WorldWideScience

Sample records for estimation des sections

  1. Association des universités africaines - section des TIC pour les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Association des universités africaines (AUA), dont le siège se trouve à Accra, au Ghana, est une organisation non gouvernementale internationale qui encourage la coopération entre les universités africaines et avec la communauté internationale. L'Association administre divers programmes et services au bénéfice de ...

  2. Estimation de la qualité des eaux de la Somme par l'étude des peuplements algaux benthiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DESCY J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Une étude de la végétation algale benthique de la Somme, effectuée en septembre 1974, a permis d'établir une estimation de la qualité biologique des eaux de la Somme. La méthode utilisée, mise au point au cours de recherches dans la Meuse et la Sambre belges, est basée sur l'étude quantitative des peuplements de Diatomées benthiques

  3. 184 Estimation des changements de la ligne de rivage de la zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youness

    ISSN 1813-548X. Mohamed AHIZOUN et al. 184. Estimation des changements de la ligne de rivage de la zone côtière sablonneuse de Kénitra au Maroc. Mohamed AHIZOUN1*, Eric MAIRE2, Souad HAIDA1,. José DARROZES2 et Jean-Luc PROBST3. 1 Laboratoire géophysique, mécanique des fluides, environnement et ...

  4. Interventions prioritaires en Afrique de l'ouest pour l'estimation des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de l'étude visait à identifier par ordre de priorité les interventions de nutrition pour l'estimation des dépenses. La méthodologie utilisée a consisté à établir une liste de 37 interventions du secteur de la santé et d'autres secteurs à partir des interventions proposées par l'OMS et celles de la série Lancet de 2008.

  5. Estimation of the Human Absorption Cross Section Via Reverberation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2018-01-01

    Since the presence of persons affects the reverberation time observed for in-room channels, the absorption cross section of a person can be estimated from measurements via Sabine's and Eyring's models for the reverberation time. We propose an estimator relying on the more accurate model by Eyring...... in the literature. We also suggest the use of controlled environments with low average absorption coefficients to obtain more reliable estimates. The obtained values can be used to predict the change of reverberation time with persons in the propagation environment. This allows prediction of channel characteristics...

  6. Des

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, L.G.J.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Al-Dhabi, N.A.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; de Leeuw, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the high-resolution and well-dated 25,000 year sedimentary record of Lake Challa, a deeptropical crater lake in equatorial East Africa, to explore new proxies for paleoenvironmental and paleohydrologicalchange. Sedimentary biomarker analysis revealed the presence of des-A-triterpenoids

  7. Pollution Load Estimation Based on Characteristic Section Load Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Song, JinXi; Liu, WanQing

    2017-12-01

    Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section is taken as the research objective in this paper and COD is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a new method to estimate pollution loads-Characteristic Section Load Method(CSLM) is proposed and point source pollution and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in the year 2007. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are discharged stably, the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section change greatly, the non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of COD are gradually decreased in the rainy, normal and wet periods.

  8. Estimating Single-Event Logic Cross Sections in Advanced Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R. C.; Kauppila, J. S.; Warren, K. M.; Chen, Y. P.; Maharrey, J. A.; Haeffner, T. D.; Loveless, T. D.; Bhuva, B. L.; Bounasser, M.; Lilja, K.; Massengill, L. W.

    2017-08-01

    Reliable estimation of logic single-event upset (SEU) cross section is becoming increasingly important for predicting the overall soft error rate. As technology scales and single-event transient (SET) pulse widths shrink to widths on the order of the setup-and-hold time of flip-flops, the probability of latching an SET as an SEU must be reevaluated. In this paper, previous assumptions about the relationship of SET pulsewidth to the probability of latching an SET are reconsidered and a model for transient latching probability has been developed for advanced technologies. A method using the improved transient latching probability and SET data is used to predict logic SEU cross section. The presented model has been used to estimate combinational logic SEU cross sections in 32-nm partially depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology given experimental heavy-ion SET data. Experimental SEU data show good agreement with the model presented in this paper.

  9. Estimations hypoelliptiques globales et compacit\\'e de la r\\'esolvante Estimations hypoelliptiques globales et compacit\\'e de la r\\'esolvante pour des op\\'erateurs de Fokker-Planck ou des laplaciens de Witten

    CERN Document Server

    Helffer, B

    2004-01-01

    Ces derni\\`eres ann\\'ees, les estimations hypoelliptiques ont connu une nouvelle jeunesse en liaison avec des questions provenant de la th\\'eorie cin\\'etique des gaz. Dans cette direction de nombreux auteurs ont en effet eu besoin de d\\'emontrer des estimations maximales pour en d\\'eduire la compacit\\'e de l'op\\'erateur de Fokker-Planck et avoir des estimations sur la r\\'esolvante permettant d'aborder la question du retour \\`a l'\\'equilibre. Dans un article tr\\`es r\\'ecent, F.~H\\'erau et F.~Nier (inspir\\'es par des calculs explicites du livre de Risken) ont mis en \\'evidence les liens \\'etroits entre ces questions et des questions analogues pour un laplacien de Witten. L'\\'etude de ces liens est poursuivie et syst\\'ematis\\'ee dans un livre en pr\\'eparation \\'ecrit en collaboration avec F.~Nier dont nous allons pr\\'esenter quelques aspects ici en pr\\'esentant parfois un \\'eclairage diff\\'erent sur un probl\\`eme qui laisse encore beaucoup de conjectures non r\\'esolues.

  10. Le phénomène du masquage dans le signalement des événements « les plus graves » : biais influant sur les estimations des taux d’incidence des blessures sportives chez les enfants canadiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Les enquêtes sur la cueillette de données sur les blessures ciblent souvent « l’événement le plus grave » dans le but de limiter les erreurs de mémoire et de réduire la longueur des questionnaires. Cela risque cependant de masquer des blessures moins graves et d’entraîner un biais dans les estimations des taux d’incidence de certaines sous-catégories de traumatismes. Méthodologie : Nous avons utilisé des données tirées de l’Enquête sur les comportements liés à la santé des enfants d’âge scolaire (ECSEAS et du Système canadien hospitalier d’information et de recherche en prévention des traumatismes (SCHIRPT pour comparer les estimations des taux d’incidence des blessures sportives chez les enfants canadiens. Résultats : D’après les données de l’ECSEAS, 6,7 % des enfants déclarent avoir subi une blessure sportive ayant nécessité une consultation à un service des urgences. N’ont cependant été recueillies que les données sur la blessure « la plus grave » subie par l’enfant, ce qui fait qu’un enfant ayant subi de multiples blessures justifiant une consultation à un service des urgences est susceptible d’avoir subi des blessures sportives passées sous silence. La sous-estimation de ce taux de 6,7 % pourrait atteindre 4,3 %. D’après les données de surveillance du SCHIRPT correspondantes, le taux d’incidence de ces blessures est de 9,9 %. Nous mettons également en lumière dans notre analyse le biais potentiel de masquage lié aux blessures traitées par d’autres prestataires de soins de santé. Conclusion : Poser une question sur « la blessure la plus grave » risque d’induire un biais de masquage considérable du taux d’incidence des blessures sportives, limitant ainsi la capacité des chercheurs à estimer l’ampleur réelle du phénomène. Des périodes de rappel plus longues entraînent inévitablement un phénomène de masquage plus important. La conception

  11. Utilisation du phytoplancton pour estimer la production piscicole potentielle des étangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBE J.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Pour faciliter la gestion des étangs de pisciculture, il est nécessaire d'avoir un moyen pour estimer en cours de saison si l'objectif de production sera atteint, et éventuellement, intervenir sur la qualité du milieu. Les méthodes d'estimation et de prévision mentionnées dans la littérature ne sont pas applicables aux étangs de pisciculture, milieux fortement anthropisés. A partir de données (physico-chimie, plancton, production piscicole collectées sur 36 étangs en France, les auteurs proposent une méthode de prévision de la récolte piscicole à partir du phytoplancton (groupe prédominant et teneur en chlorophylle a. A l'usage, cette méthode s'est avérée satisfaisante pour prévoir des productions nettes jusqu'à plus de 500 kg/hectare.

  12. Estimating the recreational carrying capacity of a lowland river section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Pusch, Martin T

    2012-01-01

    Recreational boating represents a major human use of inland waters in many regions. However, boating tourism may affect the ecological integrity of surface waters in multiple ways. In particular, surface waves produced by boating may disturb freshwater invertebrates, such as interrupting the filtration activity of benthic mussels. As mussels may significantly contribute to self-purification, disturbance may have crucial impacts on water quality, and thus on water tourism. In this paper we calculate the carrying capacity of a river section for sustainable boating tourism based on the preservation of water quality. This approach is complemented by spatial and social approaches for carrying capacity estimates. The ecological carrying capacity significantly decreases with lower water levels during summer. Hence, the analysis of variables that influence the river's carrying capacity allows the formation of recommendations for management measures that integrate social, touristic and ecological aspects.

  13. An empirical fit to estimated neutron emission cross sections from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron emission cross section for various elements from 9Be to 209Bi have been calculated using the hybrid model code ALICE-91 for proton induced reactions in the energy range 25 MeV to 105 MeV. An empirical expression relating neutron emission cross section to target mass number and incident proton energy has ...

  14. Caractérisation et estimation du gonflement des argiles algériennes, cas des argiles de Médéa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medjnoun Amal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le matériau argileux, dur et cassant lorsqu’il est asséché, présente la particularité de voir sa consistance se modifier en fonction de sa teneur en eau. Un certain degré d’humidité peut le transformer en un matériau plastique et malléable. Ces modifications de consistance peuvent s’accompagner, en fonction de la structure particulière de certains minéraux argileux, de variations de volume plus ou moins conséquentes qui se manifestent soit sous forme d’une forte augmentation de volume (phénomène de gonflement lorsque la teneur en eau augmente ou de rétrécissement (phénomène de retrait en période de déficit pluviométrique marqué. Ce comportement est lié essentiellement à certains paramètres environnementaux de ces sols à l’exemple de la géologie et de la lithologie du site, du climat, etc. La prévision du potentiel de gonflement des sols est possible moyennant certaines méthodes empiriques basées sur des paramètres d’identification tels que la plasticité et la granulométrie déterminées lors des campagnes de reconnaissance. Une fois le caractère de gonflement pressenti dans la phase de reconnaissance préliminaire, une estimation de l’amplitude et de la pression de gonflement peut être établie à partir des corrélations, qui tendent à mettre en relation les paramètres de gonflement avec les paramètres géotechniques issus des essais d’identification. C’est dans cet aspect que s’inscrit cet article en traitant le cas d’un site algérien. Les résultats obtenus montrent une concordance entre les méthodes empiriques appliquées. Ces résultats sont aussi comparés avec ceux obtenus des essais de gonflement à l’oedométrique. L’évolution de la structure argileuse au cours de retrait-gonflement est suivie dans l’objectif de comprendre le mécanisme de gonflement.

  15. Évaluation de la diversité et estimation de la biomasse des arbres d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2016 ... de carbones des arbres d'avenues et de boulevards rend compte de la participation des arbres d'alignement de la commune du Plateau et de Cocody à la réduction du dioxyde de carbone (CO2), l'un des gaz à effet de serre désigné comme la première cause du réchauffement climatique (GIEC, 2004).

  16. Estimation of the mean normal measure from flat sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus

    2008-01-01

    measure of Z, if k>2 or k=2 and an additional mild assumption holds. The mean normal measures of finitely many flat sections are not sufficient for this purpose. On the other hand, a discrete mean normal measure can be verified by mean normal measures of intersections with almost all m-tuples of planes...

  17. Estimation of Lithofacies Proportions Using Well and Well Test Data Estimation des proportions lithologiques à partir des données de puits et d'essais de puits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc G.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A crucial step of the two commonly used geostatistical methods for modeling heterogeneous reservoirs : the sequential indicator simulation and the truncated Gaussian simulation is the estimation of the lithofacies local proportion (or probability density functions. Well-test derived permeabilities show good correlation with lithofacies proportions around wells. Integrating well and well-test data in estimating lithofacies proportions could permit the building of more realistic models of reservoir heterogeneity. However this integration is difficult because of the different natures and measurement scales of these two types of data. This paper presents a two step approach to integrating well and well-test data into heterogeneous reservoir modeling. First lithofacies proportions in well-test investigation areas are estimated using a new kriging algorithm called KISCA. KISCA consists in kriging jointly the proportions of all lithofacies in a well-test investigation area so that the corresponding well-test derived permeability is respected through a weighted power averaging of lithofacies permeabilities. For multiple well-tests, an iterative process is used in KISCA to account for their interaction. After this, the estimated proportions are combined with lithofacies indicators at wells for estimating proportion (or probability density functions over the entire reservoir field using a classical kriging method. Some numerical examples were considered to test the proposed method for estimating lithofacies proportions. In addition, a synthetic lithofacies reservoir model was generated and a well-test simulation was performed. The comparison between the experimental and estimated proportions in the well-test investigation area demonstrates the validity of the proposed method. La méthode de simulation gaussienne seuillée et la méthode de simulation séquentielle d'indicatrices sont aujourd'hui couramment utilisées pour générer des mod

  18. Modélisation et incertitude : comparison de deux méthodes pour l'estimation de la confiance des résultats des modèles numériques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aude, P.; Depecker, P.; Krauss, G.

    1997-01-01

    The problem developed and analyzed in this paper is that of the estimation of the uncertainty associated with the results obtained by numerical simulation codes of physical systems induced from input data. In the first section, a general problem is developed and the authors describe briefly the methods used to calculate the uncertainty domain. They present two classic methods, one is a probability method, the Monte-Carlo method; the other, a determinist method, a differential analysis with finite differences. In the second section, two examples of models of thermal behaviour of building are used to underline the advantages and the drawbacks of both methods. These models are extracted fractions of larger models allowing a simplified presentation of the methods proposed. The authors determine the uncertainty domains on outputs simultaneously with the two methods. They show that the obtained domain by differential analysis is lightly pessimistic, but very near to those of the Monte-Carlo method, in the case of first model, linear, like in the case of second, highly nonlinear. The differential analysis is clearly more economical in calculation time and makes it possible to identify sensitive data with significant bearing on output uncertainty. Nevertheless, it is emphasized that for this method it is essential to enter into the calculation code formalism. globally, the authors conclude that a relative superiority of the differential analysis exists, particularly in the case of large codes where Monte-Carlo use would be prohibitive in calculation time. Le problème développé dans ce texte est celui de l'estimation de l'incertitude associée aux résultats produits par les codes de simulation numérique des systèmes physiques, induite par les incertitudes des données d'entrée. Dans la première partie, les auteurs posent le problème général et décrivent brièvement les méthodes utilisées pour calculer l'amplitude du domaine d'incertitude. Ils présentent deux

  19. Évaluation de la diversité et estimation de la biomasse des arbres d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous avons par la suite évalué la biomasse des individus à partir d'équations allométriques génériques des arbres urbains. Les analyses ont permis de dénombrer 705 individus dont 565 au Plateau et 140 à Cocody. Ces individus sont repartis entre 29 espèces, 20 genres et 17 familles. Les espèces les plus représentées ...

  20. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  1. Mesure de la section efficace de production des quarks beaux et charmés à partir de leur désintegration semileptonique en électrons avec l'experience ATLAS dans les collisions protons-protons a sqrt(s) = 7 TeV au LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Bordoni, Stefania

    Le thème central de la thèse est la mesure de la section efficace de production des électrons venant de la désintégration des quarks lourds (b et c) avec l'expérience ATLAS dans les collisions proton-proton à sqrt(s)=7 TeV au LHC. La calibration du calorimètre électromagnétique et la reconstruction des électrons jouent un rôle cardinal dans l'analyse développée dans cette thèse. Ces thématiques sont traitées dans la première partie du manuscrit. L'étude des systématiques liées à la variation des constantes de calibration paramètrant la chaîne de lecture du calorimètre et qui affectent la reconstruction de l'énergie des cellules est presentée. La description des procédures de reconstruction des événements dans le détecteur ATLAS est ensuite traitée. Les cas de mauvaise reconstruction sont abordés et une étude de l'estimation du taux des faux leptons dans des événements multi-jets est présentée. La deuxième partie de la thèse est dédiée à la mesure de la section ef...

  2. Quelques considérations sur l’évolution des normes de calcul des poteaux avec la section mixte acier-béton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Chira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis près d’un siècle, le système de construction basé sur des portiques en acier ou mixtes acier béton est devenu l’un des types les plus utilisés dans le domaine du génie civil. Plusieurs générations d’ingénieurs se sont préoccupées du développement des méthodes de calcul et des technologies de fabrication relatives à ces structures. En vue d’un dimensionnement optimal des structures, les ingénieurs sont tenus de trouver un compromis entre les exigences structurales de résistance, rigidité et ductilité d’une part, et les objectifs d’utilisation et de fonction relevant d’exigences architecturales d’autre part. Cette article fait une comparaison entre différents méthodes de dimensionnement des poteaux mixtes acier béton, en tenant compte des plusieurs paramètres.

  3. Etude de la distribution des champs magnetostatiques dans une section d'essais de type CANDU chauffee par effet de joule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Darren

    Parmi tous les parametres physiques consideres lors de l'analyse de surete d'un reacteur nucleaire, le flux de chaleur critique (FCC) fait partie des plus importants. Afin d'etudier le FCC sous des conditions experimentales relativement securitaires, la chaleur degagee par le combustible nucleaire peut etre reproduite grâce a l'effetet de Joule. Or, afin de generer la puissance thermique necessaire pour les experiences sur le FCC des reacteurs CANDU, des courants electriques tres eleves de l'ordre de plusieurs dizaines de milliers d'amperes sont requis ce qui genere un champ magnetostatique tres intense capable d'interagir avec la section d'essais et l'instrumentation. Consequemment, l'industrie nucleaire est preoccupee par les effets de ce champ magnetique sur les donnees collectees et par les forces d'origine magnetique agissant sur le systeme. Dans ce contexte, le travail presente dans ce memoire de maitrise vise l'implementation d'une methodologie de calcul capable de fournir une information detaillee sur le champ magnetique engendre par ces courants. Toutefois, etant donne la complexitee du systeme, une etude magnetostatique appropriee requiert une methode numerique afin d'obtenir une distribution fiable du champ magnetique a travers differentes structures de la section d'essais. a cet effet, nous considerons dans le cadre de ce memoire le volume integral equation method (VIEM), une methode bien etablie basee sur les solutions integrales des equations de Maxwell. Plus precisement, nous employons le VIEM afin d'etudier la distribution du champ magetique a l'interieur de la section d'essais et pour determiner l'influence des prises concues pour le branchement des capteurs de pression sur la symetrie de cette distribution. Etant donne que les methodes integrales incluent les conditions aux limites et par consequent ne requierent pas l'emploi d'un critere de convergence, nous proposons une nouvelle technique de discretisation. L'emploi de cette procedure nous

  4. Estimation of Fractionally Integrated Panels with Fixed Effects and Cross-Section Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider large N, T panel data models with fixed effects, common factors allowing cross-section dependence, and persistent data and shocks, which are assumed fractionally integrated. In a basic setup, the main interest is on the fractional parameter of the idiosyncratic component, which...... is estimated in first differences after factor removal by projection on the cross-section average. The pooled conditional-sum-of-squares estimate is root-NT consistent but the normal asymptotic distribution might not be centered, requiring the time series dimension to grow faster than the cross-section size...... for correction. Generalizing the basic setup to include covariates and heterogeneous parameters, we propose individual and common-correlation estimates for the slope parameters, while error memory parameters are estimated from regression residuals. The two parameter estimates are root-T consistent...

  5. Estimating time to pregnancy from current durations in a cross-sectional sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Kvist, Kajsa; Hartvig, Helle

    2002-01-01

    A new design for estimating the distribution of time to pregnancy is proposed and investigated. The design is based on recording current durations in a cross-sectional sample of women, leading to statistical problems similar to estimating renewal time distributions from backward recurrence times...

  6. Semi-Analytical Weight Estimation Method for Fuselages with Oval Cross-Section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, R.; Hoogreef, M.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method for the weight estimation of fuselages with an oval cross-section, applied to blended wing body aircraft. The weight estimation of the fuselage primary structure is based on a structural analysis of two-dimensional crosssections and it is completed by a

  7. Attitudes des prescripteurs de scanner en matiere de radioprotection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Evaluer les attitudes des prescripteurs de scanner en matière de radioprotection des patients à Lomé au Togo. Méthodologie: Etude transversale descriptive ... Objective: Estimate the attitudes of CT scan prescribers regarding radiation protection of the patients in Lome. Methods: Cross-sectional study performed ...

  8. Estimation of unemployment rates using small area estimation model by combining time series and cross-sectional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlisoh, Siti; Kurnia, Anang; Notodiputro, Khairil Anwar; Mangku, I. Wayan

    2016-02-01

    Labor force surveys conducted over time by the rotating panel design have been carried out in many countries, including Indonesia. Labor force survey in Indonesia is regularly conducted by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik-BPS) and has been known as the National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). The main purpose of Sakernas is to obtain information about unemployment rates and its changes over time. Sakernas is a quarterly survey. The quarterly survey is designed only for estimating the parameters at the provincial level. The quarterly unemployment rate published by BPS (official statistics) is calculated based on only cross-sectional methods, despite the fact that the data is collected under rotating panel design. The study purpose to estimate a quarterly unemployment rate at the district level used small area estimation (SAE) model by combining time series and cross-sectional data. The study focused on the application and comparison between the Rao-Yu model and dynamic model in context estimating the unemployment rate based on a rotating panel survey. The goodness of fit of both models was almost similar. Both models produced an almost similar estimation and better than direct estimation, but the dynamic model was more capable than the Rao-Yu model to capture a heterogeneity across area, although it was reduced over time.

  9. Covariation des styles décisionnels : perception d’échec cognitif, estime de soi ou traits de personnalité ?

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio, Annamaria Di; Busoni, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Les processus de prise de décision représentent un thème majeur dans le domaine de l’orientation. L’étude des styles décisionnels y constitue un champ de recherche prometteur. Le but de cette recherche est d’analyser leurs covariations avec des traits de personnalité et des mesures de l’estime de soi et de perception d’échec cognitif. À un échantillon de 258 sujets lycéens ont été administrés les tests suivants : Questionnaire de prise de décision de Melbourne, Questionnaire des cinq facteurs...

  10. Estimator for Charge Acceptance of Lead Acid Batteries Estimateur d’acceptance de charge des batteries Pb-acide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen U.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenological model of lead acid batteries is developed that is then used to construct an estimator for short term charge acceptance. Conceptually, the model is based on a partial differential equation that is discretized for tractability. With observers for the battery current and state of charge, the prediction of the internal states is improved. Since the model is essentially linear, the short term prediction can be implemented in closed form, thus without the need for computationally intensive prediction simulations at each sampling instant. The only nonlinearity, the dependence on temperature, can be incorporated in a linear parameter-varying model. Un modèle phénoménologique des batteries plomb-acide est développé et utilisé pour réaliser un estimateur d’acceptance de charge à court terme. Conceptuellement, le modèle est basé sur une équation différentielle partielle qui est discrétisée pour simplifier. La prédiction des états du modèle est améliorée par l’utilisation d’observateurs du courant et de la charge de la batterie. Comme le modèle est essentiellement linéaire, la prédiction à court terme peut être formulée en forme close. Il n’est donc plus nécessaire d’avoir recours à des simulations complexes à chaque instant d’échantillonnage. La seule dépendance non-linéaire, celle à la température, peut être incorporée dans un modèle linéaire à paramètre variable.

  11. Applicability of URANS and DES Simulations of Flow Past Rectangular Cylinders and Bridge Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Mannini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out for rectangular cylinders with various side ratios of interest for many civil engineering structures. A bridge deck of common cross-section geometry was also considered. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS equations were solved in conjunction with either an eddy viscosity or a linearized explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model. The analysis showed that for the case studies considered, the 2D URANS approach was able to give reasonable results if coupled with an advanced turbulence model and a suitable computational mesh. The simulations even reproduced, at least qualitatively, complex phenomena observed in the wind tunnel, such as Reynolds number effects for a sharp-edged geometry. The study focused both on stationary and harmonically oscillating bodies. For the latter, self-excited forces and flutter derivatives were calculated and compared to experimental data. In the particular case of a benchmark rectangular 5:1 cylinder, 3D detached eddy simulations were also carried out, highlighting the improvement in the accuracy of the results with respect to both 2D and 3D URANS calculations. All of the computations were performed with the Tau code, a non-commercial unstructured solver developed by the German Aerospace Center.

  12. Contribution to the methods for estimating uranium deposits (1963); Contribution aux methodes d'estimation des gisements d'uranium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-02-15

    be taken in some cases. A detailed alphabetical index is intended to help find in this publication the definitions, formulae or theories that most interest the reader. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele ce qu'est un gisement, de valeur economique, sur la base du marginalisme, l'auteur distingue plusieurs categories de reserves suivant le degre de connaissance du gite et suivant le poste d'exploitation ou est considere le minerai. Il rejette les anciennes categories 'a vue', 'probable' et 'possible' pour les remplacer par des categories mieux adaptees. Les reserves sensu stricto sont celles pour lesquelles on est en mesure de calculer l'erreur aleatoire d'estimation. Une notion est introduite a ce sujet, c'est le contraste naturel des teneurs dans un gite (coefficient de dispersion absolu {alpha}). L'auteur distingue 3 formes de reconnaissance des gites, la mauvaise, la bonne et l'ideale. La premiere est la reconnaissance anarchique trop souvent recontree la seconde est la reconnaissance logique fondee sur une implantation systematique des galeries, sondages, etc. La troisieme, difficile a atteindre, est celle qui minimise la depense des recherches pour une precision fixee a l'avance. Une partie de l'ouvrage traite des erreurs d'echantillonnage telles que celles resultant du quartage d'un lot (theorie de Pierre GY), ou celles issues de l'emploi de la radioactivite pour estimer les teneurs. Une autre partie traite des erreurs d'extension (assimilation du gite a ses echantillons) et donne les formules essentielles pour calculer ces erreurs aleatoires (geostatistique de Matheron). A propos de l'estimateur lui-meme, on note la disharmonie entre l'echantillon et sa zone d'influence, et le moyen de remedier a cette discordance par le 'krigeage' est fourni dans l'ouvrage. La these donne de nombreux exemples des differents parametres numeriques

  13. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  14. Estimation de l'exhaustivité des données de facturation des médecins pour la détermination des cas de diabète au moyen des données sur les médicaments d'ordonnance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Lix

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Les changements dans les politiques de remboursement des médecins peuvent faire obstacle à la collecte des données administratives de facturation des médecins, ce qui pourrait mener à des estimations biaisées de la prévalence et de l'incidence des maladies. L'ampleur de cette perte potentielle de données demeure cependant largement inconnue. Notre étude vise à estimer l'exhaustivité de la couverture des cas de maladie pour le Manitoba par les médecins rémunérés à l'acte (RA et par les médecins non rémunérés à l'acte (NRA. Méthodes : Les données administratives du Manitoba ont servi à créer une cohorte dont les membres (20 ans et plus devaient avoir pris un nouveau médicament pour le diabète entre le 1er avril 2007 et le 31 mars 2009. Ces membres ont été classés par mode de paiement du médecin prescripteur (c'est-à-dire rémunérés à l'acte ou non rémunérés à l'acte, puis selon s'ils avaient ou non reçu de diagnostic de diabète d'après les données de facturation des médecins et des dossiers d'hôpitaux. On a utilisé des analyses statistiques χ2 pour tester les différences de caractéristiques entre les deux groupes. Résultats : La cohorte se composait de 12 394 individus, dont 86,4 % avaient reçu une ordonnance de médicament pour le diabète d'un médecin RA. Au total, 1 172 médecins (81,8 % RA ont prescrit ce type de médicaments pour la cohorte. Les membres de la cohorte ayant reçu une ordonnance d'un médecin RA étaient plus âgés et plus susceptibles de résider dans la région sanitaire de Winnipeg que ceux qui avaient reçu une ordonnance d'un médecin NRA. Un plus grand pourcentage de cas traités par des médecins NRA n'avait pas reçu de diagnostic de diabète (18,7 %, contre 14,9 % pour les médecins RA. Conclusion : Les résultats suggèrent une perte minimale de données de facturation des médecins associée aux politiques de rémunération au Manitoba. Cette m

  15. Added Mass estimation of square sections coupled with a liquid using finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong Hoon [SMART Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jhung, Myung Jo [Safety Research Division, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Natural frequencies of immersed square sections decrease due to a contribution of added mass to the movement of square sections. In this study, natural frequencies of square sections are obtained as a function of gap size between the square section and a rigid square wall using the finite element method. Additionally, they are used to extract the added mass effect on translational and rotation motions. Published information and studies on the translational and torsional vibration of square beams are also examined for practical use. D coupling of a square section is also investigated for multiple square sections. The suggested added mass estimation can be applicable to the spent fuel storage design of a pressurized light water modulated nuclear power plant.

  16. Stereological estimation of the mean and variance of nuclear volume from vertical sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    The application of assumption-free, unbiased stereological techniques for estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, from vertical sections of benign and malignant nuclear aggregates in melanocytic skin tumours is described. Combining sampling of nuclei with uniform...... size variability within benign and malignant nuclear populations can for all practical purposes be reduced to 2-D measurement of nuclear profile areas. These new powerful stereological estimators of nuclear volume and nuclear size variability provide an attractive approach to quantitative...

  17. Semi-Analytical Weight Estimation Method for Fuselages with Oval Cross-Section

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, R.; Hoogreef, M.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method for the weight estimation of fuselages with an oval cross-section, applied to blended wing body aircraft. The weight estimation of the fuselage primary structure is based on a structural analysis of two-dimensional crosssections and it is completed by a set of empirical relations for the weight estimation of the secondary structure and non-structural items. A conceptual design study on a stable (5% static margin), 400-passenger blended wing body ai...

  18. Estimating time to pregnancy from current durations in a cross-sectional sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Kvist, Kajsa; Hartvig, Helle

    2002-01-01

    A new design for estimating the distribution of time to pregnancy is proposed and investigated. The design is based on recording current durations in a cross-sectional sample of women, leading to statistical problems similar to estimating renewal time distributions from backward recurrence times....... Non-parametric estimation is studied in some detail and a parametric approach is indicated. The results are illustrated on Monte Carlo simulations and on data from a recent European collaborative study. The role and applicability of this approach is discussed....

  19. Age estimation in older adults: Use of pulp/tooth ratios calculated from tooth sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ortenzio, Lori; Prowse, Tracy; Inskip, Michael; Kahlon, Bonnie; Brickley, Megan

    2017-12-14

    Accurate age estimates are foundational for bioarchaeological research, yet the ability to accurately age older adult skeletons remains elusive. This study uses a new version of pulp/tooth area calculations to investigate chronological age of older archaeological individuals. Pulp/tooth area ratios were calculated on modern control teeth (n = 10) that were first radiographed and then sectioned for comparative analysis. Pulp/tooth area ratios were determined on sectioned teeth using ImageJ software for: (a) modern individuals of known age (n = 26); (b) individuals from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (1821-1874) with documented age (n = 50); and (c) Belleville individuals with skeletally estimated age (n = 122). Calculations from tooth sections on modern teeth (n = 10) resulted in a mean absolute error (MAE) of ±3.9 years, whereas the radiographic method for the same teeth had an MAE of ±14.45 years. Results indicate that sectioned pulp/tooth area ratios are a significant predictor of chronological age (p age estimations between modern and archaeological individuals, or with respect to tooth type, sex, or intra/inter-observer estimations. This study provides a new more accurate method for estimating age-at-death, particularly for individuals in the 50+ age category. Sectioning the teeth and directly measuring exposed pulp chambers results in age estimations that were within ±4.15 years for both modern and archaeological individuals, thus presenting a method that will enhance the ability to age older individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Stereological estimation of the mean and variance of nuclear volume from vertical sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    size variability within benign and malignant nuclear populations can for all practical purposes be reduced to 2-D measurement of nuclear profile areas. These new powerful stereological estimators of nuclear volume and nuclear size variability provide an attractive approach to quantitative......The application of assumption-free, unbiased stereological techniques for estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, from vertical sections of benign and malignant nuclear aggregates in melanocytic skin tumours is described. Combining sampling of nuclei with uniform...... probability in a physical disector and Cavalieri's direct estimator of volume, the unbiased, number-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vN, of the same benign and malignant nuclear populations is also estimated. Having obtained estimates of nuclear volume in both the volume- and number distribution...

  1. Design-based stereological estimation of the total number of cardiac myocytes in histological sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Counting the total number of cardiac myocytes has not previously been possible in ordinary histological sections using light microscopy (LM) due to difficulties in defining the myocyte borders properly. AIM: To describe a method by which the total number of cardiac myocytes is estimated...

  2. Measuring Cross-Section and Estimating Uncertainties with the fissionTPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Manning, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangiorgio, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Seilhan, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The purpose of this document is to outline the prescription for measuring fission cross-sections with the NIFFTE fissionTPC and estimating the associated uncertainties. As such it will serve as a work planning guide for NIFFTE collaboration members and facilitate clear communication of the procedures used to the broader community.

  3. On estimating the aerodynamic admittance of bridge sections by a mesh-free vortex method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Larsen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    of preserving the a priori specified statistics as well as anisotropic characteristics of the synthesised turbulent flow field. From the simulation, the aerodynamic admittance is estimated and the instantaneous effect of a time varying angle of attack is briefly investigated. The obtained aerodynamic admittance...... of four aerodynamically different bridge sections is compared to available wind tunnel data, showing good agreement between the two....

  4. Utilisation d'images aeroportees a tres haute resolution spatiale pour l'estimation de la vigueur des peuplements forestiers du nord-ouest du Nouveau-Brunswick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Ognel Pierre

    Le but de cette etude est de developper un outil permettant d'estimer le niveau de risque de perte de vigueur des peuplements forestiers de la region de Gounamitz au nord-ouest du Nouveau-Brunswick via des donnees d'inventaires forestiers et des donnees de teledetection. Pour ce faire, un marteloscope de 100m x 100m et 20 parcelles d'echantillonnages ont ete delimites. A l'interieur de ces derniers, le niveau de risque de perte de vigueur des arbres ayant un DHP superieur ou egal a 9 cm a ete determine. Afin de caracteriser le risque de perte de vigueur des arbres, leurs positions spatiales ont ete repertoriees a partir d'un GPS en tenant compte des defauts au niveau des tiges. Pour mener a bien ce travail, les indices de vegetation et de textures et les bandes spectrales de l'image aeroportee ont ete extraits et consideres comme variables independantes. Le niveau de risque de perte de vigueur obtenu par espece d'arbre a travers les inventaires forestiers a ete considere comme variable dependante. En vue d'obtenir la superficie des peuplements forestiers de la region d'etude, une classification dirigee des images a partir de l'algorithme maximum de vraisemblance a ete effectuee. Le niveau de risque de perte de vigueur par type d'arbre a ensuite ete estime a l'aide des reseaux de neurones en utilisant un reseau dit perceptron multicouches. Il s'agit d'un modele de reseau de neurones compose de : 11 neurones sur la couche d'entree, correspondant aux variables independantes, 35 neurones sur la couche cachee et 4 neurones sur la couche de sortie. La prediction a partir des reseaux de neurones produit une matrice de confusion qui permet d'obtenir des mesures quantitatives d'estimation, notamment un pourcentage de classification globale de 91,7% pour la prediction du risque de perte de vigueur du peuplement de resineux et de 89,7% pour celui du peuplement de feuillus. L'evaluation de la performance des reseaux de neurones fournit une valeur de MSE globale de 0,04, et une

  5. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Estimated Percent Green Space Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates green space along walkable roads. Green space within 25 meters of the road centerline is included and the percentage is based on...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Estimated Intersection Density of Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates the intersection density of walkable roads within a 750 meter radius of any given 10 meter pixel in the community. Intersections...

  7. Estimation de la morbidité des infections d’origine alimentaire en France

    OpenAIRE

    van Cauteren, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to produce population-based estimates of the burden of foodborne infections in France for the 2008-2013 period.Number if illnesses and hospitalisations were estimated for 21 pathogens (10 bacteria, 3 viruses and 8 parasites).The burden of foodborne infections remains substantial with 1 to 2,5 million of cases and 14000 to 21000 hospitalisations occurring each year. As in other industrialized countries Norovirus, Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the lea...

  8. Temperature Effect on O4 Cross Sections for Estimating its Slant Column Density by Using OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. S.; Takemura, T.; Kim, J.

    2016-12-01

    The slant column densities (SCDs) of oxygen dimers (O4) have sensitivities to the temperature-dependent O4 cross section used as the input to the radiative transfer model (RTM) calculation. In this study, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT) is used as a RTM, which is basically not taken account to the temperature dependence. The simulated SCDs are compared based on the databases between the temperature-independent cross section and the newly investigated temperature-dependent cross section. To adopt the temperature dependence of O4 cross section, the O4 cross section databases of 203 K and 293 K are used for the radiance simulation by interpolating atmospheric layer temperature. Based on the RTM simulation, the temperature-dependent cross section significantly affects the O4 SCD increasing. The O4 SCD is generally estimated 3.9% increase based on the observation geometries of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and the above O4 SCD increase corrects the 20% of total underestimation of the O4 SCD between observation and simulation. The O4 SCD variations due to the surface pressure and background aerosol effect are relatively insignificant as compared to those due to the temperature-dependent cross section. The temperature dependence of cross section makes closer to describe extinction intensities in the real atmosphere by the RTM calculation.

  9. Estimating Transitional Probabilities with Cross-Sectional Data to Assess Smoking Behavior Progression: A Validation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Lin, Feng

    2012-09-03

    New analytical tools are needed to advance tobacco research, tobacco control planning and tobacco use prevention practice. In this study, we validated a method to extract information from cross-sectional survey for quantifying population dynamics of adolescent smoking behavior progression. With a 3-stage 7-path model, probabilities of smoking behavior progression were estimated employing the Probabilistic Discrete Event System (PDES) method and the cross-sectional data from 1997-2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Validity of the PDES method was assessed using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and trends in smoking transition covering the period during which funding for tobacco control was cut substantively in 2003 in the United States. Probabilities for all seven smoking progression paths were successfully estimated with the PDES method and the NSDUH data. The absolute difference in the estimated probabilities between the two approaches varied from 0.002 to 0.076 (p>0.05 for all) and were highly correlated with each other (R(2) =0.998, pcross-sectional survey data. The estimated transitional probabilities add new evidence supporting more advanced tobacco research, tobacco control planning and tobacco use prevention practice. This method can be easily extended to study other health risk behaviors.

  10. Measurement of the fission cross-section of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu for thermal neutrons; Mesures des sections de fission de {sup 235}U et de {sup 239}Pu en neutrons thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraysse, G.; Prosdocimi, A.; Netter, F.; Samour, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Improved techniques of fast detection have been applied for determining the fission cross-sections of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu with reference to the absorption cross-section of Boron. Monochromatic neutron beams of 0.0322 eV, 0.0626 eV and 0.275 eV have been employed. Use has been made of a Xe-filled gaseous scintillator and of a low-geometry solid state ion chamber. Both measured alpha and fission rates. The results at the reference energy of 0.0253 eV are: ({sigma}{sub F}){sub 0} {sup 235}U = 588 {+-} 10 barns ({sigma}{sub F}){sub 0} {sup 239}Pu = 738 {+-} 7 barns. (authors) [French] Des techniques avancees de comptage rapide ont ete mise en oeuvre pour determiner la section efficace de fission de {sup 235}U et de {sup 239}Pu par rapport a celle d'absorption du bore. Des faisceaux de neutrons monochromatiques de 0,0322 eV, 0,0626 eV et 0,275 eV ont ete employes. Les detecteurs utilises sont un scintillateur gazeux rempli de xenon et une chambre d'ionisation a etat solide a basse geometrie. Les deux ont mesure les taux des desintegrations alpha et des fissions. Les resultats a l'energie de reference de 0,0253 eV sont: ({sigma}{sub F}){sub 0} {sup 235}U = 588 {+-} 10 barns ({sigma}{sub F}){sub 0} {sup 239}Pu = 738 {+-} 7 barns. (auteurs)

  11. Estimating the thickness of ultra thin sections for electron microscopy by image statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh; Darkner, Sune

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for estimating the thickness of ultra thin histological sections by image statistics alone. Our method works for images, that are the realisations of a stationary and isotropic stochastic process, and it relies on the existence of statistical image-measures that are strictly...... show that these images with high certainty belong to the required statistical class, and that the reconstructions are valid....

  12. Estimation of age-specific incidence rates from cross-sectional survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jason; Stewart, Walter F

    2010-02-28

    Age-specific disease incidence rates are typically estimated from longitudinal data, where disease-free subjects are followed over time and incident cases are observed. However, longitudinal studies have substantial cost and time requirements, not to mention other challenges such as loss to follow up. Alternatively, cross-sectional data can be used to estimate age-specific incidence rates in a more timely and cost-effective manner. Such studies rely on self-report of onset age. Self-reported onset age is subject to measurement error and bias. In this paper, we use a Bayesian bivariate smoothing approach to estimate age-specific incidence rates from cross-sectional survey data. Rates are modeled as a smooth function of age and lag (difference between age and onset age), with larger values of lag effectively down weighted, as they are assumed to be less reliable. We conduct an extensive simulation study to investigate the extent to which measurement error and bias in the reported onset age affects inference using the proposed methods. We use data from a national headache survey to estimate age- and gender-specific migraine incidence rates. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Capacity Estimation for On-Ramp Merging Section of Urban Expressway Based on Time Headway Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-jian Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating capacity of on-ramp merging section of urban expressway based on dynamics and gap acceptance theory, considering lane-changing processes and time headway loss. Survey data were collected from on-ramp merging sections of shanghai urban expressway system and showed that capacity drop of on-ramp merging section is caused by drivers’ lane-changing which may lead to unsteady speed of vehicles and so prolonged time headway compared to the minimum time headway corresponding to the maximum capacity. Three parameters (optimal time headway, time headway loss, and interference quantity of lane-changing are given and a methodology by accumulating time headway loss due to lane-changing is developed to estimate the capacity drop. Results’ comparisons between real data and microsimulation of on-ramp merging sections and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed model can produce reliable and accurate results. This study also reveals that ramp flow and the difference between the optimal speed and the lane-changing speed of fleet have a great impact on capacity drop. This study is beneficial to evaluate congestion levels, to understand complex traffic phenomena, and so to find efficient solutions.

  14. Estimation de la température des batteries (Ni/Cd) par approche neuro-floue, application au microsatellite Alsat-1-

    OpenAIRE

    KADA BELFAR, Mohamed Reda

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif de ce mémoire vise l’application de nouvelles techniques artificielles et intelligentes de commandes non linéaire pour l’estimation de la température des batteries. Dans ce contexte, nous avons proposé une des solutions pour pallier ce problème consiste à introduire l’approche Neuro-Floue permettant d’estimer la température de la batterie d’Alsat-1. La combinaison Neuro-Floue peut résoudre le problème d’identification en utilisant le réseau de neurone et le problème de contrôle par...

  15. Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bynum Debra L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. Methods We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+ were recruited from two local retirement communities. We interviewed them regarding their beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy in the context of a larger study on cancer screening beliefs. Semi-structured interviews of 80 minutes average duration were performed in private locations convenient to participants. Demographic characteristics as well as cancer screening beliefs and beliefs about life expectancy were measured. Two independent researchers reviewed the open-ended responses and recorded the most common themes. The research team resolved disagreements by consensus. Results This article reports the life-expectancy results portion of the larger study. The study group (n = 116 was comprised of healthy, well-educated older adults, with almost a third over 85 years old, and none meeting criteria for dementia. Sixty-four percent (n = 73 felt that their physicians could not correctly estimate their life expectancy. Sixty-six percent (n = 75 wanted their physicians to talk with them about their life expectancy. The themes that emerged from our study indicate that discussions of life expectancy could help older adults plan for the future, maintain open communication with their physicians, and provide them knowledge about their medical conditions. Conclusion The majority of the healthy older adults in this study were open to discussions about life expectancy in the context of discussing cancer screening tests, despite awareness that their physicians' estimates could be inaccurate

  16. Automatic Segmentation for Reach/frequency Estimation of Newspaper Sections and Internet Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl; Arnaa, Kristian

    1999-01-01

    This paper will present a new way of estimating reach and frequency without asking the frequency question or conducting double interviewing. Instead, the sample is segmented automatically by a CHAID-analysis, maximising the differences in reading probabilities among the segments. Typically, many...... segments are created, individualising the reading probabilities more than when using frequency groups. Two examples are presented: First, an experiment in which heavy users of the Internet are sampled on the Internet itself. The readers of each "Internet paper" are segmented by variables on their use...... of the Internet including types of sites visited, on their use of other media, on attitudes and on demography. Next, the Gallup Denmark's new section readership measuring, being a separate telephone survey calculating reading probabilities of the sections to the readers of the paper in the national readership...

  17. Estimation of (n,f) Cross-Sections by Measuring Reaction Probability Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plettner, C; Ai, H; Beausang, C W; Bernstein, L A; Ahle, L; Amro, H; Babilon, M; Burke, J T; Caggiano, J A; Casten, R F; Church, J A; Cooper, J R; Crider, B; Gurdal, G; Heinz, A; McCutchan, E A; Moody, K; Punyon, J A; Qian, J; Ressler, J J; Schiller, A; Williams, E; Younes, W

    2005-04-21

    Neutron-induced reaction cross-sections on unstable nuclei are inherently difficult to measure due to target activity and the low intensity of neutron beams. In an alternative approach, named the 'surrogate' technique, one measures the decay probability of the same compound nucleus produced using a stable beam on a stable target to estimate the neutron-induced reaction cross-section. As an extension of the surrogate method, in this paper they introduce a new technique of measuring the fission probabilities of two different compound nuclei as a ratio, which has the advantage of removing most of the systematic uncertainties. This method was benchmarked in this report by measuring the probability of deuteron-induced fission events in coincidence with protons, and forming the ratio P({sup 236}U(d,pf))/P({sup 238}U(d,pf)), which serves as a surrogate for the known cross-section ratio of {sup 236}U(n,f)/{sup 238}U(n,f). IN addition, the P({sup 238}U(d,d{prime}f))/P({sup 236}U(d,d{prime}f)) ratio as a surrogate for the {sup 237}U(n,f)/{sup 235}U(n,f) cross-section ratio was measured for the first time in an unprecedented range of excitation energies.

  18. Estimation des incertitudes de mesure pour l'analyse chimique des adjuvants et des produits de cure destinés aux constructions de béton hydraulique

    OpenAIRE

    UGER, Aurore; BRIQUET, Philippe; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC; UNIVERSITE DE CERGY-PONTOISE

    2005-01-01

    Ce stage de DESS, effectué au LCPC / PCM, fait suite à celui de Nathalie Hamon en 2004. Il a consisté à déterminer les incertitudes de mesure pour certaines caractéristiques des adjuvants du béton (Extrait Sec conventionnel, Teneur en Chlorures, Teneur en Alcalins équivalents) et des produits de cure (Teneur en cendres, Temps d'Ecoulement), produits soumis, dans le cadre du programme n°3 du COFRAC, à essais de certification NF dans nos laboratoires. La valeur de l'incertitude de mesure, affec...

  19. Normative estimates of cross-sectional and longitudinal brain volume decline in aging and AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotenos, A F; Snyder, A Z; Girton, L E; Morris, J C; Buckner, R L

    2005-03-22

    To test the hypotheses 1) that whole-brain volume decline begins in early adulthood, 2) that cross-sectional and longitudinal atrophy estimates agree in older, nondemented individuals, and 3) that longitudinal atrophy accelerates in the earliest stages of Alzheimer disease (AD). High-resolution, high-contrast structural MRIs were obtained from 370 adults (age 18 to 97). Participants over 65 (n = 192) were characterized using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) as either nondemented (CDR 0, n = 94) or with very mild to mild dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT, CDR 0.5 and 1, n = 98). Of these older participants, 79 belonged to a longitudinal cohort and were imaged again a mean 1.8 years after baseline. Estimates of gray matter (nGM), white matter (nWM), and whole-brain volume (nWBV) normalized for head sizes were generated based on atlas registration and image segmentation. Hierarchical regression of nWBV estimates from nondemented individuals across the adult lifespan revealed a strong linear, moderate quadratic pattern of decline beginning in early adulthood, with later onset of nWM than nGM loss. Whole-brain volume differences were detected by age 30. The cross-sectional atrophy model overlapped with the rates measured longitudinally in older, nondemented individuals (mean decline of -0.45% per year). In those individuals with very mild DAT, atrophy rate more than doubled (-0.98% per year). Nondemented individuals exhibit a slow rate of whole-brain atrophy from early in adulthood with white-matter loss beginning in middle age; in older adults, the onset of dementia of the Alzheimer type is associated with a markedly accelerated atrophy rate.

  20. Consumers' estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Jason P; Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-05-23

    To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's, KFC, Dunkin' Donuts. 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald's diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation.

