and…

  12. External Macroeconomic Shocks and the Estonian economy: How did the Russian Financial Crisis affect Estonian Unemployment and Foreign Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Eamets; Urmas Varblane; Kaja Sostra

    2003-01-01

    In this empirical paper we examine how the Russian financial crisis affected Estonian unemployment and foreign trade. In our interpretation the Russian crisis caused depression in the Estonian economy, but at the same time it also caused a relatively fast reallocation of trade. Eastward export flows (largely foodstuffs) declined drastically while exports to Finland and Sweden largely increased. Several manufacturing firms went into bankruptcy and foreign investors benefited from relatively lo...

  13. Avoidable mortality in Estonia: exploring the differences in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburin, A; Lai, T; Leinsalu, M

    2011-11-01

    A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia. Descriptive study. Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for Estonian and non-Estonian men and women aged 0-74 years in 2005-2007. The ethnic TLE gap was decomposed by age and cause of death (classified as preventable or treatable). The TLE of non-Estonian men was 3.53 years less than that of Estonian men, and the TLE of non-Estonian women was 1.36 years less than that of Estonian women. Preventable causes of death contributed 2.19 years to the gap for men and 0.78 years to the gap for women, while treatable causes contributed 0.67 and 0.33 years, respectively. Cardiorespiratory conditions were the major treatable causes of death, with ischaemic heart disease alone contributing 0.29 and 0.08 years to the gap for men and women, respectively. Conditions related to alcohol and substance use represented the largest proportion of preventable causes of death. Inequalities in health behaviours underlie the ethnic TLE gap in Estonia, rather than inequalities in access to health care or the quality of health care. Public health interventions should prioritize primary prevention aimed at alcohol and substance use, and should be implemented in conjunction with wider social policy measures. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Freedom from theory? An attempt to analyse Sten Karling’s views on (Estonian) art history

    OpenAIRE

    Krista Kodres

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a Swedish-born art historian Sten Ingvar Karling who was a professor in the Estonian national University of Tartu from 1933 to 1940. Karling published a great number of texts on local art history that were based on substantial archival inquiry, careful observation and stylistic systematisation of works of art. Karling’s discussions about the nature of art were brief and he hardly stressed the need for theoretical self-reflection. It is, however, obvious that his presen...

  15. Estonian Airi Boeing sattus kaks korda hädaolukorda / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi Boeing ES-ABL sattus 2011. aasta algus kahel korral ohtlikku olukorda. Lennuamet tegi Estonian Airile ettekirjutuse, kuid seda pole ameti kodulehel avaldatud. Lennufirma kapteni ja lennuohutuse inspektori Andreas Kari, lennuameti selgitusi

  16. Acquisition of compounds in Estonian and Russian: Frequency, productivity, transparency and simplicity effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reili Argus; Victoria Kazakovskaya

    2013-01-01

    ... – Estonian and Russian. Longitudinal data on three Russian and two Estonian typically-developing monolingual children and their caregivers was analysed and compared in relation to first emergence, the development...

  17. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  18. Microsatellite, blood group and transferrin protein diversity of Estonian dairy cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VÄRV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates genetic diversity within and among three Estonian dairy cattle breeds (Estonian Native, Estonian Red and Estonian Holstein. A total of 36 markers (25 microsatellites, 10 blood group systems and transferrin protein were investigated and the within-breed diversity was quantified by expected heterozygosity, number of private alleles and mean allelic richness. The population structure was studied by computing the inbreeding coefficients, breed differentiation and relationships were investigated with random drift-based measures and a factorial correspondence analysis. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree was drawn summarising allele sharing distances for 195 individuals of the Estonian breeds, Western Finncattle, and Danish Jersey. The Estonian breeds displayed generally similar levels of within-population diversity. Depending on the set of markers used 6.2 or 4.3% of the total genetic variation can be explained by differences among the breeds. Construction of the tree for individuals revealed a distinctive pattern of grouping for Estonian Holstein, Estonian Red and Danish Jersey, but Estonian Native and Western Finncattle appeared on the same branches. This indicates that the gene pool of Estonian Native largely overlaps with that of Western Finncattle. However, our genetic marker analysis shows that the three Estonian breeds are genetically differentiated, suggesting that the current gene pool of Estonian dairy cattle is diverse.;

  19. Adapting the Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS-36) for Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommik, Carita; Luik, Piret

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS-36) for Estonian secondary school students in order to develop a valid instrument to measure students' attitudes within the Estonian educational context. The SATS-36 was administered to Estonian-speaking secondary school students before their compulsory…

  20. Joakim Helenius: Estonian Air võtku eeskuju airBalticust / Siim Sultson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sultson, Siim

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi ühe võimaliku nõukogu esimehe Jaokim Heleniuse hinnangul on väikeste lennufirmade, nagu Estonian Air ja airBaltic jaoks päris palju tegutsemisruumi. Estonian Airil tuleb leida oma nišš ja kindel, kuid omanäoline strateegia

  1. SAS tahab Estonian Airi liita lätlaste firmaga airBaltic / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    SAS plaanib Estonian Airi ja Läti firma airBalticu liitmisega luua uue lennufirma. Autori hinnangul viitavad Estonian Airi laienemisplaanidele kriipsu peale tõmbamine ja SAS-i investeeringud airBalticusse sellele, et ühendamise käigus "neelab" Läti firma Estonian Airi

  2. Students of the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra as Object of the Research Results in Developing Foreign Language Writing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra MORAVCOVÁ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the foreign language is one of the most important language skills students develop and improve at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra. Strong writing skills are essential to their future success, whether they are related to writing general reports on agricultural issues at home or in the world as well as to working-out some research papers aimed at agriculture, but also at some other areas of the business world. We have to state that writing is perhaps one of the most difficult skills students can develop and improve at our University. They learn how to write effectively, they are encouraged to develop an awareness of themselves as students - writers and essay authors. This paper deals with the essay writing analysis in teaching foreign languages at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, particularly from the point of their final results. The research was carried out in the Department of Languages and we present in our paper the results students achieved in writing essays in the two compared years, 2007 and 2010.

  3. 76 FR 34187 - Hispanic-Serving Agricultural Colleges and Universities (HSACU) Certification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Animal Systems. NIFA also asked these NPLs to provide input on a list of elements to consider for the eligibility criteria by ranking them in terms of importance (most important to least important). The elements..., Agricultural Communication/Journalism 01.0899, Agricultural Public Services, Other 01.0901, Animal Sciences...

  4. Estonian Airi president : uus äristrateegia toob ettevõttele edu / Borge Thornbech ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornbech, Borge

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Air asutas regionaalsete lendude korraldamiseks ettevõtte Estonian Air Regional, idee on arendada tegevust lühidistantsidel ja luua ühenduslüli lennukompanii Euroopa-liinide vahel. Kommenteerivad Olev Schults, Oleg Harlamov, Rein Mark. Vt. samas: Kõik aktsionärid vannuvad Estonian Airile truudust; Estonian Air kaalub Tartu lennuliini avamist. Kaart: Reisijate jagunemine sihtkohtade vahel. Graafikud: Estonian Air kukkus kahjumisse

  5. The Determinants of First-Year Academic Performance in the College of Agriculture at Kansas State University, 1990-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Barkley, Andrew P.; Forst, Jerry J.

    2004-01-01

    This research identifies and quantifies the determinants of first-year academic performance in the College of Agriculture at Kansas State University, 1990-1999. Forty-eight percent of the variation in first-semester college grades was explained by high school grades, standardized test scores, socioeconomic variables, high school characteristics, credit hours completed, and major field of study. Approximately 62% of the variation in second-semester grades was explained. First-semester college ...

  6. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMISTS' PERFORMANCE AND PAY: AN ANALYSIS OF LAND GRANT UNIVERSITY SALARIES

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Lorie; Thilmany, Dawn D.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the 1998 Tracking Survey conducted by the CWAE was to examine differences in the professional experiences of female agricultural economists, including the salary study presented here. A comparative analysis presents detailed frequency, performance and pay measures for all types of employers. The econometric analysis of salary focuses more specifically on agricultural economists currently employed in the Land Grant System. The importance of salary to an individual, their rank,...

  7. Importance of process modelling for the university farm Žabčice of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Máchal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The University Agriculture Enterprise (UAE Žabčice is part of the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry (MUAF in Brno and its basic mission is to provide targeted activities for the MUAF in Brno. The UAE Žabčice is unique and quite specific agricultural entity in the Czech Republic, which has been meeting its mission more than 80 years. This fact makes it necessary to cover all processes necessary for the firm to make them more effective, where appropriate, a radical change. The aim of the work is to create a key process „Crop Production in the UAE Žabčice of the MUAF in Brno using the software tool Enterprise Architect, with the assignment of documents to a particular activity. Crea­ting a process model of crop production, presented in this work, indicating the links with other processes, with the allocation of existing documents, it may serve the UAE Žabčice management to implement effective changes, where appropriate, to the fundamental restructuring of internal processes.

  8. Documentation of Farming Management with GIS and ArcView: A Case Study for Agricultural Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This survey was conducted for base documentation of farm management with GIS and ArcView based on a 5-year data of the agricultural research station of faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran as a case study. Soil properties and water quality were determined and the necessary data were recorded and analyzed by Excel, ArcView and ArcMap. Then, data (2003-08 available on farming practices were transformed to the appropriate maps. Maps for water resources and quality, soil suitability and farming practices and management (e.g. type of crops, rotation etc were drawn. This is a prototype database and could be expended for and applied to large farming operations. Based on the result of soil and water analysis water quality of this farm is suitable to medium, texture of soil is medium to heavy with a relatively deep profile and permeability. Soil suitability classes were II and IIs. Keywords: Spatial information, Database, Geographic information system, Precision farming

  9. An introduction of internationalisation in food science doctoral program: a case study of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunaefi, D

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Food Science and Technology- Bogor Agricultural University (DFST-IPB), Indonesia is one of the oldest Departments of its kind in Indonesia. The Department has been founded since 1964 under the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology. The Department has a core competence in the area of food science and technology, particularly in the development of food chemistry, food microbiology, food process engineering, food analysis, food quality and safety. The Department offers educational programs: Undergraduate Program in Food Technology and Master as well as Doctorate Program in Food Science. The Master and Doctorate Program are enrolled by 35 students annually. Globalisation as a global phenomenon has been influencing DFST doctoral program as internationalization in response to globalization is a common feature in majority universities. Facing this challenge, DFST Doctorate Program's has made some efforts to provide students with international atmosphere, including having international guest lecturers, inviting prospective international students, and initiating join program with international universities. In addition, research focusing in tropical food and collaboration with international universities may need to be improved to widen the network, increase publication and place DFST doctorate program visible in the international forum. This paper is intended to reveal the perceived challenges of globalization for food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB) and to what extent and in what form internationalization has been achieved. However, it should be noted that this article is selective rather than comprehensive in reflecting on the internationalization process of food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB).

  10. Testing the Visual Soil Assessment tool on Estonian farm fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintam, Endla; Are, Mihkel; Selge, Are

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality estimation plays important role in decision making on farm as well on policy level. Sustaining the production ability and good health of the soil the chemical, physical and biological indicators should be taken into account. The system to use soil chemical parameters is usually quite well established in most European counties, including Estonia. However, measuring soil physical properties, such bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, structural stability ect is time consuming, needs special tools and is highly weather dependent. In that reason these parameters are excluded from controllable quality parameters in policy in Estonia. Within the project "Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience" (iSQAPER) the visual soil assessment (VSA) tool was developed for easy detection of soil quality as well the different soil friendly agricultural management practices (AMP) were detected. The aim of current study was to test the VSA tool on Estonian farm fields under different management practices and compare the results with laboratory measurements. The main focus was set on soil physical parameters. Next to the VSA, the undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depth of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm. The study revealed that results of a visually assessed soil physical parameters, such a soil structure, soil structural stability, soil porosity, presence of tillage pan, were confirmed by laboratory measurements in most cases. Soil water stable structure measurement on field (on 1 cm2 net in one 1 l box with 4-6 cm air dry clods for 5-10 min) underestimated very well structured soil on grassland and overestimated the structure aggregates stability of compacted soil. The slightly better soil quality was detected under no-tillage compared to ploughed soils. However, the ploughed soil got higher quality points compared with minimum tillage. The slurry application (organic manuring) had

  11. Acquisition and Management of Grey Literature: A Case Study of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Olusola Fatokun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey literature and resources are crucial to research and knowledge development due to their unique information value. Many grey information resources are generated daily by academics, researchers, and administrators in universities and other academic institutions. The majority of these resources are yet to be acquired and organized for use due to some issues associated with them such as no strict bibliographic control, nonprofessional lay-out or formats, and low print runs. This paper shares the experience of the Nimbe Adedipe Library of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB, Nigeria regarding the acquisition and management of grey literature generated within the university. Specifically, it focused on the nature and academic benefits of grey literature, grey literature generated in FUNAAB, acquisition and management of grey literature by the library. It is concluded that considering their research and historical values, grey literature should be acquired and managed by academic libraries.

  12. Linking a Population Biobank with National Health Registries—The Estonian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Leitsalu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Estonian population-based biobank, with 52,000 participants’ genetic and health data, is the largest epidemiological cohort in the Baltic region. Participants were recruited through a network of medical professionals throughout Estonia (population 1.34 million. Unique legislation as well as a broad consent form give the Estonian Genome Center, a research institute of the University of Tartu, permission to re-contact participants and to retrieve participants’ data from national registries and databases. In addition to two re-contacting projects to update the health data of participants, extensive clinical characterizations have been retrieved from national registries and hospital databases regularly since 2010. Acquiring data from electronic health records and registries has provided a means to update and enhance the database of the Genome Center in a timely manner and at low cost. The resulting database allows a wide spectrum of genomic and epidemiological research to be conducted with the aim of benefitting public health. Future plans include linking the genome center database with the national health information system through X-road and exchanging data in real time, as well as using the genetic data and the technical infrastructure available for piloting personalized medicine in Estonia.

  13. Linking a population biobank with national health registries-the estonian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Alavere, Helene; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Leego, Erkki; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-04-16

    The Estonian population-based biobank, with 52,000 participants' genetic and health data, is the largest epidemiological cohort in the Baltic region. Participants were recruited through a network of medical professionals throughout Estonia (population 1.34 million). Unique legislation as well as a broad consent form give the Estonian Genome Center, a research institute of the University of Tartu, permission to re-contact participants and to retrieve participants' data from national registries and databases. In addition to two re-contacting projects to update the health data of participants, extensive clinical characterizations have been retrieved from national registries and hospital databases regularly since 2010. Acquiring data from electronic health records and registries has provided a means to update and enhance the database of the Genome Center in a timely manner and at low cost. The resulting database allows a wide spectrum of genomic and epidemiological research to be conducted with the aim of benefitting public health. Future plans include linking the genome center database with the national health information system through X-road and exchanging data in real time, as well as using the genetic data and the technical infrastructure available for piloting personalized medicine in Estonia.

  14. Freedom from theory? An attempt to analyse Sten Karling’s views on (Estonian art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Kodres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a Swedish-born art historian Sten Ingvar Karling who was a professor in the Estonian national University of Tartu from 1933 to 1940. Karling published a great number of texts on local art history that were based on substantial archival inquiry, careful observation and stylistic systematisation of works of art. Karling’s discussions about the nature of art were brief and he hardly stressed the need for theoretical self-reflection. It is, however, obvious that his presentation and evaluation of artistic material was theory based. His ideas of art as an expression of 'will of art' and 'spirit of the time' and his views about change of styles mostly originated from the Vienna school of art history. At the same time he was a promoter of the concept of Baltic-Nordic artedominium, the construction that confronted the concept of German-dominated artistic past of the Baltic countries. Thus Karling’s logic of the 'construction of (Estonian heritage' was coherent with the aim to strengthen one's own national identity through a new positive art historical narrative that took place intensively in the whole of Europe over the 1920-1930s.

  15. 77 FR 68679 - Hispanic-Serving Agricultural Colleges and Universities (HSACU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    .... Institutions are listed alphabetically under the state of the school's location, with the campus indicated...) Trinidad State Junior College Florida (4) Florida International University Miami Dade College Nova...

  16. A living demonstration of certified organic farming by Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...

  17. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Estonian Golf & Country Club'i etnomodernistlik golfikeskus ja klubihoone Jõelähtmel. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuristuudio Siim & Kreis. Autor Andres Siim. Konstruktor: Resand. Sisekujundaja Juta Lember (SAB Lember & Padar). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis ja 3 sisevaadet

  18. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is fixed in the…

  19. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...

  20. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  1. Top 10 Estonian albums of 2004 / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Arvo Pärt "Pro et contra", Various composers "Baltic Voices 2", Raimo Kangro "Displays", Toivo Tulev "Be Lost in the Call", Indrek Vau and Mati Mikalai "Estonian Trumpet Music", Erdmann/Sooäär "Dessert Time, Peer Gynt & Other Stories", Alo Mattiisen "50 parimat laulu", Riho Sibul "Must", Rein Rannap "Tantsib klaveril", Eesti Keeled "Kella tiksumist..."

  2. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  3. Value Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Tammik, Anu

    2017-01-01

    For systematic implementation of value education in educational institutions, the national programme "Values Development in Estonian Society 2009-2013" (Ministry of Education and Research 2009) was prepared in Estonia. However, it was launched only in 2010, and the authors intended to ascertain the values of the heads of preschool child…

  4. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  5. Parasiitluse viljad: Estonian Air ja Eesti riik / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Autori hinnangul oli Estonian Airi erastamise puhul tegemist ratsionaalse, kuid parasiitliku lähenemisega kasu teenimise eesmärgil, samuti oli riigipoolne viga läbimõtlematu suhtumine riigile kuuluvasse Tallinna lennujaama, samas on aga lennuühendus Eesti kui Euroopa nurgas asuva väikeriigi jaoks strateegiliselt oluline

  6. Kas Bombardier lennutab Estonian Airi üles? / Henrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Air on saanud oma käsutusse kaks kolmest ostetud lennukist Bombardier CRJ900, millega saavutatakse Boeing 737-ga võrreldes oluline kütuse kokkuhoid. 20 aastaga on müüdud CRJ-seeria lennukeid juba üle 1700

  7. 77 FR 25036 - Hispanic-Serving Agricultural Colleges and Universities (HSACU) Certification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ..., Natural Resources Recreation and Tourism 03.0208, Natural Resources Law Enforcement and Protective... Washington College Triton College Kansas (1) Seward County Community College New Mexico (7) Central New Mexico Community College Eastern New Mexico University-Main Campus New Mexico Highlands University New...

  8. Beyond knowledge transfer: The social construction of autonomous academic science in university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscotti, Dina Louise

    Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices

  9. The Impact of Task-Based Language Teaching in ESP Education in the Agricultural University of Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    ARIANA NEPRAVISHTA; EMILDA ROSENI

    2014-01-01

    English for Specific Purposes (ESP) education is required to play an important role in teaching students of the Agricultural University of Tirana (AUT) to be more open-minded, so improving English proficiency has become an important educational goal in higher education curricula.This article aims to put into evidence the problems faced in ESP teaching in AUT nowadays and for the benefit of the learner to take up all the challenges in an integrated way and to strive for the creation of a new s...

  10. Cultivation of Lentinus Edodes on Teff Straw (Agricultural Residue) At Dilla University, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fekadu Alemu

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake mushroom is worldwide one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms. Edible fungi are natural recycler which converts lignocelluloses wastes into protein rich health food and medicinal value of food. Mushroom cultivation represents the current economically viable biotechnology process for the conversion of waste plant residues from agriculture. As the result, mushrooms are increasingly becoming an important component of diets worldwide and it is of paramount importance to choose approp...

  11. Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture - an initiative of the University of West Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Cs.; Berki, I.; Drüszler, A.; Eredics, A.; Galos, B.; Moricz, N.; Rasztovits, E.

    2012-04-01

    In whole Central Europe agricultural production is highly vulnerable and sensitive to impacts of projected climatic changes. The low-elevation regions of the Carpathian Basin (most of the territory of Hungary), where precipitation is the minimum factor of production, are especially exposed to climatic extremes, especially to droughts. Rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry on nature-close pastures and nature-close forestry are the most sensitive sectors due to limited possibilities to counterbalance moisture supply constraints. These sectors have to be best prepared to frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses. So far, there is a lack of information about the middle and long term consequences on regional and local level. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimation is increasing. The aim of the initiative is to set up a fine-scale, GIS-based, complex, integrated system for the definition of the most important regional and local challenges and tasks of climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and also nature protection. The Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture is planned to provide the following services: § Complex, GIS-supported database, which integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions; § Evaluation of existing satellite-based and earth-based monitoring systems; § GIS-supported information about the future trends of climate change impacts on the agroecological potential and sensitivity status on regional and local level (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.) in fine-scale horizontal resolution, based first of all on natural produce, including also social and economic consequences; § Complex decision supporting system on

  12. Analysis of the some effective teaching quality factors within faculty members of agricultural and natural resources colleges in Tehran University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghonji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural higher education institutions have a significant role in development of the agriculture sector and the effectiveness of higher education is dependent on the quality of teaching offered by its faculty members. The purpose of this study was to determine and classify factors related to teaching quality by members of a scientific board. The method of evaluation for this research was by evaluation of data from a descriptive survey taken with a researcher made questionnaire. The target population of the study consisted of 256 faculty members in agricultural colleges in Tehran University. A sample of 100 staff was selected through a randomized multi-stage sampling method based on the Koukran formula. The questionnaire, used as the research tool, was verified by a panel of experts. The reliability of the questionnaire was verified through calculating the Crookback Alpha coefficient equal to 0/86 following a pilot study. Data was analyzed through SPSS15/Win and results of the explorative factor analysis revealed that five components explained 74/82% of the total variance. These factors were as follows; (1 lesson plan (19.52%, (2 teaching skill (17.97%, (3 communication skills (17.93%, (4 expertise related to lesson content (10.59%, and (5 individual capabilities of members (9.15% respectively.

  13. Factors Predicting Suicide among Russians in Estonia in Comparison with Estonians: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. Methods The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. Results The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Conclusion Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption. PMID:17171808

  14. Factors predicting suicide among Russians in Estonia in comparison with Estonians: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-12-01

    To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity (Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption.

  15. Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera ; Chrysomelidae) in the Campus and Agricultural Research Stations of Chiang Mai University, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, S.; Tayutivutukul, J; Nakamura, H.

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative surveys of leaf beetles were conducted at 5 survey sites (Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Staion, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb of Chiang Mai City) in Chiang Mai, Thailand using sweeping and beating methods from October 19th to October 30th, 2003. A total of 24 species of 8 subfamilies was collected from five survey sites ; 11 species, 3 species, 2 species, 11 species, 4 species from Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Station, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb...

  16. CLUPEA HARENGUS MEMBRAS: ABOUT THE ETYMOLOGY OF A CERTAIN FISH NAME IN ESTONIAN, LATVIAN AND LIVONIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Uibo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the names of Clupea harengus membras will be considered in Estonian, (Salaca Livonian and Latvian (respectively räim, reńǵ and reņģe ‘Baltic herring’. It will be shown that the source of all of these words is the Estonian-Swedish strämg (sträηg, or its preceding word shape *sträimg. The Latvian reņģe is borrowed from Estonian-Swedish through Salaca Livonian. Paul Ariste proposed an adequate etymology for the Estonian räim as early as 1933.

  17. Estonian Air püüdis viimase hetkeni Top Toursi päästa / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air kaalus Top Toursile appiminekut, sest reisifirma oli Estonian Airil üks olulisemaid koostööpartnereid. Abi oleks puudutanud ennekõike uutele lendudele allahindluse tegemist, räägiti ka võimalikust krediidist

  18. Quality, Evolution, and Positional Change of University Students' Argumentation Patterns about Organic Agriculture during an Argument-Critique-Argument Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Mey; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, evolution, and position of university students' argumentation about organic agriculture over a 4-week argument-critique-argument e-learning experience embedded in a first year university biology course. The participants (N = 43) were classified into three groups based on their…

  19. Evaluation of Skills Needed in College Education by Colleges of Agriculture Alumni from 1862 and 1890 Land Grant Universities in Alabama and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekeri, Andrew A.; Baba, Pauline A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine college skills Alumni from 1862 and 1890 Land-Grant universities in Alabama and Tennessee rated as essential to acquire in their college education. The data are from a survey of colleges of agriculture alumni who graduated from six land-grant universities in Alabama and Tennessee. IBM SPSS Statistical…

  20. Urban Agriculture Practices and Health Problems among Farmers Operating on a University Campus in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana O.B. Ackerson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture, a world-wide practice, faces both environmental and health challenges. Farmers are susceptible to occupational and other water-related health risks. The research identified health problems related to urban agricultural farming through farmers’ social characteristics and agricultural practices. Thorough interviews, using structured questionnaires, were carried out. Sixty three farmers responded to questions ranging from agricultural practices to health problems encountered. The findings showed that farmers apply both organic and inorganic fertilisers while 97% used pesticides of varying active ingredients at different application rates. Only 10% used personal protective clothing during the application of pesticides. Overhead irrigation was carried out using a watering can. Eighty four percent and 13% of the respondents utilised water from shallow wells and shallow wells mixed with contaminated stream, respectively. Besides schistosomiasis and cholera, other bacterial diseases, nematode infections, malaria, headaches, dermatological, visual, cardiac, and respiratory problems were common health complaints. Headache complaints were the most common (75%.L’agriculture urbaine, une pratique qui a cours dans le monde entier, est confrontée à des défis d’ordre environnemental et sanitaire. Les agriculteurs sont exposés à divers risques professionnels, et notamment à ceux que l'eau peut poser pour leur santé. Cette étude a identifié les problèmes de santé liés à l’agriculture urbaine en fonction des caractéristiques sociales et des pratiques des agriculteurs. Des entretiens approfondis ont été conduits en suivant des questionnaires structurés. Soixante-trois fermiers ont répondu aux questions, qui abordaient leurs pratiques agricoles ainsi que leurs problèmes de santé. Les résultats montrent que les fermiers emploient aussi bien des engrais organiques que non organiques, et que 97 % utilisent des pesticides

  1. Critical Success Factors and information needs in Estonian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiki Tibar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the study on the critical success factors and related information needs in Estonian industry conducted in 1999. Data were collected by interviews with 27 managers and engineers from 16 manufacturing companies in various industries. Most of the critical success factors taken up were related to marketing, information management, quality management, product development and technological innovations. The information needs of managers and engineers were related to competitors, customers, markets, technology, regulations, etc. Some identified CSFs expressed also priorities for development by Estonian economic authorities: to support the implementation of new technologies and introduction of quality management methods. The finding that information management was perceived as a very critical area supports the result of the recent Finnish study on CSFs.

