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Sample records for estonia prepares excise

  1. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  2. Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Estonian Country Case Study concentrated on the energy sector. Estonia is in the process of intensive transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. The reforming of the whole economy, included the energy sector, is underway at present in Estonia, therefore the current situation is permanently changing. This in its turn complicates the overall characterisation of the situation and makes it difficult to have well founded basis for furhter forecasts and projections. However, the main lines of further development have been worked out in the governmental document `Long Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector`, which was adopted by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in February 1998. The Estonian Country Case Study team has managed with the complicated task to analyse the most probable GHG mitigation options to be used for the period up till 2035. MARKAL and MARKAL-MACRO models were used to build up the energy system development scenarios and to analyse various GHG mitigation options. Two main scenarios, respectively with low and high GDP growth rates, were assumed for the present analysis. Also the impact of carbon tax on the choice of possible energy generation scenarios was studied with the help of the model. The results have been discussed in the context of future socio-economic and political restrictions. Special attention was paid to the problems and prospects of using Estonian main energy resource - oil shale - for the production of electricity. New combustion technologies developed in Estonia allow reducing CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, which makes them highly important in the process of following the binding agreements of international treaties on pollution abatement. The technological mitigation options of GHG emissions have been handled thoroughly, as they are of great interest for Estonia following the requirements of the Kyoto conference. Additionally, renewable energy sources were discussed more thoroughly

  3. The National Status of the Preparation of School Psychologists in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Estonia is a small republic that has undergone several big societal changes (from belonging to the Soviet Union to becoming a free republic, and the process of integrating into the European Union) during the last several decades. Psychology has been taught as a separate discipline starting from 1968, but its content has been changed from very…

  4. Illegal Market of Cigarettes in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Evelin Ahermaa

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco products belong to a group of excise goods and an excise duty is levied on them. The latter increases the price, but there are no changes in the quality of the goods and it leads to tax frauds. There has been regular increase in the excise duties on tobacco products in Estonia; changes in tax rates have influenced legal sales, mostly of cigarettes. Consumption of cigarettes is the largest in the group of tobacco products in Estonia; therefore, the paper is especially focused on cigare...

  5. Estonia letteraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Töttössy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Estonia, the last decade of the 20th Century saw the active involvement of intellectuals in politics. Indeed, during the “Singing Revolu- tion” they led the country towards the independence from the Soviet Union. Since 1992, under the new political circumstances, Estonian literati have initiated to revise the national literary canon, and they have envisioned a new place for Estonian literature within world literature. The aim of this essay is to delineate the change undergone by Estonian Literature over the last twenty years, and to discuss the ways in which it has opened up to broader, different horizons.

  6. Esthonia - Estonia? / Aleksander Loit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loit, Aleksander, 1925-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Londoni saadiku Oskar Kallase püüdlustest kehtestada Eesti rahvusvahelise nimevormina Estonia. The Royal Geographical Society ja Briti välisministeeriumi vastandlikest seisukohtades Eesti inglisekeelse nimetuse suhtes. 1926. aastast nõustusid nii Suurbritannia kui USA tunnistama Eesti nimevormiks Estonia. Lisatud: Eesti hümni sõnad inglise keeles

  7. African Journals Online: Estonia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. African Journals Online: Estonia. Home > African Journals Online: Estonia. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me

  8. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  9. Eliminating rabies in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania.

  10. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  11. Country report: Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  12. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  13. Rahvusooper taastas Estonia balli traditsiooni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Aastavahetusballi operetikavast "Suudluste valss", USA koreograaf-lavastaja Russell Adamsoni dzhässikavast "Black and White" Rahvusooperis Estonia. Kontserdisaalis mängivad tantsuks Rahvusooperi sümfooniaorkester Andres Mustoneni juhatusel ja ansambel Modern Fox

  14. Rabarocki eelsoojendus. Meeleolukas kevadkontsert Estonias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    13. ja 14. juunil Järvakandis toimuva Rabarocki warm-up peost klubis Rockstars ja esimesest ETV saatest Rabarocki triloogiast 24. mail. Kevadkontserdist "Feeling Good" 26. mail Estonia kontserdisaalis

  15. The Effect of Specimen Preparation on Post-Excision and Post-Fixation Dimensions, Translation, and Distortion of Canine Cadaver Skin-Muscle-Fascia Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risselada, Marije; Mathews, Kyle G; Griffith, Emily

    2016-07-01

    To assess the effect of various tissue apposition techniques on specimens after formalin fixation, and to assess canine cadaveric composite skin-muscle-fascia specimen changes after excision without and with addition of a tumor model. Canine cadaveric study; unbalanced paired design. Fresh canine cadavers (n = 30) METHODS: Experiment 1: Paired 7 cm diameter, circular skin-muscle-fascia specimens were harvested bilaterally from three sites (thorax, abdomen, and thigh) on 10 cadavers. For each pair, the skin-to-fascia was sutured with a circumferential continuous pattern in one specimen and left unsutured in the other during excision. Specimen length and width were measured post-excision and post-fixation. Specimen rotation, translation, and distortion was measured post-fixation. Experiment 2: A subcutaneous tumor model was implanted at 2 sites (neck, thorax) on 20 cadavers and specimens were then excised with 2 cm lateral margins and a deep fascial plane. Three suturing techniques of the skin-to-fascia at both sites were performed during excision: unsutured versus circumferential continuous suture (10 pairs) or circumferential versus 4 interrupted quadrant sutures (10 pairs). Lateral margins were compared post-excision and post-fixation. Experiment 1: There was significant reduction in the length and width of the fascia and skin post-excision, but no further reduction after fixation. The circumferential suture decreased rotation and translation of the tissue layers but did not significantly affect specimen shrinkage or distortion compared with the unsutured specimen. Experiment 2: All 4 lateral margins decreased significantly post-excision and post-fixation compared with the planned pre-excision margins. No difference was found between any of the 4 lateral margins for any skin-to-fascia suture technique. Canine skin-muscle-fascia specimens significantly decrease in size from gross pre-excision dimensions after removal. Suturing the specimen during surgery before

  16. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  17. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  18. The environmental problems in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallaste, T. (Institute of Economics, Estonian Academy of Scinece, Tallinn, Estonia (SU))

    1991-08-01

    This chapter gives a brief overview of Estonia's environmental pollution situation and some problems connected with it. Intensive use of local natural resources, especially oil shale, have deteriorated natural environment in the North-East Estonia. All the components of environment have been seriously damaged by industrial pollution. This has also had an effect on human health. The need for effective pollution monitoring and control system is being suggested for the purposes of management of the quality of environment in the national economic system and to stop further decrease of the quality of environment. The main attention is devoted to air pollution. Integrated indicators, air pollution indices for comprehensive assessment of the level of air pollution have been used. To overcome the pollution problems, some possibilities of economic control are described. Actually the payments for the use of natural resources and taxes for pollution, which will be started in Estonia in 1991, are introduced. (author).

  19. E-voting in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Dylan; Martens, Tarvi

    2016-01-01

    Estonia has one of the most established e-voting systems in the world. Internet voting - remote e-voting using the voter's own equipment - was piloted in 2005 with the first real elections using e-voting being conducted the same year and has been in use ever since. We detail this internet voting system and discuss how it was developed.

  20. Burden of stroke in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõrv, Janika; Vibo, Riina

    2013-07-01

    Estonia is the smallest of the three Baltic countries. The decline in incidence of first-ever stroke during the 1990s has left Tartu, Estonia with a relatively low stroke incidence. However, the incidence rates for younger age groups, and the 28-day case fatality rate are higher compared with several other studies. Developments in the national health care system in recent years have been positive: the decline of mortality rate of stroke in Estonia is greater than the European Union average. However, the mortality of cardiovascular diseases is higher compared with several European countries. The prevalence of most stroke risk factors is comparable with European Union countries, while atrial fibrillation is somewhat more frequent (30%) among the patients having suffered from ischemic stroke. The management of stroke in Estonia has been in accordance with European and national stroke guidelines. Stroke units are organized in regional and central hospitals in bigger cities. A well-developed and free ambulance service, and a high priority of stroke code, enable a quick transportation of patients to the nearest hospital providing thrombolytic therapy. The number of thrombolyzed stroke cases has increased since 2003. The Estonian Stroke Initiative was founded in 2008 to improve stroke care, promote regional networks, and increase stroke knowledge among the general population and medical professionals. Since then, several activities regarding stroke awareness have been organized. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  1. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  2. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Financial Participation of Employees in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eamets, Raul; Mygind, Niels; Spitsa, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Presently, legal regulation of participation of employees - financial participation as well as participation in decision-making - is not well developed in Estonia. On the one hand, it is due to the fact that no tradition of employee participation could have been formed after Estonia became...

  4. Surrogate alcohol drinking in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Leon, David A

    2011-08-01

    Surrogate, nonbeverage alcohols, provide a cheap and concentrated source of ethanol for drinking that has been associated with premature mortality. The aim of this study was to provide the first estimate of the prevalence of surrogate alcohol consumption in a national population sample of Estonia. The Estonian Health Interview Survey conducted in 2006 to 2007 was a nationally representative sample of the population aged 15 to 84 years (N = 6,370). The age-standardized percentage prevalences of ever having drunk surrogates were estimated. The association of age, ethnicity, and education with the prevalence of surrogate drinking was estimated using logistic regression. Of all respondents who reported drinking at least once in their lifetime (N = 5,423), 65% had consumed alcohol during the previous 4 weeks. In this group (N = 3,525), the age-standardized prevalence rate of surrogate drinking was 1.4% (2.3% men, 0.3% women). Among men, surrogate drinking was rare under the age of 35 years (0.3%). Ethnicity and education were both related to surrogate drinking: relative to Estonian men, non-Estonians (mainly Russians) had an odds ratio (OR) for surrogate drinking (adjusted for age and education) of 2.58 (95% CI 1.41, 4.72), while relative to those with higher education those with secondary education had an OR (adjusted for age and ethnicity) of 2.28 (0.78, 6.67) and those with basic education an OR of 3.91 (1.29, 11.84). Surrogate alcohols are drunk in Estonia, particularly among men. This behavior shows pronounced variation in prevalence by ethnicity and education. Reducing consumption of these substances needs to be part of any strategy to reduce the burden of alcohol-related problems in Estonia today. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Tax Avoidance in Excise Tax

    OpenAIRE

    VARGOVÁ, Monika

    2007-01-01

    The taxes from consumption are an excise taxes and value adds tax. I will focus on an excise tax. The excise tax is one of the most important income to state budget. The excise taxes belong between indirect taxes and is divided into five selected products, such as cigarettes, bear, vine, alcohol and mineral oils.

  6. Trio Estonia esineb Lõuna-Ontarios

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Lõuna-Ontario muusikahuvilistel on tänu Eesti Sihtkapitalile Kanadas ja Cathedral Bluffs sümfooniaorkestrile harukordne võimalus saada oktoobrikuus osa kõrgetasemelise Trio Estonia musitseerimisest

  7. Sakslased kiidavad Estonia huku filmi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Eestisse filmi toomisega tegelev produtsent Mati Sepping peab sakslaste kommentaare filmile headeks

  8. Jutta Rabe teeb Estonia hukust uue filmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eile alustas Saksa ajakirjanik Jutta Rabe oma filmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Peale Rabe on stsenaristid veel saksa advokaat Henning Witte ja rootslane Kaj Holmberg

  9. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, Marje; Kalda, Ruth; Lember, Margus; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-10-25

    Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD) attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. A random sample (n = 236) of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%), while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse) of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83) were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  10. Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 25-31, nr. 2 lk. 41-47, nr. 3 lk. 29-37, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 16-23, nr. 2 lk. 39-47, nr. 3 lk. 25-33, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 23-31, nr. 2 lk. 33-41, nr. 3 lk. 31-39, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 31-39, nr. 2 lk. 35-41; 2005 nr. 1 lk. 37-44, nr. 2 lk. 43-51, nr. 3 lk. 23-27. Ülevaade Eesti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  11. Estonia uus hooaeg pühendub lastele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia 99. hooaja alustamisest 10. sept. kontsert-salvestusega "Mare ja tema poeg", ooperi "Aida" lavastumisest oktoobris Rocca al Mares Onistari tennisekeskuses, 2005. a. alguses Estonias esmaettekandele tulevast Tõnis Kaumanni lastemuusikalist "Väike Napoleon"

  12. Paul Pinna avab Estonia Talveaias omanimelise baari / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia sajanda sünnipäeva puhul etendub 12. ja 13. septembril Estonia Talveaias lavastus "Paul Pinnat otsimas". Tekst on 95% osas Paul Pinna ja Karl August Hindrey sulest, dramatiseeris ja lavastas Heidi Sarapuu

  13. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lember Margus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. Methods A random sample (n = 236 of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%, while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Results Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83 were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Conclusions Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  14. Estonia: In and Out of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian economic developments during the first decade of 21st century. Estonia provided in that period a clear-cut example of the classical business cycle with an extreme bubble-burst sequence of economic activities. The author analyses the reasons on such a volatile economic growth pattern and explains economic cycle management particularities in Estonia. In the frames of macroeconomic developments will be analyzed monetary and fiscal policies. The author argues, that Estonia’s fiscal policy has been always pro-cyclical, what has deepened country’s macroeconomic volatility. The paper also analyses critically the government activities and policies during the recent crisis

  15. Ordovician timescale in Estonia: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Olle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 years of progress in the Ordovician geology and stratigraphy of Estonia has resulted in one of the most precise Ordovician timescales in the world. In this paper, an up-to-date version of the Ordovician timescale of Estonia is provided. Recent developments in graptolite, chitinozoan, and conodont biostratigraphy, and the correlation with the global standard are briefly commented upon. Application of the regional subseries rank is discussed and two new names are proposed: “Vinni” for the upper subseries of the Viru Series, and “Atla” for the upper subseries of the Harju Series.

  16. Rahvusooper Estonia interjööride renoveerimine = Renovation of the Estonia National Opera House interiors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. a. lõpetati Rahvusooperi Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar. Siseviimistluse ja laemaali (E. Okas, E. Kits, R. Sagrits) restaureerimine ja konserveerimine: KAR Grupp. Akustik Linda Madalik. 8 värv. vaadet

  17. Friends of Estonia discuss next move

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    1. juulil 2011 avas Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Riigikogu konverentsikeskuses Eesti sõprade kokkutuleku raames korraldatava sümpoosioni “Quo vadis, Estonia?”, kus ütles, et Eesti järgmine eesmärk on riiklike ja ühiskondlike struktuuride tugevdamisele keskendumine

  18. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T. [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L. [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P. [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  19. SMEs in Estonia : Achievements and Worries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Phare toetusel ja Eesti Väikeettevõtete Assotsiatsiooni abil läbi viidud uurimusest "The State of Small Business in Estonia" (väikeettevõtted Eestis). Tabelid ja diagrammid. Eesti väikeettevõtete probleemid, osalemine eksport/import tegevuses, peamised probleemid pangalaenude taotlemisel

  20. "Welcome to Estonia" tuleb kinolinale / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2002-01-01

    Poliitikuid pilavad Rain Tolk ja Ken Saan uues filmis "Welcome To Estonia" : režissöör Andres Maimik. Film esilinastus 6. detsembril kinos Sõprus Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali raames. Kanal2 näitab seda vana-aastaõhtul

  1. Agonija Welcome to ESTonia / Ilja Gromov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gromov, Ilja

    2008-01-01

    Welcome to ESTonia bränd ei ole olnud edukas, välismaalastel ei ole huvi sellest vastu ja paljud neist ei ole seda üldse näinud. Kommenteerivad riigikogu liikmed Jüri Tamm, Peeter Tulviste ja Vladimir Velman

  2. Estonia purjetab filmiturule / Jüri Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jüri, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  3. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  4. "Gerontiuse unenägu" Estonias / Igor Garšnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    2. aprillil Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud Edward Elgari oratooriumi "Gerontiuse unenägu" ettekandest, esitasid: ERSO, Estonia ooperikoor, Estonia poistekoor, kammerkoor Voces Musicales, Helen Lokuta, Bernhard Gärtner, Priit Volmer, dirigent Carlos Spiereri

  5. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  6. HYPEST study: profile of hypertensive patients in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Org, Elin; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Juhanson, Peeter; Putku, Margus; Rosenberg, Mai; Tomberg, Kärt; Uuetoa, Tiina; Laan, Maris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background More than one third of adult population in Estonia has problems with elevated blood pressure (BP). The Hypertension in Estonia (HYPEST) study represents the country's first hypertension-targeted sample collection aiming to examine the epidemiological and genetic determinants for hypertension (HTN) and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Estonian population. The HYPEST subjects (n = 1,966) were recruited across Estonia between 2004-2007 including clinically diagnosed H...

  7. Initial experience with lung transplantation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, T; Savisaar, M; Parm, P; Sõrmus, A; Kuum, U; Ruusalepp, A; Jakobson, E; Küüsvek, A; Klepetko, W

    2013-04-01

    A lung transplant program in Estonia was initiated in cooperation with the Medical University of Vienna. The first lung transplantation for an Estonian patient was performed in Vienna on April 28, 2009. The waiting list in Estonia was opened on May 28, 2010; the first transplantation was performed on October 7, 2010. The aim of this study was to present our initial results. All lung transplantations performed in Estonia through the end of January 2012 included 2 female and 3 male patients of age from 52 to 64 years. Data regarding the donor, the transplant operation, postoperative period, and follow-up were extracted from case records. The cases included 1 bilateral lobar, 3 double, and 1 single lung transplantations. Two patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, one alpha-1 trypsin deficiency, and two idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The operative duration varied from 172 to 337 minutes; the ischemia times for the first and second lung ranged from 191 to 351 and 303 to 455 minutes, respectively. Duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation ranged from 2 to 14 days (median 3) and the hospital stay from 28 to 72 days. The following complications were observed: prolonged air leak in 2 patients, one of whom required rethoracotomy; phrenic nerve palsy in 2, atrial fibrillation in 2, and mild renal failure in 1 subject. One patient needed readmission to the intensive care unit owing to acute respiratory failure; one, a tracheostomy for weaning from the ventilator, and one, noninvasive ventilation owing to hypercapnia. All patients remain well at 4-19 months after transplantation. No episodes of acute rejection or bronchiolitis obliterans have been diagnosed. The first 1.5-year experience with lung transplantation in Estonia has been satisfactory. Although there have been several complications, no posttransplant or waiting list mortality has occurred. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oudin Åström

    Full Text Available On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia.We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia.We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement.We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  9. Valmis film parvlaev Estonia katastroofist / Imre Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Imre

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal on valminud poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsent ja esialgse stsenaariumi autor koosHenning Wittega on Jutta Rabe, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  10. Vene muusika suurteosed Estonias / Kersti Inno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Inno, Kersti, 1954-

    2009-01-01

    Põhjamaade Sümfooniaorkestri kontserdist sarja "Kohtumispaik Eesti" raames 31. mail ja 1. juunil Estonia kontserdisaalis, dirigent Anu Tali, esitusel Dmitri Šostakovitši tšellokontsert nr 1 (läti solist David Geringas), Sergei Rahmaninovi Rapsoodia Paganini teemale (solist Marko Martin) ja Erkki-Sven Tüüri topeltkontsert "Noesis" (solistid sakslastest õde-venda Carolin ja Jörg Widmann)

  11. Kunstiakadeemia kolib ajutiselt Estonia puiesteele / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia on 2010. a. alguseks vanadest ruumidest kolinud hoonesse aadressil Estonia pst. 7. Rüütelkonna hoones leidis endale ajutise kodu vabade kunstide teaduskonna enamik erialasid. Veebruari algul toimuvast tühjendamispeost. EKA uue maja arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroodes Sea ja Effekt valminud töö "Art Plaza". Uue hoone ehitus algab aprillis, valmimistähtajaks on 2012. a. kevad

  12. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  13. Estonia ohvrite omaksed loobusid tõeotsingutest / Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Kalev

    2010-01-01

    Parvlaeval Estonia hukkunute lähedased otsustasid lõpetada ML Estonia Tegelike Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu tegevuse. MTÜ esimees Ülo Veide meenutab muuhulgas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele saadetud kirja, millele vastust ei saadud

  14. Seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica in cattle in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Jennifer; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    the seroprevalence and distribution of F. hepatica in cattle in Estonia. A total of 2461 individual serum samples from 218 farms distributed throughout all 15 Estonian counties, collected between February 2012 and March 2013, were tested for specific anti-F. hepatica antibodies using an in-house enzyme...... serological evidence of the presence and distribution of F. hepatica in cattle herds in Estonia....

  15. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  16. The Sinking Sequence of MV Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Felix-Ingo

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reconstructs the sinking of the RoPax Ferry MV Estonia on September 28th 1994, with a strong focus on describing the chain of events that caused the eventual sinking, and how the ship sank. Once the sinking is understood, this thesis explores possible safety improvements that should be implemented in the design of new vessels of this type. The investigation is based on a combination of testimonies of survivors as well as numerical calculations based on the framework of the testimo...

  17. The updated clinical guideline development process in Estonia is an efficient method for developing evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne; Habicht, Jarno; Mathiesen, Mari; Starkopf, Joel

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the tools available to improve the quality of health care. However, it may be difficult for countries to develop their own national guidelines "from scratch" because of limitations in time, expertise, and financial resources. The Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), in collaboration with other stakeholders, has launched a national effort to develop and implement evidence-based clinical practice guidelines aimed at improving the quality of care. Although the first EHIF handbook for preparing guidelines was published in 2004, there has been wide variation in the format and quality of guidelines prepared by medical specialty societies, EHIF, and other organizations in Estonia. An additional challenge to guideline development in Estonia is that it is a country with limited human resources. Therefore, revision of the Estonian guideline process was aimed at developing an efficient method for adapting current high-quality guidelines to the Estonian setting without compromising their quality. In 2010, a comprehensive assessment of guideline development in Estonia was made by the World Health Organization, EHIF, the Medical Faculty at the University of Tartu, and selected national and international experts in an effort to streamline and harmonize the principles and processes of guideline development in Estonia. This study summarizes the evaluation of and revisions to the process. Estonia has made substantial changes in its processes of clinical practice guideline development and implementation as part of an overall program aiming for systematic quality improvement in health care. This experience may be relevant to other small or resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Femoral Head and Neck Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Tisha A M

    2017-07-01

    Femoral head and neck excision is a surgical procedure that is commonly performed in small animal patients. It is a salvage procedure that is done to relieve pain in the coxofemoral joint and restore acceptable function of the limb. Femoral head and neck excision is most commonly used to treat severe osteoarthritis in the coxofemoral joint and can be done in dogs and cats of any size or age. The procedure should not be overused and ideally should not be done when the integrity of the coxofemoral joint can be restored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  20. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  1. "Welcome To Estonia" õpib oma vigadest / Kuldar Kullasepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti riigi turustamisest. Märgist "Welcome To Estonia" ning Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse plaanidest Eesti tutvustamisel. Vt. samas: Kasahstan Borati vastu; Kuidas aitab Eesti märgile kaasa internet?

  2. Kuulus Ralf Langbacka lavastab Estonias Verdi "Othello" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia 8. septembril 2005 Rocca al Mares asuvas Coral Clubi spordikeskuses esietenduvast ooperist "Othello", etendus valmib koostöös Tampere Ooperiga. 7. aprillil Tampere Talos toimuvast esietendusest

  3. Estonia film venitab saladuste loori / Heiki Suurkask, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Esilinastuse ja filmi ümber toimuvast. Lisatud lühiintervjuu Riina Kionkaga, Eesti suursaadikuga Saksamaal

  4. Mõnitav kõverpeegel Estonia hukust / Heino Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Heino, 1930-

    2003-01-01

    Saksa poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku : stsenarist, produtsent Jutta Rabe : režissöör Reuben Leder. Mereakadeemia professori hinnang filmi sõnumile

  5. New taxa of Entoloma (Basidiomycetes, Agaricales) from Estonia and Karelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordeloos, Machiel E.; Liiv, Vello

    1992-01-01

    Nine new species of Entoloma are described from the Islands of Saaremaa and Vormsi, Estonia, viz. E. conocybecystis, E. leochromus, E. mutabilipes, E. ochromicaceum, E. politoflavipes, E. rhynchocystidiatum, E. roseotinctum, E. viiduense, and E. violaceozonatum. Entoloma lactarioides is described as

  6. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  7. Uudised : Rossini "Wilhelm Tell" Estonias. Cavalli ooper Amsterdamis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Gioachino Rossini ooperi "Wilhelm Tell" kontsertettekandest 18. ja 20. dets. Rahvusooper Estonias (peaosas Rauno Elp, külalisesinejaks Mario Zeffiri). Itaalia barokihelilooja Francesco Cavalli ooperi "Ercole amante" lavastamisest Madalmaade Ooperis Amsterdamis (lavastaja David Alden, esietendus 11. jaanuaril)

  8. Acrylamide in commercial foods and intake by infants in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Andres; Roasto, Mati; Reinik, Mari; Nelis, Keiu; Nurk, Eha; Elias, Terje

    2017-11-01

    Acrylamide is formed when certain foods with low moisture are prepared at above 120 ºC, especially those foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose. Acrylamide is a probable carcinogen, and from animal evidence the margins of exposure indicate a concern for neoplastic effects. On a body weight basis infants´ acrylamide intakes are often higher than those of adults. The aim of the study was to determine acrylamide levels in different commercially-available foods and to assess dietary acrylamide intakes by infants. The acrylamide content in samples ranged widely, from acrylamide values were found for potato crisps and snacks. Among baby foods, the highest mean level of acrylamide was found in vegetable-based non-cereal foods (65 µg kg-1), followed by processed cereal-based infant foods (42 µg kg-1). The indicative acrylamide values were most frequently exceeded for vegetable-based baby foods. The mean acrylamide content in baby foods ranged from acrylamide-containing baby food, the MOE values ranged between 185 and 620 for neoplastic effects, and between 467 and 1,569 for non-neoplastic effects. These MOE values indicate the need to reduce acrylamide exposure among infants in Estonia.

  9. Defective thymine dimer excision by cell-free extracts of xeroderma pigmentosum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, K; Friedberg, E C; Slor, H; Thomas, G; Cleaver, J E

    1976-01-01

    Crude extracts of normal human diploid fibroblasts and of human peripheral blood lymphocytes excise thymine dimers from purified ultraviolet-irradiated DNA, or from the DNA presumably present as chromatin in unfractionated cell-free preparations of cells that had been labeled with [3H]thymidine. Extracts of xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, and D also excise thymine dimers from purified DNA, but extracts of group A cells do not excise dimers from the DNA of radioactively labeled unfractionated cell-free preparations. PMID:1066689

  10. Lumbar disc excision through fenestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lumbar disc herniation often causes sciatica. Many different techniques have been advocated with the aim of least possible damage to other structures while dealing with prolapsed disc surgically in the properly selected and indicated cases. Methods : Twenty six patients with clinical symptoms and signs of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc having radiological correlation by MRI study were subjected to disc excision by interlaminar fenestration method. Results : The assessment at follow-up showed excellent results in 17 patients, good in 6 patients, fair in 2 patients and poor in 1 patient. The mean preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scores were 9.34 ±0.84 and 2.19 ±0.84 on scale of 0-10 respectively. These were statistically significant (p value< 0.001, paired t test. No significant complications were recorded. Conclusion : Procedures of interlaminar fenestration and open disc excision under direct vision offers sufficient adequate exposure for lumbar disc excision with a smaller incision, lesser morbidity, shorter convalescence, early return to work and comparable overall results in the centers where recent laser and endoscopy facilities are not available.

  11. Estonia orkestri ja koori 100. sünnipäev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Estonia sümfooniaorkestri ja ooperikoori 100. aastapäeva tähistamisest Estonia kontserdisaalis Alfredo Catalani ooperi "La Wally" kontsertversiooni ettekandega. Üllitatud CD-st Cyrillus Kreegi vaimulike laulude ja "Reekviemiga"

  12. Estonia kontserdisaali renoveerimine. Tallinn, Estonia pst. 4 / Malle Agabush, Liivi Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Agabuš, Malle, 1948-

    1997-01-01

    1913. a. valminud "Estonia" teatrist (arhitektid A. Lindgren, W. Lönn). 1944. a. pommirünnaku tulemusena müürideni paljaks põlenud teatri taastamisest Alar Kotli projekti järgi. Tänase päeva kogu maja arengukontseptsiooni autor - Peep Jänes. Kontserdisaali renoveerimisest 1997. a. "Eesti Kontserdi" poolt. Projekt : Laansoo Arhitektuuribüroo. Kunstiajaloolane L. Künnapu. Arhitekt A. Kuldkepp. Sisekujundaja M. Agabush. Ehitus : Fansa Ehituse AS. Lavajoonised T. Tammerik. Valmis 1997

  13. Radon in the soil air of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersell, Valter; Täht-Kok, Krista; Karimov, Mark; Milvek, Heli; Nirgi, Siim; Raha, Margus; Saarik, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Several investigations in Estonia during 1996¬-1999 have shown that permissible level (200 Bq/m3) of radon (222Rn) in indoor air is exceeded in 33% of the inspected dwellings. This makes Estonia one of the five countries with highest radon risk in Europe (Fig 1). Due to correlation between the soil radon risk level and radon concentration in houses, small scale radon risk mapping of soil air was carried out (one study point per 70-100 km2). It turned out that one-third of Estonian mainland has high radon risk potential, where radon concentration in soil air exceeds safe limit of 50 kBq/m3. In order to estimate radon content in soil air, two different methods developed in Sweden were used simultaneously. Besides measuring radon content from soil air at the depth of 80 cm with an emanometer (RnM), maximum potential content of radon in soil (RnG) was estimated based on the rate of eU (226Ra) concentration in soil, which was acquired by using gamma-ray spectrometer. Mapping and following studies revealed that simultaneously measured RnG and RnM in study points may often differ. To inspect the cause, several monitoring points were set up in places with different geological conditions. It appeared that unlike the RnG content, which remains close to average level in repeated measurements, the RnM content may differ more than three times periodically. After continuous observations it turned out that concentration of directly measured radon depended on various factors being mostly controlled by mineral composition of soil, properties of topsoil as well as different factors influencing aeration of soil. The results of Rn monitoring show that reliable level of radon risk in Estonian soils can only be acquired by using calculated Rn-concentration in soil air based on eU content and directly measured radon content of soil air in combination with interpreting specific geological and geochemical situations in the study points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Mitochondrial base excision repair assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The main source of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal cellular metabolism. The main mtDNA lesions generated by ROS are base modifications, such as the ubiquitous 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesion; however, base loss and strand breaks may also occur....... Many human diseases are associated with mtDNA mutations and thus maintaining mtDNA integrity is critical. All of these lesions are repaired primarily by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. It is now known that mammalian mitochondria have BER, which, similarly to nuclear BER, is catalyzed by DNA...

  15. Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician conodont biostratigraphy in NW Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Hints

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Darriwilian conodonts have been studied in numerous sections of Baltoscandia, but few data are available from the classical outcrop area in northern Estonia. In this paper we report the succession of Darriwilian conodonts and chitinozoans from the bed-by-bed sampled Uuga and Osmussaar cliffs, NW Estonia. Standard Baltoscandian conodont and chitinozoan zones and subzones were identified from the topmost Volkhov to Uhaku regional stages. The global Dapingian–Darriwilian boundary coincides with the Volkhov–Kunda boundary in NW Estonia. The Kunda Stage is represented by its middle or upper part only, and the Aseri Stage is probably missing in both sections studied. The lowermost part of the Lasnamägi Stage with the conodont Yangtzeplacognathus foliaceus is also very condensed. The rest of the Lasnamägi and Uhaku stages, corresponding to the main part of the Pygodus serra conodont Zone, is well represented and can be correlated across Estonia and Sweden. Subtle regional variations in this interval indicate very uniform depositional conditions over wide areas of the Baltoscandian palaeobasin. Our results suggest that the Y. foliaceus Subzone in Estonia needs further assessment. Stratigraphically well-constrained Y. protoramosus appears to be more common than previously thought, and is thus a valuable regional subzonal index. The integrated conodont and chitinozoan scale provides more than 20 biostratigraphically important levels for local and regional correlations, probably approaching temporal resolution in the order of 0.1 Ma for the late Darriwilian.

  16. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  17. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  18. Dry Arthroscopic Excision of Dorsal Wrist Ganglion

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Jason; Zuhlke, Todd; Eizember, Shane; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Ganglions are common soft tissue masses of the hand. High recurrence rates are associated with nonsurgical treatment; thus, excision is often indicated. Arthroscopic excision and open excision have similar recurrence rates; however, the latter is associated with prolonged healing time and increased scarring. Recently, dry wrist arthroscopic techniques have been used. This technique allows easier confirmation of complete ganglion removal, easier conversion to open surgery, earlier return of mo...

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in breeding pigs in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt

    2017-01-01

    in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results: Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had...... antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species....

  20. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia.

  1. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Oandu Stage (Katian, Upper Ordovician in NE Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Männik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts from the type region of the Oandu Regional Stage (Katian, Upper Ordovician in NE Estonia were studied. Here, the lower boundary of the stage corresponds to a discontinuity surface at the base of the Hirmuse Formation and, in conodont succession, is marked by the disappearance of Semiacontiodus sp. and Besselodus? sp. The most characteristic taxa of the Oandu Stage are Phragmodus undatus, Icriodella cf. superba and Plectodina sp., which are rare or missing below and above this stratigraphic interval in Estonia. The comparison of conodont faunas from North and South Estonia suggests that the strata in North Estonia correspond to the upper part of the Oandu Stage only as identified in sections in South Estonia. However, the position of the lower boundary of the stage in South Estonia is highly problematic. The boundary between the Amorphognathus tvaerensis and A. superbus conodont zones in Estonia lies within the (upper Oandu Stage.

  2. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  3. Estonia taastusravikeskuse termid : Sääse 7, Pärnu = Baths at SPA Estonia : Sääse 7, Pärnu / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Estonia taastusravikeskuse basseini- ja vesiravikompleksist, mille arhitektid ning sisearhitektid on Edda Soolep ja Jüri Soolep (Archimedium OÜ). Žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  4. Transoral Mucosal Excision Sutured Gastroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legner, Andras; Altorjay, Aron; Juhasz, Arpad; Stadlhuber, Rudolph; Reich, Viktor; Hunt, Brandon; Rothstein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An outpatient transoral endoscopic procedure for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and obesity would be appealing if safe, effective, and durable. We present the first in human experience with a new system. Methods. Eight patients with GERD (3) and obesity (5) were selected according to a preapproved study protocol. All GERD patients had preprocedure manometry and pH monitoring to document GERD as well as quality of life and symptom questionnaires. Obese patients (body mass index >35) underwent a psychological evaluation and tests for comorbidities. Under general anesthesia, a procedure was performed at the gastroesophageal junction including mucosal excision, suturing of the excision beds for apposition, and suture knotting. Results. One patient with micrognathia could not undergo the required preprocedural passage of a 60 F dilator and was excluded. The first 2 GERD patients had incomplete procedures due to instrument malfunction. The subsequent 5 subjects had a successfully completed procedure. Four patients were treated for obesity and had an average excess weight loss of 30.3% at 2-year follow-up. Of these patients, one had an 8-mm outlet at the end of the procedure recognized on video review—a correctable error—and another vomited multiple times postoperatively and loosened the gastroplasty sutures. The treated GERD patient had resolution of reflux-related symptoms and is off all antisecretory medications at 2-year follow-up. Her DeMeester score was 8.9 at 24 months. Conclusion. The initial human clinical experience showed promising results for effective and safe GERD and obesity therapy. PMID:24623807

  5. Surgical excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladden, Michael J; Balch, Charles; Barzilai, David A; Berg, Daniel; Freiman, Anatoli; Handiside, Teenah; Hollis, Sally; Lens, Marko B; Thompson, John F

    2009-10-07

    Cutaneous melanoma accounts for 75% of skin cancer deaths. Standard treatment is surgical excision with a safety margin some distance from the borders of the primary tumour. The purpose of the safety margin is to remove both the complete primary tumour and any melanoma cells that might have spread into the surrounding skin.Excision margins are important because there could be trade-off between a better cosmetic result but poorer long-term survival if margins become too narrow. The optimal width of excision margins remains unclear. This uncertainty warrants systematic review. To assess the effects of different excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma. In August 2009 we searched for relevant randomised trials in the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2009), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and other databases including Ongoing Trials Registers. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of surgical excision of melanoma comparing different width excision margins. We assessed trial quality, and extracted and analysed data on survival and recurrence. We collected adverse effects information from included trials. We identified five trials. There were 1633 participants in the narrow excision margin group and 1664 in the wide excision margin group. Narrow margin definition ranged from 1 to 2 cm; wide margins ranged from 3 to 5 cm. Median follow-up ranged from 5 to 16 years. This systematic review summarises the evidence regarding width of excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma. None of the five published trials, nor our meta-analysis, showed a statistically significant difference in overall survival between narrow or wide excision.The summary estimate for overall survival favoured wide excision by a small degree [Hazard Ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.15; P = 0.40], but the result was not significantly different. This result is compatible

  6. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  7. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1995-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  8. The live-birth prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbi, Külliki; Joost, Kairit; Zordania, Riina; Talvik, Inga; Rein, Reet; Huijmans, Jan G M; Verheijen, Frans V; Õunap, Katrin

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies on the prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in different populations have shown considerable variations. There are, however, few data with regard to the prevalence of MPSs in Fenno-Ugric populations or in north-eastern Europe, except for a report about Scandinavian countries. A retrospective epidemiological study of MPSs in Estonia was undertaken, and live-birth prevalence of MPS patients born between 1985 and 2006 was estimated. The live-birth prevalence for all MPS subtypes was found to be 4.05 per 100,000 live births, which is consistent with most other European studies. MPS II had the highest calculated incidence, with 2.16 per 100,000 live births (4.2 per 100,000 male live births), forming 53% of all diagnosed MPS cases, and was twice as high as in other studied European populations. The second most common subtype was MPS IIIA, with a live-birth prevalence of 1.62 in 100,000 live births. With 0.27 out of 100,000 live births, MPS VI had the third-highest live-birth prevalence. No cases of MPS I were diagnosed in Estonia, making the prevalence of MPS I in Estonia much lower than in other European populations. MPSs are the third most frequent inborn error of metabolism in Estonia after phenylketonuria and galactosemia.