  1. Fracture Toughness of Thick Boride Layers Estimated by the Cross-Sectioned Scratch Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Flores-Jiménez, M.; Bravo-Bárcenas, D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Meneses-Amador, A.

    2018-01-01

    New results about the fracture toughness (K c) of thick boride layers estimated by the cross-sectioned scratch test are presented in this study. The FeB-Fe2B layers developed at the surface of borided AISI 1018 and AISI 1045 steels and the Fe2B layer formed on the borided AISI 1045 steel exposed to a diffusion annealing process (DAP) were used for this purpose. The cross-sectioned scratch tests were performed with a Vickers diamond stylus drawn across the thick boride layer under a constant load to produce a half-cone-shaped fracture near to the top surface of the borided steels. The height of the half-cone-shaped fracture as a function of the cross-sectioned scratch loads was used to determine the fracture toughness of the FeB and Fe2B layers. The results showed a fracture resistance of ˜2.8 {MPa}√ m for the FeB layer formed at the surface of borided AISI 1045 steel. Likewise, the effect of the DAP on the surface of the borided AISI 1045 steel promoted the formation of an exclusively Fe2B layer, with an increase in the fracture toughness of the whole boride layer around 5 {MPa}√ m . Finally, the principle of the technique can be used to minimize the influence of the anisotropic properties on the fracture toughness along the depth of boride layers.

  2. Estimating Reaction Cross Sections from Measured (Gamma)-Ray Yields: The 238U(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W

    2002-11-18

    A procedure is presented to deduce the reaction-channel cross section from measured partial {gamma}-ray cross sections. In its simplest form, the procedure consists in adding complementary measured and calculated contributions to produce the channel cross section. A matrix formalism is introduced to provide a rigorous framework for this approach. The formalism is illustrated using a fictitious product nucleus with a simple level scheme, and a general algorithm is presented to process any level scheme. In order to circumvent the cumbersome algebra that can arise in the matrix formalism, a more intuitive graphical procedure is introduced to obtain the same reaction cross-section estimate. The features and limitations of the method are discussed, and the technique is applied to extract the {sup 235}U (n,2n) and {sup 239}Pu(n,2n) cross sections from experimental partial {gamma}-ray cross sections, coupled with (enhanced) Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  3. Monostatic Radar Cross Section Estimation of Missile Shaped Object Using Physical Optics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi Bhushana Rao, G.; Nambari, Swathi; Kota, Srikanth; Ranga Rao, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Stealth Technology manages many signatures for a target in which most radar systems use radar cross section (RCS) for discriminating targets and classifying them with regard to Stealth. During a war target’s RCS has to be very small to make target invisible to enemy radar. In this study, Radar Cross Section of perfectly conducting objects like cylinder, truncated cone (frustum) and circular flat plate is estimated with respect to parameters like size, frequency and aspect angle. Due to the difficulties in exactly predicting the RCS, approximate methods become the alternative. Majority of approximate methods are valid in optical region and where optical region has its own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, the analysis given in this study is purely based on far field monostatic RCS measurements in the optical region. Computation is done using Physical Optics (PO) method for determining RCS of simple models. In this study not only the RCS of simple models but also missile shaped and rocket shaped models obtained from the cascaded objects with backscatter has been computed using Matlab simulation. Rectangular plots are obtained for RCS in dbsm versus aspect angle for simple and missile shaped objects using Matlab simulation. Treatment of RCS, in this study is based on Narrow Band.

  4. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  5. Measurement of (n,Xn) reaction cross sections at 96 MeV; Measure des sections efficaces (n,Xn) a 96 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagrado Garcia, Melle Inmaculada C. [Ecole Doctorale: SINEM, U.F.R. de Sciences, Universite de Caen/Basse-Normandie, Esplanade Paix14000 Caen (France)

    2006-10-15

    Nucleon induced reactions in the 20-200 MeV energy range are intensively studied since a long time. The evaporation and the pre-equilibrium processes correspond to an important contribution of the production cross section in these reactions. Several theoretical approaches have been proposed and their predictions must be tested. The experimental results shown in this work are the only complete set of data for the (n,Xn) reactions in this energy range. Neutron double differential cross section measurements using lead and iron targets for an incident neutron beam at 96 MeV were carried out at TSL Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. The measurements have been performed for the first time with an energy threshold of 2 MeV and for a wide angular range (15 angle - 98 angle). Neutrons have been detected using two independent setups, DECOI and DEMON and CLODIA and SCANDAL, in order to cover the whole energy range (2-100) MeV. The angular distributions, the differential cross sections and the total inelastic production cross sections have been calculated using the double differential cross sections. The comparison between the experimental data and the predictions given by two of the most popular simulation codes, GEANT3 and MCNPX, have been performed, as well as the comparison with the predictions of the microscopic simulation model DYWAN, selected for its treatment of nucleon-nucleon reactions. (author)

  6. Estimating mortality using data from civil registration: a cross-sectional study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mamta; Rao, Chalapati; Lakshmi, P V M; Prinja, Shankar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the design and operational status of India's civil registration and vital statistics system and facilitate the system's development into an accurate and reliable source of mortality data. We assessed the national civil registration and vital statistics system's legal framework, administrative structure and design through document review. We did a cross-sectional study for the year 2013 at national level and in Punjab state to assess the quality of the system's mortality data through analyses of life tables and investigation of the completeness of death registration and the proportion of deaths assigned ill-defined causes. We interviewed registrars, medical officers and coders in Punjab state to assess their knowledge and practice. Although we found the legal framework and system design to be appropriate, data collection was based on complex intersectoral collaborations at state and local level and the collected data were found to be of poor quality. The registration data were inadequate for a robust estimate of mortality at national level. A medically certified cause of death was only recorded for 965,992 (16.8%) of the 5,735,082 deaths registered. The data recorded by India's civil registration and vital statistics system in 2011 were incomplete. If improved, the system could be used to reliably estimate mortality. We recommend improving political support and intersectoral coordination, capacity building, computerization and state-level initiatives to ensure that every death is registered and that reliable causes of death are recorded - at least within an adequate sample of registration units within each state.

  7. Determination of the cross-sections of some nuclear reactions occurring as a result of cosmic radiation (1963); Determination des sections efficaces de quelques reactions nucleaires intervenant dans les effets ou rayonnement cosmique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamers, M.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The high energy reactions studied during this research are reactions liable to occur as a result of cosmic radiation. On the one hand the reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C was studied and its cross-section measured between 65 MeV and 2.7 GeV; a value of 2.3 mb {+-} 0.5 was found. These values have mode it possible to forecast measurable quantities of carbon-14 in meteorites and also to measure them. On the other hand the reactions {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) and {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) have been studied and an attempt has been made to explain the mechanism of these reactions. (author) [French] Les reactions a hautes energies qui ont ete etudiees au court de ce travail sont des reactions susceptibles de se produire sous l'effet du rayonnement cosmique. Il s'agit d'une part de la reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C dont on a mesure la section efficoce egale a 2,3 mb {+-} 0,5 entre 65 MeV et 2,7 GeV. Ces valeurs ont permis de prevoir des quantites mesurables de carbone 14 dans les meteorites et par suite de les determiner. D'autre part les reaction {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) et {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) ont ete etudiees et on a tente d'expliquer le mecanisme de ces reactions. (auteur)

  8. DEVELOPPEMENT D’UN MODÈLE D’ESTIMATION DES COÛTS D’ASSEMBLAGES SOUDÉS

    OpenAIRE

    Hachicha, Wafik

    2004-01-01

    Estimating the manufacturing cost is a critical task with high importance to industrial firms. The cost estimating can drive bidding strategies, management of resources, production policies and other issues crucial to the economic success of the company. Essentially, cost estimation should be quick and accurate. There are three main approaches towards cost estimation: estimation based on past experience (variant cost estimation), estimation based on explicit cost computations (analytical m...

  9. DEVELOPPEMENT D’UN MODÈLE D’ESTIMATION DES COÛTS D’ASSEMBLAGES SOUDÉS

    OpenAIRE

    Hachicha, Wafik

    2004-01-01

    Estimating the manufacturing cost is a critical task with high importance to industrial firms. The cost estimating can drive bidding strategies, management of resources, production policies and other issues crucial to the economic success of the company. Essentially, cost estimation should be quick and accurate. There are three main approaches towards cost estimation: estimation based on past experience (variant cost estimation), estimation based on explicit cost computations (analytical meth...

  10. Directional and sectional ride comfort estimation using an integrated human biomechanical-seat foam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Navid; Abdi, Hamid; Nahavandi, Saeid; Nelson, Kyle

    2017-09-01

    In the methodology of objective measurement of ride comfort, application of a Human Biomechanical Model (HBM) is valuable for Whole Body Vibration (WBV) analysis. In this study, using a computational Multibody System (MBS) approach, development of a 3D passive HBM for a seated human is considered. For this purpose, the existing MBS-based HBMs of seated human are briefly reviewed first. The Equations of Motion (EoM) for the proposed model are then obtained and the simulation results are shown and compared with idealised ranges of experimental results suggested in the literature. The human-seat interaction is established using a nonlinear vibration model of foam with respect to the sectional behaviour of the seat foam. The developed system is then used for ride comfort estimation offered by a ride dynamic model. The effects of human weight, road class, and vehicle speed on the vibration of the human body segments in different directions are studied. It is shown that the there is a high correlation (more than 99.2%) between the vibration indices of the proposed HBM-foam model and the corresponding ISO 2631 WBV indices. In addition, relevant ISO 2631 indices that show a high correlation with the directional vibration of the head are identified.

  11. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    (Euphorbiaceae). ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ... Une Analyse en Composantes Principales a été appliquée à la matrice .... valeur de la variable aléatoire normale pour un risque α égal à 0,05. La marge d'erreur d prévue pour tout paramètre à estimer à partir de l'enquête est de 3 %.

  12. Renouvellement des eaux du fjord du Saguenay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Melany

    Le fjord du Saguenay, localise dans la region subarctique de l'est du Canada, ala particularite d' etre connecte a un estuaire tres energetique plutot que directement a 1' ocean. L'embouchure du fjord est situee ala rencontre d'un chenal profond et d'un seuil de 20m de profondeur qui limite les echanges d'eau entre le fjord et l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent. Cependant, les grandes amplitudes de maree a son embouchure ont le potentiel d'entrainer des eaux denses du Saint-Laurent a l'interieur du fjord renouvelant ainsi les eaux des differents bassins. Dans le but d' a voir une meilleure comprehension de la dynamique et de la saisonnalite des renouvellements dans le bassin interne, deux mouillages y ont ete deployes pour recolter les premieres donnees de courant, sur toute la colonne d' eau et sur plusieurs mois, ainsi que des observations de temperature et de salinite a differentes profondeurs. L'un de ces mouillages n' a malheureusement pas pu etre analyse en detail dfi a la complexite de ses resultats et au manque de temps. Des profils ont ete recoltes le long de section transversales (transects), couvrant plusieurs saisons et plusieurs annees, ce qui a contribue a une meilleure comprehension de la distribution spatiale des masses d'eau dans le fjord. Les resultats montrent que ladynamique du fjord est plus complexe que ce qui avait ete precedemment presente dans la litterature. Un changement saisonnier abrupte dans la circulation du fjord a ete observe a la rni-fevrier. De plus, des renouvellements non-anticipes juste en-dessous de la thermohalocline (˜ 10 m de profondeur) ont ete observes entre la fin de 1' hiver et le milieu de 1' ete. En fonction des saisons, trois types de renouvellement peuvent etre observes : renouvellements profonds a l'automne et au debut de l'hiver suivis des renouvellements de sous-surface et enfin les renouvellements a des profondeurs intermediaires pendant l'ete. Le changement saisonnier abrupte observe au milieu de l'hiver ainsi que la

  13. Evaluation des differents parametres utilises pour l'estimation du contenu en frequences des mouvements du sol, avec application aux forts tremblements de terre de Vrancea, Roumanie

    OpenAIRE

    Craifaleanu, Iolanda-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of a comprehensive study of ground motions recorded during the strong earthquakes (moment magnitude Mw > 6) generated during last 34 years by the seismic source of Vrancea, Romania. By analyzing over 300 accelerograms, the capacity of different expressions in the literature to estimate the predominant period of a ground motion is compared. The correlation between the values obtained from different evaluations is assessed as well. The dependence of the predominant pe...

  14. Evaluation of the nuclear cross section variance-covariance matrices issued from the nuclear optical model; Evaluation des matrices de variance-covariance des sections efficaces nucleaires issues du modele optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brassart, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure Ingenieurs de Bourges, 18 - Bourges (France); Mounier, C. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, Service d' Etudes des Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Dossantos-Uzarralde, P. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear reaction models play an important role in today's nuclear data evaluations. There are, however, difficulties associated with evaluating data uncertainties, both while performing the experimental measurements as well as constructing them by nuclear models. In this general context, our interest is particularly targeted towards the study of the propagation uncertainties within nuclear models. In this report we discuss two distinct ways of calculating the nuclear cross section variance-covariance matrices and then show these can be applied to the nuclear spherical optical model. (authors)

  15. Vécu des situations scolaires, estime de soi et Développement : du jugement moral a la période de la latence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile-Henri Riard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Suivant une approche de psychologie sociale clinique, le point de vue adopté dans cet article est triple : 1- considérer les situations scolaires “ ordinaires ” comme potentiellement génératrices de difficultés; 2- s’inscrire en amont de l’adolescence afin d’améliorer la compréhension de cette dernière; 3 – considérer le vécu des élèves. La recherche menée en France (enfants de 6 à 11 ans, par questionnaire (48 situations relevant de la scolarité : classe, cour de récréation, trajet domicile/école et domicile ont été proposées ; test d’estime de soi (Coopersmith ; développement moral (Kohlberg. Variables : âge, sexe, mode d’habitat, position scolaire, classement, département. Les résultats (analyse de variance démontrent un fonctionnement “ en bloc ” du niveau de vécu de difficulté. Ressortent comme variables significatives, par ordre d’importance décroissante: le sexe (les garçons ressentent davantage les difficultés que les filles; l’âge (le niveau de difficulté vécue décroît avec l’âge mais concerne surtout la cour de récréation ; le mode d’habitat (collectif. La classe est l’espace le plus porteur de différences de vécu de difficultés indépendamment des variables. Le niveau d’autonomie et l’estime de soi sont schématiquement inversement proportionnés au niveau de difficulté vécu. La conclusion met l’accent sur l’importance des effets interactif et d’accumulation des situations.

  16. Nondestructive estimation of tracheid length from sections of radial wood strips by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence R. Schimleck; P. David Jones; Gary F. Peter; F. Daniels; Alexander Clarklll

    2004-01-01

    The use of calibrated near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for predicting tracheid length of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) wood samples is described. Ten-mm sections of 14 P. taeda radial strips were selected and NIR spectra obtained from the radial longitudinal face of each section. The fibers in these sections were characterized in terms of arithmetic and length-...

  17. Evaluation des differents parametres utilises pour l'estimation du contenu en frequences des mouvements du sol, avec application aux forts tremblements de terre de Vrancea, Roumanie

    CERN Document Server

    Craifaleanu, Iolanda-Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of a comprehensive study of ground motions recorded during the strong earthquakes (moment magnitude Mw > 6) generated during last 34 years by the seismic source of Vrancea, Romania. By analyzing over 300 accelerograms, the capacity of different expressions in the literature to estimate the predominant period of a ground motion is compared. The correlation between the values obtained from different evaluations is assessed as well. The dependence of the predominant period of different factors of influence is analysed. Comparisons are made between the parameters determined for the same seismic event at different stations, as well as for ground motions recorded on the same site at successive earthquakes. The results are interpreted in correlation with the information provided by frequency bandwidth parameters. Considerations are made on the measure in which the influence on the frequency content of the source and of local geological conditions can be separated, for seismic motions recor...

  18. Technique of estimation of actual strength of a gas pipeline section at its deformation in landslide action zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherni, V.P. [RAS Gasprom, Moscow (Russian Federation). VNIIGAS Scientific-Technical Center

    1996-12-31

    The technique is given which permits determination of stress and strain state (SSS) and estimation of actual strength of a section of a buried main gas pipeline (GP) in the case of its deformation in a landslide action zone. The technique is based on the use of three-dimensional coordinates of axial points of the deformed GP section. These coordinates are received by a full-scale survey. The deformed axis of the surveyed GP section is described by the polynomial. The unknown coefficients of the polynomial can be determined from the boundary conditions at points of connection with contiguous undeformed sections as well as by use of minimization methods in mathematical processing of full-scale survey results. The resulting form of GP section`s axis allows one to determine curvatures and, accordingly, bending moments along all the length of the considered section. The influence of soil resistance to longitudinal displacements of a pipeline is used to determine longitudinal forces. Resulting values of bending moments and axial forces as well as the known value of internal pressure are used to analyze all necessary components of an actual SSS of pipeline section and to estimate its strength by elastic analysis.

  19. Estimating the surface area of non-convex particles from central planar sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórisdóttir, Ólöf; H.Rafati, Ali; Kiderlen, Markus

    . The Morse type estimator is well suited for computer assisted confocal microscopy and we demonstrate its practicability in a biological application: the surface area estimation of the nuclei of giant-cell glioblastoma from microscopy images. We also present an interactive software that allows the user...

  20. Estimation of the copper load in sewage sludge caused by copper house installation; Abschaetzung der Belastung des Klaerschlamms mit Kupfer durch Trinkwasser aus Kupferhausinstallationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overath, H.; Becker, A.; Patzelt, T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Inst. fuer Wasserchemie und Wassertechnologie GmbH (IWW), Inst. an der Gerhard-Mercator-Univ.-GH Duisburg, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Nissing, W. [Gelsenwasser AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    In 1992 the sewage sludge regulation in Germany lowered the copper load limit for sewage sludge disposed on agri- or horticulturally used areas from 1 200 to 800 mg/kg dry weight. In some areas of Northrhine-Westfalia the copper content of sewage sludge exceeds this new threshold value thus forcing new ways of disposal for sewage sludge that are not only expensive but also ecologically undesirable. - Attention is recently focused on drinking water being distributed to the end consumers through copper and copper containing house installations. IWW has determined the area specific copper release rate of copper pipes for different drinking water qualities with and without inhibitor dosage under technically relevant conditions. The results are the basis for the estimation of the copper load in sewage sludge caused by copper release from copper or copper containing house installations. The share of this load can be considerable if the cuprosolvancy of the drinking water is high and the catchment area of the sewage treatment plant is only sparingly populated with a high share of 1- and 2-family housings with copper installations. The copper release from copper piping can be reduced by addition of phosphates to the drinking water. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach der Novellierung der Klaerschlammverordnung im Jahre 1992 darf der Kupfergehalt des Klaerschlamms nicht mehr 1 200, sondern nur noch 800 mg/kg TS betragen, wenn der Klaerschlamm auf landwirtschaftlich oder gaertnerisch genutzten Boeden aufgebracht werden soll. In einigen Bereichen Nordrhein-Westfalens uebersteigt der Kupfergehalt des Klaerschlamms den neuen Grenzwert, so dass dieser anderweitig entsorgt werden muss. Dies ist in der Regel nicht nur wesentlich teurer, sondern aus oekologischer Sicht auch unerwuenscht. - Auf der Suche nach den Ursachen hoher Kupfergehalte im Klaerschlamm richtet sich neuerdings die Aufmerksamkeit verstaerkt auch auf das Trinkwasser, das beim Verbraucher in Hausinstallationen aus Kupfer und

  1. Unbiased estimation of particle number using sections--an historical perspective with special reference to the stereology of glomeruli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, T F; Nyengaard, J R

    1989-01-01

    Methods for estimating particle number may be based on at least three different principles. Two of them, isolation of particles and indirect counting, have been predominant until recently. The new methods based on section pairs (disectors) are unbiased and far more efficient. The three principles...

  2. Comparison of the arithmetic and geometric means in estimating crown diameter and crown cross-sectional area

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph

    2010-01-01

    The use of the geometric and arithmetic means for estimating tree crown diameter and crown cross-sectional area were examined for trees with crown width measurements taken at the widest point of the crown and perpendicular to the widest point of the crown. The average difference between the geometric and arithmetic mean crown diameters was less than 0.2 ft in absolute...

  3. The Increasing Trend in Caesarean Section Rates: Global, Regional and National Estimates: 1990-2014

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betrán, Ana Pilar; Ye, Jianfeng; Moller, Anne-Beth; Zhang, Jun; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Torloni, Maria Regina

    2016-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) rates continue to evoke worldwide concern because of their steady increase, lack of consensus on the appropriate CS rate and the associated additional short- and long-term risks and costs...

  4. Healthcare Coinsurance Elasticity Coefficient Estimation Using Monthly Cross-sectional, Time-series Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggins, John F; Weinberg, Daniel A

    2017-06-01

    Published estimates of the healthcare coinsurance elasticity coefficient have typically relied on annual observations of individual healthcare expenditures even though health plan membership and expenditures are traditionally reported in monthly units and several studies have stressed the need for demand models to recognize the episodic nature of healthcare. Summing individual healthcare expenditures into annual observations complicates two common challenges of statistical inference, heteroscedasticity, and regressor endogeneity. This paper estimates the elasticity coefficient using a monthly panel data model that addresses the heteroscedasticity and endogeneity problems with relative ease. Healthcare claims data from employees of King County, Washington, during 2005 to 2011 were used to estimate the mean point elasticity coefficient: -0.314 (0.015 standard error) to -0.145 (0.015 standard error) depending on model specification. These estimates bracket the -0.2 point estimate (range: -0.22 to -0.17) derived from the famous Rand Health Insurance Experiment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 3D estimation of synaptic vesicle distributions in serial section transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh; Darkner, Sune; Nava, Nicoletta

    To transfer information between neurons, synaptic vesicles move toward the presynaptic membrane, called the active zone, and fuse with it, releasing neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. Thus, the shortest distance from vesicles to the active zone affects the speed of signal transportation...... brains. We demonstrate that ssTEM images have an additive bias field, which is well modelled by a quadratic polynomial. ssTEM images make a 3D study on very high-resolution images possible. However, due to the physical cutting of a section from a 3D embedded tissue, the relations between sections...... are lost. To reconstruct the 3D data we register the images in a common coordinate system. The traditional method to measure the distribution of the vesicles is to measure the distance independently of neighbouring sections. This is biased depending on the slope of the active zone with respect...

  6. An Odontometric Approach for Estimation of Stature in Indians: Cross- Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Kedia, Neal Bharat; Singh, Abhinav Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Height/stature is one of the useful anthropometric parameter for individual identification. Correlation of stature to long bones, even fragmentary bones is frequently reported among various populations. As teeth have the advantage of being composed largely of hard tissue which is relatively indestructible, the careful study of these can enable reliable determination of stature of the person in life. Aim The present study was designed to elucidate the anthropometric correlation of tooth dimensions with stature and also devises regression formulae. Materials and Methods This study was carried out on 361 Indian students (151 males and 210 females) in the age range of 21- 45 years to estimate stature using odontometry. Stature and tooth measurements were taken on each partcipant following standard methods and techniques. Karl Pearson’s correlation co-efficient and linear regression was used to estimate stature. Results Regression analysis showed that the canine width can aid in estimation of stature as an adjunct when only teeth are available for identification. Conclusion Tooth dimensions can be used only as a supplementary approach for the estimation of stature but with caution. PMID:27134995

  7. Estimation spatialisée de l'Evapotranspiration des cultures irriguées par télédétection. Application à la gestion de l'Irrigation dans la plaine du Haouz (Marrakech, Maroc).

    OpenAIRE

    Simonneaux, V.; Le Page, M.; Helson, D.; Metral, J.; Thomas, S; Duchemin, Benoît; Cherkaoui, M.; Kharrou, H.; Berjami, B.; Chehbouni, Abdelghani

    2009-01-01

    Satellite monitoring of irrigation (SAMIR) est un logiciel de spatialisation de l'évapotranspiration (ET) et du bilan hydrique des cultures irriguées sur de grandes surfaces, basé sur l'utilisation d'images satellitaires. Cette source d'information fournit une vision synoptique et périodique de la localisation et du développement des cultures, donnée critique pour une estimation fiable de l'ET. Cette dernière est calculée au moyen de la méthode FAO, bien adaptée au calcul sur de grandes surfa...

  8. Estimating Total Fusion Cross Sections by Using a Coupled-Channel Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Cheoun, Myung-Ki [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. S. [Korea Aerospace University, Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T. H.; So, W. Y. [Kangwon National University at Dogye, Samcheok (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    We calculate the total fusion cross sections for the {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi, {sup 6}Li + {sup 209}Bi,{sup 9}Be + {sup 208}Pb, {sup 10}Be + {sup 209}Bi, and {sup 11}Li + {sup 208}Pb systems by using a coupled-channel (CC) method and compare the results with the experimental data. In the CC approach for the total fusion cross sections, we exploit a globally determined Wood-Saxon potential with Aky¨uz-Winther parameters and couplings of the ground state to the low-lying excited states in the projectile and the target nuclei. The total fusion cross sections obtained with the CC are compared with those obtained without the CC couplings. The latter approach is tantamount to a one-dimensional barrier penetration model. Finally, our approach is applied to understand new data for the {sup 11}Li+{sup 208}Pb system. Possible ambiguities inherent in those approaches are discussed in detail for further applications to the fusion system of halo and/or neutron-rich nuclei.

  9. Estimation, filtering and adaptative control of a waste water processing process; Estimation, filtrage et commande adaptive d`un procede de traitement des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Youssef, C.; Dahhou, B.; Roux, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Rols, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    Controlling the process of a fixed bed bioreactor imply solving filtering and adaptative control problems. Estimation processes have been developed for unmeasurable parameters. An adaptative non linear control has been built, instead of conventional approaches trying to linearize the system and apply a linear control system. (D.L.) 10 refs.

  10. The estimated incidence of induced abortion in Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shukri F; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Moore, Ann M; Mutua, Michael; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela D; Egesa, Caroline

    2015-08-21

    The recently promulgated 2010 constitution of Kenya permits abortion when the life or health of the woman is in danger. Yet broad uncertainty remains about the interpretation of the law. Unsafe abortion remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Kenya. The current study aimed to determine the incidence of induced abortion in Kenya in 2012. The incidence of induced abortion in Kenya in 2012 was estimated using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology (AICM) along with the Prospective Morbidity Survey (PMS). Data were collected through three surveys, (i) Health Facilities Survey (HFS), (ii) Prospective Morbidity Survey (PMS), and (iii) Health Professionals Survey (HPS). A total of 328 facilities participated in the HFS, 326 participated in the PMS, and 124 key informants participated in the HPS. Abortion numbers, rates, ratios and unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for Kenya as a whole and for five geographical regions. In 2012, an estimated 464,000 induced abortions occurred in Kenya. This translates into an abortion rate of 48 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and an abortion ratio of 30 per 100 live births. About 120,000 women received care for complications of induced abortion in health facilities. About half (49%) of all pregnancies in Kenya were unintended and 41% of unintended pregnancies ended in an abortion. This study provides the first nationally-representative estimates of the incidence of induced abortion in Kenya. An urgent need exists for improving facilities' capacity to provide safe abortion care to the fullest extent of the law. All efforts should be made to address underlying factors to reduce risk of unsafe abortion.

  11. Low-frequency variability of meridional transport in the divergence zone of the North Atlantic subtropical and subpolar gyres. The WOCE section A2; Niederfrequente Variabilitaet meridionaler Transporte in der Divergenzzone des nordatlantischen Subtropen- und Subpolarwirbels. Der WOCE-Schnitt A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorbacher, K.

    2000-07-01

    The subinertial, climate relevant variability of the large-scale ocean circulation in the northern North Atlantic and its integral key parameters such as the advective transports of mass (volume), heat and freshwater are determined from observations alone using the hydrographic data from seven realisations of the so-called '48 N'-section between the English Channel and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The data consist of five available sets of the WOCE/A2-section during the Nineties for the years 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998 and of two previous transatlantic cruises in April of 1957 and 1982. The realisations of the WOCE/A2-section were carried out in the same season (May to July), except for the cruise in October 1994. The '48 N'-section follows the divergence zone of the mainly wind-driven subtropical gyre and the more complex, with respect to the forcing, subpolar gyre. In the central Westeuropean and Newfoundland Basins the section runs a few degrees south of the line of zero wind stress curl (curl{sub z}{tau}). In the West, the WOCE/A2-section turns northwest to cross the boundary current regime perpendicularly. Therefore, this quasi-zonal hydrographic section covers all large-scale circulation elements on the regional scale that contribute essentially to the ocean circulation on the global scale - the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The transport estimates are given as the sum of the three transport components of a quasi-steady, large-scale ocean circulation: The ageostrophic Ekman-, and the two geostrophic components, the depth-independent, barotropic or Sverdrup- and the baroclinic component. To maintain the mass balance over the plane of the section the compensation of each component is assumed. In the case of the baroclinic component the balance is achieved through a suitable choice for a surface of 'no-motion'. The absolute meridional velocity as a function of the zonal distance along the section and depth is

  12. Dental and Skeletal Age Estimations in Lebanese Children: A Retrospective Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé, Antoine; Baron, Pascal; Noujeim, Ziad; Azar, Dany

    2017-01-01

    Assessing dental and bone ages is frequently required in a wide range of fields such as odontology, forensic science, as well as orthopedics. The aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of two methods of bone age assessment and two methods of dental age (DA) assessment for Lebanese children. Skeletal age (SA) of 260 orthodontic patients (124 males, 136 females divided into four groups each) was consecutively assessed using Greulich and Pyle and Fishman's SMI methods. DA was evaluated using both Demirjian's and Willem's methods. Mean age was 11.89 ± 1.38 years for males and 11.75 ± 1.58 years for females. Data were collected and statistically analyzed using the SPSS software (IBM SPSS Statistics, version 21, USA). The differences between estimated DA, estimated SA, and chronological age (CA) were compared by gender and age group. Greulich and Pyle method showed nonsignificant difference with CA in male sample, while in both assessment methods, the difference between skeletal and CAs is significant in female sample. Results of Willem's method in the whole sample suggested a statistically nonsignificant difference, when compared to CA. Demirjian's method delivered higher mean value than Willem's assessment in both genders. Greulich and Pyle method is accurate for SA assessment in males and only in one group of females, while it significantly overestimates age in all other female groups. Willem's method is more suitable to assess DA in both genders. A strong correlation exists between both dental and skeletal assessment methods and CA.

  13. Estimation des taux de marge dans l'industrie manufacturière européenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warzynski, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    This brief note presents estimates of price cost margins (PCMs) obtained following the Roeger (1995) methodology using Amadeus as microeconomic dataset. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the dataset, and propose alternative datasets when longer times series or more representative sam...

  14. Estimation des quantités d'émissions azotées et des courbes de coût marginal d'épuration associées dans les secteurs et les régions du bassin d'un cours d'eau : une application pour le bassin rhénan

    OpenAIRE

    Saulnier, J.

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons aux questions liées à l'estimation des quantités d'émissions azotées et des courbes de coût marginal d'épuration dans le bassin d'un cours d'eau. L'application et les calculs empiriques sont réalisés pour les secteurs d'activité et les régions du bassin rhénan. Dans un premier temps, nous revenons sur les objectifs environnementaux formulés par la Commission Internationale pour la Protection du Rhin. L'intégration des contraintes de régulation existante...

  15. Méthodes d’estimation et d’extrapolation des pompages des eaux souterraines par l’intégration des pratiques locales: cas de la plaine du Saïss au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. AMEUR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Saïss plain, the access to groundwater enabled the rapid transformation of farming systems (extension of arboriculture and horticulture and the production of wealth. However, these changes affect only a minority of farmers who are able to access and use groundwater. This rapid agricultural development has contributed to the creation of social and economic inequalities, but also to a decline of groundwater tables. The actual groundwater abstractions for agriculture are not monitored and it is difficult to determine the share of different types of farming systems and farmers responsible for the groundwater withdrawals and identify the levers to control groundwater overexploitation. The aim of the paper is to develop and compare four methods to estimate and extrapolate agricultural groundwater withdrawals, distinguishing between uses and users. Our observations show that in the study area (4200 ha in Saïss, located in the province of El Hajeb, the groundwater inequalities are primarily a function of unequal access to land, because 0.5% of the farmers (who are large investors contribute to 27% of the groundwater use, on 33% of the total surface area. Conversely, the beneficiaries of the agrarian reform (26% of the area account for only 14% of the overexploitation. But the land inequality is not always the cause of inequality of groundwater use, since lessees, practicing intensive horticulture, are responsible for 33% of the groundwater use on only 11% of the surface area. We evaluated the appropriateness of different methods of extrapolation of agricultural groundwater use, based on the objectives and the effort required to obtain the necessary data. It is important to make visible inequalities in groundwater use, to analyze the overexploitation issue and enhance the effectiveness of the control of the groundwater use.

  16. Expanding vaccine efficacy estimation with dynamic models fitted to cross-sectional prevalence data post-licensure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erida Gjini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of vaccines is typically estimated prior to implementation, on the basis of randomized controlled trials. This does not preclude, however, subsequent assessment post-licensure, while mass-immunization and nonlinear transmission feedbacks are in place. In this paper we show how cross-sectional prevalence data post-vaccination can be interpreted in terms of pathogen transmission processes and vaccine parameters, using a dynamic epidemiological model. We advocate the use of such frameworks for model-based vaccine evaluation in the field, fitting trajectories of cross-sectional prevalence of pathogen strains before and after intervention. Using SI and SIS models, we illustrate how prevalence ratios in vaccinated and non-vaccinated hosts depend on true vaccine efficacy, the absolute and relative strength of competition between target and non-target strains, the time post follow-up, and transmission intensity. We argue that a mechanistic approach should be added to vaccine efficacy estimation against multi-type pathogens, because it naturally accounts for inter-strain competition and indirect effects, leading to a robust measure of individual protection per contact. Our study calls for systematic attention to epidemiological feedbacks when interpreting population level impact. At a broader level, our parameter estimation procedure provides a promising proof of principle for a generalizable framework to infer vaccine efficacy post-licensure.

  17. Thyroid doses estimation for the children in France in 1986; Estimation des doses a la thyroide pour les enfants en France en 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, M. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, 92 (France)

    2001-07-01

    The thyroid radiation doses have been estimated according to each nourishment for the children living in the East of France ( the most contaminated area) and an average value has been given for each age group: 1.89 mSv for the three months years old children, 9.82 mSv for the one year old children, 5.94 mSv for the five years old children and 2.96 mSv for the ten years old children. (N.C.)

  18. Risk information in support of cost estimates for the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). Section 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelston, G.M.; Jarvis, M.F.; Warren, B.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Von Berg, R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(1) effort on the overall Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR) project consists of four installation-specific work components performed in succession. These components include (1) development of source terms, 92) collection of data and preparation of environmental settings reports, (3) calculation of unit risk factors, and (4) utilization of the unit risk factors in Automated Remedial Action Methodology (ARAM) for computation of target concentrations and cost estimates. This report documents work completed for the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for components 2 and 3. The product of this phase of the BEMR project is the development of unit factors (i.e., unit transport factors, unit exposure factors, and unit risk factors). Thousands of these unit factors are gene rated and fill approximately one megabyte of computer information per installation. The final unit risk factors (URF) are transmitted electronically to BEMR-Cost task personnel as input to a computer program (ARAM). Abstracted files and exhibits of the URF information are included in this report. These visual formats are intended to provide a sample of the final task deliverable (the URF files) which can be easily read without a computer.

  19. Consumption estimation in system design for real time embedded applications; Estimation de la consommation dans la conception systeme des applications embarquees temps reel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, J.

    2002-12-15

    Today, power and energy consumption have become, as time and area, an important constraint when you design a system. Indeed modern applications use more and more processing and memory resources so these lead a significant increase of consumption. Furthermore, embedded software impact is preponderant in real time system so the code optimisation has a great impact onto the consumption constraint. Several research teams have already developed estimation methodologies for processor but almost are at instruction level (ILPA). With this kind of method you have to measure the consumption of each instruction of the instruction set and also the inter-instruction consumption overhead. For complex architecture, this kind of methodology is not adapted due to the prohibitive number of consumption measures. So the characterisation time of this kind of architecture is too important furthermore with this method is very difficult to take into account the external environment. For actual architecture another method is needed to reduce the characterisation time while preserving the accuracy. The reduction of the characterisation time have to be realized by increasing the abstraction level. So, we propose here a new approach based on a functional and architectural analysis of the target in consumption point of view (FLPA). Our methodology has two steps: the first one is a modeling step and the second is estimation step. (author)

  20. Non-invasive estimation of intracranial pressure. MR-based evaluation in children with hydrocephalus; Nichtinvasive Bestimmung des intrakraniellen Drucks. MR-basierte Untersuchung bei Kindern mit Hydrozephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlmann, M.; Steffinger, D.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Koerte, I.K. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Peraud, A. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Neurochirurgie, Muenchen (Germany); Lehner, M. [Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Kinderchirurgie, Muenchen (Germany); Heinen, F.; Alperin, N. [University Miami, Department of Radiology, Miller School of Medicine, Miami (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The intracranial pressure (ICP) is a crucially important parameter for diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making in patients with hydrocephalus. So far there is no standard method to non-invasively assess the ICP. Various approaches to obtain the ICP semi-invasively or non-invasively are discussed and the clinical application of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method to estimate ICP (MR-ICP) is demonstrated in a group of pediatric patients with hydrocephalus. Arterial inflow, venous drainage and craniospinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow were quantified using phase-contrast imaging to derive the MR-ICP. A total of 15 patients with hydrocephalus (n=9 treated with shunt placement or ventriculostomy) underwent MRI on a 3 T scanner applying retrospectively-gated cine phase contrast sequences. Of the patients six had clinical symptoms indicating increased ICP (age 2.5-14.61 years, mean 7.4 years) and nine patients had no clinical signs of elevated ICP (age 2.1-15.9 years; mean 9.8 years; all treated with shunt or ventriculostomy). Median MR-ICP in symptomatic patients was 24.5 mmHg (25th percentile 20.4 mmHg; 75th percentile 44.6 mmHg). Median MR-ICP in patients without acute signs of increased ICP was 9.8 mmHg (25th percentile 8.6 mmHg; 75th percentile 11.4 mmHg). Group differences were significant (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U-test). The MR-ICP technique is a promising non-invasive tool for estimating ICP. Further studies in larger patient cohorts are warranted to investigate its application in children with hydrocephalus. (orig.) [German] Der intrakranielle Druck (''intracranial pressure'' - ICP) ist ein entscheidender Parameter bei der Diagnostik, Therapie und Verlaufsbeurteilung von Patienten mit Hydrozephalus. Derzeit gibt es keine radiologische Standardmethode, um den intrakraniellen Druck quantitativ zu bestimmen. Methoden zur invasiven und nichtinvasiven Einschaetzung des ICP werden diskutiert und die Anwendung eines MR

  1. Renouvellement du carbone profond des sols cultivés : une estimation par compilation de données isotopiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balesdent, J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnover of deep organic carbon in cultivated soils: an estimate from a review of isotope data. Description of the subject. This study is an estimate of medium-term renewal (decades of deep carbon in cultivated soils. Objectives. Sequestration of organic carbon in soils is a way to mitigate the global rise in CO2 and warming. Deep horizons (> 30 cm contain about half of the soil organic carbon but, in agriculture, deep organic carbon and nitrogen are often neglected when the balance of these elements is calculated. Our goal in this study was to propose a quantification of deep C turnover. Method. We collected data from 41 profiles, where C turnover was studied using the natural 13C labeling technique. The studied cropping systems were basically tropical and temperate C4 plant monocultures. Results. Deep carbon (30 – 100 cm turnover was on average four times slower than in topsoil (0 – 30 cm, but renewal was significant. The average depth-distribution of the carbon flux to organic matter build-up was 81% in the layer at the 0 – 30 cm level and 19% in the layer at 30 – 100 cm, with a standard error of ± 4%. Over the longer term (20 years, subsoil at 30 – 100 cm contained on average 23% of the recent soil carbon accumulated in the first meter. Conclusions. Deep organic matter should not be overlooked when considering the balance of C and N and we therefore propose a simple method for an initial first assessment. In the future, further estimates of the temporal evolution of the deep carbon stock and its factors of variation should be based on long-term agronomic experiments or modeling parameterized on heavily instrumented sites, and should be accompanied by detailed pedological descriptions.

  2. Reliability of student midwives' visual estimate of blood loss in the immediate postpartum period: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayre, Inès; Rivière, Olivier; Debost-Legrand, Anne; Lémery, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise

    2015-12-01

    In France, postpartum hemorrhage (blood loss≥500mL in the first 24h postpartum) is the leading direct obstetric cause of maternal mortality. In French practice, PPH is mainly diagnosed by a quantitative assessment of blood loss, performed by subjective methods such as visual estimates. Various studies have concluded that visual estimates are imprecise, tend to underestimate blood loss, and thus to delay diagnosis of PPH. The principal objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of visual estimates of blood loss by student midwives. The secondary objectives were to study intraobserver agreement of these assessments, to assess the accuracy of visual estimates for threshold values, and to look for a region effect. A cross-sectional multicentre study. All French midwifery schools (n=35). Volunteer French student midwives at their fifth (final) year (n=463). The online questionnaire contained 16 photographs (8 different, each presented twice) of simulated volumes of blood loss (100, 150, 200, 300, 500, 850, 1000, and 1500mL). A 50-mL reference standard for calibration accompanied each photograph. Only one answer could be selected among the 7 choices offered for each photograph. Comparisons used χ(2) and Kappa tests. The participation rate was 48.43% (463/956), and 7.408 visual estimates were collected. Estimates were accurate for 35.34% of the responses. The reproducibility rate for the visual estimates (0.17≤к≤0.48) and for the accurate visual estimates (0.11≤к≤0.55) were moderate for 4 of the 8 volumes (100, 300, 1000, and 1500mL). The percentage of accurate responses was significantly higher for volumes≤300mL than for those ≥500mL (52.94% vs. 17.17%, p<0.0001) and those ≥1000mL (52.94% vs. 18.30%, p<0.0001). The percentage of accurate responses varied between the regions (p=0.042). Despite the help of a visual aid, both the accuracy and reproducibility of the visual estimates were low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects; Massnahmen zur Absenkung des Flottenverbrauchs. Abschaetzung der Wirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R. [Institut fuer Wirtschaft und Oekologie (IWOE-HSG), Universitaet St. Gallen, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  4. Greenhouse gases regional fluxes estimated from atmospheric measurements; Estimation des flux de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle regionale a partir de mesures atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messager, C

    2007-07-15

    build up a new system to measure continuously CO{sub 2} (or CO), CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} mixing ratios. It is based on a commercial gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N) which have been modified to reach better precision. Reproducibility computed with a target gas on a 24 hours time step gives: 0.06 ppm for CO{sub 2}, 1.4 ppb for CO, 0.7 ppb for CH{sub 4}, 0.2 ppb for N{sub 2}O and 0.05 ppt for SF{sub 6}. The instrument's run is fully automated, an air sample analysis takes about 5 minutes. In July 2006, I install instrumentation on a telecommunication tall tower (200 m) situated near Orleans forest in Trainou, to monitor continuously greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SF{sub 6}), atmospheric tracers (CO, Radon-222) and meteorological parameters. Intake lines were installed at 3 levels (50, 100 and 180 m) and allow us to sample air masses along the vertical. Continuous measurement started in January 2007. I used Mace Head (Ireland) and Gif-sur-Yvette continuous measurements to estimate major greenhouse gases emission fluxes at regional scale. To make the link between atmospheric measurements and surface fluxes, we need to quantify dilution due to atmospheric transport. I used Radon-222 as tracer (radon tracer method) and planetary boundary layer heights estimates from ECMWF model (boundary layer budget method) to parameterize atmospheric transport. In both cases I compared results to available emission inventories. (author)

  5. Neutron elastic scattering cross-sections measurement on carbon and fluorine in epithermal energy range using PEREN platform; Mesure des sections efficaces de diffusion elastique des neutrons sur le carbone et le fluor dans le domaine epithermique sur la plate-forme PEREN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiolliere, N

    2005-10-15

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) based on Th/U cycle is one of the new generation concepts for nuclear energy production. A typical MSR is a graphite-moderated core with liquid fuel ({sup 7}LiF +ThF{sub 4} + UF{sub 4}). Many numerical studies based on Monte-Carlo codes are currently carried out but the validity of these numerical result relies on the precise knowledge of neutron cross sections used such as elastic scattering on carbon ({sigma}{sub C}), fluorine ({sigma}{sub F}) and lithium 7 ({sigma}{sub Li}). The goal of this work is to obtain {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} between 1 eV and 100 keV. Such measurements have been performed at the Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC) de Grenoble on the experimental platform PEREN using slowing-down time spectrometers (C and CF{sub 2}) associated to a pulsed neutron generator (GENEPI). Capture rates are obtained for reference materials (Au, Ag, Mo and In) using YAP scintillator coupled to a photo-multiplier. Very precise simulations (MCNP code) of the experimental setup have been performed and comparison with experiments has led to the determination of {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} with accuracies of 1% and 2% respectively. These results show a small discrepancy to evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF). Measures of total cross-sections {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} at higher energy (200 - 600 keV) were also carried out at Centre des Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux using a transmission method. Mono-energetic neutrons were produced by protons accelerated by a Van de Graaff accelerator on a LiF target and transmitted neutrons are counted in a proportional hydrogen gaseous detector. Discrepancies of 5% and 9% for {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} respectively with ENDF have been shown. (author)

  6. Des abeilles et des fruits

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    La pollinisation est le transfert du pollen des étamines aux pistils suivi de l’acheminement des gamètes mâles (les noyaux spermatiques) via le pollen jusqu’aux ovules. Autrement dit, à part chez les espèces parthénocarpiques (qui produisent des fruits sans fécondation, et donc sans graine, comme le bananier) et les rares espèces apomictiques (qui produisent des graines sans fécondation comme certains agrumes), la pollinisation est un préambule clé à la production de fruits et de graines....

  7. Assessment of the optimum section thickness for the estimation of liver volume using magnetic resonance images: A stereological gold standard study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Bunyamin [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Ondokuz Mayis University, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)]. E-mail: bsahin@omu.edu.tr; Ergur, Hayati [Akademi Radiological Diagnosis Center, 55030 Samsun (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    Estimation of liver volume using magnetic resonance (MR) images has been described previously. We have, however, not found a gold standard study, which analyzes the effect of section thickness on the estimation of liver volume. In the present study, five normal cadaveric livers were scanned in the horizontal plane using a 1.5 T MR machine (Signa 1.5T SYS GEMSOW General Electronic, Wisconsin, USA). Consecutive sections at a thickness of 10, 7.5, 5 and 2.5 mm were used to estimate the total volume of the livers by means of the Cavalieri principle. The point counting and planimetry were used for the volume estimates. With a view to evaluating the accuracy of two techniques, all the estimations were done by the same observer. The estimated volumes concur with the actual volume of the livers obtained by the fluid displacement technique (p > 0.05). However, the section thickness has an over- or under-projection effect on the estimated volume. The obtained volume estimation results were analyzed to reveal the deviation principles of the estimates based on the section thickness. The most suitable section thickness for the liver volume estimation was assessed to be 4-5 mm. There were no significant differences between the estimation results of two methods (p > 0.05). The point-counting technique did, however, take less time than planimetry for estimating liver volume from MR images. Results also showed that the effect of section thickness on volume estimates using the two approaches could not be omitted and the values obtained could be calibrated using the proposed regression formula presented in this study.

  8. Development of the neutron-transport code TransRay and studies on the two- and three-dimensional calculation of effective group cross sections; Entwicklung des Neutronentransportcodes TransRay und Untersuchungen zur zwei- und dreidimensionalen Berechnung effektiver Gruppenwirkungsquerschnitte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckert, C.