  2. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  3. Exhibition of photography from the Estonian diaspora / Ellu Maar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maar, Ellu, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Photography from the Estonian Diaspora / Väliseesti foto" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8.10.-19.11.2010, kuraatorid Eha Komissarov ja Ellu Maar. Näitus tutvustas 1944. a. Eestist lahkunud või juba võõrsil sündinud fotograafide (Eric Soovere, Karl Hintzer, Priit Vesilind, Rein Välme jt.) loomingut ja valikut väliseesti fotoarhiividest

  4. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  5. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  6. Efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. VASILIEV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the efficiency of Estonian grain farms after Estonia’s transition to a market economy and during the accession period to the European Union (EU. The non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used to estimate the total technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000–2004. Mean total technical efficiency varied from 0.70 to 0.78. Of the grain farms 62% are operating under increasing returns to scale. Solely based on the DEA model it is not possible to determine optimum farm scale and the range of Estonian farm sizes operating efficiently is extensive. The most pure technically efficient farms were the smallest and the largest but the productivity of small farms is low compared to larger farms because of their small scale. Therefore, they are the least competitive. Since pre-accession period to the EU, large input slacks of capital have replaced the former excessive use of labour and land. This raises the question about the effects on efficiency of the EU’s investment support schemes in new member states.;

  7. Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Herzog

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2007, the Estonian Government moved a memorial commemorating the Soviet liberation of the country from the Nazis to a less prominent and visible location in Tallinn. This decision triggered rioting among Russian-speaking minorities and cyber terrorism targeting Estonia's critical economic and political infrastructure. Drawing upon the Estonian cyber attacks, this article argues that globalization and the Internet have enabled transnational groups—such as the Russian diaspora—to avenge their grievances by threatening the sovereignty of nation-states in cyberspace. Sophisticated and virtually untraceable political "hacktivists" may now possess the ability to disrupt or destroy government operations, banking transactions, city power grids, and even military weapon systems. Fortunately, western countries banded together to effectively combat the Estonian cyber attacks and minimize their effects. However, this article concludes that in the age of globalization, interdependence, and digital interconnectedness, nation-states must engage in increased cooperative cyber-defense activities to counter and prevent devastating Internet attacks and their implications.

  8. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  9. Estonian Air jäi kolmest Fokkerist ilma / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Estonian Airil ei õnnestunud saada kolme väiksemat reaktiivlennukit, lennuparki püütakse mitmekesistada järgmistel aastatel. Sel aastal loodetakse saada juurde ühe Boeing 737-300. Lisa: Boeing: Estonian Air on tasemel

  10. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  11. Comparative assessment of agricultural technology generating practices in universities and research institutes in north central zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbolagade Benjamin Adesiji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the technology generating practices among universities and research institutes in north central zone of Nigeria, this study examined sources of funds for technology generating activities, compared agro-technology generating practices and identified constraining factors hindering technology generating practices. One hundred and fifty-two academic staff were randomly selected from universities and one hundred and thirty-six respondents were drawn from research institutes. Validated questionnaires with reliability coefficient of r = 0.92 were used to elicit data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Likert-scale, T-test and Factor analysis. Majority (93.4% of universities’ respondents used their personal funds to generate new technology compared to their counterparts in research institutes. The most widely employed mechanism for generating agricultural technologies was joint radio programmes (mean = 3.38 while the least was biotechnology (mean = 2.57. Major areas of differences in technology generation between the two institutions were the physical distance (t = 13.54; P < 0.05, farmers participation in field research trials (t = 8.50; P < 0.05, farmers co-finance of adaptive research trials (t = 3.77; P < 0.05 and adequate research facilities and incentives to workers (t = 2.05; P < 0.05. Factors constraining technology generation for universities were poor access to knowledge and information on new innovation (r = 0.815 while for research institutes it was limited physical resources (ICT, Telephone (r = 0.801. It was recommended therefore that respondents should look into options of writing alternate fund proposals and submitting to a wider range of funding bodies. Governance of innovation could be strengthened through the formation of a formal technological linkage advisory council.

  12. Productive interactions for societal impact: Developing a research information system for agriculture (RIS-Agric) at Stellenbosch University, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, N.; Esterhuyse, H.

    2016-07-01

    Assessments of the societal impact of research rely on primary data as input to the relevant indicators. In the current project, the data collection for indicator construction is guided by the SIAMPI approach to societal impact assessment. According to SIAMPI, the achievement of societal impact involves two elements: stakeholders and productive interactions. The latter includes three kinds of interactions: direct personal interactions; indirect interactions where contact is mediated by a material or human ‘carrier’; and financial interactions that refer to the economic exchanges between researchers and stakeholders. The question to be explored is whether the assessment of the societal impact of research can be facilitated by capturing any direct, indirect and financial interactions between researchers and societal stakeholders in a research information system. CREST/SciSTIP is developing such a system, called RIS-Agric, in cooperation with the Faculty of AgriSciences at Stellenbosch University and four agricultural research funders in South Africa that represent different agricultural commodities. A RIS with productive interactions at its core – and the funded research project as the unit of observation – will produce the necessary data for indicators linked to the societal impact of research, in addition to generating insights about the ‘pathway’ from research to societal impact. The indicators need to be ‘socially robust’ in the sense that their validation processes should include the research beneficiaries and their representatives. In doing so, RIS-Agric will produce a useful, standardised measurement mechanism that is aligned across the different commodities. The focus on productive interactions will be supplemented by other methods in order to enable the quantification of societal impact in the form of ‘impact scores’. (Author)

  13. Academic Support Program in the Faculty of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sergio; Navarro, Rafael M.; Camacho, Emilio; Gallardo, Rosa; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Pérez-Marín, M. Dolores; Peña, Adolfo; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2014-05-01

    The incorporation of new students to undergraduate degrees is performed in different stages through a long, sequential enrollment process. The student integration to the new context of higher education including group work and new teaching methodologies lead to notable adaptation difficulties to this new educational environment. In fact, the highest rate of student failure in the Bachelor degree usually happens during the first courses. The Unit of Quality Evaluation/Monitoring of School of Agricultural and Forest Engineering (ETSIAM) has detected that these failure rates at first and second degree course may be reduced through the involvement of students in a support learning process, by increasing their skills and motivation as well as the contact with the University environment in the context of their future professional horizon. In order to establish a program of this type, it has been launched an Academic Support Program (ASP) at the ETSIAM. This program aims to achieve and reinforce the basic academic and personal skills/competences require by the Bologna's process (BC) and specific competences of the engineers on the area of Agriculture and Forestry in the European context. The ASP includes diferent bloks of seminars, lectures, collaborative work and discussion groups among students, professionals, professors and researchers and it has been designed based on these competences and tranversal contents in both degrees. These activities are planned in a common time for both degrees, out of teaching classes. In addition, a virtual space in Moodle has been created for discussion forums and preparation activities. Additional information about schedules, speakers and companies, presentations and other material are also provided. In the preliminary implementation of the ASP, we will present the results corresponding to the first year of this academic support program. We have conducted a survey among the students in order to have a first feedback about the impact of

  14. Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Hennoste

    2012-04-01

    basic positions of colonial thinking about culture, and compare the Young Estonian approaches to literature with colonial thought. The foundation of colonialism is eurocentrism: if Europe is the core; everything else belongs to the periphery, and regarded from the outset as of lesser inherent worth: colonialism is characterized by a superior and negative attitude toward local culture. The colonizing culture interprets its own values and experiences as universals; these are congruent with the outlines of what is deemed to be ”European” culture. The mission of colonialism is to bring the periphery into the sphere of influence of the enlightened core. Though colonial thinking does not commit itself to any specific artistic movement or style, its most important tenet with regard to evaluating art is classicist, emphasizing enduring values and good ”handiwork”. The bases for the creation of colonial culture are ready-made models and categories, and the outcome of colonization is culture constructed according to a model. The outcome of the analysis is that the Young Estonian way of thinking is in close consonance with the colonial way of thinking. Those attitudes that Young Estonians did not adopt, or those they relinquished and discarded, are in opposition to it. My own basic claim is that the Young Estonians unconsciously carried a colonial way of thinking, and that they might be considered to be self-colonizers.

  15. Quality evaluation of commercially sold table water samples in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria and surrounding environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Okorie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria (MOUAU and surrounding environments, table water of different brands is commercially hawked by vendors. To the best of our knowledge, there is no scientific documentation on the quality of these water samples. Hence this study which evaluated the quality of different brands of water samples commercially sold in MOUAU and surrounding environments. The physicochemical properties (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, Cl, NO3, ammonium nitrogen (NH3N, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, Ca, Mg, Na and K of the water samples as indices of their quality were carried out using standard techniques. Results obtained from this study indicated that most of the chemical constituents of these table water samples commercially sold in Umudike environment conformed to the standards given by the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS, World Health Organization (WHO and American Public Health Association (APHA, respectively, while values obtained for ammonium nitrogen in these water samples calls for serious checks on methods of their production and delivery to the end users.

  16. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  17. Diversity of Helicobacter pylori genotypes among Estonian and Russian patients with perforated peptic ulcer, living in Southern Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillakivi, T; Aro, H; Ustav, M; Peetsalu, M; Peetsalu, A; Mikelsaar, M

    2001-02-05

    To compare the genomic variation of Helicobacter pylori in samples obtained from patients with perforated peptic ulcer, living in the same area of Estonia but belonging to different nationalities, 50 non-consecutive patients (32 Estonians and 18 Russians) admitted in the Tartu University Hospital in 1997-1999 were studied. Gastric samples of antral mucosa were obtained during operation and analysed histologically and with PCR for detection of different genotypes of H. pylori (cagA and vacA s and m subtypes). Among the 50 perforated peptic ulcer patients with histologically proven H. pylori colonisation no sample of gastric mucosa showed the s1b subtype of the vacA gene. The perforated peptic ulcer patients were mainly infected with cagA (82%) and s1 (98%) genotypes of H. pylori. The distribution of s1a/m1, s1a/m2 and s2/m2 subtypes of vacA genes was statistically different in Estonian and Russian patients (PEstonian and Russian patients with perforated peptic ulcer from Southern Estonia.

  18. Role of Library and Information Professionals as Teachers and Trainers in Agricultural Education : an Experience of the Kerala Agricultural University, India

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, A. T.; Abdul Razak, C.; Humayoon Kabir, K.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important reasons for the under utilization of electronic information is the lack of requisite level of working knowledge and consumption skills among customers and information intermediaries. So, the conventional user education programmes need be redefined and reengineered with more emphasis on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). It should be designed in such a way to provide confidence to the users in locating desired information. There are 38 Agricultural Univ...

  19. Exploring the sustainability of estonian forestry: the socioeconomic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbel-Piirsalu, Evelin; Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Forestry as an important industry has both direct as well as indirect effects on the Estonian economy. It is therefore essential that it is sustainably managed so that it can continue to contribute to the economy in the future. The first aim of this article is to establish the situation regarding felling and regeneration in Estonia. As the available forestry statistics display discrepancies and lack consistency, it was as a necessary first step to gather information about and analyze the validity and reliability of the prime data to make the data sets useful for comparison over time and establish the current trends in Estonian forestry. However, with the help of interviews we are able to show that economic instability in Estonia brings with it increased logging rates and hinders investments into regeneration and maintenance. The problems are particularly pronounced in private forestry. Second, the article seeks to explain the socioeconomic reasons behind this situation. Economic problems among private owners, a liberal forestry policy, together with rapid land reform and weak enforcement of forestry legislation are some of the reasons that can explain the forestry trends in Estonia.

  20. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  1. Lower Ordovician Leetse Formation in the North Estonian Klint area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemliher, Jüri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of the Leetse Formation were studied in order to find out the conodont biozonation, grain-size distribution, and glauconite mineral properties and their variations along the North Estonian Klint. On the basis of the conodont zonation of the Saka section, combined with earlier data, it was found that the Leetse Formation belongs to the Paroistodus proteus, Prioniodus elegans, and Oepikodus evae zones of various thickness and completeness along the North Estonian Klint. The Pr. elegans Zone of the Saka section was found to be remarkably complete and correlate well with equivalent intervals of sections in the St. Petersburg Region. Poorly lithified glauconitic sandstones of the Leetse Formation vary lithologically vertically as well as laterally. The Leetse Formation in the west has been repeatedly redeposited and is depleted in suspended fraction, while in the east it is more homogeneous and represents continuous shallow-water conditions. Glauconite is represented by a potassium-rich variety (about 9% K2O and most likely forms at least two discrete modifications. Laterally, glauconite of the Leetse Formation in the western part of the klint contains less K than that of the eastern part, indicating faster sedimentation. The d(001 value of glauconite diminishes upwards in the sequence, indicating acceleration of the sedimentation rate.

  2. [Marge Rennit. Eesti muuseumid / Estonian museums] / Tapio Mäkeläinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäkeläinen, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustus: Eesti muuseumid = Estonian museums / [Eesti Muuseumiühing ; koostaja Marge Rennit ; tõlkija Tiina Mällo ; toimetaja Ivi Tammaru ; eessõna: Piret Õunapuu ; kujundaja Marek Allvee]. Tallinn : Oomen, 2008

  3. IS THE ESTONIAN MODEL APPLICABLE TO ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN ADOPTING THE EURO?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I Radu; M-L Ciupac-Ulici; A Petcu

    2013-01-01

    .... Since the Euro adoption process is a controversial one, in this paper the authors aim to express their concerns regarding the major changes driven from other member states of the Euro Area, i.e. the Estonian model...

  4. SAS paneb Estonian Airi kiirmüüki / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2009-01-01

    Majandusraskustes lennufirma SAS kavatseb loobuda osalustest kõigis lennufirmades, mis ei sobi kokku nende uue tegevuskavaga. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts arvab, et riik peaks leidma Estonian Airile kodumaised partnerid

  5. Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision...

  6. Estonian Air andis Berliini liinil loobumisvõidu / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2006-01-01

    Estonian Air sulgeb 2007. aasta jaanuarist Tallinn-Berliin liini, mille võtab üle odavlennufirma easyJet. Diagramm: Lennureisijate arv Tallinn-Berliin. Vt. samas: easyJet kehv alternatiiv. Kommenteerivad Rein Loik ja Mati Feldmann

  7. Unemployment hysteresis in the “Nordic Kitten”: Evidence from five Estonian regions

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Unemployment hysteresis is a much discussed and researched topic in macroeconomics. The present paper examined unemployment hysteresis in five Estonian regions. It used two panel data methods, namely, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS) test and the Fourier Im-Pesaran-Shin (FIPS) test. The originality and value of this paper is that this is the first study that uses the panel unit root tests to examine unemployment dynamics in the Estonian regions. The findings revea...

  8. Russian-Estonian economic and investment cooperation during the crisis: dynamics and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, a...

  9. Media representation of feminism in estonian journalism : A qualitative analysis over the newsarticles of Eesti Peavaleht

    OpenAIRE

    Berendsen, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Estonian society, as a short history of gender studies, and the introduction of the termsfeminism or feminist, only started to appear in media during the second half of the 1990s.Nevertheless, the public opinion and attitudes about feminism among Estonian society arenot clear, while sexual discrimination is still a frequent occurrence (Estonia, 2013). Thearchive of the biggest Estonian daily newspaper Eesti Paevaleht includes articles aboutfeminism written in the last 15 years that will be an...

  10. Improving Peer Learning for Students' Academic Performance: The Case of Second Year Rural Development and Agricultural Extension Students, College of Agriculture, Wolaita Sodo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebeyehu, Bogale; Regasa, Guta

    2016-01-01

    Modern universities are facing challenges due to the increasing number of young people attending higher education. The sheer number of students raises the question of how to organize teaching-learning activities that allow the students to become active learners and engaged participants in academic discussions within their disciplines rather than…

  11. Beyond Professionalizing the Agricultural Curriculum for Poverty Alleviation and Prosperity: A Case Study of the School of Agriculture and Natural Resources of the Catholic University Institute of Buea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kima, Laetitia Ako; Mobit, Mbohjim Othniel; Ndzeshala, Takwi Solange; Itoe, Salome Mokabe; Bernard, Nyindem Asongwe

    2016-01-01

    Education has been recognized as crucial for poverty alleviation through the harnessing of human formation and creativity. However, limited success has been achieved in Cameroon under traditional university approaches, as evidenced by a high unemployment rate among graduates and concerns about the lack of business ethics and values…

  12. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Oras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  13. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Oras

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  14. Early vocabulary in full term and preterm Estonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Haan, Elis

    2013-09-01

    Preterm birth is considered to be a high risk factor for child development and early vocabulary can be used as an indicator for later development. The aim of the present study is to compare the size of early vocabulary, proportional use of different word categories, and mean length of utterance (henceforth MLU) of preterm and full term children. The sample consisted of 40 preterm (corrected ages 16-25 months) and two matched groups of full term children. First full term group consisted of 120 children who were matched by age and gender. Second full term group consisted of 109 children who were matched by age, gender and size of productive vocabulary. The data for this study were gathered using the Estonian adaptation of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. Full term children who were matched by age and gender had larger vocabulary as compared to the preterm children's vocabulary (U = 1758.5, p = 0.01). Poisson regression yielded that age, gender, and preterm birth explained significantly the variance in the vocabulary size. Poisson regressions showed that all three variables explained significantly variance in proportional use of social terms and predicates. Age had significant effect for proportional use of common nouns. Age and preterm birth had a significant effect on the proportional use of function words. MLU was shorter in preterm than in full term children (U = 1125.0, p = 0.002). Estonian preterm children's vocabulary is slightly smaller than full term children's vocabulary. There is a difference in the proportions of word categories used, as preterm children use more social terms, and less predicates, and function words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Estonian medical students with sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Triin; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko; Veldi, Marlit

    2006-01-01

    High emotional stress in medical students has been observed in many studies. Our aim in this article was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among Estonian medical students and to find relationships between sleep complaints and emotional symptoms. The study group consisted of 413 medical students, ages 19-33 years, at the University of Tartu. Each was asked to complete two questionnaires: the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q), containing 28 questions, and the Questionnaire on Sleep and Daytime Habits, with 25 questions. The anxiety and depression subscales from the EST-Q were applied. From the study group, 21.9% students had symptoms of anxiety, and 30.6% had symptoms of depression. The frequency of anxiety and depressive symptoms was higher in females. In regression and multiple regression analysis, we determined which sleep problems were related to emotional symptoms. The associations were different for men and women. In women, anxiety remained significantly related to waking up because of nightmares and feeling tired in the morning; depressive symptoms were related to difficulties in getting to sleep at night, waking up because of nightmares and nocturnal eating habits, daytime sleepiness, and sleepiness during school lessons. In men, significant relations were clear only for depression: difficulties in falling asleep at night before an exam and subjective sleep quality. The study demonstrated that a high percentage of medical students had emotional symptoms. We found that some sleep problems indicated underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. REPORT OF RESEARCH COORDINATION CONFERENCE ON AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS (OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS, OHIO, MAY 27-29, 1963).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Branch.

    APPROXIMATELY 25 PERSONS FROM 14 STATES ATTENDED A CONFERENCE TO (1) MAXIMIZE THE POSSIBILITIES FOR ACHIEVING COMMONALITY IN AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS STUDIES CONDUCTED BY STATES, (2) PROVIDE STATES WITH RESULTING MATERIALS AND ENCOURAGE STUDIES, AND (3) PROVIDE OPPORTUNITY FOR SHARING EXPERIENCES. A BRIEF APPRAISAL OF BASIC GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS…

  17. Ethnography of a Sustainable Agriculture Program: A Case Study of a Social Movement's Inception and Growth on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This ethnography documents how the message of sustainability was interpreted and communicated through a sustainable agricultural (SAG) program at an American higher education institution. The ethnography documents the evolution of the program as the program tackled obstacles and accomplished its goals during the initial phases of the program's…

  18. The Effect of the 2008 War on Estonian Public Confidence in International Organisations: A Mixed Methods Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen; Melchior, Inge; Gugushvili, Alexi

    2014-01-01

    When the so-called 5 Day War between Russia and Georgia occurred in the summer of 2008, the Estonian public reaction was especially passionate. Two major explanations stem from the strong identification of Estonians with the situation of Georgia (post-Soviet state, small country, Russian

  19. Jäätmetega kimpus Estonian Cell annab muda põldudele kompostiks / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Kundas asuv Estonian Celli tehas jagab ümberkaudsetele talunikele jäätmetest lahtisaamiseks kompostimissegu. Seadused ei sätesta, kuidas Estonian Cellis tekkivaid jäätmeid töödelda. Kommenteerib Peeter Eek: Aasta läbi ei saa muda põllule viia

  20. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  1. Acquisition of compounds in Estonian and Russian: Frequency, productivity, transparency and simplicity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the early phases of acquisition of noun compounds in two typologically different languages – Estonian and Russian. Longitudinal data on three Russian and two Estonian typically-developing monolingual children and their caregivers was analysed and compared in relation to first emergence, the development of different compound types, productivity, frequency, simplicity and transparency of compounds, and also to the impact of morphological wealth in the input on the output. Although the frequency of compounds is somewhat different in the two languages being observed, the first compounds emerge in the speech of Estonian and Russian children almost at the same age and quite early, at the end of the second year of life. In both Estonian and Russian, children first acquire productive pat- terns in both languages, Estonian and Russian, respectively. Factors such as simplicity and frequency are intertwined in the acquisition process. Simple structures occur at the same time as frequent ones but it cannot just be assumed that simplicity is a stronger factor influencing the choice of first noun compounds than frequency. Frequency effects are not straightforward: there are differences in the individual usage of compounds by the caregivers, and the frequency of compounds in child-directed speech does not always seem to be reflected in the speech of the children. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.02

  2. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  3. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  4. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oha, Kristel; Animägi, Liina; Pääsuke, Mati; Coggon, David; Merisalu, Eda

    2014-05-28

    Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful.

  5. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  6. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  7. university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Universities occupy a special place in the city’s life, the place where centuries-old traditions of the past meet the future. Universities keep their ancestral roots stretching back into the Middle Ages. University rooms and laboratories are the places where the future of science and society is built and discussed.The oldest Siberian University located in Tomsk was included in the City Charter as a city-forming enterprise. Other Siberian cities have not yet come to such deep comprehension of the role of universities. But who can doubt the significance and beneficence of this role?A complex and debatable process of reformation of the Russian higher education has been going on for several decades. Many things are perceived painfully. Irkutsk has been a student city for a long time and ranked second in the percentage of students among citizens. But recently we have lost Irkutsk High Military Aviation Engineering School, nearly lost the MIA High School. Pedagogical University has lost its status of university, and then its independence. Linguistic University has turned into a branch of Moscow University…Besides, external threats still exist and even grow. The lands and the buildings of universities are of keen interest among big businessmen, speculators and developers… Isn’t it the reason why the ideas to evacuate universities to suburban campuses arise increasingly frequently?What is the impact of dislocation of universities out of the city historical center? Does it make the city poorer and older? Or safer and more manageable? As usual, we tried to show the challenge and diversity of the main topic of the issue.

  8. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409: Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the dissemination area of the tale, which remains outside Western Europe: apart from the Estonian versions there are Sami, Karelian, Vepsian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian versions. While in almost all the Estonian versions the main protagonist is transformed into a wolf, in most of the versions written down in other areas and ethnic groups, another animal or bird replaces the wolf. The author is of the opinion that the Finnic area is central to the distribution of the folk tale The Woman as Wolf. The animal the woman is transformed into in the plot would not have been a wolf in earlier times. The article provides an explanation why the wolf is predominant in Estonian written sources. For that purpose the ways in which the wolf and werewolf were perceived in earlier Estonian folk belief are introduced. At the end of the article interpretation of the folk tale is provided. The author states that the plot and some of the motifs found in this folk tale reflect the difficulties women had in submitting to the norms and values of patriarchal order within their society.

  9. MODELLING DICLOFENAC AND IBUPROFEN RESIDUES IN MAJOR ESTONIAN SEASIDE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erki Lember

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model was developed to model the fate of two common pharmaceutical residues: diclofenac and ibuprofen in eight Estonian seaside cities that discharge their wastewaters directly into the Baltic Sea. The consumption rates of the active ingredients of diclofenac and ibuprofen from 2006-2014 were analysed. A decrease of 19.9% for diclofenac consumption and an increase of 14.1% for ibuprofen were found. The fate of diclofenac and ibuprofen were modelled by considering the human metabolism removal rate for pharmaceuticals, the removal rate of diclofenac and ibuprofen in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP and annual flow rates. An average decrease from 1 to 0.8 µg/l (decrease of 20% for diclofenac and an increase from 11.4 to 13.4 µg/l (increase of 14.9% for ibuprofen for the concentration in the effluents of the WWTP were modelled. The model gives us a good overview about the theoretical concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in the environment and is helpful for evaluating environmental impacts.

  10. Eesti pagulaskirjanduse keskus ja perifeeria / The centre and periphery of Estonian exile literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Olesk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how and why the centre and periphery of Estonian exile literature were formed. The centre developed in Sweden with the founding of the Estonian Writers’ Union Abroad in 1945 in Stockholm, and the Estonian Writers’ Cooperative in 1951 in Lund. Exile literature with the most enduring artistic merit was published in this Lund-Stockholm axis. The Writers’ Cooperative was a well-managed publishing house that took into account readers’ requests. Almost all significant writers in exile issued their works through the Cooperative. Writers whose works were rejected by the Cooperative formed the pheriphery of exile literature. The boundary between the two was not rigid, with movement from one grouping to the other, although the centre remained united. In 1957, writers of the younger generation on the periphery founded the literary magazine Mana, which devoted a great deal of space to literature published in the homeland, unlike the centre. This relationship with homeland literature differentiated the centre from the periphery. The writers of the centre did not visit the occupied homeland or publicly recognize the works of writers from Soviet Estonia. For them, it was vital to maintain control over the purity and viability of exile literature. Exile publishing flourished in the 1940s and 1950s, as homesickness and limited fluency in local languages increased interest in books written in Estonian. Later, this interest inevitably and steadily decreased. The younger generation of exiles often read in the language of the country where they had settled. It was possible to send only a very few books to the homeland. Leading writers-in-exile Bernard Kangro, Karl Ristikivi, Valev Uibopuu, Kalju Lepik, Ilmar Talve and others did their utmost to publish and distribute their works because they regarded literature as the foundation of national identity. It was necessary to protect this identity, and any competition with homeland

  11. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veebel Viljar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016 will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks Report 2016. Also, the arguments why some topics have played or are currently playing key role in the Estonian security perception will be presented and discussed.