  9. Adoption of National Curricula by Vocational Teachers in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekkor, Sirje; Ümarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to study the adoption of national curricula by vocational teachers. In the paper, we review the process of vocational education and training curriculum reform in Estonia over the last 20 years, and, in particular, the introduction of national curricula. As teachers should be considered the key agents of curricular change, we look…

  10. High incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabre, L; Pedai, G; Rekand, T; Asser, T; Linnamägi, U; Kõrv, J

    2012-10-01

    Retrospective population-based cohort study. To provide national data on epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) among the population of Estonia from 1997 to 2007. All Estonian hospitals. Medical records of patients with TSCI from all regional, central, general and rehabilitation hospitals in Estonia were retrospectively reviewed. Epidemiological characteristics, etiology, neurological level and severity of injury, concomitant injuries were analyzed. A total of 595 patients with TSCI from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2007 were identified. The male to female ratio was 5.5:1. The mean age at injury was 39.0 years. The crude incidence rate was 39.7 (95% confidence interval: 36.6-43.0) per million population. The most frequent cause of TSCI was falls (41%), followed by traffic accidents (29%). Alcohol consumption preceded 43% of injuries. The lesion level was cervical in 59.4%, thoracic in 18.3% and lumbar/sacral in 22.3%. Compared to recent studies from Europe, where the incidence of TSCI is between 15 and 30 per million population, the incidence of TSCI in Estonia is among the highest. The rates are significantly higher in men compared with women and especially among the youngest men. The leading cause of TSCI is falls. A significant proportion of injuries are related to alcohol consumption before trauma in Estonia.

  11. Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded zoonosis in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Ståhl, Marie; Lassen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered...

  12. A contribution to the epipsammic diatom flora of Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the modern epipsammic diatom flora in Lake Karujärv, Saaremaa Island, Estonia revealed seventy-one taxa representing thirty-one genera. The identity of all taxa is documented with light micrographs. Most abundant taxa of the epipsammic diatom community were Achnanthidium minutissimum

  13. Ediacaran and Cambrian stratigraphy in Estonia: an updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Meidla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous late Precambrian and Cambrian correlation charts of Estonia, summarizing the regional stratigraphic nomenclature of the 20th century, date back to 1997. The main aim of this review is updating these charts based on recent advances in the global Precambrian and Cambrian stratigraphy and new data from regions adjacent to Estonia. The term ‘Ediacaran’ is introduced for the latest Precambrian succession in Estonia to replace the formerly used ‘Vendian’. Correlation with the dated sections in adjacent areas suggests that only the latest 7–10 Ma of the Ediacaran is represented in the Estonian succession. The gap between the Ediacaran and Cambrian may be rather substantial. The global fourfold subdivision of the Cambrian System is introduced for Estonia. The lower boundary of Series 2 is drawn at the base of the Sõru Formation and the base of Series 3 slightly above the former lower boundary of the ‘Middle Cambrian’ in the Baltic region, marked by a gap in the Estonian succession. The base of the Furongian is located near the base of the Petseri Formation.

  14. "Welcome to Estonia" ärkab varjusurmast / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus on välja töötanud turunduskampaania tegevuskava ja taotleb Eesti märgi rahastamist. Majandusminister Juhan Partsi toetusest "Welcome to Estonia 2"projektile. EAS-i turundusdirektori Erki Peegli selgitusi. Kommenteerib Peter Roose. Lisa: Eesti märk

  15. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  16. Estonia hukk jõuab suvel kinodesse / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Nädal tagasi alustati Berliinis poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow

  17. Saksa press käsitleb Estonia huku filmi blufina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe, Kaj Holmberg ja Birgit Stein, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukajadest Saksa ajakirjanduses. Ka Eesti suursaadiku Riina Kionka arvamus

  18. Estonia juubelihooaeg tuleb tavalisest sisukam / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia 100. hooaja etendustest: G. Verdi "Othello", G. Puccini ooper "Tosca", Rene Eespere ooper "Gurmaanid-2", P. Mascagni "Talupoja au", R. Leoncavallo "Pajatsid", W. A. Mozarti ooper "Don Giovanni" ja ooperi "La clemenza di Tito" kontsertettekanne, Tiit Härmi ballett "Kameeliadaam", Ludvig Minkuse ballett "Don Quijote". Osavõtust Dalhalla ooperifestivalist Rootsis Puccini ooperiga "Tosca" ja Cannito/Schiavoni balletiga "Cassandra"

  19. Elegantne ja värske Rahvusooper Estonia / Maris Takk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Takk, Maris

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar, SAB Lember & Padar. Arhitektuurse projekti autor Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. ajaloolise interjööri preemia. J. Lemberist ja A. Padarist, nende tähtsamad tööd, autasud. Ill.: plaan, 16 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  20. Estonia näitas uut logo / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Ooperiteatri uue logo autor on Kristjan Kirsfeldt. Liis Kolle lavastab G. Rossini ooperi "Sinjoor Bruschino ehk Poeg juhuse tahtel", kunstnikud Liina Keevallik ja Reili Evart. 2. juunil Rahvusooperis etendunud rahvusooperi näiteringi "Welcome to Estonia" Neeme Kuninga kirjutatud ja lavastatud muusikalist "Minu veetlev Eedi".

  1. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  2. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plado, Jüri

    2012-10-01

    Three structures (Neugrund, Kärdla, and Kaali) of proven impact origin make Estonia the most cratered country in the world by area. In addition, several candidate impact structures exist, waiting for future studies to determine their origin. This article is an overview of these proven and possible impact structures, including some breccia layers. It summarizes the information and descriptions of the morphology; geological characteristics; and mineralogical, chemical, and geophysical data available in the literature. The overview was prepared to make information in many earlier publications in local journals (many of which had been published in Estonian or Russian) accessible to the international community. This review summarizes the facts and observations in a historical fashion, summarizing the current state of knowledge with some additional comments, and providing the references.

  3. [Pregnancies and deliveries in Finland and Estonia in 1997 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Raussi-Lehto, Eija; Kalam-Salminen, Ly; Hemminki, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Treatment practices of pregnancies and deliveries and newborn health have differed from each other between Finland and Estonia. We examined changes in the differences from 1997 to 2011 from national birth registers and official statistics. Deliveries, abortions and overall fertility remained similar in Finland. In Estonia, the number of deliveries increased and abortions decreased. Problems in the perinatal period continued to be more common in Estonia. Estonian reproductive health and treatment practices of deliveries have approached the situation in Finland.

  4. Rahmaninov ja Saint-Saens Estonia kontserdisaalis / Tiina Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Tiina, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    18. novembril Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast Sergei Rahmaninovi Klaverikontsert nr 2 ja "Kellad" ettekandest ja 29. novembril Toimuvast Camille Saint-Saensi ooperi "Simson ja Delila" kontsertettekandest

  5. Sajandi sündmus : Estonia teater jõudis Financial Timesi / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Maailmakuulus majandusleht Financial Times avaldas 4. jaanuaril ajakirjanik George Loomis'e artikli, mis kajastab Rahvusooperis Estonia 14. detsembril 2001 esietendunud Carl Orffi ooperit "Tark naine"

  6. Effects of chalazion excision on ocular aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabermoghaddam, Ali A; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Abrishami, Mojtaba

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to compare higher-order aberrations before and after upper lid chalazion excision. Fourteen eyes from 12 patients (8 females, mean age: 28.7 ± 2.7 years) with upper lid chalazion were enrolled in this prospective interventional case series. Chalazia were excised by standard transconjunctival vertical incision. Ocular aberrations were evaluated by aberrometry (ZyWave) before and 2 months after chalazion excision. Root mean square of total higher-order aberrations decreased from 0.67 ± 0.12 to 0.43 ± 0.15 μm (P = 0.012) after excision. The root mean square of Zernike orders in the vertical and horizontal trefoil and horizontal coma were decreased after excision. Orbscan IIz tomography showed a statistically significant decrease in 5 mm zone irregularity (P = 0.027) and an increase in minimum simulated keratometry after surgery (P = 0.046). Chalazion increases higher-order aberrations, as measured by the Hartmann-Shack aberrometer, which could affect the preoperative evaluation and results of refractive surgery, especially wavefront-guided approaches. Chalazion excision could reduce ocular aberrations and is recommended before refractive surgeries.

  7. The tourism image of Estonia in Spain: a formulative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlin Savva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an environment, where information flow is freer than ever. Nowadays everyone has access to global news and can make their own conclu-sions based on the perceived image. Therefore, the role of perception and image is becoming more important for different countries to attract visitors and in-vestors. Tourism is a way of selling the image of a country and the reputation and word of mouth generated from tourism activities are priceless to the image of a destination. This paper analyzes the case of Estonia, which is an emerging tourism market and quite new and unknown for Spain. The authors try to accent the importance of direct promotion, through a survey carried out to 341 Spanish people in Madrid. The result from this quantitative and formulative research method is that Estonia has to promote its tourism image better if the country wants to attract the Spanish tourist.

  8. Comparative study between radiofrequency sinus excision and open excision in sacro-coccygeal pilonidal sinus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of outcome of pilonidal sinus excision using a radiofrequency device and comparing its results with excision and open granulation procedure. Patients with sacro-coccygeal pilonidal sinus disease (n=44) were randomly assigned to undergo either a wide excision and healing by open granulation procedure [WEG] (n=23) or a radiofrequency sinus excision [RSE] (n=21). An Ellman radiofrequency generator was used for RSE. Intra- and postoperative events and outcome data were evaluated and analyzed by Student's unpaired t test and chi(2) test. The significant differences in the two groups WEG and RSE were as follows: mean hospital stay (47 vs. 10 h, p< 0.05), period off work (29 vs. 8 days, p< 0.05), mean analgesic requirement (39 vs. 15 tablets, p< 0.05), time for complete wound healing (84 vs. 49 days, p< 0.05). At the mean follow-up of 30 months, 2 patients from the wide excision and open granulation group and one patient from the radiofrequency sinus excision group developed recurrence. These findings suggest that sinus excision with radiofrequency is a simple and swift procedure. It needs a short hospital stay and is associated with less postoperative pain and early resumption to work. As compared to excision and healing by granulation technique, the radiofrequency sinus excision procedure achieves faster wound healing and a better outcome. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Natalja Gurvitsh; Jaan Alver; Lehte Alver

    2017-01-01

    How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia During recent decades, more and more attention has been paid to business ethics. There seems to be an increasing interest in the non-financial aspects of business. Stakeholders all over the world express their concern about embedding the principles of professional and business ethics into companies’ everyday activities. The main subject of this research is business ethics and the purpose is to find out the im-portance of professional...

  10. Dirofilaria repens Microfilaremia in Three Dogs in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Mõtsküla, Paul F; Heikkinen, Petra; Ülevaino, Epp; Oksanen, Antti; Lassen, Brian

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, the zoonotic parasite Dirofilaria repens continues to spread northward. We describe three likely autochthonous canine microfilaremic D. repens infections from Estonia, an European Union country located in the Baltic region of northern Europe. The parasite species was confirmed with sequencing. These are new northernmost D. repens findings in Europe and show that the zoonotic parasite has spread farther north. Infection with D. repens should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for human and animal hosts also in northern Europe.

  11. [Hospital care in Estonia: thoughts on patient privacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenacker, Aline

    2017-03-01

    A student nurse is doing a work placement in a hospital in Estonia. The care techniques are identical to those with which she is familiar. However, the application of concepts of privacy and modesty is somewhat different. A reflexive analysis of the situation ensures no hasty judgements are made and enables her to think about the place of her own representations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Estonia ujub Saksamaa kinodesse / Andres Laasik, Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja. Põhjamaades on filmi linastamine kahtluse all

  13. "Higher education at a crossroad: The case of Estonia"

    OpenAIRE

    Ellu Saar

    2013-01-01

    Raamatututvustus annab ülevaate artiklikogumikust "Higher education at a crossroad: The case of Estonia". Raamat keskendub muutustele, mis on Eesti kõrghariduses toimunud viimase paarikümne aasta jooksul, samuti eesseisvatele ülesannetele, mille need muutused on endaga kaasa toonud. Kogumik esindab multidistsiplinaarset koostööprojekti, sest uuringute läbiviijad ja artiklite autorid on kasvatusteadlased, psühholoogid, majandusteadlased ja sotsioloogid kolmest Eesti kõrgkoolist.

  14. How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Gurvitsh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia During recent decades, more and more attention has been paid to business ethics. There seems to be an increasing interest in the non-financial aspects of business. Stakeholders all over the world express their concern about embedding the principles of professional and business ethics into companies’ everyday activities. The main subject of this research is business ethics and the purpose is to find out the im-portance of professional and business ethics and determine its place in the modern business world as seen by Estonian business students and practitioners. To achieve the goals, the authors conducted a survey among Estonian graduate and undergraduate accounting and business students at Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian business practitioners. 587 responses were collected in the process. This infor-mation was compiled and analyzed based on status, gender, age, and specialization. The survey revealed that in Estonia people are familiar with business ethics; however, it is not of great interest to them. The results also indicate that professional and business ethics merit more attention and should be included as a required course in the curriculum of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. In general, business ethics in Estonia was not ranked as “high”, which was also the case for both professional ethics at the work-place/university and also the importance and necessity of ethics in the modern business world.

  15. [Health telematics/telemedicine in the republic of Estonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, F; Fotuhi, P; Schierbaum, C; Dietel, M; Baumann, G; Lange, M; Asser, T

    2004-04-30

    The people of Estonia, who until their independence had been systematically deprived of all forms of information, have shown a ready acceptance of the use of information technology in all areas of life. This environment and an excellent IT infrastructure have since the beginning of the new century provided favourable conditions for developing various individual projects in telemedicine. At the core of current telemedical applications in Estonia is the BITNET Project (in neurology, general medicine), built up with Swedish cooperation, and three German-Estonian projects (in telecardiology and telepathology). These projects are accompanied by studies of their cost-effectiveness. They constitute the basis for the plan that routine telemedical services be taken over by the Estonian health insurance. Differing from the situation in the Scandinavian countries, which have had an effective national telemedical service for over ten years, the special feature of telematrics in Estonia is its international networking with foreign centres of excellence. This has its origin in the aim of Estonian health policy to ensure medical services within its own country in all branches of medicine.

  16. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Vendla, Kaidi; Vetka, Andre; Bell, J Simon; Hamilton, David

    2008-07-01

    To describe practice and research related to pharmaceutical care in Estonia following the country's restoration of independence from Russia in 1991. The transition from a Soviet to a free market economy has impacted the healthcare and pharmacy systems in Estonia. Following independence, ownership of community pharmacies was transferred from the State government to individual pharmacists. However, pharmacy ownership is no longer restricted to pharmacists and recent years have seen the emergence of large pharmacy chains. The number of community pharmacies in Estonia increased from 270 in 1992 to 523 in 2007. In addition to dispensing, Estonian pharmacies retain a focus on compounding of extemporaneous products and supply of herbal medications. Research into pharmaceutical care has addressed topics including pharmaceutical policy and the quality of pharmacy services provided at community pharmacies. There has been limited pressure to date from the governmental institutions and patient organizations to introduce extended pharmaceutical services. However, the trend toward providing health services in primary care will create greater responsibilities and new opportunities for community pharmacists. Recent inclusion of clinical pharmacy and interprofessional learning in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum will help ensure ongoing development of the profession and high-quality pharmacy services in the future. Pharmaceutical care services in Estonian community pharmacies have become more patient-oriented over the past 17 years. However, community pharmacies continue to retain a focus on traditional roles.

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in tick populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-09

    Estonia is located in a unique area of co-distribution of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus, which are the main tick vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In the last decade, the incidence rate of Lyme borreliosis in Estonia has increased dramatically up to 115.4 per 100,000 in 2012. Here we present the first survey of the presence, the prevalence and genetic characteristics of B. burgdorferi s.l. complex spirochetes in the tick population in Estonia. During the years 2006-2009, 2833 unfed Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus were collected from 43 sites in 7 counties in mainland Estonia as well as in 10 sites on the Saaremaa Island. DNA samples from ticks were analyzed individually using nested PCR of the ribosomal 5S-23S spacer region followed by bidirectional sequencing. The overall estimated prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l was 9.7% and varied from 4.9% to 24.2% on the mainland and to 10.7% in Saaremaa Island. Ixodes persulcatus ticks showed significantly higher prevalence rates compared to that in I. ricinus-16.3% and 8.2%, respectively. The most prevalent genospecies was B. afzelii which was detected in 53.5% of Borrelia-positive ticks, followed by B. garinii and B. valaisiana with 26.2% and 5.5%, respectively. Also, B. bavariensis and B. burgdorferi s.s. DNA in single I. ricinus ticks were detected. Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in both tick species. Two genetic subgroups of B. garinii (NT29 and 20047) and two genetic subgroups of B. afzelii (NT28 and VS461) were found to be circulating in all studied regions as well as in both tick species, except B. garinii subgroup NT29, which was found only in I. persulcatus ticks. In the current study we detected the circulation of five B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies and estimated the prevalence in ticks in different regions of Estonia. Detection and genetic characterization of Borrelia genospecies, especially those of public health importance, in the natural foci may help assessing

  18. HYPEST study: profile of hypertensive patients in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Org, Elin; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Juhanson, Peeter; Putku, Margus; Rosenberg, Mai; Tomberg, Kärt; Uuetoa, Tiina; Laan, Maris

    2011-08-31

    More than one third of adult population in Estonia has problems with elevated blood pressure (BP). The Hypertension in Estonia (HYPEST) study represents the country's first hypertension-targeted sample collection aiming to examine the epidemiological and genetic determinants for hypertension (HTN) and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Estonian population. The HYPEST subjects (n = 1,966) were recruited across Estonia between 2004-2007 including clinically diagnosed HTN cases and population-based controls. The present report is focused on the clinical and epidemiological profile of HYPEST cases, and gender-specific effects on the pathophysiology of hypertension. Current analysis was performed on 1,007 clinically diagnosed HTN patients (617 women and 390 men) aged 18-85 years. The hypertensives were recruited to the study by BP specialists at the North Estonia Medical Center, Centre of Cardiology, Tallinn or at the Cardiology Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. Longitudinal BP data was extracted retrospectively from clinical records. Current and retrospective data of patient's medical history, medication intake and lifestyle habits were derived from self-administrated questionnaire and each variable was examined separately for men and women. Eleven biochemical parameters were measured from fasting serum samples of 756 patients. The distribution of recruited men and women was 39% and 61% respectively. Majority of Estonian HTN patients (85%) were overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and a total of 79% of patients had additional complications with cardiovascular system. In men, the hypertension started almost 5 years earlier than in women (40.5 ± 14.5 vs 46.1 ± 12.7 years), which led to earlier age of first myocardial infarction (MI) and overall higher incidence rate of MI among male patients (men 21.2%, women 8.9%, P < 0.0001). Heart arrhythmia, thyroid diseases, renal tubulo-intestinal diseases and hyperlipidemia were more prevalent in hypertensive women

  19. HYPEST study: profile of hypertensive patients in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Mai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than one third of adult population in Estonia has problems with elevated blood pressure (BP. The Hypertension in Estonia (HYPEST study represents the country's first hypertension-targeted sample collection aiming to examine the epidemiological and genetic determinants for hypertension (HTN and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD in Estonian population. The HYPEST subjects (n = 1,966 were recruited across Estonia between 2004-2007 including clinically diagnosed HTN cases and population-based controls. The present report is focused on the clinical and epidemiological profile of HYPEST cases, and gender-specific effects on the pathophysiology of hypertension. Methods Current analysis was performed on 1,007 clinically diagnosed HTN patients (617 women and 390 men aged 18-85 years. The hypertensives were recruited to the study by BP specialists at the North Estonia Medical Center, Centre of Cardiology, Tallinn or at the Cardiology Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. Longitudinal BP data was extracted retrospectively from clinical records. Current and retrospective data of patient's medical history, medication intake and lifestyle habits were derived from self-administrated questionnaire and each variable was examined separately for men and women. Eleven biochemical parameters were measured from fasting serum samples of 756 patients. Results The distribution of recruited men and women was 39% and 61% respectively. Majority of Estonian HTN patients (85% were overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a total of 79% of patients had additional complications with cardiovascular system. In men, the hypertension started almost 5 years earlier than in women (40.5 ± 14.5 vs 46.1 ± 12.7 years, which led to earlier age of first myocardial infarction (MI and overall higher incidence rate of MI among male patients (men 21.2%, women 8.9%, P P P = 0.00007, obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; P = 0.0003, increased stress (P = 0.0003 and alcohol

  20. Estonia 1989-2000: enormous increase in mortality differences by education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Vågerö, Denny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Having regained its political autonomy in 1991, Estonia experienced major changes in political, economic, and social realities. We aimed to analyse mortality changes by education from 1989 to 2000 in order to assess the impact of recent changes in Estonia, as well as the delayed effects

  1. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Estonia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mere, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Estonia restored its independence in 1991. The creation of legislation and reorganisation of the educational system was one of the first tasks of the restored Republic of Estonia. The development of the national curriculum for basic and upper secondary schools that provided a framework substituting the previous study modules, and the creation of…

  2. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  3. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  4. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  5. Uudised : Estonia maja renoveerimisest. EMNi juhatuse tegevusest. Meredith Monki kontsert Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    7. märtsil kiitis rahvusooperi Estonia nõukogu heaks Estonia teatri- ja kontserdimaja renoveerimistööde tehnilise projekti. EMNi juhatuse koosolekul 27. veebr. arutati E. Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumi perspektiive, muusikahariduse probleeme ja EMNi töösuundi. 20. märtsil esineb Tallinnas Sakala keskuses M. Monk

  6. 26 CFR 40.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax return preparer. 40.7701-1 Section 40.7701-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see §...

  7. A technique to excise the descemet membrane from a recipient cornea (descemetorhexis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, Gerrit R. J.; Wijdh, Robert H. J.; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.

    2004-01-01

    To describe a technique for excision of the Descemet membrane (DM) from the recipient eye for preparation of a recipient stromal bed in posterior lamellar keratoplasty. In 10 human eye bank eyes and 3 patients, recipient eyes had a 5.0-mm scleral tunnel incision made extending 1.0 mm into the

  8. Valge Laeva hukk : Estonia katastroof meie peas = The wreck of the White ship : on the catastrophe of the Estonia / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    "Estonia" katasroofist ja meedia osast selle kajastamisel, Juhan Leinbergist ja maltsvetlusest ning "valge laeva" kui priiuse laeva ja lootuse kujundist Eesti kultuuris ning selle tähendusest eestlaste teadvuses

  9. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea : National Report of Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Laevadelt lähtuv merereostus ja kaldariigi jurisdiktsioon Balti mere kaguosas : Eesti. - Lisatud: Estonia : Economic Zone Act of Estonia : 28 January 1993 : Annex I, lk. 121-124 ; Estonia : State Borders Act of Estonia : 30 June 1994 : Annex II, lk. 125-138

  10. An arteriovenous fistula following chalazion excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-Amborcar Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An arteriovenous fistula secondary to a chalazion is a rare occurrence. It may follow spontaneous necrosis or surgical trauma. Digital subtraction angiography and identification of the arterial feeders combined with direct puncture of the nidus and embolization is recommended, as surgical excision becomes much easier and results in a complete excision of the lesion. Conchal cartilage graft is a useful lining material for reconstruction of the tarsal plate due to its natural curvature. It restores lid integrity and ensures a stable and functional eyelid.

  11. 26 CFR 55.6060-1 - Reporting requirements for tax return preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Procedure and Administration § 55.6060-1 Reporting requirements for tax return preparers...

  12. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as

  13. Estonia hukk jõuab kinolinale / Anari Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Anari

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastub 2. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teevad kaasa Rein Oja ja väikeses rollis Urmas Alenderi lesk Helje Kaskel. Kõlab ka U. Alenderi laul

  14. COMPLEATE MESOCOLIC EXCISION AND RIGHT HEMICOLECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stanojević

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the term complete mesocolic excision, the knowledge of anatomy is crucial. In the classical literature, mesenteric organ is described as fragmented and discontinuous. Total mesorectal excision (TME has become the “gold standard” for the surgical management of rectal cancer. In describing it, Heald provided an anatomical basis for surgery. Similar description was needed for colon cancer surgery. According to the modern anatomical studies, fibers of Toldt’s fascia form a plane between the apposed portions of the mesocolon and the underlying retroperitoneum. The demonstration of mesocolic continuity, combined with the presence of Toldt’s fascia, interposed between the apposed portions of the mesocolon and the retroperitoneum, rationalize planar dissection in colonic resection. By addressing these anatomical features, the mobilization of the entire colon and mesocolon (which remain intact can be performed. Hohenberger et al. used the concept of TME for colon cancer surgery and in 2009 introduced the term complete mesocolic excision (CME. The concept for CME is the consequent surgical separation by sharp dissection of the visceral fascia layer from the parietal one resulting in complete mobilization of the entire mesocolon covered by an intact visceral fascial layer, ensuring safe exposure and tie of the supplying arteries at their origin. With this technique, survival rate increased. In comparison to open CME, laparoscopic CME has comparable results. Complete mesocolic excision seems to offer a survival benefit and better local control, but none of this is proved by randomized controlled trials.

  15. gynaecomastia: management with liposuction and glandular excision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... has been used for certain types of gynaecomastia (3). In this study, a combination of ultrasound assisted liposuction and excision of glandular breast tissue through a periareolar incision was applied. The tissue is pulled through the wound and is removed with scissors or electric cautery. The pull through ...

  16. Robotic Extramucosal Excision of Bladder Wall Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid E. Al-Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple case reports and reviews have been described in the literature for bladder wall leiomyoma resection via different approaches. The minimally invasive partial cystectomy remains the most widely accepted technique; however, case reports for enucleation of bladder wall leiomyoma have also been described. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the robotic extramucosal excision of a bladder wall leiomyoma, without cystotomy, but with complete removal of the muscular layer. Materials and Methods: A 35-year old male present with lower urinary tract symptoms and imaging showed bladder wall mass with histopathology showed leiomyoma. The patient consented for mass excision with the possibility of a partial cystectomy. The patient was placed in the supine, 30-degree Trendelenburg position during the procedure. A total of 4 ports were inserted. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. Extramucosal excision was accomplished without cystotomy and muscle approximation was achieved by 2 0 Vicryle. Result: The operative time was 90 minutes, blood loss of approximately 50mL and the patient was discharged after 72 hours with no immediate complications and a 6 months follow-up showed no recurrence. Conclusion: Such a technique results in complete excision of the tumor, without cystotomy, and also maintains an intact mucosa. These steps, in addition to decreasing the risk of local recurrence, also shorten the period of postoperative catheterization and hospitalization.

  17. Nucleotide excision repair and human syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Boer (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDNA damage is implicated in cancer and aging, and several DNA repair mechanisms exist that safeguard the genome from these deleterious consequences. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes a wide diversity of lesions, the main of which include UV-induced lesions, bulky chemical adducts

  18. Brown recluse spider bites. A comparison of early surgical excision versus dapsone and delayed surgical excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, R S; Altenbern, D P; Lynch, J B; King, L E

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective study, 31 patients with brown recluse spider bites were treated by either immediate surgical excision or with the leukocyte inhibitor, dapsone, followed by delayed surgical excision. Patients were matched for age, gender, and lesion size and were excluded if the typical history and physical findings were not present. In patients treated with immediate surgical excision (N = 14), delayed wound healing (N = 5) and objectional scarring (N = 7) were common complications. However, pretreatment treatment with dapsone reduced the incidence of wound complications (N = 1) and objectional scarring (N = 1) (p less than 0.05), while reducing the need for surgical excision (N = 1). There were no severe drug reactions due to dapsone, although one patient had persistent G.I. upset. Pretreatment with dapsone not only reduced surgical complications but also improved the outcome of patients bitten by the brown recluse spider. PMID:4051613

  19. The effect of excise tax increases on cigarette prices in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linegar, Daniel J; van Walbeek, Corne

    2017-03-24

    The effectiveness of excise tax increases as a tool for reducing tobacco consumption depends largely on how the tax increases impact the retail price. We estimate this relationship in South Africa for 2001-2015. Statistics South Africa provided disaggregated cigarette price data, used in the calculation of the Consumers' Price Index. Data on the excise tax per cigarette were obtained from Budget Reviews prepared by the National Treasury of South Africa. Regression equations were estimated for each month. The month-on-month change in cigarette prices in February through April was regressed against March's excise tax change to estimate the pass-through coefficient. For the other 9 months, the month-on-month change in cigarette price was regressed against monthly dummy variables to determine the size of the non-tax-related price increase in each of these months. The analysis was performed in both nominal and real (inflation-adjusted) terms. Expressed in real terms, the excise tax was undershifted. A R1.00 (one rand) increase in the excise tax is associated with an increase in the retail price of cigarettes of R0.90 in the pre-2010 period, and R0.49 in the post-2010 period. In the pre-2010 period, the tobacco industry increased the retail price of cigarettes in July/August, independent of the excise tax increase. The discretionary July/August price increases largely disappeared after 2010, primarily because the market became more competitive. The degree of excise tax pass-through, and the magnitude of discretionary increases in cigarette prices, is significantly determined by the competitive environment in the cigarette market. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Design of accounting curriculum: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alver Lehte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization sets new requirements for the professional qualification of accountants and auditors. In the business world globalized investment market demands consistent high quality financial information across borders; investors are looking for a global accounting profession to provide it. There is more pressure on accounting professionals to expand and enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities beyond what they are currently likely to possess. Providers of accounting education must take into account the changed world and create contemporary curricula. In Estonia the change from a command to a market economy has inevitably influenced not only the accounting framework but also the entire system of accounting education. It is clear that without a design of accounting curricula it is practically impossible to fulfill requirements of nowadays high quality financial information. Tallinn University of Technology (TUT holds on the advanced level of accounting education the leading position in Estonia. The accounting curriculum (on the graduate level as well as undergraduate level is the most popular among all curricula at the Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration of TUT. It is a joint system, which consists of undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Small sub specializations: for example in financial accounting, managerial cost accounting, taxation and auditing become evident while interpreting the graduate and undergraduate programs as one united system. The paper explains a new model of accounting curriculum developed at TUT as well as its educational philosophy and principles of designing. It also describes conditions required for development and continuous improvement of competitive curriculum.

  1. The Implementation of Pharmacy Competence Teaching in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Sepp, Kristiina; Veski, Peep; Raal, Ain

    2017-01-01

    Background: The PHAR-QA, “Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training”, project has produced the European Pharmacy Competence Framework (EPCF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing pharmacy programme at the University of Tartu, using the EPCF. Methods: A qualitative assessment of the pharmacy programme by a convenience sample (n = 14) representing different pharmacy stakeholders in Estonia. EPCF competency levels were determined by using a five-point scale tool adopted from the Dutch competency standards framework. Mean scores of competency levels given by academia and other pharmacy stakeholders were compared. Results: Medical and social sciences, pharmaceutical technology, and pharmacy internship were more frequent subject areas contributing to EPCF competencies. In almost all domains, the competency level was seen higher by academia than by other pharmacy stakeholders. Despite on-board theoretical knowledge, the competency level at graduation could be insufficient for independent professional practice. Other pharmacy stakeholders would improve practical implementation of theoretical knowledge, especially to increase patient care competencies. Conclusions: The EPCF was utilized to evaluate professional competencies of entry-level pharmacists who have completed a traditional pharmacy curriculum. More efficient training methods and involvement of practicing specialists were suggested to reduce the gaps of the existing pharmacy programme. Applicability of competence teaching in Estonia requires more research and collaborative communication within the pharmacy sector. PMID:28970430

  2. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in breeding pigs in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-12-11

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.

  3. Tax Expenditures in the Federal Excise Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Davie, Bruce F.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of the current role of excise taxation in the federal tax system. Breaks down excise taxes into nine distinct types, and identifies problems related to determining tax expenditures and revenue losses.

  4. Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts from the subsurface of SE Estonia and adjacent Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viive Viira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of conodonts in the Lower–Middle Ordovician beds was studied in five drill core sections of south­eastern Estonia. Ten conodont zones and six subzones, from the Paroistodus proteus Zone to the Eoplacognathus lindstroemi Subzone, were established. The peculiarity of the studied sequence is that the Volkhov Stage is notably poor in conodonts, in particular Baltoniodus species. Large specimens of Drepanodus arcuatus and Protopanderodus rectus, however, are found in great numbers in the uppermost Volkhov and lower Kunda stages. The deeper shelf conodont faunas recognized in SE Estonia (Central Baltoscandian confacies belt are compared with shallow shelf faunas of northern Estonia (North Estonian confacies belt.

  5. Recent developments in the Upper Ordovician and lower Silurian conodont biostratigraphy in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of and the latest developments in the conodont-based biostratigraphical studies of Upper Ordovician and lower Silurian strata in Estonia are discussed. An updated conodont zonation is proposed, based on successive first and/or last occurrences of taxa as interpreted from the stratigraphical record of Estonia as well as of other parts of the world. The zonation includes mainly units proposed by different authors at different times, with some revision by the author. Currently, 32 zones (with 14 subzones and 3 informal units can be recognized in the Upper Ordovician to upper Wenlock (Homerian of Estonia.

  6. Uracil Excision for Assembly of Complex Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2015-01-01

    Despite decreasing prices on synthetic DNA constructs, higher-order assembly of PCR-generated DNA continues to be an important exercise in molecular and synthetic biology. Simplicity and robustness are attractive features met by the uracil excision DNA assembly method, which is one of the most...... inexpensive technologies available. Here, we describe four different protocols for uracil excision-based DNA editing: one for simple manipulations such as site-directed mutagenesis, one for plasmid-based multigene assembly in Escherichia coli, one for one-step assembly and integration of single or multiple...... genes into the genome, and a standardized assembly pipeline using benchmarked oligonucleotides for pathway assembly and multigene expression optimization....

  7. Variation in Base Excision Repair Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David M.; Kim, Daemyung; Berquist, Brian R.; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    The major DNA repair pathway for coping with spontaneous forms of DNA damage, such as natural hydrolytic products or oxidative lesions, is base excision repair (BER). In particular, BER processes mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions such as non-bulky base modifications, abasic sites, and a range of chemically distinct single-strand breaks. Defects in BER have been linked to cancer predisposition, neurodegenerative disorders, and immunodeficiency. Recent data indicate a large degree of sequence...

  8. Transungual surgical excision of subungual glomus tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glomus tumours are rare vascular tumours arising subungually in fingernails. Surgical excision provides histopathologic diagnosis and rapid resolution of symptoms. Objective: Present study was aimed at delineating common presentations and long-term treatment outcome of this rare subungual tumour. Patients and Methods: The clinical features and imaging results for 10 patients with subungual glomus tumours were recorded. All were treated with transungual excision. Per-operative findings and, treatment outcomes were recorded and analysed. Results: Females outnumbered males with average age being 33.3 ± 7.55 years. Presenting symptoms were severe pain (100%; nail-plate discoloration and onycholysis. X-ray was normal in 70%, though a magnetic resonance imaging done for five, helped visualise the lesion in three patients. The tumour involved nail bed in five cases and matrix in five, with an average size being 6.1 ± 2.13 mm (range 3-11 mm. An average follow-up of 16.8 months (range 8-24 months was largely uneventful with longitudinal ridging in two cases and recurrence in two (both attributed to a sister lesion. Conclusion: Subungual glomus tumours have characteristic clinical presentation. Imaging is helpful pre-operatively but has a low success rate. Transungual surgical excision is safe and effective, allowing better visualisation, easy exploration and minimal long-term complications.

  9. Transungual surgical excision of subungual glomus tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Chander; Khurana, Ananta; Jain, Rajat; Rathi, Vinita

    2013-10-01

    Glomus tumours are rare vascular tumours arising subungually in fingernails. Surgical excision provides histopathologic diagnosis and rapid resolution of symptoms. Present study was aimed at delineating common presentations and long-term treatment outcome of this rare subungual tumour. The clinical features and imaging results for 10 patients with subungual glomus tumours were recorded. All were treated with transungual excision. Per-operative findings and, treatment outcomes were recorded and analysed. Females outnumbered males with average age being 33.3 ± 7.55 years. Presenting symptoms were severe pain (100%); nail-plate discoloration and onycholysis. X-ray was normal in 70%, though a magnetic resonance imaging done for five, helped visualise the lesion in three patients. The tumour involved nail bed in five cases and matrix in five, with an average size being 6.1 ± 2.13 mm (range 3-11 mm). An average follow-up of 16.8 months (range 8-24 months) was largely uneventful with longitudinal ridging in two cases and recurrence in two (both attributed to a sister lesion). Subungual glomus tumours have characteristic clinical presentation. Imaging is helpful pre-operatively but has a low success rate. Transungual surgical excision is safe and effective, allowing better visualisation, easy exploration and minimal long-term complications.

  10. The incidence of hip fractures in Estonia, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürisson, M; Vorobjov, S; Kallikorm, R; Lember, M; Uusküla, A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hip fractures among individuals aged over 50 in Estonia and trends over time were assessed for 2005-2012. The incidence among women is relatively low, with the declining trend, but the rate among men is among the highest in Eastern and Central Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and trends of hip fractures among individuals over 50 years in Estonia in 2005-2012 and to increase understanding of the incidence of hip fractures in Eastern Europe. We identified all patients aged 50 years or older with hip fracture (ICD-10 codes S72.0, S72.1 and S72.2) in 2005-2012 using medical claims data from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. Crude and age-specific incidence rates were calculated for men and women using the population of Estonia in 2005-2012. To adjust for age differences in the population, standardized incidence rates (SIR) were estimated. The SIR per 100,000 for the entire observation period was 209.2 (95% CI 204.2 to 214.2) in women and 215.6 (95%CI 208.2 to 223.1) in men, resulting in a female to male rate ratio of 0.97 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.11). Over the period of 2005-2012 the estimated SIR/100,000 ranged from 211.5 (95% CI 196.8-226.3) in 2005 to 183.7 (95% CI 170.8-196.7) in 2012 in women, and from 238.5 (95% CI 215.4-261.7) in 2005 to 187.9 (95% CI 169.0-206.8) in 2012, in men. For women, the decrease in SIR for the study period approached statistical significance (p = 0.058), and for the period of 2009-2012, we observed an accelerated 16% decrease (p = 0.008). The incidence of hip fractures among Estonian women is relatively low, whereas the rate among men is among the highest in Eastern and Central Europe. In line with many countries, we found a recent decline in incidence among women.