    2007-12-19

    Conventionally the data preparation of the neutron cross sections for reactor-core calculations pursues with 2D cell codes. Aim of this thesis was, to develop a 3D cell code, to study with this code 3D effects, and to evaluate the necessarity of a 3D data preparation of the neutron cross sections. For the calculation of the neutron transport the method of the first-collision probabilities, which are calculated with the ray-tracing method, was chosen. The mathematical algorithms were implemented in the 2D/3D cell code TransRay. For the geometry part of the program the geometry module of a Monte Carlo code was used.The ray tracing in 3D was parallelized because of the high computational time. The program TransRay was verified on 2D test problems. For a reference pressured-water reactor following 3D problems were studied: A partly immersed control rod and void (vacuum or steam) around a fuel rod as model of a steam void. All problems were for comparison calculated also with the programs HELIOS(2D) and MCNP(3D). The dependence of the multiplication factor and the averaged two-group cross section on the immersion depth of the control rod respectively of the height of the steam void were studied. The 3D-calculated two-group cross sections were compared with three conventional approximations: Linear interpolation, interpolation with flux weighting, and homogenization, At the 3D problem of the control rod it was shown that the interpolation with flux weighting is a good approximation. Therefore here a 3D data preparation is not necessary. At the test case of the single control rod, which is surrounded by the void, the three approximation for the two-group cross sections were proved as unsufficient. Therefore a 3D data preparation is necessary. The single fuel-rod cell with void can be considered as the limiting case of a reactor, in which a phase interface has been formed. [German] Standardmaessig erfolgt die Datenaufbereitung der Neutronenwirkungsquerschnitte fuer

  9. Contribution of archaeological analogs to the estimation of average corrosion rates and long term corrosion mechanisms of low carbon steel in soil; Apport des analogues archeologiques a l'estimation des vitesses moyennes et a l'etude des mecanismes de corrosion a tres long terme des aciers non allies dans les sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, D

    2003-11-15

    In the context of the French nuclear waste storage, a multi-barriers disposal is envisaged. Wastes could be put in metallic overpacks disposed in a clay soil. As these overpacks could be made of low carbon steel, it is important to understand the corrosion behaviour of this material in soil during period of several centuries. Indeed, it is necessary to consolidate the empirical data by a phenomenological approach. This includes laboratory experiments and modelling of the phenomenon which have to be validated and completed by the study of archaeological artefacts. This was the aim of this PhD-work. To this purpose, an analytical protocol has been elaborated: about forty archaeological artefacts coming from five dated sites (2. to 16. centuries) have been studied on cross section in order to observe on the same sample all the constituents of the system: metallic substrate/corrosion products/environment. The corrosion products are divided into two zones: the Dense Product Layer (DPL) in contact with the metal, and the Transformed Medium (TM) which are the corrosion products formed around soil minerals (quartz grains). The metallic substrate has been studied by the classical methods of materials science (optical and scanning electron microscope, energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopies). It has been verified that despite their heterogeneity of structure and composition, they are all hypo-eutectoids steels that can contain phosphorous until 0.5 wt%. The corrosion products have been analysed by local structural analytical methods as micro-diffraction under synchrotron radiation ({mu}XRD) and Raman micro-spectroscopy. These two complementary techniques and also the elemental composition analysis conducted to the characterisation of the corrosion forms. On the majority of the samples coming from four sites, the DPL are constituted by goethite including marbles of magnetite/maghemite. On the artefacts from the fifth site, a particular corrosion form has been

  10. Model for estimating the population prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: cross sectional data from the Health Survey for England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Tom

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major but neglected public health problem. Currently 1.4% of the England population has a clinical diagnosis of COPD, but the true burden of the disease has not been known with certainty, as many cases remain undiagnosed. Methods A mathematical model based on cross sectional data from a representative sample of the population in England (the Heath Survey for England 2001, n = 10,750 was developed allowing estimates on the prevalence of COPD (defined based on the presence of airflow obstruction to be obtained. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate and choose risk factors for inclusion in the model and to derive the prevalence estimates based on the strength of association between selected risk factors and the outcome COPD. The model allows the prevalence to be estimated in populations at national level and also at regional and large local areas, based on their compositions according to age, sex, smoking and ethnicity, and on area degrees of urbanisation and deprivation. We applied the model to measure the prevalence of COPD in England and in some sub-groups of the population within the country. Results The prevalence of COPD in England is estimated as 3.1% (3.9% in men and 2.4% in women in the population over 15 years of age, and 5.3% (6.8% in men and 3.9% in women in 45 year-olds and over. There was a 7-fold variation in the prevalence across subgroups of the population, with lowest values in Asian women from wealthy rural areas (1.7%, and highest in black men from deprived urban areas (12.5%. Conclusion The model can be used to estimate population prevalence of COPD from large general practices to national level, and as a tool to identify areas of high levels of unmet needs for COPD priority health actions. The results from the model highlight the importance of including variables other than age, sex and smoking, i.e. levels of deprivation, urbanisation and

  11. Estimation of the incidence of genital warts and the cost of illness in Germany: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénard Stève

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease. Methods This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional study of genital warts in Germany. Data were collected from gynecologists, dermatologists, and urologists seeing patients with genital warts between February and April 2005. The number of patients with new and recurrent genital warts was used to estimate the incidence in Germany. We assessed resource use for patients with genital warts seen during a two-month period as well as retrospective resource use twelve months prior to the inclusion visit through a chart review. The mean costs of treatment of patients with genital warts from third-party payer and societal perspectives were estimated, and the total annual cost of genital warts was then calculated. Results For the incidence calculation 217 specialists provided information on 848 patients and 214 specialists provided resource use data for 617 patients to assess resource consumption. The incidence of new and recurrent cases of genital warts was 113.7 and 34.7 per 100 000, respectively, for women aged 14–65 years consulting gynecologists. The highest incidence was observed in women aged 14–25 years (171.0 per 100 000 for new cases and in women aged 26–45 years (53.1 per 100 000 for recurrent cases. The sample size for males was too small to allow a meaningful estimate of the incidence. The mean direct cost per patient with new genital warts was estimated at 378 euros (95% CI: 310.8–444.9; for recurrent genital warts at 603 euros (95% CI: 436.5–814.5, and for resistant genital warts at 1,142 euros (95% CI: 639.6–1752.3. The overall cost to third-party payers was estimated at 49.0 million euros, and the total

  12. Study of the thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring during power excursion on a heated test section; Etude des phenomenes thermiques et hydrauliques accompagnant une excursion rapide de puissance sur un canal chauffant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyer, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena occurring during a power excursion were studied in an out-of-pile loop with a water cooled channel at low pressure (1 to 4 atm. abs. ). Circular and rectangular test sections with electrically heated walls of two different thermal diffusivity materials(aluminium and stainless steel) were used. The rectangular test sections were 600 mm long, 35 mm wide and had a 2, 9 mm gap; they simulate two half plates of the M.T.R. fuel element. Natural or forced convection are possible in the test section; the water height above it can be varied from 2.8 to 8 meters and the maximum allowed pressure at its outlet is 4 atm. abs.The heating source is a series of lead batteries which is able to generate, for short periods of time, 85 volts and 25000 amperes; linear, square or exponential power rise versus time can be realized. A 14 channels tape recorder (0-10 000 Hz bandwidth; is used for the measurements of temperature (8/100 mm diameter thermocouple), pressure ('Statham' pressure transducers) and void fraction (X rays). More than 500 tests have been carried out. The influence of the initial water temperature, flow rate, pressure, water height on the water ejections, pressure variations and void fraction in the test section were studied. Tests with energies up to 3000 W/cm in 50 milliseconds were attempted. The energy above which the instabilities appear was determined. An interpretation of the observed phenomena and a simplified theoretical model are presented. [French] Les phenomenes thermiques et hydrodynamiques qui apparaissent au cours d'une excursion de puissance ont ete etudies sur un canal refroidi par de l'eau a basse pression situe sur une installation hors pile. On a utilise des sections d'essais de geometrie cylindrique ou parallipedique dont les parois chauffees par effet Joule sont constituees de materiaux de diffusivite calorifique differente (aluminium et acier inoxydable). La section d

  13. Diagraphies et roches-mères. Estimation des teneurs en carbone organique par la méthode CARBOLOG Well Logs and Source Rocks Assessing Organic Carbon Content by the Carbolog Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpentier B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La prise en compte des teneurs en matière organique des roches-mères joue un rôle important dans l'évaluation du potentiel pétrolier des bassins sédimentaires. CARBOLOG est une nouvelle méthode d'estimation du contenu organique des roches-mères développée à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (lFP. Cette méthode tire partie des propriétés physiques de la matière organique qui se caractérise par une faible vitesse de propagation du son ainsi que par une résistivité élevée. Ces propriétés physiques peuvent être combinées de manière à permettre une estimation in situ du contenu en matière organique du sédiment. Dans un puits donné, la teneur en carbone organique est estimée par un traitement prenant conjointement en compte les valeurs fournies par deux types de diagraphies couramment disponibles dans les forages pétroliers : le Soniqueet la Résistivité . Pour mettre en oeuvre CARBOLOG à l'échelle d'un bassin sédimentaire il est nécessaire de procéder à une calibration basée sur le traitement de puits pour lesquels des données analytiques de teneur en carbone organique existent. Afin d'être validé, CARBOLOG a été testé avec succès sur des exemples appartenant à des bassins différents et présentant des faciès variés. Les résultats obtenus indiquent clairement la capacité de la méthode à estimer les teneurs en carbone organique et à rendre compte en continu de leurs évolutions verticales, pour des roches-mères marines, immatures ou faiblement matures. D'autres tests sont actuellement en cours sur des environnements de dépôt différents et des formations plus matures de manière à définir les possibilités et les limites de CARBOLOG dans l'ensemble des contextes géologiques généralement rencontrés. For assessing the petroleum potential of sedimentary basins, it is very important to take the organic matter contained in source rocks into consideration. CARBOLOG is a new method developed by

  14. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  15. Estimation of the collective sanitary impact of the land contamination by the radioactivity found at Gif sur Yvette; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire collectif de la contamination des terrains par la radioactivite presente a Gif sur Yvette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The company 'Societe Nouvelle du Radium' extracted radium and produced radium needles in Gif-sur-Yvette (Essonne) from 1904 to 1957. In 1959, this site was converted into a habitable zone. Since then, this district called the 'Petite Coudraie' has been going through several radioactivity measurements and decontamination works. In 2000, the detection of very high levels of radon above sanitary recommendations in one house encouraged the local authorities to launch a systematic investigation and risk analysis in order to take the necessary measures against radiological risks for the whole concerned district. The 'Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales' (D.D.A.S.S.), the French Institute of Public Health (InVS) and the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Security (I.P.S.N.) conducted a health impact assessment of the pollution in this area. The Office for the Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.) and the I.P.S.N. first measured the radioactivity found on the surface area. The I.P.S.N. then conducted a dosimetric study based on the measurement results and realistic exposure scenarios of adults and children present in the area. Finally, on the base of these results, the InVs did a quantitative risk assessment of cancer due to exposure to the radioactive residuals from the past industrial activities which is the subject of this report. This assessment allows to estimate the extent of this potential health impact due to the contamination of the area with the current scientific knowledge. It assesses the contribution of the various sources ways of exposure to risk and therefore directs the measures of management priority. Finally, it also allows to appreciate the relevance of an epidemiological study on the population who was present in this area. (author)

  16. Production Cross-Section Estimates for Strongly-Interacting Electroweak-Symmetry Breaking Sector Resonances at Particle Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobado, Antonio; Guo, Feng-Kun; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.

    2015-12-01

    We are exploring a generic strongly-interacting Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Sector (EWSBS) with the low-energy effective field theory for the four experimentally known particles (W±L, ZL, h) and its dispersion-relation based unitary extension. In this contribution we provide simple estimates for the production cross-section of pairs of the EWSBS bosons and their resonances at proton-proton colliders as well as in a future e‑e+ (or potentially a μ‑μ+) collider with a typical few-TeV energy. We examine the simplest production mechanisms, tree-level production through a W (dominant when quantum numbers allow) and the simple effective boson approximation (in which the electroweak bosons are considered as collinear partons of the colliding fermions). We exemplify with custodial isovector and isotensor resonances at 2 TeV, the energy currently being discussed because of a slight excess in the ATLAS 2-jet data. We find it hard, though not unthinkable, to ascribe this excess to one of these WLWL rescattering resonances. An isovector resonance could be produced at a rate smaller than, but close to earlier CMS exclusion bounds, depending on the parameters of the effective theory. The ZZ excess is then problematic and requires additional physics (such as an additional scalar resonance). The isotensor one (that would describe all charge combinations) has smaller cross-section. Supported by the Spanish Excellence Network on Hadronic Physics FIS2014-57026-REDT, by Spanish Grants Universidad Complutense UCM:910309 and Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad MINECO:FPA2011-27853-C02-01, MINECO:FPA2014-53375-C2-1-P, by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and National Natural Science Foundation of China through Funds Provided to the Sino-German CRC 110 “Symmetries and the Emergence of Structure in QCD” (NSFC Grant No. 11261130311) and by NSFC (Grant No. 11165005)

  17. Population-based estimates of acute gastrointestinal and foodborne illness in Barbados: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Maria; St John, Joy; Applewhaite, Tyrone; Gaskin, Pamela; Springer, Karen; Indar, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the burden and impact of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and foodborne diseases (FBDs) in Barbados through a retrospective, cross-sectional population survey and laboratory study in August 2010-August 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with one person from each of 1,710 randomly-selected households. Of these, 1,433 (84%) interviews were completed. A total of 70 respondents reported having experienced AGE in the 28 days prior to the interview, representing a prevalence of 4.9% and an annual incidence rate of 0.652 episodes per person-year. Age (p = 0.01132), season (p = 0.00343), and income (p foodborne pathogen causing AGE-related illness. An estimated 44,270 cases of AGE were found to occur during the period of the study and, for every case of AGE detected by surveillance, an additional 204 cases occurred in the community. Economic costs of AGE ranged from BD$ 9.5 million to 16.5 million (US$ 4.25-8.25) annually. This study demonstrated that the public-health burden and impact of AGE and FBD in Barbados were high and provided the necessary baseline information to guide targeted interventions.

  18. Estimation des captures effectuées durant la saison 1991-1992 par les pêcheurs à la ligne dans un grand cours d'eau français (la Saône

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANGEUX T.

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Une enquête de terrain et une enquête téléphonique ont été réalisées durant les années 1991 et 1992, auprès de deux grands échantillons de pêcheurs à la ligne de la Saône, afin d'établir leur nombre d'heures de pêche annuel et le poids horaire de leurs captures. La prise en compte des valeurs nulles, et l'ajustement des valeurs non nulles au modèle log-normal, donnent un temps de pêche annuel voisin de 136 h/an et un poids horaire de capture de 152 g/h. Le nombre important des pêcheurs de la Saône (estimé à 45 600 conduit à la capture annuelle de 950 tonnes de poissons, soit 3,16 t/km/an ou 183 kg/ha/an. Ces valeurs se rapprochent de la productivité piscicole théorique de la rivière.

  19. Des Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Matvejević, Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Les Balkans témoignent de contradictions géographiques et politiques, perceptibles dans le changement d’appellation des lieux au cours de l’Histoire : de la péninsule illyrienne, grecque, byzantine à la « Turquie d’Europe » plus récente. Il est resté une dénomination venue des Turcs, les « Balkans ». Cette presqu’île n’offre pas de frontières naturelles difficiles à franchir. Les délimitations des géographes et historiens sont relatives et souvent arbitraires, et donc contestées. Sa définitio...

  20. Estimation des calories supplémentaires liées à la consommation d'alcool comme facteur potentiellement négligé de l'obésité chez les jeunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Battista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Les taux d'obésité chez les jeunes ne cessent d'augmenter au Canada. Dans cette étude, nous avons réalisé des estimations conservatrices des calories excédentaires susceptibles de découler de la consommation d'alcool en fonction des habitudes de consommation courantes chez les jeunes Canadiens, afin de déterminer si la consommation d'alcool devrait être prise en compte dans les futures stratégies de prévention de l'obésité. Méthodologie : Des données portant sur 10 144 élèves de 12e année ayant participé à l'étude COMPASS (2013-2014 ont été utilisées pour estimer l'apport calorique annuel provenant de la consommation d'alcool. Pour effectuer nos estimations, nous avons classé les boissons alcoolisées en trois catégories, en fonction de leur teneur moyenne en calories (coolers à base de vodka; bière 5 %; bière 4 %, vin et spiritueux et de la fréquence de consommation et d'abus occasionnel d'alcool (ou hyperalcoolisation rapide. Résultats : Les résultats ont indiqué un apport calorique potentiel élevé chez les élèves qui s'adonnaient aux abus occasionnels d'alcool, ainsi qu'une forte variabilité dans les estimations de l'apport calorique en fonction des habitudes de consommation courantes associées aux différents types de boisson. Par exemple, 27,2 % des élèves s'adonnaient à un abus occasionnel d'alcool une fois par mois, ce qui représente une consommation de 6 000 à 13 200 calories par année (soit 0,78 à 1,71 kg de gras. Pour les 4,9 % d'élèves qui s'adonnaient à un abus occasionnel d'alcool deux fois par semaine, le nombre de calories consommées en une année se situerait entre 52 000 et 114 400 (soit 6,74 à 14,83 kg de gras. Conclusion : Les recommandations en vigueur pour la prévention de l'obésité chez les jeunes ne tiennent généralement pas compte de la consommation d'alcool. Étant donné à la fois les taux élevés de consommation d'alcool et d'abus occasionnels d

  1. Pilot study for reconstruction of soft tissues: muscle cross-sectional area of the forearm estimated from cortical bone for a Neolithic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slizewski, Astrid; Burger-Heinrich, Eva; Francken, Michael; Wahl, Joachim; Harvati, Katerina

    2014-06-01

    On a basis of a method for muscle cross-sectional area estimation from cortical bone area that was previously developed (Slizewski et al. Anat Rec 2013; 296:1695-1707), we reconstructed muscle cross-sectional area at 65% of radius length for a sample of Neolithic human remains from the Linear Pottery Culture (ca. 5,700-4,900 years BC). Muscle cross-sectional area estimations for the Neolithic sample were compared to in vivo measurements from a recent human sample. Results demonstrate that the Neolithic individuals had larger muscle cross-sectional area relative to radius length than the contemporary humans and that their forearms were more muscular and robust. We also found significant differences in relative muscle cross-sectional area between Neolithic and recent children that indicate different levels of physical stress and isometric activities. Our results fit into the framework of studies previously published about the sample and the Linear Pottery Culture. Therefore, the new approach was successfully applied to an archaeological sample for the first time here. Results of our pilot study indicate that muscle cross-sectional area estimation could in the future supplement other anthropological methods currently in use for the analysis of postcranial remains. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Des guides et des cartes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia MATHIEU

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Consultés pour leurs références régionales ou locales, les guides touristiques donnent aussi une vision globale de la France qui est rarement perçue par l'utilisateur. Différents types de représentations cartographiques ont été choisis pour montrer, à partir d'informations simples, découpage en «régions» touristiques, étoilement des sites et des espaces touristiques, cette image de la France.

  3. Joint Direction-of-Departure and Direction-of-Arrival Estimation in a UWB MIMO Radar Detecting Targets with Fluctuating Radar Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idnin Pasya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a joint direction-of-departure (DOD and direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar utilizing ultra wideband (UWB signals in detecting targets with fluctuating radar cross sections (RCS. The UWB MIMO radar utilized a combination of two-way MUSIC and majority decision based on angle histograms of estimated DODs and DOAs at each frequency of the UWB signal. The proposed angle estimation scheme was demonstrated to be effective in detecting targets with fluctuating RCS, compared to conventional spectra averaging method used in subband angle estimations. It was found that a wider bandwidth resulted in improved estimation performance. Numerical simulations along with experimental evaluations in a radio anechoic chamber are presented.

  4. Effect of temperature-dependent cross sections on O4 slant column density estimation by a space-borne UV-visible hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kim, Jhoon

    2017-03-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) were examined by applying temperature-dependent O4 cross sections using the radiative transfer model (RTM) calculation with the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. For the sensitivity study, we used a newly developed cross section database in place of the database used in the operational algorithm. Newly investigated O4 cross section databases for 203 K and 293 K were used for the radiance simulation by interpolating temperature for each atmospheric layer based on the vertical profile of standard atmosphere in the RTM. The effect of the temperature-dependent cross sections was a significant O4 SCD increase of 8.3% with dependence on satellite and solar viewing geometries. Furthermore, the O4 SCD generally increased by an estimated 3.9% based on the observation geometries of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. For the long-term comparison, the O4 SCD estimated from the temperature-dependent cross sections corrects 20% of the total underestimation of O4 SCD between the observation and simulation. Although the surface pressure variation and background aerosol effect also correct the O4 SCD discrepancy, the effect of temperature-dependent cross sections was more important than the effects of surface pressure variation and background aerosols. Therefore, temperature dependence of the cross section in the RTM calculation is essential for the accurate simulation of O4 SCD.

  5. Câbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensité du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposés en nappe

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    Câbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensité du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposés en nappe

  6. Estimating the transitional probabilities of smoking stages with cross-sectional data and 10-year projection for smoking behavior in Iranian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khosravi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group.

  7. Etude des sections efficaces et des asymétries di-leptoniques à LEP2. Contraintes sur la physique au-delà du Modèle Standard

    CERN Document Server

    De Bonnis, Isabelle

    I describe in this HDR the scientific works that I have done since my PhD, defended in 1994. The first part of these works was devoted to the development of detectors within the BaBar experiment. The second part, more extensively described here, was the study of the di-leptonic events produced in the ALEPH experiment at LEP2. In the BaBar experiment, I initially contributed to the feasibility study of a Cerenkov counter dedicated to the identification of charged particles. I had then the responsibility of the construction of a wire chamber for the monitoring of the gain, installed in the gas distribution system of the BaBar drift chamber. These activities included design and simulation of instruments as well as analysis of tests data. Then, I participated to the LEP2 data analysis by measuring cross-sections and forward-backward asymmetries of the di-leptonic processes. I made the interpretation of these measurements under various scenarios of new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as four fermions conta...

  8. Processus hydrogéochimiques et origine des sources naturelles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    consommation mondiale des ressources en eau est estimée à 6,3% (Oi-Wah et Shin-Fai,. 2002). Sur la base de l'origine, des conditions d'émergence et des ..... d'hydrolyse responsable de la minéralisation des eaux souterraines (Boukari, 1982). Dans ces conditions, l'acide carbonique issue de l'hydratation du CO2 ...

  9. The Job Satisfaction-Life Satisfaction Relationship Revisited: Using the Lewbel Estimation Technique to Estimate Causal Effects Using Cross-Sectional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Mishra; Ingrid Nielsen; Russell Smyth; Alex Newman

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a novel identification strategy proposed by Lewbel (2012, J. Bus. Econ. Stat.) to illustrate how causation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction can be established with cross-sectional data. In addition to examining the relationship between composite job satisfaction and life satisfaction, we consider the relationship between life satisfaction and different facets of job satisfaction. We find evidence of bidirectional causality between job satisfaction and life satisf...

  10. Accuracy Estimate for Radar Cross Section Measurements of Targets Modelled by Multiple Independent Scatterers in Constant Clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    is 1/2. 2S= 2a 1a2 (111-14) As a result, the standard deviation of the measured cross section is simply the square root of twice the product of the... subsitut the exeamine those terms Shfor i=m and kn. The square roots of the cross sections can / be taken out of the expected value because theyar -.. NNc...cross section is simply the square root of the sum of twice the * product of the cross terms of the components. %m 1 N sm : ik (111-32) One Source

  11. Cross-section and panel estimates of peer effects in early adolescent cannabis use: With a little help from my 'friends once removed'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, John; McVicar, Duncan; Higgins, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Peer effects in adolescent cannabis are difficult to estimate, due in part to the lack of appropriate data on behaviour and social ties. This paper exploits survey data that have many desirable properties and have not previously been used for this purpose. The data set, collected from teenagers in three annual waves from 2002 to 2004 contains longitudinal information about friendship networks within schools (N = 5020). We exploit these data on network structure to estimate peer effects on adolescents from their nominated friends within school using two alternative approaches to identification. First, we present a cross-sectional instrumental variable (IV) estimate of peer effects that exploits network structure at the second degree, i.e. using information on friends of friends who are not themselves ego's friends to instrument for the cannabis use of friends. Second, we present an individual fixed effects estimate of peer effects using the full longitudinal structure of the data. Both innovations allow a greater degree of control for correlated effects than is commonly the case in the substance-use peer effects literature, improving our chances of obtaining estimates of peer effects than can be plausibly interpreted as causal. Both estimates suggest positive peer effects of non-trivial magnitude, although the IV estimate is imprecise. Furthermore, when we specify identical models with behaviour and characteristics of randomly selected school peers in place of friends', we find effectively zero effect from these 'placebo' peers, lending credence to our main estimates. We conclude that cross-sectional data can be used to estimate plausible positive peer effects on cannabis use where network structure information is available and appropriately exploited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and limb bone cross-sectional geometry: Implications for estimating body mass and physique from the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Macintosh, Alison; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2018-01-18

    Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis. Lean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and >33%, respectively). Lean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross-sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Estimating permeability from thin sections without reconstruction: Digital rock study of 3D properties from 2D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nishank; Mavko, Gary; Hofmann, Ronny; Srisutthiyakorn, Nattavadee

    2017-05-01

    We present a new approach for predicting permeability of natural rocks using thin sections. Our approach involves two steps: (1) computing permeability of the thin sections for flow normal to the face, and (2) application of new robust 2D-3D transforms that relate thin section permeability to 3D rock permeability using calibration parameters. We perform step 1 using Lattice-Boltzmann and finite difference schemes, which are memory efficient. We discuss two models to perform step 2. Our two-step approach is fast and efficient, since it does not require reconstruction of the unknown 3D rock using 2D thin section information. We establish the applicability of this new approach using a dataset comprised of LBM-computed permeability of rock samples from various geologic formations, including Fontainebleau sandstone, Berea sandstone, Bituminous sand, and Grosmont carbonate. We find that for sandstones our approach predicts fairly accurate permeability with little calibration. Predicting permeability of carbonates from thin sections is more challenging due to microstructural complexity thus model parameters require more calibration. For general workflow, we propose to first calibrate the proposed models using the available 3D information on the rock microstructure (from microCT, SEM, etc.) and then predict the permeability for rocks from the same geological formation for which only 2D thin sections are available.

  14. A cross-sectional study estimating the burden of illness related to genital warts in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek Sang; Kothari-Talwar, Smita; Singhal, Puneet K; Yee, Karen; Kulkarni, Amit; Lara, Nuria; Roset, Montserrat; Giuliano, Anna R; Garland, Suzanne M; Ju, Woong

    2017-07-02

    Estimate the prevalence of genital warts (GW) and GW-related healthcare resource use and costs among male and female patients seeking treatment in South Korea. To estimate GW prevalence, physicians in five major South Korean regions recorded daily logs of patients (n=71 655) seeking care between July 26 and September 27, 2011. Overall prevalence estimates (and 95% CIs) were weighted by the estimated number of physicians in each specialty and the estimated proportion of total patients visiting each specialist type. Healthcare resource use was compared among different specialties. Corresponding p values were calculated using Mann-Whitney U tests. The database covers 5098 clinics and hospitals for five major regions in South Korea: Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju and Daejeon. Primary care physicians (general practice/family medicine), obstetricians/gynaecologists, urologists and dermatologists with 2-30 years' experience. The estimated overall GW prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI 0.7% to 0.8%). Among women, GW prevalence was 0.6% (95% CI 0.6% to 0.7%); among men prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.0%), peaking among patients aged 18-24 years. Median costs for GW diagnosis and treatment for male patients were US$58.2 (South Korean Won (KRW) ₩66 857) and US$66.3 (KRW₩76 113) for female patients. The estimated overall GW prevalence in South Korea was 0.7% and was higher for male patients. The overall median costs associated with a GW episode were higher for female patients than for male patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Projet ARTEMIS. Calcul des émissions de polluants des modes non-routiers en France. État de l'art des méthodes de calcul

    OpenAIRE

    GUIONNEAU, A; Khardi, S.; Andre, M

    2010-01-01

    Ces travaux visent à faire un état de l'art et à améliorer les méthodes d'estimation et d'inventaire des émissions de polluants des transports non routiers. Ces modes de transports sont le transport aérien, le transport ferroviaire, le transport maritime et le transport fluvial. Cette étude implique un descriptif des secteurs, un inventaire des polluants avec leurs effets sur l'environnement, un état de l'art des méthodes de calcul des émissions incluant une comparaison des méthodes, les appl...

  16. Lower limb muscle volume estimation from maximum cross-sectional area and muscle length in cerebral palsy and typically developing individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmechelen, Inti M; Shortland, Adam P; Noble, Jonathan J

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in muscle volume may be a significant contributor to physical disability in young people with cerebral palsy. However, 3D measurements of muscle volume using MRI or 3D ultrasound may be difficult to make routinely in the clinic. We wished to establish whether accurate estimates of muscle volume could be made from a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and length measurements in samples of typically developing young people and young people with bilateral cerebral palsy. Lower limb MRI scans were obtained from the lower limbs of 21 individuals with cerebral palsy (14.7±3years, 17 male) and 23 typically developing individuals (16.8±3.3years, 16 male). The volume, length and anatomical cross-sectional area were estimated from six muscles of the left lower limb. Analysis of Covariance demonstrated that the relationship between the length*cross-sectional area and volume was not significantly different depending on the subject group. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the product of anatomical cross-sectional area and length bore a strong and significant relationship to the measured muscle volume (R2 values between 0.955 and 0.988) with low standard error of the estimates of 4.8 to 8.9%. This study demonstrates that muscle volume may be estimated accurately in typically developing individuals and individuals with cerebral palsy by a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and muscle length. 2D ultrasound may be a convenient method of making these measurements routinely in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of difference in cross-sectional dose profile in a CTDI phantom on X-ray CT dose estimation: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomonobu; Koyama, Shuji; Ida, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal dose profile in a computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom had been studied by many researchers. The cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom, however, has not been studied. It is also important to understand the cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom for dose estimation in X-ray CT. In this study, the cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom was calculated by use of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method. A helical or a 320-detector-row cone-beam X-ray CT scanner was simulated. The cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom from surface to surface through the center point was calculated by MC simulation. The shape of the calculation region was a cylinder of 1-mm-diameter. The length of the cylinder was 23, 100, or 300 mm to represent various CT ionization chamber lengths. Detailed analyses of the energy depositions demonstrated that the cross-sectional dose profile was different in measurement methods and phantom sizes. In this study, we also focused on the validation of the weighting factor used in weighted CTDI (CTDI w ). As it stands now, the weighting factor used in CTDI w is (1/3, 2/3) for the (central, peripheral) axes. Our results showed that an equal weighting factor, which is (1/2, 1/2) for the (central, peripheral) axes, is more suitable to estimate the average cross-sectional dose when X-ray CT dose estimation is performed.

  18. Measurement of the total cross section for the photoproduction of omega mesons on the proton; Messung des totalen Wirkungsquerschnitts fuer die Photoproduktion von Omegamesonen am Proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeffgen, S.K.

    2007-06-15

    The photoproduction of omega mesons on the proton ({gamma}p {yields} {omega}p) directly at the production threshold was investigated during the first phase of the CB-ELSA experiment in Bonn. In experiments directly at the threshold the protons are strongly focussed in forward direction due to kinematic reasons. Therefore the forward detector, a large area time of flight detector, plays a prominent role and there is a detailed description of the reconstruction and measuring capabilities of this spectrometer. Thereafter follows the extraction of the total cross section of the reaction {gamma}p {yields} {omega}p in the decay channel with {omega} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} directly at the production threshold with previously unequaled accuracy. (orig.)

  19. Measurements of the top quark pair production cross section and an estimate of the D0 silicon detector lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Sara [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    This thesis presents two measurements of the top quark pair production cross section at √s = 1.96 TeV using data from the D0 experiment. Both measurements are performed in the dilepton final state and make use of secondary vertex b-tagging.

  20. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    1Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d'Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01 BP 526 Cotonou Bénin. Email : cgbemavo@yahoo.fr. 2Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Centre de Recherches Agricoles d'Agonkanmey (CRA-A),. Laboratoire des Sciences du Sol, Eau et Environnement (LSSEE).

  1. Evaluation des différents paramètres utilisés pour l'estimation du contenu en fréquences des mouvements du sol, avec application aux forts tremblements de terre de Vrancea, Roumanie

    OpenAIRE

    Craifaleanu, Iolanda-Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The paper presents results of a comprehensive study of ground motions recorded during the strong earthquakes (moment magnitude Mw > 6) generated during last 34 years by the seismic source of Vrancea, Romania. By analysing over 300 accelerograms, the capacity of different expressions in the literature to estimate the predominant period of a ground motion is compared. The correlation between the values obtained from different evaluations is assessed as well. The dependen...

  2. Estimates of Maternal Mortality Ratio and the associated medical causes in Orissa and Rajasthan States - A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Rani Aggarwal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR is an important indicator of reproductive health and its reduction remains a challenge in India. Aims &Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of estimating MMR in two states Orissa and Rajasthan having high MMR as well as to identify the associated medical causes of maternal mortality. Material Methods: This survey was conducted from October 2010-June 2012 on a sample of 13 Primary Health Centres (PHCs in Orissa and 15 PHCs in Rajasthan. These numbers have been derived after estimating the total number of live births using MMR and birth rate from Sample Registration System. 1997-2003.An adapted snowball technique was adopted wherein maternal deaths were captured by snowball technique and the numbers of live births were taken from the available records from the various health facilities in the study.  Results: The overall birth rate in Orissa was found to be 19 per 1000 population while in Rajasthan it was 24 per 1000 population. The study revealed that 17% additional maternal deaths could be captured by snowball technique as against the official record. The overall weighted estimate of MMR was 252 per one lakh live births (95% CI: 246-259 per 1,00,000 live births in Orissa and 209 per one lakh live births (95% CI: 207-211 per one lakh live births in Rajasthan. The main causes of maternal deaths were post-partum haemorrhage, anaemia and septicaemia. More than 25% maternal deaths could be attributed to indirect causes including suicide, accident and infectious diseases. Conclusion: There appears to be a positive trend towards reduction of maternal mortality in Orissa and Rajasthan. Greater care is essential to reduce medical as well as incidental causes of death during pregnancy.

  3. Estimate of the possibility of the track capacity increase of the section Lavochne–Beskyt–Volovets at the expense of intensive application of regenerative braking system saurt-bars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V.V. Arsonov; I.V. Bilan; I.S. Grunic; V.L. Gorobets; L.V. Ursulyak; A.P. Taturevich

    2012-01-01

    In the paper the outcomes of operations performed on the proving track section of Lviv Railways aimed at estimating the possibility of exclusion of pneumatic braking on the section Lavchne–Beskyt...

  4. HIV incidence in rural South Africa: comparison of estimates from longitudinal surveillance and cross-sectional cBED assay testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Bärnighausen

    Full Text Available The BED IgG-Capture Enzyme Immunoassay (cBED assay, a test of recent HIV infection, has been used to estimate HIV incidence in cross-sectional HIV surveys. However, there has been concern that the assay overestimates HIV incidence to an unknown extent because it falsely classifies some individuals with non-recent HIV infections as recently infected. We used data from a longitudinal HIV surveillance in rural South Africa to measure the fraction of people with non-recent HIV infection who are falsely classified as recently HIV-infected by the cBED assay (the long-term false-positive ratio (FPR and compared cBED assay-based HIV incidence estimates to longitudinally measured HIV incidence.We measured the long-term FPR in individuals with two positive HIV tests (in the HIV surveillance, 2003-2006 more than 306 days apart (sample size n = 1,065. We implemented four different formulae to calculate HIV incidence using cBED assay testing (n = 11,755 and obtained confidence intervals (CIs by directly calculating the central 95(th percentile of incidence values. We observed 4,869 individuals over 7,685 person-years for longitudinal HIV incidence estimation. The long-term FPR was 0.0169 (95% CI 0.0100-0.0266. Using this FPR, the cross-sectional cBED-based HIV incidence estimates (per 100 people per year varied between 3.03 (95% CI 2.44-3.63 and 3.19 (95% CI 2.57-3.82, depending on the incidence formula. Using a long-term FPR of 0.0560 based on previous studies, HIV incidence estimates varied between 0.65 (95% CI 0.00-1.32 and 0.71 (95% CI 0.00-1.43. The longitudinally measured HIV incidence was 3.09 per 100 people per year (95% CI 2.69-3.52, after adjustment to the sex-age distribution of the sample used in cBED assay-based estimation.In a rural community in South Africa with high HIV prevalence, the long-term FPR of the cBED assay is substantially lower than previous estimates. The cBED assay performs well in HIV incidence estimation if the locally

  5. Computerized image recognition for morphometry of nerve attribute of shape of sampled transverse sections of myelinated fibers which best estimates their average diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, J; Robb, R; O'Brien, P C; Lambert, E H; Dyck, P J

    1977-10-01

    A computerized image recognition method was used to measure various attributes of shape of cross-sections of myelinated nerve fibers. Measurements were made at intervals over 1/2 internode of each fiber on 20 fibers from each of 4 sural nerves from rats. Diameters were computed in 6 different ways from the computer measurements and compared for bias, precision, and accuracy between sections and to the diameter of an idealized cylinder reconstructed for each fiber from multiple actual cross sections. The diameter computed from cross-sectional areas of transversely sectioned myelinated fibers, converted into a circle, showed the highest precision, greatest accuracy and least bias. Fibers were classified by shape and the frequency was determined in defined regions (I1 = paranodal, I3= nuclear and I2=region between I1 and I3) of the 1/2 internode. A crenated shape is highly characteristic of the I1 region. The boomerang shape was found most frequently in I3 whereas the circular shape was found most frequently in I2. Epileptical and boomerang shapes of myelinated fibers within fascicles which have been orientated carefully to obtain transverse sections, are not due to obliquity of section. Therefore, using the minor axis to determine the diameter of such profiles, as we had done previously in our laboratory, is in error. We conclude from these studies, that in carefully orientated transverse sections of nerve trucks, the diameter calculated from measurement of area converted to a circular shape is the best among the various estimates of myelinated fiber diameter and is the most suitable one for use in computerized image recognition systems for nerve morphometry. It seems reasonable to extrapolate this general conclusion to myelinated fibers of man.

  6. Le silence des agneaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARD ROY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte est avant tout une réflexion sur la notion d'obéissance, initiée à partir de deux évènements impliquant étroitement des membres de la profession infirmière. L'auteur se réjouit de la prise de parole et de l'implication directe d'infirmières dans le contexte du printemps érable. Il estime que la posture de ces infirmières s'inscrit dans ce que l'éthicien Guy Durand, appelle une obéissance autonome qui peut, du coup, mener à la désobéissance civile, à l'objection de conscience. En prenant exemple sur le silence des infirmières dans le contexte de la fermeture de postes d'infirmières en Minganie, l'auteur estime que cette posture est marginale chez les infirmières qui, majoritairement, adoptent une position de soumission et d'obéissance hétéronome.

  7. Neutron cross section evaluations of europium isotopes in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range. Format - validation - comparison; Evaluation de sections efficaces pour des neutrons incidents sur des isotopes d'europium aux energies 1 keV - 30 MeV. Format - validation - comparaison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Le Luel, C.; Bauge, E. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents neutron cross section evaluations of Europium isotopes. The cross sections are evaluated in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range for the isotopes {sup 146}Eu, {sup 147}Eu, {sup 148}Eu, {sup 149}Eu, {sup 150}Eu, {sup 151}Eu, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 154}Eu in their ground state. This evaluation includes cross section productions of the long life isomeric states. Special attention is put on the options used for the description of the files written in ENDF-6 format. The final issue is a proposal of a new breed of ENDF-6 formatted neutron activation file. (authors)

  8. An analysis of women's labor force participation in France: cross-section estimates and time-series evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboud, M

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the labor force participation of women in France and its evolution over time. Women's labor force participation was high in France at the beginning of the century even among nonagricultural households, and after a decline in the 1920s it remained fairly stable until the 1950s. After 1968 significant changes are observed--a fast increase in participation due to the change in married women's behavior, the decrease in fertility, and, lately, an increase in family instability. An analysis of married women's labor force participation based on cross sectional data shows that: 1) the level of education, the amount of work experience, and the continuity of the latter are important variables for explaining differences in wages among women; 2) changes in male and female earnings and unemployment rates explain much of the trend in participation; and 3) changes in participation are closely related to wage and employment opportunities even for earleir periods--after a low participation rate during the 1920s, a return to high participation rates occurred only when the increase in education level had produced its effect. As in other countries, marital status is an important variable, although among the variables likely to be related to participation behavior, earnings and education are the most important. A decision about participation implies weighing the benefits and costs of working in the market to alternative activities at home. Results of the empirical analysis suggest that: 1) discontinuity of market experience is frequent among married women, 2) while 1 year of additional labor force experience contributes to a 1.7% per year wage increase, 1 year out of the labor force results in more tha 2% wage decrease, and 3) there is no evidence that the presence of children has any effect on human capital accumulation and earnings beyond its effect on work experience. Overall, the time series analysis provides an explanation of the changes that is similar to the

  9. Estimated birth weight and adult cardiovascular risk factors in a developing southern Chinese population: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang WS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight is negatively associated with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, but the associations are less well-established in developing populations where birth weight is often unavailable. We studied the association of birth weight and cardiovascular risk, using birth rank as an instrumental variable, in Southern China. Methods We used published data on birth weight by birth rank from an appropriate population and baseline data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study phases 2 & 3 (2005-8 to examine the adjusted associations, using instrumental variable analysis, of birth weight with clinically measured cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in older (≥ 50 years men (n = 5,051 and women (n = 13,907. Results Estimated birth weight was associated with lower blood pressure (systolic -0.25 mm Hg 95% confidence interval (CI, -0.53 to 0.03 and diastolic -0.33 mm Hg 95% CI -0.48 to -0.18 per standard deviation higher birth weight, but had little association with glucose, lipids, waist-hip ratio, body mass index or the metabolic syndrome, adjusted for age, sex, early environment and number of offspring. Conclusion Birth weight may impact blood pressure; however associations of birth weight with other cardiovascular risk factors may not be related to foetal exposures, but speculatively could be an historical co-incidence, with corresponding implications for prevention.

  10. A cross-sectional study to estimate associations between education level and osteoporosis in a Chinese postmenopausal women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Hui-Hong; He, Jiajia; Zhang, Keqin; Tang, Zihui

    2015-01-01

    Our research aims to investigate the associations between education level and osteoporosis (OP) in Chinese postmenopausal women. A large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the associations between education level and OP. A self-reported questionnaire was used to access the demographical information and medical history of the participants. A total of 1905 postmenopausal women were available for data analysis in this study. Multiple regression models controlling for confounding factors to include education level were performed to investigate the relationship with OP. The prevalence of OP was 28.29% in our study sample. Multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for relevant potential confounding factors detected significant associations between education level and T-score (β = 0.025, P-value = 0.095, 95% CI: -0.004-0.055 for model 1; and β = 0.092, P-value = 0.032, 95% CI: 0.008-0.175 for model 2). Multivariate logistic regression analyses detected significant associations between education level and OP in model 1 (P-value = 0.070 for model 1, Table 5), while no significant associations was reported in model 2 (P value = 0.131). In participants with high education levels, the OR for OP was 0.914 (95% CI: 0.830-1.007). The findings indicated that education level was independently and significantly associated with OP. The prevalence of OP was more frequent in Chinese postmenopausal women with low educational status.

  11. Reliability of activation cross sections for estimation of shutdown dose rate in the ITER port cell and port interspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the quality of available activation cross section (XS data for accurate Shutdown Dose Rate (SDDR prediction in the ITER Port Cell and Port Interspace areas, where different maintenance activities are foreseen. For this purpose the EAF library (2007 and 2010 versions has been investigated, as it is typically used by the ITER community. Based on both reports/papers on SDDR in ITER and own calculations, major nuclides contributing to the SDDR coming from the activation of i relevant materials placed in ITER and ii candidate materials for the bioshield plug as L2N and barite concretes, are identified. Then, relevant production pathways are obtained. EAF XS quality for all pathways is checked following the procedure used for validating and testing the successive EAF versions. Also, possible improvements from using the TENDL-2015 library are assessed by comparing EAF and TENDL XS with available differential experimental data from EXFOR. Results point out that most of the activation XS related to materials currently placed in ITER are reliable, and only a few need improvement. Also, many of the XS related to both L2N and barite concretes need further work for validation.

  12. Reliability of activation cross sections for estimation of shutdown dose rate in the ITER port cell and port interspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Raquel; García, Mauricio; Ogando, Francisco; Pampin, Raúl; Sanz, Javier

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores the quality of available activation cross section (XS) data for accurate Shutdown Dose Rate (SDDR) prediction in the ITER Port Cell and Port Interspace areas, where different maintenance activities are foreseen. For this purpose the EAF library (2007 and 2010 versions) has been investigated, as it is typically used by the ITER community. Based on both reports/papers on SDDR in ITER and own calculations, major nuclides contributing to the SDDR coming from the activation of i) relevant materials placed in ITER and ii) candidate materials for the bioshield plug as L2N and barite concretes, are identified. Then, relevant production pathways are obtained. EAF XS quality for all pathways is checked following the procedure used for validating and testing the successive EAF versions. Also, possible improvements from using the TENDL-2015 library are assessed by comparing EAF and TENDL XS with available differential experimental data from EXFOR. Results point out that most of the activation XS related to materials currently placed in ITER are reliable, and only a few need improvement. Also, many of the XS related to both L2N and barite concretes need further work for validation.

  13. ESTIMATION OF WIDE BAND RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS OF REGULAR SHAPED OBJECTS USING METHOD OF MOMENTS (MOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern fighter aircrafts, ships, missiles etc need to be very low Radar Cross Section (RCS designs, to avoid detection by hostile radars. Hence accurate prediction of RCS of complex objects like aircrafts is essential to meet this requirement. A simple and efficient numerical procedure for treating problems of wide band RCS prediction Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC objects is developed using Method of Moment (MoM. Implementation of MoM for prediction of RCS involves solving Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE for electric current using the vector and scalar potential solutions, which satisfy the boundary condition that the tangential electric field at the boundary of the PEC body is zero. For numerical purposes, the objects are modeled using planar triangular surfaces patches. Set of special sub-domain type basis functions are defined on pairs of adjacent triangular patches. These basis functions yield a current representation free of line or point charges at sub-domain boundaries. Once the current distribution is obtained, dipole model is used to find Scattering field in free space. RCS can be calculated from the scattered and incident fields. Numerical results for a square plate, a cube, and a sphere are presented over a bandwidth.

  14. A cross-sectional study to estimate associations between education level and osteoporosis in a Chinese postmenopausal women sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Hui-Hong; He, Jiajia; Zhang, Keqin; Tang, Zihui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our research aims to investigate the associations between education level and osteoporosis (OP) in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods: A large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the associations between education level and OP. A self-reported questionnaire was used to access the demographical information and medical history of the participants. A total of 1905 postmenopausal women were available for data analysis in this study. Multiple regression models controlling for confounding factors to include education level were performed to investigate the relationship with OP. Results: The prevalence of OP was 28.29% in our study sample. Multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for relevant potential confounding factors detected significant associations between education level and T-score (β = 0.025, P-value = 0.095, 95% CI: -0.004-0.055 for model 1; and β = 0.092, P-value = 0.032, 95% CI: 0.008-0.175 for model 2). Multivariate logistic regression analyses detected significant associations between education level and OP in model 1 (P-value = 0.070 for model 1, Table 5), while no significant associations was reported in model 2 (P value = 0.131). In participants with high education levels, the OR for OP was 0.914 (95% CI: 0.830-1.007). Conclusion: The findings indicated that education level was independently and significantly associated with OP. The prevalence of OP was more frequent in Chinese postmenopausal women with low educational status. PMID:26885032

  15. Estimation et validation des derivees de stabilite et controle du modele dynamique non-lineaire d'un drone a voilure fixe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Samuel

    Knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of a fixed-wing UAV is necessary to design flight control laws and to conceive a high quality flight simulator. The basic features of a flight mechanic model include the properties of mass, inertia and major aerodynamic terms. They respond to a complex process involving various numerical analysis techniques and experimental procedures. This thesis focuses on the analysis of estimation techniques applied to estimate problems of stability and control derivatives from flight test data provided by an experimental UAV. To achieve this objective, a modern identification methodology (Quad-M) is used to coordinate the processing tasks from multidisciplinary fields, such as parameter estimation modeling, instrumentation, the definition of flight maneuvers and validation. The system under study is a non-linear model with six degrees of freedom with a linear aerodynamic model. The time domain techniques are used for identification of the drone. The first technique, the equation error method is used to determine the structure of the aerodynamic model. Thereafter, the output error method and filter error method are used to estimate the aerodynamic coefficients values. The Matlab scripts for estimating the parameters obtained from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) are used and modified as necessary to achieve the desired results. A commendable effort in this part of research is devoted to the design of experiments. This includes an awareness of the system data acquisition onboard and the definition of flight maneuvers. The flight tests were conducted under stable flight conditions and with low atmospheric disturbance. Nevertheless, the identification results showed that the filter error method is most effective for estimating the parameters of the drone due to the presence of process noise and measurement. The aerodynamic coefficients are validated using a numerical analysis of the vortex method. In addition, a

  16. Measurement of Top Quark Pair Production Cross section at √s = 7 TeV and Estimation of Top Quark Mass using CMS Data

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2256247; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani

    High center-of-mass energies at the LHC result in the production of a lot of top quarks, the heaviest elementary particle in the Standard Model. This makes data collected from LHC collisions ideal for studying properties of the top quark and its production cross section at LHC energy ranges. The cross section of top quark pair production from proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV is measured from $50\\ \\textrm{pb}^{-1}$ of CMS data collected in 2011 at the LHC. The analysis is performed using the semi-leptonic (lepton+jets) decay channel of tt̄ pair. Hence, the mass of the top quark is estimated by reconstructing the final decay products and finding the mass distribution of the reconstructed top quark pair.