  12. Estonian and Russian Federation amoxicillin formulations: a comparative study of in vitro dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnikova, O; Matto, V; Meos, A

    2008-06-01

    The in vitro dissolution properties were compared for four different formulations from the Estonian drug market and four from the Russian Federation drug market. Seven of the eight formulations tested released at least 75% or 80% amoxicillin during 30- or 90-min dissolution tests (37 degrees C, purified water, 75 rpm), respectively. One marketed Russian Federation formulation released 74% amoxicillin over a 90-min period. The present study shows that, in general, the in vitro dissolution properties of the Russian Federation amoxicillin formulations are, with some minor exceptions, comparable to those of the Estonian formulations. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  13. The problems and development potential of revenue autonomy in Estonian municipalities. Kohalike omavalitsuste tuluautonoomia probleemid ja arenguvõimalused Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a regionally heterogeneous country like Estonia, it is a difficult task to create a local government revenue structure that guarantees even supply of public services across the entire country and, at the same time, revenue autonomy for the municipalities. In the theoretical part of the current article the suitability of different sources of own revenues are analysed in the context of Estonian municipalities. The empirical part of the article compares the financing principles of Estonian municipalities with other EU countries. Finally, the proportions of different own sources of revenues in the budgets of Estonian local governments are examined and suggestions are made for changing the current system

  14. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  15. The impact of the EU support measures to Estonian agriculture / Sirli Jurjev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jurjev, Sirli, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade praegusel ajal Eestis makstavatest põllumajandustoetustest ning EL-i ühtse põllumajanduspoliitika ja selle reformiga kehtestatud toetusskeemidest. Kalkulatsiooni aluseks on Eurostati metoodikal põhinev põllumajanduse majanduslik arvestus. Tabelid

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS): Pathophysiology in Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldi, Marlit; Ani, Raivo; Vaher, Heisl; Eller, Triin; Hion, Tuuliki; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the roles of age, obesity, smoking, alcohol, pathoanatomy and -physiology in Estonian's OSAS. For this 164 randomly chosen such patients were selected in different regions of Estonia. They underwent naso-oropharyngeal examination, physical examination of craniofacial abnormalities, and polysomnography. They also completed a self-reported questionnaire about smoking, alcohol use, excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, concentration disorders, and recurrent upper-airway diseases. The patients (129 men; 35 women) aged between 19 and 75 years (mean 47+/-12), BMI between 21 and 49 (mean 30.5+/-5.15), AHI between 5 and 105 (33+/-22). The results showed that there was a high percentage of naso-oropharyngeal disorders, such as: recurrent upper-airway diseases (54.2%), nasal breathing disorders (63.5%), and hypertrophy of tonsils (57%). There was also a high percentage of general characteristics, such as alcohol use (64%), excessive daytime sleepiness (85.5%), overweight (63%), and hypertension (51.2%). The regression summary for the dependent variable AHI if p-level=0.0042 (R=0.63347013) included age, BMI, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, nasal obstruction, hypertrophy of pharyngeal muscles, tongue level, submental fat and slow-wave sleep (S3+S4%). In conclusion recurrent upper-airway diseases, nasal obstruction, and hypertrophy of tonsils in combination with smoking and alcohol caused the changes in the pharyngeal and lingual muscles. The latter gives rise to such sleep apnea-related problems as heart complaints, hypertension, headache and shortage of slow-wave sleep (SWS). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estonian Cell peab suu kasumist puhtaks pühkima / Kaisa Tahlfeld, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Cell saatis valitsusele pöördumise, milles palutakse teha parandusi elektrienergiaga seonduvates seadustes, mis aitaksid ettevõtet energia hinnatõusu ajal. Elektri hinnatõusu tõttu on muutunud küsitavaks ka Nitroferti tehase edasine eksisteerimine

  18. Unemployment hysteresis in the “Nordic Kitten”: Evidence from five Estonian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuoka Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment hysteresis is a much discussed and researched topic in macroeconomics. The present paper examined unemployment hysteresis in five Estonian regions. It used two panel data methods, namely, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS test and the Fourier Im-Pesaran-Shin (FIPS test. The originality and value of this paper is that this is the first study that uses the panel unit root tests to examine unemployment dynamics in the Estonian regions. The findings revealed that the unemployment rates in the Estonian regions could be best described as a stationary process. This result is in line with the natural rate hypothesis. A research implication is that this study has illustrated that nonlinear tests could be an appropriate approach to examine unemployment hysteresis because other methods may fail to reject the null hypothesis. A practical implication of this study is that it sheds light on the nature of unemployment dynamics in Estonia at the regional level. As the findings revealed, the unemployment rates in the Estonian regions had the meanreversion property. Therefore, the higher-than-normal unemployment rates are likely to return to the natural level even in the absence of intervention policies initiated by the government or policy makers.

  19. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend...

  20. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of Collectivism: A Comparison of American, Estonian, and Russian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Allik, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the theory that collectivism consists of at least three subtypes focused on the relations with family, peers, and society using a cross-cultural sample from the United States, Estonia, and Russia. Finds that the Estonian sample was the least collectivistic within the three subtypes and the Russian samples were the most collectivistic.…

  2. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  3. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  4. Trends in tobacco use among Estonian and Russian youth in Tallinn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurk, E; Mittelmark, M B; Suurorg, L; Tur, I; Luiga, E

    1999-12-01

    Smoking behaviour and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were examined in three cross-sectional surveys from 1991/92, 1993/94, and 1995/96. The study population comprised 3,185 Estonian and Russian adolescents from 17 schools in Tallinn, Estonia. Prevalence of ever-smoking girls increased by 13 percentage points versus 2% among boys during the study period. Mean ages of the first experimentation with tobacco and exposure to ETS did not change significantly. Regular smoking increased significantly from 1991/92 to 1995/96. Detailed analyses for the 1995/96 survey showed that among ethnic Estonians, compared with ethnic Russians, the prevalence of ever-smokers and regular smoking were higher, mean age for the first experimentation was younger, and on average, Estonians smoked more cigarettes per week. The smoking trend among adolescents in Estonia is worsening; especially among Estonian youth. This study identifies a compelling need for national and community-wide efforts to deter adolescents from smoking and to reduce the exposure to ETS.

  5. Ethnic Identity, Ethnic Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Esteem toward Others among Estonian and Russian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Aune

    2000-01-01

    Investigated ethnic identity in relation to self-esteem and esteem toward others and attitudes toward one's own and other ethnic groups among Estonian and Russian adolescents. Found significant differences between majority and minority groups in ethnic pride and ethnic differentiation and with their correlation to self-esteem and esteem toward…

  6. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  7. Estonian Air võitis reisijaid juurde. Samas turuosa vähenes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi turuosa vähenes Tallinna lennujaamas regulaarliinidel 2010. aastal võrreldes 2009. aastaga 3,9% võrra, lende toimus 1,8% rohkem kui 2009. a. Lendude toimumise protsent oli 98,1, väljumise täpsus oli 86,7%. Andmeid ka 2010. aasta detsembrikuu kohta

  8. Estonian Air lendab üle võimete / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Viimastel aastatel on Estonian Airil kasvanud nii lendude kui ka reisijate hulk, kuid lennukite arv on jäänud samaks. Tabel. Kaart: Lendude arv sihtkohtadesse nädalas. Kommenteerib Kristina Traks. Küsimustele vastab Mart Relve. Vt. samas: Lennukipuudus sunnib liine sulgema

  9. The Estonian diaspora in South-West Russia in the 1920—30s: migration results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupin Yuri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the spatial features of the settling of Russian Estonians in the Northwest region at the “zenith” of diaspora on the basis of 1920, 1926, and 1939 censuses. The author identifies the principal settling areas and points out the geographical preconditions for the rapid decline of the diaspora.

  10. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  11. Estonian Airi ümber käib lehmakauplemine / Tõnu Lilleorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Tõnu

    2008-01-01

    Skandinaavia lennukompanii SAS saatis Eesti valitsusele kirja, milles teatab, et on nõus raskustes Estonian Airile lisainvesteeringuid tegema vaid siis, kui riik müüb SAS-ile oma osaluse, 34%. Vt. samas: SAS ei taha lennufirma eest maksta üle 150 miljoni. Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad, omanikud

  12. A universal route for the simultaneous extraction and functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial and agricultural celluloses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guo-Yin; Yu, Hou-Yong, E-mail: phdyu@zstu.edu.cn; Zhang, Cai-Hong [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles (China); Zhou, Ying; Yao, Ju-Ming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology (China)

    2016-02-15

    A simple route was designed to extract the cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with formate groups from industrial and agricultural celluloses like microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), viscose fiber, ginger fiber, and bamboo fiber. The effect of reaction time on the microstructure and properties of the CNCs was investigated in detail, while microstructure and properties of different CNCs were compared. The rod-like CNCs (MCC) with hundreds of nanometers in length and about 10 nm in width, nanofibrillated CNCs (ginger fiber bamboo fiber) with average width of 30 nm and the length of 1 μm, and spherical CNCs (viscose fiber) with the width of 56 nm were obtained by one-step HCOOH/HCl hydrolysis. The CNCs with improved thermal stability showed the maximum degradation temperature (T{sub max}) of 368.9–388.2 °C due to the introduction of formate groups (reducibility) and the increased crystallinity. Such CNCs may be used as an effective template for the synthesis of nanohybrids or reinforcing material for high-performance nanocomposites.

  13. Determinants of job acquisition based on the agricultural college students’ attitude: A case of study from Shiraz University, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Abadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates factors explaining job acquisition using the agricultural college students’ perceptions. Research sample was composed of 400 college freshman, sophomore, junior and senior students from the population (N≈ 1522, surveyed by random sampling approach, after stratifying by ten academic majors. A self-implemented questionnaire collected the quantitative data. We performed principal component analysis (PCA using SPSS (version 12, which represented that observed or measuring variables are loaded on four latent variables, individual, educational, financial, and social. Moreover, the derived results from K-mean cluster analysis (KCA manifested three clusters of cases. Cases fallen into the cluster 1, substantially regard personal factors. Cluster 2 comprise students who remarkably take into account financial factors, whereas, students in cluster 3 believe in social and financial factors. Likewise, all job-acquisition-factor were significantly different based on the levels of gender, economic status and residence. In conclusion, we proposed management implications based on the research findings as well as hints to gaps for more job investigations in future.

  14. Citation Analysis of Dissertations in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Case Study of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Haldua

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Citation analysis and ranking of journals are key aspects of knowledge management and collection development in academic and research libraries. This paper aims to assist the library collection development in order to fulfill the needs of scientists and research scholars. The study covered the period 1998–2010 and used the reference lists of dissertations submitted by the doctoral students of the molecular biology and biotechnology sciences at the G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India. The findings of the study showed that citation analysis is a valid, reliable and practical method to provide reasonably accurate information on the use of molecular biology and biotechnology literature by doctoral students. Publishing research in high-quality journals is an integral part of academic life. Therefore, researchers often refer to journal rankings when making decisions to submit and publish their research findings.

  15. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  16. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  17. Benchmarking of Governmental Support Measures for University-Industry Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Rõigas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to benchmark Estonian governmental support measures targeted toward enhancing university-industry collaboration to European best practice and make suggestions for the development of these measures. The intensity and scope of university-industry cooperation support measures varies heavily in Europe. The survey of European University-Business Cooperation, Pro Inno Europe and Erawatch database of policy measures, and Community Innovation Survey reveal that Finnish, German and Austrian support systems are best balanced and provide good university-industry cooperation intensity. The cooperation measures in Estonia are weak and improvement should be made by increasing the Estonian governmental funding, mandatory cooperation in support measures, networking and applied research in universities, on-going application possibilities, reducing the bureaucracy, and improving the timing of measures.

  18. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  19. [Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918 (Das Baltikum in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 5). Hrsg. von Jaan Ross. Böhlau Verlag. Köln, Weimar und Wien 2012

  20. Estonian Business Schooli magistriharidus nüüd ka koju kätte / Madis Habakuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis

    2007-01-01

    Sügisest hakkab Estonian Business School koos Mainori Kõrgkooliga pakkuma magistriõpet majandushariduseta inimestele, kus soovijatel on võimalus õppida EBSi Master of Business Administration programmi järgi

  1. The State, the Museum and the Ethnographer in Constructing National Heritage: Defining Estonian National Costumes in the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Nõmmela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I attempt to analyse the way in which the Estonian national costume, as heritage, was defined through the cooperation of the state, the museum and ethnographers in the 1930s. The nationalist state wished to strengthen the national identity of Estonia. The Estonian National Museum (ENM as a repository of memory and knowledge availed its resources to support cultural propaganda. The ethnographer Helmi Kurrik, a woman of strong will and keen interest in folk textiles, managed to fulfil her obligation at the expense of her own health. The primary result of her labours was a handbook entitled Eesti rahvarõivad (Estonian Folk Costumes (1938 which has influenced general knowledge of folk costumes in Estonia up to the present day – the ‘right’ national costumes are believed to derive from authentic ethnographical folk costumes held in the Estonian National Museum.

  2. The Rocky Road towards Professional Autonomy: The Estonian Journalists’ Organization in the Political Turmoil of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Lauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the relationships between journalists, politics and the state from the perspective of collective autonomy, that of the professional organization of journalists. The case of Estonian Journalists’ Union demonstrates the complexity and historical contingency of professional autonomy of journalism. The development of the Estonian journalists’ organization occurred as a sequence of transformations from the Estonian Journalists’ Association to the Estonian Journalists’ Union to the Soviet type journalists’ union, and lastly to an independent trade union. This sequence was disrupted by several fatal breakdowns that changed not only the character of the association, but also professional values, the whole occupational ideology and the conditions of the existence of journalism as a profession in Estonia.

  3. Väärikas Estonian Air jäi kampaaniaga hätta / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air müüs veebikaupluse cherry.ee kaudu soodsaid kinkekaarte. Vastuolu tekkis asjaolust, et nõudlus kinkekaartide järele oli suurem kui pakkumine. Lennukompanii katkestas soodsate kinkekaartide müügi

  4. Kanada rahastaja tõi Estonian Airi ostu lähemale / Rivo Sarapik ; kommenteerinud Andrus Ansip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air ja Bombardier sõlmisid lennukite hanke lepingu, tingimused ja hind jäid samaks, muutus vaid lennukite tarneaeg. Ostu rahastab Kanada finantseerimisasutus. Uued lennukid saabuvad Eestisse 2011. a. jaanuaris

  5. The Industrialization of Agriculture in Texas and the Nation: Implications for the Family Farm, Community, and Land Grant University System. Technical Report No. 83-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Don E.

    This report demonstrates the complexity and diversity of agricultural structures in the United States and discusses changes produced in the family farm by agricultural industrialization. Data from the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the 1978 Census of Agriculture describe similarities and differences in social…

  6. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  7. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Updated for 2011, the Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  8. Study of the technological production at the State University of Londrina (UEL: mapping the area of Agricultural Sciences by Platform Lattes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Tiago Batista Serzedello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Technological products and processes employed to solve society’s practical problems comprise technological production, which is the essential means to measure the technological development of the environment in which the institution is inserted. This research aimed to verify the State University of Londrina’s (UEL technological production in the field of Agro-Sciences. Method: The methodological approach was to identify and analyze technological production through the curricula of the 51 professors granted with scholarships by UEL’s  Scientific Initiation Program (PROIC available at the Lattes Platform. The data collected for analysis was charted and categorized according to technological production typology. Results: Of the 65 registered items in the researchers´curricula lattes refer to the technological production. Those items were mapped in order to describe the types identified. It was observed that the most innovative specialties are Agronomy, Forestry and Forest Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Animal Science, Veterinary Medicine, Fisheries Resources and Fishing Engineering, Science and Food Technology. Conclusions: The production  resulting from research activities of technological development, has spread through the production literature, primarily journal articles. Researchers build partnerships in the same Department, or with others within and outside the University, interacting and sharing experiences, knowledge and equipment. This practice improves a technological production that is more likely to be successful. A considerable percentage of articles are published in Open Archives Initiative(OAI journals, allowing free access and encourages the dissemination of research results.

  9. Agricultural reuse of reclaimed water and uptake of organic compounds: pilot study at Mutah University wastewater treatment plant, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nasir, Farah; Batarseh, Mufeed I

    2008-07-01

    The residues of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated benzenes (CBs) and phenols were investigated for soil, wastewater, groundwater and plants. The uptake concentration of these compounds was comparatively determined using various plant types: Zea mays L., Helianthus annus L., Capsicum annum L., Abelmoschus esculentus L., Solanum melongena L. and Lycopersicon esculentum L. which were grown in a pilot site established at Mutah University wastewater treatment plant, Jordan. Soil, wastewater, groundwater and various plant parts (roots, leaves and fruits) samples were extracted in duplicate, cleaned up by open-column chromatography and analyzed by a multi-residue analytical methods using gas chromatography equipped with either mass selective detector (GC/MS), electron capture detector (GC/ECD), or flame ionization detector (FID). Environmentally relevant concentrations of targeted compounds were detected for wastewater much higher than for groundwater. The overall distribution profiles of PAHs and PCBs appeared similar for groundwater and wastewater indicating common potential pollution sources. The concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and phenols for different soils ranged from 169.34 to 673.20 microg kg(-1), 0.04 to 73.86 microg kg(-1) and 73.83 to 8724.42 microg kg(-1), respectively. However, much lower concentrations were detected for reference soil. CBs were detected in very low concentrations. Furthermore, it was found that different plants have different uptake and translocation behavior. As a consequence, there are some difficulties in evaluating the translocation of PAHs, CBs, PCBs and phenols from soil-roots-plant system. The uptake concentrations of various compounds from soil, in which plants grown, were dependent on plant variety and plant part, and they showed different uptake concentrations. Among the different plant parts, roots were found to be the most contaminated and fruits the least contaminated.

  10. Developments of the Estonian intellectual property system to meet the challenges of the knowledge-based economy : [doktoritöö] / Aleksei Kelli ; Tartu Ülikool ; juhendaja: Heiki Pisuke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelli, Aleksei, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab artikleid: Intellectual property in an innovation-based economy // Review of Central and East European Law (2008) nr. 2, lk. 223-238 (kaasautor Heiki Pisuke) ; Some issues of the Estonian innovation and intellectual property policy // Juridica International. XV. Tartu, 2008, lk. 104-114 ; Improvement of the intellectual property system as a measure to enhance innovation // Juridica International. XVI. Tartu, 2009, lk. 114-125 ; Some issues regarding entrepreneurial universities and intellectual property // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 161-172 (kaasautor Heiki Pisuke). - Tutvustus // Tartu Ülikooli doktorite promoveerimine 2010. Tartu, 2010, lk. 5-6

  11. Nigeria Agricultural Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. jambanasor@yahoo.co.uk, editor.asnjournal@gmail.com. Deputy Editor-In-Chief - Prof. M.D. Alagbejo Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Associate Editors - Prof. M.O. Adedire University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Ogun State, Nigeria

  12. Bernhard Linde. Noor-Eesti vooriülem. Bernhard Linde. Leader of the Young Estonian Pack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Kulli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bernhard Linde (1886–1954 was a recognized and prolific Estonian theatre critic of the first quarter of the 20th century, who mediated and propagated western as well as eastern European theatrical innovations. In addition, he was active as a literary and art critic, publisher, and proponent of libraries, to a modest extent he was a prose writer and poet. Unquestionably, however, Bernhard Linde’s most prominent role was as one of the founding members of the literary movement Young Estonia. He was the group’s first general manager; later on, he was the secretary of the Estonian Writers’ Association Young Estonia, and the chairman of the board of the Young Estonia Publishing House. Linde’s formal education culminated in graduation from Tartu University as a Slavic philologist; he was the only member of the Young Estonia group to demonstrate serious and sustained interest toward Slavic cultures and peoples. Linde was a contradictory figure, evoking a range of responses from his contemporaries: on the one hand, there was the unbelievably broad range of his participation in cultural life, his organizing skills and business instincts in directing publishing houses; on the other hand, a superficiality in his writings, his often rash and subjective style as a critic, and his financial intrigues. If one adds in Linde’s stubbornness, egocentrism, and intense spirit of protest, which often led to lawsuits, the outcome is the portrait of an extremely complicated, fascinating, and passionate man—both in his creative work and his personal life Linde guaranteed a place for himself in literary history through a small catch of texts: a few foundational essays (for example, on August Kitzberg, a translation of Balzac’s Le père Goriot, the essay collection Omad ja võõrad (Own and Foreign and a travel book focusing on the literature and theatre of eastern Europe (Loova Kesk-Euroopa Poole (Toward A Creative Central Europe. The prominent public

  13. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  14. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  15. Computation of Estonian CORS data using Bernese 5.2 and Gipsy 6.4 softwares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollo, Karin; Kall, Tarmo; Liibusk, Aive

    2017-04-01

    GNSS permanent station network in Estonia (ESTREF) was established already in 2007. In 2014-15 extensive reconstruction of ESTREF was carried out, including the establishment of 18 new stations, change of the hardware in CORS stations as well as establishing GNSS-RTK service for the whole Estonia. For GNSS-RTK service one needs precise coordinates in well-defined reference frame, i.e., ETRS89. For long time stability of stations and time-series analysis the re-processing of Estonian CORS data is ongoing. We re-process data from 2007 until 2015 with program Bernese GNSS 5.2 (Dach, 2015). For the set of ESTREF stations established in 2007, we perform as well computations with GIPSY 6.4 software (Ries et al., 2015). In the computations daily GPS-only solution was used. For precise orbits, final products from CODE (CODE analysis centre at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern) and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) for Bernese and GIPSY solutions were used, respectively. The cut-off angle was set to 10 degrees in order to avoid near-field multipath influence. In GIPSY, precise point positioning method with fixing ambiguities was used. Bernese calculations were performed based on double difference processing. Antenna phase centers were modelled based on igs08.atx and epnc_08.atx files. Vienna mapping function was used for mapping tropospheric delays. For the GIPSY solution, the higher order ionospheric term was modelled based on IRI-2012b model. For the Bernese solution higher order ionospheric term was neglected. FES2004 ocean tide loading model was used for the both computation strategies. As a result, two solutions using different scientific GNSS computation programs were obtained. The results from Bernese and GIPSY solutions were compared, using station repeatability values, RMS and coordinate differences. KEYWORDS: GNSS reference station network, Bernese GNSS 5.2, Gipsy 6.4, Estonia. References: Dach, R., S. Lutz, P. Walser, P. Fridez (Eds); 2015

  16. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: the Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  17. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: The Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  18. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children...... spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0...

  19. Job satisfaction and organizational trust as antecedents of organizational commitment in Finnish and Estonian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Kemell, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study examines three well-known leadership themes – organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organizational trust – from the perspective of Finnish and Estonian small and medium –sized enterprises (SMEs). The object of the study is to increase knowledge about organizational commitment and job attitudes affecting the formation of commitment. The study is cross-sectional, using previously gathered SME survey data. Organizational commitment is understood as a multidime...

  20. No association between vitamin D and β-cell autoimmunity in Finnish and Estonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert-Hartwall, L; Honkanen, J; Härkönen, T; Ilonen, J; Simell, O; Peet, A; Tillmann, V; Lamberg-Allardt, C; Virtanen, S M; Knip, M; Vaarala, O

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties, such as regulation of FOXP3 expression and regulatory T-cell activity. Our aim was to investigate whether plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations associate with the development of β-cell autoimmunity and the transcriptional activity of FOXP3 or vitamin D3 convertase gene (CYP27B1) in CD4+ memory T cells. We studied 83 Finnish and 32 Estonian children participating in the DIABIMMUNE and DIPP studies. Twenty-nine Finnish and six Estonian children tested positive for at least one diabetes-associated autoantibody. The plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)₂D were analysed with an enzyme immunoassay. Gene expression of FOXP3 and CYP27B1 in the isolated CD4+ memory T cells was studied with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Vitamin D status did not differ between subjects positive and negative for β-cell autoantibodies. Finnish children had higher vitamin D status than Estonian children (p Estonian CD4+ memory T-cell samples than in Finnish samples (p < 0.01) even when including in both groups only children with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 50-80 nmol/L (p < 0.001). These findings do not support a crucial role of circulating 25(OH)D as a regulator of β-cell autoimmunity or FOXP3 expression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Laretei, Käbi. Eksiil; Toona, Elin. Lotukata; Park, Eeva. Naeru õpilane; Luik, Viivi. Inimese kapike; Laaman, Ilona. Vesi ahjus; Viiding, Juhan (Üdi, Jüri). Kogutud luuletused; Paju, Juhan. Katkenud romaan; Paju, Juhan. Hõõguv rist; Estonian short stories / toim. Kajar Pruul ja Darlene Reddaway; Traat, Mats. Kartaago kiirrong; Kauksi Ülle. Säng; Kross, Jaan. Paigallend; Puhvel, Madli. Symbol of dawn; Kaplinski, Jaan. Võimaluste võimalikkus; Kaplinski, Jaan. Usk on uskmatus

  2. The Establishment of an Organic Farmers’ Market as a Training Case Study and Research for Graduate Students of Organic Agriculture at the University of Palermo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Schifani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Despite the modest regional consumption of organic products, Sicily is one of the most important European regions in surface area per number of companies active in organic farming. The University of Palermo, as early as 2000, to promote the development and success in this industry, the Faculty of Agriculture, introduced two major degree programs in "Organic Farming". The objective of these courses is to train graduates who are technically capable of supporting the organic farmers market, to promote and facilitate the expansion of the consumption of organic products, and to create employment opportunities for young graduates. At the end of 2009, in the area of these activities, a training and research program involved numerous students in the creation of an "joint consumption" association whose purpose is the expansion of the consumption of organic products through the enhancement of a direct relationship with small organic farms who would be unlikely to penetrate large markets, or have relationships with large distribution networks.The project aims to assess the ability of the students of the Faculty to transmit the knowledge acquired in the program, and to investigate the relative issues regarding the new phenomenon emerging in recent years in Italy, represented by the spread of various forms of ethically-conscious consumption groups called "Gruppi di Acquisto Solidale (GAS" or Solidarity Purchase Groups.

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING ADHERENCE TO ARVS AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING COMPREHENSIVE CARE CLINIC WITHIN JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY, KIAMBU COUNTY, KENYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, A N; Ng'ang'a, Z; Wanzala, P; Karanja, S M

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of anti-retroviral Therapy (ART) depends on adherence to the prescribed regimen. However, lack of adherence leads to treatment failure and drug resistance among other negative outcomes. To determine factors influencing adherence to ARVS among patients attending the Comprehensive Care Clinic (CCC) within Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). A descriptive cross sectional study. Comprehensive Care Clinic within JKUAT. Three hundred HIV positive patients, undergoing ART treatment and follow up at the JKUAT clinic for a minimum duration of one month before the study, were recruited. Of the 300 patients enrolled for the study (70% females and 30% males), 81% were adhering to ARV treatment. The factors that were significantly associated with adherence included; Support (encouragement and reminder to take drugs) (P = 0.025); the number of meals respondents took in a day (P = 0.001); pill burden (P = 0.002) and forgetfulness (P = 0.001). However, there was no significant relationship between adherence and age, marital status, education, employment status or time taken to travel to the clinic. This study concluded that, the observed level of sub-optimal adherence to ART (19%) is of public health concern. These patients are vulnerable to treatment failure and development of resistant viral strains. Consequently the modifiable factors (Support, Number of meals taken, pill burden, and forgetfulness, should be addressed to change the current tread.

