Sample records for estimating uranium partition

  1. A Conditional Density Estimation Partition Model Using Logistic Gaussian Processes


    Payne, Richard D.; Guha, Nilabja; Ding, Yu; Mallick, Bani K.


    Conditional density estimation (density regression) estimates the distribution of a response variable y conditional on covariates x. Utilizing a partition model framework, a conditional density estimation method is proposed using logistic Gaussian processes. The partition is created using a Voronoi tessellation and is learned from the data using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is made possible through a Laplace approximation on the ...

  2. Separation methods for estimating octanol-water partition coefficients. (United States)

    Poole, Salwa K; Poole, Colin F


    Separation methods for the indirect estimation of the octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) are reviewed with an emphasis on high throughput methods with a wide application range. The solvation parameter model is used to identify suitable separation systems for estimating logP in an efficient manner that negates the need for empirical trial and error experiments. With a few exceptions, systems based on reversed-phase chromatography employing chemically bonded phases are shown to be unsuitable for estimating logP for compounds of diverse structure. This is because the fundamental properties responsible for chromatographic retention tend to be different to those responsible for partition between octanol and water, especially the contribution from hydrogen bonding interactions. On the other hand, retention in several micellar and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography systems is shown to be highly correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. These systems are suitable for the rapid, high throughput determination of logP for neutral, weakly acidic, and weakly basic compounds. For compounds with a permanent charge, electrophoretic migration and electrostatic interactions with the stationary phase results in inaccurate estimation of partition coefficients. The experimental determination of solute descriptors offers an alternative approach for estimating logP, and other biopartitioning properties. A distinct advantage of this approach is that once the solute descriptors are known, solute properties can be estimated for any distribution or transport system for which a solvation parameter model has been established.

  3. Estimating octanol-air partition coefficients with octanol-water partition coefficients and Henry's law constants. (United States)

    Meylan, William M; Howard, Philip H


    The octanol-air partition coefficient (K(OA)) is useful for predicting the partitioning behavior of organic compounds between air and environmental matrices such as soil, vegetation, and aerosol particles. At present, experimentally determined K(OA) values are available for only several hundred compounds. Therefore, the ability to estimate K(OA) is necessary for screening level evaluation of most chemicals. Although it is possible to estimate K(OA) from the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) and Henry's law constant (HLC), various concerns have been raised in regard to the usability of this estimation methodology. This work examines the accuracy and usability of K(OW) and HLC in application to a comprehensive database set of K(OA) values for screening level environmental assessment. Results indicate that K(OW) and HLC can be used to accurately predict K(OA) even when estimated K(OW) and HLC values are used. For an experimental dataset of 310log K(OA) values for different compounds, the K(OW)-HLC method was statistically accurate as follows: correlation coefficient (r2): 0.972, standard deviation: 0.526, absolute mean error: 0.358 using predominantly experimental K(OW) and HLC values. When K(OW) and HLC values were estimated (using the KOWWIN and HENRYWIN programs), the statistical accuracy was: correlation coefficient (r2): 0.957, standard deviation: 0.668, absolute mean error: 0.479.

  4. Estimation of uranium migration parameters in sandstone aquifers. (United States)

    Malov, A I


    The chemical composition and isotopes of carbon and uranium were investigated in groundwater samples that were collected from 16 wells and 2 sources in the Northern Dvina Basin, Northwest Russia. Across the dataset, the temperatures in the groundwater ranged from 3.6 to 6.9 °C, the pH ranged from 7.6 to 9.0, the Eh ranged from -137 to +128 mV, the total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 209 to 22,000 mg L(-1), and the dissolved oxygen (DO) ranged from 0 to 9.9 ppm. The (14)C activity ranged from 0 to 69.96 ± 0.69 percent modern carbon (pmC). The uranium content in the groundwater ranged from 0.006 to 16 ppb, and the (234)U:(238)U activity ratio ranged from 1.35 ± 0.21 to 8.61 ± 1.35. The uranium concentration and (234)U:(238)U activity ratio increased from the recharge area to the redox barrier; behind the barrier, the uranium content is minimal. The results were systematized by creating a conceptual model of the Northern Dvina Basin's hydrogeological system. The use of uranium isotope dating in conjunction with radiocarbon dating allowed the determination of important water-rock interaction parameters, such as the dissolution rate:recoil loss factor ratio Rd:p (a(-1)) and the uranium retardation factor:recoil loss factor ratio R:p in the aquifer. The (14)C age of the water was estimated to be between modern and >35,000 years. The (234)U-(238)U age of the water was estimated to be between 260 and 582,000 years. The Rd:p ratio decreases with increasing groundwater residence time in the aquifer from n × 10(-5) to n × 10(-7) a(-1). This finding is observed because the TDS increases in that direction from 0.2 to 9 g L(-1), and accordingly, the mineral saturation indices increase. Relatively high values of R:p (200-1000) characterize aquifers in sandy-clayey sediments from the Late Pleistocene and the deepest parts of the Vendian strata. In samples from the sandstones of the upper part of the Vendian strata, the R:p value is ∼ 24, i.e., sorption processes are

  5. Estimation of high temperature metal-silicate partition coefficients (United States)

    Jones, John H.; Capobianco, Christopher J.; Drake, Michael J.


    It has been known for some time that abundances of siderophile elements in the upper mantle of the Earth are far in excess of those expected from equilibrium between metal and silicate at low pressures and temperatures. Murthy (1991) has re-examined this excess of siderophile element problem by estimating liquid metal/liquid silicate partition coefficients reduces from their measured values at a lower temperature, implying that siderophile elements become much less siderophilic at high temperatures. Murthy then draws the important conclusion that metal/silicate equilibrium at high temperatures can account for the abundances of siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle. Of course, his conclusion is critically dependent on the small values of the partition coefficients he calculates. Because the numerical values of most experimentally-determined partition coefficients increase with increasing temperature at both constant oxygen fugacity and at constant redox buffer, we think it is important to try an alternative extrapolation for comparison. We have computed high temperature metal/silicate partition coefficients under a different set of assumptions and show that such long temperature extrapolations yield values which are critically dependent upon the presumed chemical behavior of the siderophile elements in the system.

  6. Trace Uranium Partitioning in a Multiphase Nano-FeOOH System

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    McBriarty, Martin E.; Soltis, Jennifer A.; Kerisit, Sebastien; Qafoku, Odeta; Bowden, Mark E.; Bylaska, Eric J.; De Yoreo, James J.; Ilton, Eugene S.


    The characterization of trace elements in minerals using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy constitutes a first step toward understanding how impurities and contaminants interact with the host phase and the environment. However, limitations to EXAFS interpretation complicate the analysis of trace concentrations of impurities that are distributed across multiple phases in a heterogeneous system. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD)-informed EXAFS analysis was employed to investigate the immobilization of trace uranium associated with nanophase iron (oxyhydr)oxides, a model system for the geochemical sequestration of radiotoxic actinides. The reductive transformation of ferrihydrite [Fe(OH)3] to nanoparticulate iron oxyhydroxide minerals in the presence of uranyl (UO2)2+(aq) resulted in the preferential incorporation of U into goethite (α-FeOOH) over lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), even though reaction conditions favored the formation of excess lepidocrocite. This unexpected result is supported by atomically resolved transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate how AIMD-informed EXAFS analysis lifts the strict statistical limitations and uncertainty of traditional shell-by-shell EXAFS fitting, enabling the detailed characterization of the local bonding environment, charge compensation mechanisms, and oxidation states of polyvalent impurities in complex multiphase mineral systems.

  7. Trace Uranium Partitioning in a Multiphase Nano-FeOOH System

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    McBriarty, Martin E.; Soltis, Jennifer A.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Qafoku, Odeta; Bowden, Mark E.; Bylaska, Eric J.; De Yoreo, James J.; Ilton, Eugene S.


    The characterization of trace elements in nanomaterials using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy constitutes a first step toward understanding how impurities or dopants affect the properties of the host phase. However, limitations to EXAFS interpretation complicate the analysis of trace concentrations of impurities that are distributed across multiple phases in a heterogeneous system. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD)-informed EXAFS analysis was employed to investigate the immobilization of trace uranium associated with nanophase iron (oxyhydr)oxides, a model system for the geochemical sequestration of radiotoxic contaminants. The reductive transformation of ferrihydrite (Fe(OH)3) to nano-particulate iron oxyhydroxide minerals in the presence of uranyl (UO2)2+(aq) resulted in the preferential incorporation of U into goethite (a-FeOOH) over lepidocrocite (g-FeOOH), even though reaction conditions favored the formation of excess lepidocrocite. This unexpected result is supported by atomically resolved transmission electron microscopy. Using this model system, we demonstrate how AIMD-informed EXAFS analysis lifts the strict statistical limitations of traditional shell-by-shell EXAFS modeling, enabling the detailed analysis of the local bonding environment, charge compensation mechanisms, and oxidation states of polyvalent impurities in complex multi-phase nano-systems.

  8. Estimates of radiological risk from depleted uranium weapons in war scenarios. (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella


    Several weapons used during the recent conflict in Yugoslavia contain depleted uranium, including missiles and armor-piercing incendiary rounds. Health concern is related to the use of these weapons, because of the heavy-metal toxicity and radioactivity of uranium. Although chemical toxicity is considered the more important source of health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict, and uranium munitions are a possible source of contamination in the environment. Actual measurements of radioactive contamination are needed to assess the risk. In this paper, a computer simulation is proposed to estimate radiological risk related to different exposure scenarios. Dose caused by inhalation of radioactive aerosols and ground contamination induced by Tomahawk missile impact are simulated using a Gaussian plume model (HOTSPOT code). Environmental contamination and committed dose to the population resident in contaminated areas are predicted by a food-web model (RESRAD code). Small values of committed effective dose equivalent appear to be associated with missile impacts (50-y CEDE < 5 mSv), or population exposure by water-independent pathways (50-y CEDE < 80 mSv). The greatest hazard is related to the water contamination in conditions of effective leaching of uranium in the groundwater (50-y CEDE < 400 mSv). Even in this worst case scenario, the chemical toxicity largely predominates over radiological risk. These computer simulations suggest that little radiological risk is associated to the use of depleted uranium weapons.

  9. Estimated dose to man from uranium milling via the terrestrial food-chain pathway

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    Rayno, D.R.


    One of the major pathways of radiological exposure to man from uranium milling operations is through the terrestrial food chain. Studies by various investigators have shown the extent of uptake and distribution of U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210 in plants and animals. These long-lived natural radioisotopes, all nuclides of the uranium decay series, are found in concentrated amounts in uranium mill tailings. Data from these investigations are used to estimate the dose to man from consumption of beef and milk contaminated by the tailings. This dose estimate from this technologically enhanced source is compared with that from average normal dietary intake of these radionuclides from natural sources.

  10. Statistical model for forecasting uranium prices to estimate the nuclear fuel cycle cost

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    Kim, Sung Ki; Ko, Won Il; Nam, Hyoon [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Min; Chung, Yang Hon; Bang, Sung Sig [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents a method for forecasting future uranium prices that is used as input data to calculate the uranium cost, which is a rational key cost driver of the nuclear fuel cycle cost. In other words, the statistical autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and existing engineering cost estimation method, the so-called escalation rate model, were subjected to a comparative analysis. When the uranium price was forecasted in 2015, the margin of error of the ARIMA model forecasting was calculated and found to be 5.4%, whereas the escalation rate model was found to have a margin of error of 7.32%. Thus, it was verified that the ARIMA model is more suitable than the escalation rate model at decreasing uncertainty in nuclear fuel cycle cost calculation.

  11. Fission track estimation of uranium concentrations in liquid homeopathic medicine samples

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    Akram, M. [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail:; Khattak, N.U. [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ullah, Ikram; Tufail, M. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    The ingestion of excessive amount of uranium in homeopathic medicines can damage human's kidneys by preventing normal elimination of urea and other waste products and can cause renal dysfunction. Quantitative determination of uranium in medicines is, therefore, very important. Fission track technique has been applied for the estimation of uranium concentration in homeopathic medicine samples collected from local market. The technique involved simultaneous irradiation of medicine samples and a standard, in contact with track detectors, with thermal neutrons and counting of the fission tracks produced in the detectors as a result of (n, f) nuclear reaction. Uranium concentration in the medicine samples varied from (0.003{+-}0.001)mgL{sup -1} to (0.297{+-}0.010)mgL{sup -1} with an average value of (0.020{+-}0.001)mgL{sup -1}. The observed concentrations were less than the permissible intake level of uranium. So, general public is at no risk while using these medicines for treatment purposes.

  12. A Point Kinetics Model for Estimating Neutron Multiplication of Bare Uranium Metal in Tagged Neutron Measurements (United States)

    Tweardy, Matthew C.; McConchie, Seth; Hayward, Jason P.


    An extension of the point kinetics model is developed to describe the neutron multiplicity response of a bare uranium object under interrogation by an associated particle imaging deuterium-tritium (D-T) measurement system. This extended model is used to estimate the total neutron multiplication of the uranium. Both MCNPX-PoliMi simulations and data from active interrogation measurements of highly enriched and depleted uranium geometries are used to evaluate the potential of this method and to identify the sources of systematic error. The detection efficiency correction for measured coincidence response is identified as a large source of systematic error. If the detection process is not considered, results suggest that the method can estimate total multiplication to within 13% of the simulated value. Values for multiplicity constants in the point kinetics equations are sensitive to enrichment due to (n, xn) interactions by D-T neutrons and can introduce another significant source of systematic bias. This can theoretically be corrected if isotopic composition is known a priori. The spatial dependence of multiplication is also suspected of introducing further systematic bias for high multiplication uranium objects.

  13. The Determination and Estimation of Arsenic and Uranium in Private Wells throughout the United States (United States)

    Frederick, L.; Johnson, W. P.; Vanderslice, J.; Taddie, M.; Malecki, K.; Gregg, J.; Faust, N.


    Approximately 45 million Americans rely on private wells or small systems for their domestic water supply1. With the exception of a few states (e.g., WA and NJ), private wells or systems serving fewer than 15 connections are not required by the Safe Drinking Water Act to regularly monitor water quality1. This is a public health concern as a lack of monitoring/information can lead to prolonged exposure to levels of contaminants that pose health risks such as arsenic and uranium. Based on data from the United States Geologic Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS), arsenic and uranium exceeded their respective maximum contaminant levels (MCL), set by the Environmental Protection Agency, in 11% and 4% of the wells tested, respectively. As monitoring is not required, but the presence of contamination is possible, it is important to be able to estimate the likelihood of an unmonitored well to be contaminated with arsenic or uranium. A national model was developed using NWIS data from ~260,000 wells across the United States and PMPE data (Precipitation minus evapotranspiration). CART analysis was used to determine the likelihood of a well to have arsenic based on geochemical and hydrometerological parameters. PMPE was the most important determiner of arsenic mobility, followed by pH and pe. Of the two, pH was primary in driest environments, and dissolved iron (proxy for pe) was primary in wetter environments. Uranium analysis on CART is still pending. It is expected that PMPE will also be the primary determiner of uranium mobility followed by pe for all environments. Using this information, the national model can predict the likelihood of a well to have arsenic or uranium based on location and other geochemical parameters previously measured. To estimate arsenic and uranium in wells that have never been monitored requires use of geospatial statistical tools like kriging to fill in the areas where no information is known. In these areas it is impossible to have

  14. Analytical control of reducing agents on uranium/plutonium partitioning at purex process; Controle analitico dos agentes redutores na particao uranio/plutonio no processo purex

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    Araujo, Izilda da Cruz de


    Spectrophotometric methods for uranium (IV), hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and its decomposition product hydrazoic acid(HN{sub 3}), and hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2} OH) determinations were developed aiming their applications for the process control of CELESTE I installation at IPEN/CNEN-SP. These compounds are normally present in the U/Pu partitioning phase of the spent nuclear treatment via PUREX process. The direct spectrophotometry was used for uranium (IV) analysis in nitric acid-hydrazine solutions based on the absorption measurement at 648 nm. The azomethine compound formed by reaction of hydrazine and p-dimethylamine benzaldehyde with maximum absorption at 457 nm was the basis for the specific analytical method for hydrazine determination. The hydrazoic acid analysis was performed indirectly by its conversion into ferric azide complex with maximum absorption at 465 nm. The hydroxylamine detection was accomplished based on its selective oxidation to nitrous acid which is easily analyzed by the reaction with Griess reagent. The resulted azocompound gas a maximum absorption at 520 nm. The sensibility of 1,4x10{sup -6}M for U(IV) with 0,8% of precision, 1,6x10{sup -6}M for hydrazine with 0,8% of precision, 2,3x10{sup -6}M hydrazoic acid with 0,9% of precision and 2,5x10{sup -6}M for hydroxylamine with 0,8% of precision were achieved. The interference studies have shown that each reducing agent can be determined in the presence of each other without any interference. Uranium(VI) and plutonium have also shown no interference in these analysis. The established methods were adapted to run inside glove-boxes by using an optical fiber colorimetry and applied to process control of the CELESTE I installation. The results pointed out that the methods are reliable and safety in order to provide just-in-time information about process conditions. (author)

  15. Estimating doses from Aboriginal bush foods post-remediation of a uranium mine. (United States)

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Medley, Peter


    This paper presents a calculator to facilitate assessments of ingestion doses from Aboriginal bush foods. The calculator combines information on traditional diet and land use with radionuclide concentration ratios and ingestion dose coefficients to estimate doses. The calculator was applied to the planned remediation of Ranger uranium mine to derive a set of scaling factors between radionuclide activity concentrations in environmental media and ingestion dose from bush foods. The scaling factors can be used to estimate doses from bush foods once the post-remediation radiological conditions of the mine and surrounding environment are known. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Uranium industry annual 1996

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    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. Estimation of reduced partition function ratios of lithium-graphite intercalation compounds by density functional theory

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    Sato, Kunihiko; Saito, Shun; Yanase, Satoshi; Oi, Takao [Sophia Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology


    The reduced partition function ratio (RPFR) of lithium in lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GICs) was evaluated at the UB3LYP/6-311G(d) level of theory. The partition functions were written in the usual rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator approximation. With a C{sub 24}H{sub 12} coronene molecule as the model of graphene, lithium-coronene sandwich, and club sandwich compounds were considered as models of Li-GICs. The estimated value of the {sup 6}Li-to-{sup 7}Li RPFR was 1.0402 at 25 C, which yielded 1.034 as the value of the equilibrium constant, K, of the lithium isotope exchange reaction between a lithium ion in an ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate mixed solvent and a lithium atom in interlayer space of graphite. The estimated value of K was larger than the experimental value of 1.025. The unsatisfactory agreement between the estimated and experimental K values suggested that larger molecules should be used as models of graphene and that the vibrational anharmonicity should also be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  18. Contribution to the methods for estimating uranium deposits (1963); Contribution aux methodes d'estimation des gisements d'uranium (1963)

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    Carlier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Having defined a deposit of economic value according to the marginal theory, the author discriminates several categories of ore reserves according to the degree of knowledge of the deposit and according to the mining stage where the ore is considered. He dismisses the conventional French classification of 'on sight', 'probable' and 'possible' ore categories and suggests more suitable ones. The 'sensu stricto', ore reserves are those for which the random error can be calculated. The notion of the natural contrast of grades in an ore deposit (absolute dispersion coefficient {alpha}) is introduced in relation to this topic. The author considers three types of mining exploration. The first is the random exploration so often met; the second is the logical exploration based on a systematic location of underground works, bore-holes, etc. The third, and hardest to achieve, is the one which minimizes exploration costs for a given level of accuracy. Part of the publication deals with sampling errors such as those resulting from the quartering of a heap of ore (theory of Pierre GY) or those resulting from the use of radiometric measurement of grade. Another part deals with the extension error (entailed by the assimilation of samples to the deposit they are issued from) and gives the essential formulae in order to appraise the random error (Geo-statistics of Matheron). As to the estimator itself the work shows how the disharmony between the ore sample and the associated influence zone can be solved by the way of 'kriging'. The thesis gives numerous examples of the various numerical parameters, characteristics of an uranium deposit (absolute dispersion coefficient) or of an uranium ore (liberation parameter) as well as a few examples of linear correlations between gamma radioactivity and uranium grade. Three complete examples of reserve evaluation are given. The end of the thesis deals with the notion of ruin risk which has to

  19. Estimation of octanol/water partition coefficient and aqueous solubility of environmental chemicals using molecular fingerprints and machine learning methods (United States)

    Octanol/water partition coefficient (logP) and aqueous solubility (logS) are two important parameters in pharmacology and toxicology studies, and experimental measurements are usually time-consuming and expensive. In the present research, novel methods are presented for the estim...

  20. Membrane partitioning of ionic liquid cations, anions and ion pairs - Estimating the bioconcentration potential of organic ions. (United States)

    Dołżonek, Joanna; Cho, Chul-Woong; Stepnowski, Piotr; Markiewicz, Marta; Thöming, Jorg; Stolte, Stefan


    Recent efforts have been directed towards better understanding the persistency and toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) in the context of the "benign-by-design" approach, but the assessment of their bioaccumulation potential remains neglected. This paper reports the experimental membrane partitioning of IL cations (imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, phosphonium), anions ([C(CN)3](-), [B(CN)4](-), [FSO2)2N](-), [(C2F5)3PF3](-), [(CF3SO2)2N](-)) and their combinations as a measure for estimating the bioconcentration factor (BCF). Both cations and anions can have a strong affinity for phosphatidylcholine bilayers, which is mainly driven by the hydrophobicity of the ions. This affinity is often reflected in the ecotoxicological impact. Our data revealed that the bioconcentration potential of IL cations and anions is much higher than expected from octanol-water-partitioning based estimations that have recently been presented. For some ILs, the membrane-water partition coefficient reached levels corresponding to BCFs that might become relevant in terms of the "B" (bioaccumulation potential) classification under REACH. However, this preliminary estimation need to be confirmed by in vivo bioconcentration studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uranium industry annual 1994

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    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  2. A New Approach on Estimation of Solubility and n-Octanol/ Water Partition Coefficient for Organohalogen Compounds

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    Chenzhong Cao


    Full Text Available The aqueous solubility (logW and n-octanol/water partition coefficient (logPOW are important properties for pharmacology, toxicology and medicinal chemistry. Based on an understanding of the dissolution process, the frontier orbital interaction model was suggested in the present paper to describe the solvent-solute interactions of organohalogen compounds and a general three-parameter model was proposed to predict the aqueous solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficient for the organohalogen compounds containing nonhydrogen-binding interactions. The model has satisfactory prediction accuracy. Furthermore, every item in the model has a very explicit meaning, which should be helpful to understand the structure-solubility relationship and may be provide a new view on estimation of solubility.

  3. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

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    Bander, T.J.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited.

  4. Uranium-Series Constraints on Subrepository Water Flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

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    L.A. Neymark; J.B. Paces; S.J. Chipera; D.T. Vaniman


    Mineral abundances and whole-rock chemical and uranium-series isotopic compositions were measured in unfractured and rubble core samples from borehole USWSD-9 in the same layers of variably zeolitized tuffs that underlie the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions also were measured in pore water from core samples from the same rock units and rock leachates representing loosely bound U adsorbed on mineral surfaces or contained in readily soluble secondary minerals. The chemical and isotopic data were used to evaluate differences in water-rock interaction between fractured and unfractured rock and between fracture surfaces and rock matrix. Samples of unfractured and rubble fragments (about 1 centimeter) core and material from fracture surfaces show similar amounts of uranium-series disequilibrium, recording a complex history of sorption and loss of uranium over the past 1 million years. The data indicate that fractures in zeolitized tuffs may not have had greater amounts of water-rock interaction than the rock matrix. The data also show that rock matrix from subrepository units is capable of scavenging uranium with elevated uranium-234/uranium-238 from percolating water and that retardation of radionuclides and dose reduction may be greater than currently credited to this aspect of the natural barrier. Uranium concentrations of pore water and the rock leachates are used to estimate long-term in situ uranium partition coefficient values greater than 7 milliliters per gram.

  5. Uranium-series constraints on subrepository water flow at yucca mountain, nevada (United States)

    Neymark, L.A.; Chipera, S.J.; Paces, J.B.; Vaniman, D.T.


    Mineral abundances and whole-rock chemical and uranium-series isotopic compositions were measured in unfractured and rubble core samples from borehole USW SD-9 in the same layers of variably zeolitized tuffs that underlie the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions also were measured in pore water from core samples from the same rock units and rock leachates representing loosely bound U adsorbed on mineral surfaces or contained in readily soluble secondary minerals. The chemical and isotopic data were used to evaluate differences in water-rock interaction between fractured and unfractured rock and between fracture surfaces and rock matrix. Samples of unfractured and rubble (fragments about 1 centimeter) core and material from fracture surfaces show similar amounts of uranium-series disequilibrium, recording a complex history of sorption and loss of uranium over the past 1 million years. The data indicate that fractures in zeolitized tuffs may not have had greater amounts of water-rock interaction than the rock matrix. The data also show that rock matrix from subrepository units is capable of scavenging uranium with elevated uranium-234/uranium-238 from percolating water and that retardation of radionuclides and dose reduction may be greater than currently credited to this aspect of the natural barrier. Uranium concentrations of pore water and the rock leachates are used to estimate long-term in situ uranium partition coefficient values greater than 7 milliliters per gram.

  6. Frequentist estimation of coalescence times from nucleotide sequence data using a tree-based partition. (United States)

    Tang, Hua; Siegmund, David O; Shen, Peidong; Oefner, Peter J; Feldman, Marcus W


    This article proposes a method of estimating the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of a sample of DNA sequences. The method is based on the molecular clock hypothesis, but avoids assumptions about population structure. Simulations show that in a wide range of situations, the point estimate has small bias and the confidence interval has at least the nominal coverage probability. We discuss conditions that can lead to biased estimates. Performance of this estimator is compared with existing methods based on the coalescence theory. The method is applied to sequences of Y chromosomes and mtDNAs to estimate the coalescent times of human male and female populations.

  7. Partition coefficients of aroma compounds between polyethylene and aqueous ethanol and their estimation using UNIFAC and GCFEOS. (Volumes I and II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baner, A.L. III.


    Partition coefficients were measured for n-alkanes and 13 different aroma compounds (isoamylacetate, d-limonene, camphor, linalylacetate, L-menthol, dimethylbenzyl-carbinol, citronellol, phenylethylalcholo, diphenylmethane, diphenyloxide, eugenol, [tau]-undelacotne) at dilute concentrations between aqueous ethanol solutions (100%, 66% and 33% for n-alkanes; 100%, 75%, 50%, 35% w/w) and nitrogen at 25[degrees]C using a gas stripping column method. Partition coefficients for n-alkanes (octane, nonane, decane, dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, docosane) and the aromas were also measured between low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene and ethanol and aqueous ethanol liquid phases (100%, 75%, 50% and 35% ethanol w/w) at 10[degrees], 25[degrees] and 40[degrees]C using an equilibrium sorption method. No significant differences were found for polyethylene samples with different crystallinities and very little temperature effect was seen for the polymer/liquid partition coefficients. The polymer/liquid partition coefficients were most affected by the chemical nature of the mixture. The liquid/gas and polymer/liquid partition coefficients were estimated using UNIFAC with UNIFAC-FV and using the Group-contribution Flory Equation-of-State (GCFEOS). UNIFAC and GCFEOS are useful for qualitative estimations. Significant quantitative differences between the experimental data and the estimations were found for the liquid/gas and polymer/liquid partition coefficients of some solutes, in particular middle polarity aroma compounds. A correlation of the size of estimation error with increasing molecular weight was observed for the n-alkanes and phenols. The variances between experimental and estimated values are explained in terms of the methods' group-contribution additivity and solution of groups assumptions and the methods' semi-empirical nature. UNIFAC gave more consistent and on average better quantitative estimations the GCFEOS.

  8. Uranium hexafluoride public risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; Yurconic, M.; Johnson, J.R.


    The limiting value for uranium toxicity in a human being should be based on the concentration of uranium (U) in the kidneys. The threshold for nephrotoxicity appears to lie very near 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. There does not appear to be strong scientific support for any other improved estimate, either higher or lower than this, of the threshold for uranium nephrotoxicity in a human being. The value 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney is the concentration that results from a single intake of about 30 mg soluble uranium by inhalation (assuming the metabolism of a standard person). The concentration of uranium continues to increase in the kidneys after long-term, continuous (or chronic) exposure. After chronic intakes of soluble uranium by workers at the rate of 10 mg U per week, the concentration of uranium in the kidneys approaches and may even exceed the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. Precise values of the kidney concentration depend on the biokinetic model and model parameters assumed for such a calculation. Since it is possible for the concentration of uranium in the kidneys to exceed 3 {mu}g per gram tissue at an intake rate of 10 mg U per week over long periods of time, we believe that the kidneys are protected from injury when intakes of soluble uranium at the rate of 10 mg U per week do not continue for more than two consecutive weeks. For long-term, continuous occupational exposure to low-level, soluble uranium, we recommend a reduced weekly intake limit of 5 mg uranium to prevent nephrotoxicity in workers. Our analysis shows that the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissues is not exceeded after long-term, continuous uranium intake at the intake rate of 5 mg soluble uranium per week.