  17. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs ... L'objectif visé est d'augmenter durablement ..... Village. EAF. (nbre). Revenus de la vente d'animaux sur pieds et du lait (Fcfa). Bovins. Petits. Ruminants. Volailles. Autres. Animaux. Total vente animaux. Lait.

  18. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    La population de Taza, estimée à environ 154 496 habitants, produit 18 000 tonnes par jour de déchet solide et ceci malgré la ... Mots-clés: décharge sauvage, lixiviats, pollution, physico-chimie, Taza. Abstract ... pérenne des déchets solides et des rejets liquides qui sont aboutissent dans le milieu récepteur aquatique.

  19. Administration des subventions du CRDI aux institutions :

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Des transferts verticaux (entre les catégories budgétaires) peuvent être nécessaires en raison de l'inflation, d'une sous-estimation des coûts ou de modifications apportées sur le plan de la recherche. Il faut discuter de ces révisions avec l'administrateur de programmes compétent si elles dépassent 10 % du montant initial ...

  20. Sécurité Routière et Conducteurs Âgés : estimation des enjeux, et contributions des facteurs cognitifs et de la démence. Approches épidémiologique, expérimentale et clinique

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lafont

    2008-01-01

    Dans notre travail nous avons repris l' hypothèse du rôle crucial de l'attention et des fonctions exécutives dans la conduite automobile. Nous avons souhaité la vérifier sur des populations âgées représentatives de la variabilité du vieillissement cognitif, du vieillissement normal au vieillissement pathologique. Cela permet de poser la question de la pertinence de la détection des troubles attentionnels et exécutifs chez l'ensemble des conducteurs âgés. Avant toute chose, nous avons souhaité...

  1. Le jeu des Kirlis et des Gourlus

    OpenAIRE

    Touati, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    National audience; Cet article présente un jeu éducatif a destination des lycéens ayant pour but de présenter quelques exemples contre-intuitifs de théorie des jeux (paradoxe de l'information). La résolution des scénarios leur permet de se familiariser avec l'utilisation d'arbres de décisions et de tableaux et de faire des calculs simples de probabilités.

  2. Estimation du mouvement apparent par des fonctions splines vectorielles : application à l'océanographie et à la météorologie

    OpenAIRE

    Isambert, Till

    2007-01-01

    The document describes the issue of apparent motion estimation from satellite image data. Major aplications concern oceanography and meteorology. The observed displacements of these geophysical fluids on image sequences are mostly due to surface currents on ocean, and winds in the atmosphere. Classical image processing methods are not well adapted to these phenomena, as they are mostly dedicated to rigid motion. They do not take into account deformation, compressibility, turbulence, which are...

  3. Measurement of the fission cross section induced by fast neutrons of the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U nuclei within the innovating fuel cycles framework; Mesure de la section efficace de fission induite par neutrons rapides des noyaux {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U dans le cadre des cycles de combustible innovants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, C

    2005-03-15

    The thorium-U{sup 233} fuel cycle might provided safer and cleaner nuclear energy than the present Uranium/Pu fuelled reactors. Over the last 10 years, a vast campaign of measurements has been initiated to bring the precision of neutron data for the key nuclei (Th{sup 232}, Pa{sup 233} and U{sup 233}) at the level of those for the U-Pu cycle. This is the framework of these measurements, the energy dependent neutron induced fission cross section of Th{sup 232} and U{sup 233} has been measured from 1 to 7 MeV with a target accuracy lesser than 5 per cent. These measurements imply the accurate determination of the fission rate, the number of the target nuclei as well as the incident neutron flux impinging on the target, the latter has been obtained using the elastic scattering (n,p). The cross section of which is very well known in a large neutron energy domain ({approx} 0,5 % from 1 eV to 50 MeV) compared to the U{sup 235}(n,f) reaction. This technique has been applied for the first time to the Th{sup 232}(n,f) and U{sup 233}(n,f) cases. A Hauser-Feshbach statistical model has been developed. It consists of describing the different decay channels of the compound nucleus U{sup 234} from 0,01 to 10 MeV neutron energy. The parameters of this model were adjusted in order to reproduce the measured fission cross section of U{sup 233}. From these parameters, the cross sections from the following reactions could be extracted: inelastic scattering U{sup 233}(n,n'), radiative capture U{sup 233}(n,{gamma}) and U{sup 233}(n,2n). These cross sections are still difficult to measure by direct neutron reactions. The calculated values have allowed us to fill the lack of experimental data for the major fissile nucleus of the thorium cycle. (author)

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Modified Fourth-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Enzyme Immunoassay for Cross-Sectional Incidence Estimation in Clade B Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Patel, Eshan U; Celum, Connie L; Moore, Richard D; Blankson, Joel N; Mehta, Shruti H; Kirk, Gregory D; Margolick, Joseph B; Quinn, Thomas C; Eshleman, Susan H; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV surveillance and prevention research. We developed an avidity assay based on the fourth-generation Genetic Systems HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA (Bio-Rad Combo assay) and evaluated its performance. The Bio-Rad Combo assay was modified incubating samples with and without 0.025 M diethylamine (DEA). The avidity index (AI) was calculated as the ratio of the DEA-treated to untreated result for a specific sample. We analyzed 2,140 samples from 808 individuals from the United States with known duration of HIV infection. The mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and the false-recent rate (FRR, fraction of samples from individuals known to be infected >2 years misclassified as recent) were calculated for AI cutoffs of 20%-90% for the avidity assay alone and in combination with a viral load assay (VL, limit of detection 400 copies/ml). Factors associated with misclassification of samples collected ≥2 years after infections were also evaluated. The MDRI for the Bio-Rad Combo Avidity assay ranged from 50 days using an AI cutoff of 20% to 276 days using an AI cutoff of 90%; the FRR ranged from 0% to 9%. When samples with a VL 80%. In adjusted analysis, viral suppression and low CD4 cell count were significantly associated with misclassification among individuals infected >2 years. This modified Bio-Rad Combo Avidity assay may be a useful tool for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. Further research is needed to evaluate use of this assay in combination with other assays to accurately estimate population-level HIV incidence.

  5. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  6. Measurements and analysis of the {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I neutron capture and total cross sections; Mesure et analyses des sections efficaces neutroniques totales et de capture radiative des iodes 127 et 129 de 0.5 eV a 100keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguere, G

    2005-07-01

    Most of the experimental work on the interaction of neutrons with matter has focused on materials important to reactor physics and reactor structures. By comparison, the corresponding data for minor actinides or long-lived fission products are poor. A significant demand has developed for improved neutron cross-section data of these little-studied nuclides due to the surge of interest in the transmutation of nuclear waste. With 400 kg of {sup 129}I produced yearly in the reactors of the EU countries and a very long {beta}{sup -} half-life of 1.57 x 10{sup 7} years, iodine requires disposal strategies that will isolate this isotope from the environment for long periods of time. Therefore, {sup 129}I is potentially a key long-lived fission product for transmutation applications, since {sup 129}I transmutes in {sup 130}I after a single neutron capture and decays to {sup 130}Xe with a 12.36 h half-life. Accurate capture cross sections would help to reduce uncertainties in waste management concepts. For that purpose, Time-Of-Flight measurements covering the [0.5 eV-100 keV] energy range have been carried out at the 150 MeV pulsed neutron source GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). Two types of experiments have been performed at the IRMM, namely capture and transmission experiments. They are respectively related to the neutron capture and total cross sections. Since the PbI{sub 2} samples used in this work contain natural and radioactive iodine, extensive measurements of {sup 129}I have been carried out under the same experimental conditions as for the {sup 129}I. The data reduction process was performed with the AGS system, and the resonance parameters were extracted with the SAMMY and REFIT shape analysis codes. In a last step, the parameters have been converted into ENDF-6 format and processed with the NJOY code to produce point-wise and multigroup cross sections, as well as MCNP and ERANOS libraries. (author)

  7. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  8. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Salah

    fabriquees industriellement. Cette technique a consiste a determiner le profil des differentes proprietes physiques. En effet, la methode basee sur la mesure de la distribution de la resistivite electrique sur la totalite de l'echantillon est la technique qui a ete utilisee pour localiser la fissuration et les macro-pores. La microscopie optique et l'analyse d'image ont, quant a elles, permis de caracteriser les zones fissurees tout en determinant la structure des echantillons analyses a l'echelle microscopique. D'autres tests ont ete menes, et ils ont consiste a etudier des echantillons cylindriques d'anodes de 50 mm de diametre et de 130 mm de longueur. Ces derniers ont ete cuits dans un four a UQAC a differents taux de chauffage dans le but de pouvoir determiner l'influence des parametres de cuisson sur la formation de la fissuration dans ce genre de carottes. La caracterisation des echantillons d'anodes cuites a ete faite a l'aide de la microscopie electronique a balayage et de l'ultrason. La derniere partie des travaux realises a l'UQAC contient une etude sur la caracterisation des anodes fabriquees au laboratoire sous differentes conditions d'operation. L'evolution de la qualite de ces anodes a ete faite par l'utilisation de plusieurs techniques. L'evolution de la temperature de refroidissement des anodes crues de laboratoire a ete mesuree; et un modele mathematique a ete developpe et valide avec les donnees experimentales. Cela a pour objectif d'estimer la vitesse de refroidissement ainsi que le stress thermique. Toutes les anodes fabriquees ont ete caracterisees avant la cuisson par la determination de certaines proprietes physiques (resistivite electrique, densite apparente, densite optique et pourcentage de defauts). La tomographie et la distribution de la resistivite electrique, qui sont des techniques non destructives, ont ete employees pour evaluer les defauts internes des anodes. Pendant la cuisson des anodes de laboratoire, l'evolution de la resistivite

  9. Remittances | Transferts des migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Major Recipients of Remittances (in Million USD, 2008Principaux pays bénéficiaires des transferts des migrants (en millions USD, 2008­Migrants’ Remittances per Capita (in USD, 2008Transferts des migrants par habitant (en USD, 2008Source: World Bank, migration and remittances data.

  10. Des transformations cartographiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette CAUVIN

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente un des apports de l'informatique à la cartographie, les transformations cartographiques, en distinguant celles qui sont liées au changement d'état de la carte de celles qui introduisent des modifications dans les positions des lieux.

  11. Approche pragmaterminologique des termes des entreprises et des organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo de Vecchi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Les entreprises et les organisations façonnent la langue générale et spécialisée pour leurs propres besoins. Il en résulte un sociolecte : parler d’entreprise ou organisationnel, qui caractérise la culture et le savoir des entreprises ou organisations. Identifiés et suivis de manière adaptée – approche pragmaterminologique –, les termes deviennent une ressource identifiable (à rapprocher des actifs, notamment pour l’intégration, la communication et la gestion des connaissance.

  12. Conseils scientifiques efficaces pour les gouvernements des pays ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Finalement, le projet établira des sections régionales de l'INGSA, souvent liées à des organismes de prestation de conseils scientifiques nationaux ou régionaux pouvant faire office de « plaques tournantes » pour renforcer la capacité nationale, explorer différents enjeux de recherches pertinents sur le plan des politiques, ...

  13. Facilitation de l'accès des personnes aux prises avec des difficultés ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le nombre d'enfants aux prises avec des difficultés mentales est important et augmente à un rythme alarmant en Inde. On estime qu'environ 1 % des enfants sont atteints de troubles du spectre autistique, et que de 2 à 5 % des enfants souffrent d'un problème de traitement de l'information auditive. Ces enfants se heurtent à ...

  14. Toward an estimation of daily european CO{sub 2} fluxes at high spatial resolution by inversion of atmospheric transport; Vers une estimation des flux de CO{sub 2} journaliers europeens a haute resolution par inversion du transport atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carouge, C

    2006-04-15

    Since the end of the 1980's, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been used to estimate global and regional fluxes of CO{sub 2}. This is possible because CO{sub 2} concentration variation is directly linked to flux variation by atmospheric transport. We can find the spatial and temporal distribution of fluxes from concentration measurements by 'inverting' the atmospheric transport. Until recently, most CO{sub 2} inversions have used monthly mean CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentration measurements to infer monthly fluxes. Considering the sparseness of the global CO{sub 2} measurement network, fluxes were a priori aggregated on sub-continental regions and distributed on a fixed spatial pattern within these regions. Only one flux coefficient per month for each region was optimized. With this strong constraint, estimated fluxes can be biased by non-perfect distribution of fluxes within each region (aggregation error). Therefore, flux estimation at model resolution is being developed where the hard constraint of a fixed distribution within a region is replaced by a soft constraint of covariances between flux uncertainties. The use of continuous observations from an increasing number of measurement sites offers a new challenge for inverse modelers. We investigate the use of daily averaged observations to infer daily CO{sub 2} fluxes at model resolution over Europe. We have developed a global synthesis Bayesian inversion to invert daily fluxes at model resolution (50 x 50 km over Europe) from daily averaged CO{sub 2} concentrations. We have obtained estimated fluxes for the year 2001 over Europe using the 10 European continuous sites from the AEROCARB network. The global atmospheric model LMDZt is used with a nested grid over Europe. It is necessary to add a priori spatial and temporal correlations between flux errors to constrain the Bayesian inversion. We present the impact on estimated fluxes of three different spatial correlations based on

  15. Cameroun: Comprendre le travail des enfants et l’emploi des jeunes - Rapport sur le travail des enfants et l’emploi des jeunes

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2012-01-01

    Surmonter le double défi du travail des enfants et de l’emploi des jeunes au Cameroun déterminera les progrès du pays vis-à-vis des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement. Les estimations présentées dans ce rapport indiquent qu’environ 1,7 millions d’enfants camerounais âgés de 6 à 14 ans, soit 40% de ce groupe d’âge, sont encore économiquement actifs. Parallèlement, près de la moitié des jeunes camerounais actifs sont sous-employés, et plus de neuf sur dix d’entre eux travaillent dans...

  16. Contribution of auxiliary information for the estimation of grades in heterogeneous media: example in soil pollution; Apport d'informations qualitatives pour l'estimation des teneurs en milieux heterogenes: cas d'une pollution de sols par des hydrocarbures aromatique polycycliques (HAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N.; Fouquet, Ch. de [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre de Geostatistique, 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Jeannee, N. [Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues - CNRSSP, 59 - Douai (France)

    2003-05-01

    Grade estimates are often of weak precision in the case of heterogeneous media, due to their high variability, even at small scale. Qualitative information is then useful to improve the quality of the estimates, without prohibitive additional costs. How can we sample such variables, and detect the ones that are of interest for the estimation of grades? The general methodology is presented and then illustrated for the estimation of the benzo(a)pyrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, PAH) concentration in soils, sampled on a former coking plant. (authors)

  17. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14-19). The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9-10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44-21.37) for 2019. The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group.

  18. Measurement of the fully leptonic cross section and the W`s branching ratios in the ALEPH experiment at LEP2; Mesure de la section efficace totalement leptonique et des rapports d`embranchement des bosons W{+-} dans le cadre de l`experience ALEPH a LEP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faif, A.M.G. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

    1998-12-08

    This thesis works is part of the precision tests done at LEP2. The W{+-} boson pairs are produced through e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. The fully leptonic final states (l{nu}-bar l-bar{nu}) correspond to 10.5 % of the disintegrations. This channel is added to the hadronic and semi-leptonic channels, allowing a constraint on the Standard Model. Data recorded between 1996 and 1998 by the ALEPH detector are used to select the l{nu}-bar l-bar{nu} final states, characterised by two energetic coplanar charged leptons and large transverse missing momentum. The fully leptonic cross-sections are determined in view of the measurement of the W`s branching ratios. Contrary to the TEVATRON`s measurements, the branching ratios are determined without universality constraint on W couplings. Presently, LEP obtains the best precision on the measurement of the W`s branching ratios. No deviation was observed with respect to the Standard Model predictions. (author) 85 refs.

  19. Verification of rapid method for estimation of added food colorant type in boiled sausages based on measurement of cross section color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, J.; Petronijević, R. B.; Lukić, M.; Karan, D.; Parunović, N.; Branković-Lazić, I.

    2017-09-01

    During the previous development of a chemometric method for estimating the amount of added colorant in meat products, it was noticed that the natural colorant most commonly added to boiled sausages, E 120, has different CIE-LAB behavior compared to artificial colors that are used for the same purpose. This has opened the possibility of transforming the developed method into a method for identifying the addition of natural or synthetic colorants in boiled sausages based on the measurement of the color of the cross-section. After recalibration of the CIE-LAB method using linear discriminant analysis, verification was performed on 76 boiled sausages, of either frankfurters or Parisian sausage types. The accuracy and reliability of the classification was confirmed by comparison with the standard HPLC method. Results showed that the LDA + CIE-LAB method can be applied with high accuracy, 93.42 %, to estimate food color type in boiled sausages. Natural orange colors can give false positive results. Pigments from spice mixtures had no significant effect on CIE-LAB results.

  20. Caractérisation physico-chimique des sables usés de la fonderie de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    La conjugaison des coûts d'achats des sables neufs, de leur transport et du tonnage considérable de sable nécessaire à la confection des moules et des noyaux (estimé globalement de 5 à 10 fois le volume des pièces produites) a incité l'industrie de la fonderie à recycler préférentiellement les sables usés dans leur.

  1. Calcul des émissions françaises de polluants par les transports non routiers

    OpenAIRE

    GUIONNEAU, Amanda; Khardi, Salah; ANDRE Michel

    2010-01-01

    Projet : ARTEMIS - NON ROUTIER : Calcul des émissions des modes non-routiers en France. Travaux menés avec le soutien financier de l'ADEME. Ces travaux visent à faire un état de l'art et à améliorer les méthodes d'estimation et d'inventaire des émissions de polluants des transports non routiers. Ces modes de transports sont le transport aérien, le transport ferroviaire, le transport maritime et le transport fluvial. Cette étude implique un descriptif des secteurs, un inventaire des polluants ...

  2. Influence de la taille des vitroplants et du type d'explant sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'aptitude à la callogenèse chez le cotonnier a été estimée par le taux d'induction et le poids sec des cals en fonction de la source de l'explant et de la taille des plantules. Le taux d'induction des cals augmente avec la taille des plantules alors que le poids sec des cals ; résultat de la croissance des cals, évolue en sens ...

  3. Évaluation Des Performances Agronomiques Et Socio Économiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alimentation des populations. En 2005 la production nationale estimée à 70 000 t ne couvre que 1/3 du besoin des populations. Cette faible production est due à plusieurs facteurs dont le manque des variétés productives et tolérantes aux ...

  4. Methods for estimating residential building energy consumption by application of artificial intelligence; Methode d'estimation energetique des batiments d'habitation basee sur l'application de l'intelligence artificielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajl, S.; Roberge, M-A. [Quebec Univ., Ecole de technologie superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    A method for estimating energy requirements in buildings five to twenty-five stories in height using artificial intelligence techniques is proposed. In developing this technique, the pre-requisites specified were rapid execution, the ability to generate a wide range of results, including total energy consumption, power demands, heating and cooling consumption, and accuracy comparable to that of a detailed building energy simulation software. The method proposed encompasses (1) the creation of various databases such as classification of the parameters used in the energy simulation, modelling using the Department of Energy (DOE)-2 software and validation of the DOE-2 models; (2) application of the neural networks inclusive of teaching the neural network and validation of the neural network's learning; (3) designing an energy estimate assessment (EEA) system for residential buildings; and (4) validation of the EEA system. The system has been developed in the MATLAB software environment, specifically for the climate in the Ottawa region. For use under different climatic conditions appropriate adjustments need to be made for the heating and cooling consumption. 12 refs., tabs., figs., 2 appendices.

  5. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    dans un etat electronique dissociatif, cette localisation est suivie d'une fragmentation. A plus haute energie, la dissociation dipolaire (i.e., la formation simultanee d'un ion positif et negatif) et l'ionisation jouent un role important dans le dommage de l'ADN. L'ensemble de nos resultats permet d'expliquer les mecanismes de degradation de l'ADN par les EBE et d'obtenir des sections efficaces effectives des differents types de dommages.

  6. Estimate of the possibility of the track capacity increase of the section Lavochne–Beskyt–Volovets at the expense of intensive application of regenerative braking system saurt-bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Arsonov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the outcomes of operations performed on the proving track section of Lviv Railways aimed at estimating the possibility of exclusion of pneumatic braking on the section Lavchne–Beskyt–Volovets as well as the possibility of exclusion of an engineering stop at the platform Skotarske from the train schedule are observed.

  7. Estimation of renal function by CKD-EPI versus MDRD in a cohort of HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristelli, M P; Cofán, F; Rico, N; Trullàs, J C; Manzardo, C; Agüero, F; Bedini, J L; Moreno, A; Oppenheimer, F; Miro, J M

    2017-02-10

    Accurately determining renal function is essential for clinical management of HIV patients. Classically, it has been evaluated by estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the MDRD-equation, but today there is evidence that the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation has greater diagnostic accuracy. To date, however, little information exists on patients with HIV-infection. This study aimed to evaluate eGFR by CKD-EPI vs. MDRD equations and to stratify renal function according to KDIGO guidelines. Cross-sectional, single center study including adult patients with HIV-infection. Four thousand five hundred three patients with HIV-infection (864 women; 19%) were examined. Median age was 45 years (IQR 37-52), and median baseline creatinine was 0.93 mg/dL (IQR 0.82-1.05). A similar distribution of absolute measures of eGFR was found using both formulas (p = 0.548). Baseline median eGFR was 95.2 and 90.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for CKD-EPI and MDRD equations (p EPI. Using CKD-EPI, it was possible to identify "normal function" (>90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) in 73% patients and "mild reduced GFR" (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) in 24.3% of the patients, formerly classified as >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with MDRD. There was good correlation between CKD-EPI and MDRD. Estimating renal function using CKD-EPI equation allowed better staging of renal function and should be considered the method of choice. CKD-EPI identified a significant proportion of patients (24%) with mild reduced GFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m(2)).

  8. Fast estimation of Colles' fracture load of the distal section of the radius by homogenized finite element analysis based on HR-pQCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hadi S; Dünki, Andreas; Fabech, Jonas; Stauber, Martin; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Pahr, Dieter; Pretterklieber, Michael; Wandel, Jasmin; Rietbergen, Bert van; Zysset, Philippe K

    2017-04-01

    Fractures of the distal section of the radius (Colles' fractures) occur earlier in life than other osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, they can be interpreted as a warning signal for later, more deleterious fractures of vertebral bodies or the femoral neck. In the past decade, the advent of HR-pQCT allowed a detailed architectural analysis of the distal radius and an automated but time-consuming estimation of its strength with linear micro-finite element (μFE) analysis. Recently, a second generation of HR-pQCT scanner (XtremeCT II, SCANCO Medical, Switzerland) with a resolution beyond 61 μm became available for even more refined biomechanical investigations in vivo. This raises the question how biomechanical outcome variables compare between the original (LR) and the new (HR) scanner resolution. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to validate experimentally a patient-specific homogenized finite element (hFE) analysis of the distal section of the human radius for the fast prediction of Colles' fracture load based on the last generation HR-pQCT. Fourteen pairs of fresh frozen forearms (mean age = 77.5±9) were scanned intact using the high (61 μm) and the low (82 μm) resolution protocols that correspond to the new and original HR-pQCT systems. From each forearm, the 20mm most distal section of the radius were dissected out, scanned with μCT at 16.4 μm and tested experimentally under compression up to failure for assessment of stiffness and ultimate load. Linear and nonlinear hFE models together with linear micro finite element (μFE) models were then generated based on the μCT and HR-pQCT reconstructions to predict the aforementioned mechanical properties of 24 sections. Precision errors of the short term reproducibility of the FE analyses were measured based on the repeated scans of 12 sections. The calculated failure loads correlated strongly with those measured in the experiments: accounting for donor as a random factor, the nonlinear hFE provided a

  9. A software sensor model based on hybrid fuzzy neural network for rapid estimation water quality in Guangzhou section of Pearl River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunshan; Zhang, Chao; Tian, Di; Wang, Ke; Huang, Mingzhi; Liu, Yanbiao

    2018-01-02

    In order to manage water resources, a software sensor model was designed to estimate water quality using a hybrid fuzzy neural network (FNN) in Guangzhou section of Pearl River, China. The software sensor system was composed of data storage module, fuzzy decision-making module, neural network module and fuzzy reasoning generator module. Fuzzy subtractive clustering was employed to capture the character of model, and optimize network architecture for enhancing network performance. The results indicate that, on basis of available on-line measured variables, the software sensor model can accurately predict water quality according to the relationship between chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and NH 4 + -N. Owing to its ability in recognizing time series patterns and non-linear characteristics, the software sensor-based FNN is obviously superior to the traditional neural network model, and its R (correlation coefficient), MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) and RMSE (root mean square error) are 0.8931, 10.9051 and 0.4634, respectively.

  10. Sport fishing decision document package : Marais Des Cygnes NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This packet is for the establishment of a fishing program on Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge. It contains the Fishing Plan, Section 7 Evaluation,...

  11. Detection of Porous and Permeable Formations: From Laboratory Measurements to Seismic Measurements Détection des formations poreuses et perméables : des mesures de laboratoire aux mesures sismiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J.L.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a seismic processing method which shows that it is possible to extract new attributes from seismic sections, leading to a better understanding of the distribution of the porous and permeable bodies. The attributes are also used to detect the impermeable layers. The methodology is based on laboratory experiments which have shown that a formation permeability indicator can be obtained via the computation of 4 input data: P-wave frequency and attenuation, porosity and specific surface. The procedure has been firstly conducted in acoustic logging to estimate permeability of porous layers and to detect water inflows [Mari et al. (2011 Phys. Chem. Earth 36, 17, 1438-1449]. In seismic, the processing is performed in order to measure these parameters. The analytic signal is used to compute the instantaneous frequency and attenuation (Q factor. The porosity and specific surface are computed from seismic impedances obtained by acoustic inversion of the migrated seismic sections. The input parameters are used to compute a new index named Ik-Seis factor (Indicator (I of permeability (k from acoustic or seismic (Seis data. The potential of the proposed procedure is demonstrated via a field case, both in full waveform acoustic logging and in seismic surveying. The example shows that the Ik-Seis factor can be used to map both the distribution of the permeable bodies in the carbonate formations and the non permeable shaly layers associated with the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. Dans le but d’avoir une meilleure comprehension de la distribution des corps poreux et permeables d’une formation geologique, nous montrons que de nouveaux attributs peuvent etre extraits des donnees sismiques. Les attributs peuvent etre egalement utilises pour detecter les niveaux impermeables. La methodologie est basee sur des mesures experimentales effectuees en laboratoire, qui ont montre qu’un indicateur de permeabilite peut etre obtenu a partir de quatre grandeurs

  12. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    3) Laboratoire de Mécanique, Structures et Energétique, ... This work consists in detecting two combined defects, simulated on gears using continuous wavelet ..... Vibration, Vol. 234, Issue 1, 2000, p.135-. 148. [15] A. Boulenger, C. Pachaud, Aide- mémoire, Surveillance des machines par analyse des vibrations, Ed. Dunod, ...

  13. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  14. Technologien des Spektakels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röttger, K.; Ritzer, I.; Schulze, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Mit dem vorliegenden Artikel möchte ich den Vorschlag unterbreiten, über transmediale Genre-Passagen aus der Perspektive des Spektakels nachzudenken. Denn der Begriff des Spektakels eignet sich meines Erachtens einerseits zur Analyse und Beschreibung verschiedener Massenmedien wie Film, Radio,

  15. Potenziale des Bankenplatzes Basel

    OpenAIRE

    Gantenbein, Pascal; Weder, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Aufbauend auf der Studie "Bedeutung des Bankenplatzes Basel" (WWZ-Studie 10/03), welche im Dezember 2010 publiziert und seither mehrfach vorgestellt wurde, ist es das Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung, die Potenziale und Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten des Basler Bankenplatzes zu analysieren.

  16. peste des petits ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    of antibodies to peste des petits ruminants. (PPR) virus. Veterinary. Research. Communications, 30:325-330. Singh RK, Balauirjgal V, Bhamuprakash V, Sanen A,. Saravanan P, & Yadev MP (2009). Possible control and eradication of peste des petits ruminants from India: technical aspect. Veterinaria Italiana, 45 (3), ...

  17. Gestion des ressources naturelles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    environnement et l'accès aux ressources naturelles est un enjeu crucial. Ces 40 dernières années, des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI ont trouvé des moyens novateurs de réduire la pauvreté tout en protégeant les ressources naturelles dont ...

  18. Using cross-sectional surveys to estimate the number of severely malnourished children needing to be enrolled in specific treatment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Nancy M; Myatt, Mark; Prudhon, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    prevalence surveys was found. Estimate for the slope (intercept forced to be zero) was 2·17 (95 % CI 1·33, 3·79). Estimates for the prevalence-to-incidence conversion factor J varied from 2·81 to 11·21, assuming programme coverage of 100 % and 38 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Estimation of expected caseload...

  19. Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac grâce à la culture de l'arachide (Malawi). L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Pour 60 % des 100 000 membres de la National Smallholder Farmers' ...

  20. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  1. A cross-sectional study to estimate prevalence of periodontal disease in a population of dogs (Canis familiaris) in commercial breeding facilities in Indiana and Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Bauer, Amy E; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were: 1) to estimate the prevalence and characterize the severity of periodontal disease in a population of dogs housed in commercial breeding facilities; 2) to characterize PD preventive care utilized by facility owners; and 3) to assess inter-rater reliability of a visual scoring assessment tool. Adult dogs (N = 445) representing 42 breeds at 24 CB facilities in Indiana and Illinois were assessed. Periodontal disease was scored visually using the American Veterinary Dental Collage 0-IV scale. Inter-rater reliability was assessed on 198 dogs and facility owners were asked to provide information about the preventive care utilized. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease (Grades I-IV) was 86.3% (95% CI: 82.9, 89.3). An ordered logistic regression analysis found age (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.24, 1.54; Pperiodontal disease increased with increasing age. Additionally, a trend toward decreasing risk with increasing weight was also found, although it was not statistically significant. The trends identified agree with studies that have evaluated periodontal disease in the companion dog population and do not support the assumption that the dental health of dogs in commercial breeding facilities is worse than that of the population as a whole. Although there were few cases of severe periodontal disease and all facilities employed some type of preventive care in this sample, the large number of dogs with some degree of disease (Grades I-IV) suggests that further investigation of preventive care is warranted.

  2. Terre des hommes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    Transformez votre téléphone portable en geste de solidarité ! Collecte du 12 au 23 novembre 2012   Faites un geste simple et utile en déposant vos téléphones portables inutilisés dans les urnes installées dans les trois restaurants du CERN. En Suisse, une personne change tous les 12 à 18 mois de téléphone portable. La plupart de nos vieux appareils sont simplement laissés à l’abandon avec comme seule fonction de parer une éventuelle panne à venir. On  estime ainsi que 8 millions de portables sont inutilisés, alors qu'entre 30 et 50% peuvent être réutilisés. L'action Solidarcomm leur offre une deuxième vie ! Terre des Hommes Suisse, dans le cadre de la campagne Solidarcomm, collecte et valorise vos téléphones inutilis&...

  3. Contribution to the asymptotic estimation of the global error of single step numerical integration methods. Application to the simulation of electric power networks; Contribution a l'estimation asymptotique de l'erreur globale des methodes d'integration numerique a un pas. Application a la simulation des reseaux electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aid, R.

    1998-01-07

    This work comes from an industrial problem of validating numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations modeling power systems. This problem is solved using asymptotic estimators of the global error. Four techniques are studied: Richardson estimator (RS), Zadunaisky's techniques (ZD), integration of the variational equation (EV), and Solving for the correction (SC). We give some precisions on the relative order of SC w.r.t. the order of the numerical method. A new variant of ZD is proposed that uses the Modified Equation. In the case of variable step-size, it is shown that under suitable restriction, on the hypothesis of the step-size selection, ZD and SC are still valid. Moreover, some Runge-Kutta methods are shown to need less hypothesis on the step-sizes to exhibit a valid order of convergence for ZD and SC. Numerical tests conclude this analysis. Industrial cases are given. Finally, an algorithm to avoid the a priori specification of the integration path for complex time differential equations is proposed. (author)

  4. Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... des producteurs de tabac et des producteurs de bambou, et produit des plans d'action communautaires pour la diversification des moyens de subsistance. Leur recherche a révélé que la production du tabac ne contribuait guère à améliorer le niveau de vie des agriculteurs, que lorsque cultivé dans les mêmes conditions ...

  5. Estimating population prevalence of potential airflow obstruction using different spirometric criteria: a pooled cross-sectional analysis of persons aged 40-95 years in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Scholes, S.; Moody, A.; Mindell, J S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Consistent estimation of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been hindered by differences in methods, including different spirometric cut-offs for impaired lung function. The impact of different definitions on the prevalence of potential airflow obstruction, and its associations with key risk factors, is evaluated using cross-sectional data from two nationally representative population surveys. Design Pooled cross-sectional analysis of Wave 2 of the UK Ho...

  6. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  7. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  8. Approfondissement des connaissances et renforcement des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    approfondissement des connaissances sur les sexospécificités au sein du programme Communautés et société de l'information en Afrique (ACACIA) et procéder à une évaluation de la stratégie de ce programme en matière de sexospécificités.

  9. ANALYSE DES MODES DE GESTION DES ENTREPRISES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    la triade : gestion commerciale, contrôle de l'Etat et reconnaissance du but non lucratif, proposée ici comme un ... MOTS CLES : Algérie - Théâtre - Gestion des entreprises - Culture. JEL CLASSIFICATION: L32 ... institutionnelle (Journal of Cultural Economics, 1977; Cultural. Trends, 1989; Journal of Arts Management, Law, ...

  10. Age estimation of Malawian adults from dental radiographs | Igbigbi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Des tudes prcdentes avaient montr qu'avec des dveloppements la dimension de la cavit du pulpe dentaire est en baisse la suite du prcipite dentine secondaire, pour pouvoir utiliser les mesurage de cette rduction comme un indicateur d'ge. Estimation d'ge est l'un des indicateurs utiliss dans l'identication lgale ...

  11. Batteries d'accumulateurs de démarrage au plomb. Deuxième partie Dimensions des batteries et dimensions et marquage des bornes

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1984-01-01

    S'applique aux batteries au plomb prévues pour le démarrage, l'éclairage et l'allumage (batteries de démarrage) des véhicules de tourisme et des véhicules commerciaux légers, d'une tension nominale de 12 V, à fixation au véhicule par la base du bac sur les grands côtés au moyen de listeaux; deux variantes admissibles se trouvent spécifiées, dans la section trois. Spécifie: - les dimensions principales des batteries de démarrage des quatre séries normalisées; - les emplacements des bornes positives et négatives par rapport au système de fixation; - les dimensions des bornes coniques des batteries de démarrage; - le marquage de la polarité.

  12. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    démodulation ou bien l‟analyse des résonances repérées dans le spectre. En pratique, ce n‟est pas ... domaine temporel pour la détection des défauts qui génèrent des signaux impulsionnels. Il est très sensible à ... attrait à la détection de défauts de types chocs. Lin et Zuo ont appliqué le Kurtosis pour la recherche du ...

  13. Viaducto Des Rocs

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Álvarez del Buergo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    El presente proyecto presenta las actuaciones a llevar a cabo para la Construcción del Viaducto des Rocs en la ciudad de Poitiers (Francia). El emplazamiento del viaducto está ocupado actualmente por la pasarela des Rocs, una pasarela peatonal que conecta los barrios occidentales con el centro histórico de Poitiers, sobrevolando el valle de la Boivre, marcado por la presencia de una playa de vías propiedad de la SNCF (Societé Nationale des Chemins de Fer). Las malas condiciones de esta infrae...

  14. Cross-sectional measures and modelled estimates of blood alcohol levels in UK nightlife and their relationships with drinking behaviours and observed signs of inebriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarman Ian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of nightlife in UK cities focuses on creating safe places for individuals to drink. Little is known about intoxication levels as measuring total alcohol consumption on nights out is complicated by early evening interviews missing subsequent consumption and later interviews risking individuals being too drunk to recall consumption or participate at all. Here we assess mixed survey and modelling techniques as a methodological approach to examining these issues. Methods Interviews with a cross sectional sample of nightlife patrons (n = 214 recruited at different locations in three cities established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview, self-assessed drunkenness and intended drinking patterns throughout the remaining night out. Researchers observed individuals' behaviours to independently assess drunkenness. Breath alcohol tests and general linear modelling were used to model blood alcohol levels at participants' expected time of leaving nightlife settings. Results At interview 49.53% of individuals regarded themselves as drunk and 79.43% intended to consume more alcohol before returning home, with around one in ten individuals (15.38% males; 4.35% females intending to consume >40 units (equal to 400 mls of pure alcohol. Self-assessed drunkenness, researcher observed measures of sobriety and blood alcohol levels all correlated well. Modelled estimates for blood alcohol at time of going home suggested that 71.68% of males would be over 0.15%BAC (gms alcohol/100 mls blood. Higher blood alcohol levels were related to drinking later into the night. Conclusions UK nightlife has used substantive health and judicial resources with the aim of creating safer and later drinking environments. Survey and modelling techniques together can help characterise the condition of drinkers when using and leaving these settings. Here such methods identified patrons as routinely getting drunk, with risks of drunkenness

  15. Estimating teat canal cross-sectional area to determine the effects of teat-end and mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penry, J F; Upton, J; Mein, G A; Rasmussen, M D; Ohnstad, I; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat-end congestion. The secondary objective was to assess the interactive effects of mouthpiece chamber vacuum with teat-end vacuum and pulsation setting on teat-end congestion. The influence of system vacuum, pulsation settings, mouthpiece chamber vacuum, and teat-end vacuum on teat-end congestion were tested in a 2×2 factorial design. The low-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEL) were 40 kPa system vacuum (Vs) and 400-ms pulsation b-phase. The high-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEH) were 49 kPa Vs and 700-ms b-phase. The low-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBL) was created by venting the liner mouthpiece chamber to atmosphere. In the high-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBH) the mouthpiece chamber was connected to short milk tube vacuum. Eight cows (32 quarters) were used in the experiment conducted during 0400 h milkings. All cows received all treatments over the entire experimental period. Teatcups were removed after 150 s for all treatments to standardize the exposure period. Calculated teat canal cross-sectional area (CA) was used to assess congestion of teat tissue. The main effect of the teat-end treatment was a reduction in CA of 9.9% between TEL and TEH conditions, for both levels of teat-barrel congestion risk. The main effect of the teat-barrel treatment was remarkably similar, with a decrease of 9.7% in CA between TBL and TBH conditions for both levels of teat-end congestion risk. No interaction between treatments was detected, hence the main effects are additive. The most aggressive of the 4 treatment combinations (TEH plus TBH) had a CA estimate 20% smaller than for the most gentle treatment combination (TEL plus TBL). The conditions designed to impair circulation in the teat barrel also had a deleterious effect on circulation at the teat end. This experiment highlights the importance of elevated mouthpiece

  16. Meteorologically estimated exposure but not distance predicts asthma symptoms in schoolchildren in the environs of a petrochemical refinery: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Wesley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community concern about asthma prompted an epidemiological study of children living near a petrochemical refinery in Cape Town, South Africa. Because of resource constraints and the complexity of refinery emissions, neither direct environmental measurements nor modelling of airborne pollutants was possible. Instead a meteorologically derived exposure metric was calculated with the refinery as the putative point source. The study aimed to determine whether (1 asthma symptom prevalences were elevated compared to comparable areas in Cape Town and (2 whether there was an association between asthma symptom prevalences and the derived exposure metric. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out of all consenting school children aged 11 to 14 years attending schools in a defined area, utilizing the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC written and video questionnaires. Information was collected on potential confounders, e.g. parental history of atopic disease, active and passive smoking by the participant, birth order, number of children in the home and distance from a major road. The exposure metric combined residential distance of each child from the refinery with a wind vector in the form of wind speed, wind direction and proportion of the year blown. Results A total of 2,361 children from 17 schools met the criteria for inclusion. In multivariate analysis, meteorologically estimated exposure (MEE, but not simple distance from the refinery, was positively associated with having to take an inhaler to school [odds ratio per interquartile range (OR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.06-1.40], and with a number of video elicited asthma symptoms, including recent waking with wheezing (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.66 and frequent wheezing at rest (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.54. Symptom prevalences were higher than in other areas of the city, with frequent waking with wheezing being in great excess (OR 8.92, 95% CI

  17. Cross-sectional measures and modelled estimates of blood alcohol levels in UK nightlife and their relationships with drinking behaviours and observed signs of inebriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Quigg, Zara; Morleo, Michela; Jarman, Ian; Lisboa, Paulo

    2010-04-20

    Management of nightlife in UK cities focuses on creating safe places for individuals to drink. Little is known about intoxication levels as measuring total alcohol consumption on nights out is complicated by early evening interviews missing subsequent consumption and later interviews risking individuals being too drunk to recall consumption or participate at all. Here we assess mixed survey and modelling techniques as a methodological approach to examining these issues. Interviews with a cross sectional sample of nightlife patrons (n = 214) recruited at different locations in three cities established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview, self-assessed drunkenness and intended drinking patterns throughout the remaining night out. Researchers observed individuals' behaviours to independently assess drunkenness. Breath alcohol tests and general linear modelling were used to model blood alcohol levels at participants' expected time of leaving nightlife settings. At interview 49.53% of individuals regarded themselves as drunk and 79.43% intended to consume more alcohol before returning home, with around one in ten individuals (15.38% males; 4.35% females) intending to consume >40 units (equal to 400 mls of pure alcohol). Self-assessed drunkenness, researcher observed measures of sobriety and blood alcohol levels all correlated well. Modelled estimates for blood alcohol at time of going home suggested that 71.68% of males would be over 0.15%BAC (gms alcohol/100 mls blood). Higher blood alcohol levels were related to drinking later into the night. UK nightlife has used substantive health and judicial resources with the aim of creating safer and later drinking environments. Survey and modelling techniques together can help characterise the condition of drinkers when using and leaving these settings. Here such methods identified patrons as routinely getting drunk, with risks of drunkenness increasing over later nights. Without preventing drunkenness and

  18. Cross section data base validation using a lead slowing down time spectrometer between 0,1 eV and 30 keV: methodology and results; Validation des bases de donnees de sections efficaces par l'utilisation d'un spectrometre a temps de ralentissement au plomb entre 0,1 eV et 30 keV. Methodologie-resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrot, L

    2001-12-01

    Projects dealing with future reactors consider using new fuels and demonstrate the ability of such reactors to incinerate nuclear waste. These projects have triggered new interest in cross section measurements for a large number of elements over a wide energy range. In some cases, existing data bases disagree, making new measurements necessary. Complete high resolution cross section measurements require both large beam times, and large data analysis times. However, a good capture cross section profile between 0.1 eV and 30 keV can be obtained using a lead slowing down time spectrometer in association with a pulsed neutron generator. Such measurements have been performed at the Institut des Sciences Nucleaires (ISN) at Grenoble. The neutron flux is measured with a {sup 233}U fission detector and an {sup 3}He gas detector and the results are compared to very precise Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP code) of the experimental set up, using several data bases for lead. We have shown that, with this method, the scattering cross section on lead can be tested with a precision of the order of 1.5%. Capture rates, measured with a CeF{sub 3} scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier, are compared to simulation results using different data bases for the samples. Reference materials (Au, Ag, In, Ta) have been measured, materials that are present in the core of reactors ({sup 232}Th, U, {sup 99}Tc) have been tested, as well as structure materials (W, Mo, Ni, Mn). Data bases are validated with a precision of 5%. Measurements done for different target thicknesses complete the data. Areas of agreement and disagreement between experimental results and data bases are systematically described. Finally, a correction table for the capture cross sections extracted from the appropriate data base is obtained and presented, for some elements. (author)

  19. La révélation expérimentale des préférences des consommateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Combris; Bernard Ruffieux

    2005-01-01

    Sur des marchés très segmentés où l'information joue un rôle considérable, l'estimation des consentements à payer pour des produits ayant des caractéristiques spécifiques est une question centrale. Les méthodes de l'économie expérimentale ont pour but d'inciter les individus à révéler leurs consentements à payer dans un environnement où l'apport d'information est contrôlé. Appliquées à différents types de produits (aliments contenant des OGM, vin, Champagne, …), dont on révèle progressivement...

  20. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  1. Des trottoirs à Manille.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On pourrait bien sûr montrer d’abord cette photographie, et si on ne le faisait pas, on nous le reprocherait, en partie à raison. Cela existe et c’est un bidonville comme on l’imagine. Des constructions précaires en matériaux de récupération, il y en a à Manille, mais ce n’est pas la majorité des quartiers informels. L’essentiel du quartier de Tondo, le plus grand et le plus connu des slums de la capitale des Philippines ressemble plutôt à cette deuxième photo. Il ...

  2. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    structure cubique centrée avec une distance réticulaire a = 2,86 ±0.002 Ẳ proche de celle du fer α. Cependant pour les films à forte teneur en Si (32 at. %Si et plus) les diffractogrammes des rayons X présentent des structures amorphes. La micrographie par microscopie électronique à balayage (MEB) de la figure 1.a ...

  3. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Etude de l'activité antibactérienne des huiles essentielles de la Sauge officinale : Salvia officinalis L. sur quelques entérobactéries pathogènes. Salah Benkherara, Ouahiba Bordjiba & Ali Boutlelis Djahra. Laboratoire de Biologie Végétale et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Département de. Biologie, Université Badji ...

  4. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Laboratoire Biologie et Physiologie des. Organismes. Faculté des Sciences ... concerné la prolifération cellulaire ainsi que quelques paramètres cellulaires et nucléaires. Cette étude met en ... milieu enrichi en glucose ainsi qu‟une augmentation de leur diamètre, de leurs grands et petits axes nucléaires et du nombre de ...

  5. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa, Inyo County, California; with a section on estimating evapotranspiration using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stannard, David I.

    1997-01-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the ground-water-flow system associated with Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository. By using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique, measurements made between June 1983 and April 1984 to estimate evapotranspiration were found to range from 0.1 centimeter per day during winter months to about 0.3 centimeter per day during summer months; the annual average was 0.16 centimeter per day. These estimates were compared with evapotranspiration estimates calculated from six other methods.

  6. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  7. The Development of Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Number Line Estimations: Three Developmental Accounts Contrasted Within Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sasanguie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three theoretical accounts have been put forward for the development of children’s response patterns on number line estimation tasks: the log-to-linear representational shift, the two-linear-to-linear transformation and the proportion judgment account. These three accounts have not been contrasted, however, within one study, using one single criterion to determine which model provides the best fit. The present study contrasted these three accounts by examining first, second and sixth graders with a symbolic and non-symbolic number line estimation task (Experiment 1. In addition, first and second graders were tested again one year later (Experiment 2. In case of symbolic estimations, the proportion judgment account described the data best. Most young children’s non-symbolic estimation patterns were best described by a logarithmic model (within the log-to-lin account, whereas those of most older children were best described by the simple power model (within the proportion judgment account.

  8. ETUDE COMPAREE DES COMPLICATIONS DES AVORTEMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ndombi I, Mendome G. Audit des décès maternels au Centre Hospitalier de Libreville (2005 à 2007). Journal de la SAGO 2007; 8 :29-33. 14.Guillaume A, William M. L'avortement provoqué en. Afrique : un problème mal connu, lourd de conséquences.LaboratoirePopulation-. Environnement-Développement. Unité mixte de.

  9. Approfondissement des connaissances et renforcement des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'échelon du programme et à celui des projets. À la deuxième étape, il y aura tenue d'ateliers en français et en anglais afin d'accroître la sensibilisation aux sexospécificités, de favoriser la réflexion et l'apprentissage mutuel et d'élaborer un ...

  10. Identifying beauty quarks and measurement of the production cross-section of top quark pairs at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in the D0 experiment; Etiquetage des quarks beaux et mesure de la section efficace de production de paires de quarks top a {radical}s=1,96 TeV dans l'experience DO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greder, S

    2004-10-15

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the measurement of the top-anti-top production cross-section in the lepton + jets channel (electron and muon). The analysed data have been collected with the D0 detector between 2001 and 2004 at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider located at Fermilab. These data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 160 pb-1 in each channel. Each top quark decays into a W boson and a b quark. The first part of this work has been focused on the elaboration of an algorithm, JLIP, aimed at identifying jets arising from b quark s decay products. This algorithm uses the impact parameter of the track s to assign a jet a probability that it originates from the primary interaction point. Its efficiency for top-anti-top events is about 45% with a rejected background of 99.7%. The second part of this work deals with the pre-selection step that allows isolating events which are likely to be compatible with a W+jets topology. Multi-jets and W+jets backgrounds are estimated from real data and simulation. The top pair production cross-section is extracted from candidate events that have at least three jets, one among them being tagged by the algorithm JLIP. Sources of systematics uncertainties have been studied in detail. Our results are the following, for the lepton + jets channel: {sigma}(tt-bar) = 8.28 (+1.31-1.21, stat) (+1.53-1.27, syst) (+0.53-0.53, lumi) pb. Results have been compared with the theoretical expectations and with other measurements performed in the D0 and CDF experiments. (author)

  11. Impact de la gestion des ressources humaines sur la survie des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partant de là, le risque relatif, la fraction préventive et les années potentielles de vie gagnées ont été estimés. Résultats: Nous avons trouvé que le développement du système de gestion des ressources humaines a significativement contribué à réduire le ratio de mortalité des enfants de moins de 5 ans de 136 pour 1000 ...