  4. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  5. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  6. Level of knowledge and sources of information about the rheumatoid arthritis in Estonian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põlluste, Kaja; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to find out how many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) know about several aspects of disease, to explain the associations between the level of self-rated knowledge and patients' background and health status and to compare the importance of the main sources of information. A random sample (n = 1,259) of adult Estonian RA patients was selected from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund Database. The patients completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included information about their socio-demographic and disease characteristics, use of health services, information about the disease, and sources of information. Regression analysis was used to calculate the associations between the independent variables and level of self-rated knowledge about several aspects of RA. The results of the study indicated that the self-reported ratings of knowledge about the disease in Estonian RA patients were rather low. Health professionals were mentioned as the primary sources of information, but the longer disease history and more frequent use of health services as considerable predictors of higher ratings of knowledge refer to role of personal experience in obtaining knowledge about the disease as well.

  7. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  8. Some remarks on reported evidentiality in French and in Estonian: A contrastive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Treikelder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the multiple meanings of the French conditional, the marking of mediated information is generally pointed out in the studies treating this mood in French. In Estonian there is a specialized grammatical(ized form for marking reported evidentiality – the quotative mood. Our paper aims to study the contrast between the use of evidentiality strategies in French and Estonian. The analysis will be based on a translated parallel corpus and on different types of texts and studies of monolingual corpora of both languages.In typological studies the French conditional and the Estonian grammatical evidentials are considered as belonging to the same type of evidentiality, that of reported information (Aikhenvald 2006. However, it appears that they tend to be used in different types of discourse. This observation has served as a starting point for our study: the aim of our contrastive analysis is to find out whether these divergences are confirmed by translated texts, whether they also reveal semantic differences between these evidentiality markers, and which strategies are used in the translations in both directions.

  9. Macrostructure in the narratives of Estonian children with typical development and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without language impairment (LI). A clinical group of 18 children with LI (ages 6-8) and a control group of 216 TD children (ages 6-7), divided into 3 language competence subgroups, participated in the study. Narratives were analyzed for the presence of SG components and quantity of story information units. Estonian children's narratives reflected age-expected SG structures similar to those of children in English-speaking countries. The analyses revealed significant group influences for the setting category, demonstrating the superior skills of TD children with high language competence in starting stories, compared with their peers. The quantity of story information units differed significantly between the high and low language competence TD subgroups, likewise between the control and the clinical groups. The contrasts between stories of TD children and between TD and LI children are discussed. The findings support the suitability of the SG model in terms of quantity of story information units for language assessment.

  10. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  11. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  12. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Lautech Ogbomoso

    Department of Agricultural Economics & Farm Management University of Agriculture,. Abeokuta, Nigeria. 2. Institute of ... concluded that credit could bring about higher productivity and profit in agricultural production, hence, this study recommends that existing banks ..... The Case of Argentina. Research Report 36, IFPRI,.

  13. Application of Multinomial Probit Model in Analyzing Factors Affecting the Occupation of Graduated Students from the University of Agricultural Applied-Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Scientificand practicaltrainingwith an emphasis onoperation andapplication of what is taught and having an empiricalapproachto education isa more suitable approach for creating jobs. Preparation of educational needs of the agricultural sector by scientificand practicaltraining and providingemploymentin agreement with education and skills is one of the most important programs in order to achieve the objectives of comprehensive development of the country. An imbalance seems to exist between the processes and materials in university courses and the skills and abilities needed by the labor market and this is the most importantreason for the failureof the university graduatesin finding employment. This studyhas beendone for understandingthe type of jobof agricultural graduatesof training center of Jihad-e-Keshavarzi in Mashhad and the factor saffecting their employment. Materials and Methods: This study is an applied research and the statistical population is 167 and includes all the students who had earned a Bachelor’s degree who had come to receive their graduation certificates in 2011. The dependent variable is type of job which includes five categories of employment in the public sector related to education, employ men unrelated to the government, employment related tothe privatesector andthe unemployed who were seeking workin the private sector. Independent variables includegender,quotainuniversityadmissions, the level of interestin thefield of study,satisfaction withthe discipline, evaluationand trainingof graduatesofvocational skillsacquired incollegegraduates'assessmentof thework culturein the societyand evaluation oflack ofcapitalas a factor preventingemployment in the academicfield. Information was collected through questionnaires and the multiple probit mode lwas used. Results and discussion: The results ofthe survey showthatjobsof graduates are divided intofour categoriesincluding:Related to the field of study and

  14. The prospects of Web 2.0 technologies in teaching and learning in higher learning institutes: The case study of the Sokoine University of Agriculture in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulystan Pius Mtega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the perceptions of students and lecturers on Web 2.0 as learning and teaching tools. It identified the commonly used web 2.0 tools; determined how the tools facilitate teaching and learning; assessed the appropriateness of features of the commonly used web 2.0 tools in teaching and learning and; determined the challenges associated with the usage of the tools in teaching and learning in higher education environments. The study was conducted at the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA in Tanzania; it employed combined research designs where both qualitative and quantitative designs were used. Stratified sampling techniques were employed to select respondents from the different strata namely students (undergraduate and postgraduate and teaching staff. Structured questionnaires were distributed to 120 students and 50 teaching staff who were randomly selected from each stratum. Findings show that blogs, Facebook, Wikis, Google drive and YouTube were used for teaching and learning at SUA. However, the level of usage of Web 2.0 tools for non academic activities was higher than for academic purposes. It is concluded that that not all tools and applications were suitable for teaching and learning. It is recommended that students and staff should be trained on how to use Web 2.0 tools in teaching and learning. Institutes should promote the usage of such tools because some of them have suitable applications for teaching and learning. Developers of Web 2.o tools should incorporate more applications that may help teaching staff to supervise and assist students in the learning process.

  15. The Ethics of Ethnographic Attraction: Reflections on the Production of the Finno-Ugric Exhibitions at the Estonian National Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Leete

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We intend to explore the production of the Finno-Ugric exhibitions at the Estonian National Museum. Our particular aim is to reveal methodological changes of ethnographic reproduction and to contextualise the museum’s current efforts in ideologically positioning of the permanent exhibition. Through historical–hermeneutical analysis we plan to establish particular museological trends at the Estonian National Museum that have led curators to the current ideological position. The history of the Finno-Ugric displays at the Estonian National Museum and comparative analysis of international museological practices enable us to reveal and interpret different approaches to ethnographic reconstructions. When exhibiting indigenous cultures, one needs to balance ethnographic charisma with the ethics of display. In order to employ the approach of ethical attraction, curators must comprehend indigenous cultural logic while building up ethnographic representations.

  16. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the diss...

  17. Eesti Maaülikooli spordihoone = Estonian University of Life Sciences' Athletics Centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2009. a. ühiskondliku interjööri preemia pälvinud Eesti Maaülikooli spordihoonest Tartus Kreutzwaldi t. 3. Sisekujunduse autorid Katrin Kaevats ja Jaan Port (Funk AB), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Hoone arhitekt Salto AB (Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, Maarja Kask)

  18. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  19. Agriculture: Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  20. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  1. Performance Management of Academic Staff on the Example of the Faculties of Economics in University of Tartu and in Tallinn University of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kulno Türk; Elar Killumets

    2014-01-01

    In order to continue its mission in preparing educated work force needed for supporting implementation of Estonian economic policy, universities need to improve the usage of its scarce resources. We study the expectation and attitudes of academic staff towards performance appraisal and related reward systems. Our survey and focus-group interviews revealed that although the systems deployed in those two Universities were different by its nature – Tartu had adopted performance-based approach, w...

  2. Agricultural Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bičanić, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses three different approaches to agricultural overpopulation: from the consumption side, from the production side and from the aspect of immobility of agricultural population. In the first approach agrarian overpopulation is defined from the consumption point of viewas the number of people living from agriculture that can live from aggregate agricultural income at a certain standard of consumption. In this connection the problem of measuring total agricultu...

  3. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  4. Names in Estonian Folk Astronomy - from 'Bird's Way' to 'Milky Way'

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Kuperjanov

    2002-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the different names for the Milky Way and the accompanying beliefs and myths, based on the material in the Estonian Folklore Archives. Astronomically speaking, the Milky Way is a big stellar system – a galaxy. All stellar systems of similar type are called galaxies. Our sun is a fairly common star, lying at the outskirts of the Galaxy. The core of the Galaxy is located in the Sagittarius Constellation where the Milky Way is widest and brightest, but i...

  5. Design and Implementation of a Task/Resource Information System. Reported by the Planning Department of the Agricultural University of Wageningen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bladeren, D.; And Others

    The University of Wageningen takes care of only one faculty with 80 departments and about 4000 students. The university has been growing rapidly in recent years with an increase of 25 percent in first year students each year. Because of this growth and because of various social developments, the University Board recognizes the need for a good data…

  6. Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  7. Influence Of Agriculture Undergraduates\\' Personal Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the influence of agriculture undergraduates\\' personal characteristics on their perception of agricultural extension. Data for the study was collected with the aid of questionnaire from 109 randomly selected respondents in the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology of the Federal University of ...

  8. The National Agricultural Library Moving Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Richard A.

    The National Agricultural Library (NAL) provides materials and services in the areas of agriculture, chemistry, biology, and law to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington and its installations throughout the country, to land-grant universities, and to the world agricultural community. Information is disseminated through…

  9. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  10. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  11. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, M; Rusconi, R [ARPA Lombardia (Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardia), via Juvara 22, 20129 Milan (Italy); Bagnato, L [Department of Quantitative Methods for Business and Economic Sciences, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza dell' Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126 Milan (Italy); Caldognetto, E; Trotti, F [ARPAV (Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto), via Dominutti 8, 37135 Verona (Italy); Risica, S, E-mail: m.forte@arpalombardia.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Technology and Health Department, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y{sup -1} for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  12. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  13. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  14. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  15. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  16. External factors and the interference of L1 Estonian on L2 English pronunciation: An apparent-time study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Ader

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on external factors of second language learning (L2 and their effect on L2 sound production. The aim was to find out whether young adults whose first language (L1 is Estonian speak L2 English with less accent than older speakers of L1 Estonian. Prior studies have claimed that more exposure to the target language lessens the effect of L1 interference (internal factors (e.g. Piske et al. 2001, Muñoz, Llanes 2014. An apparent-time study was imple- mented in order to test whether a change in learner setting (i.e. limited exposure to the target language vs. abundant exposure shows any evidence which can be explained by such external factors. Data was elicited from the speech samples of 97 speakers of L1 Estonian and L1 interference effects were analysed sound by sound. The results show that the younger generation displays less L1 Estonian interference than the older generation. Both greater exposure to the target language and earlier age of L2 learning onset correlate with the ability to produce more sounds target-like.

  17. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  18. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961. Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images. A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e

  19. Behind the Curtains of e-State: Determinants of Online Sexual Harassment among Estonian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kalmus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the risk of receiving online sexual messages and experiencing harm among Estonian children. In particular, the paper examines the association between receiving sexual messages and behavioural, psychological and demographic characteristics, and the social mediation of children’s Internet use. Estonian data from EU Kids Online survey are used, involving 780 children aged 11-16. Results demonstrate that 19% of children who use the Internet have received online sexual messages, and 6% have felt disturbed. The probability of receiving sexual messages online is higher for children with risky online and offline behaviour and psychological difficulties. Perceiving online messages as sexually harassing is higher among children with excessive Internet use, lower levels of parental monitoring and higher levels of peer mediation of Internet use. The risk of exposure to harassing sexual messages also differs by age and, more notably, by the minority status. Mediation by parents and teachers plays an insignificant role in reducing teenagers’ risks of receiving sexual messages.

  20. Detection and genetic characterization of relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Geller

    Full Text Available During the years 2008-2010 I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected from 64 sites in mainland Estonia and on the island Saaremaa. Presence of B. miyamotoi was found in 0.9% (23/2622 of ticks. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks differed significantly, 2.7% (15/561 and 0.4% (8/2061, respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in found South-Eastern Estonia in an area of I. persulcatus and I. ricinus sympatry and varied from 1.4% (1/73 to 2.8% (5/178. Co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. group spirochetes and tick-borne encephalitis virus were also revealed. Genetic characterization of partial 16S rRNA, p66 and glpQ genes demonstrated that Estonian sequences belong to two types of B. miyamotoi and cluster with sequences from Europe and the European part of Russia, as well as with sequences from Siberia, Asia and Japan, here designated as European and Asian types, respectively. Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions.

  1. Cultural Value Differences, Value Stereotypes, and Diverging Identities in Intergroup Conflicts: The Estonian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Dobewall

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    An examination of the relationship between cultural values, value stereotypes and social identities in Estonia, where intergroup conflicts triggered riots in the capital
    Tallinn in April 2007, using data from the European Social Survey on cultural differences and value trends as the background to a survey exploring perceived
    group values and assessed social identities among ethnic Estonians and members of the Russian-speaking minority. The study, conducted in summer 2008, found
    agreement across both ethnic groups about the values of a typical group member, but no accuracy in their attribution. The Estonian students (n = 152 avoided
    Eastern-European identification, while the Russian-speaking students (n = 54 did not want to give up Estonia’s Soviet past. We found that attributed rather than
    self-rated value differences between groups caused the conflicts, whilst diverging identities were found to make value stereotypes more extreme.

  2. Locally calibrated wave hindcasts in the Estonian coastal sea in 1966–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Suursaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wave parameters were studied in four differently exposed fetch-limited Estonian coastal sea locations: the Harilaid Peninsula facing W–NW, Letipea N–NE, Matsi SW and Kõiguste SE. Based on high-quality measurements of waves with the bottom-mounted Recording Doppler Current Profiler in 2006–2011, a model for significant wave height was calibrated separately for those locations. Using wind forcing data from Estonian coastal meteorological stations, a set of hindcasts was obtained over the period of 1966–2011. The wave heights showed some quasi-periodic cycles with a high stage in 1980–1995, and probably also from 2007; a prevailing overall decrease in the mean wave height; an increase in high wave events at the windward coasts of West Estonia but a decrease at the northern and southeastern coasts. The spatially contrasting results for differently exposed coasts reflect the corresponding variations in local wind, which are probably caused by changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure patterns above Northern Europe and a poleward shift of cyclones’ trajectories. Although featuring outstanding calibration results, the long-term wave hindcast may be impacted by possible inhomogeneities in the older wind data.

  3. Intestinal lactoflora in Estonian and Norwegian patients with antibiotic associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Rätsep, Merle; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lõivukene, Krista; Mändar, Reet; Jaanimäe, Liis; Löhr, Iren H; Natås, Olav B; Naaber, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The disruption of intestinal microbiota is an important risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile caused antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The role of intestinal lactoflora in protection against C. difficile is unclear. Fecal samples (n = 74) from AAD patients were investigated for C. difficile and lactobacilli by culture and real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and sequencing of 16S rRNA. In C. difficile negative cases we found somewhat higher counts of intestinal Lactobacilli (5.02 vs. 2.15 CFU log(10)/g; p = 0.053) by culture and more frequently Lactobacillus plantarum (33.3% vs. 9.4%; p = 0.03) as compared with positive ones. Results of total counts of lactobacilli comparing Estonian and Norwegian samples were conflicting by culture and PCR. We found higher colonization of Norwegian AAD patients with L. plantarum (21% vs. 5%, p = 0.053) and Estonians with Lactobacillus gasseri (19% vs. 2%, p = 0.023). Particular lactobacilli (e.g. L. plantarum) may have a role in protection against C. difficile, whereas the meaning of total counts of lactobacilli remains questionable. In different persons and nations, different lactobacilli species may have a protective role against C. difficile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  5. Groundwater flow model of the Estonian oil shale mining area towards to innovative system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, H. [Tallinn Univ. of Technology (Estonia). Dept. of Mining

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the Estonian groundwater regime are anticipated as oil shale deposits are mined. This paper described a dynamic groundwater flow model used to develop a 3-D groundwater elevation map of the Estonian oil shale mining area. The model was used to provide preliminary estimations of water inflow into the working underground mine areas. The model included 9 closed underground mines, 5 active mine sites, and 2 small open-cast sites. The closed mine sites were filled with water flowing in from the working mine sites. New mines and dewatering programs are planned for the future. A database from observation wells installed within the Keila-Kukruse aquifer was used to extract outputs and determine time steps. The model included 35 pumping stations from the active mine sites. The hydraulic properties for each model layer were defined in 4 model zones. Results of the model showed higher water in-flows from the closed underground sites than earlier predictions had anticipated. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN FIVE FINNOUGRIC LANGUAGES AND ESTONIAN SIGN LANGUAGE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Hollman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare five Finno-Ugric languages – Estonian,Finnish, Hungarian, Udmurt and Komi-Zyrian – and the Estonian Sign Language (unclassified in different aspects: established basic colour terms, the proportion of basic colour terms and different colour terms in the collected word-corpora, the cognitive salience index values in the list task and the number of dominant colour tiles in the colour naming task. The data was collected, using the field method of Davies and Corbett, from all languages under consideration, providing a distinctive foundation for linguistic comparison. We argue that Finno-Ugric languages seem to possess relatively large colour vocabularies,especially due to their rich variety of word-formation types,e.g. the composition of compound words. All of the languages under consideration have developed to Stage VI or VII, possessing 7 to 11lexicalised basic colour terms. The cognitive salience index helps to distinguish primary and secondary basic colour terms, showing certain comprehensive patterns which are similar to Russian and English.

  7. Distribution of charophyte species in Estonian coastal water (NE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaire Torn

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Charophytes constitute a group of macrophytes that usually inhabit soft bottoms with shallow water. They occur mostly in fresh-water environments but can also be found in brackish waters. Due to their requirement for clear water they are considered sensitive to eutrophication and therefore often used as an indicator for good water quality. The diverse structure of the Estonian coastline with its numerous sheltered bays and shallow, soft-bottom archipelago areas coupled with low salinity conditions provides an excellent habitat for charophytes. To date, seven species have been described in Estonian coastal waters, NE Baltic Sea. Last systematic investigations on charophyte distribution date back 20-30 years. During the summer of 2001 the locations where charophytes have previously been found were revisited and new sites sampled, to describe the present distribution of quantitative and qualitative parameters of charophyte species. Sampling was performed mainly by SCUBA diving; occurrence, abundance and wet weight biomass were estimated for each location. Six species of charophytes were identified. Compared to previously recorded material, no significant changes in the distribution pattern of charophytes were found. The dependence of charophyte distribution on environmental settings was tested, with depth and substrate quality explaining most of the variability in distribution. Salinity within observed range had minor influence on charophytes.

  8. Vene kirjandus venestusaja eesti koolides. Russian Literature in the Estonian Schools of the Russification Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give an overview of literary instruction in schools of the russification era at the beginning of the 20th century in Estonia; this was likewise the curriculum of literary study offered to the generation of educated youth which included the Young Estonians. Based on official documents, archival materials, and memoirs, and through analyses of anthologies, literary histories, and teaching methods in use at the time, we attempt to reconstruct the outlines of literary reading and requirements for students in various types of schools. When, as a result of school reform, Russian became the language of instruction; lessons in Russian became central in the curriculum, alongside the word of God; selections from Russian literature were read in the original language. In the lower grades, teaching was by the so-called ”natural method”, intended to guarantee swift achievement of fluency in ”living Russian language”; this was later replaced by systematic textual analysis, which distinguished between belles lettres and other types of texts. However, the study of literature was always subordinated to the goals of language instruction. In institutions of secondary education, study of Russian literature was separate from language instruction. Indeed, Russian literature was the only literature systematically studied in high schools (though one must keep in mind that not all schools completely followed the official program. Private schools were especially noticeable for their greater freedom, though all of them had to take general curriculum directives into account. Reading of literary texts connected with other languages thus had to remain almost purely illustrative. In view of the above, in the upper grades of elementary school and high school, students obtained a thorough introduction to the Russian classics. According to the official school curriculum, Russian literary history ended with Nikolai Gogol. Attempts were made to ignore

  9. Molokai Farm Project. An Agricultural Training Program of the Maui Community College, University of Hawaii. Report for Fiscal Year 1982-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Agriculture, Honolulu.

    The Molokai Farm Project at Maui Community College grew out of a grant for a Youth Agricultural Entrepreneurship Demonstration Program. The program, which can lead either to an associate degree or to a certification of completion for any number of smaller units of course work, is designed to develop students' managerial proficiency and the…

  10. Governing agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Carro-Ripalda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been

  11. Nigeria Agricultural Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. J.A. Mbanasor Editor in Chief Head of Department, Agribusiness and Management College of Agribusiness and Financial Management Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Office of the Head of Department. Agribusiness and Management. College of Agribusiness and Financial Management.

  12. Agricultural anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record This book chapter describes the evolution of agricultural anthropology over the latter half of the twentieth century. The author draws upon research experiences in a number of areas and provides specific examples related to sustainable agriculture and natural resource management research in the Andes to illustrate the merit of the discipline. BA-2 (SANREM-Andes Research)

  13. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti Pärna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Methods Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Results Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends. From 1982 to 2014, the biggest decline of current smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively and 35–44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends. Mean age of smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. Conclusions In 1982–2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  14. Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meremäe, Kadrin; Roasto, Mati; Kuusik, Sirje; Ots, Meelis; Henno, Merike

    2012-08-01

    In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over recent years are also presented. Twenty-six edible fat brands, available in the Estonian retail market in 2011, were purchased and FA compositions were analyzed by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the dominant group of FAs for all blended spreads (49.6 to 65.8%), and for the majority of shortenings (from 21.1 to 54.6%). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the dominant group of FAs for the majority of margarines, ranging from 25.3% to 50.5%. The total TFA for blended spreads varied from 1.18% to 9.08%, for margarines from 0.04% to 34.96% and for shortenings from 0.14% to 39.50%. Octadecenoic (C18:1) isomers were the main TFA found. Compared to 2008/2009, the industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) content in several of the dietary fat brands was much reduced in 2011. This voluntary reformulation was probably a response to consumer demand associated with a public health campaign directed against IP-TFA in Estonian foods, and were mainly achieved by replacing TFA with SFA C12:0-C16:0. Present paper is directed toward public health related institutions and food industries producing foods with potentially high contents of trans fatty acids (TFA). According to the public concern TFA content in domestic blended spreads has declined significantly over the past 3 y in Estonia. The reduction in the TFA content was achieved by replacing TFA with saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C12:0-C16:0). To shift food composition toward healthier product formulations, mandatory labeling of the sum of IP-TFA and SFA (C12:0-C16:0) was recommended. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Detection of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Ehrlichia muris in Estonian ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Geller, Julia; Katargina, Olga; Värv, Kairi; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    So far neglected bacteria like Candidatud Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Ehrlichia muris-like agents get increased attention in the recent past. Ixodid ticks were demonstrated to harbor both of these pathogens. Estonia is populated by two medically important tick species, I. ricinus and I. persulcatus. In this study the presence of E. muris and Candidatus N. mikurensis in these two tick species was investigated. Tick DNA was analyzed by nested PCR and subsequent sequencing for the presence of 16S rRNA of E. muris and Candidatus N. mikurensis. Positive samples were further confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the partial groESL-operon. The obtained partial groESL sequences were used for construction of a maximum likelihood tree. In total, 776 ticks from 36 collection sites situated in 7 counties on the mainland of Estonia and 2 sites situated in one county on the island Saaremaa were collected. 548 were I. ricinus and 228 were I. persulcatus. Only in 5 counties (11 sites) samples positive for the Anaplasmataceae 16S rRNA gene were found. The percentage of Candidatus N. mikurensis positive ticks varied from 1% to 9.1% at different sites. In Eastern and South-Eastern Estonia, the area where I. ricinus and I. persulcatus are sympatric, no Candidatus N. mikurensis was found. Ticks carrying E. muris were found in three counties, the site-specific percentage of positive ticks varied from 1.2% to 25.6%. This is the first study revealing the presence of Candidatus N. mikurensis and E. muris in Estonian ticks. Candidatus N. mikurensis was found only in the western part of the country exclusively in I. ricinus and the phylogenetic analysis revealed close relatedness of the Estonian sequences to other European Candidatus N. mikurensis strains. E. muris was detected mostly in I. persulcatus and only in one I. ricinus in the sympatric area of both tick species. This is in correspondence with the observation that this pathogen is more often found in I. persulcatus than in I

  16. Re-conceptualizing mother tongue tuition of Estonian abroad as a transnational phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Siiner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The governmental initiative called the Compatriots Programme, which supports language tuition in Estonian schools and societies abroad, reveals an increased interest in developing intergenerational language transmission in the growing Estonian diaspora. This transnational language political activity signals a new era in language policy, where nation states are increasingly decentralized by migration. The evaluation of the program furthermore reveals that organizing such schools requires a willingness to take language political agency, typically conducted by well-educated and well-integrated resourceful transnational multilingual parents. The present article outlines the results of an ethnographic study of the process of establishing the Estonian School in Copenhagen. This step has demanded a change in the mindset still prevailing in Estonia that language political activities, such as planning language acquisition, are solely the responsibility of the state. Since the prevailing language ideology in Denmark is not favorable towards multilingualism in migrant languages, intergenerational language transmission furthermore presupposes a feeling of ownership of the language and high language self-esteem. "Hargmaise keelepoliitika sünd. Eesti keeleõppe korraldamise võimalikkusest välismaal Taani näitel" Hargmaisus, kasvav väljarändajate arv ja sellega ka eesti keele rääkijate hulk välismaal on jätnud oma jälje eesti keelepoliitikale. Kui varem uuriti peamiselt seda, kuidas eesti keel muukeelses kontekstis muutub, siis viimasel kümnendil on riik asunud aktiivselt toetama eesti keele jätkuvat kasutamist välismaal, rahastades rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil haridusprogramme. Kuid millised faktorid määravad selle, kas uus eestlaste põlvkond oskab ja tahab eesti keelt rääkida? Artikkel hindab etnograafilises ja sotsiolingvistilises võtmes Kopenhaagenis kolm aastat tegutsenud Eesti Kooli ja Lasteklubi näitel, millised on keelekasutust

  17. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  18. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  19. Sovietisation and the Estonian National Museum during 1940s-1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Konksi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the impacts of the policy of the 1940s-1950s Soviet authority on the Estonian National Museum. The first, introductory part observes the general frameworks of the (ethnographical museums in the Soviet Union, thus providing an overview of the goal of Sovietisation policy – what was the system’s perception of the institution that the ENM was supposed to become. The main part of the article focuses on Sovietisation practice in the ENM: what kind of reorganisation took place within the work of the museum in connection with political changes, whether and how the new norms were adapted to and to what extent they were adopted. The source material used for the treatment of the subject matter comprises, in addition to the ENM’s archive materials, the memories of three ethnologists who worked in the ENM during the observed period.