  9. Partitioning of CO(2) incorporation among planktonic microbial guilds and estimation of in situ specific growth rates. (United States)

    García-Cantizano, Josefina; Casamayor, Emilio O; Gasol, Josep M; Guerrero, Ricardo; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos


    Partitioning of CO(2) incorporation into oxygenic phototrophic, anoxygenic phototrophic, and chemolithoautotrophic guilds was determined in a freshwater lake (Lake Cisó, Banyoles, Spain). CO(2) incorporation into the different types of microorganisms was studied at different depths, during diel cycles, and throughout the year. During winter holomixis, the whole lake became anoxic and both the anoxygenic and chemolithoautotrophic guilds were more active at the surface of the lake, whereas the activity of the oxygenic guild was negligible. During stratification, the latter guild was more active in the upper metalimnion, whereas the anoxygenic guild was more active in the lower metalimnion. Specific growth rates and doubling times were estimated for the most conspicuous phototrophic microorganisms. Doubling times for Cryptomonas phaseolus ranged between 0.5 and 192 days, whereas purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae-like) ranged between 1.5 and 238 days. These growth rates were similar to those calculated with a different approach in previous papers and indicate slow-growing populations with very large biomass. Overall, the annual total CO(2) incorporation in Lake Cisó was 220 g C m(-2). Most of the CO(2) incorporation, however, was due to the chemolithoautotrophic guild (61% during holomixis and 56% during stratification), followed by the anoxygenic phototrophic guild (35 and 19%, respectively) and the oxygenic phototrophs (4 and 25%, respectively), making dark carbon fixation the key process in the autotrophic metabolism of the lake.

  10. {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U in a uranium mobility estimate in an agricultural area in the municipality of Pedra-Pernambuco - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Oliveira, Jose Valdez Monterazo de; Bispo, Rodrigo Cesar Bezerra, E-mail: [Departamento de Energia Nuclear - Grupo de Radioecologia (RAE). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Cleomacio Miguel da [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Matematica; Rocha, Edilson Accioly [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica


    The mobility of the radionuclides in soil depends primarily on the physic-chemical parameters. The uranium is easily oxidized in aqueous environment, which allows its characterization with higher mobility. The Thorium is practically insoluble, mainly if the environment has organic matter and sulfates. The geochemical characteristics of the rocks, associated with the weather and metamorphism produce alterations in the concentration diagrams of the natural radionuclides in different types of soil. The ratio {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U has been used as an indicator of oxidizing and reducing conditions. Th/U less than 2 suggests that the uranium is in its concentrated form abundantly when compared to the thorium. In reducing conditions, the value Th/U higher than 7 indicates a removal of the uranium. In this work it was possible to analyze the agricultural soil in the municipality of Pedra, Pernambuco, Brazil where there are uranium anomaly and thorium in rocky outcrops. Sixty-two samples of the horizon C soil were collected, in an area of 2 km{sup 2}, where the main uranium occurrences are located. The analyses were done by High-Resolution Gamma-Spectroscopy. In the analyses the secular equilibrium was assumed and the {sup 238}U and the {sup 232}Th specific activities were used to estimate the oxidizing and reducing conditions defining the uranium mobility in the soil. The obtained findings show that the ratio Th/U varied from 0.3 to 13.4, with average of 4.6. The biggest {sup 238}U fraction was fix (80.3%), with low mobility; the smallest fraction concentrated (6.6%) and a lixiviated intermediate fraction (13.1%). (author)

  11. Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidson, A.F.


    The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. A quantitative analytical method for yellowcake was developed based on the infrared absorption of ammonium diuranate and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ mixtures in KBr. The method was applied to yellowcake samples obtained from six operating mills. The composition of yellowcake from the six mills ranged from nearly pure ammonium diuranate to nearly pure U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The composition of yellowcake samples taken from lots from the same mill was only somewhat less variable. Because uranium mill workers might be exposed to yellowcake either by contamination of a wound or by inhalation, a study of retention and translocation of uranium after subcutaneous implantation in rats was done. The results showed that 49% of the implanted yellowcake cleared from the body with a half-time (T sub 1/2) in the body of 0.3 days, and the remainder was cleared with a T sub 1/2 of 11 to 30 days. Exposures of Beagle dogs by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of commercial yellowcake were completed. Biochemical indicators of kidney dysfunction that appeared in blood and urine 4 to 8 days after exposure to the more soluble yellowcake showed significant changes in dogs, but levels returned to normal by 16 days after exposure. No biochemical evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed in dogs exposed to the less soluble yellowcake form. 18 figures, 9 tables.

  12. Statistical model for forecasting uranium prices to estimate the nuclear fuel cycle cost

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Chulmin; Kim, Sungki; Ko, Wonil; Nam, Hyoon; Chung, Yanghon; Bang, Sungsig


    .... In other words, the statistical autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and existing engineering cost estimation method, the so-called escalation rate model, were subjected to a comparative analysis...

  13. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi


    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  14. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)


    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  15. Uranium from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, D.; Folkendt, M.


    A novel process for recovering uranium from seawater is proposed and some of the critical technical parameters are evaluated. The process, in summary, consists of two different options for contacting adsorbant pellets with seawater without pumping the seawater. It is expected that this will reduce the mass handling requirements, compared to pumped seawater systems, by a factor of approximately 10/sup 5/, which should also result in a large reduction in initial capital investment. Activated carbon, possibly in combination with a small amount of dissolved titanium hydroxide, is expected to be the preferred adsorbant material instead of the commonly assumed titanium hydroxide alone. The activated carbon, after exposure to seawater, can be stripped of uranium with an appropriate eluant (probably an acid) or can be burned for its heating value (possible in a power plant) leaving the uranium further enriched in its ash. The uranium, representing about 1% of the ash, is then a rich ore and would be recovered in a conventional manner. Experimental results have indicated that activated carbon, acting alone, is not adequately effective in adsorbing the uranium from seawater. We measured partition coefficients (concentration ratios) of approximately 10/sup 3/ in seawater instead of the reported values of 10/sup 5/. However, preliminary tests carried out in fresh water show considerable promise for an extraction system that uses a combination of dissolved titanium hydroxide (in minute amounts) which forms an insoluble compound with the uranyl ion, and the insoluble compound then being sorbed out on activated carbon. Such a system showed partition coefficients in excess of 10/sup 5/ in fresh water. However, the system was not tested in seawater.

  16. Uranium;L'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poty, B. [CNRS, 54 - Gondreville (France); Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Virlogeux, D.; Capus, G.


    With the worldwide revival of nuclear energy comes the question of uranium reserves. For more than 20 years, nuclear energy has been neglected and uranium prospecting has been practically abandoned. Therefore, present day production covers only 70% of needs and stocks are decreasing. Production is to double by 2030 which represents a huge industrial challenge. The FBR-type reactors technology, which allows to consume the whole uranium content of the fuel, is developing in several countries and will ensure the long-term development of nuclear fission. However, the implementation of these reactors (the generation 4) will be progressive during the second half of the 21. century. For this reason an active search for uranium ores will be necessary during the whole 21. century to ensure the fueling of light water reactors which are huge uranium consumers. This dossier covers all the aspects of natural uranium production: mineralogy, geochemistry, types of deposits, world distribution of deposits with a particular attention given to French deposits, the exploitation of which is abandoned today. Finally, exploitation, ore processing and the economical aspects are presented. Contents: 1 - the uranium element and its minerals: from uranium discovery to its industrial utilization, the main uranium minerals (minerals with tetravalent uranium, minerals with hexavalent uranium); 2 - uranium in the Earth's crust and its geochemical properties: distribution (in sedimentary rocks, in magmatic rocks, in metamorphic rocks, in soils and vegetation), geochemistry (uranium solubility and valence in magmas, uranium speciation in aqueous solution, solubility of the main uranium minerals in aqueous solution, uranium mobilization and precipitation); 3 - geology of the main types of uranium deposits: economical criteria for a deposit, structural diversity of deposits, classification, world distribution of deposits, distribution of deposits with time, superficial deposits, uranium

  17. In situ radiation measurement and estimation of U/Th ratio to reflect on the uranium bearing potential zone in metamorphic rocks of Mahendragarh district, Haryana (United States)

    Somani, O. P.; Sunil Kumar, T. S.; Kukreti, B. M.; Bhaumik, B. K.; Gorikhan, R. A.


    Gross gamma radiation survey was carried out using Nal(Tl) scintillator based portable gamma ray spectrometer (PGRS) around areas of Gaonri, Dholera, Pachnota and Meghot in Mahendragarh district, Haryana. Geologically the area forms part of north Delhi fold belt comprising calc-silicate, quartz biotite schist, impure marble, quartzite and pegmatite rocks. Equivalent uranium (eU3O8) concentration in ppm was estimated in situ on a regular grid pattern of 500 m (E-W) × 1000 m (N-S) and grab samples were collected at grid locations for analyzing in the laboratory for estimating the contents of eU3Os Raeq, ThO2 and %K. A comparison with the laboratory analysed grab samples for eU308 data and in situ radiation measurements shows a good match of the two sets of data. The in situ measurements indicate higher concentration of eU3O8 in Chapra Bibipur in northeastern most corners, Maghot area in central part, Gaonri in western part and Pachnota in southwestern part of the study area. As index to uranium favorability, U(Raeq)-Th contour map (prepared using Surfer software with Krieging interpolation method for this grid size) based on the data on grab samples was generated which show three major clusters of relatively high U-Th ratio. The blocks delineated are enriched in sodic mineral albite which support albite hosted uranium mineralization potential in metamorphic rocks in Haryana.

  18. Nonlinear phase noise tolerance for coherent optical systems using soft-decision-aided ML carrier phase estimation enhanced with constellation partitioning (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Mingwei; Du, Xinwei; Xu, Zhuoran; Gurusamy, Mohan; Yu, Changyuan; Kam, Pooi-Yuen


    A novel soft-decision-aided maximum likelihood (SDA-ML) carrier phase estimation method and its simplified version, the decision-aided and soft-decision-aided maximum likelihood (DA-SDA-ML) methods are tested in a nonlinear phase noise-dominant channel. The numerical performance results show that both the SDA-ML and DA-SDA-ML methods outperform the conventional DA-ML in systems with constant-amplitude modulation formats. In addition, modified algorithms based on constellation partitioning are proposed. With partitioning, the modified SDA-ML and DA-SDA-ML are shown to be useful for compensating the nonlinear phase noise in multi-level modulation systems.

  19. Geostatistical ore reserve estimation for a roll-front type uranium deposit (practitioner's guide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.C.; Knudsen, H.P.


    This report comprises two parts. Part I contains illustrative examples of each phase of a geostatistical study using a roll-front type uranium deposit. Part II contains five computer programs and comprehensive users' manuals for these programs which are necessary to make a practical geostatistical study. (LK)

  20. Valence State Partitioning of Cr and V Between Pyroxene - Melt: Estimates of Oxygen Fugacity for Martian Basalt QUE 94201 (United States)

    Karner, J. M.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.; McKay, G.; Le, L.; Burger, P.


    Several studies, using different oxybarometers, have suggested that the variation of fO2 in martian basalts spans about 3 log units from approx. IW-1 to IW+2. The relatively oxidized basalts (e.g., pyroxene-phyric Shergotty) are enriched in incompatible elements, while the relatively reduced basalts (e.g., olivine-phyric Y980459) are depleted in incompatible elements. A popular interpretation of the above observations is that the martian mantle contains two reservoirs; 1) oxidized and enriched, and 2) reduced and depleted. The basalts are thus thought to represent mixing between these two reservoirs. Recently, Shearer et al. determined the fO2 of primitive olivine-phyric basalt Y980459 to be IW+0.9 using the partitioning of V between olivine and melt. In applying this technique to other basalts, Shearer et al. concluded that the martian mantle shergottite source was depleted and varied only slightly in fO2 (IW to IW+1). Thus the more oxidized, enriched basalts had assimilated a crustal component on their path to the martian surface. In this study we attempt to address the above debate on martian mantle fO2 using the partitioning of Cr and V into pyroxene in pyroxene-phyric basalt QUE 94201.

  1. Estimation of gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous aerosols collected at Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai, Thailand. (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji


    To assess environmental contamination with carcinogens, carbonaceous compounds, water-soluble ionic species and trace gaseous species were identified and quantified every three hours for three days at three different atmospheric layers at the heart of Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai from December 2006 to February 2007. A DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with the IMPROVE thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) protocol was used to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents in PM10. Diurnal and vertical variability was also carefully investigated. In general, OC and EC mass concentration showed the highest values at the monitoring period of 21.00-00.00 as consequences of human activities at night bazaar coupled with reduction of mixing layer, decreased wind speed and termination of photolysis at nighttime. Morning peaks of carbonaceous compounds were observed during the sampling period of 06:00-09:00, emphasizing the main contribution of traffic emission in the three cities. The estimation of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) raises concern of high risk of carbonaceous accumulation over workers and residents living close to the observatory sites. The average values of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) of total carbon at Baiyoke Suit Hotel and Baiyoke Sky Hotel are approximately ten times higher than those air samples collected at Prince of Songkla University Hat-Yai campus corpse incinerator and fish-can manufacturing factory but only slightly higher than those of rice straw burning in Songkla province. This indicates a high risk of developing lung cancer and other respiratory diseases across workers and residents living in high buildings located in Pratunam area. Using knowledge of carbonaceous fractions in PM10, one can estimate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Dachs-Eisenreich model highlights the crucial role of adsorption in gas

  2. Development of uranium waste management concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi [Research Division of LLW Disposal System, Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (RWMC), Tokyo (Japan)


    The Japanese long-term program for nuclear energy development and utilization issued in 2000 says that a considerable fraction of uranium wastes can be disposed using shallow underground facilities by controlling uranium concentration in the uranium wastes and by adopting the allowable exposure dose not exceeding 0.1 mSv per year. The present report gives an estimate on the total amount of uranium wastes currently generated in Japan and its future prospect. Uranium wastes whose uranium concentration range from 10{sup 6} Bq/t to 10{sup 10} Bq/t are generated from nuclear facilities, such as fuel cycle (JNC), fuel fabricating, and uranium enrichment facilities. Stress is put on uranium recovery (decontamination) process and various anticipated techniques of waste disposals depending on their generation sources are briefly discussed. (S. Ohno)

  3. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects; Uranium, uranium appauvri, effets biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  4. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios], E-mail:; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio], E-mail:


    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10{sup 0} {mu}Gy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  5. Remote-sensing Estimates of Evapotranspiration, its partitioning and Gross Primary Productivity using Solar-Induced Fluorescence and Vegetation Optical Depth (148145) (United States)

    Alemohammad, S. H.; Gentine, P.; Fang, B.; Green, J.; Konings, A. G.; Kolassa, J.; Prigent, C.; Aires, F.


    We will present a new method to estimate monthly GPP, evapotranspiration as well as its partitioning (transpiration and evaporation) using the GOME-2 Solar-induced Fluorescence (SIF) product along with microwave Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) data sets. The retrieval is based on a new statical method using a Bayesian Neural Network (NN). The prior information is obtained using a Triple Collocation (TC) algorithms, which is used to weight different data according to their likelihood and quality. The retrieval compares very favorably against eddy-covariance towers and highlights errors in other remote sensing products and in particular regional biases. This product can be used to improve ecosystem and land-surface models, and in particular their seasonal and internal variability.

  6. Robust extrapolation scheme for fast estimation of 3D Ising field partition functions: application to within subject fMRI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risser, L.; Vincent, T.; Ciuciu, Ph. [NeuroSpin CEA, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Risser, L.; Vincent, T. [Laboratoire de Neuroimagerie Assistee par Ordinateur (LNAO) CEA - DSV/I2BM/NEUROSPIN (France); Risser, L. [Institut de mecanique des fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS: UMR5502 - Universite Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III - Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT (France); Idier, J. [Institut de Recherche en Communications et en Cybernetique de Nantes (IRCCyN) CNRS - UMR6597 - Universite de Nantes - ecole Centrale de Nantes - Ecole des Mines de Nantes - Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Nantes (France)


    In this paper, we present a first numerical scheme to estimate Partition Functions (PF) of 3D Ising fields. Our strategy is applied to the context of the joint detection-estimation of brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data, where the goal is to automatically recover activated regions and estimate region-dependent, hemodynamic filters. For any region, a specific binary Markov random field may embody spatial correlation over the hidden states of the voxels by modeling whether they are activated or not. To make this spatial regularization fully adaptive, our approach is first based upon it, classical path-sampling method to approximate a small subset of reference PFs corresponding to pre-specified regions. Then, file proposed extrapolation method allows its to approximate the PFs associated with the Ising fields defined over the remaining brain regions. In comparison with preexisting approaches, our method is robust; to topological inhomogeneities in the definition of the reference regions. As a result, it strongly alleviates the computational burden and makes spatially adaptive regularization of whole brain fMRI datasets feasible. (authors)

  7. Radionuclide Partitioning in an Underground Nuclear Test Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, T P; Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Conrado, C L; Dickerson, R; Eaton, G F; Kersting, A B; Moran, J E; Nimz, G; Powell, B A; Ramon, E C; Ryerson, F J; Williams, R W; Wooddy, P T; Zavarin, M


    In 2004, a borehole was drilled into the 1983 Chancellor underground nuclear test cavity to investigate the distribution of radionuclides within the cavity. Sidewall core samples were collected from a range of depths within the re-entry hole and two sidetrack holes. Upon completion of drilling, casing was installed and a submersible pump was used to collect groundwater samples. Test debris and groundwater samples were analyzed for a variety of radionuclides including the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 155}Eu, the activation products {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu, and the actinides U, Pu, and Am. In addition, the physical and bulk chemical properties of the test debris were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Microprobe measurements. Analytical results were used to evaluate the partitioning of radionuclides between the melt glass, rubble, and groundwater phases in the Chancellor test cavity. Three comparative approaches were used to calculate partitioning values, though each method could not be applied to every nuclide. These approaches are based on: (1) the average Area 19 inventory from Bowen et al. (2001); (2) melt glass, rubble, and groundwater mass estimates from Zhao et al. (2008); and (3) fission product mass yield data from England and Rider (1994). The U and Pu analyses of the test debris are classified and partitioning estimates for these elements were calculated directly from the classified Miller et al. (2002) inventory for the Chancellor test. The partitioning results from this study were compared to partitioning data that were previously published by the IAEA (1998). Predictions of radionuclide distributions from the two studies are in agreement for a majority of the nuclides under consideration. Substantial differences were noted in the partitioning values for {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, and uranium. These differences are attributable to two factors

  8. Mitogenome phylogenetics: the impact of using single regions and partitioning schemes on topology, substitution rate and divergence time estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Duchêne

    Full Text Available The availability of mitochondrial genome sequences is growing as a result of recent technological advances in molecular biology. In phylogenetic analyses, the complete mitogenome is increasingly becoming the marker of choice, usually providing better phylogenetic resolution and precision relative to traditional markers such as cytochrome b (CYTB and the control region (CR. In some cases, the differences in phylogenetic estimates between mitogenomic and single-gene markers have yielded incongruent conclusions. By comparing phylogenetic estimates made from different genes, we identified the most informative mitochondrial regions and evaluated the minimum amount of data necessary to reproduce the same results as the mitogenome. We compared results among individual genes and the mitogenome for recently published complete mitogenome datasets of selected delphinids (Delphinidae and killer whales (genus Orcinus. Using Bayesian phylogenetic methods, we investigated differences in estimation of topologies, divergence dates, and clock-like behavior among genes for both datasets. Although the most informative regions were not the same for each taxonomic group (COX1, CYTB, ND3 and ATP6 for Orcinus, and ND1, COX1 and ND4 for Delphinidae, in both cases they were equivalent to less than a quarter of the complete mitogenome. This suggests that gene information content can vary among groups, but can be adequately represented by a portion of the complete sequence. Although our results indicate that complete mitogenomes provide the highest phylogenetic resolution and most precise date estimates, a minimum amount of data can be selected using our approach when the complete sequence is unavailable. Studies based on single genes can benefit from the addition of a few more mitochondrial markers, producing topologies and date estimates similar to those obtained using the entire mitogenome.

  9. Uranium 2014 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris


    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. It presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Long-term projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major changes in the industry.

  10. Uranium 2005 Resources, Production and Demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris. Nuclear Energy Agency


    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major c...

  11. Deriving estimates of individual variability in genetic potentials of performance traits for 3 dairy breeds, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.N.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Schmidely, P.; Friggens, N.C.; Martin, O.


    This study explored the ability of an existing lifetime nutrient partitioning model for simulating individual variability in genetic potentials of dairy cows. Generally, the model assumes a universal trajectory of dynamic partitioning of priority between life functions and genetic scaling parameters

  12. Comparison of modeling approaches for carbon partitioning: Impact on estimates of global net primary production and equilibrium biomass of woody vegetation from MODIS GPP (United States)

    Takeshi Ise; Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Akihiko Ito


    Partitioning of gross primary production (GPP) to aboveground versus belowground, to growth versus respiration, and to short versus long�]lived tissues exerts a strong influence on ecosystem structure and function, with potentially large implications for the global carbon budget. A recent meta-analysis of forest ecosystems suggests that carbon partitioning...

  13. Bio-precipitation of uranium by two bacterial isolates recovered from extreme environments as estimated by potentiometric titration, TEM and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merroun, Mohamed L., E-mail: [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Nedelkova, Marta [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ojeda, Jesus J. [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Experimental Techniques Centre, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Reitz, Thomas [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Fernandez, Margarita Lopez; Arias, Jose M. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Romero-Gonzalez, Maria [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Selenska-Pobell, Sonja [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation of uranium as U phosphates by natural bacterial isolates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uranium biomineralization involves the activity of acidic phosphatase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uranium bioremediation could be achieved via the biomineralization of U(VI) in phosphate minerals. - Abstract: This work describes the mechanisms of uranium biomineralization at acidic conditions by Bacillus sphaericus JG-7B and Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1 both recovered from extreme environments. The U-bacterial interaction experiments were performed at low pH values (2.0-4.5) where the uranium aqueous speciation is dominated by highly mobile uranyl ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the cells of the studied strains precipitated uranium at pH 3.0 and 4.5 as a uranium phosphate mineral phase belonging to the meta-autunite group. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses showed strain-specific localization of the uranium precipitates. In the case of B. sphaericus JG-7B, the U(VI) precipitate was bound to the cell wall. Whereas for Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1, the U(VI) precipitates were observed both on the cell surface and intracellularly. The observed U(VI) biomineralization was associated with the activity of indigenous acid phosphatase detected at these pH values in the absence of an organic phosphate substrate. The biomineralization of uranium was not observed at pH 2.0, and U(VI) formed complexes with organophosphate ligands from the cells. This study increases the number of bacterial strains that have been demonstrated to precipitate uranium phosphates at acidic conditions via the activity of acid phosphatase.

  14. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Rockhold, Mark L.; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.


    This report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes the development and application of a methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess predictive uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling that considers the combined impact of hydrogeologic uncertainties associated with the conceptual-mathematical basis of a model, model parameters, and the scenario to which the model is applied. The methodology is based on a n extension of a Maximum Likelihood implementation of Bayesian Model Averaging. Model uncertainty is represented by postulating a discrete set of alternative conceptual models for a site with associated prior model probabilities that reflect a belief about the relative plausibility of each model based on its apparent consistency with available knowledge and data. Posterior model probabilities are computed and parameter uncertainty is estimated by calibrating each model to observed system behavior; prior parameter estimates are optionally included. Scenario uncertainty is represented as a discrete set of alternative future conditions affecting boundary conditions, source/sink terms, or other aspects of the models, with associated prior scenario probabilities. A joint assessment of uncertainty results from combining model predictions computed under each scenario using as weight the posterior model and prior scenario probabilities. The uncertainty methodology was applied to modeling of groundwater flow and uranium transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area. Eight alternative models representing uncertainty in the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties as well as the temporal variability were considered. Two scenarios represent alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. The scenario alternatives were implemented in the models through the boundary conditions. Results demonstrate the feasibility of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow

  15. Experimental evidence for melt partitioning between olivine and orthopyroxene in partially molten harzburgite (United States)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Zhu, Wen-lu; Montési, Laurent G. J.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Le Roux, Véronique; Xiao, Xianghui


    Observations of dunite channels in ophiolites and uranium series disequilibria in mid-ocean ridge basalt suggest that melt transport in the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is strongly channelized. We present experimental evidence that spatial variations in mineralogy can also focus melt on the grain scale. This lithologic melt partitioning, which results from differences in the interfacial energies associated with olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt boundaries, may complement other melt focusing mechanisms in the upper mantle such as mechanical shear and pyroxene dissolution. We document here lithologic melt partitioning in olivine-/orthopyroxene-basaltic melt samples containing nominal olivine to orthopyroxene ratio of 3 to 2 and melt fractions of 0.02 to 0.20. Experimental samples were imaged using synchrotron-based X-ray microcomputed tomography at a resolution of 700 nm per voxel. By analyzing the local melt fraction distributions associated with olivine and orthopyroxene grains in each sample, we found that the melt partitioning coefficient, i.e., the ratio of melt fraction around olivine to that around orthopyroxene grains, varies between 1.1 and 1.6. The permeability and electrical conductivity of our digital samples were estimated using numerical models and compared to those of samples containing only olivine and basaltic melt. Our results suggest that lithologic melt partitioning and preferential localization of melt around olivine grains might play a role in melt focusing, potentially enhancing average melt ascent velocities.

  16. Uranium internal exposure evaluation based on urine assay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.N.P.


    The difficulties in assessing internal exposures to uranium from urine assay data are described. A simplified application of the ICRP-30 and ICRP Lung Model concepts to the estimation of uranium intake is presented. A discussion follows on the development of a computer code utilizing the ICRP-30-based uranium elimination model with the existing urine assay information. The calculated uranium exposures from 1949 through 1983 are discussed. 13 references, 1 table.

  17. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  18. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.


    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  19. Uranium, mining and hydrogeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Broder J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Hasche-Berger, Andrea (eds.) [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik


    Subject of the book is Uranium and its migration in aquatic environments. The following subjects are emphasised: Uranium mining, Phosphate mining, mine closure and remediation, Uranium in groundwater and in bedrock, biogeochemistry of Uranium, environmental behavior, and modeling. Particular results from the leading edge of international research are presented. (orig.)

  20. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server


    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  1. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Emergency medical care and dose estimation for the severely overexposed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Ishigure, Nobuhito [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)


    A criticality accident occurred in JCO, a plant for nuclear fuel production in 1999 and three workers were exposed to extremely high-level radiation (neutron and {gamma}-ray). This report describes outlines of the clinical courses and the medical cares for the patients of this accident and the emergent medical system for radiation accident in Japan. One (A) of the three workers of JCO had vomiting and diarrhea within several minutes after the accident and another one (B) had also vomiting within one hour after. Based on these evidences, the exposure dose of A and B were estimated to be more than 8 and 4 GyEq, respectively. Generally, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is assigned into three phases; prodromal phase, critical or manifestation phase and recovery phase or death. In the prodromal phase, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea often develop, whereas the second phase is asymptotic. In the third phase, various syndromes including infection, hemorrhage, dehydration shock and neurotic syndromes are apt to occur. It is known that radiation exposure at 1 Gy or more might induce such acute radiation syndromes. Based on the clinical findings of Chernobyl accident, it has been thought that exposure at 0.5 Gy or more causes a lowering of lymphocyte level and a decrease in immunological activities within 48 hours. Lymphocyte count is available as an indicator for the evaluation of exposure dose in early phase, but not in later phase The three workers of JCO underwent chemical analysis of blood components, chromosomal analysis and analysis of blood {sup 24}Na immediately after the arrival at National Institute of Radiological Sciences via National Mito Hospital specified as the third and the second facility for the emergency medical care system in Japan, respectively. (M.N.)

  2. Developing equations for estimating tree component biomass for naturally regenerated shorteaf pine in southeast Oklahoma with application to biomass partitioning in thinned and unthinned stands (United States)

    Nabin Gyawali; Thomas B. Lynch; Rodney E. Will


    Traditionally, the main focus of forest production has usually been to maximize allocation of biomass to merchantable stem wood. But the assessment of biomass partitioning in stands is needed to address management concerns such as stem production and allocation, carbon sequestration, wildland fire, whole tree harvesting, etc. Thinning mainly increases the bole diameter...


    Buckingham, J.S.; Carroll, J.L.


    A process is described for reducing the extractability of ruthenium, zirconium, and niobium values into hexone contained in an aqueous nitric acid uranium-containing solution. The solution is made acid-deficient, heated to between 55 and 70 deg C, and at that temperature a water-soluble inorganic thiosulfate is added. By this, a precipitate is formed which carries the bulk of the ruthenium, and the remainder of the ruthenium as well as the zirconium and niobium are converted to a hexone-nonextractable form. The rutheniumcontaining precipitate can either be removed from the solu tion or it can be dissolved as a hexone-non-extractable compound by the addition of sodium dichromate prior to hexone extraction.

  4. Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Binev, Peter


    © 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.


    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.


    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  6. Deriving estimates of individual variability in genetic potentials of performance traits for 3 dairy breeds, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, H N; Martin, O; de Boer, I J M


    , body reserve usage, and growth for different genotypes of cow. Moreover, it can be used to separate genetic variability in performance between individual cows from environmental noise. The model enables simulation of the effects of a genetic selection strategy on lifetime efficiency of individual cows......This study explored the ability of an existing lifetime nutrient partitioning model for simulating individual variability in genetic potentials of dairy cows. Generally, the model assumes a universal trajectory of dynamic partitioning of priority between life functions and genetic scaling...... parameters are then incorporated to simulate individual difference in performance. Data of 102 cows including 180 lactations of 3 breeds: Danish Red, Danish Holstein, and Jersey, which were completely independent from those used previously for model development, were used. Individual cow performance records...