  12. À propos des occasionnalismes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Georgette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Les occasionnalismes (nonce formations ou contextual formations dans la terminologie anglo-saxonne, qu’on définira provisoirement comme de “new complex word[s] created by a speaker/writer on the spur of the moment to cover some immediate need” (Bauer, 1983 : 45 ont, à notre connaissance, peu retenu l’attention des morphologues du domaine francophone. Pourtant, toutes les conditions sont désormais réunies pour que cet objet, invisible lorsqu’il s’agissait de décrire le système morphologique du français (ou d’autres langues à partir de ressources dictionnairiques, émerge en tant qu’observable dans une morphologie puisant ses données dans le réel langagier des locuteurs. Par définition en effet, on s’attend à ce qu’un occasionalisme soit absent des dictionnaires (nous verrons que, dans les faits, la situation est plus complexe que cela, et que ces contextual formations ne puissent pas être étudiées en dehors du contexte dans lequel elles ont été produites. À cet égard, la Toile et les produits qui en dérivent constituent des ressources de choix. C’est particulièrement vrai des forums, dans lesquels les internautes s’expriment librement, laissant libre cours à leur potentiel créatif (ou ce qu’ils pensent tel. Dans la présente communication, après avoir défini la notion d’occasionalisme, nous utiliserons un corpus constitué au fil d’autres recherches pour dégager des motifs récurrents propices à leur apparition, autrement dit pour établir une grammaire des occasionnalismes.

  13. Feedback of balanced cross sections and gravity modeling: numerical estimation of horizon mislocations. A case study from the Linking Zone (Northeastern, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, E. L.; Izquierdo-Llavall, E.; Ayala, C.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; Rubio, F. M.; Rodríguez-Pintó, A.; Casas, A. M.; García Crespo, J.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of subsurface information in the Linking Zone (between the Iberian and the Catalan Coastal Ranges) where no seismic sections and few boreholes are available, together with the need to perform an evaluation of a potential CO2 reservoir, have motivated us to carry out a combined structural and geophysical study. The reservoir is located in the Bunt/Muschelkalk facies (Triassic in age) just underneath the Keuper evaporites (regional detachment). The expected density contrast between cover/basement/detachment rocks represent a suitable setting to apply gravity modeling. Therefore, we designed the location of eight serial and radial cross sections over 1.50000 available geological maps, we also include bedding data (field work) and thickness and depth information from wells and previous stratigraphic profiles. Besides, gravity data were acquired along the sections to build up 2.5D models and thus, to constrain the geometry of the basement and the thickness of the sedimentary cover. Density values used in the modelling come from a database with 1470 sites (compiled and acquired). Initially we build the balanced sections using the available geological information and applying standard geometric techniques. Regional knowledge and previous sections were also taken into account. Then, we took these sections into Oasis Montaj to fit the real and expected gravimetric signal. In this work we present the comparison of the location of certain horizons before and after that feedback. In some cases, mislocation of some horizons may reach up to 0.4 km, which represents up to 50% of the expected depth. After fitting the gravity data with balanced cross-sections we carried out a stochastic inversion that allowed reducing the uncertainty to a maximum of 0.15 km, i. e. c. 20% . Further error analysis may be focused on the double-checking with seismic section information from the industry, if and when available. Attached figure displays an example of one of the performed

  14. Etude des interactions entre les differents acteurs des interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les chefs de ménages ont une perception acceptable de la qualité des prestations des ASC. Seuls environ 60% des ASC ont été sélectionnés par leur communauté au cours d'une assemblée générale. Les chefs de ménages ont une connaissance acceptable des ASC et de leurs activités mais leur comportement ...

  15. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet vise à analyser la contribution réelle et potentielle de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif au bien-être des jeunes et des femmes en Côte d'Ivoire, au Burkina Faso et au Kenya. Après un état des lieux de la pratique de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif dans chacun des pays ciblés, l'équipe de recherche étudiera son incidence sur ...

  16. Comportement des polluants des eaux pluviales urbaines en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [9] Azzaoui S., 1999. Métaux lourds dans le bassin versant du Sebou, Géochimie, source de pollution et impact sur la qualité des eaux de surface. Thèse de Doctorat en chimie. Université d'IbnTofail, Maroc. 130p. [10] Louhi A., 2006. Pollution des eaux et des sols. Cas de la région de Annaba, étude des interférences et ...

  17. Sensibility analysis of Eu{sup 151} and Eu{sup 153} measured activation responses to cross section evaluation; Sensibilite d'un calcul d'activation aux sections efficaces des isotopes {sup 151}Eu et {sup 153}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Le Luel, C. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, 91 (France); Jacquet, H.P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. Conception et Realisation des Experimentations, 91 (France)

    2006-07-01

    An international benchmark exercise was launched by ITER Joint Central Team for an experimental validation of the integral decay power heat for fusion relevant materials irradiated in 14 MeV neutron spectra. In this paper, we compare the results of JAERI/FNS decay heat experiments performed upon Eu{sup 203} sample with calculations done with the inventory code FISPACT-2005 using two different cross section evaluations for the isotope {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu, namely EAF-2005 and BRC6(CEA/DAM). In order to estimate the difference between the calculated and the experimental decay heat values and the impact on the calculation results by the two different activation libraries adopted in the present work, the percentage ratios (C-E)/E % have been deduced and are presented. The outcome is the validation of the BRCD6 europium activation nuclear data by the adopted computational approach which provides a better agreement with the experiment than the EAF one, despite a low energy neutron flux uncertainty. (authors)

  18. Effets des extraits vegetaux sur la dynamique de populations des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude se propose de trouver une alternative de l'utilisation des pesticides chimiques en testant l'effet insecticide des extraits aqueux des feuilles de Hyptis suaveolens, graines de Ricinus communis et de Azadirachta indica contre les ravageurs du niébé en conditions de champ en utilisant le cyperméthrine ...

  19. La fabrique des sciences des institutions aux pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Benninghoff, Martin; Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne; Merz, Martina

    2006-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, les façons de produire, d'organiser, d'évaluer et d'utiliser les savoirs sont en profond débat. De plus en plus, l'Etat, la société civile et l'économie tentent d'influencer les activités des universités et des laboratoires de recherche. Ces développements mettent à l'épreuve tout à la fois les fondements des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche, l'autonomie des institutions scientifiques, la définition des frontières des savoirs et l'acceptation des sciences. Dans des contextes suisses et européens, cet ouvrage s'intéresse aux manières dont les sciences et les technologies sont fabriquées, en analysant leurs institutions et les pratiques. A partir d'une approche relationnelle, les sciences et les technologies sont conçues comme des phénomènes profondément sociaux, culturels et politiques. Une telle démarche déstabilise les visions parfois idéalisées et stéréotypées de la construction des savoirs. Des études de cas détaillées décrivent des phénomè...

  20. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits exploitants aux marchés dynamiques. Les marchés agroalimentaires connaissent de rapides changements dans les pays en développement et les pays en transition. Sous l'influence de la libéralisation du commerce et des nouvelles technologies de ...

  1. Assessment of Demirjian's 8-teeth technique of age estimation and Indian-specific formulas in an East Indian population: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Hemamalini; Rath, Rachna; Mahapatra, Sandeep; Debta, Tribikram

    2017-01-01

    The age of an individual can be assessed by a plethora of widely available tooth-based techniques, among which radiological methods prevail. The Demirjian's technique of age assessment based on tooth development stages has been extensively investigated in different populations of the world. The present study is to assess the applicability of Demirjian's modified 8-teeth technique in age estimation of population of East India (Odisha), utilizing Acharya's Indian-specific cubic functions. One hundred and six pretreatment orthodontic radiographs of patients in an age group of 7-23 years with representation from both genders were assessed for eight left mandibular teeth and scored as per the Demirjian's 9-stage criteria for teeth development stages. Age was calculated on the basis of Acharya's Indian formula. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the estimated and actual age. All data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) and MS Excel Package. The results revealed that the mean absolute error (MAE) in age estimation of the entire sample was 1.3 years with 50% of the cases having an error rate within ± 1 year. The MAE in males and females (7-16 years) was 1.8 and 1.5, respectively. Likewise, the MAE in males and females (16.1-23 years) was 1.1 and 1.3, respectively. The low error rate in estimating age justifies the application of this modified technique and Acharya's Indian formulas in the present East Indian population.

  2. The postponement of building planning applications for wind power plants. On the application of paragraph 15 Section 3 of the German Building Law; Die Zurueckstellung von Baugesuchen fuer Windkraftanlagen. Zur Anwendung des paragraph 15 Abs. 3 BauGB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidler, Alfred [Landratsamt Neustadt an der Waldnaab (Germany); Bayreuth Univ. (Germany); Bayerische Verwaltungsschule, Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Wind power plants are admissible with privilege outside built-up zones under paragraph 35 Section 1 No. 5 of the German Building Law. This means that they are accorded priority over other, potentially conflicting public-interest uses. In many municipalities this is causing fears of excessive siting of wind power plants on municipal territory. One instrument of municipal control of wind power plant siting is provided by paragraph 35 Section 3 Sentence 3 of the German Building Law, which grants municipalities powers of reservation in the preparation of land use plans. By positively earmarking one or several sites for wind power they can ensure that the remaining planning area remains free of such installations in spite of the privileged status accorded to them by the legislature. In some areas where wind power projects meet with opposition, paragraph 15 Section 3 of the Building Law is seen by some as a means of preventing such projects altogether. If an application for a building permit is postponed for one year pursuant to this regulation - so wind power opponents hope - this could induce the investor to look for another site to avoid the delay. However, paragraph 15 Section 3 of the Building Law contains requirements which allow this regulation only to be applied within narrow bounds. These bounds have recently been highlighted in three decisions of the Higher Administrative Court of Bavaria. This provides the motivation for the following close examination of paragraph 15 Section 3 of the Building Law.

  3. The economic impact of peste des petits ruminants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, D; Kumar, S; Anandsekaran, G; Chaudhury, J K; Meraj, M; Singh, R K; Verma, M R; Kumar, D; Kumar P T, N; Ahmed Lone, S; Mishra, V; Mohanty, B S; Korade, N; De, U K

    2017-04-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important livestock disease which affects a vast section of the small ruminant population in India. However, data on the incidence of PPR are limited and scant literature is available on the economic losses caused by the disease. In the present study, a structured sampling design was adopted, which covered the major agro-climatic regions of the country, to ascertain the morbidity and mortality rates of PPR. Available estimates of the economic losses in India due to various livestock diseases are based on single values of various epidemiological and economic parameters. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the economic impact of PPR. Overall annual morbidity and mortality rates of PPR for small ruminants in India have been estimated from the sample as being 8%and 3.45%, respectively. The authors have analysed variations in these rates across species, age group, sex, season and region. The expected annual economic loss due to PPR in India ranges from as little as US $2 million to $18 million and may go up to US $1.5 billion; the most likely range of expected economic losses is between US $653 million and $669 million. This study thus reveals significant losses due to the incidence of PPR in small ruminants in India.

  4. Une multitude d'outils à l'appui des partenariats Nord-Sud | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 juil. 2011 ... Il estime que cet engagement donne lieu à des échanges où chaque partie profite des améliorations réalisées, tant sur le plan social qu'en ce qui a trait aux capacités ou au recrutement. M. Anglin ajoute que les établissements du Sud choisissent de plus en plus souvent des universités canadiennes ...

  5. Liste des figures

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    1. Schéma pédagogique de l’économie circulaire 2. La criticité potentielle des ressources minérales 3. Comparaison des émissions de contaminants entre l’économie linéaire et l’économie circulaire 4. Schéma de l’économie circulaire de la Fondation Ellen MacArthur 5. Le cycle intégrateur de réemploi et de redistribution 6. La recirculation des ressources par recyclage, compostage et valorisation énergétique 7. Une unité de production de biocarburant 8. Une bioraffinerie intégrée 9. Les stratégi...

  6. Les lueurs des sables

    CERN Multimedia

    Les lueurs des sables

    2013-01-01

    Two CERN ladies are getting ready for the “Trophée Roses des Sables” rally adventure: Julie and Laetitia are finalizing the last details before setting off on Monday 7th October 2013. Julie from EN-MEF group and Laetitia from DGS-SEE group, met at the CERN Rugby club. This year, they are participating in the 100 % female rally which will take place in Morocco from 10 to 20 October. They will be carrying along 100 kg of humanitarian donation for children such as some clothes, books and medical material. Do not hesitate to show your support at their farewell party to be held on Monday 7 October, from 4 to 6 pm in front of the St Genis-Pouilly Mairie (city Hall). Follow their exciting adventure on the blog leslueursdessables.trophee-roses-des-sables.org and on their association’s Facebook page Les Lueurs des Sables.

  7. Bias in estimating the cross-sectional smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes associations with moderate-severe periodontitis in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study: comparison of full versus partial-mouth estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke A; Saraiya, Veeral M; Preisser, John S; Offenbacher, Steven; Beck, James D

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether partial-mouth protocols (PRPs) result in biased estimates of the associations between smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes with periodontitis. Using a sample (n = 6129) of the 1996-1998 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we used measures of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level to identify moderate-severe periodontitis. Adjusting for confounders, unconditional binary logistic regression estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence limits. Specifically, we compared POR for smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes with periodontitis derived from full-mouth to those derived from 4-PRPs (Ramfjörd, National Health and Nutrition Examination survey-III, modified-NHANES-IV and 42-site-Random-site selection-method). Finally, we conducted a simple sensitivity analysis of periodontitis misclassification by changing the case definition threshold for each PRP. In comparison to full-mouth PORs, PRP PORs were biased in terms of magnitude and direction. Holding the full-mouth case definition at moderate-severe periodontitis and setting it at mild-moderate-severe for the PRPs did not consistently produce POR estimates that were either biased towards or away from the null in comparison to full-mouth estimates. Partial-mouth protocols result in misclassification of periodontitis and may bias epidemiologic measures of association. The magnitude and direction of this bias depends on choice of PRP and case definition threshold used. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bias in estimating the cross-sectional smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes associations with moderate-severe periodontitis in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study: comparison of full versus partial mouth estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke A.; Saraiya, Veeral M.; Preisser, John S.; Offenbacher, Steven; Beck, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether partial mouth protocols (PRPs) result in biased estimates of the associations between smoking, alcohol, obesity, and diabetes with periodontitis. Methods Using a sample (n=6,129) of the 1996–1998 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we used measures of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level to identify moderate-severe periodontitis. Adjusting for confounders, unconditional binary logistic regression estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence limits. Specifically, we compared POR for smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes with periodontitis derived from full-mouth to those derived from 4-PRPs [Ramfjörd, National Health and Nutrition Examination survey-III, modified-NHANES-IV and 42-site-Random-site selection-method]. Finally, we conducted a simple sensitivity analysis of periodontitis misclassification by changing the case definition threshold for each PRP. Results In comparison to full-mouth PORs, PRP PORs were biased in terms of magnitude and direction. Holding the full-mouth case definition at moderate-severe periodontitis and setting it at mild-moderate-severe for the PRPs did not consistently produce POR estimates that were either biased towards or away from the null in comparison to full-mouth estimates. Conclusions PRPs result in misclassification of periodontitis and may bias epidemiologic measures of association. The magnitude and direction of this bias depends on choice of PRP and case-definition threshold used. PMID:26076661

  9. La cogestion des Ressources naturelles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'extraordinaire diversité des espèces vivantes, unies par des liens que souvent nous comprenons à peine, voilà de quoi dépend l'existence même des populations de la terre. Or, il suffit de jeter un bref coup d'oeil à presque n'importe quel ...

  10. Analyse des performances thermomecaniques des huiles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats ont montré que les huiles pures ont permis d'obtenir un rendement thermomécanique supérieur à 25% à puissance nominale de 3,5 kW, avec une consommation de 1,3 L/h environ. Les mélanges en volumes à 25% d'huile de coton (resp. 25% d'huile de palmiste) avec le gasoil 75%, ont permis d'obtenir des ...

  11. Influence des caracteristiques generales des gestantes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sur le plan descriptif, 34,5% des enquêtées ont entre 32 et 36 ans; majoritairement de l'ethnie Adja (30,0%) ; de la religion Catholique (54,5%). Elles sont mariées (85,5%) ; 37,3% d'entre elles sont non instruites ; 41,8% ont déclaré ne pas avoir un revenu mensuel. Sur le plan analytique, il ressort de cette étude qu'aucune ...

  12. Estimating the Cost of Preeclampsia in the Healthcare System: Cross-Sectional Study Using Data From SCOPE Study (Screening for Pregnancy End Points).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aimée; McHugh, Sheena; Browne, John; Kenny, Louise C; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Khashan, Ali S; Dempsey, Eugene; Fahy, Ciara; O'Neill, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia M

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the cost of preeclampsia from the national health payer's perspective using secondary data from the SCOPE study (Screening for Pregnancy End Points). SCOPE is an international observational prospective study of healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies. Using data from the Irish cohort recruited between November 2008 and February 2011, all women with preeclampsia and a 10% random sample of women without preeclampsia were selected. Additional health service use data were extracted from the consenting participants' medical records for maternity services which were not included in SCOPE. Unit costs were based on estimates from 3 existing Irish studies. Costs were extrapolated to a national level using a prevalence rate of 5% to 7% among nulliparous pregnancies. Within the cohort of 1774 women, 68 developed preeclampsia (3.8%) and 171 women were randomly selected as controls. Women with preeclampsia used higher levels of maternity services. The average cost of a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia was €5243 per case compared with €2452 per case for an uncomplicated pregnancy. The national cost of preeclampsia is between €6.5 and €9.1 million per annum based on the 5% to 7% prevalence rate. Postpartum care was the largest contributor to these costs (€4.9-€6.9 million), followed by antepartum care (€0.9-€1.3 million) and peripartum care (€0.6-€0.7 million). Women with preeclampsia generate significantly higher maternity costs than women without preeclampsia. These cost estimates will allow policy-makers to efficiently allocate resources for this pregnancy-specific condition. Moreover, these estimates are useful for future research assessing the cost-effectiveness of preeclampsia screening and treatment. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosen A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Die EAU bezeichnet die fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms als die therapeutische Option mit dem größten Zukunftspotenzial, auch wenn es sich dabei derzeit nicht um ein Standardverfahren handelt. Sie vermag bei Patienten mit einem niedrigmalignen, fokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinom die Lücke zu schließen zwischen potenzieller Übertherapie durch die radikalen Standardverfahren und der onkologischen Unsicherheit einer ,,Active surveillance“. Dieser Überblick gibt den derzeitigen Kenntnisstand bei der fokalen Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms wieder.

  14. Comparison of the Schwartz and CKD-EPI Equations for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selistre, Luciano; Rabilloud, Muriel; Cochat, Pierre; de Souza, Vandréa; Iwaz, Jean; Lemoine, Sandrine; Beyerle, Françoise; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E; Dubourg, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Estimating kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of utmost importance in many clinical conditions. However, very few studies have evaluated the performance of GFR estimating equations over all ages and degrees of kidney impairment. We evaluated the reliability of two major equations for GFR estimation, the CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations, with urinary clearance of inulin as gold standard. The study included 10,610 participants referred to the Renal and Metabolic Function Exploration Unit of Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France). GFR was measured by urinary inulin clearance (only first measurement kept for analysis) then estimated with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-traceable CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations. The participants' ages ranged from 3 to 90 y, and the measured GFRs from 3 to 160 ml/min/1.73 m2. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model the bias (mean ratio of estimated GFR to measured GFR). Equation reliability was also assessed using precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the ratio) and accuracy (percentage of estimated GFRs within the 10% [P10] and 30% [P30] limits above and below the measured GFR). In the whole sample, the mean ratio with the CKD-EPI equation was significantly higher than that with the Schwartz equation (1.17 [95% CI 1.16; 1.18] versus 1.08 [95% CI 1.07; 1.09], p Schwartz equation were closer to 1 than the mean ratios with the CKD-EPI equation whatever the age class (1.02 [95% CI 1.01; 1.03] versus 1.15 [95% CI 1.13; 1.16], p Schwartz equation had a better precision and was also more accurate than the CKD-EPI equation at GFR values under 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR: 0.32 [95% CI 0.28; 0.33] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.36; 0.44]; P30: 81.4 [95% CI 78.1; 84.7] versus 63.8 [95% CI 59.7; 68.0]) and also at GFR values of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2. In all patients aged ≥65 y, the CKD-EPI equation performed better than the Schwartz equation (IQR: 0.33 [95% CI 0.31; 0.34] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.38; 0.41]; P30: 77.6 [95% CI 75.7; 79

  15. Comparison of the Schwartz and CKD-EPI Equations for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Selistre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR is of utmost importance in many clinical conditions. However, very few studies have evaluated the performance of GFR estimating equations over all ages and degrees of kidney impairment. We evaluated the reliability of two major equations for GFR estimation, the CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations, with urinary clearance of inulin as gold standard.The study included 10,610 participants referred to the Renal and Metabolic Function Exploration Unit of Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France. GFR was measured by urinary inulin clearance (only first measurement kept for analysis then estimated with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS-traceable CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations. The participants' ages ranged from 3 to 90 y, and the measured GFRs from 3 to 160 ml/min/1.73 m2. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model the bias (mean ratio of estimated GFR to measured GFR. Equation reliability was also assessed using precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the ratio and accuracy (percentage of estimated GFRs within the 10% [P10] and 30% [P30] limits above and below the measured GFR. In the whole sample, the mean ratio with the CKD-EPI equation was significantly higher than that with the Schwartz equation (1.17 [95% CI 1.16; 1.18] versus 1.08 [95% CI 1.07; 1.09], p < 0.001, t-test. At GFR values of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2, the mean ratios with the Schwartz equation were closer to 1 than the mean ratios with the CKD-EPI equation whatever the age class (1.02 [95% CI 1.01; 1.03] versus 1.15 [95% CI 1.13; 1.16], p < 0.001, t-test. In young adults (18-40 y, the Schwartz equation had a better precision and was also more accurate than the CKD-EPI equation at GFR values under 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR: 0.32 [95% CI 0.28; 0.33] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.36; 0.44]; P30: 81.4 [95% CI 78.1; 84.7] versus 63.8 [95% CI 59.7; 68.0] and also at GFR values of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2. In all patients aged ≥65 y, the CKD-EPI equation

  16. Coordonnateur (h/f), Section de l'évaluation | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Le coordonnateur de la Section de l'évaluation doit: ... et des demandes de diffusion à l'interne et à l'extérieur;; Maintenir l'efficience des activités de bureau afin d'assurer la prestation des programmes et des activités de la section de façon opportune et rentable et d'assurer le contrôle de la qualité; et ...

  17. Identification et surveillance des individus

    OpenAIRE

    Aghroum, Christian; Bonelli, Laurent; Dufief, Vincent; Thorel, Jérôme; Tsoukala, Anastassia; Vitran, Jean-Claude; Alberganti, Michel; Ceyhan, Ayse; Charrier, Philippe; Denis, Vincent; Laurent, Sébastien; Piazza, Pierre; Preuss-Laussinotte, Sylvia; Rousselin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    « Big Brother is watching you ! » Cet avertissement placardé sur les murs de la cité imaginaire d'Océania dans le roman 1984 de Georges Orwell peut-il s'appliquer à nos sociétés contemporaines ? Passeport biométrique, fichage informatisé des individus, multiplication des caméras de surveillance, utilisation de puce dans des objets de la vie quotidienne, ou pour suivre les criminels en liberté surveillée, les mesures d'identification, de fichage et de surveillance des individus par des techniq...

  18. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Bone Mineral Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in Caucasian Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. A Cross-Sectional Study Using HR-pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Gudex, Claire; Ahrberg, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of fracture. We used high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to measure bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical and trabecular microarchitecture and estimated bone strength...... by finite element analysis (FEA) at the distal radius and tibia to assess bone characteristics beyond BMD that may contribute to the increased risk of fracture. Thirty-three Caucasian women with SLE (median age 48, range 21-64 years) and 99 controls (median age 45, range 21-64 years) were studied. Groups.......01), cortical area (-14 %, p bone volume fraction [(BV/TV); -17 %, p

  19. Mesure de la section efficace de production du single top en voie-t en utilisant des arbres de decision avec ATLAS a $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jin; Lleres, A; Feng, C

    This thesis presents a measurement of the cross-section of t-channel single top-quark production using 1.04 fb-1 data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with proton-proton collision at center-of-mass sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. Selected events contain one lepton, missing transverse energy, and two or three jets, one of them b-tagged. The background model consists of multijets, W+jets and top-quark pair events, with smaller contributions from Z+jets and diboson events. By using a selection based on the distribution of a multivariate discriminant constructed with the boosted decision trees, the cross section of t-channel single top-quark production is measured, 97.3+30.7_30.2 pb, which is in good agreement with the prediction of the Standard Model. Assuming that the top-quark-related CKM matrix elements obey the relation |Vtb| >>|Vts|, |Vtd|, the coupling strength at the W-t-b vertex is extracted from the measured cross section, |Vtb| = 1.23+0.20-0.19. If it is assumed that |Vtb| <= 1 a lower ...

  20. Strong γ-ray emission from neutron unbound states populated in β-decay: Impact on (n,γ cross-section estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tain J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to measure accurately the intensity of γ emission from neutron-unbound states populated in the β-decay of delayed-neutron emitters. From the comparison of this intensity with the intensity of neutron emission one can deduce information on the (n,γ cross section for unstable neutron-rich nuclei of interest in r process abundance calculations. A surprisingly large γ branching was observed for a number of isotopes. The results are compared with Hauser-Feshbach calculations and discussed.

  1. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    Le suivi des modifications morphologiques en fonction des saisons de G. sesquipedale est effectué sur des échantillons représentatifs des 100 thalles prélevés ..... La période de septembre à janvier correspond à une phase de vieillissement des frondes qui se termine en janvier avec une détérioration des extrémités des ...

  2. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    ensemble des communautés vivantes. Le réchauffement climatique affecte les espèces exploitées. Les pêcheurs le constatent de plus en plus, le contenu de leurs filets évolue sous l‟impact du réchauffement. Ces changements ne sont.

  3. REPRISE DES COURS - Yoga

    CERN Document Server

    Club de Yoga

    2015-01-01

    REPRISE DES COURS – Venez nombreux ! Yoga, Sophrologie, Tai Chi La liste des cours pour le semestre allant du 1er septembre 2015 au 31 janvier 2016 est disponible sur notre site web : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch Lieu Les cours ont lieu dans la salle des clubs, à l’entresol du restaurant No 2, Bât. 504 (dans la salle no 3 pour la Sophrologie). Prix des cours Le prix pour le semestre (environ 18 leçons) est fixé à 220 CHF plus 10 CHF d’adhésion annuelle au Club. Couple : 200 CHF par personne. 2 cours par semaine : 400 CHF. Inscriptions Les inscriptions aux cours seront prises directement auprès du professeur, lors de la 1ère séance. Avant de s’inscrire pour le semestre, il est possible d’essayer une séance gratuitement. Informations : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch ----------------------------------------- cern.ch/club-yoga/

  4. La physique des infinis

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardeau, Francis; Laplace, Sandrine; Spiro, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Écrire l'histoire de l'Univers, tel est l'objectif commun des physiciens des particules et des astrophysiciens. Pour y parvenir, deux approches s'épaulent : la voie de l'infiniment petit, que l'on emprunte via de gigantesques accélérateurs de particules, et celle de l'infiniment grand, dont le laboratoire est l'Univers. Un Univers qui est bien loin d'avoir livré tous ses secrets. On connaît à peine 4,8 % de la matière qui le constitue, le reste étant composé de matière noire (25,8 %) et d'énergie noire (69,4 %), toutes deux de nature inconnue. Et si la récente découverte du boson de Higgs valide le Modèle standard de la physique des particules, celui-ci est toujours incomplet et doit être étendu à ou dépassé. Est-on arrivé au bout du jeu de poupées russes de la matière ? Quelles sont les particules manquantes ? Faut-il revoir les lois fondamentales ? Quels instruments faut-il mettre en œuvre pour accéder à cette « nouvelle physique » ? Comment parler de Super Big Science aux citoye...

  5. Praxis des Klebens

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkauff, Petra

    1989-01-01

    Bei diesem Buch handelt es sich um einen Leitfaden fur Klebepraktiker. Es werden die verschiedenen Einzelschritte beim kleben beschrieben, als auch die vorbereitenden Massnahmen und anschliessenden Prufverfahren auf Festigkeit behandelt. Das Buch sollte an keinem Arbeitsplatz fehlen, wo man sich mit Problemen der Fugetechnik des Klebens beschaftigt.

  6. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... or DES granddaughters) ( 6 ). The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is leading laboratory studies to ...

  7. Cross section measurements of the processes occurring in the fragmentation of H{sub n}{sup +} (3 {<=} n {<=} 35) hydrogen clusters induced by high speed (60 keV/u) collisions on helium atoms; Mesure des sections efficaces des differents processus intervenant dans la fragmentation d`agregats d`hydrogene H{sub n}{sup +} (3 {<=} n {<=} 35) induite par collision a haute vitesse (60 keV/u) sur un atome d`helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louc, Sandrine [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-09-15

    Different processes involved in the fragmentation of ionised hydrogen clusters H{sub 3} + (H{sub 2}){sub (n-3)/2} (n = 5-35) have been studied in the same experiment: the fragmentation of the cluster is induced by the collision with an helium atom at high velocity ({approx_equal} c/100). The collision is realised in reversed kinematic - clusters are accelerated - which allows the detection of neutral and charged fragments. The different channels of fragmentation are identified by using coincidence techniques. For all the cluster sizes studied the capture cross sections of one electron of the target by the cluster is equal to the capture cross section of the H{sub 3}{sup +} ion. In the same way, the dissociation cross section of the H{sub 3}{sup +} core of the cluster does not depend on cluster size. These fragmentation processes are due to the interaction of H{sub 3}{sup +} core of the cluster and the helium atom without ionization of another component of the cluster. On the contrary, the cross sections of loss of one, two and three molecules by the cluster and the dissociation cross section of the cluster in all its molecular components depends strongly on the cluster size. This dependence is different from the one measured for the metastable decay of the cluster. Thus, the process of loss of molecules induced by a collision should correspond to a different dissociation mechanism. In regard of the singularities observed for the size dependence, the H{sub 9}{sup +}, H{sub 15}{sup +}, H{sub 19}{sup +} and H{sub 29}{sup +} clusters could be the `core` of the biggest clusters. These observation are in agreement with the size effects of smaller magnitude observed for the dissociation cross section (all the processes). The values of the cross section for the process of at least one ionization of the cluster indicate that about 80% of the fragmentation events result from this process. (author) 114 refs., 74 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in healthy and different forms of tobacco users having chronic periodontitis: A cross-sectional biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Veena Kalburgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease with complex and multi-factorial origin. Tobacco usage has shown its adverse effect on periodontal health. Various components within saliva not only protect the integrity of oral tissues, but also provide clues to local and systemic diseases and conditions. Salivary thiocyanate (SCN has been shown to be a chemical indicator in smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Noninvasive nature of salivary testing has made it an attractive and effective alternative to blood and urine testing. Limited studies are there comparing and correlating the salivary SCN levels in smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP. However, no studies show correlation of salivary SCN among gutka chewers with CP. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate, compare, and correlate the SCN levels in periodontally healthy, CP, smokers with CP and gutka chewers with CP subjects. Materials and Methods: Study includes 120 subjects with age 18-55 years, categorized as periodonally healthy (n = 30, CP (n = 30, smokers (n = 30, and gutka chewers (n = 30 with CP. Required clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss were recorded and salivary SCN levels were estimated through ultraviolet-spectrophotometer. Results: Mean salivary SCN level were shown to be higher among smokers and gutka chewers with CP as compared to healthy and CP alone. Conclusion: The present study exhibited the significant increase in salivary SCN levels among smokers and gutka chewers when compared to others, concluding that the analysis of salivary SCN levels could be used as an adjunctive means of diagnosis.

  9. DES Science Portal: Computing Photometric Redshifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, Julia [LIneA, Rio de Janeiro

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge facing photometric surveys for cosmological purposes, such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is the need to produce reliable photometric redshifts (photo-z). The choice of adequate algorithms and configurations and the maintenance of an up-to-date spectroscopic database to build training sets, for example, are challenging tasks when dealing with large amounts of data that are regularly updated and constantly growing. In this paper, we present the first of a series of tools developed by DES, provided as part of the DES Science Portal, an integrated web-based data portal developed to facilitate the scientific analysis of the data, while ensuring the reproducibility of the analysis. We present the DES Science Portal photometric redshift tools, starting from the creation of a spectroscopic sample to training the neural network photo-z codes, to the final estimation of photo-zs for a large photometric catalog. We illustrate this operation by calculating well calibrated photo-zs for a galaxy sample extracted from the DES first year (Y1A1) data. The series of processes mentioned above is run entirely within the Portal environment, which automatically produces validation metrics, and maintains the provenance between the different steps. This system allows us to fine tune the many steps involved in the process of calculating photo-zs, making sure that we do not lose the information on the configurations and inputs of the previous processes. By matching the DES Y1A1 photometry to a spectroscopic sample, we define different training sets that we use to feed the photo-z algorithms already installed at the Portal. Finally, we validate the results under several conditions, including the case of a sample limited to i<22.5 with the color properties close to the full DES Y1A1 photometric data. This way we compare the performance of multiple methods and training configurations. The infrastructure presented here is an effcient way to test several methods of

  10. Typologie des configurations d'accidents cyclistes: enjeux de prévention primaire et secondaire.

    OpenAIRE

    BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Hours, Martine

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXTE - La pratique de la bicyclette est encouragée par des politiques publiques pour ses avantages vis-à-vis du développement durable et de la santé publique. Toutefois, l'on estime que les cyclistes ont 8 fois plus de chances d'être blessé qu'un automobiliste par heure passée sur la route. La plupart des travaux utilisent des données policières, fortement biaisées, notamment sur le type d'accident avec ou sans tiers : on y compte 90% de collisions contre 30% dans le Registre des accident...

  11. Mesure et déterminants de l'efficacité technique des pisciculteurs du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plupart des exploitations piscicoles (63%) sont situées dans des zones à potentiel piscicole élevé. Le Tableau 4 présente les résultats de l'estimation des facteurs déterminant l'efficacité technique des pisciculteurs du. Bénin. Il faut souligner que le test d'hétéroscédasticité de White a été appliqué et les résultats obtenus ne ...

  12. Analyse descriptive des facteurs de risque des mammites chez des troupeaux bovins laitiers hors sol en milieu semi-aride (Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim HAJ MBAREK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de ce travail consiste à analyser les comptages cellulaires individuels (CCI et les comptages cellulaires de troupeau estimés (CCTE des vaches au cours d’une lactation complète. L’étude a été réalisée sur un échantillon de 50 élevages bovins hors sol dans une région littorale de la Tunisie semi-aride. La majorité des troupeaux de l’échantillon examiné présente des comptages cellulaires élevés tant individuels que collectifs estimés. L’analyse descriptive des données relatives aux conditions d’élevage et de traite a permis de mettre en évidence certains facteurs à effets significatifs sur les variations des comptages cellulaires et la probabilité de propagation des mammites. Au niveau du logement, l’analyse a dévoilé que l’utilisation d’une litière réduit à moitié les CCI moyens qui se sont avérés fortement liés à la propreté aussi bien de l’aire de couchage que de la mamelle. Concernant l’animal, les paramètres de traite « Profondeur de la mamelle », « Propreté de la mamelle » et « Non désinfection des trayons » se sont révélés susceptibles d’affecter les CCI et sont considérés comme facteurs causals de mammites bovines.

  13. Neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering on proton with four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} = 1 GeV{sup 2}. Measurement of cross-sections and of generalized polarizabilities; Electroproduction de photons et de pions sur le proton au quadrimoment de transfert Q{sup 2} = 1.0 GeV{sup 2}. Mesure des sections efficaces et extraction des polarisabilites generalisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laveissiere, G

    2001-11-01

    In hadronic physics, the nucleon structure and the quarks confinement are still topical issues. The neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reactions allow us to access new observables that describe this structure. This work is focussed on the VCS experiment performed at Jefferson Lab in 1998. The 4 GeV electron beam is scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target, and the scattered electron and recoiled proton are detected in coincidence in the twin hall A spectrometers. The photon (pion) is reconstructed using a missing particle technique. The data analysis allowed to extract the cross sections relative to both process at four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} = 1 GeV{sup 2}. The VCS cross section has been extracted for the first time in the proton resonance region (W between 1.O and 2.0 GeV) through the photon electroproduction reaction. Around the pion-production threshold up to the Delta(1232) resonance region, these results lead to the measurement of the generalized polarizabilities, that describe the proton structure in the same way as the elastic form factors. Moreover, the neutral pion electroproduction cross section measurement in the resonance region has brought new constraints on the existing phenomenological models. (author)

  14. Art des mets… art des mots

    OpenAIRE

    Parizot, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Cette étude, effectuée dans le cadre d’une recherche en sciences de la communication, s’intéresse à la raison pour laquelle un convive choisit un plat en fonction de son énoncé, dans un restaurant gastronomique. La dénomination des plats sur un menu est un élément déclencheur du désir du convive, mais également le reflet de l’identité du chef. Nous replacerons donc l’intitulé dans le contexte de création du chef qui, par-delà les mots, nous livre une part de son identité. Ensuite nous présent...

  15. Rupture des temps, union des espaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Tricoire

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, preußischer Kulturbesitz. Musée de Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg. (1 1925, Ostpreußen. Selbstbestimmung oder Gewalt . « Prusse orientale. L'auto-détermination ou la violence ». Exposée dans le camp de concentration de Sachsenhausen, près de Berlin, édifié par les nazis avant de servir aux Soviétiques jusqu'en 1954, la carte témoigne des dégâts que firent les frontières définies par le traité de Versailles. La violence de la paranoïa que ...

  16. Cross-sectional estimation of Babesia bovis antibody prevalence in an area of Argentina used for extensive cattle breeding as an aid to control babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; de Echaide, S T; Pérez y Santaella, M; Iglesias, J A; Vanzini, V R; Lugaresi, C I; Dellepiane, E L

    1997-05-01

    The prevalence of Babesia bovis antibodies was estimated by using an ELISA (98% sensitivity and 95% specificity). Sera were obtained from 165 calves (mean age and standard deviation: 9.7 +/- 2.7 months) from an area in Argentina known to be unfavourable for the development of the vector tick, Boophilus microplus. The area comprised about 300,000 ha used for cattle breeding. The cattle population of 55,000 included 12,000 cattle under 1 year of age. Cattle were maintained mainly on natural grasses in communal lands. The true prevalence of antibodies to Babesia bovis was 12.2% with a confidence interval of 7.6% to 18.2%, and an inoculation rate (h; daily probability of infection) of 0.0004. This confidence interval has its lower boundary in the area of endemic stability due to low h of Babesia bovis by the vector tick and the upper limit in the area of endemic instability. This type of analysis could help to decide the implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) rationally, even in remote areas (such as the one of the present study) with an extensive cattle industry.

  17. Theoretical and experimental study of a modular accelerating structure of travelling waves sections for high gradient tests (MECCANO); Etude theorique et experimentale d`une structure acceleratrice a ondes progressives demontable pour des tests fort gradient (Structure dite ``MECCANO``)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanudet, M

    1996-06-04

    A modular system, MECCANO, has been developed at the Laboratoire de l`Accelerateur Lineaire d`Orsay to study the physical and technical phenomena of high electric fields in travelling waves structures in the context of future linear colliders which can reach TeV energies. The behaviour of the electric field inside the section MECCANO is considered from the theoretical point of view with numerical simulations and analytical representations and from the experimental side with low and high power measurements. An infinite and uniform structure is classically described by series of RLC resonant circuits. The basic RF properties of the fundamental mode are given. For a finite section, the matching of a forward or backward travelling wave of any phase advance per cell is also represented by means of RLC circuits. The variations of the reflection and transmission properties of the structure with frequency and a new procedure to match couplers have been modelled and experimentally verified. The electromagnetic behaviour of each cavity and of the whole structure have been studied, the fundamental and first high order modes have been simulated by 2D or 3D codes and measured at low power. The matching of the phase, the amplitude and the reflection level of the accelerator is described. This procedure is found to be extremely delicate due to the abrupt changes in the geometry of the cavities. The structure has been tested at fields superior to 150 MV/m. The behaviour of some materials and surface layers subject to high gradients are presented. (author) 46 refs.

  18. A cross sectional observational study to estimate herd level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars in small holder dairy cattle farms in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Otto, Barbara; Sandoval, Errol; Reinhardt, German; Boqvist, Sofia

    2014-06-06

    The south of Chile constitutes the main cattle milk producing area of the country. Regarding leptospirosis control in Chile, there is neither an official program nor an epidemiological characterization of smallholder dairy farms. This study was carried out to determine Leptospira seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors associated with seropositivity at herd level in smallholder bovine dairy herds in southern Chile.A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenient sample of 1,537 apparently healthy dairy cows was included in the study. Individual blood samples were taken and examined for six selected reference Leptospira serovars by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Of the included herds 75% (52/69) showed serological titers against one or more Leptospira serovar. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo was the serovar most frequently (81%) reported from animals with positive results. The variables considered risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity were calve natural breeding system, using a specific calving area and vaccination against Leptospira. Adult cows in contact with calves weaned, proved to be a protective factor against infection. Herds neglecting the management practices mentioned in this study could represent an important source of Leptospira infection for other herds in the same geographic area, as well as for other animal species.

  19. Aspects des Onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biologiques et évolutifs des onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais. Méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive menée de mars 2011 à mars 2014 dans l'unité de dermatologie de l'hôpital général de Douala (HGD), incluant des patients chez lesquels le diagnostic d'onychomycose avait été posé.

  20. Etat des controverses des approches cognitive et ecologique en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette revue de question vise à présenter dans le champ de l'apprentissage moteur, le sens des postulats des approches cognitive et écologique de même que les critiques formulées à leur encontre. Des documents scientifiques et articles de revues indexées et publiés dans la banque de données MEDLINE, ont été ...

  1. Prevision des ventes et efficacite des chaines logistiques - Essai de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit aussi de clarifier le mode d'utilisation des données de prévision, dans la modélisation mathématique des chaines logistiques, qui se distinguent par la multiplicité des objectifs. L'application de ces méthodes se fera dans une entreprise algérienne (la laiterie de RIO) spécialisée dans la production du yaourt.

  2. Collection d'entretiens avec des chercheurs participant à des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Entretien avec…propose des entrevues vidéos avec des chercheurs participant à des projets portant sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques réalisés en Afrique, en Asie ainsi qu'en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes que le CRDI subventionne par le truchement de son programme Changements climatiques et eau ...

  3. Contribution a l'amelioration des techniques de diagnostic des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ces vecteurs transmettent à l'homme des maladies bactériennes, telles que les borrélioses. La borréliose se manifeste par une fièvre élevée avec des céphalées, des vomissements, de la fatigue et une sensation de froid. Ces symptômes la font soit confondre avec le paludisme soit ranger parmi les fièvres non paludiques ...

  4. Regroupement des statistiques sur le secteur des TIC et analyse ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regroupement des statistiques sur le secteur des TIC et analyse axée sur les politiques. La présence et l'influence des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) continuent de s'élargir et de s'accroître, tout comme leurs répercussions sur le développement économique. Toutefois, il reste encore beaucoup ...

  5. Commercialisation des pintades dans la region des savanes au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Togo et plus précisément dans la Région des Savanes, l'élevage des pintades occupe une place capitale dans la vie économique des paysans à travers sa commercialisation. Ce travail vise à étudier le système de commercialisation de ces volailles dans cet espace géographique du Togo. Pour atteindre cet objectif, ...

  6. Impact des microcredits sur les conditions sociosanitaires des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    échantillonnage est raisonné et la méthode de signifiance des cas a été utilisée pour la collecte des données. Les données collectées ont été soumises aux traitements statistiques. L'analyse des résultats est la dernière étape de la démarche. Les résultats ...

  7. Conditions environnementales des maladies des enfants de moins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats révèlent une dominance du paludisme (49%), suivi des IRA (26%), les anémies (13%), les affections gastro-intestinales (7%) et les maladies diarrhéiques (5%) dans un contexte de manque d'assainissement où la nature demeure le mode de gestion des ordures (95%) et des excrétas (92%). Les liens entre ...

  8. Analyse Des Perceptions Locales Et Des Facteurs Determinant L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une Analyse en Composantes Principales a été appliquée à la matrice des données de fréquences des organes utilisés. Une régression logistique binaire a été utilisée pour identifier les facteurs déterminant le souhait des populations à cultiver J. curcas. Les résultats ont montré que les populations locales consentissent ...

  9. Etude des comportements rheologiques des melanges de farine ble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des tests de panification à base de farines composées incorporant 20 % des farines issues des différentes variétés de sorgho ont été effectués aussi au niveau de la boulangerie pilote de l'Institut de Technologie Alimentaire de Dakar. Les pains obtenus ont présenté un bon volume, une bonne texture de la mie, de la ...

  10. Stereological comparison of oocyte recruitment and batch fecundity estimates from paraffin and resin sections using spawning albacore (Thunnus alalunga) ovaries as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Sámar; Macías, David; Ortiz de Urbina, Josetxu; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd

    2015-01-01

    Traditional histological protocols in marine fish reproductive laboratories using paraffin as the embedding medium are now increasingly being replaced with protocols using resin instead. These procedures entail different degrees of tissue shrinkage complicating direct comparisons of measurement results across laboratories or articles. In this work we selected ovaries of spawning Mediterranean albacore (Thunnus alalunga) as the subject of our study to address the issue of structural changes, by contrasting values on oocyte recruitment and final batch fecundity given from the same tissue samples in both paraffin and resin. A modern stereological method, the oocyte packing density (OPD) theory, was used supported by initial studies on ovarian tissue sampling and measurement design. Examples of differences in the volume fraction of oocyte stages, free space and connective tissue were found between the embedding media. Mean oocyte diameters were smaller in paraffin than in resin with differences ranging between 0.5% in primary growth and 24.3% in hydration (HYD) stage oocytes. Fresh oocyte measurements showed that oocytes shrank as a consequence of the embedding process, reaching the maximal degree of shrinkage for oocytes in the HYD stage (45.8% in paraffin and 26.5% in resin). In order to assess the effect of oocyte shrinkage on the OPD result, and thereby on relative batch fecundity (Fr), oocyte diameters corrected and uncorrected for shrinkage, were used for estimations. Statistical significant differences were found (P results based on either oocytes in the germinal vesicle migration stage or HYD stage. As a valuable adjunct, the present use of the OPD theory made it possible to document that the oocyte recruitment of spawning ovaries of Mediterranean albacore followed the typical pattern of an asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity.

  11. Different Multimorbidity Measures Result in Varying Estimated Levels of Physical Quality of Life in Individuals with Multimorbidity: A Cross-Sectional Study in the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ramond-Roquin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multimorbidity adversely affects health-related quality of life. Methodological factors may impact the magnitude of this relationship. Objective. To evaluate how physical health-related quality of life varies in individuals with multimorbidity depending on the length of the list of candidate conditions considered. Methods. Secondary analysis from PRECISE, a cohort study of the general adult population of Quebec, Canada. Multimorbidity was measured using the 21-chronic condition list from the Disease Burden Morbidity Assessment, and physical health-related quality of life was measured using the physical component summary (PCS of SF-12v2. The PCS was calculated, (a using 2 or more conditions from the 21-condition list (MM2+, 21 and then from a reduced 6-condition list (MM2+, 6 and (b using three or more conditions from each list (MM3+, 21, and MM3+, 6. Results. The analysis included 1,710 individuals (mean age 51.3, 40.5% men. Multimorbidity prevalence ranged from 63.8% (MM2+, 21 conditions to 3.8% (MM3+, 6 conditions. The mean [95% CI] PCS dropped from 45.7 [CI: 45.0–46.3] (MM2+, 21 to 40.2 [CI: 38.7–41.8] (MM2+, 6 and from 44.2 [CI: 43.4–44.9] (MM3+, 21 to 34.8 [CI: 31.9–37.6] (MM3+, 6. Conclusion. The length of the list of candidate conditions considered has a great impact on the estimations of physical health-related quality of life.