  20. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  1. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factorial structure of SILL revisited: adaptation of SILL for Estonian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Saks

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to contribute to the understanding of the taxonomy of language learning strategies (Oxford 1990: 14–22 and its measuring instrument, the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, through the adaptation process of the Estonian version. The translated version of the SILL was pilot-tested with a sample of 337 tertiary students. Cronbach’s alpha (0.91 reveals an acceptable reliability of the instrument. The t-test that was conducted in addition to descriptive analysis, to check for gender differences, did not reveal any significant differences. The results of the exploratory factor analysis did not support the 2- or 6-factor structures but the 9-factor analysis provides a good comparison to similar studies published in 1995 (Oxford, Burry-Stock 1995. The ethnic and gender differences of the results are discussed from the cultural perspective.

  3. Comparative analysis of idiom selection and sequencing 5 in Estonian basic school EFL coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Anita Forssten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the selection and sequencing of the idioms encountered in two locally-produced and international coursebook series currently employed in Estonian basic schools. It is hypothesized that there exists a positive correlation between idioms’ difficulty and coursebooks’ language proficiency level. The hypothesis is tested through a statistical analysis of the idioms found which are categorized in terms of their analysability into three categories where category 1 includes analysable semi-literal idioms, category 2 comprises analysable semi-transparent idioms, and category 3 encompasses non-analysable opaque idioms, and then analysed through an online language corpus (British National Corpus. The results of the study reveal that the coursebook authors under discussion have disregarded idioms’ frequency as a criterion for selection or sequencing, whereas the factor utilized to some extent is the degree of analysability.

  4. Mobility of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Cr in some Estonian soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irha, Natalya

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The sorption capacity of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr to five Estonian soils was evaluated using spiked subsoil samples in laboratory experiments. The experimental sorption data fitted well to the linear Freundlich isotherm. The sorption of metals in subsoil depended on the soil type, e.g., mineral composition. The results indicate that the content of quartz and carbonates is important in affecting the metal sorption capacity of subsoil. On the basis of our data the possibility of penetration in depth and accumulation of mobile metals was evaluated. It was concluded that increase in dissolved Cd and accumulation of other metals in the subsoil of Podzol is expected. The accumulation of Pb could be the main process for soils with a high amount of dolomite.

  5. Grammar School Students’ Opinions on the Art Curriculum: An Estonian, Portuguese and Slovenian Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Zupančič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the attitude of grammar school students towards the art curriculum. It first provides an overview of the characteristics of contemporary art education, with an emphasis on the postmodern art curriculum and on linking course content with students’ interests. The study is based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method, with a sample comprising 387 Slovenian, Estonian and Portuguese students. It was established that the students place the highest value on developing creativity, and are less interested in art history content and learning about the basics of the formal art language. They are attracted to contemporary topics, such as graffiti, multicultural art, the use of new media, and digital technologies. The results of the study provide opportunities for future comparative analyses and starting points for updating art curricula.

  6. Whole-word frequency and inflectional paradigm size facilitate Estonian case-inflected noun processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõo, Kaidi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Baayen, R Harald

    2018-02-15

    Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect. These findings fit well with the evidence for frequency effects of word n-grams in languages with little inflectional morphology, such as English. Apparently, the amount of information on word use in the mental lexicon is substantially larger than was previously thought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stroke awareness in two Estonian cities: better knowledge in subjects with advanced age and higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Liisa; Väli, Merle; Tomson, Kadi; Piirsoo, Erika; Schneider, Siim; Kõrv, Janika

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess stroke awareness of the Estonian population. Investigators were asked to fill in an original, closed-ended multiple-choice questionnaire about the definition, risk factors, symptoms and behavior at the onset of stroke by randomly selected subjects in public places of the two biggest cities in Estonia (Tallinn and Tartu). The study included 355 persons. Most of the respondents knew that stroke is an acute disease and that one should call the ambulance at the onset of a stroke. Speech disorder and paresis were the best known symptoms, while hypertension was the best known risk factor. There were no differences between the sexes, but advanced age and higher level of education were related to higher awareness. The overall knowledge was better compared to many other studies. Future awareness campaigns should be addressed to younger subjects with lower education. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Fractal and multifractal analysis of complex networks: Estonian network of payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2017-12-01

    Complex networks have gained much attention from different areas of knowledge in recent years. Particularly, the structures and dynamics of such systems have attracted considerable interest. Complex networks may have characteristics of multifractality. In this study, we analyze fractal and multifractal properties of a novel network: the large scale economic network of payments of Estonia, where companies are represented by nodes and the payments done between companies are represented by links. We present a fractal scaling analysis and examine the multifractal behavior of this network by using a sandbox algorithm. Our results indicate the existence of multifractality in this network and consequently, the existence of multifractality in the Estonian economy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes multifractality of a complex network of payments.

  9. Willingness to Venture into Agriculture-related Enterprises after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NTL NG

    This study examined willingness to venture into agriculture-related enterprises after graduation among final year agriculture students of Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB) by randomly sampling 120 final year students from the three agriculture colleges in the university with the aid of structured ...

  10. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  11. Agricultural Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  12. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  13. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  14. Mutational analysis of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes among Estonian osteogenesis imperfecta patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Reimann, Ene; Prans, Ele; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare

    2017-08-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen α1 and α2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile of 100% of OI families in the country. We performed mutational analysis of peripheral blood gDNA of 30 unrelated Estonian OI patients using Sanger sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, including all intron-exon junctions and 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions, to identify causative OI mutations. We identified COL1A1/2 mutations in 86.67% of patients (26/30). 76.92% of discovered mutations were located in the COL1A1 (n = 20) and 23.08% in the COL1A2 (n = 6) gene. Half of the COL1A1/2 mutations appeared to be novel. The percentage of quantitative COL1A1/2 mutations was 69.23%. Glycine substitution with serine was the most prevalent among missense mutations. All qualitative mutations were situated in the chain domain of pro-α1/2 chains. Our study shows that among the Estonian OI population, the range of collagen I mutations is quite high, which agrees with other described OI cohorts of Northern Europe. The Estonian OI cohort differs due to the high number of quantitative variants and simple missense variants, which are mostly Gly to Ser substitutions and do not extend the chain domain of COL1A1/2 products.

  15. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  16. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  17. Agriculture & Agronomy: A Dissertation Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978

    This bibliography presents a compilation of Agriculture and Agronomy doctoral research for the years 1973-1976. Each of the 3,386 doctoral dissertations cited herein has been accepted by accredited degree-granting universities in North America and published by University Microfilms International (UMI). Dissertations are arranged alphabetically in…

  18. Measuring Florida Extension Faculty's Agricultural Paradigmatic Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lawver, David E.; Baker, Matt; Lindner, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The demand for sustainable agriculture has increased, and many institutions, including the University of Florida, have adopted agricultural sustainability as a major goal. Extension has been identified as a critical information source, important in disseminating sustainable agricultural growing techniques. However, research has demonstrated that…

  19. Kolm Eesti Robinsoni: Daniel Defoe romaan eesti tõlkes / Three Estonian Robinsons: Daniel Defoe’s Novel in Estonian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene-Reet Soovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses three Estonian translations of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe into Estonian with the focus on the completeness of the translated texts and the characterisation given to these in paratextual information. While there are several translations and versions of the tex t available in E stonian that have either used a mediating language or do not proceed directly from Defoe’s novel, three editions explicitly list Defoe’s English-language Robinson Crusoe as their source text. These are Rudolf Sirge’s translation from 1950 and two editions translated by Valter Rummel that appeared in 1984 (reprinted in 2001 and 2007, respectively. The article sets out to discover the main differences between the three editions and the possible reasons that may have triggered their publication in Estonia at those particular times. In order to approach the issues, a general framework derived from descriptive translation studies is employed with an emphasis on Gideon Toury’s chrestomatic treatment of translation norms. Thus an attempt is made to detect the preliminary translational norms regarding translation policy, particularly the choice of texts to be translated, as well as the matricial norms that concern the fullness of the translated text and are part of operational norms manifested in the translator’s decisions which, in two of the cases at hand, may also have been decisions made by the editor or the censor. Rudolf Sirge’s translation appeared at a time when Estonia had fairly recently been incorporated into the Soviet Union and there was a lack of children’s literature ideologically appreciated by the regime. This may account for the packaging of the book as a work with a strong didactic bent, while its primary audience was taken to be children and young adults for whom the protagonist served as an example of a hard-working and tenacious hero to be emulated by young Soviets. The target text has been considerably shortened as

  20. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Caporali

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006), a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. ...

  1. Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to Precision Agriculture (PA) with a short historic pathway of the development and the status of current available technologies. Part of this description also provides an overview of some of the economic barriers and technical obstacles when applying variable......-steering and Controlled Traffic Systems. Finally, the chapter looks into new developments of autonomous systems with an example of robotic seeding, farm information management in precision agriculture and different methods on the adoption of PA. The last chapter focuses on how PA can fulfil the current policy trends...

  2. With or without articles? A comparison of article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hint

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the use and functions of definite and indefinite article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish. Our main aim is to explore whether the factors that explain the choice of particular determiner forms are similar in Estonian and Finnish. We use a picture-sequence based elicitation experiment to collect spoken narratives from adult native speakers of Estonian and Finnish, and apply non-parametric tree and forest models to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that number of mention and animacy are important predictor variables in both languages, but their exact effect is divergent. We also find that in Finnish, case of the determiner NP proves to be an important factor, while in Estonian, syntactic role of the NP explains some aspects of determiner form choice. Nevertheless, the overall usage frequency of determiners is modest in the Estonian and Finnish data, and the process of grammaticalizing articles is only in initial stages in both languages. *** Artikliga, artiklita? Eesti ja soome keele artiklilaadsete määratlejate võrdlus Siinses uurimuses analüüsime võrdlevalt artiklilaadseid definiitseid ja indefiniitseid määratlejaid eesti ja soome keeles. Eelkõige kõrvutame eesti keele definiitset määratlejat see ja soome keele definiitseid määratlejaid se ja tämä ning eesti ja soome indefiniitset määratlejat üks/yks(i. Samuti vaatleme eesti keele possessiivpronoomeni oma ning soome 3sg possessiivsufiksi (-nsa/-nsä, -Vn referentsiaalseid omadusi. Uurimuse põhieesmärgiks on selgitada, millised on peamised määratlejate kasutust mõjutavad keelelised faktorid eesti ja soome keeles ning kas need faktorid on keeliti sarnased või erinevad. Ühtlasi otsime vastust küsimusele, kas eesti ja soome keeles on põhjust rääkida määratlejate grammatisatsioonist artikliteks. Uuritav keelematerjal pärineb pildiseeria põhjal kogutud suulistest narratiividest. Uurimuses osales 20 eesti ja 20 soome keele

  3. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  4. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEALTON, ERNEST L.

    TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…

  5. Mining Lepidoptera of woody plants in the Arboretum of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno – species composition, origin and their influence on the health condition of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šefrová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The species diversity and trophic relations of mining Lepidoptera were investigated in the Arboretum of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno during the years 2002–2004. On the whole 132 species belonging to 13 families were found, of which 123 autochthonous and 9 alochthonous. The richest families were Nepticulidae (54 species, Gracillariidae (47 and Coleophoridae (12. The highest diversity of mining species showed the plant families Rosaceae (37, Fagaceae (22 and Betulaceae (20, and the genera Quercus (19, Malus (13 and Prunus (11. The infestation of autochthonous and alochthonous plant species was compared, the trophic specialisation of individual species and possibilities of the shift between these plant groups were evaluated. Neither any negative influnce of mining species on the health condition of plants, nor the distinct influence of the city environment on the species diversity of mining moths were registered.

  6. Survival of the Unfit: Path Dependence and the Estonian Oil Shale Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik

    2009-01-15

    Estonia is the only country in the world, which is totally dependent on oil shale in its energy system. Although this fossil fuel exists in enormous quantities around the world, it has so far not been utilized on a larger scale. The reasons for this have been both economic and, in recent times, ecological. It can therefore be argued that in most cases, oil shale represents an inferior solution compared to other energy sources. This work examines why a technology utilizing oil shale has developed in Estonia and why Estonia appears not to be in a position to switch to other energy sources. In this work it is claimed that oil shale actually has been an appropriate solution to short-term concerns, despite the fact that its long-term drawbacks have been identified. These circumstances led to path dependence. Once the technology was in place, it advanced along its learning curve producing a satisfactory outcome, but not an optimal one. However, this situation has been accepted due to the extremely turbulent institutional environment Estonia has undergone in the 20th century. In Sweden, a somewhat similar (but smaller) oil shale industry was shut down in the 1960s because of poor economic performance, but also because of the competition from other energy sources. Such competition did not take place in Estonia, in part due to the specific institutional set-up of the Soviet Union. This made it possible for the Estonian oil shale industry to develop further, causing the present lock-in. Today the existing infrastructure, the knowledge-base, and the particular socio-political circumstances of Estonia effectively prevent change. Furthermore, it is argued that because there was only little oil shale-related technology developed outside Estonia, most technology had to be developed domestically. This in turn has forced the Estonian oil shale industry to make several highly inconvenient alliances in order to gain room to manoeuvre. Partially as a result of this, there is today

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  8. Digital Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Fonseca Silveira Massruhá

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary and globalized world, more and more advances in information and communication technologies (ICT will have a strategic and political character. ICT has contributed several decades of impact to the various areas of knowledge, allowing the storage and processing of large volumes of data, automation of processes and the exchange of information and knowledge. Aware of the importance of ICT in agriculture, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa created the Embrapa Agricultural Informatics which is engaged in research and development and is guided by the strategic vision, focused on the development of ICT solutions, especially in the areas of agrinformatics and bioinformatics. This paper discusses the use of ICT in agribusiness, in areas such as biotechnology, natural resources and climate change, plant safety in the production chain, as well as technology transfer. The methodology was guided by the Embrapa Strategic Intelligence System, called Agropensa. Throughout the work are presented, as results from Embrapa, technologies with Internet access. At the end, they are woven some thoughts on future prospects.

  9. Agriculture; Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubold-Rosar, M.

    2001-07-01

    For the restoration of agricultural land in the post mining landscapes the most valuable substrates of the overburden rocks have to be extracted selectively and used as the final cover on the dump sites. The quaternary substrates loess, loess loam, meadow loam, boulder clay and till have a good yielding ability. In the mining region of Lusatia also the yield potential of loamy sand and loam, partly containing coal or lime, has to be rated high compared to the dominating natural soils used for agriculture. The pressure sensitiveness of cohesive mine soils marked by an unstable structure demands special consideration during the recultivation process as well as the following management. Procedures of conservation tillage have to be adapted to the site conditions and crop rotations in the mining regions of Lusatia and Central Germany. For the determination of the extent of subsoil compaction in the area combinations of selective investigations of soil physical properties, penetrometer measurements, plant assessments and terrestrial or aerial (several years') mapping of wet patches are suitable. Very compacted subsoils on the dumps may be ameliorated by deep loosening. Criteria for the amelioration neediness have been developed. Soil improvers out of organic waste materials (sewage sludge, compost) may be practically used to ameliorate the humus and nutrient balance in mine soils at the beginning of agricultural recultivation. Soil development and recultivation will be accelerated and mineral fertilizers will be saved. In order to guarantee the environmental compatibility of application, marks of quality and first recommendations have been worked out. (orig.)

  10. STATIC AND DYNAMIC STATES: THE CASE OF ESTONIAN STATIVE COLOUR EXPRESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geda Paulsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to account for stative situations through the example of structurally different but semantically close colour expressions: the Estonian stative verbs derived from colour adjectives and colour adjectives appearing as the predicative. Stative verbs are assumed to be similar to copula constructions, with the aspectual distinction of temporary/permanent property. In this article, the stative colour expressions are analysed using the linguistic diagnostics developed for the determination of ontological properties of different types of states – the sc. Davidsonian and Kimian states(see e.g. Maienborn 2003. Analysis reveals that the copula construction with colour adjective as predicative is ambiguous, inclining to the Kimian states but also assigning properties characteristic to the Davidsonian states; the stative colour verbs, in turn, are true examples of Davidsonian states. In addition to the examination of the stative properties, the conceptual structure analysis of the colour expressions instantiating stative and dynamic states is given. The observer’s evaluation of the coloured object as a mental image is treated as part of the lexical information of the colour statives. Also, sentential and contextual phenomena of the colour statives are discussed.

  11. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmets, L; Samm, A; Sisask, M; Kõlves, K; Aasvee, K; Värnik, A

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)." It aimed at describing and analyzing how the sexual behaviors of 13- to 15-year-old Estonian school children were associated with self-reported depressive feelings and suicidality. Distinctive behavioral traits in relation to age of first sexual intercourse were also investigated. Self-reported questionnaires from school children (n = 3,055) were analyzed. In total, 15.2% of school children reported being nonvirgin. Among 13-year-olds, 2.9% of girls and 6.8% of boys were nonvirgins. Approximately 25% of the 15-year-old girls and boys were nonvirgins. The likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal ideation increased significantly in both genders with loss of virginity. Boys who had lost their virginity at 13 years or younger were 4.2 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts; comparable girls were 7.8 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Compared to virgins, youths who had lost their virginity reported poor self-assessed health and more risk behaviors in themselves and their peers. Experiences of sexual intercourse increased the odds ratios for depressive feelings and suicidality. The earlier sexual intercourse was initiated, the greater were the odds of lower mental well-being. Risk behaviors emerged as a complex phenomenon requiring complex prevention.

  12. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  13. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: A collective story of Estonian adult educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Larissa; Karu, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    Adult Education has many values, including experiences and co-operation among people, and the fact that adult education is full of stories from adult educators, which can help to understand trends in the past and developments in the present. Established in 1991 as part of a more general regional cooperation among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8), Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education has been mutually enriching and has resulted in the growth of a professional network. The cooperation has led participants through a time of new sources of values, knowledge and contacts, socialisation and transformation, inspiration and challenges, which has influenced their experiences and professional identities. This paper is based on the results of a study entitled "Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: Experience and stories" and focuses on the experiences and professional identities of two generations of Estonian adult educators. The empirical data for the study were collected using narrative-biographical interviews. The paper discusses two research questions: (1) What is the perception and influence of experiences for adult educators? and (2) How have their experiences influenced the professional identity of adult educators?

  15. A study of bovine mastitis, milking procedures and management practices on 25 Estonian dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonova Irina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis prevalence, milking procedures and management practices were investigated in 25 big dairy herds supplying milk to an Estonian dairy company. The aim of the study was to provide information for the company to be used in their new udder health improvement program to be set up after the completion of this study. Methods Quarter milk samples were collected from 3,166 cows for bacterial analysis and SCC (somatic cell counting. During the farm visit the veterinarian filled in a questionnaire about milking procedures and management practices with the help of farm managers. If the milk SCC of a cow or of a quarter exceeded 200,000/ml, the cow was defined as having mastitis. Results The percentage of cows having inflammation in one or more quarters measured by SCC (200,000/ml was 52.7%. Corynebacterium bovis, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacterial isolates. Women as farm owners, and participating in the milking, were associated with lower mastitis prevalence on the farm. Peat bedding was associated with higher mastitis prevalence. Conclusion We demonstrated relatively high mastitis prevalence in this study. Contagious bacteria (eg. S. aureus, C. bovis, S. agalactiae and coagulase negative staphylococci caused most of the infections. These infections are usually spread from cow to cow at milking if the milking hygiene is not good enough. The mastitis situation could be improved by improving milking procedures and hygiene.

  16. Trade Union Responses to Transnational Labour Mobility in the Finnish-Estonian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolle Alho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines trade union strategies in relation to labor migration in Estonia and Finland, drawing on face-to-face interviews with trade unionists and official union statements. The study considers the national trade union strategies located in two separate but interconnected localities that represent different approaches to market economy. Previous research suggests that the national industrial relations system is a key factor in explaining unions’ labor migration strategies. Unions operating in liberal market economies are claimed to be more open toward immigration and more inclusive toward immigrants than unions in coordinated markets. This study analyzes the extent to which this theory holds in the context of Estonia and Finland—Finland representing a coordinated market economy and Estonia a liberal market economy. Furthermore, the analysis examines how the emergence of a translocal labor market, resulting from the geographical vicinity and linguistic affinity between Finland and Estonia as well as from free mobility within the EU, is reflected in trade union approaches to labor migration. The study finds that Finnish trade union strategies influence labor mobility, whereas Estonian trade unions remain bystanders in the issue.

  17. Omaeluloolisus nullindatel / Estonian Life Writing of the 2000s as a Continuity Over the Post-Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of the (literary culture of the 2000s is a sudden increase in the publication of works of life writing in different genres. Although life writing as a phenomenon has received considerably more critical attention in recent years, it has not yet settled within the literary canon, and theoretical debates concerning its diverse textual practises are still in initial phases. The current article provides an overview of Estonian life writing of the 2000s, viewing the emergence of new forms, themes and perspectives as a continuity within the wider framework of the post-Soviet period and in comparison with some recent developments and theoretical foci of life writing studies in general.The processes of the construction of subjectivity and identity in a number of autobiographical writings published in the first half of the 2000s can be traced back to the emergence of Estonian “memorial culture” in the late 1980s and 1990s, where oral and written testimonial accounts of personal experience focusing on the period of the Soviet occupation played an important role in the process of dismantling the official Soviet discourses of history and contributed to the process of regaining independence. A number of life writing texts by well-known Estonian literary figures published in the mid-2000s employ modes of collective and individual self-conception and self-reflection similar to those prevalent in the texts of life stories. No longer employed for the purposes of implementing socio-political change, these works confirm and consolidate such modes of identification and self-representation within the framework of (literary culture. Another important trend of Estonian life writing of the 2000s involves “textual games”, where lived experience and the construction of fictional worlds are intertwined in a complex and self-conscious manner. Visible most strongly in the work of Tõnu Õnnepalu and Madis Kõiv, this feature of Estonian life

  18. Seltsi muuseumist riigi keskmuuseumiks: ikka ajutiste lahendustega / Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Aru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the presentThe Estonian National Museum was founded in Tartu in 1909 as part of the national movement. With its activities and connections in society, the ENM helped create Estonian society, the nation’s collective memory and identity.The ENM has always been – despite the changing locations, names, and content – one of the symbols of national identity. But at the same time, ENM has never had its own building designed specially for the museum’s purposes.Since 1909 there have been several attempts to establish a home for the ENM. At first (1909–1923, Estonian society wanted to establish the museum in the center of Tartu. The museum was intended to become a key institution of the growing nation and establishing the nation’s identity.At last in 1923 the ENM secured the Raadi manor, outside the center of the city, in a beautiful park, near the lake with its boats and water attractions. In this manor the first permanent exhibition of mainly 19th century Estonian peasant life was compiled, and the ENM operated in the Raadi manor from 1923–1940 as the “Estonian’s own museum” The years of alternating occupations, World War II, and political terror damaged and destroyed the whole society. The Raadi manor was destroyed in the war too, and the ENM itself was divided into two parts – the State Ethnographic Museum and the State Literary Museum. The collections of the ENM were given to Tallinn and to many different places inside and outside Tartu. Then began “the period of temporary location” that continues today. The museum is located in several places in the city of Tartu.In 1988, the prior name of the State Ethnographic Museum – the Estonian National Museum – was reinstated. Since the 1990s there have been many attempts to secure a special building for the ENM. Now, at last, as a result of serious economic pressure, we are closer to this goal than ever. During the last five

  19. Bernhard Linde. Noor-Eesti vooriülem. Bernhard Linde. Leader of the Young Estonian Pack

    OpenAIRE

    Jaanus Kulli

    2012-01-01

    Bernhard Linde (1886–1954) was a recognized and prolific Estonian theatre critic of the first quarter of the 20th century, who mediated and propagated western as well as eastern European theatrical innovations. In addition, he was active as a literary and art critic, publisher, and proponent of libraries, to a modest extent he was a prose writer and poet. Unquestionably, however, Bernhard Linde’s most prominent role was as one of the founding members of the literary movement Young Estonia. He...

  20. Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale short form (SWN-K): reliability and validity in an Estonian speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Liina; Mõttus, René; Jaanson, Peeter; Pilli, Raine; Mägi, Kairi; Maron, Eduard

    2013-09-11

    The Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale short form (SWN-K) is a self-rating scale developed to measure mentally ill patients' well-being under the antipsychotic drug treatment. This paper reports on adaptation and psychometric properties of the instrument in an Estonian psychiatric sample. In a naturalistic study design, 124 inpatients or outpatients suffering from the first psychotic episode or chronic psychotic illness completed the translated SWN-K instrument. Item content analysis, internal consistency analysis, exploratory principal components analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to construct the Estonian version of the SWN-K (SWN-K-E). Additionally, socio-demographic and clinical data, observer-rated psychopathology, medication side effects, daily antipsychotic drug dosages, and general functioning were assessed at two time points, at baseline and after a 29-week period; the associations of the SWN-K-E scores with these variables were explored. After having selected 20 items for the Estonian adaptation, the internal consistency of the total SWN-K-E was 0.93 and the subscale consistencies ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for the adapted scale scores, with the correlation of the total score over about 6 months being r = 0.70. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the presence of a higher-order factor (general well-being) and five first-order factors (mental functioning, physical functioning, social integration, emotional regulation, and self-control); the model fitted the data well. The results indicated a moderate-high correlations r = 0.54 between the SWN-K-E total score and the evaluation how satisfied patients were with their lives in generally. No significant correlations were found between the overall subjective well-being score and age, severity of the psychopathology, drug adverse effects, or prescribed drug dosage. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the Estonian

  1. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  2. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Mixotrophy in Pyroleae (Ericaceae) from Estonian boreal forests does not vary with light or tissue age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Félix; Puttsepp, Ülle; Lang, Mait; Luud, Aarne; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Palancade, Cécile; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-09-01

    In temperate forests, some green plants, namely pyroloids (Pyroleae, Ericaceae) and some orchids, independently evolved a mode of nutrition mixing photosynthates and carbon gained from their mycorrhizal fungi (mixotrophy). Fungal carbon is more enriched in 13C than photosynthates, allowing estimation of the proportion of carbon acquired heterotrophically from fungi in plant biomass. Based on 13C enrichment, mixotrophic orchids have previously been shown to increase shoot autotrophy level over the growth season and with environmental light availability. But little is known about the plasticity of use of photosynthetic versus fungal carbon in pyroloids. Plasticity of mixotrophy with leaf age or light level (estimated from canopy openness) was investigated in pyroloids from three Estonian boreal forests. Bulk leaf 13C enrichment of five pyroloid species was compared with that of control autotrophic plants along temporal series (over one growth season) and environmental light gradients (n=405 samples). Mixotrophic 13C enrichment was detected at studied sites for Pyrola chlorantha and Orthilia secunda (except at one site for the latter), but not for Chimaphila umbellata, Pyrola rotundifolia and Moneses uniflora. Enrichment with 13C did not vary over the growth season or between leaves from current and previous years. Finally, although one co-occurring mixotrophic orchid showed 13C depletion with increasing light availability, as expected for mixotrophs, all pyroloids responded identically to autotrophic control plants along light gradients. A phylogenetic trend previously observed is further supported: mixotrophy is rarely supported by 13C enrichment in the Chimaphila + Moneses clade, whereas it is frequent in the Pyrola + Orthilia clade. Moreover, pyroloid mixotrophy does not respond plastically to ageing or to light level. This contrasts with the usual view of a convergent evolution with orchids, and casts doubt on the way pyroloids use the carbon gained from their

  4. Personality traits and eating habits in a large sample of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Deary, Ian J; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Diet has health consequences, which makes knowing the psychological correlates of dietary habits important. Associations between dietary habits and personality traits were examined in a large sample of Estonians (N = 1,691) aged between 18 and 89 years. Dietary habits were measured using 11 items, which grouped into two factors reflecting (a) health aware and (b) traditional dietary patterns. The health aware diet factor was defined by eating more cereal and dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits. The traditional diet factor was defined by eating more potatoes, meat and meat products, and bread. Personality was assessed by participants themselves and by people who knew them well. The questionnaire used was the NEO Personality Inventory-3, which measures the Five-Factor Model personality broad traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, along with six facets for each trait. Gender, age and educational level were controlled for. Higher scores on the health aware diet factor were associated with lower Neuroticism, and higher Extraversion, Openness and Conscientiousness (effect sizes were modest: r = .11 to 0.17 in self-ratings, and r = .08 to 0.11 in informant-ratings, ps < 0.01 or lower). Higher scores on the traditional diet factor were related to lower levels of Openness (r = -0.14 and -0.13, p < .001, self- and informant-ratings, respectively). Endorsement of healthy and avoidance of traditional dietary items are associated with people's personality trait levels, especially higher Openness. The results may inform dietary interventions with respect to possible barriers to diet change.