  11. Noor-Eesti ja naised. Young Estonia and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early years of the 20th century, representatives of many areas of Estonian social life were coming to the understanding that the position of Estonian women was historically, socially, and culturally undefined, that it was hedged about by various limitations, and that the role of women in public life was getting in the way of the advancement of Estonian society. Articles with titles like ”The Woman Question” and ”Why the Estonian Woman Will not Awaken” were published frequently in the Estonian press at the beginning of the 20th century. The Young Estonians were not left out of these discussions: in Young Estonia’s publications, there were both fictional and non-fictional texts, novellas and essays focused on the position of woman in society. The 1905 revolution broadened this outlook and increased women’s real prospects for getting an education. Two girls’ high schools were established with Estonian as the language of instruction: one in 1906 in Tartu, and another in 1907 in Tallinn, with the goal of furthering the inclusion of women in public life. Schools of home economics were founded, and the first women’s associations were established. Comparisons with Finland served as a stimulus to the development of Estonian education and culture. In Estonia, the highest level of education for women was limited to a private course of study in university; thus whenever they had the opportunity, women went abroad to attend university, either to Germanspeaking parts of Europe or Finland (e.g. Hella Murrik. At the beginning of the 20th century several women writers had become known through the Estonianlanguage press or poetry anthologies, but on the whole, the development of Estonian literature lagged behind. There was only one woman actively involved in the discussions on culture of the Young Estonian renewal movement – Aino Kallas, who had received her education in Finland, and who participated in the movement from the beginning. Of

  12. Taastusravikeskus Estonia uus korpus : Tammsaare 4a, Pärnu / Piret Lindpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindpere, Piret, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    "Estonia" sanatooriumi uut neljakorruselist Rohelist maja (arhitekt Jüri Soolep, sisekujundaja Edda Soolep) ühendab sanatooriumi Valge majaga klaasgalerii ülakorruste tasandil. 4 välis- ja 3 sisevaadet

  13. ICP Materials: long-term studies at the Lahemaa monitoring station, Estonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ott Roots

    2015-01-01

    ... and cultural monuments, is studied. So far these studies have revealed that even though air pollution has continuously declined in Estonia, no significant reduction in corrosion on the displayed sample plates at the Lahemaa test site could be observed...

  14. Saaremaa lad brings FBI conference to Estonia / Kalle Laanet ; interv. Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanet, Kalle, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema õpinguid FBI akadeemias, Tallinnas toimuvat FBI konverentsi ning Eesti sisejulgeolekut. Lisa: Estonian Police statistics; Registered crimes in Estonia; From police officer to minister; What happened in April?

  15. Immoral Obscenity: Censorship of Folklore Manuscript Collections in Late Stalinist Estonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kulasalu, Kaisa

    2013-01-01

    .... In the first years after the incorporation of the Republic of Estonia into the Soviet Union, anti-Soviet mainly meant politically sensitive materials such as jokes about Stalin, very patriotic texts...

  16. Ethnic Minority Policies and Political Parties' Appeal to Ethnic Voters: A Case Study of Estonia's Russians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tolvaišis, Leonas

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a case study of Estonia's major political parties' relations with the ethnic Russian electorate, the article examines the role of ethnic minority policies in the electoral appeal of nation...

  17. Hip-hop ja ooper kohtuvad Estonias / Marko Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Marko

    2006-01-01

    10. juunil Rahvusooperis Estonia etenduvast Mozarti ooperi "Cosi fan tutte" tänapäevasest versioonist, mis valmis Inglismaa Glyndebounre'i festivali, Saksamaa komische operi ja Soome Rahvusooperi koostöös, lavastaja Clare Whistler

  18. "Welcome To Estonia" läks vaatajaile hinge / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2002-01-01

    Poliitikuid pilavad Rain Tolk ja Ken Saan uues filmis "Welcome To Estonia" : režissöör Andres Maimik : toimetaja Juhan Ulfsak. Film esilinastusest 6. detsembril kinos Sõprus Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali raames

  19. Tõsidusega, kaasaelamisega (Esto TV) : Märkmeid filmist "Welcome to Estonia" / Mihhail Armujobin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihhail Armujobin

    2002-01-01

    Parodeeriv arvustus poliitikuid pilava uue filmi "Welcome To Estonia" kohta: režissöör Andres Maimik : toimetaja Juhan Ulfsak. Film esilinastus 6. detsembril kinos Sõprus Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali raames

  20. On The Road to Euro: How Synchronized Is Estonia with the Euro zone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brixiova, Zuzana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available While the currency board served Estonia well during transition in the 1990s, it has limited its ability to counter the impact of the global financial crisis and heightened the currency risks. The euro adoption has thus become a top policy priority again. However, this paper finds that even after almost two decades of hard peg with the core of the euro zone shocks affecting Estonia are relatively weakly synchronized with those of the zone, contributing to large output volatility. Nevertheless, the case for euro adoption by Estonia holds, since the costs of the loss of independent monetary policy were paid, and - as the global financial crisis demonstrated - the currency board is no substitute for the common currency. To reduce future output volatility, Estonia should move to counter-cyclical fiscal policies, maintain labor and product market flexibility, and adopt policies stimulating rise in the knowledge and high-tech content of its production.

  1. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  2. Estonia - üks tõeline eestimaine spaa / Dagmar Reinolt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinolt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Heaoluspaa võtmes renoveeritud Estonia Spa Hotelsi ühest kompleksist. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti arhitektid: Raivo Kotov, Indrek Mikk. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti sisearhitektid: Raili Paling, Liis Lindvere, Kadri Kaldam, Kärt Loopalu. Valmimisaasta: 2015

  3. Reasons for internal migration in Estonia 1989-2000 / Mare Ainsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ainsaar, Mare

    2004-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uurimust "Reasons for move: a study on trends and reasons of internal migration with particular interest in Estonia 1989-2000" (Turku University, 2004) Eesti elanikkonna migratsioonist ja selle põhjustest. Skeemid

  4. Multidirectional Vector Excision Leads to Better Outcomes than Traditional Elliptical Excision of Facial Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Il Oh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The elliptical excision is the standard method of removing benign skin lesions,such as congenital melanocytic nevi. This technique allows for primary closure, with little to nodog-ear deformity, but may sacrifice normal tissue adjacent to the lesion, resulting in scarswhich are unnecessarily long. This study was designed to compare the predicted results ofelliptical excision with those resulting from our excision technique.Methods Eighty-two patients with congenital melanocytic nevus on the face were prospectivelystudied. Each lesion was examined and an optimal ellipse was designed and marked onthe skin. After an incision on one side of the nevus margin, subcutaneous undermining wasperformed in the appropriate direction. The skin flap was pulled up and approximated alongseveral vectors to minimize the occurrence of dog-ear deformity.Results Overall, the final wound length was 21.1% shorter than that achieved by ellipticalexcision. Only 8.5% of the patients required dog-ear repair. There was no significant distortionof critical facial structures. All of the scars were deemed aesthetically acceptable based ontheir Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores.Conclusions When compared to elliptical excision, our technique appears to minimize dogeardeformity and decrease the final wound length. This technique should be considered analternative method for excision of facial nevi.

  5. Alcohol consumption in Estonia and Finland: Finbalt survey 1994-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Rahu, Kaja; Helakorpi, Satu; Tekkel, Mare

    2010-05-19

    Alcohol consumption has been regarded as an important contributor to the high premature mortality rates. The objective of this paper was to provide an overview and comparison of alcohol consumption and its socio-demographic determinants among adults in Estonia and Finland. The study was based on a 25-64-year-old subsample of nationally representative postal cross-sectional surveys conducted in Estonia (n = 10,340) and Finland (n = 19,672) during 1994-2006. Abstinence, frequency, and the amount of alcohol consumed were examined. Logistic regression models were used to test the socio-demographic differences in alcohol consumption at least once a week. The effect of socio-demographic factors on pure alcohol consumed per week was calculated using linear regression. The proportion of abstainers was 1.5 times higher among women than men in both countries. Throughout the study period, the amount of alcohol consumed per week increased for both genders in Estonia and for women in Finland, but was stable for men in Finland. In the final study year, medium risk amount of alcohol consumed per week was nearly 1.5 times higher among men in Estonia than in Finland, but about half that among women in Estonia than in Finland. Compared to ethnic majority in Estonia, alcohol consumption at least once a week was lower among men, but amount of pure alcohol drunk per week was higher among women of ethnic minority. In Finland, alcohol consumption at least once a week was more prevalent among women of ethnic minority, but the amount of pure alcohol drunk per week was lower for both gender groups of ethnic minority. Compared to married/cohabiting respondents, alcohol consumption at least once a week was less pronounced among single respondents in Finland, divorced or separated women in both countries, and widowed respondents in Estonia. Greater amount of alcohol consumed per week was more prevalent among single and divorced or separated respondents in Finland, but only among divorced or

  6. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    2014-01-01

    in the acidification and eutrophication (N) categories for the reed canary grass scenario, reflecting the impacts of the cultivation process. The main conclusion was that future strategies for manure-biogas production in Estonia should not rely upon land-dependent biomass, even if the availability of arable land...... in Estonia is, under current conditions, not considered to be an issue. Keywords: anaerobic digestion, land use changes, dairy manure, reed canary grass, natural grass...

  7. Estonia ballett üle seitsme aasta taas Pärnus / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia balleti kunstiline juht Toomas Edur Estonia balletitrupist ja 20. veebruaril toimuvast kolmest lühiballetist koosnevast balletiõhtust Pärnu kontserdimajas. Esitatakse Bohuslav Martinu "Enne öö saabumist" (koreograaf Nils Christe), Arnold Schönbergi "Pelléas ja Mélisande" (koreograaf Tiit Härm), Robert Schumanni "Teine sümfoonia" (koreograaf Uwe Scholz)

  8. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION IN ESTONIA AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to make a comparison of HRM practices among New Member States (especially Estonia and Slovenia and how these practices help to create the conditions to develop a knowledge organization. In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of knowledge management concept and its relations with HRM was used. For empirical research a simple exploratory analysis statistical technique was used on Cranet (the Cranfield Network on Comparative Human Resource Management data on HRM practices across countries was used. Major findings allow stating that two important prerequisites for knowledge organization are met and they are successfully implemented through HRM practices especially in organizations in one country. The empirical research findings showed the trends in global economy and the ability of organizations in the New Member States to adapt through institutionally developed HRM practices.

  9. Refuge or Resource: Home and Nostalgia in Postsocialist Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Kannike

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on nostalgia as it appears in the representations of home-decoration in postsocialist Estonia. This theme is explored, describing a dialogue and conflict between different versions of relating to the past. The empirical material comprises qualitatively analysed in-depth interviews and articles in home-decoration journals from 1997–2008. Examining some dimensions and mechanisms of nostalgia in this specific context enables to demonstrate how is transformation from Soviet everyday culture into Western consumer culture conceptualised through ideas about the home. I will suggest that in Estonian everyday life nostalgia is not only a form of escapism into the past from the uncertain present and identity problems, but it also works as a resource to cope with the traumatic past, negotiate and forge new identities.

  10. Epidemiological studies on animal and human trichinellosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järvis T.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 to 1999, muscle samples from 814 sylvatic animals and 1,173 domestic and synanthropic animals were collected in 15 districts of Estonia ; the prevalence of trichinellosis ranged from 1.0 % to 79.4 % for sylvatic animals and from 0.6 % to 24.5 % for domestic or synanthropic animals and for animals from fur-bearing farms. The most important reservoirs of Trichinella in nature were the raccoon dog, the red fox, the lynx and the wolf. Three species of Trichinella (T. spiralis, T. nativa, and T. britovi were identified by several types of PCR-based analyses. Meat from sylvatic animals was the main source of Trichinella infection for humans.

  11. "Estonia" müsteerium / Jüri Liim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liim, Jüri

    2001-01-01

    Järgneb 26. okt., 2.,9.,16.,23.,30. nov., 7.,14. dets. ; 2002, 4.,11.,18.,25. jaan., 1.,8.,15.,22. veebr., 1.,8.,15.,22. märts, 5.,12.,26. aprill, 3.,10.,17.,24.,31. mai, 7.,14.,28. juuni, 5.,12.,19.,26. juuli, 2.,9.,16.,23. aug., 6.,13.,20.,27. sept., 4.,11.,25. okt., 1.,8.,15.,22.,29. nov., 13.,20. dets. ; 10.,17.,24., 31. jaan., 2003, 14. veebr., 7.,28. märts, 4.,11.,25. apr., 16.,23. mai, 6.,27. juuni, 11.,18. juuli. Reisilaev "Estonia" mõistatuslikust hukust

  12. Radiation dose measurement of paediatric patients in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, K. [Training Centre of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tartu (Estonia); Lintrop, M. [Department of Radiology, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu (Estonia); Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Eek, V.; Filippova, I. [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2003-06-01

    According to the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/Euratom) the radiation doses to patients should be measured in every hospital and doses should be compared to the reference doses established by the competent authorities. Special attention should be paid to the paediatric x-ray examinations, because the paediatric patients are more radiosensitive than adult patients. The requirement of measurements of radiation dose to patients is not yet included in the Estonian radiation act, but the purpose to join the European Communities makes the quality control in radiology very actual in Estonia. The necessity exists to introduce suitable measurement methods in the Xray departments of Estonian hospitals for establishing feedback system for radiologists, radiographers and medical physicists in optimising the radiation burden of patients and image quality. (orig.)

  13. Lower Silurian biostratigraphy of the Viirelaid core, western Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of five groups of fossils in the upper Llandovery (Telychian and Wenlock of the Viirelaid core section, Estonia, is presented and discussed in terms of their biozones (conodonts and chitinozoans and mutual positions (scolecodonts, ostracods, and brachiopods. Graphical correlation of the Viirelaid and Paatsalu sections shows a stronger linear correlation for zonal conodonts than for chitinozoans and scolecodonts. In the given case, this is caused by different nature of zones: chitinozoan zones are based on appearances and/or disappearances of ordinal taxa whereas conodont zonation corresponds, as a rule, to evolutionary succeeding species in the Pterospathodus lineage. At the same time, the positions of chitinozoan zones in the Viirelaid, Ruhnu, Aizpute, and Paatsalu cores are oscillating with respect to conodont zones.

  14. Devonian stratigraphy in Estonia: current state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elga Mark-Kurik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An updated version of the Devonian stratigraphical chart of Estonia with comments is presented. Estonian regional stratigraphical units are correlated with the standard conodont zonation and miospore zonation, used in the western part of the East European Platform. The fossil fish zonations, largely accepted in the Main Devonian Field, are discussed. Differences in the position of series and stage boundaries and age determination of regional units in the Baltic area, Belarus and NW Russia are dealt with. Two key markers for the correlation of the Middle Devonian of the Baltic area and Scotland, based mainly on placoderms, are described. Special attention is paid to occurrences of inarticulate brachiopods and finds of rare articulate brachiopods in siliciclastic rocks of the Baltic area, indicating their marine origin.

  15. Retrospective Analysis of Lophodermium seditiosum Epidemics in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANSO, MÄRT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The needle trace method (NTM, created and developed by the Finnish forest pathologists prof. T. Kurkela, dr. R. Jalkanen and T. Aalto during the last decade of the XX century, has been already used by several researchers of different countries for retrospective analysis of needle diseases (Hypodermella sulcigena, by R. Jalkanen et al. in Finland or herbivorous insect pests of Scots pine (Diprion pini, by T. Kurkela et al. in Finland; Bupalus piniaria, by H. Armour et al. in Scotland, but as well of pests of Sitka spruce (Gilpinia hercyniae, by D.T. Williams et al. in England. Scots pine in forest nurseries and young plantations of Estonia is often but irregularly suffering from the epidemics of the needle cast fungus Lophodermium seditiosum. Current environmental regulations exclude from the regulatory (control measures all the others except of well-argued prophylactic systems, built up on reliable prognoses. The last is inconceivable without the availability of a reliable, as well, and long-lasting retrospective time-series of L. seditiosum epidemics, which, as it is known from the last half of the XX century, are occupying large forest areas, usually not least than a half of (the small Estonia. An appropriate time-series would be useful, as well, for the more basic understanding of the accelerated mortality processes during the stand formation in early pole-age Scots pine plantations. Methodological principles of the use of NTM in an appropriate investigation together with the preliminary results of our research work, looking back for more than a century, are introduced and discussed in this investigation.

  16. Determination of strain field on the superior surface of excised larynx vocal folds using DIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaee, Hani; Young, Jonathan; Yang, Justin C W; Mongeau, Luc; Miri, Amir K

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the mechanical strain and stress in excised porcine larynges during self-oscillation using digital image correlation (DIC) method. The use of DIC in the excised larynx setup may yield accurate measurements of the vocal fold displacement field. Ex vivo animal larynx. Measurements were performed using excised porcine larynges on a humidified flow bench, equipped with two high-speed cameras and a commercially available DIC software. Surface deformations were calculated from digital images recorded at 3000 frames per second during continuous self-oscillation for four excised porcine larynges. Larynx preparation consisted of removing the supraglottal wall and the false folds. DIC yielded the deformation field on the superior visible surface of the vocal folds. Measurement data for adducted and freely suspended vocal folds were also used to estimate the distribution of the initial prephonatory strain field. An isotropic constitutive law, the polymer eight-chain model, was used to estimate the surface distributions of planar stresses from the strain data. The Lagrangian normal strain values were between ∼16% and ∼29% along the anterior-posterior direction. The motion of material points on the vocal fold surface described an elliptical trajectory during oscillation. A phase difference was observed between the anterior-posterior and the medial-lateral component of the displacement. The strain data and eight-chain model yielded a maximum stress of ∼4 kPa along the medial-lateral direction on the superior surface. DIC allowed the strain field over the superior surface of an excised porcine larynx to be quantified during self-oscillation. The approach allowed the determination of the trajectory of specific points on the vocal fold surface. The results for the excised larynx were found to be significantly different than previous results obtained using synthetic replicas. The present study provides suggestions for future

  17. Thoracoscopic excision of mediastinal cysts in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Prashant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thoracoscopy offers great advantages when compared with open surgery in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary complications. Considering the benign nature of most of the mediastinal cysts, thoracoscopy is safe and feasible with minimal morbidity. The purpose of this article is to review our experience with four cases of mediastinal cysts resected successfully within a period of one year by thoracoscopy. Materials and Methods:The cases of mediastinal cysts operated by thoracoscopic excision in K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai from November 2005 to December 2006 were reviewed. The age varied from six months to 10 years. The patients presented with respiratory distress or recurrent lower respiratory tract infection. All patients underwent Chest X-ray and CT scan thorax to delineate the location of the cyst and its relationship with adjacent vital structures. Two patients had anterior and two had posterior mediastinal cyst. The ports were placed depending on the location of the cyst on the CT scan, following the principles of triangularization. The cysts were excised mainly by blunt dissection. Results: All the patients were successfully managed by thoracoscopic surgery. None of them had intraoperative complications. Dissection in patient with history of recurrent respiratory tract infection was difficult because of adhesions. Intercostal drain was removed within 48hrs and the patients were discharged on the fourth postoperative day. Conclusions: Thoracoscopy in mediastinal cysts is a safe and effective procedure with low morbidity and a shorter hospital stay.

  18. Transanal total mesorectal excision - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Maya Xania; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard surgical treatment for mid and low rectal cancer. The procedure is performed by open, laparoscopic or robotic approaches. Transanal TME (TaTME) is a new procedure that potentially solves some difficulties in the pelvic part of the diss......INTRODUCTION: Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard surgical treatment for mid and low rectal cancer. The procedure is performed by open, laparoscopic or robotic approaches. Transanal TME (TaTME) is a new procedure that potentially solves some difficulties in the pelvic part...... of the dissection. We aimed to evaluate the literature on TaTME. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Both authors assessed the studies. All publications on TaTME were included with the exception of review articles. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies (336...... patients) were included. Only low-quality evidence is available, and the literature consists of case reports and case series. Studies represent the initial experience of surgeons/centres. No precise indication for TaTME is yet specified other than the presence of mid and low rectal tumours, although...

  19. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  20. The Features of Development of the Excise Taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyana Oksana V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main tendencies of the excise taxation in Ukraine. The features of the excise taxation of alcoholic beverages have been determined. A comparing of rates of the excise tax on certain types of alcoholic drinks in Ukraine and the EU Member States has been done, an analysis of the dynamics of rates of the excise duty on the ethyl alcohol in Ukraine has been carried out. The dynamics of the volumes of consumption of alcoholic drinks in Ukraine have been analyzed. The relationship between the volumes of consumption and the size of the rates of excise duty on alcohol has been defined. The fiscal importance of the excise taxation in Ukraine during the period of 1998-2016 has been analyzed. It has been determined that for Ukrainian economy is characteristic an increase of the fiscal significance of excise tax in the periods of crisis developments. The article considers the directions for further development of the excise taxation in Ukraine, analyzes the prospects of implementing an automated system for monitoring the turnover of alcoholic beverages, as well as use of the electronic excise stamps.

  1. Cost analysis of youth clinic network in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Jari

    2015-05-01

    Youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (YFSRH) services for young people have high priority in many countries. Yet, little is known about the actual cost of delivering YFSRH services. This article analyses costs of a fully scaled up national youth clinic network (YCN) in Estonia. It reports; 1) total budget of the YCN during the period 2002-2012, and 2) annual clinic level costs of three youth clinics (YCs) in 2012. The retrospective cost analysis is based on financial and medical records of Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), Estonian Sexual Health Association (ESHA), National Institute for Health Development and the YCs. The programme level costs are analysed per year, financing source and a portion spent on coordination in 2002-2012. Costs of three YCs are analysed per clinic, expense category, patient and healthcare service in 2012. The total budget of the YCN was €8.38 million and it served 304,000 young patients in 2002-2012. 95% of the total budget was financed by the EHIF. 3.6% was spent on coordination. The YCs in Tallinn, Tartu and Ida-Virumaa had annual budgets of €247,000, €267,000 and €42,000 respectively. In 2012 the three YCs provided YFSRH services to 19,700 patients, excluding sexuality education lessons and internet counselling. The YFSRH services cost €543,000. Consequently, the average cost per patient was €27.76. The largest expense categories were personnel salaries 35% and medical supplies 33%. Cost of the YFSRH services were; STI consultation €54.80, SRH counselling €13.13, contraception consultation €9.32, internet counselling €8.21 and sexuality education lesson €1.52. The Estonian YCN is a positive example for other countries considering or already implementing similar programmes. The cost analyses highlighted the following: Sustainable funding is particularly important, without it the YFSRH services would not have been scaled up and sustained on the national level in Estonia. Investment in professional

  2. A randomized study between excision and marsupialization and radiofrequency sinus excision in sacro-coccygeal pilonidal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2004-01-01

    The surgical approach to pilonidal sinus disease is open to debate. This prospective, randomized study was aimed to compare the outcome of the excision and marsupialization and the sinus excision technique by radiofrequency. Thirty patients of chronic pilonidal sinus disease were randomly assigned to radiofrequency sinus excision (n = 15) and excision and marsupialization (n = 15). The parameters measured included intraoperative and postoperative data, wound-related complications, and recurrence. Patient satisfaction score was assessed at 1-year follow-up. The operation time, postoperative pain, hospital stay, and off work periods were significantly less (p < 0.05) in the technique employing radiofrequency surgery. At 1-year follow-up, there was 1 case of recurrence in each group. The patients from radiofrequency group expressed better satisfaction than the patients operated by marsupialization. Radiofrequency sinus excision technique needs a shorter hospital stay with reduced postoperative pain and early resumption to work in comparison with the sinus excision and marsupialization technique.

  3. Mammalian Transcription-Coupled Excision Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Wim; Fousteri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional arrest caused by DNA damage is detrimental for cells and organisms as it impinges on gene expression and thereby on cell growth and survival. To alleviate transcriptional arrest, cells trigger a transcription-dependent genome surveillance pathway, termed transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) that ensures rapid removal of such transcription-impeding DNA lesions and prevents persistent stalling of transcription. Defective TC-NER is causatively linked to Cockayne syndrome, a rare severe genetic disorder with multisystem abnormalities that results in patients’ death in early adulthood. Here we review recent data on how damage-arrested transcription is actively coupled to TC-NER in mammals and discuss new emerging models concerning the role of TC-NER-specific factors in this process. PMID:23906714

  4. Comparison of socioeconomic differences in self-perceived health in Estonia and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Ringmets, Inge

    2010-03-01

    To compare self-perceived health in relation to socioeconomic factors in Estonia and Finland. This study was based on the 25-69 year old adult population of the European Social Survey, conducted in Estonia and in Finland in 2006. Self-perceived health was rated on the five-point scale as very good, good, fair, poor, and very poor. The socioeconomic position was measured by the level of education, economic activity, and self-rated financial situation. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the association between self-perceived health and the socioeconomic factors. The prevalence of less-than-good health was significantly higher in Estonia than in Finland. Significant associations with less-than-good self-perceived health were found for less educated, economically non-active respondents with poorer self-rated financial situation in both countries. After adjustment, economic non-activity among women and self-rated financial situation among men appeared not to be associated with less-than-good self-perceived health in Finland. Self-perceived health was poorer in Estonia than in Finland, but Estonia shares with Finland a similar socioeconomic pattern of health. Further research is needed to monitor socioeconomic variations in health behaviour and mortality in both countries.

  5. Contribution of the Public Sector to the Development of Innovation: Position of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of regional competition the authors discuss the role of the public sector in developing innovation activities and the ways to encourage innovation in the private and the public sector. Innovation policy gets linked to modern stage theories of development that focus on innovation. Estonia has reached the investment driven stage. With respect to several innovation indexes and measures of innovation policy a statistical comparison between Estonia and European Union member countries shows whether Estonia belongs to the group of leaders, renegades from leader role, losers or to that of aspirers. The indexes and indicators applied refer to the Community Innovation Survey, Summary Innovation Index, and Global Competitive Index. Although public higher education and R&D expenditures and co-operation of firms are above EU levels the analysis demonstrates that total R&D expenses are below European average. Co-operation between Universities and private firms is low and the number of patents as well. The knowledge creation and the ability to apply innovations enabled Estonia to reach an “aspirer position” whereas with respect to global competition Estonia possesses a “looser” position partly due to the lack of scientists, engineers, etc. Estonian public sector should develop and promote actively the necessary and promising fields of innovation analysed.

  6. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  7. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  8. Eesti Gaas. Modernization of distribution stations, Estonia. Basic design report, 55/3 bar meter and regulator stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Eesti Gaas has experienced several operational difficulties with regard to the high pressure distribution stations in Estonia. Metering systems are unreliable, preheating is performed using open fire gas heaters, the pressure reduction valves are unreliable because of wear and tear, and odorization takes place via buried storage tanks. The conclusion is that the existing M/R stations involves safety and environmental problems. For that reason, Eesti Gaas has initiated modernization of the M/R stations. The Danish Energy Agency, environmental energy sector programme, has granted financial aids for the purpose of assisting Eesti Gass with the modernization of the M/R stations. The purpose of this design study is to prepare a basic design for a 55 barg to 3 barg M/R station. In agreement with Eesti Gaas, the design shall cover two different station sizes, one with a maximum flow rate of 2.000 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and one with a maximum flow rate of 10.000 Nm{sup 3}/hr. It is the intention, that the present Basic Design Report may be used as basis for preparation of tender material in the form of a detailed design prepared by a local company. (EG)

  9. OBSERVATIONS ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOPONYMIC ENDINGS IN ESTONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Päll

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the geographical distribution of toponymic endings with the aim of discovering significant patterns. The corpus includes ca. 9,000 oikonyms, of which 24% are those that have the analysed endings. Endings are recognized if names have at least3 syllables or have 2 syllables and the Q3 degree of quantity; in thesecases the existence of a toponymic suffix is most likely. In the case of endings that have multiple origins there are seemingly no specific distribution patterns, with the exception of some borrowed endings (e.g.-na or -va. In the case of typical toponymic suffixes -la, -ste and -vereeach of these are often concentrated into certain areas based on whichthe whole are of Estonia might be divided into regions: -vere-region(northern Tartumaa and northern Viljandimaa, -ste-region (Võrumaa,southern Tartumaa, southern Viljandimaa and southern Pärnumaa,-la-region (Virumaa, Järvamaa, Harjumaa and a mixed region(Läänemaa, northern Pärnumaa. The island of Saaremaa is dominated by -la-endings, Hiiumaa is either a mixed region or a -ste-region.

  10. Conodont dating of some Telychian (Silurian sections in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Telychian–Sheinwoodian strata exposed in Estonia are precisely dated using conodont biostratigraphy. The beds in the Valgu-1 section correspond to the uppermost Distomodus staurognathoides and Pterospathodus eopennatus ssp. n. 1 zones. In the Valgu-2 and Valgu-3 sections only the P. eopennatus ssp. n. 1 Zone is exposed. The strata in the Velise-Kõrgekalda section correspond to the Lower subzone of the P. amorphognathoides angulatus Zone. Marlstones in the Jädivere section are assigned to the P. a. lennarti Zone. In the Avaste section part of the P. a. lithuanicus Zone is exposed. On the Saastna Peninsula two stratigraphical intervals, the lower corresponding to the Upper subzone of the P. a. amorphognathoides Zone and the upper to the Upper Kockelella ranuliformis Zone, crop out along the shoreline. In Saastna the exposed strata are separated by a covered interval corresponding to five conodont zones, from the Lower Pseudooneotodus bicornis Zone to the Lower K. ranuliformis Zone.

  11. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  13. Small-Scale Chp Potential in Latvia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, A.; Latõšv, E.; Siirde, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the research the small-scale CHP potential of Latvia and Estonia has been defined. Factors, which influence the CHP development, were analyzed in this paper, including political, geographic, climatological, legislative and technological factors. For the small-scale CHP potential assessment the three alternatives were chosen. The first alternative is the case, when only the hot water is taken into account. In this case the CHP can work with full load during the whole year because the heat load will not change (k=0,13). For the second alternative the results of the previous research were used. In this case an optimal relative heat load has been found for a small-scale CHP. This optimum value is 0,3. According to this optimum value the CHP can produce more electricity working with full load than in the first case. However, the CHP does not work whole year round. The third alternative shows the situation for the small-scale CHP when a half of the maximum heat load will be covered by the CHP. The formulas and the results for each case were provided.

  14. On the lower boundary of the Floian Stage in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The lower boundary of the Second Stage of the Lower Ordovician Series, the Floian Stage, is defined by the first appearance of the graptolite Tetragraptus approximatus. In the stratotype section of Diabasbrottet at Hunneberg, southern Sweden, the boundary falls within the Megistaspis planilimbata trilobite Zone and within the Oelandodus elongatus–Acodus deltatus deltatus conodont Subzone of the Paroistodus proteus Zone, and within the Hunneberg Regional Stage. Graptolites, including the index species T. approximatus, are missing in the terrigenous sediment of Estonia. The earliest trilobites are poorly preserved in this terrigenous succession. They represent an interval older than the Megalaspides dalecarlicus Zone but probably younger than the M. planilimbata Zone, and are correlative to the Prioniodus elegans conodont Zone. Thus the lower boundary of the Second Stage can be detected using mainly conodonts. In accordance with conodont occurrence, the base of the Floian (i.e. somewhat higher than the base of the O. elongatus–A. d. deltatus Subzone falls within the Joa Member of the Leetse Formation. Probable levels have been suggested in some localities. Thus the lower part of the Leetse Formation belongs to the Tremadoc Stage, and to the Hunneberg Regional Stage.

  15. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  16. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  17. Effects of burn wound excision on bacterial colonization and invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    Rates of survival after thermal injury have improved in the past two decades, and rates of wound infections and sepsis have decreased during the same period. Early excision has been advocated as one of the major factors, but its safety and efficacy and the exact timing of burn excision are still

  18. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  19. Initial assessment of rehabilitation needs using the WHODAS 2.0 in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanga, Karin; DiNitto, Diana; Leppik, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Given the growing number of people with disabilities in Estonia, an initial rehabilitation needs assessment instrument that included the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) was developed and tested to determine its feasibility in assessing social rehabilitation needs. WHODAS 2.0 items were complemented with questions about the nature of disability-related problems with regard to personal, social and environmental aspects of functioning. Four rehabilitation specialists assessed 101 persons' needs in face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The comprehensive initial assessment instrument tested was sufficiently informative to assess functioning and identify social rehabilitation and other social needs. Participants had difficulty in understanding some WHODAS 2.0 items, and coding and scoring respondents' answers using WHODAS 2.0 frames of reference proved challenging for interviewers. The WHODAS 2.0 is mainly related to health conditions. Complementing it with questions about the nature and severity of the difficulties social rehabilitation service applicants experienced added essential information for planning interventions. A well conceived, holistic initial assessment that addresses biological, psychological, sociocultural and environmental factors can provide substantial information for targeting services to meet a person's rehabilitation needs. The WHODAS 2.0 is a useful framework for conducting initial assessments, but since it focuses on health needs, supplementing it with additional items about personal, social and environmental factors may be necessary to address services needs from social, vocational and other rehabilitation perspectives. Rehabilitation specialists must be well prepared to use the WHODAS 2.0 and conduct the overall assessment, including providing clear instructions and support to applicants applying for services.

  20. High genotypic diversity found among population of Phytophthora infestans collected in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runno-Paurson, Eve; Kiiker, Riinu; Joutsjoki, Tiina; Hannukkala, Asko

    2016-03-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most important diseases of potato worldwide. This is the first study characterising Estonian P. infestans population using the SSR marker genotyping method. 70 P. infestans isolates collected during the growing season in 2004 from eight potato fields in three different regions of Estonia were characterised with nine polymorphic SSR markers. A1 and A2 mating type isolates were detected from every studied field indicating the high potential for sexual reproduction, which raises the genotypic diversity in P. infestans population. Results revealed highly diverse P. infestans population in Estonia resembling the Northern European populations. Most of the multilocus genotypes were detected only once among the collected isolates. Subpopulations collected from different geographical regions of Estonia showed no differentiation from each other but instead formed one highly diverse group. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors...... of the moose was not shown in the present study, but moose hunted in Estonia should be considered a potential T. gondii infection source to other hosts, including humans. Seropositivity indicates previous exposure, and because the seroprevalence was higher in adults than in calves and because moose...... are herbivores, the exposure was likely exposure to and ingestion of T. gondii oocysts. The results can thus be interpreted to indicate that the environment in Estonia was widely contaminated with T. gondii oocysts, in particular in the northern part of the country. Investigation of samples from a free...

  2. A survey of midwives' views on providing aspects of antenatal care in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rull, Kristiina; Wyn Huws, Dyfed

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to survey the views of midwives in Estonia about who they considered should have responsibility for carrying out certain aspects of antenatal care (ANC) in Estonia. DESIGN, SETTING AND STUDY POPULATION: in collaboration with key stakeholder organisations, the authors developed eight...... was sent with a covering letter and stamped addressed return envelope to all 366 midwives in Estonia. Two postal reminders were sent to non-responders. RESULTS: the response rate was 73.5%. There was no consensus among respondents about whose responsibility it was to diagnose pregnancy, carry out the risk...... assessment of a pregnancy, or carry out fetal monitoring during pregnancy. There was consensus among respondents that either midwives or obstetrician-gynaecologists could have responsibility for referring for further tests and examinations if a pregnancy was thought to be at risk. There was also consensus...

  3. Trends in incidence and survival of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Estonia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrik, Peeter; Valter, Ann; Valter, Epp; Baburin, Aleksei; Innos, Kaire

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an increase in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in Estonia, but also poor survival in international comparisons, with a significant survival gap between the sexes. The aim of this study was to analyze the time trends in CM incidence and relative survival by age, TNM stage and anatomical subsite among men and women in Estonia. Data from the Estonian Cancer Registry were used to calculate age-standardized (World) and age-specific incidence of CM in 1995-2013, and five-year relative survival ratios (RSR) for cases diagnosed in 1995-2012 and followed through in 2014. Period hybrid analysis was used to calculate the most recent survival estimates for 2010-2014. Between 1995 and 2013, the age-standardized incidence of CM increased significantly in Estonia among both sexes, at a rate of around 4% per year. Among women, the proportion of trunk melanomas increased from 26% in 1995-1999 to 39% in 2010-2012 and became the most common site. The proportion of stage I cases and T1 tumors increased considerably. Women had more favorable stage distribution and thinner tumors than men. The age-adjusted five-year RSR increased significantly, from 64% in 1995-1999 to 81% in 2010-2014. The latest age-adjusted RSRs were 76% among men and 84% among women. Survival gains were the largest in patients below 50 years, those with head and neck or trunk melanomas, and stage III cancer. The proportion of stage I and T1 cases is lower in Estonia compared with the Scandinavian data and is likely a major contributor to the persisting overall survival deficit in Estonia. The apparent deficit in stage II survival also warrants further investigation. A public health program is necessary in Estonia to raise awareness of CM and to significantly increase early stage diagnosis.

  4. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  5. Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the steppe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Scheib, Christiana Lyn

    2017-01-01

    farmers of Estonia whose remains date to 4,500 to 6,300 years before present. We find evidence of significant differences between the two groups in the composition of autosomal as well as mtDNA, X chromosome, and Y chromosome ancestries. We find that Estonian hunter-gatherers of Comb Ceramic culture...... Age populations, and European Late Neolithic/Bronze Age populations, while their X chromosomes are in addition equally closely related to European and Anatolian and Levantine early farmers. These findings suggest that the shift to intensive cultivation and animal husbandry in Estonia was triggered...

  6. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis e Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115......-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other...

  7. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ersoy Callıoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented.

  8. Nucleotide Excision Repair in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Lans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide excision repair (NER plays an essential role in many organisms across life domains to preserve and faithfully transmit DNA to the next generation. In humans, NER is essential to prevent DNA damage-induced mutation accumulation and cell death leading to cancer and aging. NER is a versatile DNA repair pathway that repairs many types of DNA damage which distort the DNA helix, such as those induced by solar UV light. A detailed molecular model of the NER pathway has emerged from in vitro and live cell experiments, particularly using model systems such as bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cell cultures. In recent years, the versatility of the nematode C. elegans to study DNA damage response (DDR mechanisms including NER has become increasingly clear. In particular, C. elegans seems to be a convenient tool to study NER during the UV response in vivo, to analyze this process in the context of a developing and multicellular organism, and to perform genetic screening. Here, we will discuss current knowledge gained from the use of C. elegans to study NER and the response to UV-induced DNA damage.