  12. Impact of routine reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate using the CKD-EPI formula in a community population: A cross-sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tim; Hadlow, Narelle; Chakera, Aron

    2014-09-01

    Most laboratories are moving to report estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula. However, data on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the population and its economic impact have to date been modelled using data derived from the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation. Evaluating the impact of CKD-EPI on prevalence has important implications for referral patterns and health expenditure. eGFR were calculated from 2 295313 creatinine results from 833334 patients using the MDRD and CKD-EPI formulae. The proportion of patients in each CKD stage was determined and annual rates of change of eGFR in patients assigned to a new CKD stage compared with their previous CKD stage calculated. The effects of age on eGFR were assessed. Reporting of eGFR using the CKD-EPI equation reduced the prevalence of CKD stages III-V from 9.2% to 7.6%. A total of 181126 patients were reclassified using CKD-EPI with 171298 changing to a better CKD stage. Reclassification rates were highest in CKD stages II and III. Patients reclassified from stage III to II tended to be younger or female. eGFR declines rapidly after the age of 60. Introduction of routine eGFR reporting using the CKD-EPI formula will reduce the population prevalence of CKD. CKD-EPI reporting better identifies patients at risk of further decline in renal function. Improvement in the classification should reduce unnecessary costs related to surveillance and referral. The impact of ageing on renal function should be appreciated. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. etude epidemiologique clinique et therapeutique des fractures des plataux tibiaux

    OpenAIRE

    BEKHALED, FATIMA ZOHRA; BENMIMOUN, SAMIHA

    2013-01-01

    Il est important de réaliser un bilan clinique initial complet dans le cadre des fractures des plateaux tibiaux. Le bilan para clinique comprendra au minimum des radiographies simples, et au besoin un scanner afin de définir le type de fracture. L'IRM permet surtout l'analyse des structures ligamentaires, ainsi que la mise en évidence de fractures occultes. Le traitement est orthopédique ou chirurgical. La chirurgie per - cutanée assistée ou non par arthroscopie est parfo...

  14. Des Chiffres et des Lettres : distraction, variations, habitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laborde

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article envisage une des émissions les plus anciennes du Paysage Audiovisuel Français : Des Chiffres et des Lettres. La sérialité que l’émission met en œuvre au cours de son histoire est faite de variations qui témoignent à la fois des évolutions des techniques audiovisuelles, des logiques de programmations, des attentes spectatorielles. Ce jeu télévisé, toujours le même et pourtant toujours différent, permet à la fois la reconnaissance immédiate et la perception d'un changement, double adresse qui explique sans doute sa longévité et fait de ce programme un parangon de la sérialité télévisuelle.This article considers one of the oldest programs in the French media landscape: « Des Chiffres et des Lettres ». Seriality that implements the program in its history is made changes that reflect both the evolution of audiovisual techniques, of logic programming and expectations spectatorial. This TV show, always the same and yet still different, allows both the immediate recognition and perception of a change which probably explains its longevity and made this program a paragon of seriality in television.

  15. contraintes d'adoption des technologies de gestion de la fertilite des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pluie, lorsque les pailles sont enfouies, leur décomposition conduit à une acidification du sol entrainant des réactions chimiques qui conduisent à la production du méthane, un gaz à effet de serre qui contribue au réchauffement climatique. On estime à 0,46 Gg la quantité de méthane produite annuellement par la riziculture.

  16. Emploi des jeunes Africains : Des faits révélateurs | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 avr. 2016 ... On estime entre 10 et 12 millions le nombre de jeunes qui entrent sur le marché du travail chaque année. ... Il faut de meilleurs emplois pour les jeunes en Afrique ... D'abord, dans la plupart des pays d'Afrique, les données de base sur le marché du travail, s'il en est, sont désuètes ou ne sont pas fiables.

  17. Relationship of urinary endothelin-1 with estimated glomerular filtration rate in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a pilot cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Rupesh; Lou, Linda; Berger, Bruce; Vogt, Beth; Do, Angelique Sao-Mai; Cunningham, Robert; Vasavada, Pauravi; Herrmann, Karin; Dell, Katherine; Simonson, Michael

    2016-02-29

    The pathogenesis of progressive renal insufficiency in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is unclear. Evidence from experimental models of ADPKD suggests that elevated endothelin-1 (ET-1) drives cyst growth, renal fibrosis and loss of renal function, but whether ET-1 is elevated in humans with ADPKD is uncertain. In a cross-sectional study of ADPKD we measured urinary ET-1, a surrogate for ET-1 in kidney cortex, in spot collections corrected for creatinine. The volume of each kidney was measured using MRI-based stereology. The relationship of urine ET-1 with MDRD eGFR and kidney volume was modeled by multiple linear regression with adjustment for clinical covariates. Patients with ADPKD were ages 18 to 53 with eGFRs (median, interquartile range) of 63.2 (43.5-80.2) ml/min/1.73 m(2) and albumin/creatinine ratios (ACR) of 115.0 (7.5-58.5) μg/mg. Urine ET-1 was inversely associated with eGFR (r = -0.480, P kidney volume (r = 0.426, P = 0.100), with a test for trend across urine ET-1 quartiles yielding z = 1.83, P = 0.068. ET-1 strongly correlated with NAGase (r = 0. 687, P = 0.001), a marker of tubular damage and a surrogate marker of renal disease progression in ADPKD. Of note, ET-1 levels in urine were not correlated with hypertension. In a translational study of patients with ADPKD, urinary ET-1 was inversely associated with eGFR and positively correlated with total kidney volume. Taken together with results from experimental models, these findings suggest that the role of ET-1 in ADPKD warrants further investigation.

  18. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Unité de Recherche des Matériaux et des Energies Renouvelables (U.R.M.E.R). Université Abou –Baker Belkaid B.p : 119 Tlemcen 13000 Algerie. 2. Unité de Développement de la Technologie Du Silicium. UDTS, BP 399, Alger, Algérie. Accepté le : 08/06/2011. صخلم. داوﻣﻟا نﻣ ﻲﺗﻟا ﺔﺻﺎﺧو ،ﺔﻋﺎﻧﺻ يأ رﯾوطﺗ ﻲﻓ ﺎﯾﺳﯾﺋر ﻼﻣﺎﻋ ةرﯾﺧﻷا تاوﻧﺳﻟا ...

  19. Ethique des affaires

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    L’affaire Enron aura redynamisé outre-Rhin la réflexion sur l’éthique des affaires. Mais la globalisation aussi apporte son lot de questions : un patron a-t-il moralement le droit de fermer un site qui n’est plus rentable ? Les impératifs de compétitivité exigent-ils de lui qu’il le fasse ? Comment juger des performances d’un collaborateur ? C’est à toute une série de questions de ce type que tente de répondre un président de directoire allemand, ancien consultant au cabinet Boston Consulting...

  20. PORTAIL DES JEUX EDUCATIFS

    OpenAIRE

    BENSLIMANE, ABDALLAH

    2015-01-01

    Un monde sans jeux vidéo semble impossible de nos jours. L'industrie des jeux est considérée comme l’une des plus importantes avec un impact affectant tous les domaines (économie, l'éducation, la culture, ...). Notre objectif est de faire la conception et la réalisation d’un produit destiné particulièrement à notre société. Nous avons remarqué qu’il existe un très grand nombre de jeux, mais malheureusement très peu d’entre eux sont dotés d’une version en langue arabe. Ceci n...

  1. Chimie des processus biologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fontecave, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Enseignement Cours : Clusters métalliques et enzymes : le vivant inorganique Il est communément considéré que la matière vivante est organique. En réalité, on sait aujourd’hui qu’une très grande quantité de processus naturels dépendent de l’intervention d’un ou de plusieurs ions métalliques. Par exemple, près de 40 % des protéines ne fonctionnent que parce qu’elles fixent un ou plusieurs ions métalliques (sodium, magnésium, calcium, fer, zinc, cuivre, etc.) On les appelle des métalloprotéines...

  2. Optimum input leads for cryogenic apparatus; Optimisation des descentes de courant dans des enceintes cryogeniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Der Nigohossian, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-15

    The electrical leads used to introduce a current into a cryostat cause a heat influx due to thermal conduction and to Joule heating. It is very important to be able to minimize this flux. Theoretical calculation of optimized leads takes into account the varying heat and electrical conductivities of the leads as well as the heat exchange coefficient with the effluent gas. Practical results have been summarized in different tables which permit for a specific material i.e. copper, aluminium, brass, stainless steel with the intensity and end temperatures being known (i.e. 4,2 or 18,5 deg. K at the cold end; 77,295 or 320 deg. K at the warm end) to deduce the minimum heat flow and the length-cross section ratio of the optimized leads. A general method is indicated, which would allow to solve the same problem for other materials. (author) [French] Les conducteurs electriques assurant la liaison d'appareillages situes dans des cryostats apportent tant par effet Joule que par conductibilite thermique une certaine quantite de chaleur qu'il est tres important de pouvoir minimiser. L'etude theorique de l'optimisation des descentes de courant tient compte des variations des conductibilites thermique et electrique ainsi que de l'influence des echanges avec le gaz. Pratiquement les resultats ont ete resumes dans differents tableaux ce qui permet, pour un materiau donne tel que cuivre, aluminium, laiton, acier inoxydable, connaissant l'intensite et les temperatures d'extremites 4,2 et 18,5 deg. K d'une part, et 77,295 et 330 deg. K d'autre part, de deduire la consommation minimale et le rapport longueur-section d'un conducteur optimise. Une methode generale est indiquee, qui permet de resoudre le probleme pour d'autres materiaux. (auteur)

  3. Mesure de la section efficace de production de paires de photons isolés dans l'expérience ATLAS au LHC et étude des couplages à quatre photons

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387311; Schoeffel, Laurent

    The LHC, which is the most powerful proton-proton collider in the world located at CERN (Switzerland), brings unprecedented opportunities to test our knowledge of the fundamental interactions at the TeV scale. In this work, two main projects have been achieved for this purpose. First, the production cross section measurement of at least two photons in the final state ($pp\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma+X$) is performed with data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the ATLAS detector, which is one of the multipurpose detector installed around the LHC ring. Photons are interesting probes to test the theory of strong interactions (Quantum chromodynamics or QCD) since they couple significantly to quarks but do not hadronize and thus still allow to perform high resolution measurements. The measurement of their production rate at the LHC allows to test QCD in both the perturbative and the non-perturbative domain. It is also sensitive to the emission of soft particles in the initial-state, which is tricky to handle...

  4. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    It is suggested that Si contributes greatly to passivation in case of high iron silicon alloys. Key words: cathode sputtering magnetron; thin films; nanostructure; corrosion; alloys Fe-Si. 1. ... Anode : Intensité (A)/ Tension (V). 40/20. 5/25. Distance cible-substrat (mm). 80. Vitesse de dépôt (µm.h-1). 5. 2.2 Caractérisation des ...

  5. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Laboratoire de Biologie Végétale et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Département de Biologie ... Le parc national d‟El Kala (Nord est algérien) est caractérisé par une grande biodiversité génétique. Dans le cadre de nos ... Mots clés: Biodiversité ;Lichen ; Parc National dEl Kala- nord- est algérien ; Algérie. Abstract.

  6. Die Problematik des Pauschalurteils

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Klaus P.

    2009-01-01

    Klaus P. Hansen betont in seinem Beitrag über die "Problematik des Pauschalurteils", dass sich Verallgemeinerungen über ein Kollektiv nur auf die partiellen Gemeinsamkeiten dieser Gruppe, nicht aber auf Individuen beziehen dürfen. Der Kulturtheoretiker erinnert an die menschliche Multikollektivität, plädiert für eine dichte Zuschreibung beobachteter Merkmale zu einzelnen Gruppenmitgliedschaften und entwirft eine Typologie unterschiedlicher Kollektivformen. Nationen konzipiert er als Dachkolle...

  7. Table des figures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    1. Carte générale de Colombie 733 2. Le Nouveau Royaume de Grenade 734 3. Nouvelle Grenade — Région centre 735 4. Nouvelle Grenade — Région nord 736 5. Nouvelle Grenade — Région sud-ouest 737 6. Schéma des institutions chargées de l’implantation de la foi dans le Nouveau Monde 738

  8. Fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen A

    2013-01-01

    Die EAU bezeichnet die fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms als die therapeutische Option mit dem größten Zukunftspotenzial, auch wenn es sich dabei derzeit nicht um ein Standardverfahren handelt. Sie vermag bei Patienten mit einem niedrigmalignen, fokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinom die Lücke zu schließen zwischen potenzieller Übertherapie durch die radikalen Standardverfahren und der onkologischen Unsicherheit einer ,,Active surveillance. Dieser Überblick gibt den derzeitigen Kenntnisstand ...

  9. Comparison of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in screening for chronic kidney disease in asymptomatic black Africans: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuse, Geoffrey; Maina, Daniel; Mwangi, Jane; Wambua, Caroline; Kanyua, Alice; Kagotho, Elizabeth; Amayo, Angela; Ojwang, Peter; Erasmus, Rajiv

    2017-12-20

    Several equations have been developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The common equations used were derived from populations predominantly comprised of Caucasians with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Some of the equations provide a correction factor for African-Americans due to their relatively increased muscle mass and this has been extrapolated to black Africans. Studies carried out in Africa in patients with CKD suggest that using this correction factor for the black African race may not be appropriate. However, these studies were not carried out in healthy individuals and as such the extrapolation of the findings to an asymptomatic black African population is questionable. We sought to compare the proportion of asymptomatic black Africans reported as having reduced eGFR using various eGFR equations. We further compared the association between known risk factors for CKD with eGFR determined using the different equations. We used participant and laboratory data collected as part of a global reference interval study conducted by the Committee of Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) under the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Serum creatinine values were used to calculate eGFR using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), re-expressed 4 variable modified diet in renal disease (4v-MDRD), full age spectrum (FAS) and chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equations (CKD-EPI). CKD classification based on eGFR was determined for every participant. A total of 533 participants were included comprising 273 (51.2%) females. The 4v-MDRD equation without correction for race classified the least number of participants (61.7%) as having an eGFR equivalent to CKD stage G1 compared to 93.6% for CKD-EPI with correction for race. Only age had a statistically significant linear association with eGFR across all equations after performing multiple regression analysis. The multiple correlation coefficients for CKD risk factors were higher for

  10. Estimating the extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis of persons with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus among Japanese urban workers and their families: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekata, Tsukasa; Shirai, Kohji; Tanabe, Naohito; Miyanishi, Kunio; Nakata, Mitsuko; Suzuki, Kenji; Arai, Chikao; Ishizuka, Norio

    2016-02-24

    Diabetes mellitus (hereafter called diabetes) is considered to accelerate arteriosclerosis leading to coronary heart disease and stroke. Thus, it is important to quantitatively estimate the extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis. A new method called cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is developed to reflect arterial stiffness independently from blood pressure at the time of measurement. Then, we examined if CAVI scores could discriminate the extent of arteriosclerosis between persons with prediabetes (or borderline diabetes) and with diabetes among Japanese urban workers and their families. Subjects were 9881 men and 12033 women of company employees and their families who participated in cardiovascular disease screening in Japan. Persons having diabetes and prediabetes were defined based on the criteria set by American Diabetes Association. CAVI scores were measured by VaSera VS-1000. We applied the established age-sex specific cutoff points of CAVI scores above which were determined to be abnormally high or advanced level of arteriosclerosis. To examine the association of prediabetes and diabetes with CAVI scores, CAVI scores of screening participants were converted to a binary variable: 1 for less than cutoff points and 2 for equal or greater than cutoff points or abnormally high CAVI scores. Logistic regression method was used to examine the association of prediabetes and diabetes with CAVI scores after adjusting for major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Prevalence of abnormally high CAVI scores was significantly higher after 40 years of age among persons with diabetes than either among persons with prediabetes or among normal persons in both genders. Significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of abnormally high CAVI scores appeared among persons with prediabetes: 1.29 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.48) for men and 1.14 (CI, 1.01-1.28) for women, and among persons with diabetes: 2.41 (CI, 1.97-2.95) for men and 2.52 (CI, 1.94-3.28) for women

  11. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  12. Dictionnaire des risques psychosociaux

    CERN Document Server

    Zawieja, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Stress, suicide, harcèlement, épuisement professionnel, workaholism... Au-delà de la souffrance qu'elles désignent, ces notions souvent récentes constituent une approche inédite, et demandent à mieux être comprises, dans leur ensemble et isolément. C'est tout l'enjeu de ce dictionnaire, pionnier en son genre. Le lecteur y trouvera représentés, avec les 314 entrées (rédigées par 251 contributeurs) qui le composent, tous les champs disciplinaires s'intéressant à la souffrance au travail : psychologie du travail et des organisations, psychologie sociale et psychosociologie, psychanalyse, psychopathologie et psychiatrie, ergonomie, sociologie du travail et des organisations, médecine du travail, droit du travail et de la sécurité sociale, sciences de gestion, philosophie... Y sont détaillés les principaux concepts, notions, approches, méthodes, théories, outils, études, etc., ayant cours dans l'étude des risques psychosociaux, mais aussi certaines professions emblématiques (infirmières,...

  13. Contribution à l’identification des déterminants fondamentaux en évaluation des banques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Habba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier étudie l’influence des facteurs fondamentaux sur l’évaluation des banques. Dans un premier temps, nous avons sélectionné, sur la base d’une revue de la littérature, les caractéristiques fondamentales susceptibles d’influencer l’évaluation des banques. Ensuite, nous avons estimé un modèle économétrique mettant en relation la valeur des banques et six variables explicatives à l’aide de l’économétrie des données de panel. L’échantillon est constitué d’un panel de 82 banques cotées entre 2005 et 2013. Les résultats obtenus montrent qu’il existe une influence très significative de la qualité du portefeuille bancaire de crédits, du niveau de capitalisation, du niveau de diversification du portefeuille d’activités, de l’efficience et de la taille de la banque sur l’évaluation des firmes bancaires.

  14. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  15. Effet des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols, zaï ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols, zaï forestier et cordons pierreux, sur la réhabilitation de la végétation herbacée à l'Ouest du Burkina Faso. ... et Loudetia arundinacea Hochst. ex Steud. dans les espaces aménagés. Ceci témoigne d'une restauration progressive de ces parcelles aménagées.

  16. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : La présente étude vise à évaluer les pratiques phytosanitaires des maraîchers et à fournir une meilleure connaissance des risques liés aux pratiques de ... Conclusion et application : La gestion et l'utilisation très peu rigoureuses des pesticides constatés dans ces sites pourraient constituer une menace pour le ...

  17. Quantification des besoins en intrants antipaludiques: contribution à l'actualisation des hypothèses pour la quantification des intrants de prise en charge des cas de paludisme grave en République Démocratique du Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likwela, Joris Losimba; Otokoye, John Otshudiema

    2015-01-01

    Les formes graves de paludisme à Plasmodium falciparum sont une cause majeure de décès des enfants de moins de 5 ans en Afrique Sub-saharienne. Un traitement rapide dépend de la disponibilité de médicaments appropriés au niveau des points de prestation de service. La fréquence des ruptures de stock des commodités antipaludiques, en particuliers celles utilisées pour le paludisme grave, avait nécessité une mise à jour des hypothèses de quantification. Les données issues de la collecte de routine du PNLP de 2007 à 2012 ont été comparées à celles rapportés par d'autres pays africains et utilisées pour orienter les discussions au cours d'un atelier organisé par le PNLP et ses partenaires techniques et financiers afin de dégager un consensus national. La proportion des cas de paludisme rapportés comme grave en RDC est resté autour d'une médiane de 7% avec un domaine de variation de 6 à 9%. Hormis la proportion rapportée au Kenya (2%), les pays africains ont rapporté une proportion de cas grave variant entre 5 et 7%. Il apparaît que la proportion de 1% précédemment utilisée pour la quantification en RDC a été sous-estimée dans le contexte de la gestion des cas graves sur terrain. Un consensus s'est dégagé autour de la proportion de 5% étant entendu que des efforts de renforcement des capacités seraient déployés afin d'améliorer le diagnostic au niveau des points de prestation des services. PMID:26213595

  18. Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Pour 60 % des 100 000 membres de la National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), le tabac est la seule et unique source de revenus. Les cultivateurs de tabac, au Malawi ...

  19. Meconnaissance des traumatismes des voies urinaires dans un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meconnaissance des traumatismes des voies urinaires dans un contexte de poly traumatisme: a propos de deux observations. ... They insist on good clinical assessment of abdominal trauma doubled the achievement of imaging tests to not overlook lesions of the urinary tract that can put patient's life threatening. Keywords: ...

  20. Roles et taches des accompagnateurs des patients hospitalises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le soutien logistique represente par le soutien materiel, l'approvisionnement en medicaments, le nettoyage des locaux, le brancardage, occupaient des taux respectifs de 100 %, 91 %, 42% et 73 %. La sollicitation fmanciere et le soutien psychologique de 1' accompagnateur ont ete soulignes respectivement dans 68 % et ...

  1. La microscopie ionique analytique des tissus biologiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, P.

    Proposed in 1960 by R. Castaing and G. Slodzian, secondary ion emission microanalysis is a microanalytical method which is now largely used for the study of inert material. The instrument called the analytical ion microscope can also be used for the study of biological spécimens ; images representing the distribution of a given stable or radioactive isotope in a tissue section are obtained with a resolution of 0.5 μm. Among the characteristics of this method, two are of particular interest in biological research : its capacity for isotopic analysis and its very high sensitivity which makes possible for the first time a chemical analysis of element at a very low or even at a trace concentration in a microvolume. Proposé en 1960 par R. Castaing et G. Slodzian, la microanalyse par émission ionique secondaire est une méthode qui permet, entre autre, d'obtenir des images représentant la distribution des isotopes présents à la surface d'un échantillon solide avec une résolution de 0,5 μm. D'intérêt très général, cette méthode a été d'abord largement utilisée pour l'étude des matériaux inertes. Elle offre en outre des possibilités entièrement nouvelles dans le domaine de la recherche biomédicale. L'instrument réalisé, le microscope ionique analytique présente deux caractéristiques particulièrement intéressantes pour la biologie : la possibilité d'analyse isotopique, et l'extrême sensibilité permettant de détecter et de localiser dans une coupe histologique des éléments à des concentrations très faibles voire à l'état de trace.

  2. Constraints on the standard model by measuring cross sections and asymmetries for Z {yields} ff-bar with Aleph detector at LEP; Contraintes du modele standard par les mesures de sections efficaces et des asymetries Z {yields} ff-bar avec le detecteur Aleph au LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, A. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules Elementaires; Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1996-05-14

    This work is devoted to the precision tests of the electro-week sector of the standard model via the determination of the Z-lineshape parameters M{sub Z}, {gamma}{sub Z}, {sigma}{sub had}{sup 0} and R{sub had} extracted from the fermionic cross-sections measured on 89 to 94 data in Aleph. The first section reminds the formalism and the observables used to describe the Z-resonance physics. In a second step, the LEP collider is presented with the procedures used to determine the beam energy, this parameter being the main source of uncertainty in M{sub Z} and {gamma}{sub Z} determination. In the following part, the Aleph experimental context is described, together with the measurement of the luminosity from Bhabha counting. Then the hadronic cross section measurements are presented, emphasizing on the improvement performed on the systematic bias evaluation to the hadrons selection. This leads to a precision at the per mille level in cross-sections. Leptonic cross-sections measured in Aleph are also reported. The Z-resonance parameters are then derived. A great agreement is observed with the prediction of the standard model of the EW interactions. The interpretation of such measurements within this model leads to the determination of the number of light neutrinos species and to the constraints on the top quark mass, compatible with direct measurements from Fermilab. (author)

  3. Etude des niches alimentaires des lombriciens dans un contexte urbain.

    OpenAIRE

    Diemby, Marie Virginie

    2005-01-01

    Dans ce travail, les préférences alimentaires pour les espèces végétales consommées par les lombriciens peuplant certains îlots des pelouses de l’avenue Roosevelt ont été étudiées. L’analyse des contenus digestifs et des fèces des vers a montré que les plantes identifiées dans les pelouses ne sont pas toutes consommées. Mesurée par l’indice d’Ivlev, la sélectivité des items végétaux est variable en fonction de l’espèce de ver, de la classe d’âge et de la saison. Lorsque les dicotylédones s...

  4. 212 Analyse de la dynamique des pâturages autour des ouvrages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ali B. Béchir

    ils ont permis de lever les contraintes qui empêchent leur exploitation en saison sèche. Toutefois, leur ... permettre l'exploitation des pâturages pendant la saison sèche, plusieurs puits pastoraux y ont été installés depuis des ... des plaines, des chaines de montagnes, des ravins, des dunes et des bas-fonds. Les sols sont ...

  5. Measurement of the efficient cross section of the reaction {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B at low energies and implications in the problem of solar neutrinos; Mesures de la section efficace de la reaction {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B a basses energies et implications dans le probleme des neutrinos solaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammache, Fairouz

    1999-07-01

    The {sup 8}B produced inside the sun through the reaction {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B is the main, and even unique, source of high energy neutrinos detected in most solar neutrino detection experiments, except with Gallex and Sage. These experiments have all measured a neutrinos flux lower than the one predicted by solar models. Several explanations have been proposed to explain this deficit, but all require a precise knowledge of the efficient cross-section of the reaction {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B, because the neutrinos flux of {sup 8}B is directly proportional to this reaction. The direct measurement of this cross section for the solar energy is impossible because of its low value (about 1 femto-barn). In order to get round this problem, the cross sections are measured at higher energy and extrapolated to the solar energy using a theoretical energy dependence. The 6 previous experimental determinations of the efficient cross section were shared in two distinct groups with differences of about 30% which leads to an uncertainty of the same order on the high energy neutrinos flux. The re-measurement of the cross section of this reaction with a better precision is thus of prime importance. A direct measurement of the cross section in the energy range comprised between 0.35 and 1.4 MeV (cm) has been performed first. These experiments have permitted the precise measurement of each parameter involved in the determination of the cross section. Then, measurements of the cross section have been carried out with the PAPAP accelerator at 185.8, 134.7 and 111.7 keV, the lowest mass center energy never reached before. The results are in excellent agreement with those obtained at higher energies. The value obtained by extrapolation of these data for the astrophysical factor S{sub 17}(0) is 19.21.3 EV-B, which leads to a significant reduction of the uncertainty on the high energy neutrinos flux of {sup 8}B. (J.S.)

  6. Precision measurement of the cross section of charged-current and neutral current processes at large Q{sup 2} at HERA with the polarized-electron beam; Mesures de precision de la section efficace des processus courant charge et courant neutre a grand Q{sup 2} a HERA avec le faisceau d'electrons polarises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Trong Hieu

    2011-04-15

    The inclusive cross sections for both charged and neutral current processes have been measured in interactions of longitudinally polarized electrons (positrons) with unpolarized protons using the full data samples collected by H1 at HERA-II. The data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 319 GeV correspond to an integrated luminosity of 149.1 pb{sup -1} and 180.0 pb{sup -1} for e{sup -}p and e{sup +}p collisions, representing an increase in statistics of a factor of 10 and 2, respectively, over the data from HERA-I. The measured double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2} cover more than two orders of magnitude in both Q{sup 2}, the negative four-momentum transfer squared, up to 30000 GeV{sup 2}, and Bjorken x, down to 0.003. The cross section data are compared to predictions of the Standard Model which is able to provide a good description of the data. The polarization asymmetry as a function of Q{sup 2} is measured with improved precision, confirming the previous observation of P violation effect in neutral current ep scattering at distances down to 10{sup -18} m. The total cross sections of the charged current process, for Q{sup 2} > 400 GeV{sup 2} and inelasticity y < 0.9 are measured for 4 independent data samples with e{sup {+-}} beams and different polarization values. Together with the corresponding cross section obtained from the previously published unpolarized data, the polarization dependence of the charged current cross section is measured and found to be in agreement with the Standard Model prediction with the absence of right-handed charged current. The cross sections are combined with previously published data from H1 to obtain the most precise unpolarized measurements. These are used to extract the structure function xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}}{sup Z} which is sensitive to the valence quark distributions down to low x values. The new cross sections have also been used in a combined electroweak and QCD fit to significantly improve the

  7. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diversification pratiquées sont les prestations de service, la foresterie et pisciculture, la migration, l'artisanat et autres (Tableau 7). Les activités de diversification ont rapporté assez de revenus aux exploitations agricoles familiales dans les villages étudiés. Il est estimé à plus de. 400 000 Fcfa dans les villages de Kokélé, ...

  8. Etude de la dynamique des porteurs dans des nanofils de silicium par spectroscopie terahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Alexandre

    Ce memoire presente une etude des proprietes de conduction electrique et de la dynamique temporelle des porteurs de charges dans des nanofils de silicium sondes par rayonnement terahertz. Les cas de nanofils de silicium non intentionnellement dopes et dopes type n sont compares pour differentes configurations du montage experimental. Les mesures de spectroscopie terahertz en transmission montre qu'il est possible de detecter la presence de dopants dans les nanofils via leur absorption du rayonnement terahertz (˜ 1--12 meV). Les difficultes de modelisation de la transmission d'une impulsion electromagnetique dans un systeme de nanofils sont egalement discutees. La detection differentielle, une modification au systeme de spectroscopie terahertz, est testee et ses performances sont comparees au montage de caracterisation standard. Les instructions et des recommendations pour la mise en place de ce type de mesure sont incluses. Les resultats d'une experience de pompe optique-sonde terahertz sont egalement presentes. Dans cette experience, les porteurs de charge temporairement crees suite a l'absorption de la pompe optique (lambda ˜ 800 nm) dans les nanofils (les photoporteurs) s'ajoutent aux porteurs initialement presents et augmentent done l'absorption du rayonnement terahertz. Premierement, l'anisotropie de l'absorption terahertz et de la pompe optique par les nanofils est demontree. Deuxiemement, le temps de recombinaison des photoporteurs est etudie en fonction du nombre de photoporteurs injectes. Une hypothese expliquant les comportements observes pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n est presentee. Troisiemement, la photoconductivite est extraite pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n sur une plage de 0.5 a 2 THz. Un lissage sur la photoconductivite permet d'estimer le nombre de dopants dans les nanofils dopes-n. Mots-cles: nanofil, silicium, terahertz, conductivite, spectroscopie, photoconductivite.

  9. Caracteristiques microbiologiques des peritonites aigues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans notre serie, une sensibilire plus elevee des germes ala gentamicine, ala ceftriaxone eta la Ciprofloxacine a ere notee. Ces resultats suggerent une antibiotherapie probabiliste des peritonites dans notre contexte associant les cephalosporines de troisieme generation (C3G) aux aminosides plus un imidazole pour ...

  10. Philosophie des Protestantismus: Immanuel Kant

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Friedrich W. (Prof.)

    1990-01-01

    Philosophie des Protestantismus: Immanuel Kant : 1724-1804 / Friedrich Wilhelm Graf u. Klaus Tanner. - In: Profile des neuzeitlichen Protestantismus / hrsg. von Friedrich Wilhelm Graf. - Gütersloh : Mohn. - Bd. 1. Aufklärung, Idealismus, Vormärz. - 1990. - S. 86-112. - (Gütersloher Taschenbücher Siebenstern ; 1430)

  11. PROFILS IMMUNOLOGIQUES DES PATHOLOGIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'échantillonnage a été réalisé en fonction du système d'élevage (battérie ou sol) et des classes d'âge. Au sujet de la prévalence ... Despite the fact that some breeding haven't been infected and of which the set title is zero, some birds on the contrary revealed 21720 for AE, 25342 for REO and 19990 for AIV.The result of ...

  12. Die Versprachlichung des Sakralen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2011-01-01

    in religion and which is of fundamental significance for the integration of pre-modern societies is taken over by modern societies in forms of deliberation. Habermas develops his thesis in a discussion of Durkheim’s religious-sociological considerations. Habermas presents his thesis about the linguistic......Habermas claims in connection with his development of the theory of communicative action that the sacred is transformed in a positive way and can take the form of free deliberation in society, the so-called Versprachlichung des Sakralen. The thesis is that the authority which could be found...

  13. Des hommes incomplets à Java

    OpenAIRE

    Headley, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    Les mythes des personnes incomplètes à Java décrivent leur naissance, la nourriture spéciale qui leur est donnée et la façon dont ils se sont rassemblés. Présentés dans une première partie, ces mythes concernent : un roi et son royaume (Jarasanda) ; un demi-dieu mangeur d’hommes (Kala) ; la déesse du riz (Sri) ; des femmes fécondées par des météores ; des fils qui cherchent leur père Allah. Dans la seconde partie, les mythes des moitiés d’hommes sont abordés dans leurs variations balinaise, m...

  14. Les facteurs d'efficacite des ecoles secondaires au Cameroun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats démontrent que le niveau moyen d'efficacité des écoles secondaires est estimé à 0,60 et les écoles secondaires du milieu rural sont les plus efficientes. En ce qui ... Ils confirment l'importance de la discipline au sein des écoles et témoignent la valeur de la coopération entre les écoles et les parents d'élèves.

  15. Utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excréta et des eaux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les responsables de ce projet piloteront l'application et l'adaptation des principes directeurs relatifs à l'utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excreta et des eaux grises en agriculture et en aquaculture (Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture), que ...

  16. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; et al.

    2015-08-04

    Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses $\\lesssim 20\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ annihilating via the $b\\bar{b}$ or τ(+)τ(-) channels.

  17. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    redshift mais qu'elle décrivait assez bien l'évolution des quasars jusqu'à z ~2 . Pour ces deux raisons, une méthode de sélection de candidats quasars efficace à tout redshift a été mise au point et des modèles théoriques de formation et évolution des quasars ont été développés. Cette technique de sélection de candidats quasars, développée pour les besoins du projet spectroscopique VIRMOS , est basée sur la méthode des redshifts photométriques, qui consiste à comparer la distribution d'énergie spectrale observée (photométrie dans plusieurs filtres) avec celle calculée pour des spectres-modèles. Dans le cas de la sélection de candidats quasars, la photométrie des objets (en principe ponctuels mais ceci n'est pas nécessaire) est comparée à des spectres simulés de quasars et à une série de spectres réels d'étoiles. Le meilleur ajustement (Chi2 minimum) permet alors de caractériser un objet comme candidat étoile ou candidat quasar. Cette méthode peut, en principe, fournir des catalogues qui ne sont pas biaisés en redshift et qui ont une grande complétude. En même temps, une estimation du redshift (photométrique) des candidats quasars est donnée, en dirigeant ainsi la spectroscopie vers l'optique ou l'infrarouge. Dans la partie théorique, des modèles de formation et d'évolution de quasars ont été développés ou sont en cours de développement. Depuis peu de temps des indices de l'existence de trous noirs plus ou moins massifs au centre de beaucoup de galaxies, même normales, se sont accumulés. D'une part, un modèle analytique est en cours de développement en collaboration avec l'Université de Barcelona. Ce modèle a initialement été développé pour étudier la formation et évolution des galaxies. Au cours de cette thèse, nous avons contacté l'équipe de E. Salvador-Solé et je leur ai proposé d'incorporer des Trous Noirs Massifs dans les galaxies et d'étudier, ainsi, la naissance et l'évolution des quasars. Un mod

  18. Les déterminants des NPLs des ménages en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Abid

    2015-09-01

    La validation empirique de cet article est faite à partir d’un échantillon composé de seize banques tunisiennes observées sur la période allant du premier trimestre 2003 jusqu’au quatrième trimestre 2012. L’estimation d’un modèle de panel dynamique par la méthode GMM nous a permis de constater que les facteurs macroéconomiques, tels que la croissance économique, le niveau d’inflation et les facteurs microéconomiques, telle que la qualité de gestion, jouent un rôle significatif dans l’augmentation des créances douteuses des ménages en Tunisie.

  19. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2017 ... l'État serait l'initiation de programmes de sensibilisation des producteurs par rapport à une gestion plus rigoureuse des pesticides. Mots-clés : pratiques paysannes, cultures maraîchères, pesticides, risques, Burkina Faso. Evaluation of farming practices of leafy vegetables: the case of uses of pesticides and ...

  20. Chirurgie des grassmanniennes

    CERN Document Server

    Lafforgue, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Les compactifications diverses de variétés de modules sont un thème important et récurrent des mathématiques modernes, et elles connaissent un grand nombre d'applications. Ce livre traite le cas de cellules de Schubert minces, qui sont de sous-variétés naturelles de grassmanniennes. L'auteur a été amené à traiter ces questions par un cas particulier lié à ses travaux sur le programme de Langlands. Dans cette monographie, il en développe une théorie plus systématique, présentant le fortes similarités avec celle des modules du courbes stables. The various compactifications of moduli spaces are an important recurrent theme of modern mathematics, and they have a large number of applications. This book treats the case of thin Schubert varieties, which are natural subvarieties of Grassmannians. The author was led to these questions by a particular case linked to his work on the Langlands program. In this monograph, he develops the theory in a more systematic way, which exhibits strong similarities...

  1. Measurement of double differential cross sections for light charged particles production in neutron induced reaction at 62.7 MeV on lead target; Mesures des sections efficaces doublement differentielles de production de particules chargees legeres lors de reactions induites par neutrons de 62.7 MeV sur cible de plomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerveno, M

    2000-09-27

    In order to develop new options for nuclear waste management, studies are carrying out on the perfecting of hybrid systems (sub-critical reactor driven by accelerator). This thesis work takes place more precisely in the framework of nuclear data linked to hybrid systems development. Increasing the upper limit energy value (from 20 to 150 MeV) of data bases supposes that theoretical codes could have sufficient predictive power in this energy range. Thus it's necessary to measure new cross sections to constrain these codes. The experiment, performed at Louvain-la-Neuve Cyclotron, aims to determine the double differential cross sections for light charged particles production in neutron induced reactions at 62.7 MeV on natural lead target. The detection device consists of 6 NE102-CsI telescopes. Time of flight measurements are used to reconstruct the neutron energy spectra. The general framework (hybrid systems and associated nuclear data problematic) in which this work takes place is presented in a first part. The experimental set up used for our measurements is described in a second part. The three following parts are dedicated to the data analysis and double differential cross sections extraction. The particle discrimination, the energy calibration of detectors as the different corrections applied to the experimental spectra are related in details. And finally a comparative study between our experimental results and some theoretical predictions is presented. (author)

  2. Mécanique des sols et des roches

    CERN Document Server

    Vullier, Laurent; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    La mécanique des sols et la mécanique des roches sont des disciplines généralement traitées séparément dans la littérature. Pour la première fois, un traité réunit ces deux spécialités, en intégrant également les connaissances en lien avec les écoulements souterrains et les transferts thermiques. A la fois théorique et pratique, cet ouvrage propose tout d'abord une description détaillée de la nature et de la composition des sols et des roches, puis s'attache à la modélisation de problèmes aux conditions limites et présente les essais permettant de caractériser les sols et les roches, tant d'un point de vue mécanique qu'hydraulique et thermique. La problématique des sols non saturés et des écoulements multiphasiques est également abordée. Une attention particulière est portée aux lois de comportement mécanique et à la détermination de leurs paramètres par des essais in situ et en laboratoire, et l'ouvrage offre également une présentation détaillée des systèmes de classi...

  3. Agent des projets et des partenariats (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gestion de projets. L'agent(e) : fournit un encadrement technique, notamment en analysant les rapports d'étape, en participant à des ateliers, en effectuant des recherches documentaires, en trouvant et dirigeant des personnes-ressources et des consultants afin d'appuyer des projets;. passe en revue les rapports finaux ...

  4. Contamination des eaux souterraines par le lixiviat des décharges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La percolation du lixiviat en provenance des dechets des decharges constitue une source de pollution des ressources en eau souterraine par infiltration, constituant ... un modele type de deterioration des ressources en eaux par un effet de contamination du lixiviat en provenance de la decharge et des pratiques agricoles.

  5. Effets comparés des pratiques paysannes et des bonnes pratiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets comparés des pratiques paysannes et des bonnes pratiques agricoles de gestion de la fertilité des sols sur les propriétés des sols et les rendements des cultures dans la zone sud soudanienne du Burkina Faso.

  6. Nouvelle approche à la prise en charge des condylomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire le résumé des anciens et des nouveaux moyens de traitement des verrues génitales ou condylomes et déterminer comment les utiliser de manière appropriée. Sources des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans les bases de données suivantes: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, base de données des synthèses systématiques et registre central des études contrôlées de la Collaboration Cochrane (en anglais), ACP Journal Club et Trip. Les bibliographies des articles extraits ont aussi été examinées. Les études cliniques, les articles de révision qualitative, les rapports consensuels et les guides de pratique clinique ont été retenus. Message principal Les verrues symptomatiques sont présentes chez au moins 1 % des personnes âgées entre 15 et 49 ans et on estime que jusqu’à 50 % des gens sont infectés par le virus du papillome humain à un moment donné de leur vie. L’imiquimod et la podophyllotoxine sont 2 nouveaux traitements pour les verrues génitales externes qui sont moins douloureux et peuvent être appliqués par les patients à la maison. De plus, il a été démontré que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le virus du papillome humain est efficace pour prévenir les condylomes et le cancer du col. Les plus anciennes méthodes thérapeutiques ont aussi leur place dans certaines situations, comme les verrues intravaginales, urétrales, anales ou récalcitrantes ou encore pour les patientes enceintes. Conclusion Les nouveaux traitements des verrues génitales externes peuvent réduire la douleur causée par la thérapie et le nombre de visites au cabinet. Les autres méthodes thérapeutiques demeurent utiles dans certaines situations.

  7. Une raison suffisante pour redéfinir l’intensité sismique: éviter des erreurs dans l’estimation de l’aléa sismique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the paper is represented by an attempt to contribute to an adaptation of the concept of seismic intensity to the needs of engineering activities. A first condition in this connection is to pay the attention due to the spectral contents of ground motion. A case where rough approaches have led to erroneous estimates of ground motion severity, resulting in erroneous hazard estimates is presented. The main conclusion derived is represented by the strong need to specify the spectral interval for which macroseismic data are relevant and, as a consequence, to consider (and even to define seismic intensity derived from post-earthquake surveys as related to a certain spectral interval. A methodology proposed in order to define and determine seismic intensity on the basis of instrumental data and, moreover, to define and determine seismic intensity spectra is then presented. Some illustrative examples are given.

  8. Caracterisation du coefficient de retrodiffusion radar des surfaces d'hydrocarbure: Modelisation et interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Francois

    La surveillance maritime est un domaine d'applications ou l'interet politique et scientifique croit constamment au Canada. Un des outils privilegies pour la surveillance maritime est l'acquisition de donnees radars, par des systemes aeroportes ou spatio-portes (ERS-2, RADARSAT et Envisat). Par leur grande couverture spatiale, ainsi que leur sensibilite a la geometrie de surface, les donnees radars permettent, en autres, la detection de cibles ponctuelles (bateaux), estimation des vents, detection des glaces de mer, ainsi que la detection de deversement d'hydrocarbure. Les limites et les avantages de la detection d'hydrocarbure par acquisitions de donnees radars sont bien connus, mais il reste encore des lacunes au niveau de l'extraction des parametres physiques d'une surface d'hydrocarbure. Ce projet a pour objectif de caracteriser le coefficient de retrodiffusion radar associe a une surface d'hydrocarbure en milieu oceanique, par l'introduction d'un modele thermodynamique d'attenuation de la surface, au modele theorique radar IEM. Le modele global permet de simuler le comportement de sigma° en fonction des proprietes visco-elastiques, ainsi que de l'epaisseur de la couche d'hydrocarbure et en fonction des parametres d'acquisition radar. Le modele developpe fut valide a partir des donnees SIR-C acquises lors d'experimentations controlees. A partir des informations environnementales et du type d'hydrocarbure, notre modele a permis d'estime le contraste d'intensite avec une precision de 1 a 1,5 dB, a la bande C. Alors qu'a la bande L, l'erreur sur le contraste est d'environ 1,5 a 2 dB sur l'ensemble des mesures. Ce qui est excellant considerant l'heterogeneite des surfaces analysees. Egalement, nous effectuons des analyses multi-polarisees et polarimetriques avec les donnees SIR-C acquises au-dessus de sites experimentaux. II en ressort que le ratio de polarisation VV/HH, ainsi que le facteur d'anisotropie sont des pistes de recherche prometteuses qu'il faudra

  9. Illicit operation of industrial plant subject to licensing, or of other installations within the purview of the German Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG), which have been shut down for protection against hazards (section 327, subsection 2, No. 1 Penal Code (StGB)); Das unerlaubte Betreiben von genehmigungsbeduerftigen Anlagen oder sonstigen Anlagen im Sinne des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes, deren Betrieb zum Schutz vor Gefahren untersagt worden ist (Paragraph 327 Abs.2 Nr.1 StGB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocker, A.

    1995-12-31

    The 18th act of 28 March 1980 for amendment of the German Criminal Code (StGB) incorporated the provisions governing the criminal offence of illicit operation of installations subject to licensing into the StGB. These provisions have until then been forming part of the BImSchG (Federal Act on Emission Control). The study in hand presents a discussion of section 327, subsection 2, No. 1 StGB, because this provision represents a fundamental type of an administration accessory criminal offence and thus is suitable to be taken as a basis for an analysis of the scope of problems covered by the StGB, but having an effect on and being interlaced with offences governed by other acts and legal provisions. The study addresses inter alia items such as the object of legal protection defined by this section of the StGB, the provisions defining the licensability of a non-licensed installation in operation, and the consequences of defective decisions under administrative law on the applicability of criminal law provisions. The specific aspects of section 327 StGB, which are of a dominantly administrative nature, are discussed, in particular those referring to the definition of the term ``industrial installation`` as defined by the BImSchG. [Deutsch] Durch das 18. Strafrechtsaenderungsgesetz vom 28.3.1980 wurde der Straftatbestand des unerlaubten Betreibens von Anlagen, die einer Genehmigung nach dem Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetz beduerfen, aus dem BImSchG in das Kernstrafrecht ueberfuehrt. Die vorliegende Untersuchung versucht eine eingehendere Auseinandersetzung mit Para. 327 Abs. 2 Nr. 1 StGB, weil diese Vorschrift als ein Grundtypus der verwaltungsakzessorischen Straftatbestaende die Gelegenheiit zur vertieften Diskussion von umfassenderen strafrechtlichen Problemkreisen gibt. Angesprochen sind insoweit vor allem die Frage des geschuetzten Rechtsgutes der Norm, der Behandlung der materiellen Genehmigungsfaehigkeit eines ungenehmigten Anlagenbetriebs sowie der Auswirkungen von

  10. Modèles de déformation de processus stochastiques généralisés.Application à l'estimation des non-stationnarités dans les signaux audio.

    OpenAIRE

    Omer, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Generalized stochastic processes, nonstationarity model , time-warping, frequency modulation, audio signal processing, tempered distribution, Time-frequency, Time-scale; This manuscript deals with the modeling and estimation of certain non-stationarities in audio signals. We are particularly interested in a sound class models which we call dynamic*timbre in which a stationary signal, associated with the physical phenomenon causing the sound, is deformed over time by a linear unitary operator,...

  11. Gestion des ressources naturelles : des solutions avantageuses à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des variétés résistantes de bambou et de rotin au coeur d'un renouveau environnemental. En Asie, en Afrique et en Amérique latine, des initiatives de premier plan axées sur le bambou et le rotin permettent de contrer le réchauffement de la planète, d'enrayer l'érosion des sols, de protéger les forêts et d'améliorer l'accès ...

  12. Gestion des dechets biomedicaux a cotonou : Etat des lieux et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente recherche est une contribution à la bonne gestion des déchets biomédicaux dans la ville de Cotonou. La démarche méthodologique utilisée comprend l'observation directe sur le terrain, la collecte des données, leur traitement et l'analyse des résultats. L'enquête socio-anthropologique a été menée en utilisant ...

  13. LA PARTICIPATION DES POPULATIONS ANALPHABETES A L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La planification a été, pendant longtemps, l'oeuvre des structures d'intervention et dans une moindre mesure des populations rurales lettrées. C'est dans le souci de combler cette insuffisance que nous avons choisi, dans le cadre des planifications sectorielles, de travailler dans un secteur dominé par des analphabètes.

  14. Mycotrophie Et Connaissances Paysannes Des Essences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une comparaison des modes de gestion des terres au Sud Cameroun montre que les agroforêts-cacao sont moins dommageables à l'environnement que les autres formes de gestion des sols. A cet effet, une étude en vue de valider les perceptions paysannes des essences ligneuses fertilitaires associées dans les ...

  15. 1 | Page INITIATIVE DES CONSEILS SUBVENTIONNAIRES DE LA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    khaled fourati

    Le présent prospectus est destiné à des organisations comme des instituts de recherche, des centres universitaires, des think tanks, des organisations non gouvernementales (ONG), des académies scientifiques et des parties prenantes qui exprimeront leur intérêt à collaborer à une nouvelle initiative visant à renforcer les.