  5. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  6. Prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in Estonian, Latvian, and Russian (Leningrad region) pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pilar Ortiz; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Sokolova, Yulia; Roasto, Mati; Berzins, Aivars; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Tonsils of 457 fattening pigs from Estonia (n = 151), Latvia (n = 109), and the Leningrad Region of Russia (n = 197) were collected between 2004 and 2007 to study the prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in slaughter pigs. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated by selective and cold enrichment. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were identified by PCR targeting the chromosomal genes ail and inv, respectively. The presence of the virulence plasmid was confirmed by PCR targeting the virF gene of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The prevalence of ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was 89% in Estonia, 64% in Latvia, and 34% in Russia, with 81% of ail-positive samples being virF-positive. A statistically significant (p Estonian and Latvian pigs and between pigs from Latvia and the Leningrad Region of Russia was observed when assuming randomized sampling. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 was the only pathogenic type found. The prevalence of inv and virF-positive Y. pseudotuberculosis was higher in Russia (7%) than in Latvia (5%) and Estonia (1%), with a statistically significant difference between pigs from Estonia and the Leningrad Region of Russia when assuming both randomized sampling and clustering at farms. All Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates were bioserotype 2/O:3. A total of eight pigs (2%), one pig from Latvia and seven pigs from the Leningrad Region of Russia, carried both pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils. Cold enrichment was found to be a more efficient method compared to selective enrichment to isolate both species. Pigs seem to be an important reservoir of human enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 2/O:3 in these countries.

  7. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions

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    Aasmäe Birgit

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001 for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%, Streptococcus uberis (19.1% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%. In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%. Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.

  8. Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25-54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008-09. Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The Estonian Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 56.3-64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI = 15.4-22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI = 14.4-20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI = 11.3-17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.2-7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI = 0.6-2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. The majority of 554 men aged 25-54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008-09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  10. Economic modelling of the capture-transport-sink scenario of industrial CO2 emissions: The Estonian-Latvian cross-border case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shogenova, A.; Shogenov, K.; Pomeranceva, R.; Nulle, I.; Neele, F.; Hendriks, C.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial CO2 emissions and opportunities for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Region were studied within the EU GeoCapacity project supported by the European Union Framework Programme 6. Estonia produces the largest amounts of CO2 emissions in the region, due to the combustion of Estonian oil

  11. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  12. “... if there’s a party, then there’s definitely alcohol”. Construction of partying practices and abstinence in Estonian youth forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parder Mari-Liisa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Adolescents’ abstinence from alcohol has not been much researched in terms of providing suggestions for prevention strategies. This study aims to fill that gap by offering a practice theory-inspired analysis of how the unwritten rules of partying practices are communicated between posters of Estonian youth forums.

  13. A Silent Finn, a Silent Finno-Ugric, or a Silent Nordic? A Comparative Study of Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; de Geer, Boel; Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu

    2003-01-01

    Compared verbal characteristics of family interaction in the stereotypically tongue-tied Nordic region of the Western world. Compared mothers' and early adolescents' talkativeness and monologuing and mothers' conversational dominance emerging in real-life video recordings in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish monolingual and bilingual families. (VWL)

  14. Health-related quality of life of Estonian adolescents: reliability and validity of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viira, Roomet; Koka, Andre

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales among Estonian adolescents. Gender differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were also investigated. The 654 adolescents (309 boys and 345 girls) aged 13-14 years (M age = 13.57 years, SD = 0.62) completed Estonian version of the PedsQL™ 4.0. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis for a five-factor model of the Estonian version of PedsQL™ 4.0 approached the criteria of acceptable fit after setting error covariance to be free between some of the items within physical health, emotional functioning and social functioning subscales. Cronbach's alpha coefficients exceeded the minimum criterion of 0.70 for all subscales except for days missed from school because of illness subscale. With regard to gender differences, consistent with previous studies, girls reported lower level on total score of HRQoL as well as its aspects of physical health, emotional functioning and psychosocial health. The present study revealed that after some modifications, the PedsQL™ 4.0 could be considered as suitable instrument to measure HRQoL among Estonian adolescents. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Corporate Governance from the Perspective of Stakeholder Theory and in Light of Perceptions among Estonian Owners and Managers of Relations with Stakeholders / Mari Kooskora

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kooskora, Mari, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Äriühingute valitsemise kontseptsioon ja teoreetiline taust; Eesti omanike ja tippjuhtide ootused suhetes erinevate huvigruppidega ning äriühingute valitsemine huvigruppide teooriast lähtudes. Skeem: The stakeholder model. Tabelid: Contractual and community stakeholders; Overview of how perceptions of the main stakeholder groups among Estonian business leaders between 1995-2004 have changed

  16. Characterisation of Estonian Kukersite by spectroscopy and pyrolysis: Evidence for abundant alkyl phenolic moieties in an Ordovician, marine, Type II/I kerogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Casadevall, E.; Tegelaar, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    The kerogen of a sample of Estonian Kukersite (Ordovician) was examined by spectroscopic (solid state 13C NMR, FTIR) and pyrolytic ('off-line', flash) methods. This revealed an important contribution of long, linear alkyl chains in Kukersite kerogen. The hydrocarbons formed upon pyrolysis are

  17. Omaeluloolisus eesti teatris: Merle Karusoo lavastustest. Life Narratives and Estonian Theatre: The Productions of Merle Karusoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Any consideration of Estonian theatre from the point of view of biographical theatre needs to include the work of playwright and director Merle Karusoo. Productions based on various life narratives (diaries, letters, biographical interviews form the core of her work that can be defined as biographical or memory theatre. Her work has also been viewed within the context of community theatre or political theatre; Karusoo has herself referred to her work as sociological theatre. Life narratives have functioned in Karusoo’s productions as the basis for restoring oppressed or denied collective discourses of memory. Her productions emerged within the framework of the more general process of restoration of historical heritage and the rehabilitation of collective memory at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. Life story can be viewed as the essence of Merle Karusoo’s theatre. The personal in the life story in the production activates the emotional memory of the audience; for older generations such theatre facilitates a legitimisation of remembering one’s life story in entirety, and for younger generations it functions as a vehicle of collective, historical and national memory. The current article outlines the main stages of Karusoo’s biographical theatre, highlights major productions of each stage and provides an overview of their reception. Karusoo’s theatre dates back to 1980s. Productions based on life stories of the generations born in 1950s and 1960s, Meie elulood (Our Biographies and Kui ruumid on täis ... (Full Rooms both in 1982, mediated fragments of life stories of 16 drama students, focusing on the processes of self-conception and -reflection of young persons. In the context of the Soviet regime that exerted firm ideological control over the private lives of its citizens, Karusoo’s productions struck an especially powerful and unusual chord. Karusoo’s biographical theatre has gathered momentum and assumed a more

  18. Euroopa-ihalusest taasiseseisvusperioodi autobiograafiates / European Identifications in Post-Soviet Estonian Life Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kurvet-Käosaar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel käsitleb Euroopat kui identiteedi ja minaduse sõlmpunkti ja enesevahenduse mõõdet kolmes omaelulookirjutuslikus teoses, mille autoritel on väljapaistev positsioon eesti (kirjanduskultuuris: Jaan Krossi „Kallid kaasteelised“ (2003a, 2008, Jaan Kaplinski „Isale“ (2003 ja Tõnu Õnnepalu „Flandria päevik“ (2007. Artikkel keskendub sellele, kuidas küsimused suhestumise trajektooridest Euroopa mäluruumiga haakuvad Krossi, Kaplinski ja Õnnepalu teostes esiletuleva enesemääratlusliku raamiga, neist lähtuvate vastastikuse kõnetuse võimaluste ja oma aegruumi tunnetuse pidepunktidega. Kuigi tegemist on eesti keeles ilmunud ning eesti kultuuriruumi lugejale suunatud teostega, seostuvad neis väljajoonistuvad enesemääratluse teljed viimastel aastakümnetel hoogustunud laiemate aruteludega ühtse Euroopa mäluraami ning identiteedi võimalikkusest ja selle toimimise tingimustest.   In recent years, the question of the possibility of a shared frame of memory and identity in Europe, its desired manifestations and practices for attaining it as well as its obstacles and limitations to it have gained prominence in scholarly debates in a number of disciplines. In terms of the division between the East and West of Europe, these discussions take as their starting point the collapse of the Soviet system in 1989 as well as the European Union enlargement in 2004. Far from uniform, the exceedingly complex and contrasting ranges of arguments have put forward a varied palette of perspectives and suggestions about possible and desirable implications of Europe in different socio-political and cultural configurations. Taking these debates as my starting point, the current article offers an analysis of three life writing works by contemporary Estonian authors and intellectuals, Kallid kaasteelised (Dear Fellow Travellers, 2003, 2008 by Jaan Kross, Isale (To My Father, 2003 by Jaan Kaplinski and Flandria päevik (The Flemish Diary

  19. Two Decades of Estonian Police and the (Irrelevance of Police Models for the Development of Safety Policy

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    Priit Suve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Police models are designed to improve safety in society. Although Estonia has not deliberately used any (combination of police models for developing its policies of safety and its police reforms since the country regained independence, its safety has improved considerably during the last couple of decades. The scholarly discussions about police models are overwhelmingly about the possible effects of different models on safety management and about their application to particular countries. However, countries like Estonia with no consistent conceptions of police have received little attention in academic literature. We aim to fill this gap by analysing the developments of the Estonian police in its philosophical, strategic, tactical and organisational dimensions over the period between 1991 and 2013. The analysed materials include the official police development plans, legislation, statutes, training programs and statistics about the police. Our analysis shows that although safety in Estonia has improved considerably, developments of the Estonian police are characterised by internal discrepancies and inconsistencies. In view of this, we put forth some hypotheses for further studies regarding policy development in a situation where policy is not explicitly stated or where organisational reforms are seen not as “simple” or “complex” problems, but as “wicked” problems.

  20. HIV incidence in the Estonian population in 2013 determined using the HIV-1 limiting antigen avidity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodla, P; Simmons, R; Huik, K; Pauskar, M; Jõgeda, E-L; Rajasaar, H; Kallaste, E; Maimets, M; Avi, R; Murphy, G; Porter, K; Lutsar, I

    2017-08-01

    Estonia has one the highest number of new HIV diagnoses in the European Union, mainly among injecting drug users and heterosexuals. Little is known of HIV incidence, which is crucial for limiting the epidemic. Using a recent HIV infection testing algorithm (RITA) assay, we aimed to estimate HIV incidence in 2013. All individuals aged ≥18 years newly-diagnosed with HIV in Estonia January- December 2013, except blood donors and those undergoing antenatal screening, were included. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the Estonian Health Board and the Estonian HIV-positive patient database. Serum samples were tested for recent infection using the LAg-avidity EIA assay. HIV incidence was estimated based on previously published methods. Of 69,115 tested subjects, 286 (0.41%) were newly-diagnosed with HIV with median age of 33 years (IQR: 28-42) and 65% male. Self-reported routes of HIV transmission were mostly heterosexual contact (n = 157, 53%) and injecting drug use (n = 62, 21%); 64 (22%) were with unknown risk group. Eighty two (36%) were assigned recent, resulting in estimated HIV incidence of 0.06%, corresponding to 642 new infections in 2013 among the non-screened population. Incidence was highest (1.48%) among people who inject drugs. These high HIV incidence estimates in Estonia call for urgent action of renewed targeted public health promotion and HIV testing campaigns. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  1. Isamaalaulud ja okupatsioonirežiim – nostalgia, utoopia ja reaalsus. Estonian Patriotic Songs and the Occupational Regime – Nostalgia, Utopia and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanni Labi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Estonian knowledge of history emanates from the fact that constituting an independent nation has for the most part been nothing but a utopia, and was a reality for a relatively short time. When it comes to selfidentification though, the expression ’a singing people’ is often used by the Estonians to describe themselves. Nostalgia for freedom is reflected in the Estonian culture of almost all periods and is carried on by the singing tradition, where patriotic songs emerge independent of different musical tastes within a particular generation and form an important part of a common Estonian repertoire. Patriotic songs occupy a central place in several fields of Estonian culture: besides music culture also in popular culture,and literary history – the works of poetry which have gained the most popularity are those which when put to music have been the most widely spread among the people. The main part of the most popular Estonian patriotic songs are choral songs from the national awakening at the end of the 19th century. Despite the national programmes aiming to wipe out ‘bourgeois nationalism’, they were sung at the song festivals in the Soviet era and were published in song books, expressing the people’s nostalgia for freedom lost. After the end of the Second World War, there was an attempt at launching a kind of patriotic new creation, where patriotism was merged with Soviet pathos; the aim was to show that the people’s utopia was in fact communism, but not a single one of those songs made it into the people’s common repertoire. Only the patriotic songs composed in the 1980s during the so-called new national awakening reached a popularity comparable to that of the old songs. The discourse on ’Estonianness’ and the shaping of a matching repertoire under imperial Russian rule took place under very different circumstances than its preservation and development in the second half of the 20th century under Soviet occupation, but

  2. Capabilities of Universities in Achieving the Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All (100%) the respondents had no capability in acquiring machines and equipment needed for teaching and conducting researches on climate change. Majority (85%) of the respondents had no capability in terms of human resource development with regards to climate change. Funding/manpower (0.657), organizational ...

  3. Use of a national database as a tool to identify primary medication non-adherence: The Estonian ePrescription system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laius, Ott; Pisarev, Heti; Volmer, Daisy; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare; Maasalu, Katre

    2017-10-05

    Medication adherence can be divided into primary and secondary adherence. Primary medication non-adherence (PMN) occurs when a patient does not obtain medicine with their initial prescription. Secondary non-adherence measures prescription refills among patients who previously filled their first prescription. While secondary non-adherence has been studied thoroughly, PMN has been assessed less extensively, due to lack of available data. Estonian ePrescription system might prove a valuable tool for this. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMN and the interval between prescribing and dispensing of medicines using the Estonian ePrescriptions database to establish its potential use for this purpose and for other qualitative drug utilization research measures. Osteoporosis medicines were used as an example. The Estonian Prescription Centre was used to evaluate if patients purchase medicines after initial prescription of osteoporosis medicine. Prescriptions from 2012 to 2015 of all patients over 18 were included. PMN was defined as the first prescription not being dispensed before it expired (60 days). The rate of PMN was calculated. Estonian ePrescription System enabled fast evaluation of PMN of osteoporosis patients based on data about prescribing, dispensing and time intervals in-between. Of patients who started osteoporosis treatment 13.1% were primary non-adherent. Of primary non-adherent patients 42% still started treatment at some point during the study. Of patients who did purchase their first prescription 80.4% did so within a week and 95% within 25 days. The Estonian ePrescription system is a useful tool for monitoring PMN. The PMN of osteoporosis medicines was identified as lower than previously reported. More similar type of studies about other groups of medicines would be needed to understand the pattern of PMN and give valuable information to healthcare specialists about how to increase initiation of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Sustainable Agriculture Course Delivered Nationally via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, R. J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an instructional model for a sustainable agriculture telecourse offered nationally by Iowa State University. Includes preproduction activities; technology employed; budget; time requirements; course content; student postevaluation results. Provides information and suggestions for individuals and institutions considering production or…

  5. AN ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan, China. 182# Nanhu Avenue ... agriculture sector to private partnership control as ... Indeed important projects followed the country's movement ... alleviation, food security and for nutrition.

  6. Eesti autobiograafilise kirjutuse kujunemisest 18. sajandist Teise maailmasõjani. The Development of Estonian Autobiographical Writing from the 18th Century to the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the development of Estonian autobiographical writing from its first manifestations to published memoirs, and the development of life writing and its diversification. The beginnings of life writing can be traced back to Estonian folk song and Estonian incidental poetry. The Moravian Brethren movement in Estonia in the 18th century promoted the spread of canonical autobiography. The Moravian Brethren offered alternative opportunities for self-realisation for Estonians who were serfs, and were therefore popular with the people. The practice of the Moravian Brethren made use of retelling and writing about the life of the congregation members, which sometimes became suitable biographies in print, especially stories of awakening. Several manuscript biographies have survived from the Brethren times, such as the biographies of Mäletu Jaan and Mihkel Sarapuu. In addition to the history of the Moravian Brethren movement, these biographies give information about the educational situation and living conditions of the people of the time. The Estonian life writing tradition emerged within the reigning Baltic German cultural space thanks to the Estophiles among the Baltic Germans (J. H. Rosenplänter and the first Estonian men of letters; from the early 19th century we have the diary by Rosenplänter, an estophile pastor from Pärnu, and the diary by the Estonian poet, the then-student Kristjan Jaak Peterson, both in the Estonian language. Johann Voldemar Jannsen, the founder of Estonian-language journalism, kept a diary in the German language for a longer period of time; it was usual that the first Estonian intellectuals (Lilli Suburg, and others in the late 19th century wrote in German. Admittedly, the first Estonian-language life history was written by a forward-looking 19th century peasant named Märt Mitt (1833-1912, who was conscious of himself as a historical subject and gave his memoirs, begun in the 1880s, a memorable title

  7. Riik võib lüüa SAS-i esmaspäevaks Estonian Airi omanikeringist välja / Erik Müürsepp, Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Erik

    2008-01-01

    SAS osaleb Estonian Airþile lisakapitali eraldamises ainult juhul, kui Eesti riik müüb oma osaluses lennukompaniis SAS-ile. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  8. Eesti Maaülikooli spordihoone = The Sports Hall of the Estonian University of Life Sciences / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tartus Kreutzwaldi 3 asuva EMÜ spordihoone arhitektuursest lahendusest. Arhitektid: Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke (Salto AB). Sisearhitektid: Katrin Kaevats, Jaan Port (Funk AB). Žürii liikme Kalle Komissarovi hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  9. Wheezing in relation to atopy and environmental factors in Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annus, T; Björkstén, B; Mai, X M; Nilsson, L; Riikjärv, M A; Sandin, A; Bråbäck, L

    2001-12-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is significantly lower in post socialist Eastern Europe than in Western industrialized countries. The reason for this difference is largely unknown. Different types of childhood wheezing could be related to different risk factors. To compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, asthma and atopic diseases among Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren and to evaluate characteristics for wheezing in the two countries. In a prevalence study, population-based random samples of 10-11-year-old schoolchildren in Tallinn (n = 979), Estonia and in Linköping (n = 911) and Ostersund (n = 1197), Sweden were studied by a parental questionnaire and skin prick tests (SPT). All 275 children with wheeze in the past 12 months and 710 randomly selected controls within the original cohorts were invited to a case-control study involving a parental questionnaire, examination for flexural dermatitis and bronchial challenge with hypertonic saline. The study adhered to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase II protocol. The prevalence of current wheezing was similar (8-10%) in the three centres, while diagnosed asthma and atopic symptoms were more common in Sweden and cold-related respiratory symptoms were more prevalent in Estonia. Frequent wheezing was more common in Sweden than in Estonia (but significantly so only in Ostersund). Wheezing children in Sweden had a high rate of positive SPT (49% in Linköping and 58% in Ostersund) bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) (48% in Linköping and Ostersund) and anti-asthmatic treatment (63% in Linköping and 81% in Ostersund). In Estonia, the proportion of wheezing children with positive SPT, BHR and anti-asthmatic treatment was only 26%, 13% and 17%, respectively. Domestic crowding was inversely related to wheezing in one of the study areas (Ostersund). The mean baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was higher in Estonia than in Sweden, both in

  10. On-farm mortality, causes and risk factors in Estonian beef cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõtus, Kerli; Reimus, Kaari; Orro, Toomas; Viltrop, Arvo; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High on-farm mortality is associated with lower financial return of production and poor animal health and welfare. Understanding the reasons for on-farm mortality and related risk factors allows focus on specific prevention measures. This retrospective cohort study used cattle registry data from the years 2013 and 2014, collected from cattle from all Estonian cow-calf beef herds. The dataset contained 78,605 animal records from 1321 farms in total. Including unassisted deaths and euthanasia (2199 in total) the on-farm mortality rate was 2.14 per 100 animal-years. Across all age groups of both sexes the mortality rate (MR) was highest for bull calves up to three months old (MR=7.78 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 6.97; 8.68) followed by that for heifer calves (MR=6.21 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 5.49; 7.02). For female cattle the mortality risk declined after three months of age but increased again among animals over 18 months. The reason for death stated by the farmers was analysed for cattle under animal performance testing. Other/unknown reasons, trauma and accidents, as well as metabolic and digestive disorders, formed the three most commonly reported reasons for death in cattle of all age groups. Weibull proportional hazard models with farm frailty effects were applied in three age categories (calves up to three months, youngstock from three to 18 months and cattle aged over 18 months) to identify factors associated with the risk of mortality. Male sex was associated with increased risk of mortality in cattle up to 18 months of age. No difference between breeds was found for cattle up to 18 months of age. Beef cattle breeds rarely represented or dairy breeds (breed category 'Other') had the highest mortality hazard (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.11; 1.78) compared to Hereford. The hazard of mortality generally increased with herd size for calves, young stock and older bulls. In female cattle over 18 months of age there was no difference in mortality hazard over herd size

  11. China Report, Agriculture Hunan Agricultural Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-13

    plant stalks and stems for high temperature composting in heaps, with regulation of the per- centage of carbon and nitrogen to promoting rotting and...300127 JPRS-CAG-84-022 13 August 1984 China Report AGRICULTURE HUNAN AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A \\ Approved for...Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-CAG-84-022 13 August 1984 CHINA REPORT AGRICULTURE HUNAN AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Changsha HUNAN NONGYE DILI

  12. Urban Agriculture Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, A J; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  13. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun

    2017-08-01

    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  14. Iseseisvusdeklaratsioonid 1776–1918. The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An Example of the Civilizing Force of Hypocrisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hent Kalmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty has been characterised as a form of “organized hypocrisy”, a system governed by a set of rules that are generally recognised as binding and yet are continually infringed upon by the most powerful actors. This idea can be extended to analyse the role of sovereignty within the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was nominally governed by a Constitution which endowed the Union Republics with the right of secession, but there was no realistic possibility of exercising this right. One should not rush to conclude, however, that the actual wording of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 was entirely without relevance. As Jon Elster has argued, hypocrisy can have a “civilizing force” when the need to appear impartial and to retain public credibility forces actors to choose a strategy they would not choose otherwise. A good example of this kind of argumentative constraint is offered by the dilemma faced by the Soviet leadership after the mid-1980s, as it became reluctant to use military force to suppress independence movements within the Baltic States while, at the same time, promising to give more weight to the Soviet Constitution and respect the “sovereignty” of the Union Republics. In this setting, the ambiguity of the word “sovereignty” could be played upon by a whole gamut of political movements in order to further their agenda, from local communists eager to expand their autonomy within the Soviet system to those making an explicit bid for the restoration of independence. Significant legal and political changes could be justified as mere conclusions from the constitutionally recognised status of the Union Republics – a strategy which was all the more effective as Moscow struggled to formulate an alternative line of constitutional interpretation that could be used to counter the Baltic claims. This exchange of opinions escalated into a constitutional conflict in November 1988, when the Estonian Supreme Soviet responded to

  15. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  16. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy and IgE antibodies to food allergens in Swedish and Estonian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, A; Annus, T; Björkstén, B; Nilsson, L; Riikjärv, M-A; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Bråbäck, L

    2005-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-reported food allergy and IgE antibodies to food allergens in wheezing and non-wheezing Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren, in the light of the disparities in the standard of living, food consumption and prevalence of respiratory allergies that still exist between Estonia and the Scandinavian countries. As a part of the ISAAC Phase II study, children from a random sample of schools in Tallinn in Estonia and Linköping and Ostersund in Sweden participated in skin prick tests to inhalant allergens and the parents replied to questionnaires. IgE antibodies against a panel of food allergens (egg white, milk, soy bean, fish, wheat and peanut) were taken from children with questionnaire-reported wheezing and a random sample of nonwheezing children. Children aged 10-11 y. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was similar in Estonia and Sweden and about twice as high in wheezing children than in nonwheezing children. In Estonia, however, 3% of the children with perceived food allergy reported reactions from at least four different foods, as compared to 31% in Sweden. The prevalence of sensitisation to food allergens was similar in wheezing and nonwheezing children in Estonia (8%) while, in Swedish children, IgE antibodies to food allergens were more likely among wheezing children (Linköping 38 vs 11%, crude OR 5.1, 95% CI 2.2-11.6, and Ostersund 24 vs 7%, crude OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9-8.5). Our study suggests that IgE-mediated food reactions were less likely in Estonian schoolchildren. Moreover, the perception of food allergy and thereby the meaning of self-reported food allergy appears to be different in the two countries.