  7. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.


    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

  8. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail:; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail:; Sethy, N.K., E-mail:; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail:


    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  9. Uranium Processing Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — An integral part of Y‑12's transformation efforts and a key component of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Uranium Center of Excellence, the Uranium...

  10. Cathodoluminescence of uranium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winer, K.; Colmenares, C.; Wooten, F.


    The cathodoluminescence of uranium oxide surfaces prepared in-situ from clean uranium exposed to dry oxygen was studied. The broad asymmetric peak observed at 470 nm is attributed to F-center excitation.

  11. Uranium mining: Saskatchewan status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Ontario (Canada)


    This paper gives the status of uranium mining by Areva in Saskatchewan. Uranium production now meets 85% of world demand for power generation. 80% of world production of uranium comes from top 5 countries: Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia, Niger and Namibia. Saskatchewan is currently the only Canadian province with active uranium mines and mills and the largest exploration programs. Several mine projects are going through the environmental assessment process. Public opinion is in favour of mining activities in Saskatchewan.

  12. Asymptotic prime partitions of integers (United States)

    Bartel, Johann; Bhaduri, R. K.; Brack, Matthias; Murthy, M. V. N.


    In this paper, we discuss P (n ) , the number of ways a given integer n may be written as a sum of primes. In particular, an asymptotic form Pas(n ) valid for n →∞ is obtained analytically using standard techniques of quantum statistical mechanics. First, the bosonic partition function of primes, or the generating function of unrestricted prime partitions in number theory, is constructed. Next, the density of states is obtained using the saddle-point method for Laplace inversion of the partition function in the limit of large n . This gives directly the asymptotic number of prime partitions Pas(n ) . The leading term in the asymptotic expression grows exponentially as √{n /ln(n ) } and agrees with previous estimates. We calculate the next-to-leading-order term in the exponent, proportional to ln[ln(n )]/ln(n ) , and we show that an earlier result in the literature for its coefficient is incorrect. Furthermore, we also calculate the next higher-order correction, proportional to 1 /ln(n ) and given in Eq. (43), which so far has not been available in the literature. Finally, we compare our analytical results with the exact numerical values of P (n ) up to n ˜8 ×106 . For the highest values, the remaining error between the exact P (n ) and our Pas(n ) is only about half of that obtained with the leading-order approximation. But we also show that, unlike for other types of partitions, the asymptotic limit for the prime partitions is still quite far from being reached even for n ˜107 .

  13. Uranium speciation in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, A.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Reich, T.; Rossberg, A. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Inst. of Radiochemistry, Dresden (Germany); Nitsche, H. [Univ. of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Nuclear Sciences Div., Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

  14. Partitioning Breaks Communities


    Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil


    Considering a clique as a conservative definition of community structure, we examine how graph partitioning algorithms interact with cliques. Many popular community-finding algorithms partition the entire graph into non-overlapping communities. We show that on a wide range of empirical networks, from different domains, significant numbers of cliques are split across the separate partitions produced by these algorithms. We then examine the largest connected component of the subgraph formed by ...

  15. One-year study of polycyclic aromatic compounds at an urban site in Grenoble (France): Seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning and cancer risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaz, Sophie [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Shahpoury, Pourya [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysiques de l' Environnement (LGGE), Université de Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS, Grenoble (France); Lammel, Gerhard [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Masaryk University, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Brno (Czech Republic); Perraudin, Emilie; Villenave, Eric [CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Albinet, Alexandre, E-mail: [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)


    21 PAHs, 27 oxy-PAHs and 32 nitro-PAHs were measured every third day over a year in both gaseous (G) and particulate PM{sub 10} (P) phases in ambient air of Grenoble (France). Mean total concentrations (G + P) of PAHs and oxy-PAHs were in the same range and about 10 ng m{sup −3}. Nitro-PAHs were 50 to 100 times less concentrated averaging 100 pg m{sup −3}. Polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) concentrations were 5 to 7 times higher in “cold” period (October to March) than in “warm” period (April to September). Seasonal variations may be explained by higher primary emissions from residential heating, especially biomass burning in “cold” season. Meteorological conditions and influence of the geomorphology around Grenoble, with the formation of thermal inversion layers leading to the stagnation of pollutants, were additional key parameters. Maximum individual PAC concentrations were observed during two PM{sub 10} pollution events in December and February–March. Chemical processes and secondary formation of oxy- and nitro-PAH were probably enhanced by the accumulation of the pollutants during these events. PAC gas/particle partitioning depended on compound molecular weight and vapour pressure. Gas/particle partitioning of oxy- and nitro-PAHs were evaluated using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free energy relationship model. The PAC cancer risk was assessed using toxic equivalency factors available in the literature (19 PAHs, 10 nitro-PAHs and 1 oxy-PAH). Overall, particle-bound PACs contributed about 76% of the cancer risk. While PAHs accounted for most of the total PAC cancer risk, oxy- and nitro-PAHs could account for up to 24%. The risk quantification across substance classes is limited by toxicological data availability. - Highlights: • The most comprehensive study about PAH, nitro- and oxy-PAH in ambient air. • 80 species studied in gaseous and particle phases over a year at French urban site. • Concentration seasonality governed by


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascola, R


    The H Canyon online spectrophotometers are calibrated for measurement of the uranium and nitric acid concentrations of several tanks in the 2nd Uranium Cycle.[1] The spectrometers, flow cells, and prediction models are currently optimized for a process in which uranium concentrations are expected to range from 0-15 g/L and nitric acid concentrations from 0.05-6 M. However, an upcoming processing campaign will involve 'Super Kukla' material, which has a lower than usual enrichment of fissionable uranium. Total uranium concentrations will be higher, spanning approximately 0-30 g/L U, with no change in the nitric acid concentrations. The new processing conditions require the installation of new flow cells with shorter path lengths. As the process solutions have a higher uranium concentration, the shorter path length is required to decrease the absorptivity to values closer to the optimal range for the instrument. Also, new uranium and nitric acid prediction models are required to span the extended uranium concentration range. The models will be developed for the 17.5 and 15.4 tanks, for which nitric acid concentrations will not exceed 1 M. The restricted acid range compared to the original models is anticipated to reduce the measurement uncertainty for both uranium and nitric acid. The online spectrophotometers in H Canyon Second Uranium Cycle were modified to allow measurement of uranium and nitric acid for the Super Kukla processing campaign. The expected uranium concentrations, which are higher than those that have been recently processed, required new flow cells with one-third the optical path length of the existing cells. Also, new uranium and nitric acid calibrations were made. The estimated reading uncertainties (2{sigma}) for Tanks 15.4 and 17.5 are {approx}5% for uranium and {approx}25% for nitric acid.

  17. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M.


    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  18. Development of long-lived radionuclide partitioning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Eil Hee; Kim, Kwang Wook; Yang, Han Beom; Chung, Dong Yong; Lim, Jae Kwan; Shin, Young Jun; Kim, Heung Ho; Kown, Sun Gil; Kim, Young Hwan; Hwang, Doo Seung


    This study has been focused on the development of unit processes for partitioning in the 1st stage, and experimentally carried out to examine the separation characteristics and operation conditions on the following unit processes. (1) Removal of a small amount of uranium by extraction with TBP, (2) Removal of Zr and Mo and destruction of nitric acid by uranium by denitration with formic acid, (3) Co-precipitation of Am, Np and RE oxalic acid, (4) Dissolution and destruction of oxalate by hydrogen peroxide, (5) Co-extraction of Am, Np and RE by nitric acid, (8) Back-extraction of Np by oxalic acid, (9) Adsorption and elution of Cs and Sr by zeolite, and (10) Advanced separation of radionuclide by electrochemical REDOX method. The results obtained from each unit process will be use as the basic materials for the establishment of optimal partitioning and design of process equipment. (author). 46 refs., 54 tabs., 222 figs.

  19. Preparation of uranium compounds (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E


    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, G


    Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and contaminate drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminates. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: contaminant decay, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use.


    Smith, C.S.


    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam


    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  3. Uranium - raw material reserves for coming generations. [Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keutner, H.


    Large uranium occurences have been discovered in the South of Mexico. The deposits are situated in the Sierra Mixteca. Reserves of 9.400 tons had been at Mexico's disposal even before these new discoveries. The quantitiy discovered recentyl amounts to 20.000 tons. The uranium reserves available apart from those in centrally controlled economic systems are presently estimated at five million tons. Meanwhile American scientists have found out that all the rivers of the world transport about 16.000 tons of uranium from the continents into the oceans per annum. The energy value of this washed out amount of uranium corresponds to the 25-fold world power demand of today. US scientists have discovered that the oceans can provide uranium for about seven million years of the present world energy demand. While the petroleum reserves decrease worldwide it seems that the exploration of uranium has just been started.

  4. Parameterization of the 3-PG model for Pinus elliottii stands using alternative methods to estimate fertility rating, biomass partitioning and canopy closure (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Eric J. Jokela; Wendell P. Cropper; Rosvel Bracho; Daniel J. Leduc


    The forest simulation model, 3-PG, has been widely applied as a useful tool for predicting growth of forest species in many countries. The model has the capability to estimate the effects of management, climate and site characteristics on many stand attributes using easily available data. Currently, there is an increasing interest in estimating biomass and assessing...

  5. Uranium resources and uranium supply; Uranvorkommen und Uranversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, F.; Wellmer, F.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe Hannover, Hannover (Germany)


    The availability of natural uranium is currently considered unproblematic. Out of concern about the sufficient availability of uranium, an international working group of OECD-NEA, in which the Federal Office for Geosciences and Resources (BGR) participates as a German partner, has conducted analyses of uranium availability since 1965. Its findings are published biannually in the so-called 'Red Book', 'Uranium, Resources, Production, and Demand'. Changes in the political situation worldwide have profoundly influenced the military importance of uranium and thus also greatly improved its accessibility. As a consequence, there was a decline in production in the nineties from approx. 57,000 t of U in 1989 to, at present (2001), approx. 35,000 t annually. Estimates of the worldwide requirement of natural uranium in 2015 range between approx. 55,000 t and 80,000 t of U, because of the unforeseeable extent of the use of nuclear power, as against approx. 63,000 t of U in 2001. The most recent statistics published in the 1999 Red Bock show low-cost reserves (up to Dollar 40 per kg of U) of 1325 million t, and 2234 t of uranium at extraction costs of up to t Dollar 80 per kg. This indicates a statistical range of reserves of approx. 35 years. It should be noted that these figures are snapshots of a dynamic system. A resumption of extensive exploration and technical developments could greatly influence the resource situation. In the nineties, for instance, there is a net increase in uranium reserves of approx. 700,000 t of U as a consequence of exploration activities. (orig.) [German] Die Verfuegbarkeit von Natururan wird derzeit als unproblematisch angesehen. Aufgrund der Sorge um eine ausreichende Verfuegbarkeit von Uran beschaeftigt sich seit 1965 eine internationale Arbeitsgruppe der OECD-NEA unter deutscher Beteiligung der Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) mit Analysen zur Verfuegbarkeit von Uran. Die Ergebnisse werden alle zwei

  6. Combinatorics of set partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, Toufik


    Focusing on a very active area of mathematical research in the last decade, Combinatorics of Set Partitions presents methods used in the combinatorics of pattern avoidance and pattern enumeration in set partitions. Designed for students and researchers in discrete mathematics, the book is a one-stop reference on the results and research activities of set partitions from 1500 A.D. to today. Each chapter gives historical perspectives and contrasts different approaches, including generating functions, kernel method, block decomposition method, generating tree, and Wilf equivalences. Methods and d

  7. Uranium industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

  8. Polyacrylate–water partitioning of biocidal compounds: Enhancing the understanding of biocide partitioning between render and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp


    the materials from biological deterioration. However, the biocides need to be present in the water phase in order to be active and, hence, they are flushed of the material by rain water. In order to increase the knowledge about the partitioning of biocides from render into the water phase, partition constants...... between the polymer - in this case polyacrylate - and water were studied using glass fibre filters coated with polyacrylate. The polyacrylate-water partition constants (logKAcW) of ten biocides used in construction material varied between 1.66 (isoproturon) and 3.57 (dichloro......-N-octylisothiazolinone). The correlation of the polyacrylate-water partition constants with the octanol-water partition constants is significant, but the polyacrylate-water partition constants were predominantly below octanol-water partition constants (Kow). The comparison with render-water distribution constants showed that estimating...

  9. Uranium: A Dentist's perspective. (United States)

    Toor, R S S; Brar, G S


    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in granite and other mineral deposits. In its natural state, it consists of three isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). On an average, 1% - 2% of ingested uranium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in adults. The absorbed uranium rapidly enters the bloodstream and forms a diffusible ionic uranyl hydrogen carbonate complex (UO2HCO3+) which is in equilibrium with a nondiffusible uranyl albumin complex. In the skeleton, the uranyl ion replaces calcium in the hydroxyapatite complex of the bone crystal. Although in North India, there is a risk of radiological toxicity from orally ingested natural uranium, the principal health effects are chemical toxicity. The skeleton and kidney are the primary sites of uranium accumulation. Acute high dose of uranyl nitrate delays tooth eruption, and mandibular growth and development, probably due to its effect on target cells. Based on all previous research and recommendations, the role of a dentist is to educate the masses about the adverse effects of uranium on the overall as well as the dental health. The authors recommended that apart from the discontinuation of the addition of uranium to porcelain, the Public community water supplies must also comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards of uranium levels being not more than 30 ppb (parts per billion).

  10. Impact of measurement error in radon exposure on the estimated excess relative risk of lung cancer death in a simulated study based on the French Uranium Miners' Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Leuraud, Klervi; Laurier, Dominique [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Thiebaut, Anne C.M. [INSERM, U657, Paris (France); Institut Pasteur, Unite Pharmaco-Epidemiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Paris (France); Univ. Versailles Saint-Quentin, Garches (France); Henry, Stephane [Medical Council Areva Group, Pierrelatte (France); Benichou, Jacques [INSERM, U657, Rouen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Rouen, Unite de Biostatistique, Rouen (France); Univ. Rouen, Rouen (France)


    Measurement error (ME) can lead to bias in the analysis of epidemiologic studies. Here a simulation study is described that is based on data from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort and that was conducted to assess the effect of ME on the estimated excess relative risk (ERR) of lung cancer death associated with radon exposure. Starting from a scenario without any ME, data were generated containing successively Berkson or classical ME depending on time periods, to reflect changes in the measurement of exposure to radon ({sup 222}Rn) and its decay products over time in this cohort. Results indicate that ME attenuated the level of association with radon exposure, with a negative bias percentage on the order of 60% on the ERR estimate. Sensitivity analyses showed the consequences of specific ME characteristics (type, size, structure, and distribution) on the ERR estimates. In the future, it appears important to correct for ME upon analyzing cohorts such as this one to decrease bias in estimates of the ERR of adverse events associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  11. Uranium dioxide electrolysis (United States)

    Willit, James L [Batavia, IL; Ackerman, John P [Prescott, AZ; Williamson, Mark A [Naperville, IL


    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  12. Risk evaluation of uranium mining: a new kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scislewski, Alexandro [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Comission (CNEN), Avenida Santana, 680, Centro, Caetite-Bahia, 46400-000 (Brazil); Zuddas, Pierpaolo [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris-Sorbonne, ISTEP place Jussieu, Tour 56-55, case 116, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    Release of uranium and associated heavy metals is the main environmental concern regarding exploitation and processing of U-ore. Increasing uranium mining activities potentially increase the risks linked to radiation exposure. As a tool to evaluate these risks, a geochemical inverse modeling approach was developed to estimate the water-mineral interaction in the presence of uranium. Our methodology is based on the estimation of dissolution rate and reactive surface area of the different minerals participating in the reaction by reconstructing the chemical evolution of the interacting fluids. We found that the reactive surface area of parent-rock minerals changes over several orders of magnitude during the investigated reaction time. We propose that the formation of coatings on dissolving mineral surfaces significantly reduces reactivity. Our results show that negatively charged uranium complexes decrease when alkalinity and rock buffer capacity is similarly lower, indicating that the dissolved carbonate is an important parameter impacting uranium mobility. (authors)

  13. Biokinetic of soluble and insoluble uranium compounds in Brazilian reference man; Biocinetica dos compostos soluveis e insoluveis de uranio em um homem referencia brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Moraes, Jose Carlos T.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Lab. de Engenharia Biomedica


    The deposition of inhaled uranium`s soluble compounds was calculated by the LUDEP program for Brazilian`s morphometric and physiological parameters. The results were compared with estimates of deposition of inhaled uranium`s insoluble compounds. (author) 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting land cover change estimation by use of the National Land Cover Dataset and raingage network partitioning analysis (United States)

    Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Chicago District, is responsible for monitoring and computation of the quantity of Lake Michigan water diverted by the State of Illinois. As part of this effort, the USACE uses the Hydrological Simulation Program–FORTRAN (HSPF) with measured meteorological data inputs to estimate runoff from the Lake Michigan diversion special contributing areas (SCAs), the North Branch Chicago River above Niles and the Little Calumet River above South Holland gaged basins, and the Lower Des Plaines and the Calumet ungaged that historically drained to Lake Michigan. These simulated runoffs are used for estimating the total runoff component from the diverted Lake Michigan watershed, which is accountable to the total diversion by the State of Illinois. The runoff is simulated from three interpreted land cover types in the HSPF models: impervious, grass, and forest. The three land cover data types currently in use were derived from aerial photographs acquired in the early 1990s.

  15. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K


    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, pplants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, pplants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Linked Partitions and Linked Cycles


    Chen, William Y. C.; Wu, Susan Y. J.; Yan, Catherine H.


    The notion of noncrossing linked partition arose from the study of certain transforms in free probability theory. It is known that the number of noncrossing linked partitions of [n+1] is equal to the n-th large Schroder number $r_n$, which counts the number of Schroder paths. In this paper we give a bijective proof of this result. Then we introduce the structures of linked partitions and linked cycles. We present various combinatorial properties of noncrossing linked partitions, linked partit...

  17. Uranium and cesium diffusion in fuel cladding of electrogenerating channel (United States)

    Vasil'ev, I. V.; Ivanov, A. S.; Churin, V. A.


    The results of reactor tests of a carbonitride fuel in a single-crystal cladding from a molybdenum-based alloy can be used in substantiating the operational reliability of fuels in developing a project of a megawatt space nuclear power plant. The results of experimental studies of uranium and cesium penetration into the single-crystal cladding of fuel elements with a carbonitride fuel are interpreted. Those fuel elements passed nuclear power tests in the Ya-82 pilot plant for 8300 h at a temperature of about 1500°C. It is shown that the diffusion coefficients for uranium diffusion into the cladding are virtually coincident with the diffusion coefficients measured earlier for uranium diffusion into polycrystalline molybdenum. It is found that the penetration of uranium into the cladding is likely to occur only in the case of a direct contact between the cladding and fuel. The experimentally observed nonmonotonic uranium-concentration profiles are explained in terms of predominant uranium diffusion along grain boundaries. It is shown that a substantially nonmonotonic behavior observed in our experiment for the uranium-concentration profile may be explained by the presence of a polycrystalline structure of the cladding in the surface region from its inner side. The diffusion coefficient is estimated for the grain-boundary diffusion of uranium. The diffusion coefficients for cesium are estimated on the basis of experimental data obtained in the present study.

  18. Spatial and Geochemical Spatial and Geochemical Heterogeneity Impacts on Iron Biomineralization and Uranium Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Fendorf; Shawn Benner; Jim Neiss; Colleen Hansel; Peter Nico; Chris Francis; Phil Jardine


    Bioreductive transformations of iron (hydr)oxides are a critically important processes controlling the fate and transport of contaminants in soil and aquifer systems. Heterogeneity arising from both chemical and physical conditions will lead to various biomineralization products of iron oxides and will additionally alter reactions controlling the partitioning of hazardous elements such as uranium. We are presently exploring chemical and mineralogical transformations within physically complex material having a range of pore-size distribution and chemical environments. Here we discuss the impact of calcium on the reactive transport of uranium and the spatial heterogeneity in iron hydroxide mineralization and concomitant uranium reduction along a diffusive flow path.

  19. Biocides from façade coatings in urban surface waters: Estimating the leaching of biocides from render by polyacrylate-water partitioning constants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Styszko, Kartarzyna; Ou, Yi


    the façade coating and are detectable in urban stormwater runoff. The present study focussed on the occurrence of biocides in the aqueous environment - both in urban water close to the sources as well as further away in fresh and marine waters. It could be shown that biocides are ubiquitous in the aqueous...... environment. They are detectable not only close to their sources in stormwater run-off but also further away in marine waters with concentrations up to 60 ng L 1 (mecoprop up to 200 ng L 1). Further work was done in order to estimate the leaching of biocides from building material. The possiblity of using...

  20. Biocides from façade coatings in urban surface waters: Estimating the leaching of biocides from render by polyacrylate-water partitioning constants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Styszko, K.; Ou, Yi


    the façade coating and are detectable in urban stormwater runoff. The present study focussed on the occurrence of biocides in the aqueous environment - both in urban water close to the sources as well as further away in fresh and marine waters. It could be shown that biocides are ubiquitous in the aqueous...... environment. They are detectable not only close to their sources in stormwater run-off but also further away in marine waters with concentrations up to 60 ng L-1 (mecoprop up to 200 ng L-1). Further work was done in order to estimate the leaching of biocides from building material. The possiblity of using...

  1. Vertical partitioning of relational OLTP databases using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen


    for relational row- store OLTP databases with an H-store-like architecture, meaning that we would like to maximize the number of single-sited transactions. We present a model for the vertical partitioning problem that, given a schema together with a vertical partitioning and a workload, estimates the costs......A way to optimize performance of relational row store databases is to reduce the row widths by vertically partition- ing tables into table fractions in order to minimize the number of irrelevant columns/attributes read by each transaction. This pa- per considers vertical partitioning algorithms...

  2. Partition function of nearest neighbour Ising models: Some new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The partition function for one-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising models is estimated by summing all the energy terms in the Hamiltonian for N sites. The algebraic expression for the partition function is then employed to deduce the eigenvalues of the basic 2 × 2 matrix and the corresponding Hermitian Toeplitz matrix is ...

  3. How Much Uranium? an Account of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (Iurep Compte rendu sur le Projet International d'Évolution des Ressources en Uranium (IUREP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor D. M.


    Full Text Available Since August 1962, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA - from 1967 onwards in conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA - has periodically published report on uranium resources and demand. It had been recognised for some time that the uranium resource estimates given in these reports did not constitute a complete appraisal of the world's uranium resources and therefore a major study, possibly the first of its kind, was undertaken by an international group of experts on uranium resources to try to define the possible extent and location of undiscovered uranium resources. This paper is an account of this project. Depuis le mois d'août 1965, l'Agence pour l'Énergie Nucléaire (AEN de l'OCDE - et, à partir de 1967, de concert avec l'Agence Internationale de l'Énergie Atomique (AIEA - a publié périodiquement des rapports sur les ressources et la demande en uranium. Les estimations des ressources en uranium fournies dans ces rapports, comme on l'a reconnu depuis, n'ont pas correspondu à une estimation complète des ressources mondiales en uranium et, par conséquent, une étude plus importante - peut-être la première de son espèce - a été entreprise par un groupe international d'experts pour essayer de définir l'importance et la localisation éventuelles de ces ressources en uranium qui n'étaient pas encore trouvées. Le contenu de cette communication est un historique de ce projet.

  4. Uranium Location Database (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  5. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.


    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  6. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre


    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  7. Uranium hexakisamido complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, K.; Mindiola, D.J.; Baker, T.A.; Davis, W.M.; Cummins, C.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Minimal structural changes accompany the oxidation of the paramagnetic uranium(V) anion [U(dbabh){sub 6}]{sup -} to the neutral, diamagnetic counterpart [U(dbabh){sub 6}] (see structure). These two T{sub h}-stmmetric complexes, which were synthetized starting from 2,3:5,6-dibenzo-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene (Hdbabh), are the first isolable homoleptic hexakisamido complexes of uranium(V) and (VI). (orig.)

  8. Accumulation of uranium by biopigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira


    The uranium adsorbing abilities of various biopigments were investigated. Extremely high adsorption capacities for uranium were found in melanin and bioflavonols (quercetin and morin) having chelating positions with uranium. As a step towards improving the adsorption characteristics of the bioflavonols, quercetin and morin were immobilized on both Bemberg rayon fiber and polyaminostyrene, and the basic features of uranium adsorption by the immobilized bioflavonols were studied. The bioflavonols immobilized on Bemberg rayon fiber have a highly selective capacity to adsorb uranium. Uranium recovery from seawater by the immobilized bioflavonols was markedly affected by the pH value of the seawater, and the uptake at pH 8, which is the pH value of natural seawater, was difficult. However, this adsorbent can accumulate large amounts of uranium from non-saline water. Thus it can be used to remove and recover uranium from uranium refining waste water and other waste sources.

  9. Goldbach Partitions and Sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. Goldbach Partitions and Sequences. Subhash Kak. General Article Volume 19 Issue 11 November 2014 pp 1028-1037. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  10. Goldbach Partitions and Sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    There is another version of the conjecture that states that every odd number greater than 7 is a sum of three odd primes. This is called the 'weak' Goldbach con- jecture. Computer experiments have shown that the conjectures are true for n ≤ 4 × 10. 18 . A representation of a number as a sum of primes is a prime partition.

  11. Anticorrosion protection of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, Ivan D.; Kazakovskaya, Tatiana; Tukmakov, Victor; Shapovalov, Vyacheslav [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, 37, Mira Ave., RU-607190 Sarov (Nizhnii Gorod), 010450 (Russian Federation)


    Uranium in atmospheric conditions is non-stable. Sloughing products are being generated on its surface during storage or use. These corrosion products make many difficulties because of necessity to provide personnel safety. Besides, uranium corrosion may cause damage in parts. The first works devoted to uranium corrosion were performed in the framework of the USA Manhattan Project in the early forties of last century. Various methods of uranium protection were investigated, among them the galvanic one was the most studied. Later on the galvanic technology was patented. The works on this problem remains urgent up to the present time. In Russia, many methods of uranium corrosion protection, mainly against atmospheric corrosion, were tried on. In particular, such methods as diffusion zinc and paint coating were investigated. In the first case, a complex intermetallic U-Zn compound was formed but its protection was not reliable enough, this protection system was inconvenient and uncertain and that is why an additional paint coating was necessary. In the case of paint coatings another problem appeared. It was necessary to find such a coating where gas-permeability would prevail over water-permeability. Otherwise significant uranium corrosion occurs. This circumstance together with low mechanical resistance of paint coatings does not allow to use paint coating for long-term protection of uranium. Currently, there are following methods of uranium protection: ion-plasma, galvanic and thermo-vacuum annealing. These are described in this paper. In the end the issue of corrosion protection in reactor core zones is addressed. Here the greatest difficulties are caused when enriched uranium heated up to 500 deg. C needs anticorrosion protection. In this case various metal coatings are not reliable because of brittle inter-metallide formation. The reliable protection may be provided only up to the temperature plus 400 - 500 deg. C with the help of galvanic copper coating since

  12. Use of quantitative-structure property relationship (QSPR) and artificial neural network (ANN) based approaches for estimating the octanol-water partition coefficients of the 209 chlorinated trans-azobenzene congeners. (United States)

    Wilczyńska-Piliszek, Agata J; Piliszek, Sławomir; Falandysz, Jerzy


    Polychlorinated azobenzenes (PCABs) can be found as contaminant by products in 3,4-dichloroaniline and its derivatives and in the herbicides Diuron, Linuron, Methazole, Neburon, Propanil and SWEP. Trans congeners of PCABs are physically and chemically more stable and so are environmentally relevant, when compared to unstable cis congeners. In this study, to fulfill gaps on environmentally relevant partitioning properties of PCABs, the values of n-octanol/water partition coefficients (log K(OW)) have been determined for 209 congeners of chloro-trans-azobenzene (Ct-AB) by means of quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach and artificial neural networks (ANN) predictive ability. The QSPR methods used based on geometry optimalization and quantum-chemical structural descriptors, which were computed on the level of density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional and 6-311++G basis set in Gaussian 03 and of the semi-empirical quantum chemistry method (PM6) of the molecular orbital package (MOPAC). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs) and -biphenyls (PCBs), to which PCABs are related, were reference compounds in this study. An experimentally obtained data on physical and chemical properties of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were reference data for ANN predictions of log K(OW) values of Ct-ABs in this study. Both calculation methods gave similar results in term of absolute log K(OW) values, while the models generated by PM6 are considered highly efficient in time spent, when compared to these by DFT. The estimated log K(OW) values of 209 Ct-ABs varied between 5.22-5.57 and 5.45-5.60 for Mono-, 5.56-6.00 and 5.59-6.07 for Di-, 5.89-6.56 and 5.91-6.46 for Tri-, 6.10-7.05 and 6.13-6.80 for Tetra-, 6.43-7.39 and 6.48-7.14 for Penta-, 6.61-7.78 and 6.98-7.42 for Hexa-, 7.41-7.94 and 7.34-7.86 for Hepta-, 7.99-8.17 and 7.72-8.20 for Octa-, 8.35-8.42 and 8.10-8.62 for NonaCt-ABs, and 8.52-8.60 and 8.81-8.83 for DecaCt-AB. These log K(OW) values

  13. Euler’s Partition Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pąk Karol


    Full Text Available In this article we prove the Euler’s Partition Theorem which states that the number of integer partitions with odd parts equals the number of partitions with distinct parts. The formalization follows H.S. Wilf’s lecture notes [28] (see also [1].