  16. QCD and electroweak analysis and first measurement of neutral and charged current cross section with the polarised positron beam at HERA 2; Premiere mesure des sections efficaces de courant charge et neutre avec le faisceau de positrons polarise a HERA 2 et analyses QCD-electrofaibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portheault, B

    2005-03-15

    In 2003-2004 the HERA collider delivered e{sup +}p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam. We prescribe the measurement of inclusive Neutral and Charged Current DIS (deep inelastic scattering) cross section using the H1 detector. The total Charged Current cross section for Q{sup 2} > 400 GeV{sup 2}, y < 0,9 is measured with a Right-handed (P = 0,33) sample of 15,3 pb{sup -1} and a Left-handed (P = -0,40) sample of 21,7 pb{sup -1} yielding {sigma}cc (P = +0,33) = 34,67 pb {+-} 1,94 pb (stat) {+-} 1,66 pb (sys) C.20) {sigma}cc(P = -0,40) = 13,80 pb {+-} 1,04 pb (stat) {+-} 0,94 pb (sys). C.21) This result is consistent with the proportionality of the cross section with respect to the polarisation, in good agreement with the Standard Model expectations. The second part of this work is devoted to QCD analysis of the proton structure. The H1 data alone are used to extract flavor separated parton densities. This analysis is further used as a basis to extract various electroweak parameters, such as the W boson mass and the quarks couplings to the Z. Then a global QCD analysis of DIS and Drell Yan data is realized, focusing on the strange sea asymmetry which is found to be small: {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1} x(s - s-bar)dx = (1,8 {+-} 3,8) x 10{sup -4}. The impact of new E866 data on high x partons densities is discussed and the extraction of the strong coupling is realized {alpha}s = 0,1197 {+-} (+0,0005 - 0,0007)(mod) {+-}0,006 (th). (author)

  17. Application of a gamma spectroscopy system to the measurement of neutron cross sections necessary to the development of nuclear energy; Mise au point d'un systeme de spectroscopie pour mesurer des sections efficaces neutroniques applicables a un possible developpement du nucleaire comme source d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deruelle, O

    2002-09-01

    This work concerns the development of nuclear energy and nuclear waste management in particular. Two parts of this study can be distinguished. In the first part (theoretical), a thorium-plutonium fuel based on MOX and dedicated for PWR was investigated in order to transmute plutonium in a potentially low waste fuel cycle. It was shown that this type of fuel is not regenerative but could be used for a transition to the industrial thorium fuel cycle without building new reactors. Thanks to moderated neutron spectra and high loaded actinide mass in the core, U-233 is quickly created ({approx}300 kg/y) for a loss of about {approx}1200 kg of fissile plutonium. In the second part (experimental), we have developed and built a new reaction chamber to measure neutron cross sections of actinides by alpha-gamma spectroscopy. This experimental device (in principle transportable) was commissioned in the high flux reactor of ILL Grenoble. Neutron flux was measured by gamma spectroscopy of irradiated Al and Co samples and was found to be of the order of 6,0. 10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} (4%). By the irradiation of 11{mu}g of Am-243 and Pu-242, corresponding capture cross sections were measured in the thermal neutron flux at 50 deg C. These are the results: {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}) {sup 244fond.}Am = 4,72{+-}1,42b; {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}) {sup 244total}Am = 74,8{+-}3,25b; {sup 242}Pu (n,{gamma}){sup 243}Pu = 22,7{+-}1,09b. Uncertainties of the measurements are mostly due to the determination of the neutron flux, efficiency of the electronics and ambiguities related to the definition of the area under {alpha}-{gamma} spectra. Although our measured cross sections deviate (by 10-30%) from the corresponding values widely used in evaluated data libraries such as ENDF, JEF and JENDL, in this work we have demonstrated the feasibility and principle of our experimental method. Furthermore, the value for the 243-americium capture cross-section is in very good agreement with the last two

  18. Des changements en Asie, surtout pour les femmes | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 mars 2016 ... J'ai eu l'occasion de rencontrer des penseurs, des industriels, des politiciens, des représentants des médias, des ONG, et des chercheurs. Le dénominateur ... La violence sexuelle et familiale ainsi que l'impunité sont des sujets qui ne sont abordés que tout récemment en Asie. De bien des façons, ...

  19. Effets biocides des alcaloïdes, des saponines et des flavonoïdes extraits de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae) sur Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aziz Bouchelta; Abelali Blenzar; Ahmed Boughdad

    2005-01-01

    ... et des flavonoïdes extraits des fruits de Capsicum frutescens L. sur la survie des œufs et des adultes de Bemisia tabaci infestant les plants de tomates, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Daniella, a été...

  20. Estimation of multi-group cross section covariances for {sup 235,238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 23}Na and {sup 27}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jean, C.; Archier, P.; Noguere, G.; Litaize, O.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Bernard, D.; Leray, O. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology used to estimate multi-group covariances for some major isotopes used in reactor physics. The starting point of this evaluation is the modelling of the neutron induced reactions based on nuclear reaction models with parameters. These latest are the vectors of uncertainties as they are absorbing uncertainties and correlation arising from the confrontation of nuclear reaction model to microscopic experiment. These uncertainties are then propagated towards multi-group cross sections. As major breakthroughs were then asked by nuclear reactor physicists to assess proper uncertainties to be used in applications, a solution is proposed by the use of integral experiment information at two different stages in the covariance estimation. In this paper, we will explain briefly the treatment of all type of uncertainties, including experimental ones (statistical and systematic) as well as those coming from validation of nuclear data on dedicated integral experiment (nuclear data oriented). We will illustrate the use of this methodology with various isotopes such as {sup 235,238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 23}Na and {sup 27}Al. (authors)

  1. Adaptation des organismes communautaires d'approvisionnement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sur la base de cette analyse, l'équipe mènera ensuite une enquête auprès des ménages et des fournisseurs d'eau des trois pays et évaluera les coûts et les avantages ... Des spécialistes canadiens participent à des travaux de recherche portant sur les risques auxquels sont exposés les milieux humides le long de la côte ...

  2. Approche historique des classifications en psychiatrie

    OpenAIRE

    Garrabé, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resume Des le milieu du xixe siecle s?est posee la question des criteres de classification des maladies. Pour les maladies mentales, diverses classifications ont alors ete proposees par des auteurs francais (Morel) et allemands (Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). A partir de la fin du xixe siecle, le Bureau International de Statistique (Paris) a publie a une Classification Internationale des Maladies, a revision decennale (J. Bertillon). Cette tache a ete poursuivie dans l?entre-deux-guerres pa...

  3. Materialwissenschaftliche Untersuchung des Dragierverhaltens von Zuckeralkoholen

    OpenAIRE

    Haseleu, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Untersuchung des komplexen und komplizierten Dragierprozesses, um nach der systematischen Analyse des Prozeses einfache und nachvollziehbare Zusammenhänge ableiten zu können. Aus diesem Grund wird der Prozeß in drei Hauptuntersuchungsgebiete aufgeteilt: Beschaffenheit des Kernrohlings; Formulierung des Dragiermediums und Prozeßparameter des Dragierens; und in jedem Gebiet materialwissenschaftliche Kennwerte ermittelt. Darüber hinaus wird ein vierter Bereic...

  4. Application of the simplified J-estimation scheme Aramis to mismatching welds in CCP; Application du concept d`integrale J dans l`outil Aramis aux effets de mismatch sur des eprouvettes CCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eripret, C.; Franco, C.; Gilles, P.

    1995-12-31

    The J-based criteria give reasonable predictions of the failure behaviour of ductile cracked metallic structures, even if the material characterization may be sensitive to the size of the specimens. However in cracked welds, this phenomenon due to stress triaxiality effects could be enhanced. Furthermore, the application of conventional methods of toughness measurement (ESIS or ASTM standard) have evidenced a strong influence of the portion of the weld metal in the specimen. Several authors have shown the inadequacy of the simplified J-estimation methods developed for homogeneous materials. These heterogeneity effects mainly related to the mismatch ratio (ratio of weld metal yield strength upon base metal yield strength) as well as to the geometrical parameter h/W-a (weld width upon ligament size). In order to make decisive progress in this field, the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the PWR manufacturer FRAMATOME, and the French utility (EDF) have launched a large research program on cracked piping welds behaviour. As part of this program, a new J-estimation scheme, so called ARAMIS, has been developed to account for the influence of both materials, i.e. base metal and weld metal, on the structural resistance of cracked welds. It has been shown that, when the mismatch is high, and when the ligament size is small compared to the weld width, a classical J-based method using the softer material properties is very conservative. On the opposite the ARAMIS method provides a good estimate of J, because it predicts pretty well the shift of the cracked weld limit load, due to the presence of the weld. the influence of geometrical parameters such as crack size, weld width, or specimen length is property accounted for. (authors). 23 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix.

  5. Cross sections of production of J / {psi}, {psi}` resonances and of the Drell-Yan process in the Pb-Pb interactions with 158 GeV / c per nucleon; Section efficaces de production des resonances J / {psi}, {psi}` et du processus Drell-Yan dans les interactions Pb-Pb a 158 GeV / c par nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellaiche, F

    1997-04-24

    In the framework of the experimental research for the quark and gluons plasma formation in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, data obtained by the NA50 collaboration at SPS-CERN are analysed. The segmented target used by NA50 experiment is described and analysed in terms of vertex identification efficiency and re-interactions recognition. The absolute J/{psi}, {psi}`and Drell-Yan process cross-sections in 158 GeV/c per nucleon Pb-Pb interactions are extracted. The transverse energy dependence of the production yield of J/{psi} and Drell-Yan process is established. The comparison of these cross-sections with the ones measured in lighter systems and the comparison of the E dependence of J/{psi} production with the Glauber model prediction show an anomalous J/{psi} suppression observed in Pb-Pb interactions is confronted to theoretical models proposed by several authors, describing charmonium bound states formation and interactions is confronted to theoretical models proposed by several authors, describing charmonium bound states formation and interactions in confined or deconfined media. (author) 122 refs.

  6. Deeply virtual compton scattering on the nucleon with the Clas Detector of Jefferson Lab: measurement of the polarized and unpolarized cross sections; Etude de la diffusion compton profondement virtuelle sur le nucleon avec le detecteur Clas de Jefferson Lab: mesure des sections efficaces polarisees et non polarisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, H.S

    2007-03-15

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced in the 1990's, provide the most complete description of the structure (in quarks and gluons) of the nucleon. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), which corresponds to the 'hard' exclusive electroproduction of photons on the nucleon, is a key process among the reactions allowing access to the GPDs. A DVCS-dedicated experiment was carried out in 2005 with the CLAS detector of Jefferson Lab, using a polarized electron beam of 5.776 GeV and a hydrogen target. For this experiment, we built and used a dedicated electromagnetic calorimeter capable of detecting the final-state photon. The collected data allowed us to study the DVCS in the widest kinematic range ever accessed for this reaction: 1 < Q{sup 2} < 4.6 GeV{sup 2}, 0.1 < x{sub B} < 0.58, 0.09 < -t < 2 GeV{sup 2}. The work performed during this PhD includes simulation work done for the preparation of the experiment, timing calibration of one of the CLAS subsystems, and data analysis. The aim of the data analysis was the extraction of the unpolarized cross sections of the studied reaction and of the difference of the polarized cross sections, this latter observable being linearly proportional to the GPDs. The obtained results were compared to DVCS theoretical calculations based on one of the most up-to-date GPD parametrizations. (author)

  7. Measurement of cross-sections of fission reactions induced by neutrons on actinides from the thorium cycle at n-TOF facility; Mesures de sections efficaces de fission induite par neutrons sur des actinides du cycle du thorium a n-TOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrant, L

    2005-09-01

    In the frame of innovating energy source system studies, thorium fuel cycle reactors are considered. Neutron induced fission cross section on such cycle involved actinides play a role in scenario studies. To feed them, data bases are built with experimental results and nuclear models. For some nuclei, they are not complete or in disagreement. In order to complete these data bases, we have built an original set up, consisting in an alternation of PPACs (Parallel Plate Avalanche Chamber) and ultra - thin targets, which we installed on n-TOF facility. We describe detectors, set up, and the particular care brought to target making and characterization. Fission products in coincidence are detected with precise time measurement and localization with delay line read out method. We contributed, within the n-TOF collaboration, to the CERN brand new intense spallation neutron source characterization, based on time of flight measurement, and we describe its characteristics and performances. We were able to measure such actinide fission cross sections as {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 233}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 209}Bi, and {sup nat}Pb relative to {sup 235}U et {sup 238}U standards, using an innovative acquisition system. We took advantage of the lame accessible energy field, from 0.7 eV to 1 GeV, combined with the excellent energy resolution in this field. Data treatment and analysis advancement are described to enlighten performance and limits of the obtained results. (author)

  8. Virginie Albe, Enseigner des controverses

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Alors que les sujets controversés (OGM, créationnisme...) sont généralement redoutés par les enseignants et médiateurs scientifiques, qui se trouvent démunis et optent pour le retrait, des didacticiens tentent depuis la fin des années 1990 d'attaquer de front l'enseignement des controverses (ou "questions socialement vives"). En France, l'ENS Cachan, l'École nationale de formation agronomique de Toulouse et l'université de Provence sont les hauts lieux de cette pédagogie qui s'inscrit dans la...

  9. Une approche des structurations symboliques

    OpenAIRE

    Matamoros Ponce, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Los seres humanos hacen su propia historia,aunque bajo circunstancias influidas por el pasado Karl Marx (1818-1883) Les espaces de lutte, de réforme et de contre-réforme sont une partie du Tout Social. Ils sont le lieu d’une mémoire conflictuelle où se définissent subjectivement les accords et les désaccords. Ainsi, pour comprendre la mise en place de la politique des États et des institutions religieuses, nous devons partir des contradictions inhérentes aux mouvements sociaux en lutte, qui r...

  10. TRAUMATISMES DES BOURSES: A PROPOS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pas de signe de gravité (hématocèie, rup— ture de l'albuginée, volumineux hématome intra testiculaire)? Les altérations du sper— mogramme observées ont été rapportées dans le suivi des patients ayant présenté un traumatisme des bourses et s'expliqueraient par l'atrophie testiculaire avec réduction de l'activité des ...

  11. Une construction des immigrants musulmans : La mosquée, un espace des communautés musulmanes au Japon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Sakurai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On estime que le nombre de musulmans étrangers vivant au Japon variait entre 60 et 70 000 en 2004, et que leur part dans la population musulmane du Japon représentait entre 80 et 90%. Le principal pays d’origine des résidents étrangers musulmans du Japon est l’Indonésie, suivi par le Pakistan, le Bengladesh, l’Iran, le Nigeria, la Turquie et l’Égypte. C’est au début des années 1990 que la majorité d’entre eux a commencé à s’installer sur la péninsule nippone, dans ses différentes régions, sans pour autant former ce que l’on peut appeler des communautés ethniques. Les musulmans du Japon tendent donc à se rendre à la mosquée qui se situe près de leur domicile ou de leur lieu de travail. Ceux qui vivent dans des zones urbaines ont un choix plus large et fréquentent ainsi les mosquées proches de leurs sensibilités ethniques ou sectaires. Toutefois, leur nombre étant encore réduit au Japon, les mosquées sont des espaces pluriethniques et plurilinguistiques au sein desquels des musulmans aux origines différentes rentrent en compétition, négocient et font preuve d’initiative. Face à la pluralité des interprétations de l’islam, des confessions  et des rituels, certains croyants sont devenus plus rigoristes, alors que d’autres, à l’inverse, sont devenus plus tolérants. Par ailleurs, les réseaux internationaux jouent un rôle considérable dans le devenir des lieux de culte en ce qu’ils permettent d’inviter des prédicateurs rigoristes, des groupes missionnaires ou qu’ils permettent d’attirer des donations étrangères. L’analyse comparative des mosquées au Japon devrait nous permettre de mieux saisir leurs caractéristiques à la fois en tant que lieu de culte et d’espace communautaire.

  12. Etude de la performance des radars hautes-frequences CODAR et WERA pour la mesure des courants marins en presence partielle de glace de mer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamli, Emna

    Les radars hautes-frequences (RHF) mesurent les courants marins de surface avec une portee pouvant atteindre 200 kilometres et une resolution de l'ordre du kilometre. Cette etude a pour but de caracteriser la performance des RHF, en terme de couverture spatiale, pour la mesure des courants de surface en presence partielle de glace de mer. Pour ce faire, les mesures des courants de deux radars de type CODAR sur la rive sud de l'estuaire maritime du Saint-Laurent, et d'un radar de type WERA sur la rive nord, prises pendant l'hiver 2013, ont ete utilisees. Dans un premier temps, l'aire moyenne journaliere de la zone ou les courants sont mesures par chaque radar a ete comparee a l'energie des vagues de Bragg calculee a partir des donnees brutes d'acceleration fournies par une bouee mouillee dans la zone couverte par les radars. La couverture des CODARs est dependante de la densite d'energie de Bragg, alors que la couverture du WERA y est pratiquement insensible. Un modele de fetch appele GENER a ete force par la vitesse du vent predite par le modele GEM d'Environnement Canada pour estimer la hauteur significative ainsi que la periode modale des vagues. A partir de ces parametres, la densite d'energie des vagues de Bragg a ete evaluee pendant l'hiver a l'aide du spectre theorique de Bretschneider. Ces resultats permettent d'etablir la couverture normale de chaque radar en absence de glace de mer. La concentration de glace de mer, predite par le systeme canadien operationnel de prevision glace-ocean, a ete moyennee sur les differents fetchs du vent selon la direction moyenne journaliere des vagues predites par GENER. Dans un deuxieme temps, la relation entre le ratio des couvertures journalieres obtenues pendant l'hiver 2013 et des couvertures normales de chaque radar d'une part, et la concentration moyenne journaliere de glace de mer d'autre part, a ete etablie. Le ratio des couvertures decroit avec l'augmentation de la concentration de glace de mer pour les deux types

  13. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les marchés agroalimentaires connaissent de rapides changements dans les pays en développement et les pays en transition. Sous l'influence de la libéralisation du commerce et des nouvelles technologies de transformation des aliments et de commerce de détail, les marchés agroalimentaires évoluent vers une plus ...

  14. Evaluation des pratiques de gestion des adventices en riziculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le riz est l'aliment principal pour la quasi-totalité des populations vivant en Côte d'Ivoire. Cependant, les adventices sont considérées comme la contrainte biologique la plus importante faisant obstacle à la production rizicole. L'objectif de cette étude menée en 2015 était d'évaluer différentes techniques de gestion des ...

  15. Etude Des Lesions Rencontrees Sur Des Carcasses De Petits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sur les 277 saisies de poumons, il y a 12 suspicions de tuberculose, 101 de parasitoses, 96 de pneumopathies et 68 dues à des abcès divers. Les lésions suspectées de tuberculose sont très rares (0;15 et 0,07%) respectivement chez les ovins et caprins. La tuberculose des petits ruminants à ce niveau de prévalence

  16. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes : Une étude de cas sur le Burkina Faso, le Kenya et la Côte d'Ivoire. Le projet vise à analyser la contribution réelle et ... Institution. Centre ivoirien de recherches économiques et sociales. Pays d' institution. Ivory Coast. Site internet. http://www.cires-ci.org ...

  17. Optimisation structurelle des gridshells

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhaya, Lina

    2010-01-01

    Le terme gridshell désigne une coque discrète qui est obtenue par déformation élastique d'une grille bidirectionnelle continue plane sans rigidité en cisaillement puis rigidifiée par une troisième direction de barres. Ainsi défini, un gridshell a un potentiel structural intéressant et peut répondre à des exigences architecturales complexes. La recherche de forme de ces structures a été menée à travers l'histoire principalement par deux méthodes, la méthode du filet inversé et la relaxation dy...

  18. Code des baux 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Vial-Pedroletti, Béatrice; Kendérian, Fabien; Chavance, Emmanuelle; Coutan-Lapalus, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Le code des baux 2018 vous offre un contenu extrêmement pratique, fiable et à jour au 1er août 2017. Cette 16e édition intègre notamment : le décret du 27 juillet 2017 relatif à l’évolution de certains loyers dans le cadre d’une nouvelle location ou d’un renouvellement de bail, pris en application de l’article 18 de la loi n° 89-462 du 6 juillet 1989 ; la loi du 27 janvier 2017 relative à l’égalité et à la citoyenneté ; la loi du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique ; la loi du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du xxie siècle

  19. Le fiacre des propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Michon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir identifié quelques arguments pour illustrer ce dont traite la philosophie analytique de la religion, je défends que celle-ci a la pertinence de la spéculation classique sur le contenu de la foi. L’une et l’autre reposent sur la contrainte logique qui suit de l’acceptation d’une proposition — refus de ce qui la contredit, acceptation de ses conséquences — et sur le fait que la Révélation chrétienne contient des propositions, certaines paradoxales. J’illustre cette pertinence par trois exemples pris dans la « philosophie continentale de la religion ».

  20. Le statut du groupe comme modérateur des effets distincts de la discrimination personnelle et groupale sur l’estime de soi personnelle: études comparatives des étudiants d’origine européenne et maghrébines

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguignon, David; van Cleempoel, maximilien; Collange, Julie; Herman, Ginette

    2012-01-01

    D’une part, les individus minimisent la discrimination personnelle par rapport à la discrimination groupale. D’autre part, alors que la discrimination personnelle est négativement liée à l’estime de soi, la discrimination groupale lui est positivement associée. Jusqu’à présent, ces patterns de résultats ont uniquement été observés auprès de groupes de bas statut. Cette étude vise à examiner l’écart existant entre les deux types de discrimination mais également leurs effets sur ...

  1. Prise en compte du gonflement des terrains dans le dimensionnement des revêtements des tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Bultel, Frédéric

    2001-01-01

    Travail préparé au Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées (LCPC-Paris) dans le cadre d'une convention CIFRE avec la société Scetauroute,Composition du jury : MM. R. KASTNER professeur à l'Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (rapporteur),I. SHAHROUR professeur à l'Ecole Universitaire Des Ingénieurs de Lille (rapporteur), P. EGGER professeur à l'Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Examinateur), B. GAUDIN expert géotechnique à Scetauroute-DTTS (Examinateur), J.P. MAGNAN D...

  2. Des équilibres instables

    OpenAIRE

    Schweisguth, Danielle; Plane, Mathieu; Blot, Christophe; Cochard, Marion; Le Bayon, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Le déficit courant des États-Unis se dégrade continuellement depuis 1991 et a atteint un niveau record de 6,6 % du PIB en 2006. Il résulte en premier lieu d’un déséquilibre interne entre l’épargne nationale et l’investissement. La propension à consommer des ménages américains favorisée par l’envolée des cours boursiers à la fin des années 1990 puis le développement du marché hypothécaire ont modifié l’arbitrage entre consommation et épargne au détriment de cette dernière. Par ailleurs, les fi...

  3. Le valais, colonie des CFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Voici une affiche placardée par les chemins de fer helvétiques (CFF pendant des semaines, au printemps 2009, dans les gares de Suisse romande. Un slogan l'accompagnait: «Rencontrez des peuples authentiques en Valais avec nos offres et excursions en Valais». L'image fait directement référence au célèbre carnaval du Lötschental et aux masques que l'on sculpte pour l'occasion depuis des générations. Au-delà elle s'enracine dans un imaginaire bien connu des peuples sauvages qui a fleuri à partir...

  4. Pourquoi faire des varietes synthetiques?

    OpenAIRE

    Gallais, A

    1992-01-01

    Dans cette discussion sur les variétés synthétiques, les avantages et les inconvénients connus de ce type de variétés sont rappelés. Puis la valeur des meilleures variétés synthétiques possibles à partir d’une population est comparée à la valeur des meilleures hybrides simples (ou des meilleurs clones) et à la valeur des meilleures lignées. Il est montré que les meilleurs variétés synthétiques sont toujours inférieures aux meilleurs hybrides simples et à peine supérieures (de 0 à 10%) à la va...

  5. Marais Des Cygnes Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brochure is for the Marais des Cygnes Wildlife Area, managed by Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism, and located in the floodplain of the Marais...

  6. Spectral Matrix Filtering Applied to Vsp Processing Application du filtrage matriciel au traitement des profils sismiques verticaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glangeaud F.

    2006-11-01

    données et de séparer ces signaux. Nous montrons que les signaux peuvent être automatiquement séparés sans connaissance a priori sur leurs vitesses apparentes, en fonction du produit scalaire (calculé dans le domaine fréquentiel et de l'amplitude relative des signaux. Nous montrons des exemples d'application sur des données de sismique de puits. Le filtrage matriciel est effectué dans le domaine fréquentiel en utilisant la matrice spectrale construite à l'aide des intercorrélations des différents enregistrements constituant les données à traiter. Les méthodes d'estimation de la matrice spectrale sont des méthodes de moyenne : moyenne en fréquence (méthode du périodogramme lissé et/ou moyenne en distance (lissage réalisé le long des diagonales de la matrice spectrale. Le lissage en fréquence est obtenu par l'intermédiaire d'une fonction de pondération (par exemple fenêtre de Hanning élevée à une puissance donnée appliquée à chaque corrélation. Les moyennes sont utilisées pour décorréler les signaux et de ce fait favoriser la séparation. Une fois correctement estimée, la matrice spectrale est diagonalisée sur toutes les fréquences du spectre moyenné, et décomposée selon ses vecteurs propres qui sont orthogonaux entre eux et normalisés. Chaque vecteur propre a une valeur propre associée qui représente la répartition d'énergie en fonction de la fréquence du modèle lié au vecteur propre. Le filtrage est réalisé par projection des données sur les différents vecteurs propres issus de la matrice spectrale. Il est à noter cependant que la séparation des différents signaux (projection sur vecteur propre n'est réalisée en terme d'indicatrice sismique que si les événements sismiques sont naturellement orthogonaux et alignés sur les vecteurs propres. Glangeaud et al (1989 ont étudié l'influence des amplitudes relatives et du produit scalaire de deux ondes. Si la vitesse apparente d'une onde est connue, cette derni

  7. Evaluation of sanitary impact of environmental pollution and quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire d'une pollution environnementale et evaluation quantitative des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The calculation of a sanitary impact present a great interest at the decision level for the decision-makers and the whole of concerned actors. It constitutes a first step to organize a social debate around the risk acceptance, to analyze the feasibility of an inquiry or an epidemiological surveillance or to proportion an activity leading to pollutants emission in natural medium. Several conclusions are brought out: it is justified to estimate a sanitary impact from a sanitary risk excess, especially coming from animal tissue. It is conceivable to go beyond an estimation of the only individual risk and to calculate a number of cases in excess in the concerned population. The working group underlines that the characteristics of the situation are the determining factor to give the type of response to bring. The effective of the population is an important element and a situation has not to be underestimated because of the size at the pretext that the excess calculation leads to a number of cases inferior to one leading to believe that the impact is minor or negligible while the individual probability is high. The sanitary impact, expressed by the number of cancer cases in excess in an exposed population is quantified from the average value of excess of sanitary risk multiplied by the population effective, and expressed with a confidence interval. The sanitary impact can be expressed under the form of a percentage of the population present in the exposure area and goes past the comparison marks usually pointed up. This practice must be cheered. An analysis of uncertainties must be made as often as possible. (N.C.)

  8. (AJST) BIOSTRATIGRAPHIE DES FORAMINIFERES ET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARESUME:- 115 déblais de sondage et des logs éléctriques ont été soumis aux analyses biostratigraphiques et paléoenvironnementales pour déterminer la lithologie, l'âge, et l'environnement de dépôt des sédiments provenant du puits Opolo-1 dans le Delta du Niger, Nigeria. Les résultats montre que du bas vers le haut ...

  9. Die Moosgesellschaften des Nationalparks Harz

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Die Auswertung der in den Jahren 2002–2007 erarbeiteten Vegetationsaufnahmen im Nationalpark Harz ergab ihre Einordnung in 77 unterschiedliche Moosgesellschaften. 17 Moosgesellschaften gehören zu den bedrohten Lebensgemeinschaften der Länder Niedersachsen und Sachsen-Anhalt, womit die Bedeutung des Nationalparks Harz für die Erhaltung und den Schutz der Moosflora des Harzes deutlich wird. The evaluation of vegetation mapping of moss-communities in the National Park Harz in 2002–2007 result...

  10. Déplacements des gouverneurs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    Transport. 1. Contexte a) Le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) est une société d'État canadienne à laquelle la loi confère le mandat de lancer, d'encourager, d'appuyer et de mener des recherches sur les problèmes des régions du monde en voie de développement et sur la mise en.

  11. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due...... to the local stereological estimation procedure and the variance due to the variability of particle sizes in the population. Methods for judging the difference between the distribution of estimated particle sizes and the distribution of true particle sizes are also provided....

  12. Superviseur, Section de la bibliothèque et de la formation | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Section de la bibliothèque et de la formation fournit des services aux utilisateurs du siège et des bureaux régionaux, lesquels comprennent la gestion des ... Coordonner les équipes de projet et les groupes de travail composés de collègues et de membres de son équipe, de spécialistes techniques d'autres membres de ...

  13. Caractérisation des habitats de Dialium guineense (Willd) en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2014 ... distribution de Weibull à deux paramètres à l'aide des logiciels R 2.15.3 et Minitab14. Le logiciel R 2.15.3 a été utilisé pour estimer les paramètres de forme c à l'aide du package MASS. Le paramètre de forme c des diamètres et des hauteurs de chaque type de groupement végétal a été introduit dans le ...

  14. Estimating biogenic contributions to secondary pollutants: formation at regional scale (Fosse Rhenan, France); Impact des emissions naturelles sur les episodes de pollution photochimique: application a la region du Fosse Rhenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukhtar, S.

    2005-02-15

    Biotic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a significant role in the formation and development of photochemical pollution events. In this context, the integration of biotic VOCs in the CHIMERE chemical transport model has been improved by the use of a double numerical and experimental approach. Field measurements have permitted to determine the flux of emissions of biotic VOCs from three tree species particularly abundant in France: Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Pseudotsuga menziesii. A database has been updated and used to estimate the annual VOC emissions by the French forestry system. A critical synthesis of the bibliography about the reactivity of biotic VOCs has led to the elaboration of a new chemical mechanism which has been implemented in the CHIMERE model. The results of this model have been compared to the observations available for the region of the Rhine through (Fosse Rhenan) characterized by strong biotic VOC emissions. These modifications does not change much the ozone concentrations but they have strong impacts on the modeling of peroxy-acetyl-nitrate (PAN) and formaldehyde concentrations. (J.S.)

  15. The estimated amount of the public utility costs for electricity production for 2002 is 3 euros / MWh; Le montant previsionnel des charges de service public de la production d'electricite pour 2002 sont de 3 euros / MWh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The estimated amount of the contribution to the public utility fund for electricity production (FSPPE) for 2002 is 3 euros/MWh, according to the order of January 25, 2002, following the proposal by the French electricity regulator (CRE) to the government on December 20, 2001. The FSPPE, which enables the financing of the public utility costs to be separated, is intended to finance the additional expenditure caused by the cogeneration and renewable energy support policies and the extra production costs in overseas departments and Corsica. The coming into force of the FSPPE will result in the simultaneous reduction of the provisional access tariff to the network, established by Electricite de France (EdF) in 1999, and to a marked average increase of electricity costs for eligible and non-eligible customers. CRE asked for a separate mention of public utility policy costs and supply costs on EdF's bills. Some technical files are attached to this press release and describe the operation of the FSPPE fund, the calculation methods used, the public consultation on the costs saved, and the achievement of the target on supporting the renewable energies at the least cost. (J.S.)

  16. Sistema de diagnóstico para la estimación de secciones en fallo en sistemas eléctricos de potencia; A Diagnostic Systems to Estimate Faulty Sections in Power Electric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bravo de las Casas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de diagnóstico para la estimación de secciones en fallo (SDESF para sistemas eléctricos depotencia (SEP expuesto en el trabajo, usa la información procedente de los relés operados e interruptoresdisparados. Está escrito en Prolog, lenguaje de inteligencia artificial e implementado en una computadorapersonal. La tarea básica de este sistema es entrenar a los despachadores y utilizarlo como una herramientade apoyo a la toma de decisiones del despachador ante situaciones de emergencias complejas con unambiente computacional de usuario amigable. Este sistema ha sido verificado prácticamente por pruebasrealizadas en el SEP del territorio central de Cuba y los resultados preliminares de las pruebas sugieren quepuede ser implementado para el entrenamiento de despachadores. Se ha demostrado la efectividad delsistema para identificar la localización del fallo muy eficientemente, por lo tanto, puede servir como uninstrumento valioso de ayuda para la localización de fallos, y puede ser usado en las universidades comomedio de enseñanza. El sistema en un futuro pudiera ser ampliado para conectarse al sistema Scada(Sircre-2 a tiempo real para la estimación de secciones en fallo on-line.  The diagnostic system to estimate faulty sections (DSEFS in power electric systems (PES shown in thework it uses the information coming from the relays and breakers operated. It is written in Prolog Language ofartificial Intelligence and implemented in a personal computer. The basic task of this system is to train thedispatchers and to use it like a support tool to the taking of the dispatcher's decisions before situations ofcomplex emergencies with an ambient computacional of friendly user. This system has been verified practicallyby tests carried out in the PES of the central territory of Cuba and the preliminary results of the tests suggestthat  it  can  be  implemented  for  the  training  of  dispatchers.  The  effectiveness  of  the

  17. Estimation de l'incertitude du montant de provisions pour sinisitre a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assurance «solvabilité II», les organismes assureurs ne peuvent plus se contenter des estimations déterministes des montants de provisions inscrits au passif. Il est aujourd'hui en effet indispensable d'évaluer l'incertitude de ces estimations et ainsi de ...

  18. Aspects diagnostiques et thérapeutiques des cancers colorectaux à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'adénocarcinome représentait la forme histologique la plus fréquente (76,7%). Le taux de résécabilité de la tumeur était de 87,5 % des cas. La résection colique suivie ... La faible survie était liée à la présence des métastases et à la révélation de la maladie par des complications occlusives. L'amélioration du pronostic ...

  19. S'associer à des bailleurs de fonds partenaires | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 nov. 2010 ... Le CRDI estime que les partenariats lui sont essentiels pour l'aider à réaliser sa mission. C'est aussi ce qu'a réaffirmé le Conseil des gouverneurs en mars 2010 en approuvant le premier cadre quinquennal des partenariats avec les bailleurs de fonds. Les partenariats favorisent la collaboration entre les ...

  20. Estimating population prevalence of potential airflow obstruction using different spirometric criteria: a pooled cross-sectional analysis of persons aged 40-95 years in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Shaun; Moody, Alison; Mindell, Jennifer S

    2014-07-23

    Consistent estimation of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been hindered by differences in methods, including different spirometric cut-offs for impaired lung function. The impact of different definitions on the prevalence of potential airflow obstruction, and its associations with key risk factors, is evaluated using cross-sectional data from two nationally representative population surveys. Pooled cross-sectional analysis of Wave 2 of the UK Household Longitudinal Survey and the Health Survey for England 2010, including 7879 participants, aged 40-95 years, who lived in England and Wales, without diagnosed asthma and with good-quality spirometry data. Potential airflow obstruction was defined using self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD; a fixed threshold (FT) forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio differences in the risk of obstruction, after adjustment for key risk factors, was sensitive to the choice of spirometric cut-off, being significantly higher in men when using FT, compared with no significant difference using LLN. Applying FT or LLN spirometric cut-offs gives a different picture of the size and distribution of the disease burden. Longitudinal studies examining differences in unscheduled hospital admissions and risk of death between FT and LLN may inform the choice as to the best way to include spirometry in assessments of airflow obstruction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. First HIV prevalence estimates of a representative sample of adult sub-Saharan African migrants in a European city. Results of a community-based, cross-sectional study in Antwerp, Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Loos

    Full Text Available While sub-Saharan African migrants are the second largest group affected by HIV in Europe, sound HIV prevalence estimates based on representative samples of these heterogeneous communities are lacking. Such data are needed to inform prevention and public health policy.This community-based, cross-sectional study combined oral fluid HIV testing with an electronic behavioral survey. Adopting a two-stage time location sampling HIV prevalence estimates for a representative sample of adult sub-Saharan African migrants in Antwerp, Belgium were obtained. Sample proportions and estimated adjusted population proportions were calculated for all variables. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis explored factors independently associated with HIV infection.Between December 2013 and October 2014, 744 sub-Saharan African migrants were included (37% women. A substantial proportion was socially, legally and economically vulnerable: 21% were probably of undocumented status, 63% had financial problems in the last year and 9% lacked stable housing. Sexual networks were mostly African and crossed national borders, i.e. sexual encounters during travels within Europa and Africa. Concurrency is common, 34% of those in a stable relationship had a partner on the side in the last year. HIV prevalence was 5.9%(95%CI:3.4%-10.1% among women and 4.2% (95%CI:1.6%-10.6% among men. Although high lifetime HIV testing was reported at community level (73%, 65.2% (CI95%:32.4%-88.0% of sub-Saharan African migrants were possibly undiagnosed. Being 45 years or older, unprotected sex when travelling within Europe in the last year, high intentions to use condoms, being unaware of their last sexual partners' HIV status, recent HIV testing and not having encountered partner violence in the last year were independently associated with HIV infection in multivariable logical regression. In univariable analysis, HIV infection was additionally associated to unemployment

  2. Onlinespieler abseits des Mainstreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Baumgartlinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MMO(RPGs „Massively Multiplayer Online (Role-Playing Games“ nehmen einen Sonderstatus unter den Onlinespielen ein, welcher durch den wachsenden wirtschaftlichen Erfolg, insbesondere durch den „breakthrough hit“ (Duchenaut et al. 2006: 407 World of Warcraft (WoW, auch an Bedeutung für die Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft gewinnt (vgl. Inderst 2009: 15; vgl. Seifert/Jöckel 2008: 297. Der Primus des Genres, WoW, repräsentiert gemeinsam mit einigen nahezu identen Titeln insgesamt 85 Prozent der gespielten MMOGs (vgl. Williams et al. 2008: 999. Daher befasst sich auch die Mehrheit der vorliegenden Studien mit eben diesen Spielen. Neue Formen von MMO(Gs können jedoch zu ebenso neuartigen Spielerfahrungen führen und damit unterschiedliche Nutzungsmotive befriedigen (vgl. Seifert/Jöckel 2008: 309 und folglich zu einem gänzlich anderen Spielerleben führen. Während im Mainstream die kooperativen Spielerbeziehungen überwiegen, dominiert in Darkfall Online der soziale Wettbewerb. Der von Williams et al. 2008 verwendete Fragebogen diente als Rohling für die Kreation eines für die speziellen Anforderungen adaptierten Erhebungstools zur Erforschung der Spielertypologie und der Motive der Darkfall-Online-SpielerInnen. Die in der Onlinebefragung (N = 506 gesammelten Daten belegen, dass sich sowohl die Spielerdemographie, als auch die Motive der Spieler von den Mainstream MMOs unterscheiden. Zudem konnten realweltliche Eigenschaften der Spieler als signifikante Einflussfaktoren für die Spielzuwendung identifiziert werden.

  3. Poissons Characoïdes des Guyanes. I. Généralités. II. Famille des Serrasalmidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Géry, J.

    1972-01-01

    TABLE DES MATIÈ RES ENGLISH PREFACE AND SUMMARY......... 5 AVANT-PROPOS................. 8 RESUME ................... 9 PREMIERE PARTIE : GENERALITES SUR LES GUYANES ET LES POISSONS CHARACOÏDES................. 12 Chapitre 1. Introduction 1-1. Historique.................. 12 1- 2. Sources et

  4. Influence de facteurs environnementaux influençant la teneur en urée dans le lait de vache en Wallonie et estimation des rejets azotés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufrasne, I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on environmental factors influencing the urea content of cow's milk in Wallonia and estimation of nitrogen rejection. In Wallonia (South of Belgium, the urea content of milk produced on farms is assessed by the "Comité du lait". A total of 8,295,337 pieces of data recording the urea content in milk tanks was collected on Walloon farms in 2000 and during the period 2002-2011. These data were analyzed using a linear model. The fixed effects of the agricultural area or vulnerable zone, the month, the year and the interactions between these parameters were included in the model. The levels of fat and protein content in the milk were used as covariates. The average urea content in milk was found to be 255 mg·l-1. Four percent of the observations recorded a urea content of over 350 mg·l-1 and 14% recorded a urea content of over 400 mg·l-1. The models explained 38% and 35% of the variation in milk urea for the agricultural area and the vulnerable area variables, respectively. Within these models, the variables of month, region, year and the month-year interaction were the components that provided the most information. Milk urea content was higher in the summer period – April to October – than during the winter period – November to March – (287 vs 210 mg·l-1. This observation can be explained by the change in the cows' diet. During the summer, most of the cows grazed; ingestion of grass can lead to a nitrogen surplus in the diet. In the so-called "Limoneuse" and "Sablo-limoneuse" agricultural areas, recorded urea content was lower than in "Ardenne" and "Haute-Ardenne" (223 and 220 mg vs 278 and 284 mg·l-1, respectively. This difference can be explained by a greater use of grass in the diet in Ardenne and Haute-Ardenne. In vulnerable areas, urea content was lower (236 vs 273 mg·l-1. Annual nitrogen production calculated using different prediction equations ranged from 82 to 119 kg N per cow depending on the agricultural area.

  5. Effects of climate, land use and changes in these on water availability and high water events in Europe. Projects: Effects of climate change on water availability and high water events in Germany and Europe: An integrated analysis. - Water availability and high water discharge (Elbe and Oder rivers) as a function of climate and land use and changes in these. - Modelling of discharge in the upper section of the Oder river in case of extreme high water events.. Joint final report; Auswirkungen des Klimas und der Landnutzung sowie ihrer Aenderungen auf die Wasserverfuegbarkeit und auf Hochwasserereignisse in Europa. Einzelprojekte: Einfluss des Klimawandels auf Wasserverfuegbarkeit und Hochwasser in Deutschland und Europa: eine integrierte Analyse. - Wasserverfuegbarkeit und Hochwasserabfluss (Elbe- und Odergebiet) in Abhaengigkeit von Klima und Landnutzung und deren Aenderungen. - Modellierung des Abflusses im Oberlauf der Oder fuer Extremereignisse. Gemeinsamer Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcamo, J.; Doell, P.; Lehner, B.; Becker, A.; Beckmann, T.; Mengelkamp, H.T.; Sutmoeller, J.

    2001-07-01

    The integrated global water model WaterGAP (macroscale; time step: 1 month) was used for large-scale simulation of the effects of climate change and global change on water availability, high water and low water events and the hydroelectric potential of Germany and Europe, in consideration of long-term scenarios of change. The polygon-based hydrological modelling system ARC/EGMO, with high spatial resolution (mesoscale; time step: 1 day) is used for investigations with high spatial and temporal differentiation of the effects of changes in climate and land use on discharge in river catchment areas of different sizes, i.e. with different degrees of complexity of modelling. The investigations focused on the Elbe and Oder region. The development of high water events as in July 1997 on the upper section of the Oder river is investigated in detail using the complex, high-resolution model system GESIMA/SEWAB/TOPMODEL (mesoscale; time step: 1 hour) [German] Das integrierte globale Wassermodell WaterGAP (makroskalig, Zeitschritt: 1 Monaten) wird zur grossskaligen Simulation der Auswirkungen von Klimaaenderungen und Globalem Wandel auf die Wasserverfuegbarkeit (Wasserdargebot und Wassernutzung), auf die Hoch- und Niedrigwasserhaeufigkeiten und auf das Wasserkraftpotential in Deutschland und Europa unter Verwendung langfristiger Aenderungszenarien eingesetzt. Das raeumlich hochaufloesende, polygonbasiert arbeitende hydrologische Modellierungssystem ARC/EGMO (mesoskalig, Zeitschritt: 1 Tag) wird zur raeumlich und zeitlich differenzierten Untersuchung der Auswirkungen von Klima- und Landnutzungsaenderungen auf das Abflussverhalten in Flussgebieten unterschiedlicher Groesse eingesetzt, wobei der Modellierungsaufwand entsprechend hoeher ist. Im Rahmen des Projektverbunds erfolgt die Anwendung im Elbe- oder Odergebiet. Mithilfe des komplexen, hochaufloesenden Modellsystems GESIMA/SEWAB/TOPMODEL (mesoskalig, Zeitschritt: 1 Stunde und kleiner) wird die Entstehung von Hochwasser

  6. 61 analyse des modes de coordination inter-organisationnelle cas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environnement et ... analyse descriptive (description des profils des entreprises échantillo- nnées) et explicative (mise en relation des .... des projets communs et de finalités partagées dans la mobilisation des parties prenantes, à la réalisation des ...

  7. Current algebra; Algebre des courants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( {delta}I = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [French] La premiere partie de ce cours (trois premiers chapitres), traite des generalites concernant l'algebre de courants. Apres une definition rapide des courants faibles et un rappel de leurs proprietes (hypothese V-A, conservation du courant vecteur, regles de selection, courant axial partiellement conserve,...), l'on introduit l'algebre de Gell-Mann SU (3) x SU (3), et discute les proprietes generales de l'Hamiltonien faible non leptonique. Les chapitres IV a IX sont consacres a des applications importantes de l'algebre des courants. En premier lieu l'on demontre la formule de Adler et Weisberger, par deux methodes differentes, celle dite du repere de moment infini et celle des singularites proches. Cette derniere est seule utilisee dans la suite. Puis, l'on traite successivement les problemes suivants: desintegrations semi-leptoniques des mesons K et des hyperons, theoreme de Kroll

  8. 155 Evaluation de la qualité nutritive des laits pasteurisés et des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIDNANG KOYE CESAR

    Enseignement en Santé et .... bon circuit de distribution qui tiennent compte des besoins des consommateurs des produits laitiers [2]. Avec l'accroissement de la population globale et celle des centres urbains, les produits laitiers occupent une place de.

  9. Incidence de la hausse des taxes sur le tabac et du prix des produits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les trois pays ont récemment adopté de telles mesures, mais il reste des obstacles à surmonter et des lacunes à combler sur le plan des connaissances. La volonté politique d'appliquer des ... Impact of Tobacco Taxes and Price Increases in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus. Research aimed at policymakers in Ukraine, Russia ...

  10. Taux des lipides et des protéines et composition en acides gras du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taux des lipides et des protéines et composition en acides gras du tissu comestible des crustacés et des mollusques pêchés en Algérie : Effet du halofénozide (RH-0345) sur la composition en acides gras de Penaeus kerathurus (Crustacé, Décapode).

  11. Etude de la pollution des eaux des oueds Seybouse et Mellah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resume. L'objet de cette etude est d'experimenter un protocole de travail base sur des prelevements de surface et de puits de particuliers en vue d'etablir la qualite des eaux et d'assoir des bases de donnees relatives a la pollution hydrique en Algerie. Les resultats des analyses chimiques montrent pour les deux oueds un ...

  12. Renforcement des stratégies locales de gestion des zones sylvo ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Studies. Pâturages de saison des pluies dans un espace sylvopastoral de Thaiytou (Bambey) : mémoire. Studies. Évaluation des potentialités des parcours communautaires de Thiaytou (Bambey) : mémoire. Studies. Flore et végétation des parcours communautaires de Thiaytou (département de Bambey) : mémoire.

  13. Biodiversité et valeur alimentaire des fruits au Cameroun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction : La promotion de l'arboriculture fruitière (familiale ou industrielle) est une des priorités de la Recherche et Développement agricole au Cameroun. Cependant, faute de statistiques fiables, elle semble méconnue et sous-estimée notamment dans les zones semi-arides en proie à une insécurité ...

  14. 182 Dynamique de l'exploitation des crabes nageurs callinectes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L500-1WM

    estimée à 823 tonnes /an est faible comparativement aux productions annuelles de la lagune Ebrié et de la lagune Aby et cela est lié à la forte pression exercée par la pêche et la fermeture progressive de la passe qui influence directement le cycle hydrologique lagunaire et par ricochet le recrutement des crabes nageurs.

  15. Étude comparative des transferts financiers intergouvernementaux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aux Philippines, on estime à 14 % la proportion d'écoliers qui souffrent de malnutrition aiguë. Les écoles offrent des voies stratégiques et ciblées pour fournir une alimentation nutritive aux enfants et, indirectement, à leurs familles et leurs collectivités. Un projet de recherche d'une durée de trois ans (de 2012 à 2015) a mis ...

  16. CCC/WPA study : Des Lacs NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp at Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge from July 1935-May 1942 to carry on restoration and development of Des...

  17. La recherche en action : des solutions locales, des effets durables ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2010 ... Martti Ahtisaari, ancien président de la Finlande, a reçu le prix Nobel de la paix 2008, en octobre, pour le rôle qu'il a joué dans le règlement des conflits en Namibie, en Indonésie, au Kosovo, en Iraq et ailleurs. Lors du gala LINK-live 2009, qui faisait partie des activités tenues à l'occasion de l'investiture du ...

  18. determination des parametres influents de la dynamique des forets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    étude confirment l'impact positif des éclaircies sélectives sur la dynamique de ces deux types de forêts. Le ... Il ressort en outre que la productivité des forêts naturelles ne dépend pas uniquement de la compétition interspécifique. Elle dépend aussi de la ...... Chave J., J. Olivier, F. Bongers, P. Châtelet, P. M.. Forget, P. Meer ...