  9. Headaches after traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabre, Liis; Rugo, Mariann; Asser, Toomas; Kõrv, Janika; Braschinsky, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) often suffer from different types of pain. However, headaches after TSCI have not been studied. The aim of this article is to examine the occurrence of headache among patients with TSCI. This cross-sectional study included individuals with TSCI from 1997 to 2012 in Estonia. Patients with TSCI were interviewed via telephone. The interview was based on a questionnaire specifically designed to identify headache type using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition (beta version). There were 73 patients with a mean age 37.1 ± 10.6 years. The mean time since TSCI was 7.5 ± 4.0 years. The most frequently mentioned pain was headache (71%), followed by back pain (60%) and pain in neck (44%).Headaches were more frequent after the trauma compared with the headaches before TSCI (71% vs 51%, ITALIC! p = 0.02). Headaches that arose after TSCI were not related to the concomitant brain injury ( ITALIC! p = 0.15). The occurrence of headache did not depend on the severity or the level of the TSCI.Eighty-five percent of patients had not contacted any physician and headache was not diagnosed. This is the first study that evidentially shows that headache is the most prevalent pain condition after TSCI. Despite this, the majority of patients never consult a physician, nor is their headache diagnosed or appropriately managed. This indicates that further studies are needed to provide evidence regarding the prevalence and causes of headache and its impact on quality of life. © International Headache Society 2015.

  10. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers` heat demand in the `do nothing`scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town`s heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken. (ARW)

  11. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lass Jana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83% prescriptions and 93 (87% medicines. 47 (38% of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97% received at least one medicine (median number 2 with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99% and 297 (85% of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable.

  12. The Strategy of Excise Taxation of Tobacco Products in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnyi Mykola D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing and improving approaches to the development of a strategy of excise tax policy in Ukraine, taking into account the foreign experience of harmonizing tax legislation in this sphere. An analysis of the implementation of the EU directives on the regulation of the minimum excise tax liability for the payment of excise taxes on tobacco products in the countries with transformational economies has been carried out. It has been found that, in cases of excessive tax pressure, the equilibrium of the market is disrupted, its shadow component is growing, and the overall economic efficiency level decreases. It has been determined that for the period of 2007-2016 the availability index for cigarettes in Ukraine decreased 2,3 times, which in some way demotivated their consumption. However, the change in the approach of calculation of ad valorem rate for the excise tax and introduction of the excise tax on the sub-excise goods sold by the retailers led to manipulative actions by the major actors in the market concerning the price of cigarettes, which impacted both the increase in the availability of cigarettes in 2016 and the decline in budget revenues. Regulation of the minimum excise duty is the most effective instrument of fiscal policy to achieve goals in the area of limitation of smoking.

  13. Wrist flexion strength after excision of the pisiform bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner, M; Hagberg, L

    1984-01-01

    Diseases of the pisiform triquetral (P-T) joint and the pisiform itself are often treated with excision of the pisiform bone. The flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendon inserts on the volar aspect of the pisiform, suggesting a loss of strength in wrist flexion following excision of the bone. Isometric and dynamic, isokinetical measurements were made using a strain-gauge dynamometer (Cybex II). Slight postoperative reduction of wrist flexion strength, compared with the contralateral wrist, was noted but not of clinical significance. It is concluded that one should not refrain from excision of the pisiform bone for fear of considerable strength loss in wrist joint flexion.

  14. Laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Soyer, Vural; Ersan, Veysel; Aydın, Cemalettin; Karagül, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Congenital choledochal cysts are rare in adults. Due to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma, the current standard of care is complete excision of the cyst and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. So far, more than 200 laparoscopic resections have been reported in adults, the majority being from Far Eastern countries over the last five years. Herein, the technique of laparoscopic type I choledochal cyst excision and hepaticojejunostomy is presented in a 37-year-old male with an accompanying video. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery are applicable for choledochal cyst excision as well. We believe that teamwork, expertise on intracorporeal suturing and hepatobiliary surgery are central issues for this operation.

  15. Laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Valeria; Mullassery, Dhanya; Lansdale, Nick; Jesudason, Edwin C

    2011-02-01

    Abdominal lymphatic malformations may be challenging to eradicate. Retroperitoneal lesions may more difficult to resect than mesenteric ones; however, the latter may predispose to intestinal volvulus, leading to calls for their prompt excision. Such lesions identified perinatally may pose particular challenges: in one case, respiratory failure caused by abdominal distension required emergency drainage followed by later laparoscopic excision; laparoscopy has also been used promptly to diagnose and resect neonatal mesenteric lymphatic malformations with their inherent volvulus risk. We illustrate that even if neonatal laparoscopy identifies a retroperitoneal rather than mesenteric lymphatic malformation, curative endosurgical excision remains feasible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Should pyogenic granulomas following burns be excised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    Patients with pygenic granuloma following burns (PGB) presents dramatic clinical features which are different from those with classic pyogenic granuloma. This review aims to discuss whether pyogenic granuloma following burns (PGB) need excision or not. Using the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and web of science databases. All articles which discussed diagnosis and treatment of pyogenic granuloma following burns with histological results were included from 1978 to 2013. Reports from meetings were not included. Only articles published in English were included. Twenty one articles excluded from a total of 32 studies. One study was excluded from the 11 descriptive studies because of typical histological results. The rest, 10 studies were case reports. Only one article was published in French, whose abstract was published in French and English. Patients with PGB presented six distinctive clinical features. First, all the patients had burns initially. The second, PGB acutely erupted between 1 and 4 weeks in patients' burned area, which may be infected by bacteria, fungus and virus. The fourth, PGB can be classified into proliferative and shrivelling stages. The fifth, three hisiological characteristics including hyperkeratosis or acanthosis, numerous newly formed proliferative vascular, edematous stroma with infiltration by plasma cells and lymphocytes. Finally, recurrence, 6 out of 16 patients with PGB involuted spontaneously with no recurrence. Three out of 16 patients were conservatively managed with no recurrence, neither patients (5) who had surgery and 2 patients treated with electro coagulation had recurrence. PGB lesions are benign based on clinical features and histological examinations. The clinical process of PGB could be divided into proliferative and shrivelling stages. Conservative treatment including wound management and antibiotic could be chosen firstly, especially when large PGBs are on the face or other important area of one's body. When conservative

  17. Local excision for more advanced rectal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschitz, Thomas; Kneist, Werner; Gockel, Ines; Junginger, Theodor

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, local excision (LE) of T1 rectal cancer was increasingly established and represents an oncologically established technique. In contrast, the situation for T2 tumors is less clear and has only been investigated in small patient collectives. LE for T2 tumors is thus discussed controversially. In addition to our own patients with T2 rectal cancer treated locally (n=40), we have analysed the local recurrence (LR) rates after LE alone (n=124), after immediate conventional radical reoperation (n=29), after adjuvant (chemo)-radiotherapy (n=294) and those after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) (n=269) using a PubMed search. LR rates of low-grade T2 tumors after R0 resection by LE alone was 19%. If additional prognostically unfavorable findings were present, the LR rate rose to 52%. By immediate radical reoperation the LR rate was decreased to 7%, whereas that after adjuvant therapy was 16%. In contrast, LE of more advanced tumors after nCRT resulted in LR rates of 9%. LE alone of T2 rectal cancer should not be performed, and after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy the risk of developing LR was also high. In cases with unexpected T2 finding after LE, immediate conventional reoperation can represent an adequate oncological therapy, because it reveals comparable results to those obtained by primary radical resection. First results after nCRT followed by LE showed favorable results with low LR rates. If the indication for LE of T2 cancers can be extended to patients after nCRT in the future will have to be determined in prospective mutlticentre studies.

  18. 26 CFR 40.6694-1 - Section 6694 penalties applicable to tax return preparer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Section 6694 penalties applicable to tax return preparer. 40.6694-1 Section 40.6694-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6694-1 Section 6694 penalties applicable to tax return preparer...

  19. 26 CFR 40.6696-1 - Claims for credit or refund by tax return preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Claims for credit or refund by tax return preparers. 40.6696-1 Section 40.6696-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6696-1 Claims for credit or refund by tax return preparers. (a) In...

  20. 26 CFR 40.6060-1 - Reporting requirements for tax return preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting requirements for tax return preparers. 40.6060-1 Section 40.6060-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6060-1 Reporting requirements for tax return preparers. (a) In general. ...

  1. Exploring the Role of Migrants in Transnational Occupational Learning Processes in Estonia-Finland Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenius, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the role of migrants in cross-border learning in occupational contexts. The research data included 78 semi-structured and 20 life-course interviews with people who had migrated from Estonia to Finland or who were transmigrating between these countries. The interview data were analysed qualitatively through a…

  2. Influences on Students' Views on Religions and Education in England and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Sean; Schihalejev, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Structural modelling offers an overall pattern of relationships; this paper looks at differences in students' attitude structures between England and Estonia. Where different coherent sets of beliefs exist in a national sample, factor analysis, which focuses on sets of responses which differ between groups, should be able to separate them out.…

  3. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment with…

  4. The Professional Foreign Language Teacher in Estonia: Students' and Principals' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia as a typical country in transition is going through major changes in educational thinking. Global and European educational trends, together with local changes, the most important being a new state system, have resulted in changes in the concept of professional foreign language (FL) teaching. Common ground among various…

  5. Cost and cost-effectiveness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Estonia and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Katherine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kliiman, Kai; Centis, Rosella; Khurieva, Nina; Jakobowiak, Wieslaw; Danilovits, Manfred; Peremitin, Genadi; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-07-01

    Evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is limited, and no published data are available from former Soviet Union countries, where rates of MDR-TB are highest globally. We evaluated the cost and cost-effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in Estonia and Russia (Tomsk Oblast), comparing cohorts enrolled on treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in 2001 and 2002 with cohorts treated in previous years. Costs were assessed from a health system perspective in 2003 US$; effects were measured as cures, deaths averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. Cure rates when WHO guidelines were followed were 61% (90 out of 149) in Estonia and 76% (76 out of 100) in Tomsk Oblast, with a cost per patient treated of US$8,974 and US$10,088, respectively. Before WHO guidelines were followed, cure rates were 52% in Estonia and 15% in Tomsk Oblast; the cost per patient treated was US$4,729 and US$2,282, respectively. Drugs and hospitalisation accounted for 69-90% of total costs. The cost per DALY averted by treatment following WHO guidelines was US$579 (range US$297-US$902) in Estonia and US$429 (range US$302-US$546) in Tomsk Oblast. Treatment of patients with MDR-TB can be cost-effective, but requires substantial additional investment in tuberculosis control in priority countries.

  6. Multilayered Perspectives on Language Policy in Higher Education: Finland, Estonia, and Latvia in Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Saarinen, Taina; Kibbermann, Kerttu

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses language policies in higher education (HE) in Finland, Estonia, and Latvia, as well as the European Union (EU). We take a multilayered approach to language policies in order to illuminate the intertwined nature of local, national, and international language policies in HE. We are particularly interested in the construction of…

  7. Explaining the Difference between PISA 2009 Reading Scores in Finland and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikk, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the difference between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading results for Finland and Estonia using characteristics of teaching and learning, and characteristics of the overall development of these countries. PISA data were collected via a reading test and student questionnaires…

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging wild boars hunted for human consumption in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Velström, Kaisa; Lassen, Brian

    2015-08-04

    Although the prevalence of human Toxoplasma gondii infections is high in Estonia, no information is available on the prevalence of infections in the local animal populations. Wild boars are a good indicator species for estimating the prevalence and spread of T. gondii and were thus investigated in this nationwide cross-sectional study. Volunteer hunters sampled cardiac or skeletal muscle of 471 wild boars legally hunted for human consumption in Estonia during the hunting season of 2012-2013. Serosanguineous meat juice samples were obtained from thawed tissue samples, diluted 1:40, and screened for specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with a commercial direct agglutination test. Almost one-quarter (113; 24%) of the wild boars examined were seropositive for T. gondii. The seroprevalence did not differ significantly between age groups or sexes. The seroprevalence was lowest in Viljandimaa, which is located in the southern part of Estonia. In other counties, the infection was evenly prevalent. In Estonia, wild boars are commonly exposed to T. gondii, which is endemic and widespread. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat of Estonian wild boars may pose an infection risk to humans and other hosts.

  9. Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Cats in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2015-10-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in humans has not declined, in contrast to many other countries. The reasons for this are unknown. Domestic cats are important hosts in the epidemiology of the parasite, but information on local feline T. gondii infections has been lacking. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with seropositivity in cats in Estonia. Surplus from blood samples that had been collected for unrelated diagnostic purposes from 306 pet cats and 184 shelter cats were analyzed for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies by using a direct agglutination test. Two questionnaires were designed to reveal relevant risk factors for seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in Estonia was 60.8%. Older age, outdoor access, hunting, living outside the city in the countryside, and not being a purebred cat were among the risk factors associated with seropositivity. T. gondii is highly prevalent in domestic cats in Estonia. This suggests that the environment has been contaminated with T. gondii. Seropositivity indicates previous oocyst shedding, and most of the cats had outdoor access. The increase in T. gondii seroprevalence with age indicates acquired infections, and most of the risk factors were lifestyle-related. Cat owners could diminish the risk of T. gondii infection and also limit the spread of the parasite by not allowing their cats to roam free.

  10. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  11. Regeneration development 4-5 years after a storm in Norway spruce dominated forests, Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilisson, T.; Köster, K.; Vodde, F.; Jogiste, K.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The regeneration patterns in wind-damaged areas are largely influenced by damage severity and varied microrelief. Regeneration was studied in Picea abies dominated stands with total and partial canopy destruction and in harvested areas in Myrtillus and Filipendula site types in Estonia 4¿5

  12. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  13. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars B; Sardinha, Luis B; Froberg, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio...

  14. Midwifery at the crossroads in Estonia: attitudes of midwives and other key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rasch, Vibeke; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the initiation of health sector reforms in Estonia in 1992, the Baltic state has experienced a steep decline in the number of midwives and midwife graduates. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase, first in sexually transmitted infections and then in human immunodefic......BACKGROUND: Since the initiation of health sector reforms in Estonia in 1992, the Baltic state has experienced a steep decline in the number of midwives and midwife graduates. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase, first in sexually transmitted infections and then in human...... immunodeficiency virus. The aim of this study was to draw on the perceptions of Estonia's midwives and other health care stakeholders to delineate the current situation of midwifery in the country, in the context of a sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data...... were obtained by sending a 32-question questionnaire, based on an agenda developed through semistructured interviews, to all midwives in Estonia. A nominal group technique was employed with key stakeholders to determine the extent of their agreement with the questionnaire's major findings. RESULTS...

  15. The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidi Kallaste

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD As the purpose of a professional qualification should be to ensure quality to employers/customers, appro-priate requirements for professional training should not be too low. On the other hand, too high require-ments for the amount of training would lead to the situation where maintaining the level is expensive and if the labour market does not consider having a professional certificate necessary, recertification will be discarded. The purpose of the research was to identify the factors that influence an accountant’s decision whether to recertify his/her professional qualification or not. The conditions of recertification were ana-lysed and compared to other countries as were the requirements set up for auditors. The results of the survey revealed that in Estonia the decision not to recertify one’s professional qualification was mainly due to not having fulfilled the required number of qualification hours or not having certificates proving one’s participation in qualification training sessions. At the same time, compared to other countries, the requirements in Estonia are very low. So that the increase in the amount of training would not hinder recertification, alternative solutions for Estonia are proposed in the article.

  16. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  17. Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Vågerö, Denny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the change in ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia 1989-2000. DESIGN: Two unlinked cross sectional census based analyses were compared. Total and cause specific mortality was analysed for ethnic Estonians and Russians. The absolute differences in mortality

  18. Kivis kehastunud mälu : Estonia laevahuku monumendid Stockholmis ja Tallinnas / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    1998-01-01

    1997. a. valminud monumendist (autoriks Miroslaw Balka, sündinud 1958) Stockholmis Djurgõrdenil, Galäri meremeeste kalmistul ja Tallinnas - Rannavärava mäele 1996. a. püstitatud Estonia monumendist (autoreiks Villu Jaanisoo, Jorma Mukala).

  19. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  20. Welcome to Estonia märk on kaotanud oma sära / Kadi Heinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinsalu, Kadi, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus loodab parandada Welcome to Estonia märgi mainet. Märki kasutavad ettevõtjad ei näe märgist olulist kasu toodete müügil. Kommenteerivad Evelin Int-Lambot, Leena Murd ja Olaf Merisalu

  1. Coastal grassland wader abundance in relation to breeding habitat characteristics in Matsalu Bay, Estonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aivar Leito; Jaanus Elts; Eve Mägi; Jaak Truu; Mari Ivask; Annely Kuu; Merle Ööpik; Mart Meriste; Raymond Ward; Andres Kuresoo; Hannes Pehlak; Kalev Sepp; Leho Luigujõe

    2014-01-01

    .... The study was carried out in the Matsalu Bay area,Western Estonia between 2001 and 2005. Results showed that most wader species were strongly related to habitat flooding type but not to plant species richness or evenness or mean vegetation coverage...

  2. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child"…

  3. Estonia huku filmi eesmärk : alustada tuleb uut uurimist / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Saksamaa toimuvad poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtted. Film mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Filmivõtetest räägib assistent Helje Kaskel

  4. Estonia teater - helikindel ja sinine = Estonian National Opera - soundproof and blue / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia maja teatritiiva interjööri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Juta Lember (kavandas ka uued valgustid), Aulo Padar (SAB Lember & Padar). Arhitekt Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss OÜ). Restaureerimistööd: KAR-Grupp. Projekt ja valmis 2005. Ill.: 8 värv. sisevaadet

  5. Factors That Influence Students' Motivation to Start and to Continue Studying Information Technology in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kori, Külli; Pedaste, Margus; Altin, Heilo; Tõnisson, Eno; Palts, Tauno

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high competition for places to study curricula related to information technology (IT) at the higher education level in Estonia, a large number of IT students drop out. Therefore, it is important to explore what influences students to start studying IT and what influences them to persist with their degree program. In this study, data…

  6. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian

  7. Public transport pricing policy : Empirical evidence from a fare-free scheme in Tallinn, Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Reimal, T.; Susilo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Cities worldwide are looking for new policies to attract travelers to shift from cars to public transport. Policies focused on reducing public transport fares are aimed at improving social inclusion and leading to a modal shift. The City of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, has recently introduced a

  8. [Johan Eellend. Cultivating the Rural Citizen : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia] / Kersti Lust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lust, Kersti, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Eellend, Johan. Cultivating the Rural Citizien : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia. Stockholm : Stockholm Universty, 2007. Eesti agraarideoloogia kujunemist ja olemust käsitlevast dissertatsioonist. Tegemist on Eesti ühiskondliku mõtte voolude ja nende mõjuulatuse tavapärasest erineva nägemusega

  9. Film Estonia katastroofist jääb tegelikkusest kaugele / Kristjan Jaak Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Kristjan Jaak

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastroofifilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe, kes koos advokaat Kaj Holmbergiga lõi selleks puhuks stuudio Top Story. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  10. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia-Perception of Different Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-04-19

    From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education (n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations.

  11. Galeriiühendus Eesti Panga kvartalisse = Connecting Gallery to the Bank of Estonia Block

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. veebruaris toimunud kutsutud arhitektuurikonkursi, mille eesmärgiks oli parandada Eesti Panga kvartali funktsionaalsust Estonia puiestee ja Sakala tänava poolsete osade vahel, töö. Projekterija: AB Urban Mark OÜ. Autorid: Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae. Konstruktsioonid: Inseneribüroo Peipman OÜ

  12. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  13. Thelodonts (Agnatha from the basal beds of the Kuressaare Stage, Ludlow, Upper Silurian of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Märss, Tiiu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The thelodont Loganellia cuneata (Gross is redescribed and new thelodont taxa Paralogania perensae sp. nov., Nethertonodus laadjalaensis sp. nov., and Longodus acicularis gen. et sp. nov. are established. The last taxon belongs to the family Longodidae fam. nov. of Thelodonti but its order is uncertain. This assemblage comes from the Tahula Beds of the Kuressaare Stage, Ludlow, Upper Silurian of Estonia.

  14. Soviet Military Preparations in Estonia during the Year before Barbarossa / Toomas Hiio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiio, Toomas, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Soome lahe tähtsusest Peterburi kaitses. Nõukogude baasidest Eestis 1939-1940. Talvesõjast ja Eestist. Eesti täielikust okupeerimisest Nõukgoude vägede poolt. Punaarmeest ja Balti laevastikust Eestis 1940-1941. Eesti oma sõjaväe saatusest.

  15. Two years on, Estonia helps EU prepare its cyber-defences

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Eestile suunatud küberrünnakutest 2007. a., mille käigus rünnati ka presidendi veebisaiti. Kübersõda tegi Eesti maailmas üldtuntuks ning andis tõuke riigi kõrgtehnoloogilisele tööstussektorile, Tallinnasse rajati NATO küberkaitsekeskus. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves leiab, et uue rünnaku kartuses netiühenduste katkestamine oleks liiga tahumatu lahendus

  16. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision histology results in sarcoma: Experience at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. KG Panda, MJ Hale, D Kruger, TE Luvhengo ...

  17. The excise duty of imported cars – legal problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents legal problems of secondhand car excise duty imposedin Poland. Additionally, the current results of statistical investigations referring to the number of cars imported from abroad were presented in this article.

  18. Excise Tax Rates On Packs Of Cigarettes PDF Slides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Download the current excise tax rates on packs of cigarettes slides. These slides are available in PDF and PowerPoint formats. The PowerPoint version can be found...

  19. Cancer patient survival in Estonia 1995-2009: time trends and data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, K; Baburin, A; Aareleid, T

    2014-06-01

    Survival from most cancers in Estonia has been consistently below European average. The objective of this study was to examine recent survival trends in Estonia and to quantify the effect on survival estimates of the temporary disruption of the Estonian Cancer Registry (ECR) practices in 2001-2007 when death certificates could not be used for case ascertainment. ECR data on all adult cases of 16 common cancers diagnosed in Estonia during 1995-2008 and followed up for vital status until 2009 were used to estimate relative survival ratios (RSR). We used cohort analysis for patients diagnosed in 1995-1999 and 2000-2004; and period hybrid approach to obtain the most recent estimates (2005-2009). We compared five-year RSRs calculated from data sets with and without death certificate initiated (DCI) cases. A total of 64328 cancer cases were included in survival analysis. Compared with 1995-1999, five-year age-standardized RSR increased 20 percent units for prostate cancer, reaching 76% in 2005-2009. A rise of 10 percent units or more was also seen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (five-year RSR 51% in 2005-2009), and cancers of rectum (49%), breast (73%) and ovary (37%). The effect of including/excluding DCI cases from survival analysis was small except for lung and pancreatic cancers. Relative survival continued to increase in Estonia during the first decade of the 21st century, although for many cancers, a gap between Estonia and more affluent countries still exists. Cancer control efforts should aim at the reduction of risk factors amenable to primary prevention, but also at the improvement of early diagnosis and ensuring timely and optimal care to all cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Time trends in population-based breast cancer survival in Estonia: analysis by age and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Padrik, Peeter; Valvere, Vahur; Innos, Kaire

    2014-02-01

    Survival from breast cancer (BC) in Estonia has been consistently among the lowest in Europe. The aim of this study was to examine most recent trends in BC survival in Estonia by age and stage. The trends in overall BC incidence and mortality are also shown in the paper. Estonian Cancer Registry data on all cases of BC, diagnosed in women in Estonia during 1995-2007 (n = 7424) and followed up for vital status through 2009, were used to estimate relative survival ratios (RSR). Period hybrid approach was used to obtain the most recent estimates (2005-2009). Stage was classified as localized, local/regional spread or distant. BC incidence continued to rise throughout the study period, but mortality has been in steady decline since 2000. The distribution of patients shifted towards older age and earlier stage at diagnosis. Overall age-standardized five-year RSR increased from 63% in 1995-1999 to 74% in 2005-2009. Younger age groups experienced a more rapid improvement compared to women over 60. Significant survival increase was observed for both localized and locally/regionally spread BC with five-year RSRs reaching 96% and 70% in 2005-2009, respectively; the latest five-year RSR for distant BC was 11%. Survival for T4 tumors was poor and large age difference was seen for locally/regionally spread BC. Considerable improvement in BC survival was observed over the study period. Women under 60 benefited most from both earlier diagnosis and treatment advances of locally/regionally spread cancers. However, the survival gap with more developed countries persists. Further increase in survival, but also decline in BC mortality in Estonia could be achieved by facilitating early diagnosis in all age groups, but particularly among women over 60. Investigations should continue to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the stage-specific survival deficit in Estonia.

  1. A feasibility study of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash utilisation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Hakan; Frey, Ruedi; Voronova, Viktoria; Koroljova, Arina

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation. Two carbonation options were developed. Option 1 is to use carbonated FA in any other processes based on the waste-to-product principle. Option 2 is to send carbonated FA to the non-hazardous landfill in Tallinn, Estonia. Important parameters, such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Break Even Point (BEP), have been calculated for carbonation options and the current case. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been conducted to examine its robustness. The results showed that the best option is carbonation Option 1 with NPV of 9,209,662 EUR, IRR of 43%, BCR of 2.63 and BEP between 2018 and 2019. Both Options 1 and 2 constitute more sustainable and environmentally friendly management options compared to the current situation. It can be concluded that this preliminary feasibility study showed that running a carbonation plant may be profitable and sustainable for Estonia. Currently, there is no treatment technology for MSW incineration FA in Estonia and FA is sent to a neighbouring country for further utilisation. This is the first study to demonstrate FA management options with economic and environmental benefits.

  2. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Haavik, Svein; Ekedahl, Anders

    Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient. Objective The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1) by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2) by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3) by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers. Methods Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4) and Sweden (n=7) and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9). Results Pharmacists’'in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45%) and Sweden (0.38%). Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%), printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1%) in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9%) in Sweden. More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (pprescription types and perrors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified. Conclusions Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact with prescriber before dispensing, irrespective of the type of

  3. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  4. 27 CFR 24.323 - Excise Tax Return form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise Tax Return form. 24.323 Section 24.323 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.323 Excise Tax Return form. A proprietor who removes wine subject to tax shall...

  5. 26 CFR 25.2512-7 - Effect of excise tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of excise tax. 25.2512-7 Section 25.2512-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-7 Effect of excise tax. If jewelry, furs or other property, the purchase of...

  6. Excision of Mucocele Using Diode Laser in Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoceles are nonneoplastic cystic lesions of major and minor salivary glands which result from the accumulation of mucus. These lesions are most commonly seen in children. Though usually these lesions can be treated by local surgical excision, in our case, to avoid intraoperative surgical complications like bleeding and edema and to enable better healing, excision was done using a diode laser in the wavelength of 940 nm.

  7. Modulation of DNA base excision repair during neuronal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykora, Peter; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Ferrarelli, Leslie K

    2013-01-01

    Neurons are terminally differentiated cells with a high rate of metabolism and multiple biological properties distinct from their undifferentiated precursors. Previous studies showed that nucleotide excision DNA repair is downregulated in postmitotic muscle cells and neurons. Here, we characterize...... DNA damage susceptibility and base excision DNA repair (BER) capacity in undifferentiated and differentiated human neural cells. The results show that undifferentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are less sensitive to oxidative damage than their differentiated counterparts, in part because...

  8. Base excision repair: a critical player in many games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Susan S

    2014-07-01

    This perspective reviews the many dimensions of base excision repair from a 10,000 foot vantage point and provides one person's view on where the field is headed. Enzyme function is considered under the lens of X-ray diffraction and single molecule studies. Base excision repair in chromatin and telomeres, regulation of expression and the role of posttranslational modifications are also discussed in the context of enzyme activities, cellular localization and interacting partners. The specialized roles that base excision repair play in transcriptional activation by active demethylation and targeted oxidation as well as how base excision repair functions in the immune processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination and its possible involvement in retroviral infection are also discussed. Finally the complexities of oxidative damage and its repair and its link to neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the role of base excision repair as a tumor suppressor are examined in the context of damage, repair and aging. By outlining the many base excision repair-related mysteries that have yet to be unraveled, hopefully this perspective will stimulate further interest in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  10. Excised Embryo Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Dan Kepekaannya Terhadap Pengeringan*[desiccation Sensitivity of Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Excised Embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Soetisna, Usep; Zebua, Lisye Iriana

    2005-01-01

    A study on desiccation sensitivity of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)excised embryo has been conducted.Excised embryos were desiccated into target moisture content of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15% and 10% respectively.Results shown that the critical level for moisture content was 20% with 60% viability and 7.431% per etmal growth rate and 929ms electric conduction Further study is needed as to investigate on how long the embryo will withstand subsequent storage treatments.

  11. Development of a long-term ovine model of cutaneous burn and smoke inhalation injury and the effects of early excision and skin autografting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Rehberg, Sebastian; Asmussen, Sven; Ito, Hiroshi; Sousse, Linda E; Cox, Robert A; Deyo, Donald J; Traber, Lillian D; Traber, Maret G; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

    2012-09-01

    Smoke inhalation injury frequently increases the risk of pneumonia and mortality in burn patients. The pathophysiology of acute lung injury secondary to burn and smoke inhalation is well studied, but long-term pulmonary function, especially the process of lung tissue healing following burn and smoke inhalation, has not been fully investigated. By contrast, early burn excision has become the standard of care in the management of major burn injury. While many clinical studies and small-animal experiments support the concept of early burn wound excision, and show improved survival and infectious outcomes, we have developed a new chronic ovine model of burn and smoke inhalation injury with early excision and skin grafting that can be used to investigate lung pathophysiology over a period of 3 weeks. Eighteen female sheep were surgically prepared for this study under isoflurane anesthesia. The animals were divided into three groups: an Early Excision group (20% TBSA, third-degree cutaneous burn and 36 breaths of cotton smoke followed by early excision and skin autografting at 24h after injury, n=6), a Control group (20% TBSA, third-degree cutaneous burn and 36 breaths of cotton smoke without early excision, n=6) and a Sham group (no injury, no early excision, n=6). After induced injury, all sheep were placed on a ventilator and fluid-resuscitated with Lactated Ringers solution (4 mL/% TBS/kg). At 24h post-injury, early excision was carried out to fascia, and skin grafting with meshed autografts (20/1000 in., 1:4 ratio) was performed under isoflurane anesthesia. At 48 h post-injury, weaning from ventilator was begun if PaO(2)/FiO(2) was above 250 and sheep were monitored for 3 weeks. At 96 h post-injury, all animals were weaned from ventilator. There are no significant differences in PaO(2)/FiO(2) between Early Excision and Control groups at any points. All animals were survived for 3 weeks without infectious complication in Early Excision and Sham groups, whereas two

  12. [Anu Mai Kõll. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kõll, Anu Mai. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia (Historical studies in Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 2). Central European University Press. Budapest and New York 2013

  13. Armastus kui vale(m) : Mari Vihmandi ooperi "Armastuse valem" lavastusest Estonias / Ester Võsu ja Kristel Pappel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võsu, Ester, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Argentiina kirjaniku Esther Vilari romaani "Nina Glucksteini matemaatika" ainetel valminud Mari Vihmandi ooperist "Armastuse valem", libreto Maimu Berg, lavastaja Liis Kolle, tantsu- ja liikumisseaded Ana Mondini. Esietendus 17. oktoobril 2008 Rahvusooperis Estonia

  14. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter 7 of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi (Estonia) present technical data on production units, also with regard to new facilities. (ARW)

  15. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  16. Providers issue brief: tobacco: excise taxes: year end report-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal government impose excise taxes on cigarettes and have done so for many years. State tobacco taxes range from a high of $2.05 per pack of cigarettes in New Jersey to a low of $0.03 in Virginia per pack. The federal government levies an excise tax that increased by $0.05 on Jan. 1, 2002, to $0.39 per package. Cigarette taxes are directed at the consumer, while taxes on other tobacco products focus on the wholesaler. In the 2002 legislative sessions, 33 states proposed increases in cigarette excise taxes as a means of addressing budget shortfalls; 20 states enacted increases. Increasing tobacco excise taxes may decrease tobacco usage and increase state revenue. Increasing cigarette taxes is a means of generating revenue that generally is supported by public opinion. For instance, a 2003 poll in Ohio found that 63 percent of the public favored increasing cigarette excise taxes as long as the revenue is used for health care purposes. Cigarette excise taxes was again an area of substantial legislative interest and activity due to continued state budget deficits. A February 2003 NCSL study of state budget shortfalls indicated that the current cumulative budget gap is approximately $25.7 billion for fiscal year (FY) 2003. State revenues were sluggish and generally most failed to meet budgeted levels. At least 30 states noted that general fund collections were below budgeted estimates, and 12 states reported that collections failed to meet revised levels. Although the additional tax revenue generated by raising excise taxes may not eliminate state budget shortfalls, the revenue may provide funds for specific state programs.This issue brief provides an overview of the policy issue, a brief history of tobacco taxation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, an overview of legislative activity in 2003, and a state-by-state map of state tobacco taxes.

  17. 26 CFR 40.6302(a)-1 - Voluntary payments of excise taxes by electronic funds transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary payments of excise taxes by electronic funds transfer. 40.6302(a)-1 Section 40.6302(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6302(a)-1 Voluntary payments of excise taxes by...

  18. 26 CFR 54.4974-1 - Excise tax on accumulations in individual retirement accounts or annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on accumulations in individual retirement accounts or annuities. 54.4974-1 Section 54.4974-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4974-1 Excise tax on accumulations in...

  19. 26 CFR 54.4974-2 - Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement plans. 54.4974-2 Section 54.4974-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4974-2 Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement...

  20. 26 CFR 54.4975-1 - General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions. 54.4975-1 Section 54.4975-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4975-1 General rules relating to excise tax on prohibite...

  1. 26 CFR 156.5881-1 - Imposition of excise tax on greenmail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imposition of excise tax on greenmail. 156.5881-1 Section 156.5881-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON GREENMAIL Tax on Greenmail § 156.5881-1 Imposition of excise tax on greenmail. (a) In genera...

  2. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions. 54.4979-1 Section 54.4979-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-1 Excise tax on certain excess...

  3. Prevalence of IGRA-positivity and risk factors for tuberculosis among injecting drug users in Estonia and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Kristi; Karnite, Anda; Talu, Ave; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Kirvelaite, Gunta; Kliiman, Kai; Loit, Helle-Mai; Uusküla, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Illegal drug use and HIV are independent risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among injecting drug users (IDU). Estonia and Latvia have experienced high rates of TB as well as IDU and HIV outbreaks. There is a lack of knowledge about TB among IDUs in these countries. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection among IDUs in Estonia and Latvia. Participants for this cross-sectional study were recruited from syringe exchange programmes using respondent-driven sampling. For assessing infection with MTB interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) was used. The study included 375 participants from Estonia and 313 from Latvia. The prevalence of IGRA-positivity among IDUs was 7.7% in Estonia and 25.6% in Latvia. HIV-prevalence was 62% in Estonia and 23% in Latvia. In both countries, IGRA-positivity rates did not differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants. IGRA-positivity was independently associated with a prior diagnosis of TB in Estonia and with imprisonment (ever within a lifetime) and preceding contact with a TB patient in Latvia. Our findings indicate there is an urgent need for a more vigorous approach in providing IDUs with TB screening services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex differences in cancer survival in Estonia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Padrik, Peeter; Valvere, Vahur; Aareleid, Tiiu

    2015-02-19

    In Estonia, women have much longer life expectancy than men. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in cancer survival in Estonia and to explore the role of age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis and tumour subsite. Using data from the population-based Estonian Cancer Registry, we examined the relative survival of adult patients diagnosed with nine common cancers in Estonia in 1995-2006 and followed up through 2011. Excess hazard ratios (EHR) of death associated with female gender adjusted for age, stage at diagnosis and tumour subsite were estimated. A total of 20 828 male and 13 166 female cases were analysed. The main data quality indicators were similar between men and women. Women had more cases with unknown extent of disease at diagnosis. Overall, the age-adjusted 5-year relative survival ratio was higher among women than men for all studied sites, but the difference was significant for cancers of mouth and pharynx (22% units), lung (5% units), skin melanoma (17% units) and kidney (8% units). The increase in survival over time was larger for women than men for cancers of mouth and pharynx, colon, rectum, kidney and skin melanoma. In multivariate analysis, women had a significantly lower EHR of death within five years after diagnosis for five of the nine cancers studied (cancers of mouth and pharynx, stomach, lung, skin melanoma and kidney). Adjustment for stage and subsite explained some, but not all of the women's advantage. We found a significant female survival advantage in Estonia for cancers of mouth and pharynx, stomach, lung, kidney and skin melanoma. The differences in favour of women tended to increase over time as from the 1990s to the 2000s, survival improved more among women than among men. A large part of the women's advantage is likely attributable to biological factors, but other factors, such as co-morbidities, treatment compliance or health behaviour, are also probable contributors to gender survival disparities in Estonia and

  5. Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yongmoon; Kim, Daehyung; Martín-López, Juana V; Lee, Ryanggeun; Oh, Jungsic; Hanne, Jeungphill; Fishel, Richard; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2016-03-22

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3'- or 5'-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a complete MMR reaction remain enigmatic. The purified human (Homo sapien or Hs) 5'-MMR excision reaction requires the HsMSH2-HsMSH6 heterodimer, the 5' → 3' exonuclease HsEXOI, and the single-stranded binding heterotrimer HsRPA. The HsMLH1-HsPMS2 heterodimer substantially influences 5'-MMR excision in cell extracts but is not required in the purified system. Using real-time single-molecule imaging, we show that HsRPA or Escherichia coli EcSSB restricts HsEXOI excision activity on nicked or gapped DNA. HsMSH2-HsMSH6 activates HsEXOI by overcoming HsRPA/EcSSB inhibition and exploits multiple dynamic sliding clamps to increase tract length. Conversely, HsMLH1-HsPMS2 regulates tract length by controlling the number of excision complexes, providing a link to 5' MMR.

  6. Emerging roles for histone modifications in DNA excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Peng; Wyrick, John J

    2016-11-01

    DNA repair is critical to maintain genome stability. In eukaryotic cells, DNA repair is complicated by the packaging of the DNA 'substrate' into chromatin. DNA repair pathways utilize different mechanisms to overcome the barrier presented by chromatin to efficiently locate and remove DNA lesions in the genome. DNA excision repair pathways are responsible for repairing a majority of DNA lesions arising in the genome. Excision repair pathways include nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER), which repair bulky and non-bulky DNA lesions, respectively. Numerous studies have suggested that chromatin inhibits both NER and BER in vitro and in vivo Growing evidence demonstrates that histone modifications have important roles in regulating the activity of NER and BER enzymes in chromatin. Here, we will discuss the roles of different histone modifications and the corresponding modifying enzymes in DNA excision repair, highlighting the role of yeast as a model organism for many of these studies. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  8. Habitat Quality Assessment of Herb-rich Spruce Forests in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korjus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 network contains many different habitats in Estonia, including old-growth forests and semi-natural woodlands. Ten years after the establishment of the Natura 2000 network in Estonia, changes have occurred in habitat type and habitat quality. Vegetation composition as well as the structural and functional qualities of a forest habitat type – Fennoscandian herbrich forests with Picea abies (EU Habitats Directive habitat type 9050 – are analysed in this study. The study is based on sample plots measured in 2014 and are located in protected and non-protected areas. Aegopodium, Filipendula and Oxalis vegetation types are included for assessment of vegetation, tree structure and deadwood composition. Habitat composition and dynamics on conservation sites are compared with commercial forests and possible ecosystem restoration measures are discussed in the study. The 46% of the studied habitats had considerably lowered their initial conservation value and 49% were developed towards habitat type 9010 during 2004–2014.