  14. Determination of uranium concentration and burn-up of irradiated reactor fuel in contaminated areas in Belarus using uranium isotopic ratios in soil samples


    Mironov, V. P.; Matusevich, J. L.; Kudrjashov, V. P.; Ananich, P. I.; Zhuravkov, V. V.; Boulyga, S. F.; Becker, J. S.


    An analytical method is described for the estimation of uranium concentrations, of U-235/U-238 and U-236/U-238 isotope ratios and burn-up of irradiated reactor uranium in contaminated soil samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Experimental results obtained at 12 sampling sites situated on northern and western radioactive fallout tails 4 to 53 km distant from Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. Concentrations of irradiated uranium in the upper 0-10cm soil laye...

  15. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA


    Lloyd, N.S.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Parrish, R. R.


    Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960’s and ’70’s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7 – 2.1 μg g-1, with a weighted geometric mea...

  17. Miscellaneous Studies of Fluorocarbons and Fluorocarbon-Uranium Hexafluoride Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posey, J.C.; Barber E.J.


    During the exploration of the possible use of an extraction process for the separation of gaseous cascade impurities from uranium hexafluoride, a number of short exploratory studies were carried out. These included (1) experimental determination of the vapor pressure and liquid density of perfluorodibutylcylicether, (2) calculation of the liquid vapor-equilibria of the systes perfluoro-n-pentane-uranium hexafluoride and 1,2-dichlorohexafluoropropane-uranium hexafluoride, and (3) derivation of equations for the estimation of activity coefficients in ternary systems from the properties of the pure components. The results of these studies are summarized in this report.

  18. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server


    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  19. Generalised twisted partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B


    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  20. BKP plane partitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)


    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  1. Uranium immobilization and nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, C.J.; Ogard, A.E.


    Considerable information useful in nuclear waste storage can be gained by studying the conditions of uranium ore deposit formation. Further information can be gained by comparing the chemistry of uranium to nuclear fission products and other radionuclides of concern to nuclear waste disposal. Redox state appears to be the most important variable in controlling uranium solubility, especially at near neutral pH, which is characteristic of most ground water. This is probably also true of neptunium, plutonium, and technetium. Further, redox conditions that immobilize uranium should immobilize these elements. The mechanisms that have produced uranium ore bodies in the Earth's crust are somewhat less clear. At the temperatures of hydrothermal uranium deposits, equilibrium models are probably adequate, aqueous uranium (VI) being reduced and precipitated by interaction with ferrous-iron-bearing oxides and silicates. In lower temperature roll-type uranium deposits, overall equilibrium may not have been achieved. The involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in ore-body formation has been postulated, but is uncertain. Reduced sulfur species do, however, appear to be involved in much of the low temperature uranium precipitation. Assessment of the possibility of uranium transport in natural ground water is complicated because the system is generally not in overall equilibrium. For this reason, Eh measurements are of limited value. If a ground water is to be capable of reducing uranium, it must contain ions capable of reducing uranium both thermodynamically and kinetically. At present, the best candidates are reduced sulfur species.

  2. The Kintyre uranium project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, B. [Canning Resources Pty. Ltd., Perth, WA (Australia)


    The Kintyre Uranium Project is being developed by Canning Resources Pty Ltd, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto (formerly CRA). The work on the project includes the planning and management of a number of background environmental studies. The company has also commissioned studies by external consultants into process technologies, mining strategies and techniques for extracting the uranium ore from the waste rock. In addition, Canning Resources has made a detailed assessment of the worldwide market potential for Australian uranium in the late 1990s and into the 21st century. The most significant factor affecting the future of this project is the current product price. This price is insufficient to justify the necessary investment to bring this project into production. 8 figs.


    Buckingham, J.S.


    The production of uranium trioxide from aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate is discussed. The uranium trioxide is produced by adding sulfur or a sulfur-containing compound, such as thiourea, sulfamic acid, sulfuric acid, and ammonium sulfate, to the uranyl solution in an amount of about 0.5% by weight of the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate, evaporating the solution to dryness, and calcining the dry residue. The trioxide obtained by this method furnished a dioxide with a considerably higher reactivity with hydrogen fluoride than a trioxide prepared without the sulfur additive.

  4. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  5. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.


    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming.

  6. Ecological and corrosion behavior of depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Mirjana D.


    Full Text Available Environmental pollution with radionuclides, particularly uranium and its decay products is a serious global problem. The current scientific studies estimated that the contamination originating from TENORM, caused by nuclear and non-nuclear technologies, has significantly increased natural level of radioactivity in the last thirty years. During the last decades all the more were talking about the "new pollutant" - depleted uranium (DU, which has been used in anti-tank penetrators because of its high density, penetration and pyrophoric properties. It is estimated that during the Gulf War, the war in Bosnia and Yugoslavia and during the invasion of Iraq, 1.4 million missiles with depleted uranium was fired. During the NATO aggression against the ex Yugoslavia in 1999., 112 locations in Kosovo and Metohija, 12 locations in southern Serbia and two locations in Montenegro were bombed. On this occasion, approximately 10 tons of depleted uranium were entered into the environment, mainly on land, where the degree of contamination ranged from 200 Bq / kg to 235 000 Bq/kg, which is up to 1000 times higher than the natural level. Fourteen years ago there was very little information about the behavior of ecological systems damaged by DU penetrators fired. Today, unfortunately, we are increasingly faced with the ―invisible threat" of depleted uranium, which has a strong radioactive and hemotoxic impact on human health. Present paper provides a detailed overview of the current understanding of corrosion and corrosion behavior of DU and environmental factors that control corrosion, together with indicators of environmental impact in order to highlight areas that need further attention in developing remediation programs.

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Volume 1. Summary of the geology and uranium potential of Precambrian conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Flurkey, A.J.; Coolidge, C.M.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Sever, C.K.


    A series of uranium-, thorium-, and gold-bearing conglomerates in Late Archean and Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in southern Wyoming. The mineral deposits were found by applying the time and strata bound model for the origin of uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates to favorable rock types within a geologic terrane known from prior regional mapping. No mineral deposits have been discovered that are of current (1981) economic interest, but preliminary resource estimates indicate that over 3418 tons of uranium and over 1996 tons of thorium are present in the Medicine Bow Mountains and that over 440 tons of uranium and 6350 tons of thorium are present in Sierra Madre. Sampling has been inadequate to determine gold resources. High grade uranium deposits have not been detected by work to date but local beds of uranium-bearing conglomerate contain as much as 1380 ppM uranium over a thickness of 0.65 meters. This project has involved geologic mapping at scales from 1/6000 to 1/50,000 detailed sampling, and the evaluation of 48 diamond drill holes, but the area is too large to fully establish the economic potential with the present information. This first volume summarizes the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of the uranium-bearing conglomerates. Volume 2 contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates.


    Hyman, H.H.; Dreher, J.L.


    The recovery of uranium from the acidic aqueous metal waste solutions resulting from the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation of plutonium from solutions of neutron irradiated uranium is described. The waste solutions consist of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and uranium as a uranyl salt, together with salts of the fission products normally associated with neutron irradiated uranium. Generally, the process of the invention involves the partial neutralization of the waste solution with sodium hydroxide, followed by conversion of the solution to a pH 11 by mixing therewith sufficient sodium carbonate. The resultant carbonate-complexed waste is contacted with a titanated silica gel and the adsorbent separated from the aqueous medium. The aqueous solution is then mixed with sufficient acetic acid to bring the pH of the aqueous medium to between 4 and 5, whereby sodium uranyl acetate is precipitated. The precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting solution preferably provided with salting out agents. Uranyl nitrate is recovered from the solution by extraction with an ether such as diethyl ether.


    Harrington, C.D.


    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  10. Extraction of uranium from seawater: a few facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidez Joel


    Full Text Available Although uranium concentration in seawater is only about 3 micrograms per liter, the quantity of uranium dissolved in the world's oceans is estimated to amount to 4.5 billion tonnes of uranium metal (tU. In contrast, the current conventional terrestrial resource is estimated to amount to about 17 million tU. However, for a number of reasons the extraction of significant amounts of uranium from seawater remains today more a dream than a reality. Firstly, pumping the seawater to extract this uranium would need more energy than what could be produced with the recuperated uranium. Then if trying to use existing industrial flow rates, as for example on a nuclear power plant, it appears that the annual possible quantity remains very low. In fact huge quantities of water must be treated. To produce the annual world uranium consumption (around 65,000 tU, it would need at least to extract all uranium of 2 × 1013 tonnes of seawater, the volume equivalent of the entire North Sea. In fact only the great ocean currents are providing without pumping these huge quantities, and the idea is to try to extract even very partially this uranium. For example Japan, which used before the Fukushima accident about 8,000 tU by year, sees about 5.2 million tU passing every year, in the ocean current Kuro Shio in which it lies. A lot of research works have been published on the studies of adsorbents immersed in these currents. Then, after submersion, these adsorbents are chemically treated to recuperate the uranium. Final quantities remain very low in comparison of the complex and costly operations to be done in sea. One kilogram of adsorbent, after one month of submersion, yields about 2 g of uranium and the adsorbent can only be used six times due to decreasing efficiency. The industrial extrapolation exercise made for the extraction of 1,200 tU/year give with these values a very costly installation installed on more than 1000 km2 of sea with a

  11. New Linear Partitioning Models Based on Experimental Water: Supercritical CO2 Partitioning Data of Selected Organic Compounds. (United States)

    Burant, Aniela; Thompson, Christopher; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K


    Partitioning coefficients of organic compounds between water and supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) are necessary to assess the risk of migration of these chemicals from subsurface CO2 storage sites. Despite the large number of potential organic contaminants, the current data set of published water-sc-CO2 partitioning coefficients is very limited. Here, the partitioning coefficients of thiophene, pyrrole, and anisole were measured in situ over a range of temperatures and pressures using a novel pressurized batch-reactor system with dual spectroscopic detectors: a near-infrared spectrometer for measuring the organic analyte in the CO2 phase and a UV detector for quantifying the analyte in the aqueous phase. Our measured partitioning coefficients followed expected trends based on volatility and aqueous solubility. The partitioning coefficients and literature data were then used to update a published poly parameter linear free-energy relationship and to develop five new linear free-energy relationships for predicting water-sc-CO2 partitioning coefficients. A total of four of the models targeted a single class of organic compounds. Unlike models that utilize Abraham solvation parameters, the new relationships use vapor pressure and aqueous solubility of the organic compound at 25 °C and CO2 density to predict partitioning coefficients over a range of temperature and pressure conditions. The compound class models provide better estimates of partitioning behavior for compounds in that class than does the model built for the entire data set.

  12. Distribution and potential health risk of groundwater uranium in Korea. (United States)

    Shin, Woosik; Oh, Jungsun; Choung, Sungwook; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Yun, Uk; Woo, Nam-Chil; Kim, Hyun Koo


    Chronic exposure even to extremely low specific radioactivity of natural uranium in groundwater results in kidney problems and potential toxicity in bones. This study was conducted to assess the potential health risk via intake of the groundwater containing uranium, based on the determination of the uranium occurrence in groundwater. The groundwater was investigated from a total of 4140 wells in Korea. Most of the groundwater samples showed neutral pH and (sub-)oxic condition that was influenced by the mixing with shallow groundwater due to long-screened (open) wells. High uranium contents exceeding the WHO guideline level of 30 μg L(-1) were observed in the 160 wells located mainly in the plutonic bedrock regions. The statistical analysis suggested that the uranium component was present in groundwater by desorption and re-dissolution processes. Predominant uranium phases were estimated to uranyl carbonates under the Korean groundwater circumstances. These mobile forms of uranium and oxic condition facilitate the increase of potential health risk downgradient. In particular, long-term intake of groundwater containing >200 μg U L(-1) may induce internal exposure to radiation as well as the effects of chemical toxicity. These high uranium concentrations were found in twenty four sampling wells of rural areas in this study, and they were mainly used for drinking. Therefore, the high-level uranium wells and neighboring areas must be properly managed and monitored to reduce the exposure risk for the residents by drinking groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In-Situ Characterization of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary A. Pope; Daene C. McKinney; Akhil Datta Gupta; Richard E. Jackson; Minquan Jin


    Majors advances have been made during the past three years in our research on interwell partitioning tracers tests (PITTs). These advances include (1) progress on the inverse problem of how to estimate the three-dimensional distribution of NAPL in aquifers from the tracer data, (2) the first ever partitioning tracer experiments in dual porosity media, (3) the first modeling of partitioning tracers in dual porosity media (4) experiments with complex NAPLs such as coal tar, (5) the development of an accurate and simple method to predict partition coefficients using the equivalent alkane carbon number approach, (6) partitioning tracer experiments in large model aquifers with permeability layers, (7) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data to estimate the change in composition of a NAPL before and after remediation (8) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data after a field demonstration of surfactant foam to remediate NAPL and (9) experiments at elevated temperatures .

  14. Analysis of uranium concentration in drinking water samples using ICPMS. (United States)

    Rani, Asha; Mehra, Rohit; Duggal, Vikas; Balaram, V


    Uranium concentration in drinking water samples collected from some areas of Northern Rajasthan has been measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The water samples were taken from hand pumps. The uranium concentration in water samples varies from 2.54-133.0 μg L with a mean value of 38.48 μg L. The uranium concentration in most of the drinking water samples exceeds the safe limit (30 μg L) recommended by the World Health Organization. The annual effective dose associated with drinking water due to uranium concentration is estimated from its annual intake using dosimetric information based on ICRP 72. The resulting value of the annual effective dose from drinking water sources is in the range of 2.11-110.45 μSv. The annual effective dose in one of the samples was found to be greater than WHO-recommended level of 100 μSv y.

  15. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, Kirk [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under

  16. Rocks of the Thirtynine Mile volcanic field as possible sources of uranium for epigenetic deposits in central Colorado, USA. (United States)

    Dickinson, K.A.


    The most likely volcanic source rock for uranium in epigenetic deposits of the Tallahassee Creek uranium district and nearby areas is the Wall Mountain Tuff. The widespread occurrence of the Tuff, its high apparent original uranium content, approx 11 ppm, and its apparent loss of uranium from devitrification and other alteration suggest its role in providing that element. An estimate of the original Th/U ratio is based on the present thorium and uranium contents of the basal vitrophyre of the Tuff from Castle Rock Gulch, Hecla Junction and other areas.-from Author


    Hansen, W.N.


    An electrolytic method is given for obtaining pure thorium, uranium, and thorium-uranium alloys. The electrolytic cell comprises a cathode composed of a metal selected from the class consisting of zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth, an anode composed of at least one of the metals selected from the group consisting of thorium and uranium in an impure state, and an electrolyte composed of a fused salt containing at least one of the salts of the metals selected from the class consisting of thorium, uranium. zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth. Electrolysis of the fused salt while the cathode is maintained in the molten condition deposits thorium, uranium, or thorium-uranium alloys in pure form in the molten cathode which thereafter may be separated from the molten cathode product by distillation.

  18. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database (United States)

    The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

  19. Radiochemistry of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gindler, J.E.


    This volume which deals with the radiochemistry of uranium is one of a series of monographs on radiochemistry of the elements. There is included a review of the nuclear and chemical features of particular interest to the radiochemist, a discussion of problems of dissolution of a sample and counting technique, and finally, a collection of radiochemical procedures for the element as found in the literature.

  20. Partition functions:I. Improved partition functions and thermodynamic quantities for normal, equilibrium, and ortho and para molecular hydrogen


    Popovas, Andrius; Jørgensen, Uffe Gråe


    Aims. In this work we rigorously show the shortcomings of various simplifications that are used to calculate the total internal partition function. These shortcomings can lead to errors of up to 40 percent or more in the estimated partition function. These errors carry on to calculations of thermodynamic quantities. Therefore a more complicated approach has to be taken. Methods. Seven possible simplifications of various complexity are described, together with advantages and disadvantages of d...

  1. Raw material uranium; Rohstoff Uran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Uranium is an important raw material in human life. Mostly using nuclear fission uranium is used in nuclear medicine, industry and research. The most important application is the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants. Due to the global availability the worldwide uranium supply is guaranties for a long time. The contribution covers the issues medicine, neutron research, energy generation, occurrence, mining, processing, recycling and disposal.

  2. An Investigation of Document Partitions. (United States)

    Shaw, W. M., Jr.


    Empirical significance of document partitions is investigated as a function of index term-weight and similarity thresholds. Results show the same empirically preferred partitions can be detected by two independent strategies: an analysis of cluster-based retrieval analysis and an analysis of regularities in the underlying structure of the document…

  3. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with a power-law energy spectrum, is analogous to ps(n), that is, the number of ways of partitioning an ... of states of a pseudofermion-like system in a power-law energy spectrum. The name pseudofermion is ..... [3] G E Andrews, The theory of partitions (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Read- ing, Mass, 1976) p. 1.

  4. Uranium from Seawater Program Review; Fuel Resources Uranium from Seawater Program DOE Office of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    the rate-limiting step of uranium uptake from seawater is also essential in designing an effective uranium recovery system. Finally, economic analyses have been used to guide these studies and highlight what parameters, such as capacity, recyclability, and stability, have the largest impact on the cost of extraction of uranium from seawater. Initially, the cost estimates by the JAEA for extraction of uranium from seawater with braided polymeric fibers functionalized with amidoxime ligands were evaluated and updated. The economic analyses were subsequently updated to reflect the results of this project while providing insight for cost reductions in the adsorbent development through “cradle-to-grave” case studies for the extraction process. This report highlights the progress made over the last three years on the design, synthesis, and testing of new materials to extract uranium for seawater. This report is organized into sections that highlight the major research activities in this project: (1) Chelate Design and Modeling, (2) Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Structure, (3) Advanced Polymeric Adsorbents by Radiation Induced Grafting, (4) Advanced Nanomaterial Adsorbents, (5) Adsorbent Screening and Modeling, (6) Marine Testing, and (7) Cost and Energy Assessment. At the end of each section, future research directions are briefly discussed to highlight the challenges that still remain to reduce the cost of extractions of uranium for seawater. Finally, contributions from the Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), which complement this research program, are included at the end of this report.

  5. Uranium(VI) speciation: modelling, uncertainty and relevance to bioavailability models. Application to uranium uptake by the gills of a freshwater bivalve; Speciation de l'uranium(6), modelisation, incertitude et implication pour les modeles de biodisponibilite. Application a l'accumulation dans les branchies d'un bivalve d'eau douce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denison, F.H


    The effects of varying solution composition on the interactions between uranium(VI) and excised gills of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea have been investigated in well defined solution media. A significant reduction in the uptake of uranium was observed on increasing the concentrations of the uranium complexing ligands citrate and carbonate. Saturation kinetics as a function of uranium concentration at a pH value of 5.0 were observed, indicating that the uptake of uranium is a facilitated process, probably involving one or several trans-membrane transport systems. A relatively small change in the uptake of uranium was found as a function of pH (factor of ca. 2), despite the extremely large changes to the solution speciation of uranium within the range of pH investigated (5.0 - 7.5). A comprehensive review of the thermodynamic data relevant to the solution composition domain employed for this study was performed. Estimates of the uncertainties for the formation constants of aqueous uranium(VI) species were integrated into a thermodynamic database. A computer program was written to predict the equilibrium distribution of uranium(VI) in simple aqueous systems, using thermodynamic parameter mean-values. The program was extended to perform Monte Carlo and Quasi Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses, incorporating the thermodynamic database uncertainty estimates, to quantitatively predict the uncertainties inherent in predicting the solution speciation of uranium. The use of thermodynamic equilibrium modelling as a tool for interpreting the bioavailability of uranium(VI) was investigated. Observed uranium(VI) uptake behaviour was interpreted as a function of the predicted changes to the solution speciation of uranium. Different steady-state or pre-equilibrium approaches to modelling uranium uptake were tested. Alternative modelling approaches were also tested, considering the potential changes to membrane transport system activity or sorption characteristics on

  6. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)


    Hedley, W.H.; Roehrs, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.


    A process is given for converting uranyl nitrate solution to uranium dioxide. The process comprises spraying fine droplets of aqueous uranyl nitrate solution into a hightemperature hydrocarbon flame, said flame being deficient in oxygen approximately 30%, retaining the feed in the flame for a sufficient length of time to reduce the nitrate to the dioxide, and recovering uranium dioxide. (AEC)

  8. Critical analysis of world uranium resources (United States)

    Hall, Susan; Coleman, Margaret


    The U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA) joined with the U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to analyze the world uranium supply and demand balance. To evaluate short-term primary supply (0–15 years), the analysis focused on Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR), which are resources projected with a high degree of geologic assurance and considered to be economically feasible to mine. Such resources include uranium resources from mines currently in production as well as resources that are in the stages of feasibility or of being permitted. Sources of secondary supply for uranium, such as stockpiles and reprocessed fuel, were also examined. To evaluate long-term primary supply, estimates of uranium from unconventional and from undiscovered resources were analyzed. At 2010 rates of consumption, uranium resources identified in operating or developing mines would fuel the world nuclear fleet for about 30 years. However, projections currently predict an increase in uranium requirements tied to expansion of nuclear energy worldwide. Under a low-demand scenario, requirements through the period ending in 2035 are about 2.1 million tU. In the low demand case, uranium identified in existing and developing mines is adequate to supply requirements. However, whether or not these identified resources will be developed rapidly enough to provide an uninterrupted fuel supply to expanded nuclear facilities could not be determined. On the basis of a scenario of high demand through 2035, 2.6 million tU is required and identified resources in operating or developing mines is inadequate. Beyond 2035, when requirements could exceed resources in these developing properties, other sources will need to be developed from less well-assured resources, deposits not yet at the prefeasibility stage, resources that are currently subeconomic, secondary sources, undiscovered conventional resources, and unconventional uranium supplies. This

  9. User Partitioning for Less Overhead in MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Steven W


    This paper presents a study on multiple-antenna interference channels, accounting for general overhead as a function of the number of users and antennas in the network. The model includes both perfect and imperfect channel state information based on channel estimation in the presence of noise. Three low complexity methods are proposed for reducing the impact of overhead in the sum network throughput by partitioning users into orthogonal groups. The first method allocates spectrum to the groups equally, creating an imbalance in the sum rate of each group. The second proposed method allocates spectrum unequally among the groups to provide rate fairness. Finally, geographic grouping is proposed for cases where some receivers do not observe significant interference from other transmitters. For each partitioning method, the optimal solution not only requires a brute force search over all possible partitions, but also requires full channel state information, thereby defeating the purpose of partitioning. We therefo...

  10. Uranium in soils and water; Uran in Boden und Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienemann, Claudia; Utermann, Jens


    The report of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency) on uranium in soils and water covers the following chapters: (1) Introduction. (2) Deposits and properties: Use of uranium; toxic effects on human beings, uranium in ground water and drinking water, uranium in surface waters, uranium in soils, uranium in the air. (3) Legal regulations. (4) Uranium deposits, uranium mining, polluted area recultivation. (5) Diffuse uranium entry in soils and water: uranium insertion due to fertilizers, uranium insertion due to atmospheric precipitation, uranium insertion from the air. (6) Diffuse uranium release from soils and transfer in to the food chain. (7) Conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability. (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G


    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  12. Aluminosilicate Precipitation Impact on Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Experiments have been conducted to examine the fate of uranium during the formation of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) when wastes containing high aluminate concentrations are mixed with wastes of high silicate concentration. Testing was conducted at varying degrees of uranium saturation. Testing examined typical tank conditions, e.g., stagnant, slightly elevated temperature (50 C). The results showed that under sub-saturated conditions uranium is not removed from solution to any large extent in both simulant testing and actual tank waste testing. This aspect was not thoroughly understood prior to this work and was necessary to avoid criticality issues when actual tank wastes were aggregated. There are data supporting a small removal due to sorption of uranium on sites in the NAS. Above the solubility limit the data are clear that a reduction in uranium concentration occurs concomitant with the formation of aluminosilicate. This uranium precipitation is fairly rapid and ceases when uranium reaches its solubility limit. At the solubility limit, it appears that uranium is not affected, but further testing might be warranted.


    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.


    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017 (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.


    The U.S. Geological Survey estimates a mean of 40 million pounds of in-place uranium oxide (U3O8) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in the Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method specific to calcrete uranium deposits.

  15. The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA. (United States)

    Lloyd, N S; Chenery, S R N; Parrish, R R


    Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960s and '70s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7-2.1 microg g(-1), with a weighted geometric mean of 1.05 microg g(-1); the contaminated soil samples comprise uranium up to 500+/-40 microg g(-1). A plot of (236)U/(238)U against (235)U/(238)U isotope ratios describes a mixing line between natural uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in bulk soil samples; scatter from this line can be accounted for by heterogeneity in the DU particulate. The end-member of DU compositions aggregated in these bulk samples comprises (2.05+/-0.06) x 10(-3)(235)U/(238)U, (3.2+/-0.1)x10(-5)(236)U/(238)U, and (7.1+/-0.3) x 10(-6)(234)U/(238)U. The analytical method is sensitive to as little as 50 ng g(-1) DU mixed with the natural uranium occurring in these soils. The contamination footprint has been mapped northward from site, and at least one third of the uranium in a soil sample from the surface 5 cm, collected 5. 1km NNW of the site, is DU. The distribution of contamination within the surface soil horizon follows a trend of exponential decrease with depth, which can be approximated by a simple diffusion model. Bioturbation by earthworms can account for dispersal of contaminant from the soil surface, in the form of primary uranium oxide particulates, and uranyl species that are adsorbed to organic matter. Considering this distribution, the total mass of uranium contamination emitted from the factory is estimated to be c. 4.8 tonnes.

  16. Uranium uptake history, open-system behaviour and uranium-series ages of fossil Tridacna gigas from Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Ayling, Bridget F.; Eggins, Stephen; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Chappell, John; Grün, Rainer; Mortimer, Graham


    Molluscs incorporate negligible uranium into their skeleton while they are living, with any uranium uptake occurring post-mortem. As such, closed-system U-series dating of molluscs is unlikely to provide reliable age constraints for marine deposits. Even the application of open-system U-series modelling is challenging, because uranium uptake and loss histories can affect time-integrated uranium distributions and are difficult to constrain. We investigate the chemical and isotopic distribution of uranium in fossil Tridacna gigas (giant clams) from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (128-116 ka) and MIS 11 (424-374 ka) reefs at Huon Peninsula in Papua New Guinea. The large size of the clams enables detailed chemical and isotopic mapping of uranium using LA-ICPMS and LA-MC-ICPMS techniques. Within each fossil Tridacna specimen, marked differences in uranium concentrations are observed across the three Tridacna growth zones (outer, inner, hinge), with the outer and hinge zones being relatively enriched. In MIS 5e and MIS 11 Tridacna, the outer and hinge zones contain approximately 1 ppm and 5 ppm uranium respectively. In addition to uptake of uranium, loss of uranium appears prevalent, especially in the MIS 11 specimens. The effect of uranium loss is to elevate measured [230Th/238U] values with little effect on [234U/238U] values. Closed-system age estimates are on average 50% too young for the MIS 5e Tridacna, and 25% too young for the MIS 11 Tridacna. A complex, multi-stage uptake and loss history is interpreted for the fossil Tridacna and we demonstrate that they cannot provide independent, reliable geochronological controls on the timing of past reef growth at Huon Peninsula.

  17. Choosing the best partition of the output from a large-scale simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challacombe, Chelsea Jordan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casleton, Emily Michele [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Data partitioning becomes necessary when a large-scale simulation produces more data than can be feasibly stored. The goal is to partition the data, typically so that every element belongs to one and only one partition, and store summary information about the partition, either a representative value plus an estimate of the error or a distribution. Once the partitions are determined and the summary information stored, the raw data is discarded. This process can be performed in-situ; meaning while the simulation is running. When creating the partitions there are many decisions that researchers must make. For instance, how to determine once an adequate number of partitions have been created, how are the partitions created with respect to dividing the data, or how many variables should be considered simultaneously. In addition, decisions must be made for how to summarize the information within each partition. Because of the combinatorial number of possible ways to partition and summarize the data, a method of comparing the different possibilities will help guide researchers into choosing a good partitioning and summarization scheme for their application.

  18. Manhattan Project Technical Series: The Chemistry of Uranium (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitch, E. I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Katz, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This constitutes Chapters 11 through 16, inclusive, of the Survey Volume on Uranium Chemistry prepared for the Manhattan Project Technical Series. Chapters are titled: Uranium Oxides, Sulfides, Selenides, and Tellurides; The Non-Volatile Fluorides of Uranium; Uranium Hexafluoride; Uranium-Chlorine Compounds; Bromides, Iodides, and Pseudo-Halides of Uranium; and Oxyhalides of Uranium.


    Moore, R.H.