  19. Dosimetrie et radioprotection des patients lors des examens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Méthodologies : Etude rétrospective des rapports de doses de 660 scanners de la tête, du thorax, de l'abdomen et du pelvis des adultes de plus 15 ans réalisés au pavillon scanner du CHU-SO de juillet à décembre 2011. Résultats : La tête était la région la plus explorée (565), suivie de thorax (43), de l'abdomen (33) et ...

  20. Administrateur de programme, Application des connaissances ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions L'administrateur de programme, Application des connaissances est chargé de faire la promotion du travail du Centre d'excellence sur les systèmes d'ESEC en élaborant et en mettant en oeuvre sa stratégie de communication et en établissant ses liens avec le programme Santé des mères et des ...

  1. Approche ethnobotanique et ethnopharmacologique des plantes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infirmiers ayant fait partie de l'équipe des. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) lors des campagnes de prise en charge des patients atteints d'UB. La fiche ... soins administrés à base de ces remèdes aux patients ont permis d'enregistrer les informations relatives aux organes d'espèces de plantes récoltées, ainsi qu'au mode ...

  2. Facteurs climatiques et environnementaux des risques palustres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La santé des populations est tributaire des conditions climatiques et environnementales dans lesquelles elles vivent. La présente étude analyse les liens entre le climat, l'environnement et la prévalence du paludisme dans le Département des Collines. L'analyse des données pluviométriques, thermométriques et ...

  3. Developpement des systemes de production innovants d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elles représentent une alternative dans la gestion des risques et des incertitudes pour les agro-éleveurs, confrontés aux changements globaux (climatiques, pression foncière, dégradation des ressources naturelles). L'objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la contribution des associations maïs/légumineuses dans ...

  4. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    sols non protégés à des phénomènes violents (pluies orageuses, érosion éolienne et hydrique). Ceci compromet le potentiel des pratiques actuelles de gestion des terres à maintenir les ressources naturelles, contribuant ainsi au déboisement, à l'érosion des sols, à leurs appauvrissement en matières organiques et à.

  5. Etude des potentialites germinatives pour une regeneration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les différents aspects germinatifs du fruit de Neocarya macrophylla, ressource génétique fruitière spontanée du Niger, ont fait l'objet d'analyses. L'étude des performances germinatives de cette espèce a donc porté sur des graines récentes et des graines conservées à la température ambiante dans des flacons en verre ...

  6. Development and validation of calculation schemes dedicated to the interpretation of small reactivity effects for nuclear data improvement; Developpement et validation de schemas de calcul dedies a l'interpretation des mesures par oscillation pour l'amelioration des donnees nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruel, A.

    2011-10-24

    afin d'obtenir des informations pertinentes sur les donnees nucleaires de base. L'enjeu de cette these est le developpement d'un schema de calcul de reference, dont les incertitudes sont clairement identifiees et quantifiees, permettant l'interpretation des mesures par oscillation. Dans ce document plusieurs methodes de calcul de ces faibles effets en reactivite sont presentees, basees sur des codes de calculs neutroniques deterministes et/ou stochastiques. Ces methodes sont comparees sur un benchmark numerique, permettant leur validation par rapport a un calcul de reference. Trois applications sont ici presentees dans le detail: une methode purement deterministe utilisant la theorie des perturbations exacte pour la qualification des sections efficaces des principaux produits de fission en REP, dans le cadre d'etudes sur l'estimation de la perte du reactivite du combustible au cours du cycle; une methode hybride, basee sur un calcul stochastique et la theorie des perturbations exacte, permet d'obtenir un retour precis sur les donnees nucleaires de bases d'isotopes, dans notre cas l'{sup 241}Am; et enfin, une troisieme methode, reposant sur un calcul perturbatif Monte Carlo, est utilisee pour une etude de conception

  7. LES APPROCHES PSYCHOSOCIOLOGIQUES DES ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconu Alecxandrina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations pour bien comprendre la complexité des organisations sont bien connues dans la théorie et la pratique du management. La motivation la plus fréquente pour toutes les recherches et les investigationes faites a été fondée sur le besoin de savoir gérer les situations diverses en vue de maximiser la performance organisationnelle. En ce qui nous concerne, pour enrichir les informations disponibles, nous voulons élargir, dans notre communication, les approches traditionelles, focaliser l’attention sur la dimension psychologiques des organisations et présenter les mécanismes qui favorisent l’implication des salariés.

  8. Des Balkans About the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Matvejević

    2012-01-01

    Les Balkans témoignent de contradictions géographiques et politiques, perceptibles dans le changement d’appellation des lieux au cours de l’Histoire : de la péninsule illyrienne, grecque, byzantine à la « Turquie d’Europe » plus récente. Il est resté une dénomination venue des Turcs, les « Balkans ». Cette presqu’île n’offre pas de frontières naturelles difficiles à franchir. Les délimitations des géographes et historiens sont relatives et souvent arbitraires, et donc contestées. Sa définitio...

  9. Perceptions locales de la manifestation des changements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2014 ... climatiques et mesures d'adaptation dans la gestion de la fertilité des sols dans la Commune de. Banikoara au Nord-Bénin. 7418 ..... (Cpost), Diversification des cultures (DCU), Billonnage (Bil), Zéro labour (ZL), Cordon pierreux (CP), Sacs de sable (SS),. Fascines (Fasc), Multiplication des points d'eau ...

  10. Wandel des Unternehmertums in der Landwirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Gindele, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Der kontinuierlich voranschreitende Strukturwandel in der Landwirtschaft und deren vor- und nachgelagerten Bereichen ist Ausgangspunkt der vorliegenden kumulativen Dissertation. Im ersten Teil der Dissertation werden die Herausforderungen, mit denen sich die Landwirtschaft aufgrund des strukturellen als auch des demografischen Wandels auseinandersetzen muss, thematisiert. Hierbei steht der Wandel des Unternehmertums in der Landwirtschaft im Zentrum. Es wird analysiert, inwiefern ein Wandel vo...

  11. Innovation, apprentissage et cadres institutionnels dans des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Innovation, apprentissage et cadres institutionnels dans des secteurs de transformation des ressources naturelles (Argentine, Brésil et Chili). Ce projet vise à trouver des moyens pour que les pays ... Études. Technological Opportunities In Nr Based Industries. Rapports. Technological Opportunities In Nr Based Industries ...

  12. Evaluer des études de gestion des entreprises : combiner des éléments principales avec des éléments pratiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennink, B.J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluer la recherche de gestion demande une combinaison des critères classiques et des critères pratiques. Par cette combinaison il est possible de trouver une réponse cerrecte concernant la validité et l'effet de la recherche. Dans cet article nous allons décrire comment une combinaison des

  13. Pratiques agricoles et perceptions paysannes des impacts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    les perceptions paysannes des impacts environnementaux et les risques de dégradation des ressources naturelles dans la zone cotonnière de l'Est (Province de la ... l'une des grandes causes (INERA, 2000 ; MECV,. 2004 ; Simonsson, 2005). ..... (Hartemink et Bridges, 1995 ; INERA, 2000 ;. Hibra-Samgue, 2004 ; FAO, ...

  14. Localisation nasosinusienne des tumeurs plasmocytaires | Kallel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Localisation nasosinusienne des tumeurs plasmocytaires. S Kallel, A Chakroun, H Hadj Taieb, H Mnif, I Charfeddine, M Mnejja, B Hammami, A Ghorbel. Abstract. Introduction : Les tumeurs plasmocytaires représentent 3 à 4% des tumeurs des cavités naso-sinusiennes. Elles nécessitent un bilan diagnostique spécifique et ...

  15. A comparison of estimated drug costs of potentially inappropriate medications between older patients receiving nurse home visit services and patients receiving pharmacist home visit services: a cross-sectional and propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Jun; Ozone, Sachiko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2015-02-21

    There have been no multicenter studies that estimated the relations of either nurse or pharmacist home visit program to drug costs of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). This study aimed to establish whether patients who used nurse or pharmacist home visit programs (nurse or pharmacist program) had lower drug costs of PIMs than those who did not use nurse or pharmacist programs for older patients living at home. This cross-sectional study was conducted in home care settings in Japan, involving 430 patients aged 65 or older, of whom 276 were female. All received regular home visits from five clinics between May and December 2013. After the PIMs were identified with the Screening Tool of Older Persons' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria, we estimated the drug costs based on actual pharmaceutical prices and measured against who using nurse or pharmacist programs after a propensity score weighted adjustment. Patients who used nurse programs had lower drug cost of PIMs than those who did not use, but it was not significantly different (5.9 ± 13.1 vs 7.1 ± 13.9 USD per month, P = 0.199). The cost of PIMs for patients who used pharmacist programs also had no difference. (7.2 ± 14.5 vs 5.5 ± 11.5 USD per month, P = 0.06). In the patient groups who used nurse programs, patients who also used pharmacist programs had significantly higher costs of PIMs than those who used only nurse programs (5.5 ± 13.9 vs 2.5 ± 6.0 USD per month, P = 0.006). In patients group who did not use pharmacist programs, patients who only used nurse programs had significantly lower costs of PIMs than those who did not use nurse programs (3.6 ± 7.7 vs 5.8 ± 12.7 USD per month, P = 0.022). Patients who used nurse program have a trend towards lower drug costs of PIMs than those who used nurse and pharmacist program or pharmacist program alone. Although this study tried to adjust the potential confounders as possible as we could by using propensity score analysis

  16. Gestion des forêts et des ressources hydriques pour l'atténuation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gestion des forêts et des ressources hydriques pour l'atténuation des effets des changements climatiques dans les collines du centre du Népal ... Ce projet vise à combler ce manque en documentant les effets spécifiques des changements de régime climatique sur les systèmes agricoles, les forêts, les ressources ...

  17. Contamination du sol, de l'eau et des produits maraîchers par des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... de l'eau et des produits maraîchers par des substances toxiques et des métaux ... L'usage non maîtrisé d'intrants agricoles et de pesticides a des effets sur la ... maraîchères sont contaminées par des métaux lourds notamment le plomb, ...

  18. Utilisation des cahiers d'activites dans l'enseignement des sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation sans discernement des dits cahiers dans l'enseignement des sciences de la vie et de la terre (SVT) pose un véritable problème d'éthique et de pratique enseignante de la part, aussi bien des enseignants auteurs que des enseignants utilisateurs. L'objectif de cette étude est d'explorer les perceptions des ...

  19. Agent des projets et des partenariats (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    appuie la coordination des activités de mobilisation de ressources et des bailleurs de fonds (politiques et planification, etc.) et l'appui au Comité de gestion de la haute direction et au Conseil des gouverneurs;; facilite des relations clés entre la DPDA et des clients (programmes et bureaux régionaux), le conseiller juridique ...

  20. Bourse de recherche : Santé des mères et des enfants | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 sept. 2017 ... Le boursier travaille à la réalisation de ses objectifs de recherche au sein d'une dynamique équipe d'un programme ou d'une division du CRDI. Le programme Santé des mères et des enfants du CRDI a pour objectif de sauver et d'améliorer la vie des femmes, des adolescents et des enfants, en élaborant ...

  1. Des villages au Népal se préparent à des conditions climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 avr. 2012 ... Dans les collines du centre du pays, l'augmentation des températures et la sécheresse ont causé des feux qui ont ravagé d'immenses étendues de forêt, dénudant le sol, ainsi rendu sujet à l'érosion. Des précipitations soudaines et intenses ont provoqué des glissements de terrain et la disparition des ...

  2. Potentiel en biogaz des résidus agropastoraux et des excréments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La potentialité en biogaz des excréments humains et des résidus agropastoraux du bassin versant du fleuve Sassandra (BVS) a été évaluée à partir des statistiques agricoles et de la population, ainsi que des indices de productivité de biogaz. Egalement, la mise en oeuvre des technologies de production de biogaz dans ...

  3. L'émancipation des femmes et des collectivités africaines par l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 nov. 2011 ... De concert avec des institutions financières et des organisations non gouvernementales, des gestionnaires de projet ont travaillé à l'établissement de « banques ... C'est là qu'elle s'est rendu compte de la marginalisation des femmes en ce qui a trait à la prise de décision et à la planification des projets.

  4. Synthèse des faits empiriques et des leçons : Comment l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    5 déc. 2013 ... APPEL À MANIFESTATIONS D'INTÉRÊT. Synthèse des faits empiriques et des leçons : Comment l'autonomisation économique des femmes et l'égalité des sexes favorisent-elles la croissance ? Date de diffusion : le 9 octobre 2013. Date butoir pour la présentation des demandes : le 5 décembre 2013, ...

  5. Architecture, des normes et des systèmes d'information libres, phase ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Architecture, des normes et des systèmes d'information libres, phase II (OASIS II) - Renforcement des capacités dans l'ensemble de l'Afrique. Sur presque tout le continent africain, la prestation des services de santé est limitée en raison des maigres ressources disponibles et de la charge de morbidité de plus en plus ...

  6. Dégâts des bruches sur le pouvoir germinatif des graines de quatre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 févr. 2016 ... développement des moisissures et autres parasites. L'effet additif des différents dégâts peut occasionner des pertes économiques de 100%, car avec des .... Bruchidae ravageurs des légumineuses alimentaires au Sahel séminaire sur la lutte intégrée au Sahel du 03 au 09 Avril : 393. Dakar. (Sénégal).

  7. Banque de Brevets : petits exercices avec résultats : théorie des poutres (résistance des matériaux), dynamique des structures, incertitudes, mathématiques, mécanique des solides déformables, modélisation des solides, mécanique des fluides, pédagogie par CRAIES et ceintures

    OpenAIRE

    Génevaux, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Engineering school; Petits exercices avec résultats : théorie des poutres (résistance des matériaux), dynamique des structures, incertitudes, mathématiques, mécanique des solides déformables, modélisation des solides, mécanique des fluides, pédagogie par CRAIES et ceintures

  8. Caractérisation des plantes médicinales à flavonoïdes des marchés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les plantes à flavonoïdes constituent un atout majeur pour le maintien de la santé. Le présent travail a été conduit dans deux marchés de la ville de Douala afin de valoriser l'utilisation des plantes à flavonoïdes dans la médecine traditionnelle. Des enquêtes ethnobotaniques réalisées auprès de 40 vendeurs des plantes ...

  9. Apprentissage des langues et traduction

    OpenAIRE

    Malmkjær, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Traduction d'un chapitre d'ouvrage :MALMKJÆR, Kirsten. Language learning and translation. Handbook of Translation Studies, 2010, vol. 1, p. 185-190, ISBN 9789027203311 Traducteur : Damien Rocher; S’il est évident que l’apprentissage ou l’acquisition d’une langue constitue un prérequis à la pratique de la traduction, le rôle que la traduction pourrait jouer dans l’apprentissage et l’acquisition des langues fait débat dans le monde occidental , aussi bien en traductologie qu’en didactique des l...

  10. Traits morphologiques des graines et vigueur des jeunes plants de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    écologique du Sénégal afin de pouvoir sélectionner une meilleure semence qui sera destinée aux programmes de développement des énergies renouvelables. Journal of Applied Biosciences 88:8249– 8255. ISSN 1997–5902 ...

  11. Classification of 25 DES supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcino, J.; Davis, T. M.; Hoormann, J. K.; Asorey, J.; Glazebrook, K.; Carnero, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Muthukrishna, D. R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Hinton, S.; Lewis, G. F.; Parkinson, D.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Maartens, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.

    2018-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  12. Classification of 26 DES supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcino, J.; Davis, T. M.; Hoormann, J. K.; Asorey, J.; Glazebrook, K.; Carnero, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Muthukrishna, D. R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Hinton, S.; Lewis, G. F.; Parkinson, D.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Maartens, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.

    2018-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  13. Classification of 13 DES supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, E.; Allam, S.; Tucker, D.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Kremlin, A.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Moller, A.; Muthukrishna, D. R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Hinton, S.; Parkinson, D.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Maartens, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2018-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  14. Comportement des polluants des eaux pluviales urbaines en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VIS. Thèse de. Doctorat en sciences et techniques de l'environnement. Université d'Annaba, Algérie. 167p. [11] Bressy A., 2010. Flux de micropolluants dans les eaux de ruissellement urbaines. Effets de différents modes de gestion des eaux ...

  15. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  16. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  17. Classification of 17 DES supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishna, D.; Sharp, R. G.; Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Asorey, J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Mould, J.; Macaulay, E.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Parkinson, D.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2017-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  18. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  19. Classification of 13 DES supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, N.; Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Gshwend, J.; Martini, P.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  20. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  1. Classification of 8 DES Supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; OâNeill, C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Classification of 11 DES supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R.; Zhang, B.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Asorey, J.; Mould, J.; Smith, M.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Yuan, F.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2017-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  3. Classification of 2 DES supernova with OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, C. R.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.

    2016-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  4. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  5. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  6. Des experts discutent des conflits non conventionnels dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La violence armée est de plus en plus fréquente en temps de paix. Les 12 et 13 février 2015, des experts se sont réunis à Washington, D.C. pour aborder les principaux défis à relever en vue de faire face à la violence et aux conflits non conventionnels.

  7. Traits morphologiques des graines et vigueur des jeunes plants de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    écologique du Sénégal afin de pouvoir sélectionner une meilleure semence qui sera destinée aux programmes de développement des énergies renouvelables. Morphological traits of seeds and seedling vigor of two sources of Jatropha curcas L. in ...

  8. Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La majeure partie de la production de tabac du Kenya a lieu dans le sud de la province de Nyanza, où la superficie des terres consacrées à la culture du tabac a connu une croissance rapide, et ce, souvent au ... African newsletter on occupational health and safety : infectious diseases, volume 17, number 2, August 2007.

  9. Improvements in fast-neutron spectroscopy methods (1961); Amelioration des methodes de spectrometrie des neutrons rapides (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambou, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    This research aimed at improving fast-neutron electronic detectors based on n-p elastic scattering. The first part concerns proportional counters; careful constructional methods have made it possible to plot mono-energetic neutron spectra in the range 700 keV - 3 MeV with a resolution of 7 per cent. The second part concerns scintillation counters: an organic scintillator and an inorganic scintillator covered with a thin layer of a scattering agent. An exact study of the types of scintillation has made it possible to develop efficient discriminator circuits. Different neutron spectra plotted in the presence of a strong gamma background are presented. The last part deals with the development of form discrimination methods for the study, in the actual beam, of the elastic scattering of 14.58 MeV electrons. With hydrogen, the distribution f ({phi}) of the recoil protons is f({phi}) = 1 + 0.034 cos {phi} + 0.042 cos{sup 2} {phi}. With tritium the scattering is strongly anisotropic; the curve representing the variation of the differential cross-section for the elastic scattering in the centre of mass system is obtained with a target containing 1 cm{sup 3} of tritium. (author) [French] Le travail a porte sur l'amelioration des detecteurs electroniques de neutrons rapides bases sur la diffusion elastique n-p. La premiere partie est relative aux compteurs proportionnels; des methodes soignees de fabrication ont permis des traces de spectres de neutrons monoenergetiques dans le domaine 700 keV - 3 MeV avec une resolution de 7 pour cent. La deuxieme partie est relative au compteur a scintillations; scintillateur organique et scintillateur mineral recouvert d'un diffuseur mince. Une etude precise des formes de scintillations a permis la mise au point de circuits discriminateurs efficaces. Differents spectres de neutrons traces en presence d'un fond gamma intense sont presentes. La derniere partie est relative a la mise en oeuvre des methodes de discrimination de

  10. Analyse du debit de filtration glomerulaire de repos chez des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyse du debit de filtration glomerulaire de repos chez des joueuses de sports collectifs au Benin. ... Dans le groupe étudié, la valeur moyenne de la créatininémie est de 9,5 ± 1,2 mg/L. Le DFG moyen estimé avec l'équation MDRD (74,2 ± 11,6 mL/min/1,73 m2) était plus bas que celui estimé avec la formule CGc (89,4 ...

  11. La maison des mathématiques

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc...

  12. Les parcs des porcelainiers Haviland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Chabrely

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Les parcs du Reynou et de Mont-Méry en Limousin, anciennes propriétés des porcelainiers Haviland, présentent l’un et l’autre un grand intérêt paysager et botanique. Dans les deux cas, l’attribution de la création est incertaine. Cet article propose pour le Reynou une analyse de documents figurés anciens permettant de préciser la chronologie des travaux du château et du parc. Pour Mont-Méry il s’agit de poser de nouveaux jalons pour une étude plus approfondie des sources et de la composition des jardins afin d’envisager de nouvelles pistes pour leur attribution.The Reynou and Mont-Méry parks near Limoges originally belonged to the city’s porcelain manufacturers, the Havilands. Both parks are of considerable interest in terms of their landscaping and their botany. In both cases, there is some uncertainty as to the identity of their designers. This article offers an analysis of the graphic representations of the Reynou park, clarifying the chronology of the creation of the château and its park. For the Mont-Méry park, the aim is to offer some guidelines for further research in the source material and on the design of the park itself, perhaps allowing for the designer to be identified.

  13. Determination experimentale des principales caracteristiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit de la masse volumique basale, des taux de retraits totaux linéaire et volumique, du module d'Young dans la direction du fil du bois en flexion quatre points ainsi que la contrainte de rupture en traction simple, en compression simple, au cisaillement simple et enflexion quatre points. Borassus aethiopum is a palm ...

  14. Osteoporose - die Sicht des Radiologen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grampp S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Die frühe Diagnose der Osteoporose und eine akkurate Beurteilung von Behandlungserfolgen stehen im Mittelpunkt der radiologischen Bemühungen. Die häufigsten angewendeten Methoden, um das periphere Skelett sowie das Achsenskelett zu beurteilen, sind die Zwei-Spektren-Röntgenabsorptiometrie, die quantitative Computertomographie und der quantitative Ultraschall. Generell werden die Meßergebnisse eines Individuums mit einer alters-, geschlechts-, und rassenspezifischen Kontrollgruppe verglichen. In diesem Zusammenhang ist die Bestimmung der Knochenmasse ein Indikator des künftigen Frakturrisikos eines Patienten. Die radiologische Diagnose der Osteoporose kann durch die Bestimmung der Knochenmasse erfolgen, auch wenn keine prävalenten Frakturen vorliegen. Das Frakturrisiko für den Meßwert eines Individuums steigt um etwa das 1,5 bis 2,5-fache für jede Standardabweichung (SD unter der Spitzenknochenmasse der Normbevölkerung (T-score. Die Wahl des Meßortes und der Untersuchungstechnik zur Bestimmung der Knochenmasse oder des Frakturrisikos muß sich nach individuellen Gegebenheiten des Patienten sowie den Stärken und Limitationen der Techniken richten.

  15. Reduction des effectifs ou licenciements

    CERN Multimedia

    Maiani, Luciano

    2002-01-01

    "Vous faites un amalgame entre la reduction en cours des effectifs du CERN (organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire) et les economies que le laboratoire doit realiser dans les cinq ans a venir pour financer le projet de grand collisionneur de hadrons (Le Monde du 4 septembre)" (1/2 page).

  16. Recherche des oscillations de Neutrinos $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gangler, E

    1997-01-01

    Le detecteur nomad, place sur le faisceau de neutrinos wide-band-beam du sps, de contamination en neutrino tau marginale, permet de rechercher des oscillations neutrino muon - tau dans la region de pertinence cosmologique et de distinguer statistiquement les courants charges des neutrinos tau essentiellement par leur mesure cinematique. Une large part du travail de these a donc ete consacree a la reconstruction des evenements dans les chambres a derive, cible instrumentee et cur de l'experience, dont la physique de detection est decrite. Une methode de recherche de traces fut developpee, utilisant certaines informations d'un autre sous-detecteur de nomad, le trd. Pour combler une perte d'efficacite de reconstruction, une methode de recherche de traces courtes s'appuyant sur des vertex deja constitues fut developpee en exploitant les potentialites du filtre de kalman, algorithme iteratif d'ajustement de traces. Ces methodes sont utilisees en production par la collaboration. Cette these porte sur la recherche d...

  17. Determinants Sociodemographiques Des Exploitants Rizicoles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Le riz connaît une importance croissante en Côte d'Ivoire, à l'instar des autres pays d'Afrique Subsaharienne. En vue de lutter contre l'insécurité alimentaire, ... This study aims to analyze the sociodemographic determinants of rice production in Yamoussoukro. For data collection, a questionnaire was administered ...

  18. L'apprentissage de la redaction à l'epreuve des manuels scolaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Plane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La pratique de la rédaction dès le début de la scolarité se met en place en France officiellement à partir de 1880. Toutefois, son enseignement ne va pas s’imposer sans difficulté. En effet, les programmes donnent des directives parfois contradic-toires et les procédures mises en place par les enseignants se révèlent partiellement inefficaces si bien que les résultats sont estimés trop faibles par l’Institution. Dans la bataille des idées qui conduit à une évolution des textes réglementaires mais aussi à des pratiques divergentes, quel a été le rôle des manuels ? Notre contribution se propose d’alimenter la réflexion sur les fonctions et la place des manuels dans l’enseignement de la rédaction à travers la comparaison de trois manuels scolaires à usage dans les classes de fin d’école primaire (cours moyen au cours de la période allant de l’après-guerre jusqu’au « Plan de rénovation de l’enseignement du français » (1971. Ces trois ouvrages (1947, 1956, 1969 révèlent, à travers leurs interprétations des programmes, des influences sociales et idéologiques contrastées. Ils renseignent sur les interrogations qui traversent la communauté éducative sur le statut des savoirs, les modes d’enseignement et d’apprentissage et les finalités de l’école.

  19. Modèle de confinement pour les colonnes de section circulaire en béton armé confiné avec des enveloppes en polymère renforcé de fibres de carbone Confinement model for circular RC columns wrapped with CFRP composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzaid R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Un programme experimental comprenant des essais sur 30 cylindres 160×320 mm a ete mene en vue de determiner le gain de resistance et de ductilite du beton confine par collage externe de tissu de polymere renforce de fibres de carbone (PRFC. Les variables etudiees sont la resistance a la compression du beton non confine f’co, le niveau de confinement, exprime par le nombre de plis de PRFC applique aux eprouvettes. La deformation circonferentielle a la rupture du composite PRF et l’feffet de la pression de confinement laterale effective de l’fenveloppe composite ont ete egalement etudies. Pour l’fensemble des specimens testes, l’faugmentation de la rigidite du confinement entraine a la fois une augmentation significative de la resistance a la compression axiale et de la ductilite des specimens en beton confine avec des PRFC par rapport aux specimens en beton non confine. Base sur les resultats experimentaux, un modele de confinement pratique est propose pour predire la resistance a la compression maximale du beton confine avec des materiaux composites (f’cc et la deformation axiale correspondante (εcc. The present paper deals with the analysis of experimental results, in terms of load carrying capacity and strains, obtained from tests on plain- and reinforced- concrete (RC cylinder, strengthened with external carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP. The parameters considered are the number of composite layers, the compressive strength of unconfined concrete. The effective circumferential FRP failure strain and the effect of the effective lateral confining pressure were investigated. Totally thirty cylinders (160×320 mm were subjected to axial compression which includes control specimens. All the test specimens were loaded to failure in axial compression and the behaviour of the specimens in the axial and transverse directions was investigated. Test results shown that the CFRP wrap increases the strength and ductility of reinforced

  20. Physics of the fuel cycle. Evaluation of methods, uncertainties and estimation of the material balance for fuels UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}; Physique du cycle du combustible evaluation des methodes, incertitudes et estimation du bilan matiere pour les combustibles UO{sub 2} et UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monier, C

    1997-09-01

    The research works of this thesis are aimed to evaluate the methods and the associated uncertainties for the material balances estimation of the burn-up UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels which intervene in the fuel cycle physics. The studies carried out are used to qualify the cycle `package` DARWIN for the PWRs material balances estimation. The elaboration and optimisation of the calculation routes are carried out following a very specific methodology, aimed at estimating the bias introduced by the modelizations simplification by a comparison with almost exact reference modelizations. Depending on the precision goals and the informations, the permissible approximation will be determined. Two calculation routes have been developed and the qualified by applying them to the used fuels isotopic analysis interpretation: one `industry-oriented` calculation route which can calculate full UO{sub 2} assemblies material balances with a 2 % precision on the main actinides, respecting the industrial specifications. This route must run with a reasonable calculation time and stay user-friendly; one reference calculation route for the precise interpretation of fuel samples made of pieces of burn-up MOX rods. Aiming to provide material balances with the best possible precision, this route does not have the same specifications concerning its use and its calculation time performance. (author)

  1. Détermination expérimentale des coefficients d'échange thermique en mode de convection naturelle - Application à une machine électrique intégrée dans son environnement

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Bassel; Friedrich, Guy; El Kadri Benkara, Khadija; Vivier, Stephane; Khlissa, Radhouane; Michon, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Cet article propose d'évaluer la précision des corrélations analytiques classiques de convection naturelle vers l'extérieur d'une machine totalement fermée et non ventilée en comparant les flux sortants par rapport aux pertes internes totales mesurées. En décomposant la machine en des géométries connues (cylindre, plaque,...), des corrélations analytiques et empiriques sont appliquées pour l'évaluation des coefficients de transfert thermique par convection naturelle. L'estimation des flux ext...

  2. Biologie des populations des Monogènes Polystomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TINSLEY R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Les cycles des monogènes polystomatidae montrent une très grande diversité. Parmi ceux qui infestent des amphibiens anoures, on devrait s'attendre à ce que la taille des populations parasites montre des différences prononcées, selon que des réinfestations interviennent régulièrement chaque année, ou qu'il n'y en ait qu'une dans la vie de l'hôte. Toutefois, à quelques exceptions près, les niveaux d'infestation sont généralement bas, quelle que soit la durée de vie de l'hôte. Les facteurs susceptibles de réguler les populations de polystomatidae parasites d'amphibiens anoures sont récapitulés ici, et nous nous penchons plus particulièrement sur les mécanismes contrôlant l'infestation et, par voie de conséquence, la survie post-infestation. Les effets d'un éventail de facteurs sont envisagés, parmi lesquels les contraintes environnementales externes (en particulier, la température, les facteurs liés à l'hôte (dont le comportement et la durée de vie et les facteurs propres au parasite (dont la compétition intraspécifique. Deux genres de Polystomatidae témoignent d'une régulation densité-dépendante des infrapopulations unique, contrôlée par la production de deux types de larves. Il existe des données de terrain et de laboratoire qui permettent de quantifier les effets de ces différents paramètres pour un certain nombre d'espèces de Polystomes. Les résultats obtenus pour Pseudodiplorchis americanus suggèrent que, même lorsqu'ils sont combinés, les effets de ces différents facteurs ne suffisent pas à rendre compte de la puissante régulation que l'on observe dans les populations naturelles où, malgré de massives infestations annuelles, les populations de parasites adultes sont faibles en effectif et remarquablement stables d'une année à l'autre. C'est la preuve indirecte qu'une importante régulation intervient par l'intermédiaire de l'immunité-hôte. Pour pouvoir pousser plus loin l

  3. L'astronomie des Anciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  4. Osteoporose und Genetik des Knochenstoffwechsels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermayer-Pietsch B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporose ist in hohem Maß genetisch determiniert. Neue Wege der molekularbiologischen Forschung haben sich in den letzten Jahren auf diesem Gebiet etabliert. "Gene mapping" mit polymorphen genetischen Markern auf der Suche nach Phänotyp-assoziierten Genen ist ein aufwendiges, aber vielversprechendes Verfahren und wird durch die Erkenntnisse des Human Genome Projects beschleunigt. So wurde jüngst u. a. das Low-density Lipoprotein 5-Gen als wichtig für den Knochenstoffwechsel identifiziert. Kandidaten-gene wie Hormonrezeptor-, Cytokin- oder Kollagen-Gene werden hinsichtlich ihrer Gen-Gen- und Gen-Umwelt- Interaktionen untersucht und erlauben neue funktionelle Einsichten in Erkrankungen des Knochenstoffwechsels. Mutationen der Kollagen-Gene sind bei einigen seltenen Erkrankungen, wie dem Osteoporose-Pseudogliom-Syndrom oder der Osteogenesis imperfecta gefunden worden, könnten aber auch für häufige Varianten von Bindegewebsstörungen wie der congenitalen Hüftdysplasie verantwortlich sein, die etwa 10 % der weiblichen kaukasischen Bevölkerung in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß betrifft. Osteoporose am Schenkelhals und erhöhte Gelenkslaxizität sowie andere generalisierte Veränderungen des Knochen- und Kollagenstoffwechsels können hier möglicherweise ebenfalls durch Störungen des Kollagen I alpha 1-Gens erklärt werden. In Summe können wir zahlreiche neue Einsichten in die Pathophysiologie des Skelettsystems erwarten, die uns auch neue Zugangswege für Diagnostik und Therapie unserer Patienten ermöglichen werden.

  5. Some economic aspects of natural uranium graphite gas reactor types. Present status and trends of costs in France; Quelques aspects economiques de la filiere uranium naturel - Graphite - gaz. Etat actuel et tendance des couts en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J.; Tanguy, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Leo, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    The first part of this report defines the economic advantages of natural uranium fuels, which are as follows: the restricted number and relatively simple fabrication processes of the fuel elements, the low cost per kWh of the finished product and the reasonable capital investments involved in this type of fuel cycle as compared to that of enriched uranium. All these factors combine to reduce the arbitrary nature of cost estimates, which is particularly marked in the case of enriched uranium due to the complexity of its cycle and the uncertainties of plutonium prices). Finally, the wide availability of yellowcake, as opposed to the present day virtual monopoly of isotope separation, and the low cost of natural uranium stockpiling, offer appreciable guarantees in the way of security of supply and economic and political independence as compared with the use of enriched uranium. As far as overall capital investments are concerned, it is shown that, although graphite-gas reactor costs are higher than those of light water reactors in certain capacity ranges, the situation becomes far less clear when we start taking into account, in the interest of national independence, the cost of nuclear fuel production equipment in the case of each of these types of reactor. Finally, the marginal cost of the power capacity of a graphite-gas reactor is low and its technological limitations have receded (owing particularly to the use of prestressed concrete). It is a well known fact that the trend is now towards larger power station units, which means that the rentability of natural uranium graphite reactors as compared to other types of reactors will become more and more pronounced. The second section aims at presenting a realistic short and medium term view of the fuel, running, and investment costs of French natural uranium graphite gas, reactors. Finally, the economic goals which this type of reactor can reach in the very near future are given. It is thus shown that considerable

  6. Injury of the ankle joint ligaments; Bandverletzungen des Sprunggelenks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenseher, M.J. [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landesklinikum Waldviertel Horn, Horn (Austria); Karl Landsteiner Institut, St. Poelten (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    The diagnosis of lateral collateral ankle ligament trauma is based on patient history, clinical examination and clinical stress tests. If the clinical stress test is positive, stress radiography can be performed. There is, however, no consensus about the usefulness of stress radiography in acute ankle sprain, and in particular about the cut-off talar tilt angle beyond which a two-ligament rupture would be certain, ranging from 5 to 30 . Today, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not used in this area, although it does allow controlled positioning of the foot and defined section visualization of injured lateral collateral ankle ligaments. In acute and chronic sinus tarsi injuries, MRI forms the established basis for diagnostic imaging, and can provide a definitive answer in most cases. MRI is also the method of choice for chronic posttraumatic pain with anterolateral impingement after rupture of the anterior talofibular ligament. Generally, for the evaluation of acute ankle injuries, MRI has developed to be the most important second-step procedure when projection radiology is non-diagnostic. (orig.) [German] Die Diagnose einer lateralen Bandverletzung nach einem Sprunggelenktrauma basiert auf der Anamnese, der klinischen Untersuchung und klinischen Stresstests. Bei positiven klinischen Stresstests kann eine Stressradiographie durchgefuehrt werden. Es gibt keine Uebereinstimmung hinsichtlich des Stellenwerts der Stressradiographie beim frischen Supinationstrauma des Sprunggelenks, insbesondere fuer den Winkel der Aufklappbarkeit bei einer Zweibandverletzung, der von 5 -30 reicht. Die MRT wird bei dieser Indikation zurzeit nur in Einzelfaellen benutzt, obwohl sie mit definierter Fusspositionierung und Ausrichtung der Untersuchungsebene eine ausgezeichnete Beurteilung der Sprunggelenkbaender erlaubt. Sie ist im besonderen Masse geeignet, akute und chronische Verletzungen des Sinus tarsi zu beurteilen. Bei chronischen Beschwerden nach Bandverletzung ist die MRT zur

  7. L’estime de soi : un cas particulier d’estime sociale ?

    OpenAIRE

    Santarelli, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Un des traits plus originaux de la théorie intersubjective de la reconnaissance d’Axel Honneth, consiste dans la façon dont elle discute la relation entre estime sociale et estime de soi. En particulier, Honneth présente l’estime de soi comme un reflet de l’estime sociale au niveau individuel. Dans cet article, je discute cette conception, en posant la question suivante : l’estime de soi est-elle un cas particulier de l’estime sociale ? Pour ce faire, je me concentre sur deux problèmes crucia...

  8. Des exemples d’explication du pluralisme cognitif par des interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrand, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Ayant rappelé quelques textes qui ont proposé des perspectives d’analyse de la multi-appartenance, des relations interpersonnelles, de la fonction cognitive des interactions, nous pouvons maintenant resserrer la focale en examinant des travaux qui, d’une part, sont uniquement contemporains et, d’autre part, sont limités à deux domaines particuliers : celui des opinions politiques et celui des représentations de l’infection par le VIH. Dans chacun de ces domaines nous examinerons plus particul...

  9. Estimating the prevalence of aero-allergy and/or food allergy in infants, children and young people with moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis in primary care: multi-centre, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-06-01

    We sought to determine the primary care-based prevalence of moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis in children and to estimate what proportion had co-morbid aero-allergy and/or food allergy that was contributing to their atopic eczema/dermatitis. Multi-centre, cross-sectional study. Infants, children and young people aged between 0-17 years. Primary Care. General practice electronic health records were interrogated to identify children (0-17 years) with current moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis. Eligible children were assessed by an allergy specialist nurse, this involving a detailed allergy history, examination and, if appropriate, measurement of total IgE and specific IgE to relevant aero-allergens and/or food allergens. Prevalence of atopic eczema, moderate to severe atopic eczema, IgE-mediated atopic eczema. We recruited eight practices, which together enrolled 16,877 children. Of these, 4331 (25.7%; 95% CI 25.0, 26.3) children had a recorded diagnosis of atopic eczema/dermatitis and 1316 (7.8%; 95% CI 7.4, 8.2) had treatment indicative of current moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis. We recruited 159 children for clinical assessment, and complete data were available for 157. The clinical assessment revealed that 130/157 (82.8%) had no indication of IgE-mediated allergy contributing to their atopic eczema/dermatitis; the remaining 27/157 (17.2%; 95% CI 12.1, 23.9) were on clinical assessment considered to possibly have underlying IgE-mediated disease. Specific IgE tests were positive in 14/27 (51.9%; 95% CI 34.0, 69.3) children. Of the 14 children who tested positive, six (42.9%; 95% CI 21.4, 67.4) were positive to food allergens and six (42.9%; 95% CI 21.4, 67.4) to aero-allergens; the remaining two (14.3%; 95% CI 4.0, 40.0) were positive to both food and aero-allergens. Although atopic eczema/dermatitis is a very common diagnosis in children in primary care, most appear to be relatively mild and/or transient. Only a small proportion of

  10. Estimating the prevalence of aero-allergy and/or food allergy in infants, children and young people with moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis in primary care: multi-centre, cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the primary care-based prevalence of moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis in children and to estimate what proportion had co-morbid aero-allergy and/or food allergy that was contributing to their atopic eczema/dermatitis. Design Multi-centre, cross-sectional study. Participants Infants, children and young people aged between 0–17 years. Setting Primary Care. Methods General practice electronic health records were interrogated to identify children (0–17 years) with current moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis. Eligible children were assessed by an allergy specialist nurse, this involving a detailed allergy history, examination and, if appropriate, measurement of total IgE and specific IgE to relevant aero-allergens and/or food allergens. Main outcome measures Prevalence of atopic eczema, moderate to severe atopic eczema, IgE-mediated atopic eczema. Results We recruited eight practices, which together enrolled 16,877 children. Of these, 4331 (25.7%; 95% CI 25.0, 26.3) children had a recorded diagnosis of atopic eczema/dermatitis and 1316 (7.8%; 95% CI 7.4, 8.2) had treatment indicative of current moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis. We recruited 159 children for clinical assessment, and complete data were available for 157. The clinical assessment revealed that 130/157 (82.8%) had no indication of IgE-mediated allergy contributing to their atopic eczema/dermatitis; the remaining 27/157 (17.2%; 95% CI 12.1, 23.9) were on clinical assessment considered to possibly have underlying IgE-mediated disease. Specific IgE tests were positive in 14/27 (51.9%; 95% CI 34.0, 69.3) children. Of the 14 children who tested positive, six (42.9%; 95% CI 21.4, 67.4) were positive to food allergens and six (42.9%; 95% CI 21.4, 67.4) to aero-allergens; the remaining two (14.3%; 95% CI 4.0, 40.0) were positive to both food and aero-allergens. Conclusions Although atopic eczema/dermatitis is a very common diagnosis in children in

  11. Combined effect of mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate in male Japanese health check-up examinees: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokaze Akatsuki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major public health issue. Although several studies have been performed on the association between alcohol consumption and CKD or renal function, it remains controversial. Numerous genetic polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with CKD and kidney function. Mitochondrial DNA cytosine/adenine (Mt5178 C/A polymorphism is associated with longevity in Japanese. This polymorphism modifies the effects of alcohol consumption on blood pressure, risk of hypertension, serum triglyceride levels, risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia and serum uric acid levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of alcohol consumption on renal function in male Japanese health check-up examinees. Methods A total of 394 male subjects aged 29–76 years were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the combined effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and habitual drinking on the risk of mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR (2 was conducted. Results For Mt5178A genotypic men, habitual drinking may increase eGFR (P for trend = 0.003 or reduce the risk of mildly decreased eGFR (P for trend = 0.003. Daily drinkers had a significantly higher eGFR than non-drinkers (P = 0.005. The crude odds ratio for decreased eGFR was significantly lower in daily drinkers than in non-drinkers (odds ratio = 0.092, 95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.727, P = 0.024. On the other hand, for Mt5178C genotypic men, habitual drinking does not appear to affect eGFR. Conclusion The present results suggest a joint effect of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on eGFR and the risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese subjects.

  12. Exposing the gaps in awareness, knowledge and estimation of risk for anal cancer in men who have sex with men living with HIV: a cross-sectional survey in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Ong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of anal cancer is significantly higher in men who have sex with men (MSM living with HIV when compared to the general population. We aimed to assess their awareness, knowledge and perceived level of personal risk for anal cancer to help inform educational strategies targeting this group. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 327 HIV positive MSM in Melbourne, Australia, attending clinical settings (a sexual health centre, tertiary hospital HIV outpatients and high HIV caseload general practices completed a written questionnaire in 2013/14. Poor knowledge was defined as those who had never heard of anal cancer, or scored 5 or less out of 10 in knowledge questions amongst those who reported ever hearing about anal cancer. Underestimation of risk was defined as considering themselves as having the same or lower risk for anal cancer compared to the general population. Results: Of 72% (95% confidence interval (CI: 67–77 who had heard of anal cancer, 47% (95% CI: 41–53 could not identify any risk factors for anal cancer. Of total men surveyed, 51% (95% CI: 46–57 underestimated their risk for anal cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that men who underestimated their risk were older (OR 1.04 (per year increase in age, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07, had poor anal cancer knowledge (OR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.21–3.51, and more likely to have ever had an anal examination (OR 2.41, 95% CI: 1.18–4.93. They were less likely to consult a physician if they had an anal abnormality (OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.96, to have had receptive anal sex (OR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.02–0.59 or speak English at home (OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09–0.90. Conclusions: This survey of MSM living with HIV demonstrated limited awareness, knowledge level and estimation of risk for anal cancer. Further educational and public health initiatives are urgently needed to improve knowledge and understanding of anal cancer risk in MSM living with HIV.

  13. The estimated GFR, but not the stage of diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion, is associated with the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Hidenori

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the relationship between the intima-media thickness (IMT of the carotid artery and the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion (UAE in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 338 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The carotid IMT was measured using an ultrasonographic examination. Results The mean carotid IMT was 1.06 ± 0.27 mm, and 42% of the subjects showed IMT thickening (≥ 1.1 mm. Cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease were frequent in the patients with IMT thickening. The carotid IMT elevated significantly with the stage progression of CKD (0.87 ± 0.19 mm in stage 1, 1.02 ± 0.26 mm in stage 2, 1.11 ± 0.26 mm in stage 3, and 1.11 ± 0.27 mm in stage 4+5. However, the IMT was not significantly different among the various stages of diabetic nephropathy. The IMT was significantly greater in the diabetic patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension. The IMT positively correlated with the age, the duration of diabetes mellitus, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities (baPWV, and negatively correlated with the eGFR. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, the eGFR and the baPWV were independently associated with the carotid IMT. Conclusions Our study is the first report showing a relationship between the carotid IMT and the renal parameters including eGFR and the stages of diabetic nephropathy with a confirmed association between the IMT and diabetic macroangiopathy. Our study further confirms the importance of intensive examinations for the early detection of atherosclerosis and positive treatments for hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, as well as hyperglycaemia are necessary when a reduced eGFR is found in diabetic patients.

  14. The total charm cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  15. Irradiation in helical scanner: doses estimation, parameters choice; Irradiation en scanner helicoidal: estimation des doses, choix des parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Boyer, B.; Jouan, E.; Beauvais, H

    2001-07-01

    The new generation of helical scanners improves the diagnosis abilities and the service done to the patients. The rational use allows to give the patients a ratio benefit/risk far better than the almost medical examinations. It is particularly true for over sixty years old aged people, that have a null genetic risk and a practically null carcinogen risk; However, for young adults and children, it is necessary to banish any useless irradiation and limit exposure to the strict necessary for the diagnosis. It is necessary to develop a radiation protection culture, possible by the radiation doses index display and doses benchmarks knowledge. (N.C.)

  16. COSWIN Logiciel de Maintenance des Equipements de Levage

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, B

    1999-01-01

    La section 'Maintenance d'équipements de levage' assure l'entretien préventif et correctif d'un parc de 2800 appareils de levage et de manutention. Cette tâche est effectuée en collaboration avec une entreprise, spécialisée dans la maintenance industrielle. Pour faciliter la gestion des interventions, la section ST-HM-PR dispose depuis 1985 d'un système de gestion de maintenance assistée par ordinateur (GMAO). En 1996, cet ancien système a été remplacé par le logiciel 'COSWIN'. Celui-ci correspond aux besoins de la maintenance des appareils de levage. Sa disponibilité sous la plate-forme 'WINDOWS' rend l'utilisation de la GMAO facile et conviviale. 'COSWIN' travaillant en réseau, la base de données est commune pour tous les utilisateurs et mise à jour en temps réel. Depuis leurs locaux, situés au Technoparc de St. Genis, les opérateurs de l'entreprise contractante ont accès au logiciel par une ligne téléphonique. Le contrôle et le suivi des performances de l'entreprise se fait par l'ana...

  17. Géographie des interfaces. Une nouvelle vision des territoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Redon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Littéralement, une interface est une surface de séparation entre deux états distincts de la matière. Le terme, ayant cheminé de la physique à la biologie, et aussi désormais d’usage répandu en informatique. En géographie, l’usage du mot s’est développé dans les années 1980 et peut être défini comme un espace permettant la mise en relation de deux espaces/territoires différents, influencé par des échanges entre l’un et l’autre, et se distinguant par là-même des deux espaces contigus. Intégrant...

  18. Enquête de satisfaction des restaurants

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Comité de surveillance des restaurants L’Association du personnel est représentée dans plusieurs comités dont le Comité de surveillance des restaurants (CSR) qui a pour mandat : de donner son avis sur toute question relative à la politique générale de l’Organisation en matière de restauration sur le site, y compris en ce qui concerne les termes et l’attribution des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants ; de définir dans le cadre des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants, les prestations correspondant aux besoins et, dans la mesure du possible, aux désirs du personnel ; de surveiller les prestations des restaurants, y compris en ce qui concerne la qualité et la préparation des produits ; de négocier avec les concessionnaires des restaurants au sujet des tarifs et de surveill...

  19. DES EFFETS DURABLES DES VIES TRANSFORMÉES

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En effet, depuis 2003, ce réseau d'experts en informatique financé par le CRDI travaille à l'élaboration de nouvelles techno- logies permettant aux ordinateurs de fonctionner dans des langues locales. Étant donné que l'on parle 3 500 langues différentes en Asie-. Pacifique et que moins de 10 % de la population peut ...

  20. evaluation des pratiques de gestion des adventices en riziculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le riz est l'aliment principal pour la quasi-totalité des populations vivant en Côte d'Ivoire. Cependant, les adventices sont considérées comme la contrainte biologique la plus importante faisant obstacle à la production rizicole. L'objectif de cette étude menée en 2015 était d'évaluer différentes techniques de gestion.