  17. Tõlkepärl eesti ilukirjanduse algusaegadest – esimene eestikeelne robinsonaad / A Translation Gem from the Beginnings of Estonian Literature - the First Robinsonade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artiklis uuritakse Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumis asuvat mahukat, ligi 800 lk tõlkekäsikirja „Norem Robinson“, mida võib pidada esimeseks eesti kirjanduse täiemahuliseks robinsonaadiks. Selle valmistas Pärnu koolmeister Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn saksa pedagoogi ja koolikirjaniku Joachim Heinrich Campe menukast noorsooromaanist „Robinson der Jüngere“ (1779–1780. Tõlge valmis 1822.–1823. aastal, kuid jõudis trükki alles 1842. aastal tugevasti kärbitud ja mugandatud kujul. Toetudes deskriptiivse tõlkeuurimuse analüüsikategooriatele, vaadeldakse artiklis, millised tegurid tõlkeprotsessi suunasid ja milline oli kultuuriruum, kuhu tõlge omal ajal paigutus. SU M M A R Y This article discusses a voluminous manuscript translation of almost 800 pages entitled Norem Robinson (Engl. Robinson the Younger, from the collections of the Estonian Literary Museum. This manuscript can be considered as the first complete Robinsonade in Estonian literature. Its author is a schoolteacher from Pärnu, Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn (1803–1847, who translated it from the youth novel Robinson der Jüngere(1779–1780, Engl. Robinson the Younger, a bestseller by the educator, writer and a major representative of German Enlightenment, Heinrich Joachim Campe. Lorenzsonn’s translation was completed in 1822–1823, but not printed until 1842 in a strongly adapted version titled Norema Robinsoni ello ja juhtumised ühhe tühja sare peäl (Engl. The Life and Adventures of Robinson the Younger on a deserted island. The print version of the Robinsonade lacks a pedagogical frame story, where the father tells children about the adventures of Robinson and takes the opportunity to discuss and imitate with children all the actions taken by Robinson the Younger. Due to this and other extirpated parts, the possible target audience was enlarged – besides children and youth, the text was now addressed to adults as well. In accordance with the

  18. Report on the 42nd International Symposium: Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 25-28 February 2014, Opatija, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Kosutic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 42nd International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering was held on 25th-28th February 2014 in Grand Hotel Adriatic Opatija, Republic of Croatia. The principal Organiser - the Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb - was supported by the following frameworks: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University J.J. Strossmayer, Osijek, Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maribor (Slovenia, Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering Gödöllö and Croatian Agricultural Engineering Society. In addition, CIGR, EurAgEng, AAAE bestowed their support and endorsement on the Event.

  19. Report on the 41st International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 19-22 February 2013, Opatija, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Kosutic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The 41st International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering was held on 19th-22nd February 2013 in Grand Hotel Adriatic Opatija, Republic of Croatia. The principal Organiser, Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb was supported by the following frameworks: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University J.J. Strossmayer, Osijek; Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maribor (Slovenia; Agricultural Institute of Slovenia; Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering Gödöllö; and Croatian Agricultural Engineering Society. In addition, CIGR, EurAgEng, AAAE bestowed their support and endorsement to the Event.

  20. Health and safety strategy in Swedish agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Peter; Svennefelt, Catharina Alwall

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden there is a joint focus on injury prevention in agriculture and this is coordinated through the Swedish Committee on Working Environment (LAMK). LAMK is a network working for a good, healthy and safe working environment in Swedish agriculture from the view of the enterprise with the humans in focus. It is a committee consisting of representatives of authorities, institutions, companies, research & education institutions and organisations referring to the green sector. Examples of on-going initiatives & partners are presented which are included in this mission against injuries in agriculture. It involves the Swedish Work Environment Authority,, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), the Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, the Federation of Swedish Forestry and Agricultural Employers (SLA) and the Swedish Municipal Worker's Union.

  1. Agricultural work safety efforts by Wisconsin extension agricultural agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L J; Schuler, R T; Skjolaas, C A; Wilkinson, T L

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the agricultural work-related safety and health programming of county-level cooperative extension agents who work through land grant universities to provide a range of educational programs to agricultural producers. A questionnaire was designed and administered to all 89 Wisconsin agriculture and agribusiness extension county faculty. The questionnaire obtained valid responses from 98.9 percent of the agents. Ninety percent of all agents conducted some occupational safety and health promotion programming in the last year. These activities occupied an average of 4.8 days per agent per year. Most of the reported activities were group programs for the agricultural labor force that involved other extension agents and included the use of videotapes. The greatest barrier to more programming was lack of time on the part of both the agricultural work force and the agents. Most extension agents placed greater emphasis on training in how to work safely around hazards than on how to recognize and permanently correct hazards. For future programs agents requested more short format materials to use in programming, such as fact sheets, videotapes, and farm hazard inspection checklists. Agents are important training delivery resources for controlling farm-related injury and disease. Agents could be more effective with more time, better materials, and with more emphasis on hazard correction in workplace safety programs.

  2. Revitalizing Agricultural Extension Curriculum for Effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors argue that African agricultural universities and colleges must strengthen their capacities to develop and deliver responsive extension training programs in order to train extension staff to become critical thinkers and reflective practitioners. A framework is proposed to guide universities and colleges interested in ...

  3. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South- Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KENNY

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2015. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South-. Western Nigeria: Implications for Rural Economy. *Adeola, R. G. And Adetunbi, S. I.. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development,. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, ...

  4. the case of Uluguru Mountain Agricultural Development Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uluguru Mountain Agricultural Development Project which is based in the Department of Agricultural Education and Extension at Sokoine University of Agriculture, uses a combination of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Participatory Technology Development (PTD), Farmers' Groups and Farmer to Farmer extension ...

  5. Social Media in Agricultural Research in Nigeria: A Platform for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted among agricultural researchers in six agricultural research institutes and a university of agriculture in south-west Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted for the study. Questionnaire was the main instrument of data collection. 140 copies of the questionnaire were administered to the target ...

  6. Analysis Of Career Aspirations Of Agricultural Science Graduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the career aspirations of agricultural science graduates from Nigerian Universities of Agriculture. A random sample of 215 graduating students of agriculture was selected using stratified random sampling method. Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and the ...

  7. Education for Agricultural Improvement: Teacher Certification at the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlbaw, Lynn M.; Williams, Lauren; Kelly, Larry J.

    2017-01-01

    Texas A&M University has long been known for its engineering and agricultural programs. Only in the last 50 years has its reputation included the preparation of teachers for general education in the public schools of Texas. However, agricultural education has been an integral part of the institution's mandate since early in the 20th century.…

  8. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  9. Nigeria Agricultural Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Published by the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, the Nigerian Agricultural Journal is the oldest agricultural journal in the country having been published since 1961. It is published annually and contributions are accepted from any-one engaged in agricultural work in Nigeria and other countries in tropical Africa.

  10. On using an efficiency matrix in analysing profit per employee (on the basis of the Estonian SME software sector) 

    OpenAIRE

    Paavo Siimann; Jaan Alver

    2015-01-01

    Service companies earn their profit mainly due to their employees’ intellectual skills, therefore, increasing profit per employee is one opportunity to increase profit and thereby also the company’s market value. In this article the number of employees, the value of owners’ equity and loan capital, operating expenses, net sales and profit before income tax have been used to analyse the change in profit per employee of the Estonian software small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector in ...

  11. 'No, Facebook isn't distracting me, I can study at night': ICT habits and boundary management among Estonian secondary pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Persson

    2014-01-01

    The topic of this article is the use of information and communication technologies (computers, tablets, and mobile phones) in adolescents and boundary management between mental domains (school and home domain). More specifically, how do Estonian secondary pupils perceive and manage mental boundaries between school work and leisure activities in environments with ubiquitous access to ICT. Building on a mixed methods study consisting of a web survey with structured, closed-ended questions and o...

  12. Wild Estonian and Russian sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Finnish coastal sea trout catches: results of genetic mixed-stock analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Gross, Riho; Koskiniemi, Jarmo

    2014-12-01

    For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish. The baseline dataset provided sufficient resolution for reliable mixture analysis at regional group level, and also for most of the individual rivers stocks. The majority (76-80%) of the total catch originated from Finnish sea trout populations, 6-9% came from Russian and 12-15% from Estonian populations. Nearly all Finnish trout in the catch were of hatchery origin, while the Russian and Estonian trout were mostly of wild origin. The proportion of fish in the Finnish catches that originated from rivers with natural production was at least one fifth (22%, 19-23%). Two different spotting patterns were observed among the captured trout, with a small and sparsely spotted form being markedly more common among individuals of Russian (28%) and Estonian origin (22%) than among fish assigned to a Finnish origin (0.7%). © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Non-market value of Estonian seminatural grasslands: a contingent valuation study. Eesti poolloodusliku rohumaa turuväline väärtus: tingliku hindamise uuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helli Lepasaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminatural grasslands i.e. the floodplain meadows, seashore meadows, wooded meadows, dry meadows, wooded pastures are the very traditional part of Estonian landscapes, which play an important role in the appearance of the landscape in general and also serve as an important habitat for many plant and animal species. In order to preserve the seminatural grasslands continuous annual mowing and/or pasturing is needed. This activity is not economically profitable and needs subsidizing. The authors of the work raise a hypothesis that the Estonian seminatural grasslands could be viewed as a valuable non-market environmental good for which a significant public demand exists. In order to find out the non-market value of the seminatural grasslands a contingent valuation study was carried out among the Estonian working-age population (size of the sample 1061 individuals. The average individual willingness to pay was 11.3 euros. During the study, the authors constructed the total demand function and discovered that the total annual demand for seminatural grasslands was 17.9 million euros.

  14. Breast milk cytokine and IgA composition differ in Estonian and Swedish mothers-relationship to microbial pressure and infant allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicić, Sara; Johansson, Git; Voor, Tiia; Björkstén, Bengt; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2010-10-01

    The immune system of the neonate is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. An altered microbial exposure, possibly underlying the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies, may affect maternal breast milk immune composition. Secretory IgA (SIgA), IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-[gamma], TGF-[beta]1, and TGF-[beta]2 were analyzed with ELISA in colostrum and 1-mo mature milk from mothers from Estonia (n = 39) and Sweden (n = 60), the two geographically adjacent countries with different living conditions and allergy incidence. The IL-10 and IFN-[gamma] levels were higher in colostrum from Estonian than Swedish mothers, whereas the opposite was true for TGF-[beta]2. In mature milk, higher SIgA and IFN-[gamma] levels but lower TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels were observed in Estonian than Swedish mothers. Interestingly, in Sweden but not Estonia, the TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels correlated inversely with environmental endotoxin concentrations, whereas positive correlations to microbial load were observed for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma]. High colostral IL-13 levels were associated with allergic sensitization during infancy in Sweden. In conclusion, Estonian mothers have lower breast milk levels of TGF-[beta], particularly TGF-[beta]2, but higher levels of SIgA, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma] than Swedish mothers, possibly because of differences in microbial load.

  15. Attitudes of students at College of Food and Agricultural Sciences toward agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saleh Shenaifi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of students at the College of Agriculture toward agriculture programs and the field of agriculture in an effort to better identify, recruit, and retain students in the College of Agriculture. The population of the study was 110 students from the College of Agriculture freshmen enrolling in course 203 Ag. ext. Communication skills in 2009 and 60 students who transferred from the College of Agriculture to another College. Questionnaire was reviewed for content and face validity by a panel of experts from the department of Agricultural Extension at the College of Agriculture, King Saud University. A five-point Likert-type scale was used. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was found to be 0.89, which indicated the internal consistency of the scale. Ninety-six of the students were from cities and do not have a farm background. Many of them indicated that they were not happy in the College of Agriculture. Only 31.18% of the respondents (53 indicated that more students should be encouraged to enroll in the College of Agriculture, whereas nearly 69 disagreed or were uncertain. The attitudes of students toward the field of Agriculture were positive. Seventy-one of respondents viewed Agriculture as a scientific area of study, nearly 66% of respondents viewed the field of Agriculture as a blend of scientific principles and agricultural practices. Significant differences at the level of 0.01 were detected, in means of students who had been enrolled in Agricultural program and those students who had not. Students who had enrolled in Agriculture program displayed different attitudes toward the field of Agriculture than did students who were in non-Agriculture program. Generally, students who were studying Agriculture programs possessed attitudes, which were supportive of Agriculture as a career field. Freshmen of the College of Agriculture viewed agriculture as being both scientific and technical. It

  16. 77 FR 60373 - Advisory Committee on Universal Cotton Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Advisory Committee on Universal Cotton Standards AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Committee on Universal Cotton Standards and a Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) intends to re- establish the Advisory Committee on Universal Cotton Standards (Committee...

  17. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile. This fil, Published in 2005, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, University of Georgia.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2005. This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP...

  18. Implementing CLIL in Higher Education in Thailand: The Extent to Which CLIL Improves Agricultural Students' Writing Ability, Agricultural Content, and Cultural Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansri, Charinee; Wasanasomsithi, Punchalee

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which a CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) course at university level in Thailand improves undergraduate Agricultural students' writing ability, agricultural content, and cultural knowledge. The study sample consisted of 27 students majoring in Agriculture at a public university in…

  19. Agriculture Undergraduates Preference For Agriculture Disciplines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that they would have made a change in their fields of study if given the opportunity, which could result in glut of personnel in some departments of agriculture while leaving a surplus in others. Hypothesis testing shows a significant difference among students\\' perception of their discipline and agriculture as the ...

  20. Rahvusliku ajaloo tõlgendusi eesti draamas ja teatris 1970.–1980. aastatel. Interpretations of National History in Estonian Drama and Theatre in the 1970s–1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available According to theatre scholar Freddie Rokem, theatre portraying or performing historical events is seeking to overcome both the separation and the exclusion from the past, as well as ’striving to create a community where the events from this past will matter again’. This article covers the topic of interpretations of national history in Estonian theatre and in original dramaturgy during the Soviet era, with the focus on aspects like national self-reflection and the relationship to the common past. The main focus is on the 1970s, with examples from Rein Saluri’s, Mati Unt’s and Jaan Kaplinski’s drama productions. During the period in question, re-tellings of national history on Estonian theatre stages were clothed in metaphors, allusions and secret codes – Aesopian language. Within the Soviet cultural context, I analyse if and to what extent theatre of the time displayed resistance, political theatre or social allegory. Theatre was also connected with the principle of playing or playfulness, which on one hand indicates national resistance, national endurance, and a certain survival strategy, but on the other hand indicates the Estonian as being an involuntary homo ludens – the Playing Man, who through various enforced roles is trying to adjust to the whirlwinds of history. Saluri’s first play, the intellectual drama Külalised (The Guests, opens with an allusion to a drama classic the world over, William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, adding a powerful national-symbolic background to the play. The role-play which permeates and structures the play (The Host–The Guest however, displays allegorical references to changes in the status and self-image of Estonians. In Unt’s play Peaproov (Dress Rehearsal, the principle of playing/acting sheds ironic light on the makers of an historical film and their readiness to create superficially flashy interpretations at any cost: this take acts as an estranging and generalising reflection in a context

  1. Performance Management of Academic Staff on the Example of the Faculties of Economics in University of Tartu and in Tallinn University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulno Türk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to continue its mission in preparing educated work force needed for supporting implementation of Estonian economic policy, universities need to improve the usage of its scarce resources. We study the expectation and attitudes of academic staff towards performance appraisal and related reward systems. Our survey and focus-group interviews revealed that although the systems deployed in those two Universities were different by its nature – Tartu had adopted performance-based approach, where performance appraisal results were closely connected to salary, and Tallinn University of Technology had taken position-based approach, where general salary condition on the time of appointment play pivotal role – the expectations of staff were similar. In both universities, leaders preferred more measurable performance-based systems, but the rest of staff favoured more loose and stable approaches. Implications of results towards appraisal and rewards systems for academic staff are discussed.

  2. [Towards a renewable and sustainable agriculture. Biological agriculture: from marginal vanguard to spearhead of the agriculture of the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diek Van Mansvelt, J

    1992-01-01

    . The adoption of alternative agricultural practices will require new attitudes and new training for agricultural workers and extension agents. Organic agriculture was highly marginal until the 1970s, but several European universities have created department or sections for organic agriculture, and governmental or quasi-governmental organizations have been created in several countries. Negative prejudices regarding results of organic agriculture remain a major obstacle to their wider acceptance. Detailed research is needed on the positive and negative effects of a change from current chemically based agriculture to an alternative form more attuned to the principles of organic agriculture.

  3. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  4. National Agriculture Imagery Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  5. Agriculture: Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  6. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide is transmitted securely. Menu U.S. Department of Agriculture Main navigation Home Topics Topics Animals Biotechnology Climate ... Agencies and Staff Offices New farmers, start here. Agriculture is full of exciting and rewarding opportunities. Farming ...

  7. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban

  8. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  9. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahu Mati

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT, originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may

  10. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  11. Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

    Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

  12. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  13. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Schans, van der, D.A.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, van, R.

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  14. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

    2003-01-01

    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  15. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  16. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mission Statement The mission of the "Journal of Agricultural Extension" is to publish conceptual papers and empirical research that tests, extends, or builds agricultural extension theory and contributes to the practice of extension worldwide. Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the ...

  17. Eesti patsient. Haiguse ja haige inimese kujutamise mudel 19. sajandi eesti kultuuris ja kirjasõnas. The Estonian Patient: A Model for the Representation of Illness and the Ill in 19th Century Estonian Culture and Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek Kraavi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The portrait of the 18th and 19th century „Estonian patient” sketched in this article is a theoretical model of the ill person, based mainly on literary texts, but with reference to a variety of scientific and popular-scientific material. The point of departure is the classic postcolonial theorist, Frantz Fanon, in whose writings medicine, healing, and discourse on such topics are seen as the functioning of a specific colonial practice. The most notable characteristic of the figure of the Estonian patient is non-communicativeness. Communication is avoided and feared primarily because it has to be directed toward those in higher positions of power, or to institutions that embody power (the apothecary, the hospital. While these traits also characterize the separation between peasants and their rulers more generally, in a situation of illness the exclusion is felt with a double intensity. Sickness casts the peasant in a double bind: when in need of help or healing, contact across the divide between social rank, and – more broadly, between two cultures and ways of understanding the world, becomes unavoidable. In such situations, illness signifies an intensification of the gap in social standing. The ill person, who already stands on a lower rung of the social hierarchy, becomes all the more marginalized. In keeping with these observations, the real reason behind indecisiveness and refusal of medical treatment may well be an effort to avoid or postpone humiliation on the basis of lower social standing. Other contributing factors might include unconscious resistance – or even a conscious model of resistance – in the psyche, which manifests as an avoidance of communication. The content and motivating force for the model is not heroism, but rather a sense of shame. Indeed, behind the context of medical culture lurks ethnic and material isolation. The individual’s economic situation, living conditions, education and – most important – his

  18. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES ON DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKET IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica RUMANOVSKÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the situation of the agricultural land market in Slovakia and in selected region of the SR – Nitra region, on the application and development of agricultural land prices in Slovakia and on the factors that influence the decisions of agricultural enterprises on the market with agricultural land. In this paper were used primary data obtained with interview method realized within the research of Department of European policies, Slovak University of Agriculture during the period 2012 – 2013 in all districts of region Nitra. The evaluation of the impact of agricultural subject on agricultural land market in Slovakia was realized by using the method of regression analysis. Based on the results from the research we can state that entrepreneurs still prefer more to rent land then to purchase a land. The main factors influencing the decision-making process of agricultural subjects are ownership fragmentation, the fragmentation of agricultural plots and business's financial situation and profitability of the purchase. Many entrepreneurs pointed to this indicator as one of the most influential in terms of increasing the market price, respectively as a reason for not signing the lease agreement. The agricultural land market in Slovakia is emerging but still not sufficiently transparent. Further development of the market will continue to be marked by the overall economic situation in agriculture, relatively low competitiveness of Slovak farmers in the European market and reduced profitability. Research showed that the most pronounced effect on the price of agricultural land and the amount of rent for agricultural land has the number of enterprises. Growing number of farms will increase the price or amount of rent for agricultural land.

  19. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  20. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...... the last decades, the composition of agricultural support has changed significantly. Market price support has decreased, and direct support has increased....

  1. Contribution of university farms to teaching and learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to assess the extent to which university farms contribute to the teaching and learning of agricultural science in the five state universities of Ghana. The universities are the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Cope Coast, University of Education ...

  2. Does Internet voting make elections less social? Group voting patterns in Estonian e-voting log files (2013-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taavi Unt

    Full Text Available Remote Internet voting places the control and secrecy of the immediate voting environment on the shoulder of the individual voter but it also turns voting into yet another on-line activity thus endangering the well-known social nature of voting and possibly reducing the crucial sense of civic duty that is important for a healthy democracy. There is however a complete lack of evidence to what degree this actually materializes once electronic voting is introduced. This paper uses individual level log data on Internet voting in Estonian elections between 2013-2015 to inspect if Internet voting retains the social nature of the voting act. We do so by examining if Internet voting in groups takes place and what implications it has for voting speed. We find strong evidence of e-voting in pairs. Same aged male-female pairs seem to be voting in close proximity to each other, consistent with spouses or partners voting together. Also, female-female and female-male pairs with large age differences seem to be voting together, consistent with a parent voting with an adult aged offspring. With regards to voting speed we see the second vote in a vote pair being considerably faster than the first vote, again indicating a shared voting act. We end with a discussion of how the onset of electronic voting does not make elections less social, but does make vote secrecy more a choice rather than a requirement.

  3. Does Internet voting make elections less social? Group voting patterns in Estonian e-voting log files (2013-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unt, Taavi; Solvak, Mihkel; Vassil, Kristjan

    2017-01-01

    Remote Internet voting places the control and secrecy of the immediate voting environment on the shoulder of the individual voter but it also turns voting into yet another on-line activity thus endangering the well-known social nature of voting and possibly reducing the crucial sense of civic duty that is important for a healthy democracy. There is however a complete lack of evidence to what degree this actually materializes once electronic voting is introduced. This paper uses individual level log data on Internet voting in Estonian elections between 2013-2015 to inspect if Internet voting retains the social nature of the voting act. We do so by examining if Internet voting in groups takes place and what implications it has for voting speed. We find strong evidence of e-voting in pairs. Same aged male-female pairs seem to be voting in close proximity to each other, consistent with spouses or partners voting together. Also, female-female and female-male pairs with large age differences seem to be voting together, consistent with a parent voting with an adult aged offspring. With regards to voting speed we see the second vote in a vote pair being considerably faster than the first vote, again indicating a shared voting act. We end with a discussion of how the onset of electronic voting does not make elections less social, but does make vote secrecy more a choice rather than a requirement.

  4. Does Internet voting make elections less social? Group voting patterns in Estonian e-voting log files (2013–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Remote Internet voting places the control and secrecy of the immediate voting environment on the shoulder of the individual voter but it also turns voting into yet another on-line activity thus endangering the well-known social nature of voting and possibly reducing the crucial sense of civic duty that is important for a healthy democracy. There is however a complete lack of evidence to what degree this actually materializes once electronic voting is introduced. This paper uses individual level log data on Internet voting in Estonian elections between 2013–2015 to inspect if Internet voting retains the social nature of the voting act. We do so by examining if Internet voting in groups takes place and what implications it has for voting speed. We find strong evidence of e-voting in pairs. Same aged male-female pairs seem to be voting in close proximity to each other, consistent with spouses or partners voting together. Also, female-female and female-male pairs with large age differences seem to be voting together, consistent with a parent voting with an adult aged offspring. With regards to voting speed we see the second vote in a vote pair being considerably faster than the first vote, again indicating a shared voting act. We end with a discussion of how the onset of electronic voting does not make elections less social, but does make vote secrecy more a choice rather than a requirement. PMID:28542348

  5. AGRICULTURAL BUDGET AND AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boris Kuzman; Katarina Djuric; Ljubomir Mitrović; Radivoj Prodanovic

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of paper is to depict the state of agriculture in the Republic of Serbia and agricultural budget, as an instrument of agricultural politics in function of agricultural sector development...

  6. Exploration and Practice of Personnel Cultivation for Agricultural Mechanization and Automation Specialities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Lu-lu; Yu, Jian-qun; Sun, Yu-jing

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, based on significance of developing agricultural mechanization and automation and current situations of agricultural mechanization and automation specialities in colleges and universities, we put forward objectives of personnel cultivation for agricultural mechanization and automation specialities. Then, we analyze the exploration and practice of personnel cultivation for agricultural mechanization and automation specialities from four aspects, including course system setting, teachi...

  7. [Pharmacy textbooks used at the University of Tartu/Dorpat 1802-1918].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, A; Hinrikus, T; Tankler, H

    2009-04-01

    An overview about the teaching of pharmacy at the University of Tartu in 1802-1918 is presented based on the exhaustive study of the textbooks used during that period. Textbooks were written by all local pharmacy teachers of the university, some of them (those by Grindel, Giese, Goebel, Dragendorff) were also translated into other languages and used at several universities. The content and structure of the textbook by Giese, printed in six volumes (1808-1811, 2277 pages), is studied in more detail. The structure of these books was a good basis for future pharmaceutical textbooks and to Estonian pharmacy education in general. The textbooks developed at the University of Tartu form also an important connecting link between the German and Russian cultural spaces.

  8. Planning in a Vacuum: Tartu University Hospital and Urban Development of the City of Tartu in the Second Half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epi TOHVRI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The University of Tartu has been an anchor institution – as a driver of urban revitalization and a designer of urban landscape. Starting from the re-opening of the university, the growth of the population in the city has been directly correlated with the growth of the university and its student body (Kruus, 1927. In 2010 the collective body of the university constituted approximately 1/5 of the registered population (Tartu City Forum, 2010. The anchor institution is a driver of economic growth, a real estate developer and a service provider (Harkavy et al., 2009. The University of Tartu and Tartu University Hospital known as Estonian Meds and Eds are one of the key factors of the favorable economic climate since the two medical and educational institutions concur in providing health care, quality of life, amenity and highly educated labor for the community. In the 21st century Tartu University Hospital has become one of the anchor institutions of Tartu and South Estonian Region, having a direct impact on the City and its economic growth.

  9. Knowledge transfer through university-industry relations: some aspects of organizational culture. Teadmussiire ülikoolide ja majanduspraktika suhete abil: mõned organisatsioonikultuurilised aspektid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaja Vadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of national universities and other higher education institutions in knowledge transfer in countries with post-Soviet economies has been studied in very modest extent, especially in the context of small countries. This paper concentrates on the organizational culture aspects playing important role in the commercialization of university research within the university knowledge transfer and knowledge based society framework in Estonia. Knowledge sharing and commercialization depend on nature of organizational culture, as a part of internal environment. Two largest Estonian universities (University of Tartu and Tallinn University of Technology are compared in various factors influencing knowledge transfer using document analysis and interviews. The present study has shown that knowledge transfer faces numerous issues, and in particular soft issues (individual mindsets and organizational values may differ from university to university

  10. CONCERNING AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRESS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Akhapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a network of educational institutions as one of the causes that negatively aff ect the competitiveness of higher education inRussia, directly points to the narrow realm of training in a particular area. There is a danger of destruction of branch universities in the existing system of higher education. Meanwhile, studies of the real value of specialized higher education in our country, and the reasons for determining this value is not enough, and the available knowledge is fragmented. In the article on the example of high schools of the Ministry of Agriculture ofRussiaproved that a specialized education can become a decisive factor in improving the quality of human capital, the development of the industry areas of the state. There are at least several reasons that indicate the need to stimulate the development processes of every kind of agricultural universities. The first reason has to do with the movement of the world community towards the reorganization of the national systems of higher education, where the central place is given to the development of specialized training programs. It should be particularly emphasized that higher education around the world is no longer the subject of domestic policy. Universities are fighting for the education market, and the availability of specialized educational programs has a decisive importance in this struggle. In addition, the authors say, in the Russian context agrarian universities are able to become a guarantor of the development of rural areas, helping to overcome the social consequences of reform of the agricultural sector. Another reason is related to the specificity of the educational process in agricultural universities and answers the question why agricultural education is a special form of organization of educational process, which is closely related to the agricultural sector of the country. Studies conducted by the authors suggest that the destruction of the existing system of

  11. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  12. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms 'sustainable' and 'intensification' is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural-environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and incentives necessary for the wider adoption of

  13. Influence of Academic Staff Variables on ICT use for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed, to determine the influence of the academic variables on ICT utilisation for agricultural research in Nigerian universities. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from two federal universities in each of the six geo-political zones of Nigeria, thus a total of twelve federal universities ...