  9. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

  10. Cost of Capital in Price-regulated Companies: the Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of price-regulated companies it is the role of appropriate government agencies to introduce clear, internally consistent, theoretically sound, and unambiguous methodology for finding the regulative cost of capital. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyze the cost of capital estimation methodology for regulated companies in Estonia and discuss some issues arising in applying this methodology. The current paper focuses on two topical issues associated with the estimation of regulative cost of capital in Estonia: estimation of market risk premium and inclusion of currency risk premium into the cost of capital. Current turmoil in financial markets has increased investors’ risk aversion as well as level of risks.

  11. E-Participation in the Legislative Process Lessons from Estonia for Enhancing Democratic Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Glencross

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the success of an innovative national e-participation project in Estonia. To carry out this task, the paper combines quantitative (aggregate user data, content analysis via tagging and qualitative (individual user survey and interviews with public officials data analysis. The analysis is conducted with two principal research objectives in mind. Firstly, to explain how e-participation has fared in Estonia, both in terms of citizen mobilization and government responses. The second goal is to evaluate a series of procedural and technological changes for enhancing e-participation. The Estonian case provides ample lessons for ensuring that e-participation in practice can better meet the expectations of users and government officials alike.

  12. Research Policies Rewarding Quantity: Estonia and Ukraine. Kvantiteeti tasustav teaduspoliitika: Eesti ja Ukraina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ukrainski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is resting on the theoretical model of Braun (2003 describing the delegation modes for public funding of research in the principal-agent framework. It aims to show by using the conceptualisation of utility functions of principal and agents on the various levels, how different motivations for producing different kinds of research outputs emerge for researchers and universities or public research organisations in Estonia and Ukraine. The article attempts to offer one explanation to why in some quantitative research output indicators both countries perform very well compared to much lower levels of innovation system indicators otherwise. Estonia is rewarding publications and Ukraine is rewarding utility model applications throughout different levels of the system.

  13. Spatial Planning in Estonia – From A Socialist to Inclusive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart HIOB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning in Eastern Europe has gone through major changes during the years after the Soviet occupation ended around 1990. New planning standards were eagerly accepted but the practice was often carried out in a socialist manner. This article gives an overview of planning law and practice in Estonia during the transition period. The example presented is a district in Tartu, the second largest city of 100,000 inhabitants. The article analyses different master planning documents covering the whole district and compares both their process of compilation and their content to former Soviet era plans. The conclusion is that the transition from socialist to inclusive planning in Estonia has taken at least two decades, and the process is still not fi nished. This shows that the legal framework alone is not suffi cient to transform planning practice – a new ideology has to be accepted by the specialist as well as the politicians and the general public.

  14. The origin of barium in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrik, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the barium occurrence and its origin is made on the basis of the groundwater chemistry study. High Ba content has been detected in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in the coastal vicinity of the Gulf of Finland in Estonia and St Petersburg. The dissolution of Ba from witherite as the primary source was derived from the analysis of the aqueous solution equilibrium with Ba-related minerals. It is reflected in the chemical composition of groundwater and influenced by the galenite–calcite–fluorite polymetallic mineralization in Vendian sandstones. The dissolution and re-deposition of carbonates and baryte are confirmed by mineral saturation states for an aqueous solution and distribution of other species in the groundwater of the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in North Estonia.

  15. Conodont biostratigraphy in the Middle–Upper Ordovician boundary beds of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viira, Viive

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts of the uppermost Uhaku, the Kukruse, and the lower Haljala stages (uppermost Darriwilian and lower Sandbian of Estonia are discussed. The distribution of conodonts within the Pygodus serra, P. anserinus, and Amorphognathus tvaerensis zones is considered on the basis of 2 outcrop and 15 drill core sections. Judging by the Global Stratotype Section, Fågelsång, Sweden, the base of the Upper Ordovician Series should be lower than the first appearance of A. tvaerensis. The Estonian material shows that elements of A. tvaerensis from the lowermost range of the species are of a morphotype similar to A. inaequalis. It is proposed that the A. inaequalis Subzone be upgraded to the A. inaequalis Zone. The best level for the Middle–Upper Ordovician boundary in Estonia is at the lower boundary of the Kukruse Stage below the appearance of A. tvaerensis and/or A. inaequalis.

  16. Excision of oral mucocele by different wavelength lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Romeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucocele is a common benign neoplasm of oral soft tissues and the most common after fibroma. It generally occurs in the lower lip and its treatment includes excision of cyst and the responsible salivary gland, in order to prevent recurrences. Aims: To evaluate the capability of three different lasers in performing the excision of labial mucocele with two different techniques. Materials and Methods: In the presented cases, excision was performed using two different techniques (circumferential incision technique and mucosal preservation technique and three different laser wavelengths (Er,Cr:YSGG 2780 nm, diode 808 nm, and KTP 532 nm. Results: All the tested lasers, regardless of wavelength, showed many advantages (bloodless surgical field, no postoperative pain, relative speed, and easy execution. The most useful surgical technique depends on clinical features of the lesion. Conclusion: Tested lasers, with both techniques, are helpful in the management of labial mucocele.

  17. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhima Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation.

  18. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ridhima; Bozzay, Joseph D; Williams, David L; DePond, Robert T; Gantt, Pickens A

    2015-01-01

    Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS) is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation.

  19. 26 CFR 40.6109-1 - Tax return preparers furnishing identifying numbers for returns or claims for refund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax return preparers furnishing identifying numbers for returns or claims for refund. 40.6109-1 Section 40.6109-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6109-1 Tax return preparers...

  20. Survival for colon and rectal cancer in Estonia: role of staging and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Soplepmann, Jaan; Suuroja, Tiit; Melnik, Priit; Aareleid, Tiiu

    2012-04-01

    International comparisons have indicated low colorectal cancer (CRC) survival in Estonia, compared to other European countries. The objective of this paper is to analyse long-term survival as well as staging and treatment patterns of CRC in Estonia. The analysis included all incident cases of CRC diagnosed in Estonia in 1997 (n = 546), identified through the Estonian Cancer Registry and followed up for 10 years after diagnosis. Staging and treatment data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Relative survival rate (RSR) was used to estimate the outcome. The 5-year RSR was 51% for colon cancer and 38% for rectal cancer; the corresponding 10-year RSR was 50% and 39%. We observed no excess mortality for early disease. For stages II and III, the survival was markedly higher in colon cancer (5-year RSR 79% and 66%, respectively) compared to rectal cancer (66% and 30%, respectively). Around 30% of cases were diagnosed with distant disease. Among radically operated colon and rectal cancer patients, the 10-year RSR was 90% and 70%, respectively. Most patients with available pathological information had one to four lymph nodes examined. Survival has notably improved for colon cancer, but not for rectal cancer in Estonia. High proportion of cases with distant metastasis at first diagnosis along with inadequate staging and low proportion of patients treated with curatively intended surgery and appropriate chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have contributed to this outcome. Progress could be achieved by earlier diagnosis and implementing higher standards for staging and treatment. These conclusions are likely to be relevant also for other Eastern European countries.

  1. The Earliest Giant Osprioneides Borings from the Sandbian (Late Ordovician) of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A.; Mõtus, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America. PMID:24901511

  2. Survey of the Presence of Toxocara spp. Eggs in Dog Feces in Tartu, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-03-01

    Several zoonotic pathogens are shed in the feces of infected animals. If they are allowed to contaminate the environment, they cause a public health concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog feces in the urban area of Tartu, Estonia. Samples were collected by veterinary students in 2014 and examined using a modified concentration-flotation technique. Toxocara spp. eggs were detected by microscopy in 4 (1.7%) out of 234 canine fecal samples.

  3. Estonia at the threshold of the fourth decade of the AIDS era in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Avi, Radko; DeHovitz, Jack; Uusküla, Anneli

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the trends of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Estonia during the past decade (2000-2009), with special focus on the potential for epidemic transition. Key transmission determinants and major risk groups are examined and problems and barriers to fighting HIV/AIDS with possible applications in prevention and control are described. Estonian routine data sources and published literature were reviewed, supplemented with information from personal communication with physicians and public health specialists. For comparative European data, international HIV/AIDS and drug addiction surveillance documents, administrative data, and published literature were reviewed. In Eastern Europe (including Estonia) the predominant HIV transmission mode is injection drug use (IDU), closely followed by heterosexual transmission, an increasing risk factor for new cases. Although the contribution of cases acquired by sexual contact with high-risk partners such as IDUs is not known, characteristics of the sexual networks of IDUs may be important in determining the evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in the region. In Estonia, despite major gaps in available data, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still presumably confined to IDUs (and probably, to their sexual partners). In Eastern Europe, young women in IDU-non-IDU partnerships engaging in unprotected sex potentially serve as a bridge to the general population, yet knowledge of and research into the population characteristics and potential magnitude of bridging are limited. In Estonia, as in other Eastern European countries, HIV prevention and harm reduction initiatives should be tailored not only to the predominantly male HIV-positive IDU population, but also to their noninfected non-IDU female sexual partners.

  4. Mis Noor-Eesti Liivi -kaanonisse ei mahtunud. Juhan Liiv and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Talvet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt is made to cast light on the complicated relationship between Juhan Liiv (1864– 1913 – perhaps the greatest Estonian lyrical poet of all times – and the Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti cultural movement, which played a fundamental role in laying the foundations of Estonian literary culture at the beginning of the 20th century. Since Liiv himself, mentally ill and living in great poverty, did not publish any books, the Young Estonians – first the poet Gustav Liiv and, then, more decisively, the short story writer and essayist Friedebert Tuglas, took up the task of establishing a canon of Liiv’s poetry for Estonia. The dynamics of Liiv’s poetic canon as established by Young Estonia – especially, by Tuglas’ edition of Juhan Liivi luuletused (1926, Juhan Liiv’s Poems and his substantial monograph on Liiv’s life and work, Juhan Liiv (1927 – are viewed in the context of the fate of Liiv’s poetry in Estonian letters in a later period, after World War II. Aarne Vinkel, a literary historian, made important additions to the canon with his edition of Juhan Liiv’s Teosed (1954, Works. Vinkel’s selection Sinuga ja sinuta (1989, With You and Without You is the largest edition of Liiv’s poetry to date. In view of Tuglas’ continued and considerable prestige in Soviet Estonia, it is probable that quite a few of Liiv’s poems discovered and published by Vinkel on the basis of Liiv’s manuscripts have still remained relatively unknown to the wider Estonian reading public. On the other hand, without Vinkel’s post-war corroboration of the canon of Liiv’s poetry established by the Young Estonians, Liiv’s image as a poet would have appeared much more fragmentary.

  5. Window to the West: Memories of Watching Finnish Television in Estonia During The Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Lepp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the memories of Estonians of watching Finnish television during the last decades of the Soviet occupation. We will look at the practices of watching Finnish television in Soviet Estonia and the meanings attributed to it. Finnish television took North-Estonians into a colourful world of consumption and entertainment, while at the same time educating them about Western values and encouraging them to dream a better future.

  6. Psychological responses to a marine disaster during a recoil phase: experiences from the Estonia shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiminen, T J; Tuominen, T

    1996-06-01

    The sinking of the car ferry, Estonia, was one of the world's most devastating marine disasters that has ever occurred in peace time. Altogether 138 passengers and crew members were rescued, and 38 of them were taken to the Turku University Central Hospital in Finland. The present article describes the various psychological reactions among the survivors during the first three days of the recoil phase.

  7. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Same Siiri; Solarte-Vasquez Maria Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strate...

  8. Estonia hukk jõuab Eesti kinodesse sügisel / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal peatselt esilinastuv poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena, jõuab Eestis siinse levitaja Mati Seppingu sõnul linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist on kapten Arvo Kallase rollis Rein Oja

  9. Midwifery at the crossroads in Estonia: attitudes of midwives and other key stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rasch, Vibeke; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2005-04-01

    Since the initiation of health sector reforms in Estonia in 1992, the Baltic state has experienced a steep decline in the number of midwives and midwife graduates. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase, first in sexually transmitted infections and then in human immunodeficiency virus. The aim of this study was to draw on the perceptions of Estonia's midwives and other health care stakeholders to delineate the current situation of midwifery in the country, in the context of a sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus epidemic. Data were obtained by sending a 32-question questionnaire, based on an agenda developed through semistructured interviews, to all midwives in Estonia. A nominal group technique was employed with key stakeholders to determine the extent of their agreement with the questionnaire's major findings. The response rate to the questionnaire was 75%. There was no significant association between work satisfaction and independent variables of age, ethnicity, work abroad, increased responsibility, and involvement in postpartum care and counseling. There was, however, a significant association between work satisfaction and salary. The group process revealed that although there is no agreement on the role of family doctors and midwives in antenatal care, there is a general agreement that midwives should be more involved in postpartum care and that their tasks need to be better defined. Almost half of the responding Estonian midwives are dissatisfied with their job, especially their salary. Increased responsibility for antenatal and postpartum counseling, with concurrent salary adjustments, may help stop the decline in the number of midwives, as could the opening up of new areas of work. A further reduction of the high abortion and sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus rates is a critical challenge for Estonia, and midwives could be employed in services to do this, similar to their Nordic neighbors. Current

  10. The effects of chalazion excision on corneal surface aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Min; Lee, Jong Soo

    2014-10-01

    This study is the first to consider the effects of chalazion on corneal surface aberrations taking into account of corneal zones, and to establish the size standard for the excision of chalazion. Twenty three eyes from 23 patients with central upper eyelid chalazion larger than 3mm were recruited in this prospective study. The participants were classified into two groups, depending on size of the lesion: Group 1 with lesion size 3-5mm and Group 2 with lesion size >5mm Chalazion was excised by standard transconjunctival vertical incision. Corneal surface aberrations were measured using a Galilei™ analyzer and an auto-refractometer before and 2 months after the excision. Corneal astigmatism in all patients decreased significantly in both auto refractometer (P=0.012) and Galilei™ (P=0.020) measurements after chalazion excision. RMS of total HOAs decreased significantly in 6mm (P=0.043) and 3mm zone (P=0.051). The RMS of Zernike orders in the vertical and horizontal trefoil decreased significantly in 6mm (P=0.035) and 3mm (P=0.041) zone. Group 2 showed a significant decrease in corneal astigmatism in both auto refractometer (P=0.040) and Galilei™ (P=0.017) parameters after chalazion excision. Group 1 showed an insignificant decrease in corneal astigmatism. Unlike Group 1, the RMS of total HOAs and vertical and horizontal trefoil in 6mm zone decreased significantly in Group 2 (Pchalazion increases astigmatism and HOAs, especially at the peripheral cornea. Significantly induced astigmatism and HOAs are caused by chalazion >5mm in size. Thus, we recommend the surgical excision of chalazion >5mm in size to reduce corneal surface aberrations. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Robotic Excision of a Papillary Fibroelastoma of the Mitral Chordae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, Mani; Smith, Robert L; Squiers, John J; Wang, Alex; DiMaio, J Michael; Mack, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Papillary fibroelastomas of the mitral chordae tendineae are rare, primary benign tumors. They are either incidentally diagnosed during echocardiography or discovered after transient ischemic attack, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Removal of papillary fibroelastomas should be considered, given the increased risk for embolization causing cerebrovascular accident or mortality in patients with echocardiographic evidence of papillary fibroelastoma not undergoing surgical procedures. Although fibroelastoma removal can be performed in most cases without disrupting mitral valve competency, sternotomy and minithoracotomy are the typical approaches for excision. Herein, we report the first robotic excision of a mitral chord papillary fibroelastoma. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wide local excision of acanthomatous epulides in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R A; Gorman, N T

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-five dogs bearing acanthomatous epulides of the oral cavity underwent tumor resection by wide local excision. The surgical procedures included rostral mandibulectomy, removal of the mandibular body, premaxillectomy, and partial maxillectomy. Postoperative complications were rare, and local recurrence was not encountered in any dogs over periods of 1 to 6 1/2 years (median, 22 months). The authors conclude from the high incidence of local recurrence after simple excision through the tumor margins and the potential for malignant transformation after irradiation that wide surgical resection is the technique of choice for the management of acanthomatous epulis.

  13. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H R

    1987-01-01

    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At long term follow up (1-9 years, mean 5.5 years) no complications attributable to the Teflon felt have been identified. Images PMID:3324378

  14. Determinants of mental health stigma among pharmacy students in Australia, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, India and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J S; Aaltonen, S E; Airaksinen, M S; Volmer, D; Gharat, M S; Muceniece, R; Vitola, A; Foulon, V; Desplenter, F A; Chen, T F

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare professionals commonly exhibit negative attitudes toward people with mental disorders. Few international studies have sought to investigate the determinants of stigma. To conduct an international comparison of pharmacy students' stigma towards people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether stigma is consistently associated with stereotypical attributes of people with schizophrenia. Students (n = 649) at eight universities in Australia, Belgium, India, Finland, Estonia and Latvia completed a seven-item Social Distance Scale (SDS) and six items related to stereotypical attributes of people with schizophrenia. Mean SDS scores were 19.65 (+/- 3.97) in Australia, 19.61 (+/- 2.92) in Belgium, 18.75 (+/- 3.57) in India, 18.05 (+/- 3.12) in Finland, and 20.90 (+/- 4.04) in Estonia and Latvia. Unpredictability was most strongly associated with having a high social distance in Australia (beta = -1.285), the perception that people will never recover in India (beta = - 0.881), dangerousness in Finland (beta = -1.473) and the perception of being difficult to talk to in Estonia and Latvia (beta = -2.076). Unpredictability was associated with lower social distance in Belgium (beta = 0.839). The extent to which students held stigmatizing attitudes was similar in each country, however, the determinants of stigma were different. Pharmacy education may need to be tailored to address the determinants of stigma in each country.

  15. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L. PMID:19440411

  16. Impact of fatal cases on the epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabre, L; Remmer, S; Adams, A; Väli, M; Rekand, T; Asser, T; Kõrv, J

    2015-05-01

    Most epidemiological studies on traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) have not included patients who die before hospitalization. The aim of the research was to study the incidence of TSCI by including the individuals who die at the scene of the accident in addition to data retrieved from all hospitals in Estonia. Medical records of patients with TSCI from all hospitals in Estonia from 2005 to 2007 were studied. With collaboration from the Estonian Forensic Science Institute the data of the victims of TSCI who died before hospitalization were included. From 2005 to 2007, 391 TSCI cases were identified: 183 patients were found retrospectively from medical records and 208 cases were detected from autopsy reports. Fifty-three per cent of patients died before hospitalization. The annual incidence rate was 97.0 per million population (95% confidence interval 87.4-106.6). The mean age at injury was 44.4 ± 18.7 years. Motor vehicle accidents were the leading cause of TSCI amongst the individuals who died before hospitalization (75%). Falls accounted for the highest number of TSCIs (43%) amongst the patients who reached hospital. Our study shows that, when the cases that die at the scene of the accident are included, the incidence of TSCI in Estonia rises from 39.7 to 97.0 per million population. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  17. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-14

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

  18. Mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer patients in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Valvere, Vahur; Padrik, Peeter; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine past mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer (BC) patients in Estonia, a country that has low screening coverage and high BC mortality. Women newly diagnosed with primary BC in Estonia in 2008-2010 were interviewed. Determinants of past mammography use and the detection of BC by mammography were studied using multivariate logistic regression. Among 977 participants, almost half reported no mammograms prior to the detection of BC. Overall, 22% of the cases were detected by mammography (16% by screening mammography). Detection by mammography was strongly related to age, past mammography use, and obesity. Among cases detected by mammography, 10% were stage III/IV at diagnosis (32% among cases detected by other modes). This study showed low mammography utilization and high rate of self-detection of BC in Estonia. Increased detection by mammography would help diagnose the disease at an earlier stage and consequently avoid premature BC deaths. Efforts should be undertaken to increase participation in screening and improve the availability of mammography among older and high-risk women. The results are likely to be relevant for other countries and population groups with low screening coverage.

  19. 25 Years of Change in Management Control Systems and Business Education in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last 25 years, the Estonian economy has transitioned from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented, globally open, highly competitive economy. Although during these years there has been fast growth and Estonians could tell a lot of success stories, research shows that management practices are still less advanced compared to those in enterprises from developed countries. Increased competition, openness and innovation increased the significance of more sophisticated management control systems (MCS. Researchers accentuate the role of managers and their education and training in using and developing more sophisticated MCS in companies. The objective of the current paper is to better understand how changes in the business environment, managerial training and education are connected to developments in MCS in Estonia. This article provides an overview of the statistics and studies completed in Estonia over the last 25 years. As this study shows, the last decade has brought a different level of internationalization and development in the business environment and business education. The problems associated with developments in MCS , using cloud technology, business education and managerial training are the same in Estonia as in developed countries. To develop the business and economic environment in the country, Estonian entrepreneurs need high-level data processing, analytical and financial education, and practical training courses.

  20. Tuberculosis during fundamental societal changes in Estonia with special reference to extrapulmonary manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehme, Lea; Hollo, Vahur; Rahu, Mati; Altraja, Alan

    2005-04-01

    To characterize the incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in Estonia, by site and age, in conditions of marked pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) increase, ie, during the period of fundamental societal changes, but where TB incidence has not been influenced by HIV infection. A retrospective study. All new cases of EPTB (n = 622) detected in Estonia from 1991 to 2000. The incidence of pulmonary TB in Estonia increased from 21.5 in 1991 to 44.6/100,000 in 2000. In contrast, the incidence of EPTB did not increase at the same pace, changing only from 3.6 in 1991 to 4.7/100,000 in 2000. The increase in the incidence of EPTB was significantly lower than that of pulmonary TB (p EPTB among overall TB steadily decreased from 17.0% in 1991 to 10.1% in 2000. The incidence of EPTB forms with a long latency period (eg, osteoarticular and urogenital TB) remained unchanged, while that of EPTB forms with a short latency period (eg, intrathoracic lymph node TB) increased (p EPTB than in pulmonary TB and varied according to site. There was no increase in the incidence of EPTB during 10 years despite the dramatic increase in overall TB. The proportion of EPTB among all TB tended to decrease with increasing age, and different EPTB sites prevailed in different age groups.

  1. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  2. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  3. Transvaginal Excision of an Eroded Sacrocolpopexy Mesh by Using Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Franziska; Imboden, Sara; Kuhn, Annette; Mueller, Michael D

    no signs of further infection of the residual mesh beyond the area exposed in the vagina. The patient's only symptom was foul-smelling discharge, but no back pain or signs of systemic inflammation were found. Knowing that foreign body (mesh) infection usually needs to be treated by complete mesh removal, we did not have any clues of distant mesh infection and counseled the patient that if reinfection occurred a second surgery might be necessary. Nevertheless, we treated this patient with abscess drainage and removal of large parts of the mesh. Thus, the operation was not extended to a complete mesh excision to prevent major surgery and the risk of recurrent prolapse. Particularly, the area of the mesh excision was inspected with the rendezvous technique (light source vaginally, laparoscopic pelvic view with laparoscopic light source switched off) to identify the area of mesh excision from the intra-abdominal area. Sigmoid and rectum were distant to this area, suggesting that no bowel lesion occurred. No complications occurred in the postoperative course. In the follow-up visit 6 months postoperatively the patient was asymptomatic, and the vaginal examination was uneventful with no recurrent erosion. Although improved oversight and richness of detail achieved by the vaginal SILS method is helpful in patients like our case with a suspended vaginal vault, its costs need to be balanced against conventional vaginal approaches (e.g., use of a Lonestar retractor). The SILS trocar and laparoscope used (SILS Port; Covidien, New Haven, CT) vaginally provide a magnificent and detailed view to allow for exact preparation by means of microinvasive instruments in vaginal surgery, even more in patients with a suspended vaginal vault where access to the apex can be tricky. The "pneumovagina" created by CO2 insufflation further helps to expose the vaginal apex. The rendezvous technique can additionally be used to identify intra-abominal lesions. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by

  4. The socio-demographic patterning of sexual risk behaviour: a survey of young men in Finland and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikula, Minna; Gissler, Mika; Jormanainen, Vesa; Laanpere, Made; Kunnas, Heikki; Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Hemminki, Elina

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among the youth are an increasing challenge for public health in Europe. This study provided estimates of men's (18–25 years) sexual risk behaviour and self-reported STIs and their socio-demographic patterning in Finland and Estonia; two countries that are geographically close, but have very different STI epidemics. Method Nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys with comparable survey questions were used. Data from self-administered questionnaires for 1765 men aged 18–25 years in Finland (85% of the age cohort was included in the sampling frame, 95% of the sample responded) and 748 in Estonia, with a response rate of 43% respectively, were analysed. Socio-demographic patterning of multiple partners, condom use and self-reported STIs are presented was studied using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The main findings focus on associations found within each country. In Finland, higher age, low education and to a lesser extent relationship with a non-steady partner increased the likelihood of reporting multiple lifetime-partners, while in Estonia only higher age and low education revealed this effect. In relation to unprotected intercourse, in Finland, higher age, low education and relationship status with a steady partner increased the likelihood of reporting unprotected intercourse. In Estonia, the same was observed only for relationship status. In Finland the likelihood of self-reported STIs increased by older age and lower education and decreased by being with a non-steady partner, while in Estonia, a non-significant increase in self-reported STIs was observed only in the older age group. Conclusion A clear socio-demographic patterning for sexual behaviour and self-reported STIs was revealed in Finland, but a less consistent trend was seen in Estonia. The findings of this study suggest that prevention strategies should focus in Finland on less educated singles and in Estonia on

  5. Socioeconomic differences in self-rated health among women: a comparison of St. Petersburg to Estonia and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Härkänen, Tommi; Regushevskaya, Elena; Hemminki, Elina; Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Laanpere, Made; Kuznetsova, Olga; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-05-17

    Social determinants of health have not been intensively studied in Russia, even though the health divide has been clearly demonstrated by an increased mortality rate among those with low education. A comparative analysis of social health determinants in countries with different historical and economic backgrounds may provide useful evidence for addressing health inequalities. We aimed to assess socioeconomic determinants of self-rated health in St. Petersburg as compared to Estonia and Finland. Data for women aged 18-44 were extracted from existing population-based surveys and analysed. In St. Petersburg the data were originally collected in 2003 (response rate 68%), in Estonia in 2004-2005 (54%), and in Finland in 2000-2001 (86%). The study samples comprised 865 women in St. Petersburg, 2141 in Estonia and 1897 in Finland. Self-rated health was much poorer in St. Petersburg than in Estonia or Finland. High education was negatively associated with poor self-rated health in all the studied populations; it was (partially) mediated via health behaviour and limiting long-term illness only in Estonia and Finland, but not in St. Petersburg. High personal income and employment did not associate with poor self-rated health among St. Petersburg women, as it did in Estonia and Finland. In St. Petersburg housewives rather than employed women had better self-rated health, unlike the two other areas. Women's self-rated health in St. Petersburg varied similarly by education but differently by income and employment as compared to Estonia and Finland. Education is likely the most meaningful dimension of women's socioeconomic position in St. Petersburg. More research is needed to further clarify the pathways between socioeconomic position and health in Russia.

  6. "The lobbying strategy is to keep excise as low as possible" - tobacco industry excise taxation policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovsky Konstantin S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs claim they wish to develop and secure excise systems that benefit both governments and the profitability of the companies themselves. The objective of the paper is to use the case of Ukraine, with its inconsistent history of excise tax changes in 1992-2008, to explore tobacco industry taxation strategies and tactics, and their implications for governmental revenues. Methods Details of tobacco industry policy on tobacco taxation in Ukraine were obtained by searching tobacco industry internal documents and various published reports. Results Even before entering the market in Ukraine, TTCs had made efforts to change the excise system in the country. In 1993-1994, TTCs lobbied the Ukrainian Government, and succeeded in achieving a lowering in tobacco tax. This, however, did not produce revenue increase they promised the Government. In 1996-1998, Ukrainian authorities increased excise several times, ignoring the wishes of TTCs, caused significant growth in revenue. Due to TTCs lobbying activities in 1999-2007 the tax increases were very moderate and it resulted in increased tobacco consumption in Ukraine. In 2008, despite the TTCs position, excise rates were increased twice and it was very beneficial for revenues. Conclusions The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes provisions both on tobacco taxation policy and on protection of public health policy from vested interests of tobacco industry. This paper provides arguments why tobacco taxation policy should also be protected from vested interests of tobacco industry. TTCs taxation strategy appears to be consistent: keep excise as low as possible. Apparent conflicts between TTCs concerning tax structures often hide their real aim to change tax structures for competing interests without increasing total tax incidence. Governments, that aim to reduce levels of

  7. "The lobbying strategy is to keep excise as low as possible" - tobacco industry excise taxation policy in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) claim they wish to develop and secure excise systems that benefit both governments and the profitability of the companies themselves. The objective of the paper is to use the case of Ukraine, with its inconsistent history of excise tax changes in 1992-2008, to explore tobacco industry taxation strategies and tactics, and their implications for governmental revenues. Methods Details of tobacco industry policy on tobacco taxation in Ukraine were obtained by searching tobacco industry internal documents and various published reports. Results Even before entering the market in Ukraine, TTCs had made efforts to change the excise system in the country. In 1993-1994, TTCs lobbied the Ukrainian Government, and succeeded in achieving a lowering in tobacco tax. This, however, did not produce revenue increase they promised the Government. In 1996-1998, Ukrainian authorities increased excise several times, ignoring the wishes of TTCs, caused significant growth in revenue. Due to TTCs lobbying activities in 1999-2007 the tax increases were very moderate and it resulted in increased tobacco consumption in Ukraine. In 2008, despite the TTCs position, excise rates were increased twice and it was very beneficial for revenues. Conclusions The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes provisions both on tobacco taxation policy and on protection of public health policy from vested interests of tobacco industry. This paper provides arguments why tobacco taxation policy should also be protected from vested interests of tobacco industry. TTCs taxation strategy appears to be consistent: keep excise as low as possible. Apparent conflicts between TTCs concerning tax structures often hide their real aim to change tax structures for competing interests without increasing total tax incidence. Governments, that aim to reduce levels of tobacco use, should not allow

  8. Trends and regime shifts in climatic conditions and river runoff in Estonia during 1951-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Sepp, Mait; Tamm, Toomas; Järvet, Arvo; Mõisja, Kiira

    2017-11-01

    Time series of monthly, seasonal and annual mean air temperature, precipitation, snow cover duration and specific runoff of rivers in Estonia are analysed for detecting of trends and regime shifts during 1951-2015. Trend analysis is realised using the Mann-Kendall test and regime shifts are detected with the Rodionov test (sequential t-test analysis of regime shifts). The results from Estonia are related to trends and regime shifts in time series of indices of large-scale atmospheric circulation. Annual mean air temperature has significantly increased at all 12 stations by 0.3-0.4 K decade-1. The warming trend was detected in all seasons but with the higher magnitude in spring and winter. Snow cover duration has decreased in Estonia by 3-4 days decade-1. Changes in precipitation are not clear and uniform due to their very high spatial and temporal variability. The most significant increase in precipitation was observed during the cold half-year, from November to March and also in June. A time series of specific runoff measured at 21 stations had significant seasonal changes during the study period. Winter values have increased by 0.4-0.9 L s-1 km-2 decade-1, while stronger changes are typical for western Estonia and weaker changes for eastern Estonia. At the same time, specific runoff in April and May have notably decreased indicating the shift of the runoff maximum to the earlier time, i.e. from April to March. Air temperature, precipitation, snow cover duration and specific runoff of rivers are highly correlated in winter determined by the large-scale atmospheric circulation. Correlation coefficients between the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices reflecting the intensity of westerlies, and the studied variables were 0.5-0.8. The main result of the analysis of regime shifts was the detection of coherent shifts for air temperature, snow cover duration and specific runoff in the late 1980s, mostly since the winter of 1988

  9. Public health aspects of nutritional science in Estonia: status, research activities, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokk, R; Boeing, H

    1998-09-01

    At the beginning of the 1990s Estonia was characterized by remarkable social and economic changes that also affected nutrition. An important step in the development of a Food and Nutrition policy was the adoption of a new 'Food Law' in February 1995. The publication of dietary recommendations followed recently. Scientific activities in Estonia are promoted by the 1993 established 'Estonian Society of Nutrition Researchers' (ESNS). The 'Ministry of Social Affairs' is of great importance for coordination of research into nutrition and it is making a great effort to connect Estonian nutrition research activities to European and international programs. An important field of scientific interest is concentrated on the nutrition of children and elderly people. With support of the 'Ministry of Social Affairs' a national health program for children and teenagers was established in which a school lunch project is integrated. Such a project has the aim to improve the quality of school lunches and to enable school teachers to conduct nutritional education. Within this national health program 1,900 schoolchildren were interviewed. This examination will also help to detect inequalities of the nutritional situation between social groups and to identify specific aims for a nutritional program in the different counties of Estonia. Health promoting units at schools will play an important role in realizing these aims. The nutritional supply and status of older persons will become an increasing problem. A survey of food supply with 429 subjects in social care facilities for older people was used to develop a new menu-planning system which meets the nutritional recommendations. Nutritional epidemiology is concentrated at the 'Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics' of the 'Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine' in Tallinn. This department is also running the cancer registry of Estonia which has international reputation. Nutritional research of Estonia should aim to

  10. Antihistaminic and cardiorespiratory effects of diphenhydramine hydrochloride in anesthetized dogs undergoing excision of mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Andrea; Valverde, Alexander; Sinclair, Melissa; Mosley, Cornelia; Singh, Ameet; Mutsaers, Anthony J; Hanna, Brad; Johnson, Ron; Gu, Yu; Beaudoin-Kimble, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of IV diphenhydramine hydrochloride administration on cardiorespiratory variables in anesthetized dogs undergoing mast cell tumor (MCT) excision. DESIGN Randomized, blinded clinical trial. ANIMALS 16 client-owned dogs with MCTs. PROCEDURES In a standardized isoflurane anesthesia session that included mechanical ventilation, dogs received diphenhydramine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IV; n = 8) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IV; control treatment; 8) 10 minutes after induction. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded throughout anesthesia and MCT excision, and blood samples for determination of plasma diphenhydramine and histamine concentrations were collected prior to premedication (baseline), throughout anesthesia, and 2 hours after extubation. RESULTS Cardiorespiratory values in both treatment groups were acceptable for anesthetized dogs. Mean ± SD diastolic arterial blood pressure was significantly lower in the diphenhydramine versus control group during tumor dissection (52 ± 10 mm Hg vs 62 ± 9 mm Hg) and surgical closure (51 ± 10 mm Hg vs 65 ± 9 mm Hg). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower in the diphenhydramine versus control group during surgical closure (65 ± 12 mm Hg vs 78 ± 11 mm Hg), despite a higher cardiac index value. Plasma histamine concentrations were nonsignificantly higher than baseline during maximal manipulation of the tumor and surgical preparation in the diphenhydramine group and during surgical dissection in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE IV administration of diphenhydramine prior to MCT excision had no clear clinical cardiorespiratory benefits over placebo in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

  11. An Economic Analysis of a Change in an Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John M.; Blanchard, Kelly Hunt; Umbeck, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an example of the effect a change in the excise tax can have on retail gasoline prices. The findings provide support for standard economic theory, as well as provide a vehicle for illustrating some of the subtleties of the analysis, including the implicit assumptions regarding the implications for the buying and selling prices…

  12. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were no skin necrosis, no nipple loss, and no breast distortion. All ensuing scars were camouflaged. CAST dissection was used for excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast with preservation of excellent cosmetic outcome of a single circumareolar incision. Keywords: Breast, fibroadenoma, quadrant, subdermal, ...

  13. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One breast had wound infection and dehiscence. There were no skin necrosis, no nipple loss, and no breast distortion. All ensuing scars were camouflaged. CAST dissection was used for excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast with preservation of excellent cosmetic outcome of a single circumareolar incision.

  14. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Other measures proposed as part of the new tax law include indexing the excise tax to inflation, adopting a unitary tax system, and earmarking taxes for the Universal Health Care program. Researchers will collect data from a survey of consumer demand for tobacco products and analyze the reasons why people consume ...

  15. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  16. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... and functional reasons with successful excision. Fibroadenomas are the most common indication for breast biopsy,[1,2] and most patients with fibroadenomas are young females below 30 years and up to 25% of. Department of Surgery,. Division of General Surgery,. University of Ilorin Teaching. Hospital ...

  17. Positive malignant margins in clinically diagnosed and excised be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at utilizing retrospective descriptive data to evaluate the percentage of clini-cally benign breast lumps that turned out to be histologically malignant and the prevalence of posi-tive tumour margins among the malignant cases. A total of 2,917 registered cases of excised breast lump at the Department of ...

  18. Excise Taxes and the Price Elasticity of Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ralph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that, although the analysis of the imposition of an excise tax is widely used in economics courses, the consequences of a change in the tax rate are different and ignored. This article presents an effective way to teach about such a change. (GG)

  19. of lung metastases carcinoma of the cervix Surgical excision from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tant points concerning carcinoma of the cervix: (i) blood-borne metastases are now frequently encountered in this disease; and (ii).in selected cases surgical excision of a secondary deposit in the lung is the treatment of choice and may even result -in cure. S Atr ueaJ 1983; 13:.25-26. Department of Radiation Therapy and ...

  20. Laser excision of peripheral ossifying fibroma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Chugh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF is a non-neoplastic enlargement seen more often in females, in the interdental papilla and the anterior part of the maxilla, accounts for about 9% of all gingival growths. Of unknown etiology, unpredictable clinical course and pronicity for recurrence, POF is a clinician′s cause for concern. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, but with a reported recurrence rate of 7-45%, the management is often frustrating. With increasing acceptance of lasers in the repertoire of clinician′s armory, laser excision of such lesions has become a possible, feasible, and patient-preferred approach. The purpose of this article is to report successful management and 1 year follow-up of two cases of POF using neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG laser. The absence of operative bleeding, relative ease of the procedure and patient acceptance lends the laser excision as an alternate therapeutic modality for excision of gingival enlargements of suspicious and vexatious nature.