    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  20. Estimation of Survival Probabilities for Use in Cost-effectiveness Analyses: A Comparison of a Multi-state Modeling Survival Analysis Approach with Partitioned Survival and Markov Decision-Analytic Modeling. (United States)

    Williams, Claire; Lewsey, James D; Mackay, Daniel F; Briggs, Andrew H


    Modeling of clinical-effectiveness in a cost-effectiveness analysis typically involves some form of partitioned survival or Markov decision-analytic modeling. The health states progression-free, progression and death and the transitions between them are frequently of interest. With partitioned survival, progression is not modeled directly as a state; instead, time in that state is derived from the difference in area between the overall survival and the progression-free survival curves. With Markov decision-analytic modeling, a priori assumptions are often made with regard to the transitions rather than using the individual patient data directly to model them. This article compares a multi-state modeling survival regression approach to these two common methods. As a case study, we use a trial comparing rituximab in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide v. fludarabine and cyclophosphamide alone for the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We calculated mean Life Years and QALYs that involved extrapolation of survival outcomes in the trial. We adapted an existing multi-state modeling approach to incorporate parametric distributions for transition hazards, to allow extrapolation. The comparison showed that, due to the different assumptions used in the different approaches, a discrepancy in results was evident. The partitioned survival and Markov decision-analytic modeling deemed the treatment cost-effective with ICERs of just over £16,000 and £13,000, respectively. However, the results with the multi-state modeling were less conclusive, with an ICER of just over £29,000. This work has illustrated that it is imperative to check whether assumptions are realistic, as different model choices can influence clinical and cost-effectiveness results.

  1. Hawk: A Runtime System for Partitioned Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Hassen, S.; Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.


    Hawk is a language-independent runtime system for writing data-parallel programs using partitioned objects. A partitioned object is a multidimensional array of elements that can be partitioned and distributed by the programmer. The Hawk runtime system uses the user-defined partitioning of objects

  2. Uranium, thorium and potassium in Indian rocks and ores

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Usinglsodiurn iodide gamma-ray spectrometer, the radioactivity content of the crustal material from various places in India has been estimated. “Sedi- mentary and metamorphic rocks contain more uranium and. thorium than igneous rocks. PhoSphate rocks and ores from Kerala region contain higher nranir m and.

  3. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.


    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  4. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.


    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  5. Evaluation of diffusive gradients in thin-films using a Diphonix® resin for monitoring dissolved uranium in natural waters. (United States)

    Turner, Geraldine S C; Mills, Graham A; Burnett, Jonathan L; Amos, Sean; Fones, Gary R


    Commercially available Diphonix(®) resin (TrisKem International) was evaluated as a receiving phase for use with the diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) passive sampler for measuring uranium. This resin has a high partition coefficient for actinides and is used in the nuclear industry. Other resins used as receiving phases with DGT for measuring uranium have been prone to saturation and significant chemical interferences. The performance of the device was evaluated in the laboratory and in field trials. In laboratory experiments uptake of uranium (all 100% efficiency) by the resin was unaffected by varying pH (4-9), ionic strength (0.01-1.00 M, as NaNO3) and varying aqueous concentrations of Ca(2+) (100-500 mg L(-1)) and HCO3(-) (100-500 mg L(-1)). Due to the high partition coefficient of Diphonex(®), several elution techniques for uranium were evaluated. The optimal eluent mixture was 1M NaOH/1M H2O2, eluting 90% of the uranium from the resin. Uptake of uranium was linear (R(2)=0.99) over time (5 days) in laboratory experiments using artificial freshwater showing no saturation effects of the resin. In field deployments (River Lambourn, UK) the devices quantitatively accumulated uranium for up to 7 days. In both studies uptake of uranium matched that theoretically predicted for the DGT. Similar experiments in seawater did not follow the DGT theoretical uptake and the Diphonix(®) appeared to be capacity limited and also affected by matrix interferences. Isotopes of uranium (U(235)/U(238)) were measured in both environments with a precision and accuracy of 1.6-2.2% and 1.2-1.4%, respectively. This initial study shows the potential of using Diphonix(®)-DGT for monitoring of uranium in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K


    The performance of several commercially available portable radiation spectrometers containing small NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors has been studied at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These hand-held radioisotope identifiers are used by field personnel to detect and identify the illegal transport of uranium as a deterrent to undeclared nuclear proliferation or nuclear terrorism. The detection of uranium in a variety of chemical forms and isotopic enrichments presents some unique challenges in the maritime environment. This study was conducted using a variety of shielded and unshielded uranium sources in a simulated maritime environment. The results include estimates of the detection sensitivity for various isotopic enrichments and configurations using the manufacturer's spectral analysis firmware. More sophisticated methods for analyzing the spectra off-line are also evaluated to determine the detection limits and enrichment sensitivities from the field measurements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov


    Full Text Available The paper shows, that radionuclides from the stony rocks of uranium mines can be leached by atmospheric precipitations. In acid conditions, a degree of leaching is greater.Goal. The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of radionuclides in uranium minings and their impact on the environmental contamination.Materials and methods. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a blade of rock was mixed with distilled water in proportions of 0,3 kg of gravel and 1 liter of water. After thirty days of soaking, water was sent to the gamma-spectrometric analysis to Canberra’s spectrometer (USA with a high-purity germanium detector. In the second stage, we carried out the similar experiment with water, wich was acidified to pH = 3. Contamination levels of areas near the in-situ leaching mine were determined. Intervention levels were used to estimate risk and possible water consumption by the population. Estimations were carried out taking into account the combined presence of several radionuclides in the water.Results. The results of these studies have shown that the distribution of radionuclides from the source of the contamination is about 360 meters during the 30 y period. The stream, along which samples of soil were collected and studied, was formed by the miner waters that flow along small ruts towards a village, thereby increasing the likelihood of water use by the public.Conclusions. The uranium mines are the source of radioactive contamination. Radionuclides are distributed due to the erosion of rocks and leached out of the stony rock by precipitations. The extent of leaching is significantly increased in an acidic environment, which takes place near the in-situ leaching mines.

  8. Hypertension and hematologic parameters in a community near a uranium processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Sara E., E-mail: [College of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Paul D. Coverdell Center for Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Georgia, 500 D.W. Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602-7396 (United States); Burch, James B. [Arnold School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); South Carolina Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Columbia, SC (United States); WJB Dorn Veteran' s Affairs Medical Center, Columbia, SC (United States); Bottai, Matteo [Arnold School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Puett, Robin [Arnold School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); South Carolina Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Arnold School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Porter, Dwayne [Arnold School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Vena, John E. [College of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Paul D. Coverdell Center for Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Georgia, 500 D.W. Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602-7396 (United States); Hebert, James R. [Arnold School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); South Carolina Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Columbia, SC (United States)


    Background: Environmental uranium exposure originating as a byproduct of uranium processing can impact human health. The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center functioned as a uranium processing facility from 1951 to 1989, and potential health effects among residents living near this plant were investigated via the Fernald Medical Monitoring Program (FMMP). Methods: Data from 8216 adult FMMP participants were used to test the hypothesis that elevated uranium exposure was associated with indicators of hypertension or changes in hematologic parameters at entry into the program. A cumulative uranium exposure estimate, developed by FMMP investigators, was used to classify exposure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and physician diagnoses were used to assess hypertension; and red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cell differential counts were used to characterize hematology. The relationship between uranium exposure and hypertension or hematologic parameters was evaluated using generalized linear models and quantile regression for continuous outcomes, and logistic regression or ordinal logistic regression for categorical outcomes, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results: Of 8216 adult FMMP participants 4187 (51%) had low cumulative uranium exposure, 1273 (15%) had moderate exposure, and 2756 (34%) were in the high (>0.50 Sievert) cumulative lifetime uranium exposure category. Participants with elevated uranium exposure had decreased white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and increased eosinophil counts. Female participants with higher uranium exposures had elevated systolic blood pressure compared to women with lower exposures. However, no exposure-related changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure or hypertension diagnoses among female or male participants. Conclusions: Results from this investigation suggest that residents in the vicinity of the Fernald plant with elevated exposure to uranium primarily via inhalation exhibited

  9. Health effects of occupational exposure to uranium: do physicochemical properties matter? (United States)

    Zhivin, Sergey; Laurier, Dominique; Guseva Canu, Irina


    Physicochemical properties of uranium, including isotopic composition and solubility, are determinants of its toxicity. We reviewed epidemiological studies in civilian and military workers known to be exposed to uranium with different physicochemical properties to investigate its long-term effects, such as cancerous and circulatory diseases. We systematically searched the Pubmed and the Scopus databases to identify studies of uranium- processing workers (published between 1980 and 2013) and veterans of the wars in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans (published between 1991 and 2013) in which defined outcomes, such as lung, lymphohematopoietic, kidney cancers, and circulatory diseases were examined. RESULTS from these studies in terms of risk of each health outcome (mortality or incidence) and analyses of dose-response relationship were examined to present the impact of uranium physicochemical properties on the observed results. Twenty-seven articles were reviewed. There is some evidence for increased lung cancer risk among uranium-processing workers. The evidence is less strong for lymphohematopoietic cancer. We found that most of the studies insufficiently assessed the physicochemical properties of uranium and some of them used proxies for the exposure assessment and risk estimation analyses. Studies of veterans of the wars in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans are uninformative in respect to internal uranium exposure. Existing epidemiological data on the physicochemical properties of uranium and associated health outcomes are inconclusive. Further studies among certain groups of uranium-processing workers (uranium-enrichment and fuel-fabrication workers) could contribute to our knowledge of the health effects of uranium with respect to its physicochemical properties.

  10. Rescuing a Treasure Uranium-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)


    Uranium-233 (233U) is a synthetic isotope of uranium formed under reactor conditions during neutron capture by natural thorium (232Th). At high purities, this synthetic isotope serves as a crucial reference for accurately quantifying and characterizing natural uranium isotopes for domestic and international safeguards. Separated 233U is stored in vaults at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These materials represent a broad spectrum of 233U from the standpoint isotopic purity the purest being crucial for precise analyses in safeguarding uranium. All 233U at ORNL currently is scheduled to be down blended with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. Such down blending will permanently destroy the potential value of pure 233U samples as certified reference material for use in uranium analyses. Furthermore, no replacement 233U stocks are expected to be produced in the future due to a lack of operating production capability and the high cost of returning to operation this currently shut down capability. This paper will describe the efforts to rescue the purest of the 233U materials arguably national treasures from their destruction by down blending.

  11. Uranium favourability study in Nigeria (United States)

    Oshin, I. O.; Rahaman, M. A.

    Geological considerations indicate that four types of uranium deposits, three from within the crystalline rocks and the fourth from the sedimentary formations, can be explored for in Nigeria. The Precambrian Basement Complex underwent crustal reactivation in Pan-African times (600 ± 150 Ma) during which migmatites and rocks of the Older Granite suite were emplaced. The occurrences of these rocks in northeastern, north-central and central Nigeria are possible hosts for the granitic type of uranium deposit. Vein-type uranium deposits are often localized in areas of the Basement Complex which have undergone intense brittle deformation. The high-level, anorogenic, peralkaline Younger Granites of Nigeria of Carboniferous to Cretaceous age have geochemical characteristics which are similar to those of the host rocks of non-orogenic type uranium deposit in alkali complexes such as the Bokan mountains of Alaska. The sandstone type of uranium deposit may be found in the Cretaceous-Recent continental sandstone formations in the Sokoto, Niger, Chad and Benue Basins of Nigeria and in the sediments overlying the Oban Massif in Cross Rivers State. Geologically similar sandstone occurrences elsewhere in the world (Gabon, Niger and Colorado, U.S.A.) are known to harbour important uranium mineralization.

  12. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Department of Technology, Germantown, MD (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  13. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Environment Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dvorakova, Marcela [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas, E-mail: [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)


    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC{sub 50} value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC{sub 50} = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: > The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. > Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. > Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. > The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  14. Image segmentation by graph partitioning (United States)

    Torres, Ana Sofia; Monteiro, Fernando C.


    In this paper we propose an hybrid method for the image segmentation which combines the edge-based, region-based and the morphological techniques in conjunction through the spectral based clustering approach. An initial partitioning of the image into atomic regions is set by applying a watershed method to the image gradient magnitude. This initial partition is the input to a computationally efficient region segmentation process which produces the final segmentation. We have applied our approach on several images of the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset. The results reveal the accuracy of the propose method.

  15. Daily urinary excretion of uranium in members of the public of Southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoellriegl, Vera, E-mail: [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Arogunjo, Adeseye M., E-mail: [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Giussani, Augusto, E-mail: [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Michalke, Bernhard, E-mail: [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit BioGeoChemistry and Analytics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Oeh, Uwe, E-mail: [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)


    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion values of uranium in members of the public of Southwest Nigeria living in areas of low environmental uranium. As several uranium mines are running in Nigeria and the operations could be a risk of contamination for the workers as well as for the members of the public, biomonitoring of urine could provide information about the exposure to uranium for the subjects. Therefore, baseline values of uranium in urine are needed from subjects living in areas without mining activities. Volunteers of both genders (age range 3 to 78 years) were asked to collect 24 h-urine samples. The concentration measurements of uranium in urine were performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, urinary creatinine values were determined for normalization of the renal uranium relative to the creatinine concentrations. The urinary uranium concentrations and their creatinine normalized values ranged from < 10.4 to 150 ng L{sup -1} (median 13.8 ng L{sup -1}) and from 2.52 to 252.7 ng g{sup -1} creatinine (median 33.4 ng g{sup -1} creatinine), respectively, for adult subjects above 15 years of both genders. An increased uranium excretion value of 61.6 ng L{sup -1} (median), and of 76.0 ng g{sup -1} creatinine, respectively, were found in young subjects below 15 years. The median of daily excreted uranium was estimated to be 14.2 ng d{sup -1} for adults and of 45.1 ng d{sup -1} for children, respectively. The uranium excretion from males and females living in Nigeria in a non-mining area was comparable to reference values reported from other countries with low level of environmental uranium. The data can be considered as baseline values of urinary uranium in unexposed subjects in Nigeria. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of urinary uranium excretion in Nigerian volunteers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data correspond to baseline values known for unexposed persons. Black

  16. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.


    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.


    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.


    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  18. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughter, Mark D [ORNL


    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring weapons grade fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, while HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in fuel for nuclear reactors. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is only enriched to LEU, no undeclared LEU is produced, and no uranium is enriched to HEU or secretly diverted. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity, but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 53 million kg-separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22 million in gaseous diffusion and 31 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 23 million SWU/year of capacity are under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique

  19. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. (Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA (USA))


    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Analysis of load balance in hybrid partitioning | Talib | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In information retrieval systems, there are three types of index partitioning schemes - term partitioning, document partitioning, and hybrid partitioning. The hybrid-partitioning scheme combines both term and document partitioning schemes. Term partitioning provides high concurrency, which means that queries can be ...

  1. Partitioning and transmutation of nuclear wastes. Chances and risk in research and application; Partitionierung und Transmutation nuklearer Abfaelle. Chancen und Risiken in Forschung und Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glose, Evelyn (comp.)


    Partitioning and transmutation is focused on the transformation of long-lived radioisotopes in short-lived isotopes. The methodology could be a possibility to reduce the long.-term risk of heat developing nuclear waste in final repositories. During partitioning of spent fuel elements the uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium) are separated. The remaining fission and activation products are vitrified and disposed in the final repository. During the partition process radioactive water from decontamination and washing is generated as secondary waste. The transmutation process includes the irradiation of plutonium and the minor actinides with fast neutrons resulting in stable or short-lived isotopes. The separated uranium can be used for fuel element production. The facility for transmutation is being developed and is supposed to be safer than the actual nuclear power plants. The potential risks of the technology are discussed.

  2. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.


    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  3. Interpreting the effect of CO2-induced ocean acidification on elemental partitioning in biogenic carbonates within the framework of Rayleigh fractionation (United States)

    Gilmore, R. E.; Eagle, R.; Ries, J. B.; Tripati, A. K.


    The elemental composition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitated by marine invertebrates varies with the physico-chemical properties of seawater, and is thus used for reconstructing past oceanic conditions, including temperature, pH, and seawater composition. Previous studies have used a Rayleigh fractionation model to interpret elemental partitioning within a range of calcitic and aragonitic organisms, including foraminifera and corals. We present elemental ratios for 18 species of calcareous marine invertebrates, including echinoids, corals, bivalves, gastropods, calcifying algae, crustacea, and serpulid worms, which were reared at CO2-induced aragonite saturation states (±SD) of 2.5 (±0.4), 2.0 (±0.4), 1.5 (±0.3), and 0.7 (±0.2). Importantly, specimens were cultured simultaneously at the same temperature and in seawater sourced from the same reservoir, allowing comparison amongst taxa without regard to native water conditions. A combination of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to determine the elemental ratios. We interpret the partitioning of strontium, magnesium, barium, manganese, boron, lithium and uranium within the biogenic carbonates of these 18 invertebrates, along with data from the literature for foraminifera and coccolithophores raised under varying pCO2 and temperature conditions, within a Rayleigh fractionation framework. Application of a Rayleigh model to these systems requires constraints on elemental partitioning into inorganic CaCO3. Our survey of the literature shows that there are limited data for some elements (e.g., Mn) and that, for others (e.g., Sr, Mg), there are a wide range of values reported for a given element. Given this uncertainty, we examine the impact that varying the nominal inorganic partition coefficient has on Rayleigh-derived estimates of calcium-utilization during calcification. The elements examined in this study

  4. The optimal graph partitioning problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros; Holm, Søren


    In this paper we consider the problem of partitioning the set of nodes in a graph in at most p classes, such that the sum of node weights in any class is not greater than the class capacity b, and such that the sum of edge weights, for edges connecting nodes in the same class, is maximal. This pr...

  5. Partitioning of a DRM receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Smit, L.T.

    In this article we present the results of partitioning the OFDM baseband processing of a DRM receiver into smaller independent processes. Furthermore, we give a short introduction into the relevant parts of the DRM standard. Based on the number of multiplications and additions we can map individual

  6. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured ...

  7. Distribution of uranium, thorium, and isotopic composition of uranium in soil samples of south Serbia: Evidence of depleted uranium


    Sahoo Sarata Kumar; Fujimoto Kenzo; Čeliković Igor; Ujić Predrag; Žunić Zora S.


    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrom - etry were used to measure concentration of uranium and thorium as well as isotopic composition of uranium respectively in soil samples collected around south Serbia. An analytical method was established for a routine sample preparation procedure for uranium and thorium. Uranium was chemically separated and purified from soil samples by anion exchange resin and UTEVA extraction chromatography and its isotopic c...

  8. Variations in the uranium isotopic compositions of uranium ores from different types of uranium deposits (United States)

    Uvarova, Yulia A.; Kyser, T. Kurt; Geagea, Majdi Lahd; Chipley, Don


    Variations in 238U/235U and 234U/238U ratios were measured in uranium minerals from a spectrum of uranium deposit types, as well as diagenetic phosphates in uranium-rich basins and peraluminous rhyolites and associated autunite mineralisation from Macusani Meseta, Peru. Mean δ238U values of uranium minerals relative to NBL CRM 112-A are 0.02‰ for metasomatic deposits, 0.16‰ for intrusive, 0.18‰ for calcrete, 0.18‰ for volcanic, 0.29‰ for quartz-pebble conglomerate, 0.29‰ for sandstone-hosted, 0.44‰ for unconformity-type, and 0.56‰ for vein, with a total range in δ238U values from -0.30‰ to 1.52‰. Uranium mineralisation associated with igneous systems, including low-temperature calcretes that are sourced from U-rich minerals in igneous systems, have low δ238U values of ca. 0.1‰, near those of their igneous sources, whereas uranium minerals in basin-hosted deposits have higher and more variable values. High-grade unconformity-related deposits have δ238U values around 0.2‰, whereas lower grade unconformity-type deposits in the Athabasca, Kombolgie and Otish basins have higher δ238U values. The δ234U values for most samples are around 0‰, in secular equilibrium, but some samples have δ234U values much lower or higher than 0‰ associated with addition or removal of 234U during the past 2.5 Ma. These δ238U and δ234U values suggest that there are at least two different mechanisms responsible for 238U/235U and 234U/238U variations. The 234U/238U disequilibria ratios indicate recent fluid interaction with the uranium minerals and preferential migration of 234U. Fractionation between 235U and 238U is a result of nuclear-field effects with enrichment of 238U in the reduced insoluble species (mostly UO2) and 235U in oxidised mobile species as uranyl ion, UO22+, and its complexes. Therefore, isotopic fractionation effects should be reflected in 238U/235U ratios in uranium ore minerals formed either by reduction of uranium to UO2 or chemical

  9. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  10. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics


    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  11. Partition functions 1: Improved partition functions and thermodynamic quantities for normal, equilibrium, and ortho and para molecular hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Popovas, Andrius


    Aims. In this work we rigorously show the shortcomings of various simplifications that are used to calculate the total internal partition function. These shortcomings can lead to errors of up to 40 percent or more in the estimated partition function. These errors carry on to calculations of thermodynamic quantities. Therefore a more complicated approach has to be taken. Methods. Seven possible simplifications of various complexity are described, together with advantages and disadvantages of direct summation of experimental values. These were compared to what we consider the most accurate and most complete treatment (case 8). Dunham coefficients were determined from experimental and theoretical energy levels of a number of electronically excited states of H$_2$ . Both equilibrium and normal hydrogen was taken into consideration. Results. Various shortcomings in existing calculations are demonstrated, and the reasons for them are explained. New partition functions for equilibrium, normal, and ortho and para hyd...


    Michal, E.J.; Porter, R.R.


    Uranium leaching from ground uranium-bearing raw materials using MnO/sub 2/ in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is described. The MnO/sub 2/ oxidizes U to the leachable hexavalent state. The MnO/sub 2/ does not replace Fe normally added, because the Fe complexes P and catalyzes the MnO/sub 2/ reaction. Three examples of continuous processes are given, but batch operation is also possible. The use of MnO/sub 2/ makes possible recovery of very low U values. (T.R.H.)

  13. Ecological condition around the uranium tailing pits in Tajikistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsaidov, I.; Mirsaidov, U.; Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Agency under the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, 33 Rudaki avenue, Dushanbe 734025 (Tajikistan)


    One of the basic sectors of the economy in Tajikistan is the mining industry. Its development in the past led to an accumulation of large amounts of waste mainly associated with the uranium milling facilities. These wastes contain radionuclides in high concentrations (basically uranium- thorium series) and other hazardous substances. These facilities are often located in residential areas and in the upper side of the main watersheds of the region, such as Amu-Daria and Syr-Daria. Tajikistan has a number of uranium ore deposits and mining and milling facilities, which operated in the past. This country's own ores and imported raw materials were processed mainly at the former Leninabad Geochemical Combine facility (currently State Enterprise (SE) 'Vostokredmet') and also at other hydro-metallurgical plants located in the vicinity of uranium ore extraction sites (Adrasman, Taboshar, Isphara etc.). Presently the only operating enterprise in the Republic of Tajikistan, which still has the potential to process Uranium ores, using an acid leach extraction process, is the SE 'Vostokredmet'. It is interesting is to note that the mine wastes at the Adrasman site were recently successfully reprocessed to produce a lead concentrate. Otherwise, all underground and open pit mines and old radium and uranium facilities have been decommissioned, but most of them are still not remediated. Due to the recent significant increase in the price of uranium, the uranium mining residues have become a focus of interest for various different investors and commercial companies who are considering reprocessing the waste rock piles and mill tailings of Northern Tajikistan. Based on estimates from SE 'Vostokredmet', the total amount of residual uranium in the tailings and waste rock piles in the Republic of Tajikistan is about 55 million tons. The total activity of these wastes is estimated to be approximately 240-285 10{sup 12} Bq. The total volume of waste

  14. Manhattan Project Technical Series The Chemistry of Uranium (I) Chapters 1-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitch, E. I. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Katz, J. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This constitutes Chapters 1 through 10. inclusive, of The Survey Volume on Uranium Chemistry prepared for the Manhattan Project Technical Series. Chapters are titled: Nuclear Properties of Uranium; Properties of the Uranium Atom; Uranium in Nature; Extraction of Uranium from Ores and Preparation of Uranium Metal; Physical Properties of Uranium Metal; Chemical Properties of Uranium Metal; Intermetallic Compounds and Alloy systems of Uranium; the Uranium-Hydrogen System; Uranium Borides, Carbides, and Silicides; Uranium Nitrides, Phosphides, Arsenides, and Antimonides.

  15. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils. (United States)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia


    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke®, Coke Zero®) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke® and Coke Zero® demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl₂-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic® is close to unity (+0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke® (+0.66) and Coke Zero® (+0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic® extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke® and Coke Zero®. Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic® in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for environmental impact assessments of uranium mine sites, nuclear fuel processing plants and waste storage and disposal facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  16. The uranium in the environment; L'uranium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The uranium is a natural element omnipresent in the environment, with a complex chemistry more and more understood. Many studies are always today devoted to this element to better improve the uranium behavior in the environment. To illustrate this knowledge and for the public information the CEA published this paper. It gathers in four chapters: historical aspects and properties of the uranium, the uranium in the environment and the impacts, the metrology of the uranium and its migration. (A.L.B.)

  17. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... Publication 4307 (February 2012), entitled Uranium from Russia: Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C (Third Review...

  18. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Katz


    Full Text Available Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U, and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms and isotopic compositions in which they usually occur are different. The chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium can injure biological systems. Normal functioning of the kidney, liver, lung, and heart can be adversely affected by depleted uranium intoxication. The focus of this review is on the chemical and toxicological properties of depleted and natural uranium and some of the possible consequences from long term, low dose exposure to depleted uranium in the environment.

  19. Monte Carlo studies of uranium calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, J.; Hargis, H.J.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.


    Detailed Monte Carlo calculations of uranium calorimetry are presented which reveal a significant difference in the responses of liquid argon and plastic scintillator in uranium calorimeters. Due to saturation effects, neutrons from the uranium are found to contribute only weakly to the liquid argon signal. Electromagnetic sampling inefficiencies are significant and contribute substantially to compensation in both systems. 17 references.

  20. Uranium Mobility in Sediments From the 300 Area of the Hanford Site (United States)

    Brown, C. F.; Serne, R. J.; Pierce, E. M.; Lindberg, M. J.


    The Hanford Site, located in South-Eastern Washington, was once home to cold war weapons grade plutonium production. Over the last ten years, the Site has shifted from production and operation to clean up and decontamination. One legacy still remaining at the Hanford Site is the 300 Area North Process Pond, which was used to treat industrial waste byproducts of the uranium fuel processing operation. More than ten thousand pounds of uranium have been recovered from the pond, yet contamination has still been found in the soils and groundwater beneath and around the Pond. The principle risk of this contamination is to groundwater in the 300 Area, where contaminant plumes are known to exceed applicable maximum contaminant levels. Previous studies report highly variable leach rates that appear to be a function of site-specific conditions and parameters. These parameters include: soil grain size and distribution, soil pH, EC, moisture content, organic matter, as well as mineralogical composition. A site-specific laboratory study was performed to determine uranium leach rates and adsorption-desorption partition coefficients for various sediments collected in and around the North Process Pond. Column tests involving saturated flow yielded sediment/sample specific U leach rates. Uranium concentrations in solution varied by as much as three orders of magnitude between sediment samples. Additional sediment characterization studies, including semi-selective extractions and x-ray absorption spectroscopy of size separates, are being conducted to determine if uranium solid-phase speciation can be measured/inferred and responsible for leach rate differences. These data and the site-specific leachates will be used to perform batch and column adsorption-desorption experiments, ultimately enabling us to predict partition coefficients/retardation factors for U under various future conditions and land use options.