  14. Kansas State University. The Quest for Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence.

    An interpretive account of the major events in the history of Kansas State University (KSU) is presented in this book. Originally chartered as a land-grant college, the university's original purpose was to provide much-needed agricultural education for the people of Kansas. Its development into a center distinguished for agricultural research is…

  15. The Internationalisation of Higher Education in Two Different Contexts: Catalan and Estonian Sociolinguistic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Gallego-Balsà, Lídia

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the internationalisation of academia has recently attracted attention from sociolinguists and language-policy scholars. In this paper, we compare two different universities from two contrasting contexts in Europe in order to find out more about their projected stance [Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance in a Corsican School: Institutional and…

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serogroup/serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy Estonian children in 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, E; Naaber, P; Maimets, M; Oona, M; Kõljalg, S; Lutsar, I

    2007-08-01

    This study determined nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy Estonian children, aged 1-7 years, and characterised the serotype/serogroup distribution and antibiotic susceptibility rates. NP swabs were collected from 685 previously healthy children attending 29 day care centres during the winters of 1999-2000 and 2003. The NP carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 44%. Rates of penicillin and erythromycin non-susceptibility were low (both 6%), but high (67%) rates of co-trimoxazole resistance were found. Among the pneumococcal serotypes identified, 64% were included in or cross-reacted with the licensed heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine.

  17. Vulnerability in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The impact from climate change on agriculture is expected to be significant because of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate conditions in general. Precipitation, temperature, weather extremes and evaporation rates all impact production. Agriculture is important to the economy of Croatia due to its overall value and its impact on food security, vulnerable populations, and the employment it generates. In 2001, 92% of Croatia was classified as rural and 48% of the Croatian population live...

  18. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  19. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  20. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...

  1. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  2. Knowledge and attitude of agriculture students towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the comparative advantages that Nigeria has in the production of date palm, its cultivation is largely limited to the homestead. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of agriculture students of the University of Ilorin towards the commercialization of the plant. The study also investigated the relationship ...

  3. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  4. Post-Secondary Education in Agricultural Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Paul E.; Henebry, William J.

    1970-01-01

    Paul Curtis is Lead Instructor in Agriculture and William Henebry is Instructor in Agri-Marketing at Parkland College, Champaign, Illinois. Dr. Curtis holds a Ph.D. in agronomy from the University of Illinois where he conducted research and taught plant breeding and plant physiology. Mr. Henebry, with 23 years of experience as a grain elevator…

  5. THE ROLES OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulquadri A.F; Mohammed B.T

    2011-01-01

    The roles of agricultural cooperative in agricultural mechanization and its inadequate contributed to the low level of agricultural production in Nigeria compare with the population of the country. This paper critically examined the relevance and contribution of agricultural mechanization to the development of the agricultural sector of the economy. The study also discussed the benefits of credit for agricultural mechanization, the roles of cooperatives in agricultural mechanization were disc...

  6. Clustering of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Beranová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very specific branch which is characterized by very low financial performance while this characteristic is given mainly by external factors as market pricing of agricultural commodities on one side, and production costs of agricultural commodities on the other side. This way, agricultural enterprises recognize negative values of gross margin in the Profit and Loss Statement but positive value of operating profit after even there are items of costs which are deducted. These results are derived from agricultural production subsidies which are recognized as income in the P/L Statement. In connection with this fact, the government subsidies are a substantial component of financial performance of agricultural enterprises.Primary research proceeded on the statistical sample of one hundred agricultural companies, has shown that also other specifics influencing financial performance of these businesses exist here. In order to determine the influences, the cluster analysis has been applied at using more than 10 variables. This approach has led to construction of clusters (groups of agricultural business entities with different characteristics of the group. The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants of financial performance of agricultural enterprises and to determine their influences under different economic characteristics of these business entities. For this purpose, the regression analysis has been subsequently applied on the groups of companies coming out from the cluster analysis. Besides the operating profit which is the main driving force of financial performance measured with the economic value added (EVA in agricultural enterprises, also capital structure and cost of capital have been observed as very strong influences on financial performance but these factors have different directions of their influence on the economic value added under different financial characteristics of agricultural

  7. The importance and meaning of sagas in the ideas of the Estonian Germanist Rein Sepp

    OpenAIRE

    Kulmar, Tarmo

    2002-01-01

    Rein Sepp, the great Germanist of the 20th century Estonia, was born on April 23, 1921. His studies at the University of Tartu were interrupted by World War II, in which he participated in the ranks of the Nazi German army. After a Soviet prison camp in Siberia he committed himself to translating various writings, mainly from the Old Icelandic, German and English languages: Saemundra-Edda (1970), Nibelungenlied (1977), Parzival (1989), Beowulf (1990), Snorra-Edda (1990), Anglo-Saxon Chronicle...

  8. Long-term complications in Estonian galactosemia patients with a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbi, K; Uudelepp, M-L; Joost, K; Zordania, R; Õunap, K

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate long-term complications and measure urinary galactose and galactitol excretion in classical galactosemia patients in Estonia who have been treated with a less restricted lactose-free diet and metabolic control. Our study group consisted of five classical galactosemia patients aged 7-14 years and diagnosed since 1996 in Estonia. Their diet eliminates lactose present in dairy foods, but we did not restrict the consumption of mature cheeses, fruits and vegetables. All patients had normal growth, except for one patient who was overweight at the last evaluation. In three patients mental and speech development was normal. One patient, number 1, who was diagnosed latest (at 6 weeks of age), had moderate mental retardation, verbal dyspraxia, extrapyramidal signs and bilateral cataracts. In both patients with developmental problems, a brain MRI showed bilateral subcortical changes in the cerebral white matter. Of four females, only patient 4 (p.Q188R homozygote) has premature ovarian insufficiency. Urinary galactose and galactitol content were retrospectively measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and refractive-index detection from urinary samples that were preserved during the years 1996-2009. Galactose ranged from 60 to 600 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=4-6), and galactitol ranged from 70 to 1200 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=2-4), which was 10-100 and 17-300 times higher than the respective reference ranges for galactose and galactitol. We conclude that a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control performed in Estonian classical galactosemia patients does not change long-term outcome compared to previously published studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The screening of SLC6A8 deficiency among Estonian families with X-linked mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puusepp, H; Kall, K; Salomons, G S; Talvik, I; Männamaa, M; Rein, R; Jakobs, C; Õunap, K

    2010-12-01

    The urinary creatine:creatinine (Cr:Crn) ratio was measured in males from 49 families with a family history compatible with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in order to estimate the prevalence of SLC6A8 deficiency in Estonia. We identified 11 boys from 9 families with an increased urinary Cr:Crn ratio (18%). In three related boys, a hemizygous missense mutation (c.1271G>A; p.Gly424Asp) was identified. Their mother was heterozygous for the same mutation. Although many missense mutations have been described, the p.Gly424Asp mutation has not been previously reported. The clinical expression varied widely among affected males of this family. Patients 1 and 3 had relatively mild clinical expression (mild mental retardation (MR) and attention deficit disorder), but patient 2 had all typical clinical signs of SLC6A8 defect such as moderate MR, autistic features, expressive dysphasia and epilepsy. Among our patients, we saw significant problems in speech and language development combined with attention and behavioural difficulties. The number of false-positive biochemical results with increased urinary Cr:Crn ratio was higher (18%) in our study than in previous reports (1.8–10%). We therefore suggest that repeated biochemical testing should be performed before DNA sequencing analysis. Our study suggests that 2% (95% confidence limits: 0.05–11.1%) of this Estonian XLMR panel are due to mutations in the SLC6A8, which is similar to the prevalence reported in other populations. We therefore conclude that creatine transporter deficiency is a relatively common genetic disorder in males with sporadic or familiar MR and diagnostic screening of them should always include screening for SLC6A8 deficiency.

  10. Energy and the environment in the Baltic Sea region: A study of cooperative action from the Estonian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Alex P.

    Due to their geographic proximity and shared natural resources, cooperation on energy-related and environmental issues is particularly important for the nine countries surrounding the Baltic Sea. Currently, two projects are underway that have placed the level of cooperation within the region under the microscope: the environmental management work undertaken by the Helsinki Commission for the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (HELCOM) and the Nord Stream pipeline project, which, when completed, will provide the direct transportation of natural gas from Russia to Germany via the Baltic seafloor. Although both have been declared inclusive and decidedly Baltic ventures by some regional actors, reception of the cooperative efforts amongst the littoral Baltic countries has been markedly different. This study addresses these varying reactions by examining Estonia's participation in and subsequent perspectives on the HELCOM and Nord Stream projects. A theoretical framework grounded in the discipline of international relations is utilized to analyze Estonia's role in the projects and its position as a small state in a regional context. The primary areas of focus are how historical experiences and current levels of cooperation in the two endeavors have shaped Estonia's responses and, ultimately, its 'realist' perception of global politics. The study concludes that Estonia appears to have more substantive participation in HELCOM than in the Nord Stream project because of the tendency of states to securitize and, thus, prioritize the energy policy area over the environmental. Estonian foreign policy behavior, however, perpetuates the state-centric and power-centered policy processes that dominate the international political system.

  11. From Agriculture to Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The report seeks to analyze what has been learned about how agricultural interventions influence nutrition outcomes in low-and middle-income countries, focusing on the target populations of the millennium development goals-people living on less than a dollar a day. It also sets out to synthesize lessons from past efforts to improve the synergies between agriculture and nutrition outcomes. ...

  12. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  13. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  14. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966

    AGRICULTURE IS THE MOST BASIC INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES AND, AS OUR SOURCE OF FOOD, FEED, AND FIBER, OCCUPIES A KEY ROLE IN THE ECONOMY OF THE COUNTRY. CHANGING DEMANDS AND SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS HAVE CREATED A NEED FOR INCREASED EMPHASIS ON TRAINING INDIVIDUALS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE TOTAL INDUSTRY OF AGRICULTURE. THESE CHANGES HAVE…

  15. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  16. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its

  17. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  18. UNISWA Journal of Agriculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of UNISWA Journal of Agriculture is to serve as a forum for disseminating and integrating scientific knowledge in those disciplines that underpin agriculture. The journal publishes research papers, case studies, essays and review articles as well as first hand experiences in soil, plant, water and animal sciences, ...

  19. A Report on the 40th International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 21-24 February 2012, Opatija, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Kosutic; Daniele De Wrachien

    2012-01-01

    The 40th International Symposium, Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, was held on 21-24 February 2012 in the “Grand Hotel Adriatic”, Opatija, in the Republic of Croatia. It was organized by the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Zagreb, and was supported by the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Faculty of Agriculture of the J.J. Strossmayer University, Osijek, the Department of Bio-Systems Engineering of the Faculty of Agri...

  20. Use of Social Media by Agricultural Undergraduate Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analysed the usage of social media sites by undergraduate agricultural students in selected Universities in Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 425 undergraduate agricultural students in Nigeria. Data were obtained with questionnaire and were presented using percentage, and mean.

  1. Teaching and Learning of 'Water for Agriculture' in Primary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching and Learning of 'Water for. Agriculture' in Primary Schools in. Lesotho, South Africa and Zimbabwe. By Tichaona Pesanayi and Farasten Mashozhera, Rhodes University, South Africa; and Lintle Khitsane, Lesotho College of Education, Lesotho. Abstract. Teaching youths about the subject of water for agriculture is ...

  2. Innovative Agricultural Education Secondary School Programs in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagni, Arsenio O.; And Others

    In an effort to seek out and describe exemplary and innovative features of agricultural high schools in Asian countries, letters of inquiry were sent to the directors of agricultural education programs in Thailand, Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea informing them of a study tour planned by three members of the University of the Philipines…

  3. The Costs of Using Draft Animals for Sustainable Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Costs of Using Draft Animals for Sustainable. Agricultural Production in Tanzania. S.M. Mpanduji*, Z.M. Mganilwa, P.J. Makungu and H.O. Dihenga. Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O Box 3003, Morogoro, Tanzania. Abstract. This study was carried out to determine the annual costs oj owning and using a pair oj draJt ...

  4. Availability of Core Journals used by the Postgraduate Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the literature used by Postgraduate Agricultural students of Ahmadu Bello University, to identify the core journals they used. It also checked to see if the materials identified from this exercise are available in the Agricultural Library. The hundred theses were randomly picked and the citations in the ...

  5. Printed And Electronic Resources Utilization By Agricultural Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the use of printed and electronic resources by agricultural science students in three Nigerian universities. A two-part questionnaire was designed to elicit necessary information from the respondents selected for the study. One thousand three hundred (1300) respondents from faculties of Agriculture in ...

  6. Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol.17 (2) December, 2013 ISSN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONIKOYI

    Ph. D Thesis. Department of. Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Asanwana, V. A. (2001): Coping strategies for Enhanced Rural Household Food Security among Female Farmers in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria Ph.D thesis, Department of. Agricultural Extension and Rural Development ...

  7. The Balancing Act: Exploring Scholarship for the Agricultural Leadership Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Nicole; Weeks, Penny Pennington

    2013-01-01

    Today's leadership educator is housed in a variety of departments across colleges and universities. As a result, leadership coursework is taught contextually based in multiple disciplines including, but not limited to, business, education, military studies, student affairs, and agriculture (Pennington, 2005). Within colleges of agriculture,…

  8. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. ... Papers in Animal husbandry, Fisheries, wild life, crop and Soil Science, agricultural economics, Extension, Forestry, environment and papers with a Social Science tilt that are geared towards sustainable ... Dr. John Ekore Dept.of Psychology, University of Ibadan.

  9. UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology is a publication of the Faculties of Agriculture, Health Sciences and Science of the University of Swaziland. It publishes results of original research or continuations of previous studies that are reproducible. Review articles, short communications and ...

  10. UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology is a publication of the Faculties of Agriculture, Health Sciences and Science of the University of Swaziland. It publishes results of original research or continuations of previous studies that are reproducible. Review articles, short communications and ...

  11. Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice (GAEP), A publication of the Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria is an international journal which considers articles from all areas of Agricultural Extension: rural sociology, environmental extension, extension ...

  12. Conservation agriculture in high tunnels: soil health and profit enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, through the USDA’s Evans-Allen capacity grant, the high tunnel became an on-farm research laboratory for conservation agriculture. Dr. Manuel R. Reyes, Professor and his research team from the North Carolina Agriculture and Technology State University (NCATSU), Greensboro, North Carolina (1...

  13. Contributions of agriculture and veterinary complex of Ahmadu Bello ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research output from Agriculture and Veterinary Complex of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria were analyzed using bibliometric methods to ascertain contributions and the media used for dissemination of agricultural information. The objective is to find out the number of articles the complex has contributed over a period of ...

  14. Entrepreneurial Intentions of Agricultural Students: Levels and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouratashi, Mahtab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examined levels and determinants of entrepreneurial intentions amongst agricultural students. Methodology: The statistical population comprised students in colleges of agriculture at University of Tehran. By use of a random sampling method, a sample of 120 students participated in the study. The instrument for data collection…

  15. Effects of agricultural wastes ash on nutrients concentration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials and a pot experiment were conducted during the 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, to assess the effect of various agricultural wastes ash on nutrient concentration, growth and yield of maize in a Haplic Acrisol. The treatments comprised palm bunch ...

  16. women and leadership positions in the malian ministry of agriculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    MALIAN MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE: CON-. STRAINTS AND CHALLENGES. M. Akeredolu1. Correspondence author: SAFE/IPR/IFRA, University of Mali, Mali. E- mail: obonkus2@yahoo.co.uk. Tel: 002236452372. Key Words: Leadership positions, agricultural development, gender, culture. ABSTRACT. This study is ...

  17. Identifying International Agricultural Concepts for Secondary Agricultural Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Nathan W.; Gates, Hailey; Stripling, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    The globalization of the agriculture industry has created an emerging need for agricultural education in the United States to take a more globalized approach to prepare students for future careers in agriculture. The purpose of this study was to identify international agricultural concepts for secondary agricultural education curriculum. A Delphi…

  18. Kellele kuulub keel? / Maarja Siiner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siiner, Maarja

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Kadri Koreinik. Language ideologies in the contemporary Estonian public: with a focus on South Estonian. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011.(Dissertationes sociologicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 5)

  19. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    given to methods appropriate to low-income countries, where strategies are needed for getting robust data with extremely limited resources in order to support national mitigation planning within widely accepted standards and thus provide access to essential international support, including climate funding. Managing agricultural emissions needs to occur in tandem with managing for agricultural productivity, resilience to climate change, and ecosystem impacts. Management decisions and priorities will require measures and information that identify GHG efficiencies in production and reduce inputs without reducing yields, while addressing climate resilience and maintaining other essential environmental services, such as water quality and support for pollinators. Another set of papers in this issue considers the critical synergies and tradeoffs possible between these multiple objectives of mitigation, resilience, and production efficiency to help us understand how we need to tackle these in our quantification systems. Significant capacity to quantify greenhouse gases is already built, and with some near-term strategic investment, could become an increasingly robust and useful tool for planning and development in the agricultural sector around the world. Acknowledgments The Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security Program of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, the Technical Working Group on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (T-AGG) at Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have come together to guide the development of this focus issue and associated activities and papers, given their common desire to improve our understanding of the state of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification and to advance ideas for building data and methods that will help mitigation policy and programs move forward around the world. We thank the David and Lucile Packard

  20. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  1. Agricultural Education and OSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1974-01-01

    Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

  2. Agricultural diversification into tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    1996-01-01

    Based on the empirical evidence provided by an evaluation study of the EU Objective 5b programme measures* for the expansion of rural tourism, this article discusses the impact of rural tourism on agricultural holdings. It is shown that the financial returns most often do not measure up either...... to the expectations of the politicians or to that of the farmers. In some respects rural tourism contributes positively to the innovation of the tourist product since its small scale, 'green' issues and special facilities differentiate the product from others. But the unleashing of real potential is hampered...... by the fact that farmers tend to give priority to traditional agriculture and by the fact that industrialized agriculture is not easily combined with the commodifying of agricultural traditions for tourism. The community level inter-organizational innovations which are designed to ensure the marketing...

  3. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  4. Nonpoint Source: Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural runoff as a nonpoint source category of pollution. Resouces to learn more a bout conservation practices to reduce water quality impacts from storm water run off and ground water infiltration

  5. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  6. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades

  7. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  8. Organic agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic agriculture has unique characteristics and peculiarities. It is still a relatively small sector compared to conventional agriculture in the Netherlands. However, its market share is growing and organic agriculture leads the way in terms of sustainability and innovations

  9. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  10. Estonian Innovation Policy Activity against the Background of the EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation policy is essential to guarantee a country’s development and the continuous enhancement of its innovation performance. The aim of this paper is to empirically analyse the position of Estonia in different innovation policy areas compared to other European countries. Seventeen different variables that characterise the activities of the public sector in promoting innovation are used in a principal component analysis to reveal the structure of public sector activities in promoting innovation. The principal component analysis reveals that the activities of the public sector in promoting innovation can be characterised using six components. Analysis of Estonia’s position in these policy areas shows that in comparison with other European countries, the extent to which the public sector in Estonia enhances the overall framework for innovation is above the European average and R&D in the higher education sector is also above average. But R&D in the government sector in Estonia is in a weak state; only a small proportion of innovative enterprises in Estonia receive financial support for innovation from the public sector (including support from the EU, and universities and public sector agencies in Estonia only cooperate with firms in innovation activities to a small degree.

  11. Unique spectrum of SPAST variants in Estonian HSP patients: presence of benign missense changes but lack of exonic rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross-Paju Katrin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder that can be an autosomal-dominant, autosomal-recessive, or X-linked disease. The most common autosomal-dominant form of the disease derives from mutations in the SPAST gene. Methods The aim of this study was to analyze 49 patients diagnosed with HSP from the Estonian population for sequence variants of the SPAST gene and to describe the associated phenotypes. Healthy control individuals (n = 100 with no family history of HSP were also analyzed. All patient samples were screened using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA assay. Samples with abnormal DHPLC and MLPA profiles were sequenced, with the same regions sequenced in control samples. Results Sequence variants of SPAST were identified in 19/49 HSP patients (38.8%, twelve among them had pathogenic mutations. Within the latter group there was one sporadic case. Eight patients had pure, and four - complex HSP. The twelve variants were identified: seven pathogenic (c.1174-1G>C, c.1185delA, c.1276C>T, c.1352_1356delGAGAA, c.1378C>A, c.1518_1519insTC, c.1841_1842insA and five non-pathogenic (c.131C>T, c.484G>A, c.685A>G, c.1245+202delG, c.1245+215G>C. Only 2 of these mutations had previously been described (c.131C>T, c.1245+202delG. Three mutations, c.1174-1G>C, c.1276 C>T, c.1378C>A, showed intrafamilial segregation. Conclusion This study identified new variants of the SPAST gene which included benign missense variants and short insertions/deletions. No large rearrangements were found. Based on these data, 7 new pathogenic variants of HSP are associated with clinical phenotypes.

  12. Estimation of the crustal motion and noise properties from the time series of Estonian permanent GNSS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kall, Tarmo; Oja, Tõnis; Kollo, Karin; Liibusk, Aive

    2017-04-01

    The Earth's crust is moving continuously due to the processes such as plate tectonics, Earth and ocean tides, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), local deformations, atmospheric and hydrological mass variations. Accordingly, the effect of those processes are expected on the measured coordinates of continuously operating GNSS stations. Simultaneously, the imperfections of GNSS such as clock and orbit errors, antenna phase center variations, atmospheric delay, shortcomings due to the site selection and construction, snow accumulation on the antenna radome, etc., generate spurious signals and noise in the observation data. In Estonia and its surrounding, the GIA process is the main cause of the long-term intra-continental deformations and the motion of the permanent GNSS stations. Therefore, the purpose of this contribution was to estimate the long-term velocities and GIA-related signal relied on the coordinate time series of Estonian GNSS stations. For the accurate estimation of GIA-related velocity, known signals were modelled and the properties of spurious signal and noise were analysed. Raw data from the GNSS stations were processed independently with programs GIPSY 6.4 (precise point positioning with fixing ambiguities) and Bernese 5.2 (double difference processing). Accordingly, for every GNSS station two solutions in IGb08 reference frame for the north, east, and up coordinates were computed to form 10 years long time series (from 2007 to 2016). The ITRF2008 velocity model was used to model and subtract the effect of Eurasian plate tectonic motion from data. For the estimation of long-term velocity, the linear trend model complemented with the sinusoidal and step functions (for annual, semi-annual signals and discontinuities in time series) was fitted separately to the north, east, and up coordinate series. Initially, power spectral density was plotted to assess and visualize the noise properties of the residual time series. Additionally, different stochastic

  13. Eesti Rahva Muuseumi strateegiad ja praktikad rahvaga suhtlemisel muuseumi algusaastatel / Estonian National Museum: Public communication strategies and practices in the initial years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Õunapuu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the museum phenomenon as the valuator of the indigenous culture in the context of the awakening national consciousness has received little attention. The evolution of the idea of the Estonian National Museum (ENM and its realization reflects the story of the Estonian people maturing into a nation. The museum was founded by a few dedicated persons and it took a long time before the general public recognised it as the museum for the Estonian people. The main purpose of this research is to ascertain how relations developed between the public and the museum in its initial years and what were the museum strategies in declaring its objectives. After the official foundation of the ENM in 1909 the museum narrative can be divided into two main parts. First, work inside the museum, the compilation and arrangement of collections. This was, above all, the work of the collection committee and organizing heritage collection trips. Collections constitute the basis of a museum – therefore the primary and most important task of the established museum was the collection of heritage items. The collections were started immediately after the foundation of the museum; within the first ten years approximately 20,000 items were collected, approximately two thirds of the items in the years 1911–1913. The phenomenon that a museum where people worked mainly without a salary for the benefit of their homeland, with the set aim to empty the whole of Estonia of heritage items parish by parish and succeeded in engaging dozens and dozens of people for this work, is probably exceptional in world history. As a result, the museum acquired not only voluminous but also valuable item collections, which reached the museum before the devastating First World War. The timing was favourable. There were enough old artefacts left, although most collectors complained in their diaries that there was nothing interesting to be found any more. However, the majority of the

  14. [Ecological agriculture: future of agriculture for Chinese material medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Tie-Lin; Yang, Wan-Zhen; Zhou, Liang-Yun; Chen, Nai-Fu; Han, Bang-Xing; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-01-01

    The ecological agriculture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is generally acknowledged as the most advanced agricultural mode. However, it's still a doubt whether ecological agriculture could be widely applied in TCM agriculture. In this study, we first analyze both the differences and relationships between ecological and organic agriculture, which suggesting that ecological agriculture does not need all the inputs as traditional agriculture. After introducing the situation of ecological agriculture from all across the world, we analyze the differences and characteristics between ecological and chemical agricultures. Considered with the big challenge caused by chemical agriculture, we pointed out that ecological agriculture could definitely replace chemical agriculture. Last but not the least, combined with the situation and problems of Chinese agriculture, we analyze the distinctive advantages of TCM ecological agriculture from 3 aspects as its unique quality characteristics, its unique habitat requirements in production and its unique application and market characteristics, respectively. In conclusion, ecological agriculture is the straight way of TCM agriculture. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Perception of Agricultural Extension as a Career among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated perception of agricultural extension as a career among postgraduateagricultural students in selected universities in south-west, Nigeria. Multi-stage sapling technique was used to select 171 respondents across three universities. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics ...

  16. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  17. Effect of Crude Oil Price on Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria (1981 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso. Nigeria ... This study examined the effects of crude oil price on agricultural productivity in Nigeria between 1981 and 2010. Agricultural productivity (proxy as ... nation should be free from any negative oil price shocks. However, the reality ...

  18. Seeds of Knowledge: The Evolution of the Louis Bromfield Sustainable Agriculture Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Laurie L.

    The Louis Bromfield Sustainable Agriculture Library is located in Lucas, Ohio, at Malabar Farm State Park. Established in 1992, the library is jointly maintained by the Ohio State University Sustainable Agriculture Program and the Ohio Department of Agriculture. The library's namesake, Louis Bromfield, was a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and noted…

  19. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  20. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust......The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...