  1. Elbow joint kinematics after excision of the radial head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1999-01-01

    or internal rotation. The results were independent of the rotation of the forearm. This study indicates that the radial head acts as stabilizer to the elbow joint in forced varus and in forced external rotation. The results suggest that fractures of the radial head cannot be treated by simple excision without...

  2. Surgical amniotic membrane transplantation after conjunctival and limbal tumor excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniz Engur Goktas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the clinical results of patients treated by amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT following excision of conjunctival and limbal tumors. Methods: A total of 14 eyes of 14 patients who underwent AMT after total lesion-free tumor excision and perilesional cryotherapy were evaluated. Results: The excised tumors comprised 7 conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, 5 conjunctival nevus, 1 primary acquired melanosis, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. Limbus was involved in 10 cases, whereas cornea was involved in 6 cases. The average measurement of the tumor base was 14.8 mm (range 6-20 mm, SD 16 mm. The mean follow-up time period was 17.5 months (range 6 -60 months, SD 20 months. Complete healing occurred in eight eyes, but limbal cell deficiency developed in two eyes. Four cases had recurrence and were treated with the same surgical and medical procedures; during follow-up after recurrence, superficial peripheral vascularization and corneal scar were noted to have developed. Conclusions: AMT was effective for reconstruction of tissue defect after excision and cryotherapy of limbal and conjunctival tumors. In most of these cases, complete healing was achieved with a smooth, stable, and translucent surface.

  3. Long-term outcomes after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substantial improvements have been made in the treatment of rectal cancer in the past two decades because of earlier diagnosis, improved efficacy and delivery of chemotherapy, and the adoption of advanced surgical techniques such as laparoscopic total meso- rectal excision (TME). Laparoscopic TME has several ...

  4. Toe component excision in postaxial polydactyly of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Heon; Jung, Sung Taek; Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Hyeong Won; Lee, Dong Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Polydactyly of the fifth toe is the most common congenital malformation of the forefoot, and no consensus has been reached as to which toe component should be excised or by which surgical technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of the operative treatment of postaxial polydactyly and to offer treatment guidelines. We retrospectively reviewed the details of 27 patients with postaxial polydactyly (36 feet) treated from September 2004 to March 2010. To select the dominant toe of postaxial polydactyly, we evaluated the morphological and radiological configurations. To excise the medial toe, we treated the polydactyly by dorsal rectangular flap and a full-thickness inguinal skin graft. To excise the lateral toe, we treated the polydactyly by racket-shape incision. Patient satisfaction indices were evaluated on the basis of responses to the PSQ-10 patient satisfaction questionnaire and clinical outcomes. Overall surgical outcomes were satisfactory with the exception of 2 cases of skin graft problems. Eighteen of the 36 reconstructed toes were smaller than the normal toes, but valgus deformity was observed in only 3 cases. The described medial toe excision technique and the devised toe selection algorithm were able to satisfy functional and cosmetic requirements.

  5. Peri-operative management for excision of plexiform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: A 28-year-old female weighing 78 kilograms presented at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) with a huge left thigh mass, nodules and brownish skin patches (café-au-lait spots) all over her body. Plexiform neurofibromatosis was diagnosed. The mass was subsequently excised under ...

  6. A Method To Determine Adhesion Of Suppository Mass On Excised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method to determine adhesion of suppository mass to intestinal tissue was developed using excised pig intestine. The method which employs the principe of drainage unto and subsequent detachment from the mucosa, of an adherent suppository mass is simple, inexpensive and accurate. Fully optimised, it can be used ...

  7. Sacrococcygeal teratoma excision: a vertical rather than transverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-07

    Apr 7, 2017 ... (a) Pelvic MRI (axial T2WI) showing the mass displacing the anorectum. (black arrow). (b) The patient placed in the prone (face down) position. (c) Dissection of the mass off the rectum. (d) After excision of the mass, the pelvic floor muscles are closed vertically in the midline from below upwards. (e) Vertical ...

  8. Molecular cloning of the human excision repair gene ERCC-6.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Troelstra (Christine); H. Odijk (Hanny); J. de Wit (Jan); A. Westerveld (Andries); L.H. Thompson; D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe UV-sensitive, nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line UV61 was used to identify and clone a correcting human gene, ERCC-6. UV61, belonging to rodent complementation group 6, is only moderately UV sensitive in comparison with mutant lines in groups 1 to

  9. Reconstruction Techniques for Tissue Defects Formed after Preauricular Sinus Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Joon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Preauricular sinuses are congenital abnormalities caused by a failure of fusion of the primitive tubercles from which the pinna is formed. When persistent or recurring inflammation occurs, surgical excision of the infected tissue should be considered. Preauricular defects inevitably occur as a result of excisions and are often difficult to resolve with a simple suture; a more effective reconstruction technique is required for treating these defects. Methods After total excision of a preauricular sinus, the defect was closed by a plastic surgeon. Based on the depth of the defect and the degree of tension when apposing the wound margins, the surgeon determined whether to use primary closure or a posterior auricular flap. Results A total of 28 cases were examined. In 5 cases, including 2 reoperations for dehiscence after primary repair, reconstruction was performed using posterior auricular transposition flaps. In 16 cases of primary closure, the defects were closed using simple sutures, and in 7 cases, closure was performed after wide undermining. Conclusions If a preauricular defect is limited to the subcutaneous layer and the margins can be easily approximated, primary closure by only simple suturing may be used to perform the repair. If the defect is deep enough to expose the perichondrium or if there is tension when apposing the wound margins, wide undermining should be performed before primary closure. If the extent of the excision exposes cartilage, the procedure follows dehiscence of the primary repair, or the tissue is not sufficiently healthy, the surgeon should use a posterior auricular flap.

  10. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on...

  11. Recurrent contact granuloma: experience with excision and botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Taner; Süslü, Nilda; Atay, Gamze; Özer, Serdar; Günaydin, Riza Önder; Bajin, Münir Demir

    2013-06-01

    Contact granuloma is a difficult-to-treat laryngeal disorder associated with vocal abuse, habitual throat clearing, and laryngopharyngeal reflux. It has a high propensity for persistence and recurrence despite many treatment alternatives. To present our experience with recurrent contact granuloma treated with microlaryngoscopic excision and botulinum toxin injection. Case series. The follow-up period had a mean (range) of 41 (11-88) months. Tertiary referral university clinic. Twenty patients with recurrent, grade 3 and grade 4 contact granuloma whose lesion was excised at least once after failure of conservative treatments. Microlaryngoscopic excision and botulinum toxin type A injection into the region of the bilateral thyroarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles. Disappearance of contact granuloma. Seventeen patients were cured of their contact granuloma. Three patients experienced recurrences: 2 received botulinum toxin injection only as outpatients and recovered. The other patient required reexcision and reinjection under general anesthesia. These 3 patients were free of granuloma at their last follow-up. After failed conservative treatment, microlaryngoscopic excision and botulinum toxin type A injection is successful in the treatment of recurrent contact granuloma. Removing recurrent granulomas can result in a low recurrence rate if botulinum toxin type A is added at the time of removal.

  12. Surgical excision of lung metastases from squamous carcinoma of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These 2 case reports serveto emphasizetwo important points concerning carcinoma of the cervix: (i) blood-borne metastases are now frequently encountered in this disease; and (ii). in selected cases surgical excision of a secondary deposit in the lung is the treatment of choice and may even result -in cure.

  13. Clinical trial comparing excision and primary closure with modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walid Galal Elshazly

    2011-12-03

    Dec 3, 2011 ... Abstract The aim of this study was to compare modified Limberg flap procedure with excision and primary closure in the treatment of uncomplicated pilonidal disease. Methods: This study was conducted on 120 patients with uncomplicated sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease that were randomly allocated into ...

  14. Technique for laparoscopic autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukink, SO; Pierie, JPEN; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, WJHJ

    With the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) for treatment of rectal cancer, the prognosis of patients with rectal cancer is improved. With this better prognosis, there is a growing awareness about the quality of life of patients after rectal carcinoma. Laparoscopic total mesorectal

  15. The state-church relations in Estonia during the years 1944 - 1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepochatova Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of the nature and dynamic of church-state relations in Estonia during the first years following its integration into the USSR. In 1944 the religious situation in the republic was characterized by a number of distinctive attributes. The local population, which had lived prior to the accession of the Baltics to the USSR in 1944 in an atmosphere of relative religious freedom, presented the Soviet authorities with a new phenomenon that would have to be reckoned with. The Plenipotentiaries for Estonia appointed by the Council on ROC Affairs at the USSR Council of Ministers were able to convince their superiors of the need to tread carefully in light of the local specifics. The article deals with an analysis of the distinctive features of the Estonian Orthodox Church. As a secondary denomination in the region, it felt the powerful influence of Lutheran customs and rites. The ethnic heterogeneity of the fold and pronounced language barrier determined the choice of candidacy for the ruling eparchy. The Estonian diocese was rather well endowed with cathedrals, meaning that the main problem of church life in the USSR since the easing of persecution in 1944-1947 - the opening of new parishes - was not an issue in Estonia. On the whole, the church-state relations that dominated the republic in 1944-1947 were quite stable, just as they were around the country; moreover, they were typified by a cautious policy on the part of the Soviet authorities. In 1948-1949 the situation began to deteriorate across the country and Estonia was no exception. The difference was in the methods used: in Estonia, the decision was made to fight the Church and its clergy primarily through collectivization, which was actively pursued in the Baltics beginning in the early 1950s. Collectivization left rural parishes and their clergy in dire straits, and religious life in the countryside began to wane. Yet, the arrival from the central regions

  16. Saksa kirjandus Noor-Eesti ajal. Young Estonia and German Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Lukas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Impelled by a desire to free themselves from the German influence that had dominated the development of Estonian literature, and from the one-sided relation of cultural dependence that had lasted several hundred years, the Young Estonia movement sought to modernize Estonian literature through borrowing from other European literatures, in particular from French, Scandinavian, and Finnish. This article seeks to clarify the relative importance and selection criteria of translations from German literature for the literary field of the Young Estonia era. Further, I seek to elucidate Young Estonia’s contribution to the renewal of these selection criteria in the first, but more importantly the second decade of the 20th century. The long list of translations from German to Estonian at the beginning of the century speaks of the ”light Muse” of German family newspapers, with an admixture of the following: naturalist light fiction with a social theme and social drama; the historical novel (great favourite of the era of historicism, trendy fiction for both feminine and masculine audiences, and an overwhelming proportion of ”Heimatskunst” (literature of local colour. In the first and second decade of the new century, new names appear on the Estonian literary scene that signal a change in taste. For example, naturalist authors (Kretzer, Hauptmann, Halbe, Dehmel crop up sporadically amidst texts meant for leisure reading. Although the first translations of Nietzsche only appeared in 1901, already in 1902 critics had reason to speak of ”Nietzsche in Estonian literature”. 1910 marked the breakthrough of Viennese modernism in the Estonian literary field (Schnitzler, Altenberg, Bahr. Under the influential protection of the Young Estonians (Suits, Kallas, and published by the Young Estonia Publishing House, Baltic German novellawriter Eduard Keyserling enters the Estonian literary scene. Though ”mass consumption” literature from Germany continued

  17. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse; Levy, Larry B; Malpica, Anais; Follen, Michele

    2002-10-01

    OBJECTIVE.: Our objective was to compare by response rate the therapeutic options of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), laser therapy, and wide local excision in managing high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in a pilot study for a randomized clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Between 1995 and 1999, 109 patients presenting with vulvar lesions were registered at a comprehensive cancer center and 2 associated colposcopy clinics. From these 109, we identified 74 patients with lesions histologically proven to be vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia who underwent treatment with CO2 laser, wide local excision, or LEEP. Clinical and pathological features were reviewed retrospectively. Wilcoxon rank sum test and life table analyses were used to compare groups. Response rates for this retrospective study will be used to calculate the sample size for a prospective clinical trial. RESULTS.: Our population was similar to others reported in the literature in age, range of diagnoses, and follow-up. Only 1 of 74 patients (1%) had invasive cancer. In a subset of 62 patients treated for the first time, LEEP and wide local excision were equal in their ability to achieve complete response. Laser ablation was the least successful of all methods (10/20 with laser, 3/20 with LEEP, and 2/22 with wide local excision experienced recurrences [p = .04]). No statistically significant differences among the 3 were noted in time to recurrence (p = .24). Age, age at first intercourse, and number of sexual partners were not correlated with recurrence and did not confound the results. Using a chi approximation, an alpha error of 0.05, and a power of 0.80, researchers should enroll 25 patients per arm if improvement over standard therapy is expected to be 40%, 45 if expected to be 30%, and 95 if expected to be 20%. CONCLUSIONS.: Because of differences in recurrence rate and length of hospital stay and indications of potential differences in cost found in this pilot, LEEP merits

  18. Improving conditions for transferring family enterprises in Estonia. Pereettevõtte üleandmise võimalustest Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Güldenkoh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Family enterprise is a business entity that belongs to the family. In Estonia the concept of family business, family entrepreneur, or family enterprise has not been defined in legislation. The concepts of business and enterprise have been defined in several pieces of law with some dissensions in their interpretations, however. Differences in legal definitions become obvious when transferring a business. The aim of the article is to assess the legislative conditions of family enterprises in Estonia. Family enterprises can be transferred either by way of transferring the holding status or by transferring the enterprise. Holding can be transferred in companies; a sole proprietor should transfer the business entity either as a whole or transfer the business entity into a company to have a holding there. Family businesses operating as sole proprietors may incur tax liability by transferring the family enterprise. The paper outlines special features of transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. Business transfers have been few and there is no unambiguous practice in this sphere. Transfer of family enterprises is identified with transfer of enterprises; differences arise when family business has been registered as a sole proprietor. The paper provides a brief description of the differences in transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. A purpose was to evaluate the legal environment of transferring family enterprises. In Estonia guidelines should be formulated for transferring the business of a self-employed family member and legal regulations should be introduced to avoid ill-intentioned transfer of enterprises.

  19. Comparative Study: Impact of Family, School, and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukakidze, Berika

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on PISA 2009 International Assessment Study. Two counties were selected: a developed country, Estonia and a developing country, Azerbaijan. The following Datum was used for statistical analysis: students average scores in reading (162 schools, 4 600 students from Azerbaijan; 17 schools, 4 923 students from Estonia). The work is…

  20. Sajand hiljem. Mida Noor-Eesti tegi ja mida ta ei teinud. A Century Later: What Young Estonia Did – and What it Did Not Do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Hasselblatt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the position of Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti in four different fields of influence: 1. What is the position of the Young Estonia movement in literary history, i.e. in the different monographs and articles on Estonian literature? What position is given to the movement by the writer(s of the various sketches on Estonian literature between 1908 and 2007, and how important are the writers of the group in the eyes of literary historians? 2. How is the movement represented in the collective (public memory of Estonia, e.g. do we find members of the movement on stamps or banknotes or in street names? 3. How do people in Estonia remember the literary production of the members of the group: what are the most important texts people read today, and how are these texts linked to the Young Estonia movement? 4. Finally, how is the movement represented outside Estonia, i.e. in the reception of Estonian literature abroad? Which texts have been translated, which authors are well-known abroad? In answering these questions the author concludes that the Young Estonia movement was much less important than has been assumed with respect to the production of literature, i.e. yielding literary texts that have been recognized and read up till the present. Rather, the lasting importance of Young Estonia has been in the organization of literary life.

  1. Preliminary results of comparative study for subsequent photodynamic therapy versus secondary excision after primary excision for treating basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenbo; Zhang, Mengli; Zhang, Qian; Yuan, Chunyu; Chen, Xu; Fang, Fang

    2017-03-01

    Some basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are indistinguishable from nevi based on clinical manifestations. Therefore, it is often difficult for the excision margins of the initial surgical treatment to achieve radical removal of the malignancy. This study was a comparative analysis of the clinical results of aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-photodynamic therapy (PDT) or secondary surgery after the primary excision. In total, 20 patients with preoperative clinical diagnoses of nevi underwent in situ resection. The postoperative pathological diagnoses confirmed all cases were BCC. Ten patients received PDT twice after the primary excision, and 10 cases received extended resection after the primary excision. Patients were followed up for 8 months at least, and the 2 groups did not show statistically significant differences in the recurrence rate, while the PDT group had better results in terms of economic burden, healing period, and cosmetic satisfaction than the group with secondary surgery. Our study demonstrates that ALA-PDT can sever as a considerable remedial treatment for the BCC patients who have not accepted radical resection due to primary clinical misdiagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Noor-Eesti rollist eesti kirjandus- ja kultuuriloos. The Role of Young Estonia in Estonian Literary and Cultural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Olesk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 20th century on, the activities of the Young Estonia literary movement have had a significant influence on the development of Estonian culture. The group published five Young Estonia albums (1905–1915, the magazine Young Estonia, devoted to science, literature, and the arts (1910– 1911, and the newspaper Vaba Sõna (1914–1916, Free Word. The core of the group was composed of five or six active writers who maintained lively interactions with art and theatre circles. The publications of the Young Estonia Press brought about a revolutionary turn in the design and printing styles of the Estonian-language book. The questions of Young Estonia’s role and meaning have intrigued the Estonian cultural public at different times and in different ways. Young Estonia brought to cultural consciousness liberal views on the interpretation of art as well as an elitist aesthetics. At different times their openness to Europe irritated both the nationalist-minded and internationalists; thus the reception of the Young Estonia movement has been polemical throughout Estonian cultural history. Elapsed time has both opened the way for broader generalizations and, conversely, created a need to reconstruct the cultural context of the beginning of the 20th century. Polemic around Young Estonia was certainly caused by the group as a whole; however, in this article the role of individual members is also highlighted. It is emphasized that the political and aesthetic ideas of the Young Estonians changed synchronously with social conditions, from the 1905 Russian revolution to the world war that ravaged Europe. If the early part of this period saw a more social and nationalist bent to their thinking, then in the years of reaction, positions were taken that were more in keeping with l’art pour l’art. Young Estonia was not a hierarchical organization; rather, its small core group was composed of a narrow circle of friends with various

  3. Genome organization of the Chelonus inanitus polydnavirus: excision sites, spacers and abundance of proviral and excised segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaheim, Marc; Lanzrein, Beatrice

    2007-02-01

    Polydnaviruses are only found in symbiotic association with parasitic wasps within the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (ichnoviruses and bracoviruses). They have a segmented genome consisting of circular double-stranded DNA. In the proviral linear form they are integrated in the wasp's genome; in two bracoviruses, segments were found to be clustered. Proviral segments have direct terminal repeats. Segment excision has been proposed to occur through juxtaposition of these repeats by formation of a loop and recombination; one copy of the repeat then ends up in the circular segment and one in the rejoined DNA. Here we analysed the excision/circularization site of four segments of the Chelonus inanitus bracovirus (CiV) and found that they are similar to the two already known sites; on the basis of the combined data an extended excision site motif was found. Analyses of segment flanking sequences led to the first identification of one complete and several partial spacers between proviral segments in a polydnavirus. The spacer between the proviral segments CiV14 and CiV22.5 has a length of 2065 bp; the terminal repeats of CiV14 and CiV22.5 were seen to have an opposite orientation and from this a model on the spacial organization of the loops of the proviral cluster is proposed. Through various approaches it was shown that spacers are not excised or injected into the host. Measurement of relative abundances of various segments in proviral and excised form indicates for the first time that abundant segments are present in multiple copies in the proviral form.

  4. Robotic transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: experience with a first case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, P.M.; Consten, E.C.J.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: A transanal approach for total mesorectal excision (TME) using a single incision port is feasible. The disadvantages are technical difficulties associated with limited manoeuvrability. Methods: We present our first experience with robotic-assisted transanal total mesorectal excision. A

  5. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  6. Resolution of vitiligo following excision of halo congenital melanocytic nevus: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Weiqing

    2016-05-01

    Halo congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) associated with vitiligo is rare, especially with regard to CMN excision. Only two reports of excision of halo CMN following repigmentation of vitiligo are found in the literature. We present a case of a girl with halo CMN and periorbital vitiligo. The halo CMN was excised and followed by spontaneous improvement of vitiligo. The result suggests excision of the inciting lesion may be a promising way to control vitiligo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Wound Complications and Perineal Pain After Extralevator Versus Standard Abdominoperineal Excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colov, Emilie Palmgren; Klein, Mads; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extralevator abdominoperineal excision was introduced as an alternative to conventional abdominoperineal excision for low rectal cancers. The perineal dissection is more extensive with extralevator abdominoperineal excision and leaves a greater defect. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to evaluate, on a national basis, the risk of perineal wound complications, pain, and hernia after conventional and extralevator abdominoperineal excision performed for low rectal cancer. DESIGN: This was a retrospective study collecting data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database and from...

  8. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of ...

  9. Noor-Eesti antifuturismist.On the Anti-Futurism of Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve Sarapik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Young Estonia persists in Estonian cultural memory as a movement of renewal, among other factors through its impetus to the development of urban culture. This article undertakes to juxtapose Young Estonia’s efforts at cultural renewal, its rhetoric of the future, and futurism as a cultural phenomenon. (As such, futurism was vitally engaged with contemporary urban culture, industry, and technology. Four parameters serve as points of departure: (1 Young Estonia’s rhetoric of the new and the future. Though specific about what they rejected, Young Estonia’s texts do not outline a clear vision of the future. Frequently used key words for what they opposed included German- or Russian-mindedness, a people in servitude, the old, flat land, the lack of a unified whole, lack of style. (2 The place of the city in Young Estonia’s texts. Though in earlier publications there were only a few passing references to urban culture, the problems of the city come to the fore in several programmatic texts and in the visual design of the fourth Young Estonia album in 1912. By then the core members of Young Estonia also had had real experience of a large metropolis. If their earlier attitude toward the city had been critical, then in these Young Estonian texts the city finds its positive face. (3 Industry and the proletariat. The Young Estonia movement received stimulus from such general phenomena as factories, technology, and industry. In their imagination working people and educated people seem to live in separate worlds, with different wishes and needs. However, the freedom of the educated would be impossible without political freedom. Although they believed that technological development was a precondition for the creation of urban culture, neither their own literary works nor their other aspirations bore this out. (4 Futurism and film. Young Estonia’s later period coincided with the intensive use of term ”futurism” in Estonian journalism. Young

  10. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are includible in gross investment income. Therefore, for example, interest received on a student loan... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on net investment income. 53.4940-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940...

  11. First observation of excision and integration in Class 1 integron in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So in this study, we tested in S. aureus, the class 1 integron mediated excision and integration. We first asked 8 plasmids from previous studies, then established some transformants and perform the excision and integration reaction. As the results revealed, we observed positive excision assay, which had been confirmed by ...

  12. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  13. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  14. Hysterectomy types in Estonia are still different from the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerus, Piret; Lang, Katrin; Toompere, Karolin; Kirss, Fred

    2015-05-01

    To describe hysterectomy rates in different age groups, indications and proportion of surgery types over time. Nationwide register-based study. Estonia. Women who had hysterectomies for benign indications from 2004 to 2011. For each case, diagnosis according to ICD-10, type of surgery according to Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee, age, and time of operation were retrieved from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund database. Mid-year female population statistics were obtained from Statistics Estonia. Rate of hysterectomies per 100 000 women, proportions of different operation types, and main indications for hysterectomies. The total number of hysterectomies was 12 336, with a yearly mean of 1542. The rate of hysterectomies per 100 000 women/year decreased between 2004 and 2011 from 239.1 to 204.9. The proportion of abdominal hysterectomies decreased from 86.0 to 56.1% and the proportion of laparoscopic hysterectomies increased from 6.3 to 34.7%, while the proportion of vaginal hysterectomies remained more or less stable (7.8-9.1%). Most hysterectomies (74.4%) occurred in the age group 35-54 years. The main indications for hysterectomies were leiomyoma (61.5%), female genital prolapse (9.0%) and endometriosis (8.8%). Population rates and indications for hysterectomies in Estonia were similar to those in most Nordic countries, but the proportion of abdominal hysterectomies was higher and that of vaginal hysterectomy lower. The rates of laparoscopic and vaginal hysterectomies should be increased. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Contrasts in alcohol-related mortality in Estonia: education and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Pärna, Kersti; Palo, Ene; Rahu, Mati

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine socio-demographic differences in alcohol-related mortality in Estonia, and how they changed over time. Individual death records (age at death 25-64) in Estonia from the late Soviet era (1983-1991) to Estonian re-independence (1992-2005) were analysed using a case-control design. Cases were deaths from alcohol-related causes (7981 deaths). Controls were deaths (13,820) from those neoplasms that are considered not to show variation in death risk according to the socio-demographic variables (that is, excluding cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract, lung, stomach, colon and female breast). Differences in alcohol-related mortality between socio-demographic groups were measured by mortality odds ratio. In the study period as a whole, in both genders, an inverse relationship between the educational level and risk of alcohol-related death was apparent. Non-Estonians were more likely to die from alcohol-related causes than Estonians. Risk of alcohol-related death varied over time, being lowest just before Estonia regained its independence, and highest in the most recent period. In men, the educational gradient in the mortality odds ratio almost disappeared in 1988-1991, but reappeared in the transition period, while the impact of ethnicity remained stable over time. In women, educational contrasts in the risk of death existed throughout all subperiods, and ethnical inequalities widened in the re-independence period. Rapid societal changes had profound effects on alcohol-related mortality. Strategies to prevent alcohol misuse should include all sections in society, paying special attention to less educated and non-Estonians.

  16. Prostate cancer incidence, mortality and survival trends in Estonia, 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Baburin, Aleksei; Kotsar, Andres; Eiche, Ivar-Endrik; Lang, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze long-term trends in prostate cancer (PCa) incidence, mortality and survival in Estonia, with specific focus on age and stage. Data on PCa incident cases and deaths in 1995-2014 were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and the Causes of Death Registry, respectively. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate the annual percentage change for incidence and mortality trends. Relative survival ratios (RSRs) were calculated for four 5 year periods. Incidence and survival were analyzed by age and stage. The average annual number of new PCa cases in Estonia increased more than three-fold from 1995-1999 to 2010-2014. The age-standardized overall incidence and the incidence of localized cancer increased steeply until 2011, then leveled off. The incidence of locally/regionally spread or distant PCa remained stable. A significant increase in PCa mortality was seen only in men aged 65 years and older. The overall 5 year RSR increased from 58% to 90% over the study period. Survival increased considerably for all stages. The dramatic rise in the incidence of PCa in Estonia since the late 1990s was limited to localized cancers. This, together with rapid increases in survival, is probably due predominantly to extensive opportunistic prostate-specific antigen testing of middle-aged and elderly men. The ongoing increase in PCa mortality among older men warrants validation of causes of death to avoid possible overestimation. Evaluation of diagnostic and treatment strategies could identify possibilities for improving outcomes of non-localized PCa.

  17. Conodont dating of the Middle Ordovician breccia cap-rock limestone on Osmussaar Island, northwestern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I. S. Mellgren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Various mechanisms have hitherto been suggested to explain the formation of the Kundan (Middle Ordovician Osmussaar Breccia in northwestern Estonia. Following the recent discovery of L-chondritic chromite in these peculiar, sand-penetrated strata, it seems plausible that the breccia is impact-related. Herein, the conodont faunas of three thin limestone intervals overlying the breccia at Osmussaar Island have been investigated, with the aim of establishing the age of the event in terms of the Baltoscandian conodont-based biostratigraphical scheme. Based on the presence of Microzarkodina ozarkodella, the limestone directly overlying the breccia is assigned to the M. ozarkodella Subzone of the Lenodus (Eoplacognathus? pseudoplanus Zone. This is reinforced by means of a faunal shift between this sample interval and the subsequent one, which is directly comparable with a faunal shift in the Mäekalda section, mainland Estonia. The middle, orthoceratite-yielding interval is assigned to the uppermost L. (E.? pseudoplanus Zone (or, alternatively, the lowermost Eoplacognathus suecicus Zone, whereas the uppermost interval, an oolitic limestone, is referable to the E. foliaceus Subzone, corresponding to the lower part of the Lasnamägi Stage. These results support a connection between the Osmussaar event and the stratigraphic interval yielding abundant meteorites and/or high levels of L-type chromite in Sweden, as they both can be referred to the lower and/or middle part of the Kunda Stage. The minor difference in age between the first limestones deposited after the brecciation and the meteorite and L-chromite-yielding interval in Baltoscandia can be explained as caused by a period of non-deposition, seen as numerous hiatuses of various extent in the Kunda Stage in northwestern Estonia.

  18. Danish investors' demands on skills and attributes of local accounting staff, are they met? - the case of Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundgaard, Elin; Thomsen, Jeanette; Alver, Lehte

    2008-01-01

    gaps by examining in depth a specific practice, i.e. the accounting staff of the Danish affiliations in Estonia.  Research on accounting staff is almost non-existing. This paper gives the project description and the research design as well as the results of a pilot interview in a big Danish......-owned Estonian company. The result of the pilot test interview may seem a bit surprising at first glance because they did not have the problems expected by the researchers. A tentative explanation may be the situational factors in Estonia. However, a closer scrutiny of the answers showed some interesting...

  19. Trichinella spp. biomass has increased in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kärssin, Age; Häkkinen, Liidia; Niin, Enel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Raccoon dogs and red foxes are well-adapted hosts for Trichinella spp. The aims of this study were to estimate Trichinella infection prevalence and biomass and to investigate which Trichinella species circulated in these indicator hosts in Estonia. Methods: From material collected...... larval burden), and almost 20 times higher in raccoon dogs and almost five times higher in red foxes than in 2000-2002 (based on median larval burden). Conclusions: Raccoon dogs and red foxes are relevant reservoirs for Trichinella spp. in Estonia. The biomass of Trichinella circulating in sylvatic...

  20. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 9359 - Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ...This document withdraws a notice of proposed rulemaking, published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2009, that proposed amendments to title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations to: preclude the filing of a substitution drawback claim for internal revenue excise tax paid on imported merchandise in situations where no excise tax was paid upon the substituted merchandise or where the substituted merchandise is the subject of a different claim for refund or drawback of tax under any provision of the Internal Revenue Code; and add a basic importation and entry bond condition to foster compliance with the amended drawback provision. The notice is being withdrawn to permit further consideration of the relevant issues involved in the proposed rulemaking.

  2. Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatsma, TP; McCammon, J A; Miller, John H; Smith, Paul E; Vorpagel, Erich R; Wong, Chung F; Zacharias, Martin W

    2006-03-03

    The goal of the Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling project is to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of human polymerase-β, one of the key enzymes in base excision repair (BER) and the cell-signaling enzymes cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. This work used molecular modeling and simulation studies to specifically focus on the • dynamics of DNA and damaged DNA • dynamics and energetics of base flipping in DNA • mechanism and fidelity of nucleotide insertion by BER enzyme human polymerase-β • mechanism and inhibitor design for cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations have been performed using the computer resources at the Molecular Science Computing Facility at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  3. A Malignant Granular Cell Tumor Excised with Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant granular cell tumors are extremely rare, aggressive neoplasms displaying rapid growth and frequent associated metastatic disease. Excision and evaluation for metastatic disease are mandatory. We present a 54-year-old patient with a malignant granular cell tumor, treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Cutaneous granular cell tumors are uncommon neoplasms, likely of perineural origin. Most follow a benign and uneventful course, with wide local excision being the treatment of choice (Enzinger, 1988. The malignant granular cell tumor is an extremely rare, aggressive variant, which provides a diagnostic challenge and management dilemma, especially with early presentation when it may be mistaken for other entities. There is also controversy regarding surgical management and follow-up of both benign and malignant granular cell tumors.

  4. Quality of life after robotically assisted atrial myxoma excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesävuori, Risto; Raivio, Peter; Jokinen, Janne J; Sahlman, Antero; Vento, Antti

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after robotically assisted myxoma surgery performed at our institution. Altogether nine patients underwent robotically assisted atrial myxoma excision. A control group was selected from 18 consecutive patients who underwent an isolated atrial myxoma excision via conventional sternotomy. Preoperative patient characteristics were similar between the two study groups. Postoperative health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also evaluated. All robotic operations were completed successfully using the da Vinci™ telesurgical system. There was no mortality in either of the two study groups. Procedure, cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic occlusion, and ventilation times were shorter in the sternotomy group when compared to the robotic group. Length of stay was statistically significantly shorter in the robotically assisted group. Postoperative quality of life did not differ between the two study groups. We conclude that robotically assisted surgery is a feasible method for treating atrial myxomas.

  5. Isolated myocardial hydatid cyst: Managed with total curative excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is still prevalent in developing countries, and isolated cardiac hydatid cysts are the rarest presentation. We report a 40-year-old nondiabetic, nonhypertensive female who presented with low-grade fever for 2 months shortness of breath and orthopnea for 2 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large, round cystic lesion with multiple daughter cysts without any obvious intraluminal detached membranes with mass effect on the left ventricular outflow tract. After total excision, residual tissue was closed with Teflon patch. Germinative membrane and hundreds of daughter cysts were seen. Following total excision of the cyst from myocardium, myocardial cavity was washed thoroughly with 10% Betadine solution. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Preoperatively started albendazole was continued for 4 weeks even after the operation. On follow-up after 4 weeks, the patient is doing well and cardiac imaging showed normal contours of the heart.

  6. Conservation and Divergence in Nucleotide Excision Repair Lesion Recognition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Nicolas; Gross, Jonas; Roth, Heide M.; Buechner, Claudia N.; Kisker, Caroline; Tessmer, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair is an important and highly conserved DNA repair mechanism with an exceptionally large range of chemically and structurally unrelated targets. Lesion verification is believed to be achieved by the helicases UvrB and XPD in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic processes, respectively. Using single molecule atomic force microscopy analyses, we demonstrate that UvrB and XPD are able to load onto DNA and pursue lesion verification in the absence of the initial lesion detection proteins. Interestingly, our studies show different lesion recognition strategies for the two functionally homologous helicases, as apparent from their distinct DNA strand preferences, which can be rationalized from the different structural features and interactions with other nucleotide excision repair protein factors of the two enzymes. PMID:27405761

  7. Transanal vs laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawood, Sharaf; Al Khefagie, Ghalib Ali Abod

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LaTME) has improved short-term outcomes of rectal cancer surgery with comparable oncological results to open approach. LaTME can be difficult in the lower most part of the rectum, leading potentially to higher rates of complications, conversion...... to open surgery and probably suboptimal oncological quality. Transanal TME (TaTME) can potentially solve these problems. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term results after TaTME with those after LaTME. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of consecutive patients who underwent Ta......TME was maintained. Results were compared with those underwent LaTME in the preceding period. Patients who underwent low anterior resection or intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision (APE) were included. Primary end-points were radical resection and specimen quality. Secondary end-points were complications, rates...

  8. 26 CFR 40.6107-1 - Tax return preparer must furnish copy of return to taxpayer and must retain a copy or record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax return preparer must furnish copy of return to taxpayer and must retain a copy or record. 40.6107-1 Section 40.6107-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6107-1 Tax return preparer...

  9. An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Consecutive Mean Excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ARL-TR-8268 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Consecutive Mean Excision...not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8268 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm...2018 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 October 2016–30 September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Automated Energy

  10. Open Wound Drainage Versus Wound Excision on the Modern Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    penicillin coverage to eliminate the threat of invasive bacteremia by hemolytic streptococcus , presumably produced conditions that insured unimpeded...pyemia, septicemia and erysipelas remained major causes of death in the war wounded (10). Friedrich originated the idea of excising the bacteria...hemolytic streptococcus in 10 to 15% of cases, but after a week in the hospital over 90% of w-unds were infected with this bacteria (12,13), and

  11. Principles of Periocular Reconstruction following Excision of Cutaneous Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Hayano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of periocular defects following excision of cutaneous malignancy can present difficulties for oculofacial and reconstructive surgeons. The intricate anatomy of the eyelids and face requires precise restoration in order to avoid postoperative functional anesthetic concerns. Various reconstructive procedures based on common principles, location and size of the defect, can be applied to achieve restoration with the best possible functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  12. The diffusion of internet voting. Usage patterns of internet voting in Estonia between 2005 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Vassil, Kristjan; Solvak, Mihkel; Vinkel, Priit; Trechsel, Alexander H.; Alvarez, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    E-voting has the potential to lower participation thresholds and increase turnout, but its technical complexity may produce other barriers to participation. Using Rogers' theory of the diffusion of innovations, we examined how the use of e-voting has changed over time. Data from eight e-enabled elections between 2005 and 2015 in Estonia, were used to investigate changes to the profile of e-voters and contrast them to those voting by conventional means. Owing to the aggregate share of e-voters...

  13. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  14. Discovery of the Ordovician Kinnekulle K-bentonite at the Põõsaspea cliff, NW Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Linda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A previously unknown outcrop of the Kinnekulle K-bentonite (metabentonite is reported from the Põõsaspea cliff, NW Estonia. The bed has a sharp lower and a gradational upper contact and comprises ca 28 cm of clay overlain by ca 10 cm of hard K-feldspar-rich variety. The latter contains a layer of breccia, which indicates early onset of recrystallization and hardening of volcanic material. The discovery shows that the Põõsaspea cliff section is younger than previously thought and includes rocks of both Haljala and Keila stages.

  15. Real Estate Bubble Bursts and Government Policy during Crisis: Examples of Estonia, Ireland and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Varblane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current article is to view previous experience with real estate crises and taking into account such experience find suitable policy reactions to overcome the current Estonian crisis as smoothly as possible. Beside overall theoretical guidelines for overcoming the crisis, examples of Sweden and Ireland are viewed. The policy issues suggested for Estonia include some changes in tax laws, avoiding expansionary fiscal policy, making lending stricter and borrower responsible to higher extent, cooperation of different authorities to tackle problem of bad loans, initiating wage and price cut, paying more attention to exporting sector

  16. Quality control and patient dose from X-ray examinations in some hospitals in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Parviainen, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Holmberg, P. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Kuus, E.; Mueuersepps, T.; Jaerv, V. [Tartuskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1995-12-31

    Quality control measurements of X ray diagnostic units were carried out in four hospitals in Estonia. Measurements were focused on the unit`s technical performance, on image quality and on patient dose and film processing. The main problems are in the areas of image receptors and film processing: image receptors are of low speed type causing high patient doses and manual film processing results in low contrast and high base plus fog. Spatial resolution, both in film imaging and in image intensifiers, is reasonably good. It is recommended that quality assurance programmes be established, that basic measuring equipment be acquired and personnel assigned to perform such measurements be trained. (Author).