  1. Uranium phosphate biomineralization by fungi. (United States)

    Liang, Xinjin; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gray, Nia; Ceci, Andrea; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael


    Geoactive soil fungi were investigated for phosphatase-mediated uranium precipitation during growth on an organic phosphorus source. Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces javanicus were grown on modified Czapek-Dox medium amended with glycerol 2-phosphate (G2P) as sole P source and uranium nitrate. Both organisms showed reduced growth on uranium-containing media but were able to extensively precipitate uranium and phosphorus-containing minerals on hyphal surfaces, and these were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as uranyl phosphate species, including potassium uranyl phosphate hydrate (KPUO6 .3H2 O), meta-ankoleite [(K1.7 Ba0.2 )(UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O], uranyl phosphate hydrate [(UO2 )3 (PO4 )2 .4H2 O], meta-ankoleite (K(UO2 )(PO4 ).3H2 O), uramphite (NH4 UO2 PO4 .3H2 O) and chernikovite [(H3 O)2 (UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O]. Some minerals with a morphology similar to bacterial hydrogen uranyl phosphate were detected on A. niger biomass. Geochemical modelling confirmed the complexity of uranium speciation, and the presence of meta-ankoleite, uramphite and uranyl phosphate hydrate between pH 3 and 8 closely matched the experimental data, with potassium as the dominant cation. We have therefore demonstrated that fungi can precipitate U-containing phosphate biominerals when grown with an organic source of P, with the hyphal matrix serving to localize the resultant uranium minerals. The findings throw further light on potential fungal roles in U and P biogeochemistry as well as the application of these mechanisms for element recovery or bioremediation. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Timing-Driven Partitioning System for Multiple FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalapi Roy


    Full Text Available Field-programmable systems with multiple FPGAs on a PCB or an MCM are being used by system designers when a single FPGA is not sufficient. We address the problem of partitioning a large technology mapped FPGA circuit onto multiple FPGA devices of a specific target technology. The physical characteristics of the multiple FPGA system (MFS pose additional constraints to the circuit partitioning algorithms: the capacity of each FPGA, the timing constraints, the number of I/Os per FPGA, and the pre-designed interconnection patterns of each FPGA and the package. Existing partitioning techniques which minimize just the cut sizes of partitions fail to satisfy the above challenges. We therefore present a timing driven N-way partitioning algorithm based on simulated annealing for technology-mapped FPGA circuits. The signal path delays are estimated during partitioning using a timing model specific to a multiple FPGA architecture. The model combines all possible delay factors in a system with multiple FPGA chips of a target technology. Furthermore, we have incorporated a new dynamic net-weighting scheme to minimize the number of pin-outs for each chip. Finally, we have developed a graph-based global router for pin assignment which can handle the pre-routed connections of our MFS structure. In order to reduce the time spent in the simulated annealing phase of the partitioner, clusters of circuit components are identified by a new linear-time bottom-up clustering algorithm. The annealing-based N-way partitioner executes four times faster using the clusters as opposed to a flat netlist with improved partitioning results. For several industrial circuits, our approach outperforms the recursive min-cut bi-partitioning algorithm by 35% in terms of nets cut. Our approach also outperforms an industrial FPGA partitioner by 73% on average in terms of unroutable nets. Using the performance optimization capabilities in our approach we have successfully partitioned the

  3. Release behavior of uranium in uranium mill tailings under environmental conditions. (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Peng, Tongjiang; Sun, Hongjuan; Yue, Huanjuan


    Uranium contamination is observed in sedimentary geochemical environments, but the geochemical and mineralogical processes that control uranium release from sediment are not fully appreciated. Identification of how sediments and water influence the release and migration of uranium is critical to improve the prevention of uranium contamination in soil and groundwater. To understand the process of uranium release and migration from uranium mill tailings under water chemistry conditions, uranium mill tailing samples from northwest China were investigated with batch leaching experiments. Results showed that water played an important role in uranium release from the tailing minerals. The uranium release was clearly influenced by contact time, liquid-solid ratio, particle size, and pH under water chemistry conditions. Longer contact time, higher liquid content, and extreme pH were all not conducive to the stabilization of uranium and accelerated the uranium release from the tailing mineral to the solution. The values of pH were found to significantly influence the extent and mechanisms of uranium release from minerals to water. Uranium release was monitored by a number of interactive processes, including dissolution of uranium-bearing minerals, uranium desorption from mineral surfaces, and formation of aqueous uranium complexes. Considering the impact of contact time, liquid-solid ratio, particle size, and pH on uranium release from uranium mill tailings, reducing the water content, decreasing the porosity of tailing dumps and controlling the pH of tailings were the key factors for prevention and management of environmental pollution in areas near uranium mines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectral partitioning in equitable graphs (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo


    Graph partitioning problems emerge in a wide variety of complex systems, ranging from biology to finance, but can be rigorously analyzed and solved only for a few graph ensembles. Here, an ensemble of equitable graphs, i.e., random graphs with a block-regular structure, is studied, for which analytical results can be obtained. In particular, the spectral density of this ensemble is computed exactly for a modular and bipartite structure. Kesten-McKay's law for random regular graphs is found analytically to apply also for modular and bipartite structures when blocks are homogeneous. An exact solution to graph partitioning for two equal-sized communities is proposed and verified numerically, and a conjecture on the absence of an efficient recovery detectability transition in equitable graphs is suggested. A final discussion summarizes results and outlines their relevance for the solution of graph partitioning problems in other graph ensembles, in particular for the study of detectability thresholds and resolution limits in stochastic block models.

  5. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium


    Sidney A. Katz


    Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U) down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U), and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles....

  6. Uranium mill monitoring for natural fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apt, K.E.


    Isotopic monitoring of the product stream from operating uranium mills is proposed for discovering other possible natural fission reactors; aspects of their occurrence and discovery are considered. Uranium mill operating characteristics are formulated in terms of the total uranium capacity, the uranium throughput, and the dilution half-time of the mill. The requirements for detection of milled reactor-zone uranium are expressed in terms of the dilution half-time and the sampling frequency. Detection of different amounts of reactor ore with varying degrees of /sup 235/U depletion is considered.

  7. Oxidation states of uranium in depleted uranium particles from Kuwait. (United States)

    Salbu, B; Janssens, K; Lind, O C; Proost, K; Gijsels, L; Danesi, P R


    The oxidation states of uranium in depleted uranium (DU) particles were determined by synchrotron radiation based mu-XANES, applied to individual particles isolated from selected samples collected at different sites in Kuwait. Based on scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis prior to mu-XANES, DU particles ranging from submicrons to several hundred micrometers were observed. The median particle size depended on sources and sampling sites; small-sized particles (median 13 microm) were identified in swipes taken from the inside of DU penetrators holes in tanks and in sandy soil collected below DU penetrators, while larger particles (median 44 microm) were associated with fire in a DU ammunition storage facility. Furthermore, the (236)U/(235)U ratios obtained from accelerator mass spectrometry demonstrated that uranium in the DU particles originated from reprocessed fuel (about 10(-2) in DU from the ammunition facility, about 10(-3) for DU in swipes). Compared to well-defined standards, all investigated DU particles were oxidized. Uranium particles collected from swipes were characterized as UO(2), U(3)O(8) or a mixture of these oxidized forms, similar to that observed in DU affected areas in Kosovo. Uranium particles formed during fire in the DU ammunition facility were, however, present as oxidation state +5 and +6, with XANES spectra similar to solid uranyl standards. Environmental or health impact assessments for areas affected by DU munitions should therefore take into account the presence of respiratory UO(2), U(3)O(8) and even UO(3) particles, their corresponding weathering rates and the subsequent mobilisation of U from oxidized DU particles.

  8. Uranium 2011 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris


    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countri...

  9. The k partition-distance problem. (United States)

    Chen, Yen Hung


    Many applications of data partitioning (clustering) have been well studied in bioinformatics. Consider, for instance, a set N of organisms (elements) based on DNA marker data. A partition divides all elements in N into two or more disjoint clusters that cover all elements, where a cluster contains a non-empty subset of N. Different partitioning algorithms may produce different partitions. To compute the distance and find the consensus partition (also called consensus clustering) between two or more partitions are important and interesting problems that arise frequently in bioinformatics and data mining, in which different distance functions may be considered in different partition algorithms. In this article, we discuss the k partition-distance problem. Given a set of elements N with k partitions of N, the k partition-distance problem is to delete the minimum number of elements from each partition such that all remaining partitions become identical. This problem is NP-complete for general k > 2 partitions, and no algorithms are known at present. We design the first known heuristic and approximation algorithms with performance ratios 2 to solve the k partition-distance problem in O(k · ρ · |N|) time, where ρ is the maximum number of clusters of these k partitions and |N| is the number of elements in N. We also present the first known exact algorithm in O(ℓ · 2(ℓ)·k(2) · |N|(2)) time, where ℓ is the partition-distance of the optimal solution for this problem. Performances of our exact and approximation algorithms in testing the random data with actual sets of organisms based on DNA markers are compared and discussed. Experimental results reveal that our algorithms can improve the computational speed of the exact algorithm for the two partition-distance problem in practice if the maximum number of elements per cluster is less than ρ. From both theoretical and computational points of view, our solutions are at most twice the partition

  10. Further studies of long-term ecological effects of exposure to uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.C.; Miera, F.R. Jr.


    Spatial variability in sampling for soil uranium distribution by a polar coordinate system was evaluated in randomly selected soil cores at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Variations for surface (0- to 2.5-cm-deep) soils were 0.18 at 10 m from the nuclear weapons test detonation point and 0.96 at 50 m. Results were strongly influenced by past uranium dispersal patterns, variable leaching of uranium debris, and surface water runoff. A total surface (0- to 5-cm) soil uranium inventory within a 12.6-ha circle centered on the E-F detonation point was estimated to be 3000 kg when calculated by soil uranium concentration isopleths and 4500 kg when using annuli of a polar coordinate sampling system. Uranium concentrations in tissues of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and pocket gophers (Thomomys bottae) were sufficiently different to conclude that the greater bioavailability of uranium in the top few millimeters of soil at E-F Site, combined with the difference in grooming and food habits of the animals, resulted in greater contamination of deer mice than of pocket gophers.

  11. Borehole Logging for Uranium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Nyegaard, P.; Christiansen, E. M.


    The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium-iodide, and the photo......The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium...... to another; this variation is believed to be caused by emanation of radon (Rn) from the borehole walls. Block calculations based on individual calibration constants for the boreholes logged made it possible to obtain a reliable estimate of the tonnage of U. This estimate was only slightly different from...

  12. Synthesis of uranium fluorides from uranium dioxide with ammonium bifluoride and ammonolysis of uranium fluorides to uranium nitrides (United States)

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett

    This work presents the chemical conversion of uranium oxides to uranium fluorides, and their subsequent conversion to uranium nitrides. Uranium dioxide reacts with ammonium bifluoride at 20°C to form compound in the ammonium-uranium fluoride chemical system. This reaction occurs between solid uranium dioxide at the surface of the particles and ammonium fluoride vapor. A shrinking-sphere model demonstrated surface reaction kinetics, not mass transport by diffusion through the product layer, limit the reaction rate when the starting material consists of 100 mum uranium dioxide particles. Powder x-ray diffraction showed the reaction to be complete within 8 hours, with (NH4) 4UF8 the reaction product. High-resolution electron microcopy revealed the product is largely amorphous on a micrometer-scale, but contains well-formed crystal domains on the order of 10x10 nm. X-ray diffraction showed the reaction progresses though beta-NH4UF5, delta-(NH 4)2UF6, and gamma-(NH4)2UF6 intermediate phases before finally forming (NH4)4UF 8. Modeling the system as a series of first-order reaction suggested a fourth intermediate, possibly UF4, is likely to occur. The reaction of (NH4)4UF8 with ammonia gas at 800°C forms alpha-U2N3/UN2 solid solution products with a composition of UN1.83. The x-ray powder diffraction pattern of this product is the fcc pattern commonly referenced as that of UN2 and the lattice parameter was 0.53050 nm. Surface area increased by a factor of ten during ammonolysis, consistent with the action of a hydriding agent. The alpha-U2N 3/UN2 solid solution system formed contained 1 wt% UO 2 as an impurity. Upon subsequent heating to 1150°C for 4.5 hours under argon, the nitride sample formed UN with a UO2 impurity of 9 wt%. Based on the HRTEM images, oxidation in the UN product appears to be limited to within 20 nm of particle surfaces and grain boundaries.

  13. Application of discriminant analysis and generalized distance measures to uranium exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, J.J.; Begovich, C.L.; Kane, V.E.; Wolf, D.A.


    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Project has as its goal estimation of the nation's uranium resources. It is possible to use discriminant analysis methods on hydrogeochemical data collected in the NURE Program to aid in formulating geochemical models which can be used to identify the anomalous regions necessary for resource estimation. Discriminant analysis methods have been applied to data from the Plainview, Texas Quadrangle which has approximately 850 groundwater samples with more than 40 quantitative measurements per sample. Discriminant analysis topics involving estimation of misclassification probabilities, variable selection, and robust discrimination are applied. A method using generalized distance measures is given which enables assigning samples to a background population or a mineralized population whose parameters were estimated from separate studies. Each topic is related to its relevance in identifying areas of possible interest to uranium exploration.

  14. Algorithm for finding partitionings of hard variants of boolean satisfiability problem with application to inversion of some cryptographic functions. (United States)

    Semenov, Alexander; Zaikin, Oleg


    In this paper we propose an approach for constructing partitionings of hard variants of the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT). Such partitionings can be used for solving corresponding SAT instances in parallel. For the same SAT instance one can construct different partitionings, each of them is a set of simplified versions of the original SAT instance. The effectiveness of an arbitrary partitioning is determined by the total time of solving of all SAT instances from it. We suggest the approach, based on the Monte Carlo method, for estimating time of processing of an arbitrary partitioning. With each partitioning we associate a point in the special finite search space. The estimation of effectiveness of the particular partitioning is the value of predictive function in the corresponding point of this space. The problem of search for an effective partitioning can be formulated as a problem of optimization of the predictive function. We use metaheuristic algorithms (simulated annealing and tabu search) to move from point to point in the search space. In our computational experiments we found partitionings for SAT instances encoding problems of inversion of some cryptographic functions. Several of these SAT instances with realistic predicted solving time were successfully solved on a computing cluster and in the volunteer computing project SAT@home. The solving time agrees well with estimations obtained by the proposed method.

  15. Uranium, plutonium and co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerbrey, Roland; Joehnk, Peter (eds.)


    To date there is no repository facility for highly radioactive and heat-generating waste in Germany. This politically ''hot'' topic is undeniably a very big, urgent problem in our society. The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers is dedicated to developing scientific solutions for such issues. It looks back on 20 years of history: In 1995 the loosely organized collective bearing the name ''Working Association of Large-Scale Research Institutes'' (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen) became an association of now 18 research centers. These centers collectively work in a total of six research areas. While the HZDR has only belonged to the largest research association in Germany since 2011, repository research was already on the agenda way back when the Rossendorf research center established itself in 1992 after the fall of the Berlin Wall. A good enough reason to examine the results from about 20 years of repository research in Dresden in more detail. In this issue of ''discovered'' we will take an inside look at radiochemical, radiogeological, and microbiological labs, look over the shoulders of researchers using the ''Rossendorf Beamline'' at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, and descend hundreds of meters into Finnish, Swedish, and Swiss research labs. How do ''uranium, plutonium, and co.'' react with mineral surfaces in environments that are low in oxygen or watery? How do they interact with microorganisms deep underground? And how can host rock or other materials be used as technical barriers to prevent the spread of radioactive substances? In order to answer these and further questions, the researchers of the HZDR use a wide range of spectroscopic methods. They expose test samples to lasers, infrared light, and X-rays or use the fluorescent properties of certain compounds to learn about the behavior of actinides

  16. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew


    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  17. Review of the NURE assessment of the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.


    Historic exploration and development were used to evaluate the reliability of domestic uranium reserves and potential resources estimated by the U.S. Department of Energy national uranium resource evaluation (NURE) program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province. NURE estimated 87 million pounds of reserves in the $30/lb U3O8 cost category in the Coast Plain uranium resource region, most in the Gulf Coast Uranium Province. Since NURE, 40 million pounds of reserves have been mined, and 38 million pounds are estimated to remain in place as of 2012, accounting for all but 9 million pounds of U3O8 in the reserve or production categories in the NURE estimate. Considering the complexities and uncertainties of the analysis, this study indicates that the NURE reserve estimates for the province were accurate. An unconditional potential resource of 1.4 billion pounds of U3O8, 600 million pounds of U3O8 in the forward cost category of $30/lb U3O8 (1980 prices), was estimated in 106 favorable areas by the NURE program in the province. Removing potential resources from the non-productive Houston embayment, and those reserves estimated below historic and current mining depths reduces the unconditional potential resource 33% to about 930 million pounds of U3O8, and that in the $30/lb cost category 34% to 399 million pounds of U3O8. Based on production records and reserve estimates tabulated for the region, most of the production since 1980 is likely from the reserves identified by NURE. The potential resource predicted by NURE has not been developed, likely due to a variety of factors related to the low uranium prices that have prevailed since 1980.

  18. Environmental effect of radon from waste rock piles at closed uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki; Ito, Kimio; Ishimori, Yuu; Nakajima, Yuuji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works


    The radon concentrations at working area had been measured during uranium exploration by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Although the uranium exploration was closed by 1987, the measurements of environmental radon and the confirmation of public dose under 1 mSv/year out of supervising area has been necessary by the regulation since 1989, the year of the change of Japanese mine safety law. However radon exists in natural environment, it`s quite difficult to distinguish the radon from closed uranium mine from natural`s. Therefore the effective doses were estimated by the calculations using the atmospheric dispersion models, and by the measurements of radon emanation from the waste rock area of closed uranium mines. The radon influence from the waste rock was also investigated by the tracer gas dispersion experiments. Consequently the effective doses from the mining facilities were confirmed under the public limits 1 mSv/year of the regulations by this study. (author)

  19. Analysis and exploitation of bacterial population from natural uranium-rich soils: selection of a model specie; Analyse et exploitation des populations bacteriennes de sols riches en uranium: selection d'une espece modele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondani, L.


    It is well known that soils play a key role in controlling the mobility of toxic metals and this property is greatly influenced by indigenous bacterial communities. This study has been conducted on radioactive and controls soils, collected in natural uraniferous areas (Limousin). A physico-chemical and mineralogical analysis of soils samples was carried out.The structure of bacterial communities was estimated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The community structure is remarkably more stable in the uranium-rich soils than in the control ones, indicating that uranium exerts a high selection from the soils was constructed and screened for uranium resistance in order to study bacteria-uranium interactions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a phylo-genetically diverse set of uranium-resistant species ware able to chelate uranium at the cell surface. (author) [French] On sait que les sols et les populations bacteriennes indigenes ont une influence sur la mobilite des metaux, donc sur leur toxicite. Cette etude a ete menee sur des sols uraniferes et controles collectes dans le Limousin (regions naturellement riches en uranium ). Une analyse physico-chimique et mineralogique des echantillons de sol a ete realisee. La structure des communautes bacteriennes a ete etudiee par electrophorese en gradient de denaturant (DGGE). La structure des communautes est remarquablement stable dans les sols uraniferes, ce qui indique que l'uranium exerce une forte pression de selection. D'autre part, une collection de bacteries cultivables a ete realisee a partir des sols, puis criblee pour la resistance a l'uranium, dans le but d'etudier les interactions entre bacteries et uranium. Des observations en Microscopie electronique a Balayage ont mis en evidence differents mecanismes de chelation de l'uranium a la surface cellulaire

  20. Depleted uranium: Metabolic disruptor?; Uranium appauvri: perturbateur metabolique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, Maamar; Dublineau, Isabelle; Lestaevel, Philippe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, Direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, Laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, Service de radiobiologie et d' epidemiologie, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)


    The presence of uranium in the environment can lead to long-term contamination of the food chain and of water intended for human consumption and thus raises many questions about the scientific and societal consequences of this exposure on population health. Although the biological effects of chronic low-level exposure are poorly understood, results of various recent studies show that contamination by depleted uranium (DU) induces subtle but significant biological effects at the molecular level in organs including the brain, liver, kidneys and testicles. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that DU induces effects on several metabolic pathways, including those metabolizing vitamin D, cholesterol, steroid hormones, acetylcholine and xenobiotics. This evidence strongly suggests that DU might well interfere with many metabolic pathways. It might thus contribute, together with other man-made substances in the environment, to increased health risks in some regions. (authors)

  1. Chemical and radiological effects of chronic ingestion of uranium in the rat brain: biochemical impairment of dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neuro-transmissions; Effets chimique et radiologique d'une ingestion chronique d'uranium sur le cerveau du rat. Effets sur les neurotransmissions dopaminergique, serotoninergique et cholinergique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussy, C


    Uranium is an environmental ubiquitous metal-trace element. It has both chemical and radiological toxicity. After chronic ingestion, uranium can distribute in any part of the body and accumulate in the brain. The aims of this study was 1) to determine and estimate the effects of uranium on dopaminergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems and 2) to measure the uranium amount in the brain, after chronic exposure by ingestion of depleted (D.U.) or enriched (E.U.) uranium during 1.5 to 18 months at 40 mg.L{sup -1} (40 ppm) in different rat brain areas. At any time of exposure, the results show that both the neurotransmission alterations and the uranium brain accumulation were moderate, area specific, time-evolutive and depended on uranium specific activity. After D.U. exposure, monoamine perturbations are chronic and progressive. On the contrary, monoamine alterations occurred only after long term of E.U. exposure. These mono-aminergic modifications are not always dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas. Moreover, although the cholinergic system was not affected at both 1.5 and 9 months of D.U. exposure, the alteration of ChE activity after E.U. exposure are both dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas and on uranium specific activity. After E.U. exposure, cholinergic modification and uranium accumulation in hippocampus could partially explain the short-term memory disturbances which have been previously reported. (author)

  2. Spatial investigation of some uranium minerals using nuclear microprobe (United States)

    Valter, Anton A.; Knight, Kim B.; Eremenko, Gelij K.; Magilin, Dmitry V.; Ponomarov, Artem A.; Pisansky, Anatoly I.; Romanenko, Alexander V.; Ponomarev, Alexander G.


    In this work, several individual grains of uranium minerals—uraninite with high content of Ca, Ca-rich boltwoodite, growths of uranophane with β-uranophane, and weeksite—from different uranium deposits were studied by a scanning nuclear microprobe. Particle-induced X-ray emission technique provided by the microprobe (µ-PIXE) was carried out to obtain a concentration and 2D distribution of elements in these minerals. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) provided by a scanning electron microscope was used. The types of minerals were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Results of this study improved the understanding of trace elemental composition of the uranium minerals depending on their origin. Obtained signatures could be linked then to the sample provenance. Such data are important for nuclear forensics to identify the ore types and even specific ore bodies, when only small samples may be available for analysis. In this study, the µ-PIXE technique was used for obtaining the 2D distribution of trace elements that are not commonly measured by SEM-EDS at the relevant concentrations. The detected levels and precisions of elements determination by µ-PIXE were also defined. Using µ-PIXE, several micro mineral inclusions such as phosphate with high level of V and Si were identified. The age of the uranium minerals was estimated due to a significant content of radiogenic Pb that provides an additional parameter for determination of the main attributive characteristics of the minerals. This work also showed that due to its high elemental sensitivity the nuclear microprobe can be a new analytical tool for creating a nuclear forensic database from the known uranium deposits and a subsequent analysis of the intercepted illicit materials.

  3. Reports on investigations of uranium anomalies. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodknight, C.S.; Burger, J.A. (comps.)


    During the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program, conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC), radiometric and geochemical surveys and geologic investigations detected anomalies indicative of possible uranium enrichment. Data from the Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey (ARMS) and the Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), both of which were conducted on a national scale, yielded numerous anomalies that may signal areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Results from geologic evaluations of individual 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangles for the NURE program also yielded anomalies, which could not be adequately checked during scheduled field work. Included in this volume are individual reports of field investigations for the following six areas which were shown on the basis of ARMS, HSSR, and (or) geologic data to be anomalous: (1) Hylas zone and northern Richmond basin, Virginia; (2) Sischu Creek area, Alaska; (3) Goodman-Dunbar area, Wisconsin; (4) McCaslin syncline, Wisconsin; (5) Mt. Withington Cauldron, Socorro County, New Mexico; (6) Lake Tecopa, Inyo County, California. Field checks were conducted in each case to verify an indicated anomalous condition and to determine the nature of materials causing the anomaly. The ultimate objective of work is to determine whether favorable conditions exist for the occurrence of uranium deposits in areas that either had not been previously evaluated or were evaluated before data from recent surveys were available. Most field checks were of short duration (2 to 5 days). The work was done by various investigators using different procedures, which accounts for variations in format in their reports. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  4. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughter, Mark D [ORNL


    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, whereas HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use as fuel for nuclear reactors to generate electricity. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear reactor fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is not diverted or enriched to HEU. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 56 million kilogram separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22.5 million in gaseous diffusion and more than 33 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 34 million SWU/year of capacity is under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future but has yet to be

  5. [Estimation of the arterial blood radioactivity concentration using the whole body-to-arterial blood partition coefficients and the cross-calibration factor in 123I-iodoamphetamine SPECT--towards a noninvasive clinical protocol with the QSPECT-DTARG method]. (United States)

    Iida, Hidehiro; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Hatazawa, Jun; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Takahashi, Masaaki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Shirao, Toshiyuki; Murakami, Shouta; Fukuda, Kenji


    The aim of this study is to develop a non-invasive procedure for quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood flow using IMP and SPECT. A technique to utilize a population-based standardized arterial input function has been evaluated for the normal data base obtained from 3 institutions, which employed different SPECT device configurations. In total, data from 39 subjects were analyzed. Due to the unique feature of the QSPECT reconstruction software program, images are quantitative providing units of Bq/ml. Thus, the well counter values can be converted to absolute radioactivity concentration. The blood-to-whole-body average partition coefficient was 343.8 +/- 65.0 and did not show significant difference among the three institutions. The estimated blood counts agreed with those assessed by the well counter in all institutions, thus the arterial input function can be estimated with the unique conversion factor for all institutions. This feature may allow a large scale multi-center investigation, which may contribute to improve the non-invasive protocol.

  6. Uranium enrichment in lacustrine oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member of the Yanchang Formation, Erdos Basin, China (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Zhang, Wenzheng; Wu, Kai; Li, Shanpeng; Peng, Ping'an; Qin, Yan


    The oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member of the Yanchang Formation in the Erdos Basin were deposited during maximum lake extension during the Late Triassic and show a remarkable positive uranium anomaly, with an average uranium content as high as 51.1 μg/g. Uranium is enriched together with organic matter and elements such as Fe, S, Cu, V and Mo in the rocks. The detailed biological markers determined in the Chang 7 member indicate that the lake water column was oxidizing during deposition of the Chang 7 member. However, redox indicators for sediments such as S 2- content, V/Sc and V/(V + Ni) ratios demonstrate that it was a typical anoxic diagenetic setting. The contrasted redox conditions between the water column and the sediment with a very high content of organic matter provided favorable physical and chemical conditions for syngenetic uranium enrichment in the oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member. Possible uranium sources may be the extensive U-rich volcanic ash that resulted from contemporaneous volcanic eruption and uranium material transported by hydrothermal conduits into the basin. The uranium from terrestrial clastics was unlike because uranium concentration was not higher in the margin area of basin where the terrestrial material input was high. As indicated by correlative analysis, the oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member show high gamma-ray values for radioactive well log data that reflect a positive uranium anomaly and are characterized by high resistance, low electric potential and low density. As a result, well log data can be used to identify positive uranium anomalies and spatial distribution of the oil source rocks in the Erdos Basin. The estimation of the total uranium reserves in the Chang 7 member attain 0.8 × 10 8 t.

  7. Combinatorial set theory partition relations for cardinals

    CERN Document Server

    Erdös, P; Hajnal, A; Rado, P


    This work presents the most important combinatorial ideas in partition calculus and discusses ordinary partition relations for cardinals without the assumption of the generalized continuum hypothesis. A separate section of the book describes the main partition symbols scattered in the literature. A chapter on the applications of the combinatorial methods in partition calculus includes a section on topology with Arhangel''skii''s famous result that a first countable compact Hausdorff space has cardinality, at most continuum. Several sections on set mappings are included as well as an account of

  8. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia [Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Federal Institute for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kuehn-Institute (JKI), Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)


    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) , Coke Zero (registered) ) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) is close to unity (+ 0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke (registered) (+ 0.66) and Coke Zero (registered) (+ 0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic (registered) extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) . Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic (registered) in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for

  9. [Depleted uranium: radiation and ecological safety aspects]. (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Zuev, V G


    The authors have analyzed the ecological, sanitary-and-hygienic and medicobiologic aspects of using the impoverished uranium in armaments and military equipment. The influence of impoverished uranium on human body (600 cases) was studied using medicobiologic investigation. It was shown that the particles of aerosol of mixed uranium oxide cause the radiation and chemical damage of kidneys, lungs and other internals. Uranium's alpha-radiation is very effective in induction of biologic effects during internal irradiation. Taking into account that bone tissue is the critical organ for uranium isotopes the medullar tissue is exposed to alpha-radiation. In the armed conflicts of the last decade wide use of armour-piercing means with elements consisted of impoverished uranium has led to the appearance of new technogenic risk factor for the environment and the man.

  10. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.


    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  11. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris


    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  12. Maximum permissible concentrations of uranium in air

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N


    The retention of uranium by bone and kidney has been re-evaluated taking account of recently published data for a man who had been occupationally exposed to natural uranium aerosols and for adults who had ingested uranium at the normal dietary levels. For life-time occupational exposure to uranium aerosols the new retention functions yield a greater retention in bone and a smaller retention in kidney than the earlier ones, which were based on acute intakes of uranium by terminal patients. Hence bone replaces kidney as the critical organ. The (MPC) sub a for uranium 238 on radiological considerations using the current (1959) ICRP lung model for the new retention functions is slightly smaller than for earlier functions but the (MPC) sub a determined by chemical toxicity remains the most restrictive.

  13. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  14. The Neutron Spectrum in a Uranium Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E.; Jonsson, E.; Lindberg, M.; Mednis, J.


    A series of experimental and theoretical investigations on neutron spectra in lattice cells has been started at the reactor R1. This report gives the results from the first one of these cells - one with a tube of natural -uranium surrounded by heavy water. In the measurements the cell was placed in the central, vertical channel of the reactor. The neutron spectrum from a lead scatterer in the uranium tube - outer diameter 49.2 mm, inner diameter 28.3 mm - was measured with a fast chopper in the energy region 0.01 to 100 eV. Subsidiary measurements indicated that the spectrum in the beam from the lead piece corresponds to the spectrum of the angular flux integrated over all angles. This correspondence is important for the interpretation of the experimental data. The thermal part of the spectrum was found to deviate significantly from a Maxwellian. However, the deviation is not very large, and one could use a Maxwellian, at least to give a rough idea of the hardness of the spectrum. For the present tube the temperature of this Maxwellian was estimated as 90 to 100 deg C above the moderator temperature (33 deg C). In the joining region the rise of the spectrum towards the thermal part is slower than for the cell boundary spectrum, measured earlier. In the epithermal region the limited resolution of the chopper has affected the measurements at the energies of the uranium resonances. However, the shape of the spectrum on the flanks of the first resonance in {sup 238}U (6.68 eV) has been obtained accurately. In the theoretical treatment the THERMOS code with a free gas scattering model has been used. The energy region was 3.06 - 0.00025 eV. The agreement with the measurements is good for the thermal part - possibly the theoretical spectrum is a little softer than the experimental one. In the joining region the results from THERMOS are comparatively high - probably due to the scattering model used.


    Piper, R.D.


    A process is given for making uranium metal from oxidic material by electrolytic deposition on the cathode. The oxidic material admixed with two moles of carbon per one mole of uranium dioxide forms the anode, and the electrolyte is a mixture of from 40 to 75% of calcium fluoride or barium fluoride, 15 to 45% of uranium tetrafluoride, and from 10 to 20% of lithium fluoride or magnesium fluoride; the temperature of the electrolyte is between 1150 and 1175 deg C. (AEC)

  16. Passive methods for quantifying the In Situ Flux of Water, Uranium, and Microbial Biomass (United States)

    Newman, M. A.; Peacock, A.; Hatfield, K.; Stucker, V.; Cho, J.; Klammler, H.; Ranville, J. F.; Cabaniss, S.; Annable, M. D.; Perminova, I.


    The goal of this project was to develop a novel sensor that incorporates field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter (PFM) to provide direct in situ measures of uranium and groundwater fluxes. The sensor uses two sorbents and tracers to measure uranium flux and specific discharge directly-sensor principles and design will apply to fluxes of other radionuclides, metals, and co-contaminants. Flux measurements will assist in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) and further advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. Project efforts will expand our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. Field tests in the La Quinta and Super 8 galleries at the Rifle IFRC site were conducted to assess ambient groundwater, uranium, and microbial biomass fluxes. The latter were determined using a newly designed Baffled Multilevel Sampling (BMLS) device installed in typical screened monitoring wells to provide aqueous concentrations of dissolved or suspended constituents over multiple isolated vertical sections of the well. Biomass mass fluxes were calculated from the product of BMLS data for microbial cell counts from PCR analyses and PFM water fluxes collected from coincident well sections. Expected microbial discharge for Eubacteria in the La Quinta gallery was estimated to be 1.7 x 1012 cells per day. The biomass discharges for Geobacter, Methanogens, and Anaeromyxobacter remain to be determined. Expected uranium discharges predicted from stochastic simulations using PFM measures of flux over the La Quinta gallery transect and the injection-well transect of the Super 8 gallery were 26 mg

  17. Distribution of uranium-bearing phases in soils from Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.


    Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils and the Fernald Site, Ohio. Uranium particulates have been deposited on the soil through chemical spills and from the operation of an incinerator plant on the site. The major uranium phases have been identified by electron microscopy as uraninite, autunite, and uranium phosphite [U(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}]. Some of the uranium has undergone weathering resulting in the redistribution of uranium within the soil.

  18. Oxidation and crystal field effects in uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); van der Laan, G. [Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom); Sokaras, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Weng, T. -C. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Yu, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bagus, P. S. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Tyliszczak, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nordlund, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States)


    An extensive investigation of oxidation in uranium has been pursued. This includes the utilization of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard x-ray absorption near-edge structure, resonant (hard) x-ray emission spectroscopy, cluster calculations, and a branching ratio analysis founded on atomic theory. The samples utilized were uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium trioxide (UO3), and uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). As a result, a discussion of the role of non-spherical perturbations, i.e., crystal or ligand field effects, will be presented.

  19. Statistical model of global uranium resources and long-term availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnet Antoine


    Full Text Available Most recent studies on the long-term supply of uranium make simplistic assumptions on the available resources and their production costs. Some consider the whole uranium quantities in the Earth's crust and then estimate the production costs based on the ore grade only, disregarding the size of ore bodies and the mining techniques. Other studies consider the resources reported by countries for a given cost category, disregarding undiscovered or unreported quantities. In both cases, the resource estimations are sorted following a cost merit order. In this paper, we describe a methodology based on “geological environments”. It provides a more detailed resource estimation and it is more flexible regarding cost modelling. The global uranium resource estimation introduced in this paper results from the sum of independent resource estimations from different geological environments. A geological environment is defined by its own geographical boundaries, resource dispersion (average grade and size of ore bodies and their variance, and cost function. With this definition, uranium resources are considered within ore bodies. The deposit breakdown of resources is modelled using a bivariate statistical approach where size and grade are the two random variables. This makes resource estimates possible for individual projects. Adding up all geological environments provides a repartition of all Earth's crust resources in which ore bodies are sorted by size and grade. This subset-based estimation is convenient to model specific cost structures.

  20. Partition functions of pure spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, P.A. [Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Compendio Viminale, I-00184 Rome (Italy) and DISTA, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Bellini 25/g, Alessandria 15100 (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy) and CERN, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Morales Morera, J.F. [CERN, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail:


    We compute partition functions describing multiplicities and charges of massless and first massive string states of pure-spinor superstrings in 3, 4, 6, 10 dimensions. At the massless level we find a spin-one gauge multiplet of minimal supersymmetry in d dimensions. At the first massive string level we find a massive spin-two multiplet. The result is confirmed by a direct analysis of the BRST cohomology at ghost number one. The central charges of the pure spinor systems are derived in a manifestly SO(d) covariant way confirming that the resulting string theories are critical. A critical string model with N=(2,0) supersymmetry in d=2 is also described.

  1. HPAM: Hirshfeld partitioned atomic multipoles (United States)

    Elking, Dennis M.; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee G.


    An implementation of the Hirshfeld (HD) and Hirshfeld-Iterated (HD-I) atomic charge density partitioning schemes is described. Atomic charges and atomic multipoles are calculated from the HD and HD-I atomic charge densities for arbitrary atomic multipole rank l on molecules of arbitrary shape and size. The HD and HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are tested by comparing molecular multipole moments and the electrostatic potential (ESP) surrounding a molecule with their reference ab initio values. In general, the HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are found to better reproduce ab initio electrostatic properties over HD atomic charges/multipoles. A systematic increase in precision for reproducing ab initio electrostatic properties is demonstrated by increasing the atomic multipole rank from l=0 (atomic charges) to l=4 (atomic hexadecapoles). Both HD and HD-I atomic multipoles up to rank l are shown to exactly reproduce ab initio molecular multipole moments of rank L for L⩽l. In addition, molecular dipole moments calculated by HD, HD-I, and ChelpG atomic charges only ( l=0) are compared with reference ab initio values. Significant errors in reproducing ab initio molecular dipole moments are found if only HD or HD-I atomic charges used. Program summaryProgram title: HPAM Catalogue identifier: AEKP_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 500 809 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 424 494 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: Any Operating system: Linux RAM: Typically, a few hundred megabytes Classification: 16.13 External routines: The program requires 'formatted checkpoint' files obtained from the Gaussian 03 or Gaussian 09 quantum chemistry program. Nature of problem: An ab initio

  2. Partitioning of resveratrol between pentane and DMSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; Stein, Paul C.; Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria


    Partitioning of trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxy-stilbene (resveratrol) between n-pentane and DMSO was investigated as a contribution to understand the interaction between resveratrol and biomembranes. In order to determine the partition coefficient P* of resveratrol between pentane and DMSO, resveratrol...

  3. Generating Milton Babbitt's all-partition arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David


    In most of Milton Babbitt's (1916–2011) works written since the early 1960s, both the pitch and rhythmic content is organized according to a highly constrained structure known as the all-partition array. The all-partition array provides a framework that ensures that as many different forms of a t...

  4. Compactified webs and domain wall partition functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Khurram [Government College University, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)


    In this paper we use the topological vertex formalism to calculate a generalization of the ''domain wall'' partition function of M-strings. This generalization allows calculation of partition function of certain compactified webs using a simple gluing algorithm similar to M-strings case. (orig.)

  5. DELPHI's central partition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barao, F.; Gaspar, C.; Martin, B.; Pimenta, M.; Reis, M.; Varela, J. (LIP, Lisbon (Portugal)); Gavillet, P.; Moreau, P. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Laugier, J.P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires)


    We describe the software involved in the central partition of the data acquisition for the DELPHI experiment at CERN. The central partition is responsible for collecting the data from the fourteen subdetectors of DELPHI, perform the fourth level trigger and prepare the data to be stored on magnetic tape. (orig.).

  6. Partitions of sets and the Riemann integral


    Ungar, Š.


    We will discuss the definition of the Riemann integral using general partitions and give an elementary explication, without resorting to nets, generalized sequences and such, of what is meant by saying that "the Riemann integral is the limit of Darboux sums when the mesh of the partition approaches zero".

  7. Electroreduction of uranium(VI) to uranium(IV) in strip product solutions (United States)

    Skripchenko, S. Yu.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. L.


    The electrochemical reduction of uranium(VI) to uranium(IV) in strip product solutions on a carbon electrode was investigated. The maximal tetravalent uranium yield as well as a high current efficiency could be achieved during the electrolysis at current densities of 8-10 mA/cm2. The use of solutions with fluoride ions addition for electrolysis resulted in increased process efficiency due to formation of fluoride complexes. The efficiency of the electrochemical reduction also increased with increasing uranium content in the strip product solutions. The addition of hydrazine in solution was very effective for preventing nitric acid reduction at cathode, oxidation of uranium ions and anode destruction.

  8. Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Barsumian, L.; Gurbaxani, S.H.


    (Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian reserves. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them.

  9. Removal and recovery of uranium (VI) from aqueous solutions by immobilized Aspergillus niger powder beads. (United States)

    Ding, De-Xin; Tan, Xiang; Hu, Nan; Li, Guang-Yue; Wang, Yong-Dong; Tan, Yan


    The immobilized Aspergillus niger powder beads were obtained by entrapping nonviable A. niger powder into Ca-alginate gel. The effects of pH, contact time, initial uranium (VI) concentration and biomass dosage on the biosorption of uranium (VI) onto the beads from aqueous solutions were investigated in a batch system. Biosorption equilibrium data were agreeable with Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum biosorption capacity of the beads for uranium (VI) was estimated to be 649.4 mg/g at 30 °C. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion equation. The variations in enthalpy (26.45 kJ/mol), entropy (0.167 kJ/mol K) and Gibbs free energy were calculated from the experimental data. SEM and EDS analysis indicated that the beads have strong adsorption capability for uranium (VI). The adsorbed uranium (VI) on the beads could be released with HNO(3) or HCl. The results showed that the immobilized A. niger powder beads had great potential for removing and recovering uranium (VI) from aqueous solutions.

  10. Recovery of small bioparticles by interfacial partitioning. (United States)

    Jauregi, P; Hoeben, M A; van der Lans, R G J M; Kwant, G; van der Wielen, L A M


    In this article, a qualitative study of the recovery of small bioparticles by interfacial partitioning in liquid-liquid biphasic systems is presented. A range of crystallised biomolecules with varying polarities have been chosen such as glycine, phenylglycine and ampicillin. Liquid-liquid biphasic systems in a range of polarity differences were selected such as an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), water-butanol and water-hexanol. The results indicate that interfacial partitioning of crystals occurs even when their density exceeds that of the individual liquid phases. Yet, not all crystals partition to the same extent to the interface to form a stable and thick interphase layer. This indicates some degree of selectivity. From the analysis of these results in relation to the physicochemical properties of the crystals and the liquid phases, a hypothetical mechanism for the interfacial partitioning is deduced. Overall these results support the potential of interfacial partitioning as a large scale separation technology. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Data Partitioning Technique for Improved Video Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amin Ali


    Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.

  12. Two nouns in partitives: evidence from Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Sauerland


    Full Text Available We consider the proposal that partitives always contain two positions for nouns which may be filled by silent material from the perspective of Japanese. We argue that it provides a novel account for cases of quantificational expressions that are frequently marked with genitive case in Japanese. Genitive case attached to nouns marks possession or partitivity, but on quantifiers it has been previously regarded as purely morphological. We show that genitive case on quantifiers can be analyzed as regular genitive case, and identify two distinct structures based on the two noun partitive structure. Specifically, we claim that the genitive suffix can be stranded by NP ellipsis, but when it can attach to a preceeding quantifier the structure remains grammatical. Our analysis therefore supports an analysis of partitives assuming two noun positions where ellipsis can target one or both of those two nouns. This article is part of Special Collection: Partitives

  13. Purification of biomaterials by phase partitioning (United States)

    Harris, J. M.


    A technique which is particularly suited to microgravity environments and which is potentially more powerful than electrophoresis is phase partitioning. Phase partitioning is purification by partitioning between the two immiscible aqueous layers formed by solution of the polymers poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran in water. This technique proved to be very useful for separations in one-g but is limited for cells because the cells are more dense than the phase solutions thus tend to sediment to the bottom of the container before reaching equilibrium with the preferred phase. There are three phases to work in this area: synthesis of new polymers for affinity phase partitioning; development of automated apparatus for ground-based separations; and design of apparatus for performing simple phase partitioning space experiments, including examination of mechanisms for separating phases in the absence of gravity.

  14. Strategies for Partitioning Clock Models in Phylogenomic Dating: Application to the Angiosperm Evolutionary Timescale (United States)

    Ho, Simon Y.W.


    Abstract Evolutionary timescales can be inferred from molecular sequence data using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach. In these methods, the molecular clock is often calibrated using fossil data. The uncertainty in these fossil calibrations is important because it determines the limiting posterior distribution for divergence-time estimates as the sequence length tends to infinity. Here, we investigate how the accuracy and precision of Bayesian divergence-time estimates improve with the increased clock-partitioning of genome-scale data into clock-subsets. We focus on a data set comprising plastome-scale sequences of 52 angiosperm taxa. There was little difference among the Bayesian date estimates whether we chose clock-subsets based on patterns of among-lineage rate heterogeneity or relative rates across genes, or by random assignment. Increasing the degree of clock-partitioning usually led to an improvement in the precision of divergence-time estimates, but this increase was asymptotic to a limit presumably imposed by fossil calibrations. Our clock-partitioning approaches yielded highly precise age estimates for several key nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny. For example, when partitioning the data into 20 clock-subsets based on patterns of among-lineage rate heterogeneity, we inferred crown angiosperms to have arisen 198–178 Ma. This demonstrates that judicious clock-partitioning can improve the precision of molecular dating based on phylogenomic data, but the meaning of this increased precision should be considered critically. PMID:29036288

  15. Partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of renders with organic binder. (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Michal M; Bollmann, Ulla E; Bester, Kai


    The use of biocides as additives for building materials has gained importance in the recent years. These biocides are applied, e.g., to renders and paints to prevent them from microbial spoilage. However, these biocides can leach out into the environment. In order to better understand this leaching, the partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render with organic binder was investigated. The partition constants of carbendazim, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, cybutryn (irgarol), octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn, and tebuconazole towards minerals typically used in renders, e.g. barite, calcium carbonate, marble, kaolinite, and talc were determined. Partition constants for calcium carbonate varied between 0.2mLg(-1) (diuron) and 5.2mLg(-1) (iodocarb), respectively. The results for barite and kaolinite were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high partition constants for one mineral also had high values for the other mineral. No sorption to marble at all was found. From all minerals investigated, only talc showed high partition for all studied biocides. Partition constants for talc varied from 21.3mLg(-1) (iodocarb) to 683.7mLg(-1) (tebuconazole), respectively. The comparison with render-water distribution constants of two artificially made renders showed that the distribution constants can be estimated based on partition constants of compounds for individual components of the render. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of Uranium Polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.


    The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. As an example, most production schemes for UO3 result in a mixture of up to six or more different polymorphic phases, and small differences in these conditions will affect phase genesis that ultimately result in measureable changes to the end product. As a result, this feature of the UO3-water system may be useful as a means for determining process history. This research effort attempts to better characterize the UO3-water system with a variety of optical techniques for the purpose of developing some predictive capability for estimating process history in polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Three commercially relevant preparation methods for the production of UO3 were explored. Previously unreported low temperature routes to β- and γ-UO3 were discovered. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic libraries were established for pure and mixed polymorphic forms of UO3 in addition to the common hydrolysis products of UO3. An advantage of the sensitivity of optical fluorescence microscopy over XRD has been demonstrated. Preliminary aging studies of the α and γ forms of UO3 have been conducted. In addition, development of a 3-D phase field model used to predict phase genesis of the system was initiated. Thermodynamic and structural constants that will feed the model have been gathered from the literature for most of the UO3 polymorphic phases.

  17. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A. G.; Tedder, D. W.; Drago, J. P.; Blomeke, J. O.; Perona, J. J.


    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures.

  18. Introduction of a Uranium tax in Finland; Uraaniveron kaeyttoeoenotto Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In Finland, it is possible to create a tax model on uranium that will not compromise the profitability of future power plant investments or decisively reduce climate policy incentives for carbon-free energy production. The rise in energy costs caused by the tax could be compensated by lowering the electricity tax imposed on industry. The estimates above were made by Managing Director Pasi Holm and Professor Markku Ollikainen, who, on 4 February 2011, handed over their report concerning introduction of uranium tax to Minister of Economic Affairs Mauri Pekkarinen. According to the administrators, one can deem nuclear power to include specific grounds for imposing a tax via the fact that storage of used nuclear fuel involves a (infinitesimally small) risk of accidents with irreversible effects, and that, through the EU climate policy, nuclear power companies gain extra profit 'for nothing', i.e. windfall profit. The EU Energy Tax Directive facilitates collection of uranium tax. Uranium tax, imposed as an excise tax, would target the nuclear power plants in operation as well as the Olkiluoto 3 plant, presently under construction. The amount of uranium fuel used would serve as the basis of taxation. Holm and Ollikainen introduce two tax models, adjustable in a manner that the uranium tax would yield revenues of approximately EUR 100 million a year. The companies would still keep more than half of the profit and the state, depending on the model used, would collect 43 to 45 per cent of it via the tax. In the minimum tax model, the uranium tax is 44.5 of the difference between the market price of emission allowance and the average price of 2010 (EUR 15/tonne of CO{sub 2}), used as the comparison price, the minimum being EUR 2/MWh. The tax would yield a minimum of EUR 67 million to the state a year. When the emission allowance price rises to EUR 30, the tax would be EUR 6.7/MWh and the state would earn revenues of EUR 223 million. In a flexible tax model, the

  19. New french uranium mineral species; Nouvelles especes uraniferes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; {beta} uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the {alpha} uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [French] Dans ce travail, les auteurs etudient les nouveaux mineraux uraniferes francais: parsonsite et renardite, phosphates hydrates de plomb et d'uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrate d'uranium et de plomb uranopilite: sulfate d'uranium hydrate; bayleyite: carbonate d'uranium et de magnesium hydrate; {beta} uranolite: silicate d'uranium et de calcium hydrate. Pour tous ces mineraux, les auteurs donnent les caracteres cristallographiques, optiques, et les analyses chimiques quantitatives. Par contre, les especes suivantes, tres rares dans les gites francais, n'ont pas permis d'effectuer d'analyses quantitatives. Ce sont: l'ianthinite: oxyde uraneux hydrate; l'{alpha} uranotile: silicate d'uranium et de calcium hydrate; le bassetite: phosphate d'uranium et de fer hydrate; la hosphuranylite: phosphate duranium hydrate; la becquerelite: oxyde d'uranium hydrate; la curite: oxyde d'uranium

  20. Diffusive gradient in thin FILMS (DGT) compared with soil solution and labile uranium fraction for predicting uranium bioavailability to ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H., E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.b [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Tack, F. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Hees, M.; Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)


    The usefulness of uranium concentration in soil solution or recovered by selective extraction as unequivocal bioavailability indices for uranium uptake by plants is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to test if the uranium concentration measured by the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique is a relevant substitute for plant uranium availability in comparison to uranium concentration in the soil solution or uranium recovered by ammonium acetate. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Melvina) is grown in greenhouse on a range of uranium spiked soils. The DGT-recovered uranium concentration (C{sub DGT}) was correlated with uranium concentration in the soil solution or with uranium recovered by ammonium acetate extraction. Plant uptake was better predicted by the summed soil solution concentrations of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, uranyl carbonate complexes and UO{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}. The DGT technique did not provide significant advantages over conventional methods to predict uranium uptake by plants.

  1. Affinity Propagation Based Measurement Partition Algorithm for Multiple Extended Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jin-long


    Full Text Available It is difficult to accurately and rapidly partition measurement sets of multiple extended targets in cluttered environment. Hence the affinity propagation method is introduced and a novel measurement partition algorithm is proposed. First, the measurement set is preprocessed by using density analysis to remove clutters from the measurements. Second, the number and location of the extended targets is determined via competition among the measurements. Finally, state estimates are obtained by using the probability hypothesis density filter. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm offers good performance in measurement partitioning of extended target tracking with clutter disturbance. Compared with the distance partition and K-means++ methods, the proposed method effectively minimizes the computation time and retrieves the number of targets iteratively.

  2. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)


    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  3. Mobility of radium and uranium in an uranium mill tailings deposit; Mobilite du radium et de l`uranium dans un site de stockage de residus issus du traitement de minerais d`uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassot, S. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations]|[Besancon Univ., 25 (France)


    In France, the extraction of uranium for nuclear power plants has generated more than 60 millions tons of residues. They are disposed at the surface and contain still more than 70 % of the initial activity of the ores due to the presence of uranium 238 daughters like thorium 230, radium 226 and lead 210. When water percolates through the tailings, the radioelements can migrate until they reach the geosphere. The radioelements rate coming from such a disposal depends on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the site and on the physicochemical processes which control the mobility of the radioelements. Therefore, we have studied the geochemical behaviour of radium and uranium at the Lengenfeld site in Germany. Analysis of the residues has allowed us to reconstituted the history of the site. The disposal was probably the result of an alkaline treatment applied to a mixture of granitic and sedimentary ores. Moreover, this analysis has permitted us to determine the nature of the mineral phases which can sorb the radioelements (clays, carbonate phases and iron oxo-hydroxides). For some of them, a mechanism of sorption was proposed and the associated constants were determined. Applying geochemical codes to our results has shown which solids control the solution composition and has also permitted us to estimate the distribution of radium between the solid and solution phases. From these data, the beginning of a prediction of the radium mobility evolution with time, at the Lengenfeld site, has been carried out. (authors) 50 refs.

  4. Radioactive Seepage through Groundwater Flow from the Uranium Mines, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiru Abiye


    Full Text Available The study focused on the seepage of uranium from unlined tailing dams into the alluvial aquifer in the Gawib River floodplain in Namibia where the region solely relies on groundwater for its economic activities as a result of arid climatic condition. The study reviewed previous works besides water sample collection and analyses for major ions, metals and environmental isotopes in addition to field tests on physico-chemical parameters (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Redox and T. Estimation of seepage velocity (true velocity of groundwater flow has been conducted in order to understand the extent of radioactive plume transport. The hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium results show that there is uranium contamination from the unlined uranium tailings in the Gawib shallow aquifer system which suggests high permeability of the alluvial aquifer facilitating groundwater flow in the arid region. The radioactive contaminants could spread into the deeper aquifer system through the major structures such as joints and faults. The contamination plume could also spread downstream into the Swakop River unless serious interventions are employed. There is also a very high risk of the plume to reach the Atlantic Ocean through seasonal flash floods that occurs in the area.

  5. Spectral partitioning in diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K; Chambers, D H; Candy, J V


    The scattering mechanism of diffraction tomography is described by the integral form of the Helmholtz equation. The goal of diffraction tomography is to invert this equation in order to reconstruct the object function from the measured scattered fields. During the forward propagation process, the spatial spectrum of the object under investigation is ''smeared,'' by a convolution in the spectral domain, across the propagating and evanescent regions of the received field. Hence, care must be taken in performing the reconstruction, as the object's spectral information has been moved into regions where it may be considered to be noise rather than useful information. This will reduce the quality and resolution of the reconstruction. We show haw the object's spectrum can be partitioned into resolvable and non-resolvable parts based upon the cutoff between the propagating and evanescent fields. Operating under the Born approximation, we develop a beam-forming on transmit approach to direct the energy into either the propagating or evanescent parts of the spectrum. In this manner, we may individually interrogate the propagating and evanescent regions of the object spectrum.

  6. Preserving Ultra-Pure Uranium-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)


    Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) is a synthetic isotope of uranium formed under reactor conditions during neutron capture by natural thorium ({sup 232}Th). At high purities, this synthetic isotope serves as a crucial reference material for accurately quantifying and characterizing uranium-bearing materials assays and isotopic distributions for domestic and international nuclear safeguards. Separated, high purity {sup 233}U is stored in vaults at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These materials represent a broad spectrum of {sup 233}U from the standpoint of isotopic purity - the purest being crucial for precise analyses in safeguarding uranium. All {sup 233}U at ORNL is currently scheduled to be disposed of by down-blending with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. This will reduce safety concerns and security costs associated with storage. Down-blending this material will permanently destroy its potential value as a certified reference material for use in uranium analyses. Furthermore, no credible options exist for replacing {sup 233}U due to the lack of operating production capability and the high cost of restarting currently shut down capabilities. A study was commissioned to determine the need for preserving high-purity {sup 233}U. This study looked at the current supply and the historical and continuing domestic need for this crucial isotope. It examined the gap in supplies and uses to meet domestic needs and extrapolated them in the context of international safeguards and security activities - superimposed on the recognition that existing supplies are being depleted while candidate replacement material is being prepared for disposal. This study found that the total worldwide need by this projection is at least 850 g of certified {sup 233}U reference material over the next 50 years. This amount also includes a strategic reserve. To meet this need, 18 individual items totaling 959 g of {sup 233}U were identified as candidates for establishing a lasting supply of

  7. Demonstration of a crown ether process for partitioning strontium from high level liquid waste (HLLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianchen; Jing, Shan; Chen, Jing [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET); Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab of Radioactive Waste Treatment


    Chinese HLLW with a higher-salt liquid that was generated via plutonium uranium recovery by extraction (PUREX) processing was temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks and is waiting for treatment. The volume and heat-loading of the glass block are reduced if the strontium, cesium, actinides and other long-life radioactive elements, such as Tc in the HLLW, are partitioned before the HLLW verification. This process is beneficial to preserve the capacity of the geological disposal repository and to minimize long-term hazards. The process of partitioning strontium from Chinese HLLW using Dicyclohexano-18Crown-6(DCH18C-6) was developed in past decades, including such fundamental studies as the small scale cold and hot test. In this work, new studies are introduced, including the cold and the long time hot cascade tests, using a miniature centrifugal contactor set and the pilot-scale cold test using pulse extraction columns. The results indicate that the crown process is promising for partitioning strontium from Chinese HLLW.

  8. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.


    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  9. 31 CFR 540.315 - Uranium-235 (U235). (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium-235 (U235). 540.315 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.315 Uranium-235 (U235). The term uranium-235 or U235 means the fissile...

  10. Dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosyan, R.V. (Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow)


    The formation of uraniun vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of continuous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis.

  11. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, D.R.


    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  12. Occupational exposure to uranium particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, L.; Medeiros, G.; Dias da Cunha, K. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Lima, C.; Barros Leite, C.V.; Ramos, J.L. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RIO), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica


    The risk for the human health due to exposure to aerosols containing uranium depend on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) technique was used to characterize aerosols samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The aerosol samples were collected using a six-stage cascade impactor and coarse and fine air sampler (AGF sampler) in two sites of Rio de Janeiro City. One, a mineral laboratory processing mineral containing uranium associated to crystals lattice located at Fundao Island a industrial zone and the other, in a laboratory at Barra da Tijuca a residential zone close to a lagoon and to the seashore. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulate were in the fine fraction of the aerosols collected in both locations. In order to identify the contribution of the seawater particles from the Guanabara Bay in the aerosols, seawater samples were also collected at Fundao Island. The analysis of the results suggests that the aerosols are different in both sampling site and also exist a contribution from the Guanabara Bay seawater particles to the aerosols collected in the Fundao Island. (author)

  13. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Lujan, Elmer J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); May, Iain [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division


    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  14. Partition functions. I. Improved partition functions and thermodynamic quantities for normal, equilibrium, and ortho and para molecular hydrogen (United States)

    Popovas, A.; Jørgensen, U. G.


    Context. Hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in the Universe. Its thermodynamic quantities dominate the physical conditions in molecular clouds, protoplanetary disks, etc. It is also of high interest in plasma physics. Therefore thermodynamic data for molecular hydrogen have to be as accurate as possible in a wide temperature range. Aims: We here rigorously show the shortcomings of various simplifications that are used to calculate the total internal partition function. These shortcomings can lead to errors of up to 40 percent or more in the estimated partition function. These errors carry on to calculations of thermodynamic quantities. Therefore a more complicated approach has to be taken. Methods: Seven possible simplifications of various complexity are described, together with advantages and disadvantages of direct summation of experimental values. These were compared to what we consider the most accurate and most complete treatment (case 8). Dunham coefficients were determined from experimental and theoretical energy levels of a number of electronically excited states of H2. Both equilibrium and normal hydrogen was taken into consideration. Results: Various shortcomings in existing calculations are demonstrated, and the reasons for them are explained. New partition functions for equilibrium, normal, and ortho and para hydrogen are calculated and thermodynamic quantities are reported for the temperature range 1-20 000 K. Our results are compared to previous estimates in the literature. The calculations are not limited to the ground electronic state, but include all bound and quasi-bound levels of excited electronic states. Dunham coefficients of these states of H2 are also reported. Conclusions: For most of the relevant astrophysical cases it is strongly advised to avoid using simplifications, such as a harmonic oscillator and rigid rotor or ad hoc summation limits of the eigenstates to estimate accurate partition functions and to be particularly careful when

  15. Influence of residual surfactants on DNAPL characterization using partitioning tracers (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D.; Rao, P. Suresh C.