  17. Pregnancy outcome after loop electrosurgical excision procedure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Joan M G

    2003-11-01

    To examine the association of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and subsequent pregnancy outcomes. A computerized search of MEDLINE and PubMed was conducted using the keys words "pregnancy" and "loop electrosurgical excision procedure," "LEEP," "LETZ," "LLETZ," or "loop excision." References from identified publications were manually searched and cross referenced to identify additional relevant articles. Studies were included that compared women who had had LEEP to women who had not had the procedure and that reported on subsequent pregnancy outcomes. Studies were excluded if there was no control group, if the LEEP was performed during the pregnancy, or if only an abstract was available. Five of 36 articles identified met the criteria for systematic review. Women who had had LEEP were more likely to have preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 2.76; P = .006) and low birth weight infants (precipitous labor, labor induction, or neonatal intensive care unit admission. A subgroup analysis including only studies matching for smoking status revealed that preterm birth was still more common in women who had had LEEP (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.42, 4.49; P = .001), but birth weight under 2500 g was no longer significantly different. LEEP appears to be associated with subsequent preterm birth, even when smoking status is matched. Studies with adequate sample size are needed to further evaluate the relationship of LEEP and preterm birth, controlling for potential confounders, including depth of the tissue sample.

  18. Effect of chalazion excision on refractive error and corneal topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abbas; Hasani, Hamid R; Karimian, Farid; Abrishami, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate refractive and corneal topographic changes following excision of chalazia. This prospective noncomparative quasi-experimental clinical trial includes consecutive patients older than 7 years with chalazia of minimum duration of 1 month who underwent excision of the lesions by an internal or external approach. Overall, 253 lids from 228 eyes of 195 patients including 110 female subjects with mean age of 31-/+14 years (range 7-71) were studied. Mean duration of presenting symptoms was 4-/+2.8 months (range 1-24). Lesions were equally distributed in medial, central, and lateral areas of the eyelids. The chalazia were single in 172 (88.2%) and multiple in 23 (11.8%) patients. Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent refractive error, and difference of keratometry (corneal astigmatism) were 0.0004-/+0.007 logMAR (p=0.3), -0.06-/+0.6 D (p=0.1), and 0.34-/+0.35 (pChalazion excision can decrease corneal astigmatism and irregularity, which is more prominent in single, firm, and central upper lid lesions. These findings may have implications in pediatric patients at risk for amblyopia.

  19. Major urinary dysfunction after mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, W; Heintz, A; Junginger, T

    2005-02-01

    Urinary dysfunction may occur after mesorectal excision and pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) in patients with rectal carcinoma. The aim of this prospective study was to identify factors predictive of long-term urinary catheterization. Two hundred and ten patients without significant urological problems underwent resection of rectal cancer with mesorectal excision. The number of patients with complete, partial or no identification of the nerves was documented and correlated with possible predictive factors for postoperative major urinary dysfunction. Eight patients (3.8 per cent) required long-term urinary catheterization: two after complete PANP (two of 168) and six in whom PANP was incomplete (six of 42) (P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis identified incomplete PANP (odds ratio 13.8 (95 per cent confidence interval 2.7 to 71.3); P = 0.002) as a predictive factor for major urinary dysfunction. Major urinary dysfunction after mesorectal excision for rectal cancer is associated with an incomplete nerve-sparing technique.

  20. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Toom, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The earliest bioeroded inorganic hard substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia appear in the Dapingian. Hardgrounds are also known from the Sandbian and Katian. Most of the bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates occurs as the boring Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932 along with some possible Gastrochaenolites borings. North American hardground borings are more diverse than those in Baltica. In contrast to a worldwide trend of increasing boring intensity, the Estonian record seems to show no increase in boring intensities during the Middle and Late Ordovician. Hardgrounds seem to be more common during the temperate climate interval of the Ordovician calcite sea in Estonia (seven hardgrounds during 15 my) than in the part with a tropical climate (four hardgrounds during 12 my). Bioerosion is mostly associated with carbonate hardgrounds, but cobbles and pebbles broken from the hardgrounds are also often penetrated by Trypanites borings. The general diversity of boring ichnotaxa in Baltica increased from one ichnospecies in the Cambrian to seven by the end of Ordovician, showing the effect of the GOBE on bioeroding ichnotaxa. The diversity of inorganic hard substrate borers increased by only two times. This difference can be explained by the wider environmental distribution of organic as compared to inorganic substrates in the Ordovician seas of Baltica, and their more continuous temporal availability, which may have caused increased specialization of several borers. The inorganic substrates may have been bioreroded only by the generalists among boring organisms.

  1. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle: Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Mõtus, Kerli; Viltrop, Arvo; Lassen, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was 18.62%. At least one seropositive animal was found on 68.86% of the farms, and seropositive cattle were detected in all counties. The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years (60-71 months) of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed. Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. gondii seropositive nor with finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm. The odds of finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm were higher if the herd size was above median (105 in dairy and mixed dairy farms; 35 in beef and mixed beef farms). The results indicate that T. gondii is endemic within the agricultural setting in Estonia and present on the majority of cattle farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis E Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Tallo, Tatjana; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-11-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115 persons reported they had obtained a veterinary degree and were included in this study. The sera were tested for presence of antibodies against HEV using a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial immunoblot assay in series. A sample was considered antibody-positive if it tested positive with both tests. Antibody-positive samples were further examined for the presence of HEV RNA. Three (2.6%) of the 115 veterinarians tested positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies against HEV, whereas no immunoglobulin M antibodies against the virus were detected. The antibody-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other countries.

  4. The epidemiological and economic impact of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccine in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This analysis assessed the epidemiological and economic impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4: 6/11/16/18) vaccination in Estonia. Methods A dynamic transmission model was used to assess the epidemiological and economic impact of the routine vaccination of 12-year-old girls with a HPV4 vaccine in preventing cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 1, 2 and 3 and genital warts. Results The model projected that at year 100, HPV4 vaccination would lead to a reduction of HPV 16/18 related cervical cancer incidence and deaths by over 97% and the incidence of HPV 6/11 related genital warts among Estonian women and men by over 94% and 81%, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the HPV4 vaccination strategy was € 4,889 per QALY gained over a time horizon of 100 years. Conclusions Routine vaccination of 12-year-old girls with HPV4 vaccine appears to be cost-effective in Estonia, in addition to providing both short term and long term health gains. PMID:23819789

  5. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Same Siiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strategy. It also favors the revision of the brand identity selection and the promotion of Estonian brand, and supports a customer-based approach for their assessment. Documentary and empirical evidence show that the image of Estonia among its most important target audiences in the field of tourism does not match the Estonian brand identity. The gap in-between was evidenced by the results and content analysis of 24 in-depth interviews made with a selected group of people well acquainted with the country as well as some branding experts. This article contributes to the existing case study literature with findings that also manifest opportunities to strengthen the country brand, if its formulation develops a realistic brand identity and its promotion is based on accurate, unique and appealing ideas. It proposes academic support to innovative or alternative concepts for the country branding, and comments on applications of this study to more specific fields and further research.

  6. Education Matters, but Who Can Attain It? Attitudes towards Education and Educational Attainment in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Täht

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the most important determinants of socio-economic success in modern societies, but educational inequality remains an important societal problem. The aim of this study was to look at public attitudes towards the value of education and views on the opportunities to access education in Estonia. Using data from the Estonian Social Equality and Inequality Study (2010, the findings of the current study suggested that education is highly valued in Estonia, but the public also tends to think that access to education is not equally available to everybody. Furthermore, we found that there is a social-status-based structure in the views of the value of education and access to education. Lower social status groups tend to value education as less important for success in life, and these lower social status groups are also more likely to think that chances to access higher education are not equal for everybody, but that wealth, gender, ethnicity and social status matter. Similarly, inequality of opportunity is also felt more strongly within the ethnic minority group, the non-Estonians, than it is amongst Estonians.

  7. The Relationship between Integration Dimensions among Second Generation Russians in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerli Nimmerfeldt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between structural, cultural, social and identificational integration dimensions among second generation Russians in Estonia on the basis of TIES data. The relationship between structural integration and other dimensions is established through cluster analysis, which involves the analysis of the diff erence between means across clusters. In addition, a bivariate correlation analysis is used to determine the relationship between cultural, social, and identificational dimensions. The results raise questions regarding the pertinence of linear assimilation theory in the Estonian case. While the cluster analysis reveals a positive relationship between structural and cultural integration, higher levels of social and identificational integration are not correlated with higher levels of structural and cultural integration. Second generation Russians retain a strong ethnic identity and socialise primarily with other Russians. A bivariate correlation analysis reveals that there is a relationship between cultural, social and identity-related dimensions. Feelings of belonging to Estonia and distance from both Russia and Russians in Russia are stronger among those with good Estonian language proficiency. Respondents with strong Estonian language skills also tend to be more socially integrated and to have more Estonian friends.

  8. Transitional statistics: internal migration and urban growth in post-Soviet Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, O; Tammaru, T

    1999-07-01

    Standard models and theories of internal migration and urban growth in Estonia have been developed. However, there remained a lack of statistical wherewithal to conduct the required kind of analysis. For instance, certain categories of migration are likely to have been underreported and it is clear that existing rules and regulations on how to report those moves that were registered were not always observed. This could be attributed to the fact that existing statistics may fail to account for the process they purposely capture. To illustrate, the authors report the results of a study of migration patterns in post-Soviet Estonia with a view of identifying the consequences of a change in reporting regulations and practices. To this end, a survey of individual migration histories was conducted in 1997. Overall, findings suggest that post-Soviet migration data are slightly improved in comparison with their Soviet-era predecessors: different but still deficient. It turns out that net domestic migratory flows are the reverse of what official statistics on registered residents suggest. The contrasts between the survey returns and the officially reported statistics are outlined, including resources of divergence. As the findings indicate that something is distinct from that suggested by the compilations of the Estonian Statistical Office is indeed taking place, this study provide some inputs for a more thorough understanding of how migratory flows and urbanization processes are transformed during the transition period itself.

  9. Estland im Sog der Russischen Volkswirtschaft? Estonia Being Caught Up in Russian Turmoil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Friedrich Laaser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the Ukraine crisis and Russia’s economic problems, the authors pose the question to what extent the Estonian economy still relies on foreign trade with Russia and which costs Estonia might bear in the course of an aggravation of the lingering East-West conflict. Estonian trade relations with Russia as well as Estonia’s integration in the European and global division of labor are analyzed by a gravity model which also incorporates the trade foreign trade of the Baltic neighbors Latvia and Lithuania as benchmark countries. The authors find that even before the crisis Estonia’s trade with Russia lost weight and the dependency on Russian export and import markets diminished. By an in-depth analysis of Estonia’ sectoral trade patterns these findings were confirmed for the majority of industries. Only in the case of the Estonian milk industry the authors observe significant effects of Russian sanctions. In contrast to this particular case, Estonia becomes increasingly independent from imports of Russian natural gas which in the past made the country vulnerable to political blackmail. The authors conclude that regional and sectoral diversification of Estonian trade patterns induced by the current crisis will help the country to improve its international competitiveness and its economic integration into world markets.

  10. How to reverse first time donors to become regular donors? A questionnaire survey in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerus, P; Kullaste, R; Pungas, K; Aavik, T; Lang, K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood in Estonia is non-remunerated and voluntary. Estonian Blood Service system has four independent regional blood centres that are responsible for blood collection, processing, screening and distribution of blood components to hospitals for clinical use. This research was carried out as a questionnaire survey. A questionnaire was developed to study lapsing first time donors' (FTD) blood donation experience, intention and willingness to donate again. A thousand five hundred and forty-six questionnaires were posted to donors who had one successful donation in 2010 and who had not returned to second donation till the year 2012. For data analysis routine statistical methods were used. To evaluate the most appropriate number of classes, based on previous experience and future expectations, latent class analysis was used. There were 453 respondents (29.3%). For the majority of aspects of blood donation experience the emotions were positive. Results of the study suggested that blood collection agencies should intervene to bolster donors' attitudes, perceived control, and identity as a donor during this crucial post-first donation period. First blood donation seems to have been a positive experience. Reasons leading to stopping blood donation should be studied further. Establishing a donor registry for Estonia would be essential to keep track of donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  12. Armastus, Andestus, Alandlikkus: The Rediscovery of the Orthodox Christianity in Post-Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Benovska-Sabkova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to outline some of the basic characteristics of the post-Soviet ‘renaissance’ of the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (under jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, for example the conversion from Lutheranism to Orthodox Christianity and the processes of rediscovery, reinvention and ‘Estonianisation’ of Orthodox Christianity. The restoration of the autonomous Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, beginning in the 1990s, is due to the historic presence of Orthodoxy in Estonia, but also has the particularities of a new project that seeks contemporary horizons and copes with specific postsocialist problems. The paper takes a closer look at the specific dimensions of these processes through a study of a small Orthodox community: the parish of St. Alexander Nevsky church in Tartu. The author strives to demonstrate the living process of reinvention of Orthodox Christianity in Estonia and more generally the ‘making’, creation, of religion. The small religious community in Tartu dealt with in the paper, shares a number of features of the transforming religiosity of Europe: emphasis on spirituality, openness to the impacts of globalisation, the hybrid character of certain religious practices. It is likewise an example of the fact that Orthodox Christianity may also be the free choice of people looking for moral perfection. This is one of the answers to the main research question about the reasons and character of a contemporary conversion to Orthodox Christianity.

  13. Armastus, Andestus, Alandlikkus: The Rediscovery of the Orthodox Christianity in Post-Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Benovska-Sabkova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to outline some of the basic characteristics of the post-Soviet ‘renaissance’ of the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (under jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, for example the conversion from Lutheranism to Orthodox Christianity and the processes of rediscovery, reinvention and ‘Estonianisation’ of Orthodox Christianity. The restoration of the autonomous Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, beginning in the 1990s, is due to the historic presence of Orthodoxy in Estonia, but also has the particularities of a new project that seeks contemporary horizons and copes with specific postsocialist problems. The paper takes a closer look at the specific dimensions of these processes through a study of a small Orthodox community: the parish of St. Alexander Nevsky church in Tartu. The author strives to demonstrate the living process of reinvention of Orthodox Christianity in Estonia and more generally the ‘making’, creation, of religion. The small religious community in Tartu dealt with in the paper, shares a number of features of the transforming religiosity of Europe: emphasis on spirituality, openness to the impacts of globalisation, the hybrid character of certain religious practices. It is likewise an example of the fact that Orthodox Christianity may also be the free choice of people looking for moral perfection. This is one of the answers to the main research question about the reasons and character of a contemporary conversion to Orthodox Christianity.

  14. Community orientation of services for persons with a psychiatric disability. Comparison between Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Zsolt Bugarszki; Karin Hanga; Dagmar Narusson; Koidu Saia; Marju Medar

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the way mental health services and social services are orientated on assisting people with a psychiatric disability to participate in different areas of community life. A large research project about community participation in three different countries (Estonia, Hungary and the

  15. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  16. Educational inequalities in self-rated health: whether post-socialist Estonia and Russia are performing better than 'Scandinavian' Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöörmann, Rein; Helemäe, Jelena

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and education in post-socialist countries (Estonia and Russia) and in Finland, a Scandinavian country. Data from the 5th wave of the European Social Survey (ESS) carried out in 2010 were used. In particular, we used a sub-sample of the 25-69 years old. Two-step analysis was carried out: descriptive overview of relationship between SRH and education to assess the knowledge-related impact of education on SRH in pooled model for all three countries; and logistic regression analysis to evaluate separate models in each country. The prevalence of at-least-good health was the highest in Finland, Estonia occupied the second position and Russia the third. Knowledge-related educational inequalities were lower in Russia compared to Finland, while they were of similar magnitude in Estonia and Finland. Our expectations that knowledge-based inequalities are lower in post-socialist countries compared to a Scandinavian country turn to be true in case of Russia, not Estonia. Possible reasons for the expectations might be a lack of attention paid to educational inequalities in terms of access to social resources, competitiveness in the labour market and to what extent education provide a tool against uncertainty (preventing work- and unemployment-related stress). Series of comparative studies revealing links between certain institutional packages and (socio-economic and knowledge-related) educational inequalities seem to be of special relevance.

  17. Does School Admission by Zoning Affect Educational Inequality? A Study of Family Background Effect in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin; Veski, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia--countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social…

  18. Sociocultural Aspects of Russian-Speaking Parents' Choice of Language of Instruction for Their Children in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Raija Pini; Ferrin, Scott Ellis; Hite, Steven J.; Hilton, Sterling C.

    2008-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to identify sociocultural variables that influence whether Russian-speaking parents living in Estonia choose Russian, Estonian, or bilingual (Russian and Estonian) instruction for their children. To examine which sociocultural variables are related to parents' choice of language of instruction, 346…

  19. Phaenocarpa ungulosetosa spec. nov. from Finland and Elasmosoma depressum spec. nov. from Estonia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini, Euphorinae: Neoneurini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Koponen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of Braconidae belonging to the genera Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini) and Elasmosoma Ruthe, 1858 (Euphorinae: Neoneurini) are reported from Finland and Estonia, respectively, and described as P. angulosetosa spec. nov. and E. depressum spec. nov. A key to

  20. Russian in Estonia's Public Sector: "Playing on the Borderline" between Official Policy and Real-Life Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkina, Maimu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of Russian in state communication in officially monolingual Estonia. Drawing on interviews with high-level public employees in four central state institutions and an analysis of these institutions' websites, the article shows that while Russian is not specifically mentioned in the laws, it is "de facto"…

  1. Late-glacial to Holocene aeolian deposition in northeastern Europe - The timing of sedimentation at the Iisaku site (NE Estonia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinska-Nartisa, Edyta; Nartiss, Maris; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Late-glacial and Holocene aeolian inland dune complex at Iisaku (NE Estonia) has been investigated using an accurate and detailed compilation of the sedimentary properties and chronological framework. The quartz grains forming the dunes are very variable, reflecting aeolian, weathering...

  2. IN-SERVICE TRAINING OF TEACHERS OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN ESTONIA: MAPPING OF TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Raud

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In-service training of teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL is as a core instrument of continuous professional development of EFL teachers. Within the context of nowadays education policies, the issue of in-service training has become of topical importance. It requires systematic approach based on the analysis of individual EFL teachers’ needs and receptive practices in developing in-service teacher-training programmes. In view of that, a survey was conducted among EFL teachers in Estonia to discover the areas of in-service training they are interested in. Based on the survey results, a model of an in-service training module to implement in order to meet the needs of EFL teachers in Estonia is proposed, and it is placed against the background of in-service teacher training provided in Estonia. The module could be included into in-service teaching training programmes not only in Estonia, but in a wider European context.

  3. Strategic Calculation in Estonia’s Decision to Enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Soviet and German imperialism.30 After the war, the Sovietization of Estonia continued forcing agricultural collectivization. In March 1949, another more...agencies and actors over these issues and drove Russia into proxy wars on its perimeter with Moldova, Tajikistan , and Georgia. December 1994

  4. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  5. Ethnic Minority–Majority Unions in Estonia : Unions entre membres d’ethnies minoritaires et majoritaires en Estonie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.

    Ethnic minority–majority unions—also referred to as mixed ethnic unions—are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority–majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total

  6. The Role of Values in Citizenship Education: A Comparative Study of Estonian- and Russian-Speaking Schools in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Anu

    2003-01-01

    For emerging democracies civic education issues have special meaning. Often these issues play a vital role in the process of nation building and democratic consolidation, which makes the interplay between the school system and the socio-political environment particularly important. Estonia, which inherited from the half-century Soviet occupation a…

  7. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  8. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  9. 26 CFR 40.6695-1 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons. 40.6695-1 Section 40.6695-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6695-1 Other assessable...

  10. Female urogenital dysfunction following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of Total Mesorectal Excision (TME on sexual function in the male is well documented. However, there is little literature in female patients. The aim of this study was to review the pelvic autonomic nervous anatomy in the female and to perform a retrospective audit of urinary and sexual function in women following surgery for rectal cancer where TME had been performed. Urogenital dysfunction was assessed through interview and questionnaire. Method Twenty-three questionnaires, eighteen returned, were sent to women with a mean age 65.5 yrs (range 34–86. All had undergone total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer between 1998–2001. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months (range 3–35. Results Preoperatively 5/18 (28% were sexually active, 3/18 (17% of patients described urinary frequency and nocturia and 7/18 (39% described symptoms of stress incontinence prior to surgery. Postoperatively all sexually active patients remained active although all described some discomfort with penetration. Two of the patients sexually active described reduced libido secondary to the stoma. Postoperative urinary symptoms developed with 59% reporting the development of nocturia, 18% developed stress incontinence and one patient required a permanent catheter. Of those with symptoms, 80% persisted longer than three months from surgery. Symptoms were predominant in those patients with low rectal cancers, particularly those undergoing abdomino-perineal excision and in those who had previously undergone abdominal hysterectomy. Conclusion The treatment of rectal cancer involves surgery to the pelvic floor. Despite nerve preservation this is associated with the development of worsening nocturia and stress incontinence. This is most marked in those patients who had previously undergone a hysterectomy. Further studies are warranted to assess the interaction with previous gynaecological surgery.

  11. Inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty for bony ankylosed elbows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Chadrabose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bony ankylosis of elbow is challenging and difficult problem to treat. The options are excision arthroplasty and total elbow replacement. We report our midterm results on nine patients, who underwent inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty in our hospital with good functional results. Materials Our case series includes 9 patients (seven males and two females with the mean age of 34 years (13-56 years. Five patients had trauma, two had pyogenic arthritis, one had tuberculous arthritis, and one had pyogenic arthritis following surgical fixation. Results The average duration of follow up is 65 months (45 months-80 months. The mean Mayo's elbow performance score (MEPS preoperatively was 48 (35-70. The MEPS at final follow up was 80 (60-95. With no movement at elbow and fixed in various degrees of either flexion or extension preoperatively, the mean preoperative position of elbow was 64°(30°to 100°. The mean post operative range of motion at final follow up was 27°of extension (20-500, 116°of flexion (1100-1300, and the arc of motion was 88°(800-1000. One patient had ulnar nerve neuropraxia and another patient developed median nerve neuropraxia, and both recovered completely in six weeks. No patient had symptomatic instability of the elbow. All patients were asymptomatic except one patient, who had pain mainly on heavy activities. Conclusion We conclude that inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty is a viable option in the treatment of bony ankylosis of the elbow in young patients.

  12. Inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty for bony ankylosed elbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Chadrabose; Periyasamy, Rameshkumar; Balaji, Subbachandra; Premanand, C; Alva, Shreyas; Reddy, Shiva

    2011-12-05

    Bony ankylosis of elbow is challenging and difficult problem to treat. The options are excision arthroplasty and total elbow replacement. We report our midterm results on nine patients, who underwent inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty in our hospital with good functional results. Our case series includes 9 patients (seven males and two females) with the mean age of 34 years (13-56 years). Five patients had trauma, two had pyogenic arthritis, one had tuberculous arthritis, and one had pyogenic arthritis following surgical fixation. The average duration of follow up is 65 months (45 months-80 months). The mean Mayo's elbow performance score (MEPS) preoperatively was 48 (35-70). The MEPS at final follow up was 80 (60-95). With no movement at elbow and fixed in various degrees of either flexion or extension preoperatively, the mean preoperative position of elbow was 64°(30°to 100°). The mean post operative range of motion at final follow up was 27°of extension (20-500), 116°of flexion (1100-1300), and the arc of motion was 88°(800-1000). One patient had ulnar nerve neuropraxia and another patient developed median nerve neuropraxia, and both recovered completely in six weeks. No patient had symptomatic instability of the elbow. All patients were asymptomatic except one patient, who had pain mainly on heavy activities. We conclude that inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty is a viable option in the treatment of bony ankylosis of the elbow in young patients.

  13. Per-anal excision of large, rectal, villous adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, J M; Grabham, J A; Fozard, J B

    2004-01-01

    Considering the malignant potential of villous adenoma of the rectum, complete resection at the first intervention is desirable and yet many series suggest that a high recurrence rate must be expected. The experience of one colorectal surgeon in the management of this condition is described. Between 1993 and 2000, 50 patients underwent per-anal resection of villous adenoma. The procedure was conducted in the prone jackknife position unless contraindicated, with dissection performed using a diathermy blade, with particular attention to circumferential and deep margins of excision. The mean distance of the proximal margin of the tumor from the dentate line was 5.6 (range, 0.5-11) cm. The mean length of the tumor was 5.2 (range, 0.5-9) cm. Mean anesthetic time was 27 (range, 10-110) minutes, and median hospital stay was two (range, 1-14) days. There was no significant perioperative morbidity and no mortality. On histology of ten patients, there were foci of adenocarcinoma. Excision was complete histologically in 49 patients. The median follow-up was 30 (range, 6-91) months. The patient with incomplete excision developed a probable recurrence after six months, which was ablated with diathermy (residual tumor rate, 2.1 percent). Two patients have subsequently developed villous adenoma at different sites within the rectum (metachronous tumor rate, 4.3 percent). Many series of this procedure report recurrence in up to 36 percent and significant complication in up to 19 percent of patients. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery has achieved recurrence rates of 2.8 percent and low complication rates but for economic reasons has failed to find a widespread role. This article demonstrates that large, villous tumors of the low and mid rectum can be simply and effectively treated by per-anal resection with recurrence rates equivalent to transanal endoscopic microsurgery.

  14. The quest for precision in transanal total mesorectal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini Melani, A G; Diana, M; Marescaux, J

    2016-01-01

    Transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) is an emerging minimally invasive approach to rectal cancer, with encouraging preliminary results. However, the new surgical anatomy of the bottom-up approach complicates surgical understanding and increases the risks of inadvertent injuries to crucial anatomical structures, including nerves. Key elements to improve the safety and stimulate interest in such a complex technique might be robotics and image guidance, to enhance the level of precision. In this editorial, some of the technologies that could be used for precision TME are outlined, in light of the experience of our Institute for Image-Guided Surgery.

  15. Successful surgical excision of primary right atrial angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Wobbe; Lexis, Chris P H; Willems, Tineke P; Suurmeijer, Albert J H; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Ebels, Tjark; Mariani, Massimo A

    2011-04-09

    Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with a high incidence of metastatic spread (up to 89%) at the time of diagnosis, which restricts the indication for surgical resection to a small number of patients. We report the case of a 50-year old Caucasian woman with non-metastatic primary right atrial angiosarcoma, who underwent successful surgical excision of the tumor (with curative intent) and reconstruction of the right atrium with a porcine pericardial patch. However, after a symptom-free survival of five months the patient presented with bone and liver metastases without evidence of local tumor recurrence.

  16. Successful surgical excision of primary right atrial angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Horst Iwan CC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with a high incidence of metastatic spread (up to 89% at the time of diagnosis, which restricts the indication for surgical resection to a small number of patients. We report the case of a 50-year old Caucasian woman with non-metastatic primary right atrial angiosarcoma, who underwent successful surgical excision of the tumor (with curative intent and reconstruction of the right atrium with a porcine pericardial patch. However, after a symptom-free survival of five months the patient presented with bone and liver metastases without evidence of local tumor recurrence.

  17. Excision arthroplasty for management of coxofemoral luxation in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, D M

    1989-01-01

    Coxofemoral luxation, although not a common injury, can cause considerable pelvic limb dysfunction in pet birds. Luxation usually is craniodorsal, as it is in dogs. Previously recommended treatments have not always been effective in managing the injury. Sequelae can include dorsolateral deviation of the pelvic limb, with loss of function and bumblefoot in the nonluxated limb, owing to abnormal weight-bearing. Excision arthroplasty combined with a muscular sling constructed from a segment of the iliofibularis muscle was used to treat coxofemoral luxation in a hyacinth macaw, a moluccan cockatoo, and an African gray parrot. The outcome was excellent in 2 of the 3 birds.

  18. Excised Abdominoplasty Material as a Systematic Plastic Surgical Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Erol Demirseren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving a level of technical skill and confidence in surgical operations is the main goal of plastic surgical training. Operating rooms were accepted as the practical teaching venues of the traditional apprenticeship model. However, increased patient population, time, and ethical and legal considerations made preoperation room practical work a must for plastic surgical training. There are several plastic surgical teaching models and simulators which are very useful in preoperation room practical training and the evaluation of plastic surgery residents. The full thickness skin with its vascular network excised in abdominoplasty procedures is an easily obtainable real human tissue which could be used as a training model in plastic surgery.

  19. Use of Preputial Skin as Cutaneous Graft after Nevus Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D'Alessio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a four-year-old boy with a nevus covering all the plantar side of his second finger on the left foot. He was also affected by congenital phimosis. Surgical excision of the nevus was indicated, but the skin defect would have been too large to be directly closed. The foreskin was taken as a full-thickness skin graft to cover the cutaneous defect of the finger. The graft intake was favourable and provided a functional repair with good aesthetic characteristic.

  20. 26 CFR 55.4981-2 - Imposition of excise tax with respect to certain undistributed income of real estate investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certain undistributed income of real estate investment trusts; calendar years beginning after December 31... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-2 Imposition of excise tax with...

  1. 26 CFR 54.4979-0 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions; table of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions; table of contents. 54.4979-0 Section 54.4979-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-0 Excise tax on...

  2. 26 CFR 54.4975-14 - Election to pay an excise tax for certain pre-1975 prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to pay an excise tax for certain pre-1975 prohibited transactions. 54.4975-14 Section 54.4975-14 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4975-14 Election to pay an excise tax for...

  3. 26 CFR 55.4981-1 - Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate investment trust taxable income not distributed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-1 Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate investment trust taxable income not distributed during the taxable year...

  4. Base excision DNA repair in the embryonic development of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgasheva, Natalya A; Menzorova, Natalya I; Sibirtsev, Yurii T; Rasskazov, Valery A; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-06-21

    In actively proliferating cells, such as the cells of the developing embryo, DNA repair is crucial for preventing the accumulation of mutations and synchronizing cell division. Sea urchin embryo growth was analyzed and extracts were prepared. The relative activity of DNA polymerase, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and other glycosylases was analyzed using specific oligonucleotide substrates of these enzymes; the reaction products were resolved by denaturing 20% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We have characterized the profile of several key base excision repair activities in the developing embryos (2 blastomers to mid-pluteus) of the grey sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The uracil-DNA glycosylase specific activity sharply increased after blastula hatching, whereas the specific activity of 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase steadily decreased over the course of the development. The AP-endonuclease activity gradually increased but dropped at the last sampled stage (mid-pluteus 2). The DNA polymerase activity was high at the first cleavage division and then quickly decreased, showing a transient peak at blastula hatching. It seems that the developing sea urchin embryo encounters different DNA-damaging factors early in development within the protective envelope and later as a free-floating larva, with hatching necessitating adaptation to the shift in genotoxic stress conditions. No correlation was observed between the dynamics of the enzyme activities and published gene expression data from developing congeneric species, S. purpuratus. The results suggest that base excision repair enzymes may be regulated in the sea urchin embryos at the level of covalent modification or protein stability.

  5. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk and accessory mineral composition of fresh and weathered crystalline rocks, and sedimentary deposits overlying the crystalline-sedimentary unconformity have been examined in core samples from 28 drill holes in Estonia. Before the Late Vendian to Early Cambrian regional subsidence and sedimentation, the region represented a flat plateau within the Svecofennian Domain. Palaeo-and Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, regardless their different initial mineral composition, subcrop under the Upper Vendian/Lower Cambrian sedimentary cover as usually intensely weathered rocks (saprolites composed of residual quartz, altered micas and prevailing clay minerals mainly of the kaolinite group. Thus, the bulk mineral composition of any basement crystalline rocks imparts no specific inherited rock-forming minerals into the covering sedimentary rocks. From the variety of accessory and opaque minerals of crystalline rocks, only zircon populations survived in saprolites. Crystalline rocks of different origin yield different zircons. Relationships between the zircon typology of the basement rocks having specific areas of distribution and the sedimentary rocks immediately overlying those crystalline rocks were the main subject of this study. The result is that siliciclastic sedimentary rocks covering weathered crystalline rocks only in places inherited zircons with typological features characteristic of specific basement areas. In northeastern Estonia, local lenses of the Oru Member (the earliest Upper Vendian sedimentary rocks in Estonia resembling the debris of weathered crystalline rocks yield accessory zircon which in a 1-2 m thick layer above the basement surface is similar to the zircons of the underlying weathering mantle of certain crystalline rocks. In the next unit, the Moldova Member, up to 43 m above the basement surface, a mixture of zircons resembling those of various local basement rocks has been found. Further upwards, in the Vendian and Lower

  6. A review of wide surgical excision of hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharbi Ziyad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disorder that involves the infundibular terminal follicles in areas rich of apocrine glands. It can be associated with fistulating sinus, scarring and abscesses formation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a challenging aspect and requires a proper treatment plan which may involve different specialties. We present herein the option of surgical treatment involving wide surgical excision and methods of reconstruction as well as the rate of recurrence. Furthermore, review of the literature regarding surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa is provided. Methods A retrospective analysis reviewed 50 operative procedures for 32 patients in 5 anatomical sites. These anatomical sites have been divided to 23 sites involving the axilla, 17 sites involving the inguinal region and 8 sites involving the perianal/perineal area, 1 site involving the gluteal region and 1 site involving the trunk region. Results Twenty six patients (81, 25 % showed no recurrence after surgery and the average time of hospital stay period was 5 days. Recurrence was observed only in 6 patients (18, 75 %. Conclusion Elimination of the acute inflammatory process should occur in advance, including the use of antibiotics and minor surgeries such as abscess drainage with proper irrigations. After stabilizing the acute phase, wide surgical excision is recommended. Herein, planning of surgical reconstruction should be initiated to achieve the best outcome and consequently decreasing the risk of recurrence and complications after surgery.

  7. Validating excised rodent lungs for functional hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, David M L; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S; Stupic, Karl F; Shaw, Dominick E; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ex vivo rodent lung models are explored for physiological measurements of respiratory function with hyperpolarized (hp) (129)Xe MRI. It is shown that excised lung models allow for simplification of the technical challenges involved and provide valuable physiological insights that are not feasible using in vivo MRI protocols. A custom designed breathing apparatus enables MR images of gas distribution on increasing ventilation volumes of actively inhaled hp (129)Xe. Straightforward hp (129)Xe MRI protocols provide residual lung volume (RV) data and permit for spatially resolved tracking of small hp (129)Xe probe volumes during the inhalation cycle. Hp (129)Xe MRI of lung function in the excised organ demonstrates the persistence of post mortem airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine challenges. The presented methodology enables physiology of lung function in health and disease without additional regulatory approval requirements and reduces the technical and logistical challenges with hp gas MRI experiments. The post mortem lung functional data can augment histological measurements and should be of interest for drug development studies.

  8. Validating excised rodent lungs for functional hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M L Lilburn

    Full Text Available Ex vivo rodent lung models are explored for physiological measurements of respiratory function with hyperpolarized (hp (129Xe MRI. It is shown that excised lung models allow for simplification of the technical challenges involved and provide valuable physiological insights that are not feasible using in vivo MRI protocols. A custom designed breathing apparatus enables MR images of gas distribution on increasing ventilation volumes of actively inhaled hp (129Xe. Straightforward hp (129Xe MRI protocols provide residual lung volume (RV data and permit for spatially resolved tracking of small hp (129Xe probe volumes during the inhalation cycle. Hp (129Xe MRI of lung function in the excised organ demonstrates the persistence of post mortem airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine challenges. The presented methodology enables physiology of lung function in health and disease without additional regulatory approval requirements and reduces the technical and logistical challenges with hp gas MRI experiments. The post mortem lung functional data can augment histological measurements and should be of interest for drug development studies.

  9. Osteoid osteoma: fluoroscopic guided percutaneous excision technique - our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marić, Dušan; Djan, Igor; Petković, Lazar; Vidosavljević, Marko; Sopta, Jelena; Marić, Dušica; Madić, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a small benign bone lesion. It generally affects children and young adults. Traditional treatment of osteoid osteoma includes excision either by wide resection, or by the removal of the nidus using curettes and burrs after opening the overlying cortex. Newly developed techniques involve percutaneous ablation of the tumor by computed tomography-guided core-drill excision and destruction of the nidus by thermocoagulation. Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous extirpation and drilling resection procedures have been performed at the Institute for Health Care of Children and Youth, Pediatric Surgery Clinic in Novi Sad, Serbia. Some modifications in the methods were made and implemented, which resulted in an excellent cost-benefit ratio, shorter period of hospitalization, and faster recovery. The aim of this paper is to present the experience gained in the treatment of osteoid osteomas in the last 5 years at the Pediatric Surgery Clinic in Novi Sad and to describe the modifications to the percutaneous biopsy technique of osteoid osteoma that have been implemented.

  10. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A; Amico, K Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Our application of intervention mapping (IM) strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to produce a brief clinic-based intervention entitled the Situated Optimal Adherence Intervention Estonia (sOAI Estonia) which uses both Next-Step Counseling (NSC) and Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model approach to facilitate integration of ART into the context and demands of daily life. We present the intervention development process, the resulting sOAI Estonia approach, and describe a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which is under way to evaluate the intervention (results due in spring 2013).

  11. Changes in climate, catchment vegetation and hydrogeology as the causes of dramatic lake-level fluctuations in the Kurtna Lake District, NE Estonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marko Vainu; Jaanus Terasmaa

    2014-01-01

      Numerous lakes in the world serve as sensitive indicators of climate change. Water levels for lakes Ahnejarv and Martiska, two vulnerable oligotrophic closed-basin lakes on sandy plains in northeastern Estonia, fell more than 3 m in 1946...

  12. [Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications. Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid, 46. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikool 2010

  13. Estonia-filmi peaosas mängib Greta Scacchi : Jutta Rabe on leidnud oma filmile mõjuvõimsad toetajad / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks ja produtsendiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  14. [Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikool, 2010. (Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid, 46)

  15. [Parametric monitoring of the quality of total mesorectal excision and surgical treatment of rectal carcinoma results of a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Ferko, A; Bláha, M; Ryška, A; Čapov, I; Dušek, L; Feit, J; Grega, M; Hermanová, M; Hovorková, E; Chmelová, R; Kala, Z; Klos, D; Kodet, R; Langer, D; Hadži-Nikolov, D; Örhalmi, J; Páral, J; Tichý, M; Tučková, I; Vjaclovský, M; Vlček, P

    Tumour size and the quality of its complete surgical removal are the main prognostic factors in rectal cancer treatment. The number of postoperative local recurrences depends on whether the mesorectum has been completely removed - total mesorectal excision (TME) - and whether tumour-free resection margins have been achieved. The surgery itself and its quality depend on the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis and detection of risk areas in the rectum and mesorectum, on the surgeons skills, and finally on pathological assessment evaluating whether complete tumour excision has been accomplished including circumferential margins of the tumour, and whether mesorectal excision is complete. The aim of our study was to implement and standardize a new method of evaluation of the quality of the surgical procedure - TME - in rectal cancer treatment using an assessment of its circumferential margins (CRO) and completeness of the excision. The study consisted of two parts. The first, multi-centre retrospective phase with 288 patients analysed individual partial parameters of the diagnosis, operations and histological examinations of the rectal cancer. Critical points were identified and a unified follow-up protocol was prepared. In the second, prospective part of this study 600 patients were monitored parametrically focusing on the quality of the TME and its effect on the oncological treatment results. The proportion of patients with restaging following neoadjuvant therapy increased from 60.0% to 81.7% based on preoperative diagnosis. The number of specimens missing an assessment of the mesorectal excision quality decreased from 52.9% in the retrospective part of to the study to 22.8% in the prospective part. The proportion of actually complete TMEs rose from 22.6% to 26.0%, and that of nearly complete TMEs from 10.1% to 24.0%. The introduction of parametric monitoring into routine clinical practice improved the quality of pre-treatment and preoperative diagnosis, examination of

  16. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  17. Syphilis as a social disease: experience from the post-communist transition period in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Nygård, Jan F; Kibur-Nygård, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and radical social changes have taken place at the same time in Estonia. Our aim was to study the trends in syphilis incidence, selected sociodemographic factors and health status indicators during the economic transition. Associations were estimated by the ordinary least square regression method for change in and actual values of syphilis and tuberculosis incidence rate (IR), percentage of non-ethnic Estonians and urban population, homicides rate, unemployment rate and, birth rate. The analysis was performed by counties at three different time periods. Syphilis IR significantly correlated with the proportion of non-ethnic Estonians, urban population, tuberculosis IR and birth rate. Change of syphilis IR correlated significantly with concurrent changes in unemployment rate and tuberculosis IR. Our findings support the theory that syphilis is a social disease, thus emphasizing the importance of social factors in the occurrence of STDs. PMID:15479502

  18. HIV and STI Testing and Related Factors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Kristi; Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Valk, Anti; Aavik, Toivo

    2016-10-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia are low. We collected data from 265 MSM in a national, online survey. Lifetime HIV testing was related to risky sexual behaviors and contacts with health care services, while lifetime STI testing was related only to contacts with health care services. In addition, some personal values were significant predictors of testing. For example, high achievement (personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards) had a negative impact on lifetime HIV testing, and high interpersonal conformity (avoiding upsetting others) had a negative impact on lifetime STI testing. The results demonstrate the need to develop gay-friendly health services and to recognize the role of personal values and individual differences in values when designing attractive interventions to increase HIV/STI testing rates among MSM.

  19. Suicidality and Associated Factors Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Kristi; Valk, Anti; Lõhmus, Liilia

    2017-01-01

    Many studies over the last decade provide strong evidence of elevated rates of suicidality among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations compared to heterosexual populations. The aim of the current study was to investigate suicidal ideation and attempts and related factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia. We conducted a nationwide Internet-based study among MSM with 265 eligible participants. Our results reveal high rates of self-reported suicidal ideation (lifetime prevalence 45%) and attempts (lifetime prevalence 11%) as well as a high rate of problem drinking (33%) and depressive symptoms (32%) among MSM. Recent suicidal ideation (14% had thought about suicide in the last 12 months) was related to depressive symptoms and lower socioeconomic situation. There is a need to develop specific interventions to address these issues among MSM and to provide gay-friendly mental health services.

  20. Payment systems and incentives in primary care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment systems in primary care. This article looks at recent developments in payment systems and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing primary care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare system and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Age of the Kalana Lagerstätte, early Silurian, Estonia

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    Peep Männik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Kalana quarry in central Estonia is known for its exceptionally well-preserved non-calcified algal and other fossils. The interval with the fossil Konservat Lagerstätte in the Kalana section has previously been tentatively dated as early Aeronian. Recent findings of graptolites now enable more precise dating of these beds. The strata yielding the Lagerstätte are not older than the mid-Aeronian and correspond to the Pribylograptus leptotheca graptolite Biozone. In terms of conodont biostratigraphy they correlate with the middle of the Pranognathus tenuis conodont Biozone. It has also become evident that the uppermost Jõgeva Beds of the Nurmekund Formation, and probably also the uppermost Ikla Member of the Saarde Formation, are younger than previously thought and correlate with the Pribylograptus leptotheca graptolite Biozone. Our data additionally indicate that the conodont genus Aulacognathus had appeared by the mid-Aeronian.

  2. Immoral Obscenity: Censorship of Folklore Manuscript Collections in Late Stalinist Estonia

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    Kaisa Kulasalu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of folkloristics contains many cases of obscene materials that were excluded from field notes, books and archives. The Estonian Folklore Archives (founded in 1927 did incorporate dirty jokes, riddles and songs in its collection. Soviet occupation changed the topics of folklore scholarship and archival practices. Between the years 1945 and 1952, the Folklore Archives’ manuscript collections, catalogues and photographs were censored. Anti-Soviet texts were cut out or made unreadable. In the first years after the incorporation of the Republic of Estonia into the Soviet Union, anti-Soviet mainly meant politically sensitive materials such as jokes about Stalin, very patriotic texts or the names of some people. During the beginning of the 1950s, stricter rules were applied and obscene texts were also censored. In this article, I will focus on the censorship of obscene words and motifs and the political dimension of moralistic censorship in a totalitarian state.

  3. Intergenerational solidarity in family communication and childrearing among Russians living in Estonia

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    Järva I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to ascertain the importance of intergenerational solidarity in communication within the family and childrearing among the Russians living in Estonia. Generations see the world differently enough. One of the reasons for that is individualistic worldview which characterizes not only the younger generation, but individualistic tendencies have percolated into other generationsas well. All generations admit the presence of a generation gap, but they disclaim presence of intergenerational conflict. At the same time respondents affirm that there is solidarity between generations in their families and it is based on love and respect. Solidarity between generations in families is revealed both on spiritual level (communicating, love, trust, mutual understanding, common interests as well as in real help given by generations to each other as far as homework, children's upbringing, and economical aid are concerned.

  4. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  5. 27 CFR 25.298 - Excise tax return, Form 5000.24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax return, Form 5000.24. 25.298 Section 25.298 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.298 Excise tax return, Form 5000.24. All entries on the excise tax return,...

  6. Phyllodes tumor diagnosed after ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision: should it be followed by surgical excision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hana; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of ultrasound (US)-guided vacuum-assisted excision (US-VAE) of phyllodes tumors (PTs). A total of 41 PTs diagnosed at US-VAE followed by surgery (n = 27) or at least 2 y of US monitoring (n = 14) were included. By comparison of US-VAE pathology with surgical histology or follow-up US results, cases were divided into upgraded (malignant) and non-upgraded (benign) groups. These two groups were compared with respect to clinical, procedural and US features. Among 27 surgical cases, 2 (8.7%) of 23 benign PTs were upgraded to malignant PTs. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category was retrospectively assigned as 4a (50%) or 4b (50%) in the upgraded group (n = 2) and 3 (64%) or 4a (36%) in the non-upgraded group (n = 39) (p = 0.018). Residual tumor was observed at the site of US-VAE in 15 of 27 surgical cases and 0 of 14 US follow-up cases (36.6%, 15/41). Given the rates of upgrade to malignancy (8.7%) and residual tumor (36.6%), PTs diagnosed after US-VAE should be surgically excised. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Advantage of extralevator abdominoperineal excision comparing to the conventional abdominoperineal excision for low rectal cancer: a Meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Chengwen; Wang, Jiajia; Ren, Quan; Cao, Jiaqing

    2017-03-28

    Whether extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) improves survival and safety remains controversial. Systematic review of all comparative studies to define the superiority of ELAPE to conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE).
 Methods: Corresponding data, with case-control studies or cohorts regarding intraoperative perforation rate, the local recurrence rate and postoperative complications in the ELAPE group and the APE group, were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature (CMB), VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database. Meta-analysis was performed by using RenMan 5.2.
 Results: A total of 10 articles were included. Intraperative perforation rate (MD=0.54, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.39, P=0.03), local recurrence rate (MD=0.30, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.42, Padvantages in treating lower rectal cancer comparing to APE, but it should pay attention to individualized treatment. More studies through large sample multi-center, medium and long term randomized design are necessary to determine the effect of surgery on tumor.

  8. Mortality and causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabre, Liis; Rekand, Tiina; Asser, Toomas; Kõrv, Janika

    2013-01-01

    Study design Retrospective population-based study with mortality follow-up. Objective To study mortality, causes and risk factors for death in Estonian patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Setting All Estonian hospitals. Methods Medical records of patients with TSCI from all regional, central, general, and rehabilitation hospitals in Estonia from 1997 to 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. Mortality status was ascertained as of 31 December 2011. Causes of death were collected from the Estonian Causes of Death Registry. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the entire sample and for causes of death. A Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify the risk indicators for death. Results During the observation period (1997–2011) 162 patients of 595 died. Nearly half of the patients (n = 76) died during the first year after TSCI. The main causes of death were external causes (30%), cardiovascular disease (29%). and suicide (8%). The overall SMR was 2.81 (95% confidence interval 2.40–3.28) and SMR was higher for women than for men (3.80 vs. 2.70). Cause-specific SMRs were markedly elevated for sepsis and suicide. Mortality was significantly affected by the age at the time of injury, neurological level, and extent of the injury as well as the year of TSCI and complications. Conclusion Life expectancy is significantly decreased in patients with TSCI in Estonia compared with the general population. Deaths during the first year after the injury have an important impact on statistics. Treatment of cardiovascular diseases, infections, and prevention of suicide are useful for reducing mortality in patients with TSCI. PMID:24090049

  9. A decline in the prevalence of injecting drug users in Estonia, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, A; Rajaleid, K; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Des Jarlais, DC

    2013-01-01

    Aims and setting Descriptions of behavioural epidemics have received little attention compared with infectious disease epidemics in Eastern Europe. Here we report a study aimed at estimating trends in the prevalence of injection drug use between 2005 and 2009 in Estonia. Design and methods The number of injection drug users (IDUs) aged 15–44 each year between 2005 and 2009 was estimated using capture-recapture methodology based on 4 data sources (2 treatment data bases: drug abuse and non-fatal overdose treatment; criminal justice (drug related offences) and mortality (injection drug use related deaths) data). Poisson log-linear regression models were applied to the matched data, with interactions between data sources fitted to replicate the dependencies between the data sources. Linear regression was used to estimate average change over time. Findings there were 24305, 12292, 238, 545 records and 8100, 1655, 155, 545 individual IDUs identified in the four capture sources (Police, drug treatment, overdose, and death registry, accordingly) over the period 2005 – 2009. The estimated prevalence of IDUs among the population aged 15–44 declined from 2.7% (1.8–7.9%) in 2005 to 2.0% (1.4–5.0%) in 2008, and 0.9% (0.7–1.7%) in 2009. Regression analysis indicated an average reduction of over 1700 injectors per year. Conclusion While the capture-recapture method has known limitations, the results are consistent with other data from Estonia. Identifying the drivers of change in the prevalence of injection drug use warrants further research. PMID:23290632

  10. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanpere, Made; Ringmets, Inge; Part, Kai; Allvee, Kärt; Veerus, Piret; Karro, Helle

    2014-07-09

    The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996-2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996-2003 and 2004-2011. Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996-2003 to 58.0% during 2004-2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups--non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children--vulnerable with respect to repeat abortion.

  11. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia. PMID:23590318

  12. Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Estonia has experienced an HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with the highest per capita HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe. We assessed the effects of expanded syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the capital city, Tallinn, which has an estimated 10,000 IDUs. Methods SEP implementation was monitored with data from the Estonian National Institute for Health Development. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys with HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2005, 2007 and 2009 (involving 350, 350 and 327 IDUs respectively). HIV incidence among new injectors (those injecting for 80%), and young adults (mean ages 24 to 27 years). The proportion of new injectors decreased significantly over the years (from 21% in 2005 to 12% in 2009, p = 0.005). HIV prevalence among all respondents stabilized at slightly over 50% (54% in 2005, 55% in 2007, 51% in 2009), and decreased among new injectors (34% in 2005, 16% in 2009, p = 0.046). Estimated HIV incidence among new injectors decreased significantly from 18/100 person-years in 2005 and 21/100 person-years in 2007 to 9/100 person-years in 2009 (p = 0.026). Conclusions In Estonia, a transitional country, a decrease in the HIV prevalence among new injectors and in the numbers of people initiating injection drug use coincided with implementation of large-scale SEPs. Further reductions in HIV transmission among IDUs are still required. Provision of 70 or more syringes per IDU per year may be needed before significant reductions in HIV incidence occur. PMID:21718469

  13. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  14. Extensive Farming in Estonia Started through a Sex-Biased Migration from the Steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Scheib, Christiana Lyn; Stenderup, Jesper; Allentoft, Morten E; Saag, Lauri; Pagani, Luca; Reidla, Maere; Tambets, Kristiina; Metspalu, Ene; Kriiska, Aivar; Willerslev, Eske; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Mait

    2017-07-24

    The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition-both material and genetic-varied in different parts of Europe [1-7]. Farming-based economies appear relatively late in Northeast Europe, and the extent to which they involve change in genetic ancestry is not fully understood due to the lack of relevant ancient DNA data. Here we present the results from new low-coverage whole-genome shotgun sequence data from five hunter-gatherers and five first farmers of Estonia whose remains date to 4,500 to 6,300 years before present. We find evidence of significant differences between the two groups in the composition of autosomal as well as mtDNA, X chromosome, and Y chromosome ancestries. We find that Estonian hunter-gatherers of Comb Ceramic culture are closest to Eastern hunter-gatherers, which is in contrast to earlier hunter-gatherers from the Baltics, who are close to Western hunter-gatherers [8, 9]. The Estonian first farmers of Corded Ware culture show high similarity in their autosomes with European hunter-gatherers, Steppe Eneolithic and Bronze Age populations, and European Late Neolithic/Bronze Age populations, while their X chromosomes are in addition equally closely related to European and Anatolian and Levantine early farmers. These findings suggest that the shift to intensive cultivation and animal husbandry in Estonia was triggered by the arrival of new people with predominantly Steppe ancestry but whose ancestors had undergone sex-specific admixture with early farmers with Anatolian ancestry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexually Transmitted Infections - Prevalence, Knowledge and Behaviours among Professional Defence Forces in Estonia: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. David; Rüütel, Kristi

    2017-03-01

    Our study assessed sexually transmitted infections (STI) occurrence and risk behaviours from a sample of the defence forces of Estonia. Previous research on military personnel yields various results on the prevalence of STIs and high risk behaviours. The increasing recognition of high risk behaviours among military personnel is evident given increased programmes that focus on education of drug use and risky sexual behaviours. Many militaries conduct routine, periodic screening for diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis at entry and pre-foreign deployment. Protecting deployed forces from secondary infections is important as persons with chronic viral infections are living longer, healthier lives and are more frequently serving in military forces. A cross sectional study used convenient sampling among professional defence forces. Participation was both voluntary and anonymous. Of 186 participants accounting for 7.3% of all forces (86.6% male, mean age 30 years) at selected bases, there were four cases of chlamydia. No cases of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, or HIV were found. One person reported ever injecting drugs. These findings indicate a lower STI occurrence among professional defence forces in Estonia compared with the non-military population. While these rates were lower than expected, as a voluntary study, people suspicious of having an STI might opt not to participate, limiting generalizability to the remainder of the military. Militaries without regular screening programmes could consider regular scheduled testing for STIs, HIV and blood borne pathogens, even if voluntary, especially prior to foreign deployment. Consistent testing would align across many militaries who deploy international peace keepers.

  16. Dolomitization and sedimentary cyclicity of the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian rocks in South Estonia

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    Kallaste, Toivo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and composition of dolomitized rocks and stoichiometry of dolomite in southern Estonia in the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian were studied on the background of the facies, sedimentary cyclicity (nine shallowing-up cycles, and evolution of the palaeobasins. The composition of rocks and lattice parameters of dolomite were investigated using the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, titration and gravimetric analyses, and porosity measurements. The formation of dolostones is directly determined by the cyclic evolution of palaeobasins. Dolomitized rocks belong to the shallow-water inner shelf or tidal/lagoonal facies belt of regressive phases of sedimentary cycles. Sediments of the deep shelf/transitional environment and transgressive phases are not dolomitized. The most stoichiometric is secondary replacive dolomite of Silurian and upper Ordovician dolostones, formed during the early diagenesis of normal-marine (saline shallow-shelf calcitic sediments. The content of insoluble residue does not affect the stoichiometry. The changes in lattice parameters are induced by the Ca/Mg ratio in the dolomite lattice. The dolomite of the dolostones contacting limestone or containing calcite has an expanded lattice. The primary (syngenetic dolostone of the lagoonal or tidal flat belt has also an expanded lattice. No dolomitizing effect of the waters of the Devonian palaeobasin on the underlying rocks was revealed. The whole data set of the studied dolostones is consistent with the marine water environment in the palaeobasin at the corresponding time and shows no sign of the inflow of external fluids. It suggests that the microbial model of dolomite formation may characterize the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian in southern Estonia. The occurrence of dolostones between undolomitized rocks limits the time of dolomitization to the early diagenetic stage.

  17. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova, southeastern Estonia

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    Amon, Leeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the late glacial Solova (Remmeski basin, based on plant macro­fossil and diatom record, AMS 14C chronology and sediment composition (loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility data, provided information on vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the time of the deglaciation of the area around 14 000 cal yr BP. The chronology of the sequence is based on seven AMS dates on terrestrial macrofossils, providing evidence of rapid sedimentation in between 14 000 and 13 500 cal yr BP. Loss-on-ignition data show a clear short-lived warming episode centred to 13 800 cal yr BP, tentatively correlated with the GI-1c warming of the event stratigraphy of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region, which suggests that at least parts of the Haanja Heights were ice-free by 14 000 cal yr BP. Macrofossil evidence indicates Betula nana–Dryas octopetala-dominated open tundra communities with Saxifraga on dry ground, and Carex sp. and Juncus on wet ground at that time. The first evidence of the postglacial presence of tree birch (Betula pendula in Estonia is dated back to 13 500 cal yr BP. However, conifer remains were not found in the late glacial sediment sequence of Solova Bog. The late-Allerød (GI-1a organic deposits, which are quite typical of other parts of Estonia and indicate general warming, are missing at Solova, most probably due to a hiatus in sedimentation in this very small and shallow upland basin.

  18. The sedimentary sequence recovered from the Voka outcrops, northeastern Estonia: implications for late Pleistocene stratigraphy

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    Miidel, Avo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available New palaeoenvironmental and geological data, which may be integrated with the results from the neighbouring regions, were collected from two well-exposed continuous outcrops in the vicinity of Voka village, northeastern Estonia. These outcrops, situated in a klint depression – klint bay –, show an about 22 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to clayey subaqueous deposits. This succession of water-lain sediments documents the response to climate change during the late Pleistocene. On the basis of grain size characteristics, sedimentological structures, and luminescence chronostratigraphical data, the sequence is subdivided into two main units – A and B. Optical dating of 18 samples from the upper unit A shows that the unit is of middle Järva (= middle Weichselian age (marine isotope stage (MIS 3. Representative pollen spectra derived from 45 samples from the pollen-bearing part of unit A provide convincing evidence of noticeable changes in vegetation and climate in NE Estonia during the time period from 39 to 33 kyr BP, within which two intervals of severe climate and two relatively milder ones have been recognized. Preliminary data from the underlying unit B indicate that deposits of the last interglacial sensu lato and those of early pleniglacial age correlating with MIS 5 and MIS 4, respectively, occur here as well. Thus, the data obtained during the present study show unambiguously that in contrast with the expectations, the greater part of the late Pleistocene sequence is represented in the Voka section. No evidence was found for glacial activity during the late Pleistocene period predating the last glacial maximum. The use of the Voka event stratigraphy as a template facilitates search for correlative horizons in the neighbouring regions.

  19. Prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-mediating mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in five cities in Russia and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipitsyna, Elena; Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Golparian, Daniel; Khayrullina, Guzel; Lagos, Amaya C; Edelstein, Inna; Joers, Kai; Jensen, Jörgen S; Savicheva, Alevtina; Rudneva, Natalia; Sukhanova, Larisa; Kozlov, Roman; Guschin, Alexander; Unemo, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Resistance in the sexually transmitted bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium to all recommended therapeutic antimicrobials have rapidly emerged. However, to date, internationally reported resistance surveillance data for M. genitalium strains circulating in Eastern Europe are entirely lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations in M. genitalium in four cities in Russia and one in Estonia, 2013-2016. Consecutive urogenital samples found positive for M. genitalium during diagnostic testing were retrospectively analyzed for resistance-associated mutations in the 23S rRNA and parC genes using pyrosequencing and conventional Sanger sequencing, respectively. In total, 867 M. genitalium positive samples from 2013-2016 were analyzed. Macrolide resistance-associated mutations were detected in 4.6% of the samples from Russia (0.7-6.8% in different cities) and in 10% of the samples from Estonia. The mutations A2059G and A2058G were highly predominating in both Russia and Estonia, accounting together for 90.9% of the cases positive for nucleotide substitutions in the 23S rRNA gene. The rates of possible fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations were 6.2% in Russia (2.5-7.6% in different cities) and 5% in Estonia. The mutations S83I and S83N were the most frequent ones in Russia (24.4% each), whereas D87N highly predominated in Estonia (83.3% of all fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations). Approximately 1% of the samples in both countries harbored both macrolide and possible fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations, with A2058G and S83I being the most frequent combination (37.5%). The prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations in M. genitalium was 4.6% and 6.2%, respectively, in Russia, and 10% and 5%, respectively, in Estonia. Despite the relatively low rates of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in these countries, antimicrobial resistance

  20. Federal and state cigarette excise taxes - United States, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-22

    On April 1, 2009, the largest federal cigarette excise tax increase in history went into effect, bringing the combined federal and average state excise tax for cigarettes to $2.21 per pack and achieving the Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objective (27-21a) to increase the combined federal and average state cigarette excise tax to at least $2 per pack. This report summarizes changes in the federal excise tax, as well as state excise taxes for all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) from December 31, 1995 to April 1, 2009. The findings indicate that the federal excise tax increased from 24 cents per pack in 1995 to $1.01 per pack in 2009, and the average state excise tax increased from 32.7 cents per pack to $1.20 per pack during the same period. These increases represent a 321% increase in the federal excise tax and a 267% increase in the average state excise tax since 1995. Price increases should be combined with other evidence-based policy and clinical interventions to meet HP2010 objectives to decrease smoking prevalence and reduce the burden from smoking-attributable death and disease.

  1. Excision repair in mammalian cells. [uv radiation, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, F.E.; Setlow, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Excision repair after combined treatments of uv and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAAF) was studied by three different techniques in cells proficient in uv excision repair and in cells deficient in uv repair. Two patterns of repair were observed: in repair proficient cells total repair was additive, and in repair deficient cells total repair was much less than additive--usually less than observed for separate treatments--and AAAF inhibited dimer excision. We conclude that in the 1st class of cells pathways for repair of uv and AAAF lesions are not identical, and in the 2nd class the residual excision enzymes are different from those in repair proficient cells.

  2. Fiscal and regulatory capacity of excise tax in the case of the taxation of tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Петрівна Карпенко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to assessing the fiscal and regulatory effects of excise tax in the context of its impact on the production and consumption of tobacco products. The assessments of the volume of tobacco production, consumption, excise tax on their needs, the volume of smuggling were given. The foreign experience in excise taxation of tobacco products was analyzed. The prospects for implementation of the fiscal and regulatory capacities of excise tax in the context of the taxation of tobacco products were proved

  3. Extralevator versus standard abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdawood, S K; Lund, T

    2015-03-01

    Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) probably improves the oncological quality of low rectal cancer surgery, as compared to standard abdominoperineal excision (SAPE), possibly due to lower rates of accidental perioperative bowel perforations and lower rates of circumferential resection margin (CRM) positivity. The procedure may however, increase post-operative morbidity. The aim of this paper was to compare outcomes of SAPE and ELAPE for carcinoma of the lower rectum. This is a retrospective study of patients operated on at a single colorectal unit, in a provincial hospital in Denmark. Consecutive patients undergoing abdominoperineal excision (APE) between 2006 and 2012 were included. During this period, a gradual paradigm shift occurred towards adopting ELAPE, although both procedures were performed without a clear selection strategy. We reviewed medical records, including the pathological and radiological data. Patients were divided into two groups, SAPE and ELAPE. Main endpoints were rates of positive CRM, intraoperative bowel perforations, local recurrence rate, length of hospital stay, operative time, and perineal wound-related complications. One hundred and seven patients were included (median age 68 years, range 42-88 years; men = 72). The SAPE group included 39 patients and the ELAPE group 68 patients. Intraoperative bowel perforation was significantly lower in the ELAPE group (20.5% SAPE vs 7.4% ELAPE, p = 0.045). The rate of positive CRM was not significantly different (2.6% SAPE vs 7.4% ELAPE, p = 0.413). The local recurrence rate was not statistically significant (17.9% SAPE vs 13.2% ELAPE, p = 0.513). In the ELAPE group, operative time and hospital stay were significantly longer than the SAPE group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). We found low rates of positive CRM after APE compared with the literature. ELAPE did not reduce these rates, and although the local recurrence rate was lower, this did not reach statistical significance

  4. Successful Robotic Excision and Early Chemotherapy for Primary Cardiac Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Emmanuel; Goldstein, Daniel A; Bradley, Kyle T; Flowers, Christopher R; Murphy, Douglas A

    2016-07-01

    We present a 67-year-old patient who underwent robotic excision of a mobile left ventricular mass found incidentally on echocardiography. Intraoperative findings revealed a pedunculated mass infiltrating the interventricular septum, and the results of pathologic examination of the frozen section were consistent with malignancy. The final pathologic examination showed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and early chemotherapy was initiated. Follow-up cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed completely normal myocardium without evidence of malignancy. The lateral endoscopic robotic approach across the mitral valve permitted optimal tumor visualization and early chemotherapy initiation without concern for cardiac rupture or related adverse events. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromatin Dynamics during Nucleotide Excision Repair: Histones on the Move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E. Polo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a long-standing question how DNA damage repair proceeds in a nuclear environment where DNA is packaged into chromatin. Several decades of analysis combining in vitro and in vivo studies in various model organisms ranging from yeast to human have markedly increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chromatin disorganization upon damage detection and re-assembly after repair. Here, we review the methods that have been developed over the years to delineate chromatin alterations in response to DNA damage by focusing on the well-characterized Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER pathway. We also highlight how these methods have provided key mechanistic insight into histone dynamics coupled to repair in mammals, raising new issues about the maintenance of chromatin integrity. In particular, we discuss how NER factors and central players in chromatin dynamics such as histone modifiers, nucleosome remodeling factors, and histone chaperones function to mobilize histones during repair.

  6. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-21

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  7. Laser excision of a mucocele: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mucous cyst (mucocele, mucous retention cyst, ranula, and epulis is usually a painless, thin sac on the inner surface of the lips. It contains clear fluid. It is painless but can be bothersome. The cyst is thought to be caused due to sucking of the lip membranes between the teeth. A mucous cyst is common and harmless. However, if left untreated, it can organize and form a permanent bump on the inner surface of the lip. A mucous cyst is called ranula when it occurs on the floor of the mouth and epulis when it occurs on the gums. The sac may also be formed around the jewellery (piercings that has been inserted into the lips or the tongue. This article highlights the use of lasers in the treatment of the excision of mucocele.

  8. Chromatin Dynamics during Nucleotide Excision Repair: Histones on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Salomé; Polo, Sophie E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been a long-standing question how DNA damage repair proceeds in a nuclear environment where DNA is packaged into chromatin. Several decades of analysis combining in vitro and in vivo studies in various model organisms ranging from yeast to human have markedly increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chromatin disorganization upon damage detection and re-assembly after repair. Here, we review the methods that have been developed over the years to delineate chromatin alterations in response to DNA damage by focusing on the well-characterized Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) pathway. We also highlight how these methods have provided key mechanistic insight into histone dynamics coupled to repair in mammals, raising new issues about the maintenance of chromatin integrity. In particular, we discuss how NER factors and central players in chromatin dynamics such as histone modifiers, nucleosome remodeling factors, and histone chaperones function to mobilize histones during repair. PMID:23109890

  9. Quantifying Long-term Retention of Excised Fat Grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    bxg165, bxg165; Ørholt, Mathias; Glovinski, Peter V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Predicting the degree of fat graft retention is essential whenplanning reconstruction or augmentation with free fat grafting. Most surgeonsobserve volume loss over time after fat grafting; however, the portion lost toresorption after surgery is still poorly defined, and the time...... to reach steadystate is unknown. Methods: The authors compiled a retrospective, longitudinal cohort of patientswith vestibular schwannoma who had undergone ablative surgery and reconstructionwith excised fat between the years 2006 and 2015. Fat volume retentionwas quantified by computed tomography....... The average baseline graft volumewas 18.1 ± 4.8 ml. The average time to reach steady state was 806 days aftertransplantation. By this time, the average fat graft retention was 50.6 percent(95 percent CI, 46.4 to 54.7 percent). No statistically significant association wasfound between baseline graft volume...

  10. Effect of transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawood, Sharaf Karim; Thinggaard, Benjamin Sejr; Bjoern, Maya Xania

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term results of total mesorectal excision (TME) for mid and low rectal cancer, achieved by transanal (TaTME), laparoscopic (LaTME), and open (OpTME) approaches. BACKGROUND: The impact of TaTME on the surgical treatment of mid and low rectal cancer has yet to be clarified...... LaTME and one OpTME based on sex, BMI, tumor status, and the height of the tumor from the anal verge. Primary end-points were rates of positive circumferential resection margin (CRM), distal resection margin, and the macroscopic quality of the surgical specimen. Composite of these outcomes...... benefits over other approaches. The pathological results were not significantly superior to LaTME and OpTME. The procedure is however feasible and safe. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term oncological and quality of life outcomes....

  11. Laparoscopic Excision of a Scar Pregnancy and Isthmocele Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, Huseyin; Wetherilt, Lale Susan; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Polat, Ibrahim; Kadirogullari, Pınar; Karacan, Tolga

    2017-10-13

    Laparoscopic excision of a scar pregnancy and isthmocele repair with a barbed suture. A step-by-step explanation of the laparoscopic excision technique of a scar pregnancy and isthmocele repair. Cesarean scar pregnancy occurs as a result of attachment of the products of conception to the uterine scar [1-3]. In the present case, a 34-year-old, gravida 4, para 1 patient with a history of 1 miscarriage and 1 ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed with type 2 cesarean scar pregnancy at 7 weeks of gestation. Dilation and curretage was performed at the 8th week of gestation to terminate the pregnancy. On ultrasonography performed 1 month later, placental material underlying the isthmocele was observed. Her beta human chorionic gonadotropin level was 13 836 mIU/mL. She was followed up for 1.5 months until the beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels were negative. However, the mass underneath the scar had grown larger, measuring up to 5 × 6 cm. Laparoscopy was performed because the patient reported vaginal spotting and pelvic pain. The incision was sutured with a synthetic absorbable unidirectional barbed suture (Stratafix Knotless Tissue Control Device; Ethicon Inc., Somerville, NJ). No residual scar defect was visible on follow-up ultrasonography 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Barbed sutures ease the repair of uterine scar defects and can provide ideal reapproximation of thick myometrial tissue. Laparoscopic treatment of a scar pregnancy and isthmocele repair are effective and safe modes of treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Robotic assisted laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal Ganglioneuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burttet, Lucas Medeiros; Abreu, Fernando Jahn da Silva; Varaschin, Gabrielle Aguiar; Silva, Brasil; Berger, Milton

    2017-01-01

    Ganglioneuromas are rare benign neoplasms of the sympathetic nervous system. We describe the case of an incidentally found ganglioneuroma in a woman. To our knowledge this is the first described case of robotic excision of a retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma. A 41-year-old female had an incidental retroperitoneal mass found during a routine US. CT scan and MRI showed an 8.3cm homogeneous mass, adjacent to left kidney upper pole, with peripheral contrast enhancement. Metabolic tests were normal. Patient was positioned in a left flank position and five ports were introduced transperitoneally. A 4-arm Da Vinci SI was docked at a 45º angle to the table. Lesion was dissected along with left adrenal gland, beginning at the left renal hilum and proceeding cephalad. Operating time was 325min and blood loss was 50ml. Patient was discharged after 72hours. There were no post-operative complications. Pathology showed ganglionic cells with neural tissue, and normal adrenal. Ganglioneuromas rare benign tumors originating from neural crest and typically affect young adults. Most frequent locations are posterior mediastinum, retroperitoneum and adrenal gland. As in this case, ganglioneuromas are usually silent, slow growing tumors discovered incidentally or by mass effect. US and CT imaging may suggest the diagnosis while MRI findings can be specific for ganglioneuroma. Percutaneous biopsy is an option. Although benign, usually requires surgical excision for treatment. Our case shows that a robotic approach is feasible and allows for meticulous and safe dissection of vascular structures, facilitating adequate hemostasis while maintaining oncological principles. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  13. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal paracaval tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chun Wei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, robotic surgical systems have been rapidly developed. The progress and advantages of these systems include three-dimensional vision and enhanced ergonomics. These advantages have helped a new generation of minimally invasive surgery to evolve. The da Vinci Surgical System seems to greatly resolve problems (e.g., wide exposure and retraction of peritoneal organs that are confronted by traditional laparoscopic surgeries for retroperitoneal tumors that are near great vessels. There have been few reported cases concerning laparoscopic excision of retroperitoneal tumors situated between the inferior vena cava, the right renal vessel, and the kidney. We report the use of a robotic surgical system for this type of treatment. A 54-year-old female patient had a hypoechoic lesion near the inferior vena cava and superior to the right renal vessels. It was incidentally found by ultrasound during a health check-up examination. The computed tomography (CT scan revealed a heterogeneous contrast-enhanced retroperitoneal mass approximately 4.4 cm medial to the right kidney with the inferior vena cava slightly deviated to the left. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of the retroperitoneal tumor was performed on October 15, 2010 with an operation time of 135 minutes and an estimated blood loss of less than 30 mL. The J-Vac drainage tube was removed on postoperative Day 3, and the patient was discharged in a stable condition the following day. The pathology of the tumor was retroperitoneal schwannoma. A re-evaluation was arranged postoperatively for the 15-month ambulatory visit. No local recurrence or distal metastasis was present.

  15. Impact of cigarette taxation policy on excise revenues and cigarette consumption in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uzbekistan ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which states that price and tax measures are an effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. We aimed to explore the effect of taxation policies on revenues and cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data on tax rates, revenues, cigarette sales were taken from national reports. To forecast potential revenues, a scenario analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 1991-2004, ad valorem excise system was in place in Uzbekistan, which was later replaced by the specific excise system. In 1997-2011, the nominal average excise has increased by a factor of twenty, but in real terms, after a sharp increase in 1999, average excise declined annually and increased only in 2010-2011. Annual cigarette sales per capita of adult population in 1999-2007 constituted 17-25 cigarette packs, while in 2008-2011 it increased to 30-37 packs. Four scenarios of excise tax increases in 2012 were developed: one actual scenario based on the rates effective in Uzbekistan in 2012, and three hypothetical ones anticipating excise rates increase by 1.5, 2 and 3-fold. With actual excise increase in 2012, the inflation-adjusted budget revenues would grow by 5%, and with three hypothetical - by 17%, 35% and 66% respectively, despite the decline of tax-paid cigarette sales. CONCLUSION: Stabilization or reduction in cigarette excises in Uzbekistan in 2002-2008 led to a decline in real excise revenues and the growth of cigarette sales. In 1999 and 2010-2011, excises were significantly increased and the real revenues have risen, despite the decline in cigarette sales. As cigarette prices are low, the illegal outflow of cigarettes from Uzbekistan apparently exceeds the illegal inflow. A significant increase in cigarette excise (1.5-3 fold can both increase budget revenues and reduce cigarette consumption, with greater increase yielding more benefits.

  16. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Aubrechtova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The early Palaeozoic order Ascocerida is a group of morphologically unique and rare cephalopods known from the Ordovician and Silurian rocks of Avalonia, Baltica, Laurentia and Perunica. The limited Estonian record of Silurian ascocerids is complemented with a specimen from the Pähkla locality (Island of Saaremaa; Paadla Regional Stage, Ludlow Series representing the stratigraphically oldest known occurrence of ascocerids in the Silurian of Estonia. The strata that were formerly exposed in Pähkla are likely correlated to the Hemse Group of the Island of Gotland (Sweden having a remarkable record of ascocerids. The appearance of Silurian ascocerids in Estonia is confined to a time interval when the group had the highest species diversity and the widest geographic dispersion, reaching also outside Baltica for the first time.

  17. ‘Looking like my favourite Barbie’ – Online Gender Construction of Tween Girls in Estonia and in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Siibak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse how tween girls in Estonia and in Sweden describe and discover their gender identities when selecting profile images for social networking sites (SNSs. To this end, interviews with tweens in Estonia (N=21 and in Sweden (N=31 were carried out. As SNSs largely exist without the recognisable surveillance of adults, children can explore the social matrix of relating to others, and they also feel safe to try out and display different constructions and reconstructions of their identity. At the same time, in communicating online, impression management is formulated with constant worry about how to construct one’s virtual identity so that it will be appreciated and accepted by one’s peer group. In this article, our analysis focuses on the most popular posing strategies used by tween girls, which, it turns out, are often marked by reproduction of the dominant heterosexual cultural norms and values.

  18. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  19. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariina Hiiob; Enn Karro

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight diffe...

  20. Covenant of Mayors: Fuel Switch and Sustainable Demand in signatories from "stress test" countries Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    KONA ALBANA; MELICA GIULIA; GABRIELAITIENE IRENA; RIVAS CALVETE SILVIA; ZANCANELLA PAOLO; IANCU ANDREEA; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2014-01-01

    The Covenant of Mayors (CoM) is the mainstream European movement involving local authorities voluntarily committing to meet and exceed the European Union 20% CO2 reduction objective by 2020 by increasing energy efficiency and through the use of renewable energy sources on their territories. In this report main figures from SEAPs in CoM signatories from "stress test " countries, most exposed to risk related Russian natural gas imports (Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia Finland) a...