    The partitioning tracer technique is among the DNAPL source-zone characterization methods being evaluated, while surfactant in-situ flushing is receiving attention as an innovative technology for enhanced source-zone cleanup. Here, we examine in batch and column experiments the magnitude of artifacts introduced in estimating DNAPL content when residual surfactants are present. The batch equilibrium tests, using residual surfactants ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 wt.%, showed that as the surfactant concentrations increased, the tracer partition coefficients decreased linearly for sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (DowFax 8390), increased linearly for polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether (Brij 97), and decreased slightly or exhibited no observable trend for sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (AMA 80). Results from column tests using clean sand with residual DowFax 8390 and Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were consistent with those of batch tests. In the presence of DowFax 8390 (less than 0.5 wt.%), the PCE saturations were underestimated by up to 20%. Adsorbed surfactants on a loamy sand with positively charged oxides showed false indications of PCE saturation based on partitioning tracers in the absence of PCE. Using no surfactant (background soil) gave a false PCE saturation of 0.0004, while soil contacted by AMA 80, Brij 97, and DowFax 8390 gave false PCE saturations of 0.0024, 0.043, and 0.23, respectively.

  16. Hydrogen partition coefficients between nominally anhydrous minerals and basaltic melts (United States)

    Aubaud, Cyril; Hauri, Erik H.; Hirschmann, Marc M.


    We have measured hydrogen partition coefficients between nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxenes) and basaltic melts in 13 hydrous melting experiments performed at upper mantle P-T conditions (1-2 GPa and 1230-1380°C). Resulting liquids have 3.1-6.4 wt.% H2O and average mineral/melt partition coefficients as follows: DHol/melt = 0.0017 +/- 0.0005 (n = 9), DHopx/melt = 0.019 +/- 0.004 (n = 8), and DHcpx/melt = 0.023 +/- 0.005 (n = 2). Mineral/mineral partition coefficients are DHol/opx = 0.11 +/- 0.01 (n = 4), DHol/cpx = 0.08 +/- 0.01 (n = 2) and DHcpx/opx = 1.4 +/- 0.3 (n = 1). These measurements confirm that water behaves similarly to Ce during mantle melting (DHperidotite/melt is ~0.009). For mantle water concentrations of 50-200 ppm, the onset of melting is 5-20 km deeper than the dry solidus, less than previous estimates.

  17. Influence of uranyl speciation and iron oxides on uranium biogeochemical redox reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, B.D.; Amos, R.T.; Nico, P.S.; Fendorf, S.


    Uranium is a pollutant of concern to both human and ecosystem health. Uranium's redox state often dictates its partitioning between the aqueous- and solid-phases, and thus controls its dissolved concentration and, coupled with groundwater flow, its migration within the environment. In anaerobic environments, the more oxidized and mobile form of uranium (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and associated species) may be reduced, directly or indirectly, by microorganisms to U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO{sub 2}. However, various factors within soils and sediments may limit biological reduction of U(VI), inclusive of alterations in U(VI) speciation and competitive electron acceptors. Here we elucidate the impact of U(VI) speciation on the extent and rate of reduction with specific emphasis on speciation changes induced by dissolved Ca, and we examine the impact of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite and hematite) varying in free energies of formation on U reduction. The amount of uranium removed from solution during 100 h of incubation with S. putrefaciens was 77% with no Ca or ferrihydrite present but only 24% (with ferrihydrite) and 14% (no ferrihydrite) were removed for systems with 0.8 mM Ca. Imparting an important criterion on uranium reduction, goethite and hematite decrease the dissolved concentration of calcium through adsorption and thus tend to diminish the effect of calcium on uranium reduction. Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) can proceed through different enzyme pathways, even within a single organism, thus providing a potential second means by which Fe(III) bearing minerals may impact U(VI) reduction. We quantify rate coefficients for simultaneous dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) in systems varying in Ca concentration (0 to 0.8 mM), and using a mathematical construct implemented with the reactive transport code MIN3P, we reveal the predominant influence of uranyl speciation, specifically the formation of uranyl

  18. Assessment of the bioavailability and depuration of uranium, cesium and thorium in snails (Cantareus aspersus) using kinetics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauget, B., E-mail: [Tésora, Le Visium, 22 Av. Aristide Briand, 94110 Arcueil (France); Andra, R& D Division, Centre de Meuse/Haute-Marne, RD 960, 55290 Bure (France); University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Department Chrono-Environnement, UMR UFC/CNRS 6249, 16 Route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Villeneuve, A.; Redon, P.O. [Tésora, Le Visium, 22 Av. Aristide Briand, 94110 Arcueil (France); Cuvier, A. [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/Laboratoire d’études radioécologiques en milieu continental et marin, BP 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lès-Durance Cedex (France); Vaufleury, A. de [University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Department Chrono-Environnement, UMR UFC/CNRS 6249, 16 Route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France)


    Highlights: • Kinetic studies allow to take into account the dynamic mechanisms of bioavailability. • An absence of Cs and Th accumulation is evidenced showing their low bioavailability. • The uranium accumulation is not only a function of the soil contamination. - Abstract: Uranium ore waste has led to soil contamination that may affect both environmental and soil health. To analyze the risk of metal transfer, metal bioavailability must be estimated by measuring biological parameters. Kinetic studies allow taking into account the dynamic mechanisms of bioavailability, as well as the steady state concentration in organisms necessary to take into account for relevant risk assessment. In this way, this work aims to model the snail accumulation and excretion kinetics of uranium (U), cesium (Cs) and thorium (Th). Results indicate an absence of Cs and Th accumulation showing the low bioavailability of these two elements and a strong uranium accumulation in snails related to the levels of soil contamination. During the depuration phase, most of the uranium ingested was excreted by the snails. After removing the source of uranium by soil remediation, continued snails excretion of accumulated uranium would lead to the return of their initial internal concentration, thus the potential trophic transfer of this hazardous element would stop.

  19. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.



  1. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus


    origin regions to specific subcellular sites (i.e. the poles or quarter-cell positions). Two types of partitioning ATPases are known: the Walker-type ATPases encoded by the par/sop gene family (type I partitioning loci) and the actin-like ATPase encoded by the par locus of plasmid R1 (type II...... partitioning locus). A phylogenetic analysis of the large family of Walker type of partitioning ATPases yielded a surprising pattern: most of the plasmid-encoded ATPases clustered into distinct subgroups. Surprisingly, however, the par loci encoding these distinct subgroups have different genetic organizations...... and thus divide the type I loci into types Ia and Ib. A second surprise was that almost all chromosome-encoded ATPases, including members from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive Bacteria and Archaea, clustered into one distinct subgroup. The phylogenetic tree is consistent with lateral gene transfer...

  2. Spatially Partitioned Embedded Runge--Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.


    We study spatially partitioned embedded Runge--Kutta (SPERK) schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs), in which each of the component schemes is applied over a different part of the spatial domain. Such methods may be convenient for problems in which the smoothness of the solution or the magnitudes of the PDE coefficients vary strongly in space. We focus on embedded partitioned methods as they offer greater efficiency and avoid the order reduction that may occur in nonembedded schemes. We demonstrate that the lack of conservation in partitioned schemes can lead to nonphysical effects and propose conservative additive schemes based on partitioning the fluxes rather than the ordinary differential equations. A variety of SPERK schemes are presented, including an embedded pair suitable for the time evolution of fifth-order weighted nonoscillatory spatial discretizations. Numerical experiments are provided to support the theory.

  3. Cell Partition in Two Polymer Aqueous Phases (United States)

    Harris, J. M.


    Partition of biological cells in two phase aqueous polymer systems is recognized as a powerful separation technique which is limited by gravity. The synthesis of new, selective polymer ligand conjugates to be used in affinity partition separations is of interest. The two most commonly used polymers in two phase partitioning are dextran and polyethylene glycol. A thorough review of the chemistry of these polymers was begun, particularly in the area of protein attachment. Preliminary studies indicate the importance in affinity partitioning of minimizing gravity induced randomizing forces in the phase separation process. The PEG-protein conjugates that were prepared appear to be ideally suited for achieving high quality purifications in a microgravity environment. An interesting spin-off of this synthetic work was the observation of catalytic activity for certain of our polymer derivatives.

  4. Biological pathways of exposure and ecotoxicity values for uranium and associated radionuclides: Chapter D in Hydrological, geological, and biological site characterization of breccia pipe uranium deposits in Northern Arizona (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Kuhne, Wendy


    This chapter compiles available chemical and radiation toxicity information for plants and animals from the scientific literature on naturally occurring uranium and associated radionuclides. Specifically, chemical and radiation hazards associated with radionuclides in the uranium decay series including uranium, thallium, thorium, bismuth, radium, radon, protactinium, polonium, actinium, and francium were the focus of the literature compilation. In addition, exposure pathways and a food web specific to the segregation areas were developed. Major biological exposure pathways considered were ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and bioaccumulation, and biota categories included microbes, invertebrates, plants, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These data were developed for incorporation into a risk assessment to be conducted as part of an environmental impact statement for the Bureau of Land Management, which would identify representative plants and animals and their relative sensitivities to exposure of uranium and associated radionuclides. This chapter provides pertinent information to aid in the development of such an ecological risk assessment but does not estimate or derive guidance thresholds for radionuclides associated with uranium. Previous studies have not attempted to quantify the risks to biota caused directly by the chemical or radiation releases at uranium mining sites, although some information is available for uranium mill tailings and uranium mine closure activities. Research into the biological impacts of uranium exposure is strongly biased towards human health and exposure related to enriched or depleted uranium associated with the nuclear energy industry rather than naturally occurring uranium associated with uranium mining. Nevertheless, studies have reported that uranium and other radionuclides can affect the survival, growth, and reproduction of plants and animals. Exposure to chemical and radiation hazards is influenced by a

  5. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.


    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  6. Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Schwarz, K.; Stockmann, H.


    This study examined partitioning of alpha-, beta-, and gamma- tocopherol and six polar antioxidants (Trolox, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, propyl gallate, gallic acid, and catechin) in mayonnaise. Partitioning of antioxidants between different phases was determined after separation of mayonnaise...... acid and catechin) to 83% (Trolox). Accordingly, proportions of 6% (Trolox) to 80% (gallic acid and catechin) were found in the aqueous phase. Similar trends were observed after dialysis. After ultracentrifugation, large proportions of polar antioxidants were found in the "emulsion phase...

  7. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  8. Advanced Coarsening Schemes for Graph Partitioning


    Safro, Ilya; Sanders, Peter; Schulz, Christian


    The graph partitioning problem is widely used and studied in many practical and theoretical applications. The multilevel strategies represent today one of the most effective and efficient generic frameworks for solving this problem on large-scale graphs. Most of the attention in designing the multilevel partitioning frameworks has been on the refinement phase. In this work we focus on the coarsening phase, which is responsible for creating structurally similar to the original but smaller grap...

  9. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N’Guessan


    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation.

  10. Uranium in the Mayoworth area, Johnson County, Wyoming - a preliminary report (United States)

    Love, J.D.


    The uranium mineral, metatyuyamunite, occurs in the basal limestone of the Sundance formation of late Jurassic age along the east flank of the Bighorn Mountains, about 2 miles southwest of the abandoned Mayoworth post office. This occurrence is of particular interest because it is the first uranium mineralization reported from a marine limestone in Wyoming. The discovery uranium claims were filed in July 1953, by J.S. Masek, Dan Oglesby, and Jack Emery of Casper, Wyo. Subsequent reconnaissance investigations have been made by private individuals and geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission. The metatyuyamunite is concentrated in a hard gray oolitic limestone that forms the basal bed of the Sundance formation. A selected sample of limestone from a fresh face in the northernmost deposit known at the time of the field examination contained 0.70 percent equivalent uranium and 0.71 percent uranium. Eight samples of the limestone taken at the sample place by the Atomic Energy Commission contained from 0.007 to 0.22 percent uranium. A chip sample from the weathered outcrop at the top of this limestone half a mile to the southeast contained 0.17 percent equivalent uranium and 0.030 percent uranium. A dinosaur bone from the middle part of the Morrison formation contained 0.044 percent equivalent uranium and 0.004 percent uranium. metatyuyamunite forms a conspicuous yellow coating along fracture planes cutting the oolitic limestone and has also replaced many of the oolites within the solid limestone and has also replaced many of the oolites within the solid limestone even where fractures are not present. Many radioactive spots in the basal limestone of the Sundance formation were examined in a reconnaissance fashion along the outcrop for a distance of half a mile south of the initial discovery. Samples were taken for analysis only at the northern and southern margins of this interval. Outcrops farther north and south were not studied. There are

  11. Landscape control of uranium and thorium in boreal streams – spatiotemporal variability and the role of wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lidman


    Full Text Available The concentrations of uranium and thorium in ten partly nested streams in the boreal forest region were monitored over a two-year period. The investigated catchments ranged from small headwaters (0.1 km2 up to a fourth-order stream (67 km2. Considerable spatiotemporal variations were observed, with little or no correlation between streams. The fluxes of both uranium and thorium varied substantially between the subcatchments, ranging from 1.7 to 30 g km−2 a−1 for uranium and from 3.2 to 24 g km−2 a−1 for thorium. Airborne gamma spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of uranium and thorium in surface soils throughout the catchment, suggesting that the concentrations of uranium and thorium in mineral soils are similar throughout the catchment. The fluxes of uranium and thorium were compared to a wide range of parameters characterising the investigated catchments and the chemistry of the stream water, e.g. soil concentrations of these elements, pH, TOC (total organic carbon, Al, Si and hydrogen carbonate, but it was concluded that the spatial variabilities in the fluxes of both uranium and thorium mainly were controlled by wetlands. The results indicate that there is a predictable and systematic accumulation of both uranium and thorium in boreal wetlands that is large enough to control the transport of these elements. On the landscape scale approximately 65–80% of uranium and 55–65% of thorium entering a wetland were estimated to be retained in the peat. Overall, accumulation in mires and other types of wetlands was estimated to decrease the fluxes of uranium and thorium from the boreal forest landscape by 30–40%, indicating that wetlands play an important role for the biogeochemical cycling of uranium and thorium in the boreal forest landscape. The atmospheric deposition of uranium and thorium was also quantified, and its contribution to boreal streams was

  12. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie


    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  13. Development of uranium processing at Wiluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, D., E-mail: [Toro Energy Ltd., West Perth, WA (Australia); Dombrose, E. [Metallurgical Support Pty Ltd., Shelley, WA (Australia)


    Toro Energy Ltd. has identified a resource of 20.2 million tonnes at a grade of 548 ppm U{sub 3}O{sub 8} at Wiluna, Western Australia. Calcrete and clay delta formations host the uranium mineral carnotite. Initial studies indicate a mining operation is technically, environmentally and commercially viable. Increase in demand for uranium and a change in State Government policy on uranium mining have lead Toro to proceed with a bankable feasibility study and commence approvals with State and Federal Governments. This paper discusses how Toro arrived at the decision to utilise alkaline heap leach, a process not widely used, and how it is being developed. (author)

  14. Rapid, autonomous analysis of HPGe gamma-ray spectra II: Uranium identification and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, Thomas B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, Jamess L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    RadID is a gamma-ray spectrum analysis program originally written to assist in the detection of the illicit movement of nuclear material. In this second of the three-document series we discuss how RadID detects the presence of uranium isotopes and determines a number of its characteristics, most notably or processed material and enriched estimates.

  15. Uranium export from a sandy beach subterranean estuary in Australia (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Santos, Isaac R.; Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Maher, Damien T.; Holloway, Ceylena; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-J.


    Few studies exist on the contribution of subterranean estuaries (STEs) to the oceanic uranium (U) budget. Here, we estimate the dissolved U fluxes out of a quartz sand STE located on the east coast of Australia. Our results indicate that the advective flow of seawater in permeable sands enhances cycling of U in the STE. Dissolved U concentrations ranged from 25 nM in the STE to an effective zero salinity end-member of 3.8 nM in the surface estuary. The dissolved U (salinity corrected) concentrations were positively correlated to Fe (r2 = 0.49 p marine U cycle.

  16. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.


    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  17. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the filtration leaching for uranium recovery from uranium ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolat Uralbekov


    Full Text Available The physical and chemical processes taking place in filtration leaching of uranium from uranium ore sample by sulphuric acid solution have been studied by modern physico-chemical methods (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, optical emission spectroscope, ICP OES. Column leaching test was carried out for ore samples obtained from a uranium in-situ leaching (ISL mining site using deluted sulphuricacid to study the evolution of various elements concentration in the pregnant leach solution. It has been shown that the uranium in pregnant solutions appears by dissolution of calcium and magnesium carbonates and uranium minerals as well. It was found the decreasing of filtration coefficient from 0.099 m day-1 to 0.082 m day-1, due to the presence of mechanical and chemical mudding. Partial extraction of uranium (85% from the ore has been explained by the slow diffusion of sulfuric acid to the uranium minerals locates in the cracks of silicate minerals. It was concluded that the studied uranium ore sample according to adverse geotechnical parameters is not suitable for uranium extraction by filtration leaching.

  18. Considerations in the development of generic human health-based soil quality guidelines for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, G.M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Petrovic, S. [Health Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Purtill, C. [Toxico-Logic Consulting Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Wilson, R. [Wilson Scientific Consulting Inc., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)


    At the current time in Canada, no human health-based generic (national) soil quality guidelines (SQG{sub HH}) exist for uranium. This paper explores some of the various methods that could be used to develop human health soil guideline values for this element. To determine possible values that may be appropriate for use in Canada, the authors have applied both the existing CCME approach (1996) and the draft revised CCME approach (2005) to estimate possible SQG{sub HH} for uranium for various land uses. (author)

  19. Beyond simple linear mixing models: process-based isotope partitioning of ecological processes. (United States)

    Ogle, Kiona; Tucker, Colin; Cable, Jessica M


    Stable isotopes are valuable tools for partitioning the components contributing to ecological processes of interest, such as animal diets and trophic interactions, plant resource use, ecosystem gas fluxes, streamflow, and many more. Stable isotope data are often analyzed with simple linear mixing (SLM) models to partition the contributions of different sources, but SLM models cannot incorporate a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes and do not accommodate additional data associated with these processes (e.g., environmental covariates, flux data, gut contents). Thus, SLM models lack predictive ability. We describe a process-based mixing (PBM) model approach for integrating stable isotopes, other data sources, and process models to partition different sources or process components. This is accomplished via a hierarchical Bayesian framework that quantifies multiple sources of uncertainty and enables the incorporation of process models and prior information to help constrain the source-specific proportional contributions, thereby potentially avoiding identifiability issues that plague SLM models applied to "too many" sources. We discuss the application of the PBM model framework to three diverse examples: temporal and spatial partitioning of streamflow, estimation of plant rooting profiles and water uptake profiles (or water sources) with extension to partitioning soil and ecosystem CO2 fluxes, and reconstructing animal diets. These examples illustrate the advantages of the PBM modeling approach, which facilitates incorporation of ecological theory and diverse sources of information into the mixing model framework, thus enabling one to partition key process components across time and space.

  20. Fuel Grading Study on a Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL


    An engineering design study that would enable the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models used to search for a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion study, and the recent results obtained with these models during FY 2009, are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating high-enriched uranium fuel core. These studies indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations.

  1. Mountain wetlands: efficient uranium filters - potential impacts (United States)

    Owen, D.E.; Otton, J.K.


    Sediments in 67 of 145 Colorado wetlands sampled by the US Geological Survey contain moderate (20 ppm) or greater concentrations of uranium (some as high as 3000 ppm) based on dry weight. The proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL) for uranium in drinking water is 20 ??g/l or 20 ppb. By comparison, sediments in many of these wetlands contain 3 to 5 orders of magnitude more uranium than the proposed MCL. Wetlands near the workings of old mines may be trapping any number of additional metals/elements including Cu, Pb, Zn, As and Ag. Anthropogenic disturbances and natural changes may release uranium and other loosely bound metals presently contained in wetland sediments. -from Authors

  2. On the choice of the driving temperature for eddy-covariance carbon dioxide flux partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasslop, G.; Migliavacca, M.; Bohrer, G.


    uncertainties of the partitioned fluxes. The semi-empirical models used in flux partitioning algorithms require temperature observations as input, but as respiration takes place in many parts of an ecosystem, it is unclear which temperature input - air, surface, bole, or soil at a specific depth - should...... algorithms with air and soil temperature. We found the time lag (phase shift) between air and soil temperatures explains the differences in the GPP and Reco estimates when using either air or soil temperatures for flux partitioning. The impact of the source of temperature data on other derived ecosystem...... parameters was estimated, and the strongest impact was found for the temperature sensitivity. Overall, this study suggests that the choice between soil or air temperature must be made on site-by-site basis by analysing the correlation between temperature and nighttime NEE. We recommend using an ensemble...

  3. Partition Coefficients of Organic Molecules in Squalane and Water/Ethanol Mixtures by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Rasmus; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Economou, Ioannis G.


    on the calculations. It was found that the combination of the TraPPE-UA force field and the TIP4p water model gave the best results. Based on the methodology proposed in this article, it is possible to obtain good partition coefficients only knowing the chemical structure of the molecules in the system.......Accurate partition coefficient data of migrants between a polymer and a solvent are of paramount importance for estimating the migration of the migrant over time, including the concentration of the migrant at infinite time in the two solvents. In this article it is shown how this partition...... coefficient can be estimated for both a small hydrophilic and a hydrophobic organic molecules between squalane (used here to mimic low density poly ethylene) and water/ethanol solutes using thermodynamic integration to calculate the free energy of solvation. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed, using...

  4. Adaptive MCMC in Bayesian phylogenetics: an application to analyzing partitioned data in BEAST. (United States)

    Baele, Guy; Lemey, Philippe; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A


    Advances in sequencing technology continue to deliver increasingly large molecular sequence datasets that are often heavily partitioned in order to accurately model the underlying evolutionary processes. In phylogenetic analyses, partitioning strategies involve estimating conditionally independent models of molecular evolution for different genes and different positions within those genes, requiring a large number of evolutionary parameters that have to be estimated, leading to an increased computational burden for such analyses. The past two decades have also seen the rise of multi-core processors, both in the central processing unit (CPU) and Graphics processing unit processor markets, enabling massively parallel computations that are not yet fully exploited by many software packages for multipartite analyses. We here propose a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach using an adaptive multivariate transition kernel to estimate in parallel a large number of parameters, split across partitioned data, by exploiting multi-core processing. Across several real-world examples, we demonstrate that our approach enables the estimation of these multipartite parameters more efficiently than standard approaches that typically use a mixture of univariate transition kernels. In one case, when estimating the relative rate parameter of the non-coding partition in a heterochronous dataset, MCMC integration efficiency improves by > 14-fold. Our implementation is part of the BEAST code base, a widely used open source software package to perform Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Alteration of Cytokine Profiles in Uranium Miners Exposed to Long-Term Low Dose Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li


    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study is to estimate the immune function through cytokine profiles in sera of uranium mines. Methods. Antibody arrays were used to detect 50 cytokines in sera of uranium miners. Miners who had continuously worked underground for <5 years were treated as control group and those who worked for ⩾5 years as experimental group. Results. Of 28 measurable cytokines, the release of IL-1α, IL-1RI, IL-15, IL-3, and IP-10 were significantly upregulated in the experimental group, and no cytokine was found significantly downregulated. Other proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, and TNFα levels were slightly upregulated in the experimental group. With adjustment to age, BMI, and cigarette smoking, IL-1α and IL-3 levels increased significantly with underground time. Conclusion. Alteration of cytokine profiles in this study may indicate persistent inflammatory responses in uranium miners exposed to long-term low doses radiation.

  6. Uranium-plutonium metallic spikes for IDMS accountancy measurements: preparation and characterization (United States)

    Orea Rocha, J. M.; Ingelbrecht, C. D.; Criado Portal, A. J.


    Alloys containing uranium and plutonium have been prepared as candidates for use as metallic spikes for IDMS determinations of uranium and plutonium in spent fuel solutions. Three compositions, U-0.5%Pu-50%Ti, U-0.5%Pu-25%Nb-25%Zr and U-1%Pu-2.3%Nb , prepared by crucible-less induction melting, were selected because of good cold formability. The plutonium homogeneity was estimated to be 0.1-0.4% RSD for samples containing 100 mg uranium and 1 mg plutonium by a γ-spectrometric method using 235U in the spike as an internal standard to correct for self-absorption. Metallography was carried out on buttons and foils of each of the alloys and revealed fine, homogeneous structures. All the percentages indicated in this work are weight percentages.

  7. Effect of grain size on uranium(VI) surface complexation kinetics and adsorption additivity. (United States)

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M


    The contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption was studied using a sediment from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.053-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. One important implication of this study is that grain-size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

  8. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France); Desequilibres des series de l'uranium dans les aquiferes: quantification des mecanismes de transport de l'uranium et de ses descendants: cas de l'aquifere de la craie (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, A


    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium ({sup 234}U et {sup 238}U), thorium ({sup 230}Th et {sup 232}Th), {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during {alpha}-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and {alpha}-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  9. On the chemical identification and visualization of uranium species in biofilms and Euglena mutabilis cells; Zur chemischen Identifizierung und Visualisierung von Uran-Spezies in Biofilmen und Euglena mutabilis Zellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, Sina


    removed from the solutions by the cells without any detectable influence of the background media. Regarding the using of these cells for possible treatment procedures of real contaminated acid mine water the high immobilization rate of uranium at acidic conditions is very attractive. Living, metabolically active Euglena cells are able to accumulate more uranium than dead biomass as the results in this study show. The results of this study contribute to obtain a profound knowledge on the processes regarding the interactions of uranium with biofilms and in particular with Euglena mutabilis cells. The obtained findings help to improve the estimation of risks arising from contaminated environments and to optimize the prediction of the migration behavior of uranium.

  10. Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production. (United States)

    Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A


    The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer.


    Saller, H.A.


    A process is presented for producing a workable article of a uranium- aluminum alloy in which the uranium content is between 14 and 70% by weight; aluminum powder and powdered UAl/sub 2/, UAl/sub 3/, UAl/sub 5/, or UBe/sub 9/ are mixed, and the mixture is compressed into the shape desired and sintered at between 450 and 600 deg C.

  12. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  13. Pentavalent uranium trans-dihalides and -pseudohalides. (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Kikkawa, James M; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J


    Pentavalent uranium complexes of the formula U(V)X(2)[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3) (X = F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), N(3)(-), NCS(-)) are accessible from the oxidation of U(III)[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3) through two sequential, one-electron oxidation reactions (halides) and substitution through salt metathesis (pseudohalides). Uranium(v) mixed-halides are also synthesized by successive one-electron oxidation reactions.

  14. Multifactorial Assessment of Depleted Uranium Neurotoxicity (United States)


    Changes in sleep - wake cycle after chronic exposure to uranium in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 27: 835-40. Lestaevel, P., P. Houpert, C. Bussy, to 43muscle and brain, acute stimulation of immune function, and 44sharpened cognition with increased cerebral glucose utilization . 45While...procedures. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was used to assess the kinetics of uranium in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus


    Rosenfeld, S.


    An improvement is described in the process fur making UCl/sub 4/ from uranium oxide and carbon tetrachloride. In that process, oxides of uranium are contacted with carbon tetrachloride vapor at an elevated temperature. It has been fuund that the reaction product and yield are improved if the uranlum oxide charge is disposed in flat trays in the reaction zone, to a depth of not more than 1/2 centimeter.

  16. [Biosorption of Radionuclide Uranium by Deinococcus radiodurans]. (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Dong, Fa-qin; Dai, Qun-wei; Liu, Ming-xue; Nie, Xiao-qin; Zhang, Dong; Ma, Jia-lin; Zhou, Xian


    As a biological adsorbent, Living Deinococcus radiodurans was used for removing radionuclide uranium in the aqueous solution. The effect factors on biosorption of radionuclide uranium were researched in the present paper, including solution pH values and initial uranium concentration. Meanwhile, the biosorption mechanism was researched by the method of FTIR and SEM/EDS. The results show that the optimum conditions for biosorption are as follows: pH = 5, co = 100 mg · L(-1) and the maximum biosorption capacity is up to 240 mgU · g(-1). According to the SEM results and EDXS analysis, it is indicated that the cell surface is attached by lots of sheet uranium crystals, and the main biosorpiton way of uranium is the ion exchange or surface complexation. Comparing FTIR spectra and FTIR fitting spectra before and after biosorption, we can find that the whole spectra has a certain change, particularly active groups (such as amide groups of the protein, hydroxy, carboxyl and phosphate group) are involved in the biosorption process. Then, there is a new peak at 906 cm(-1) and it is a stretching vibration peak of UO2(2+). Obviously, it is possible that as an anti radiation microorganism, Deinococcus radiodurans could be used for removing radionuclide uranium in radiation environment.

  17. Natural radioactivity, dose assessment and uranium uptake by agricultural crops at Khan Al-Zabeeb, Jordan. (United States)

    Al-Kharouf, Samer J; Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Dababneh, Munir


    Khan Al-Zabeeb, an irrigated cultivated area lies above a superficial uranium deposits, is regularly used to produce vegetables and fruits consumed by the public. Both soil and plant samples collected from the study area were investigated for their natural radioactivity to determine the uranium uptake by crops and hence to estimate the effective dose equivalent to human consumption. Concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (137)Cs and (40)K in nine soil profiles were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry whereas watermelon and zucchini crops were analyzed for their uranium content by means of alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation. Correlations between measured radionuclides were made and their activity ratios were determined to evaluate their geochemical behavior in the soil profiles. Calculated soil-plant transfer factors indicate that the green parts (leaves, stems and roots) of the studied crops tend to accumulate uranium about two orders of magnitude higher than the fruits. The maximum dose from ingestion of 1 kg of watermelon pulp was estimated to be 3.1 and 4.7 nSv y(-1) for (238)U and (234)U, respectively. Estimations of the annual effective dose equivalent due to external exposure showed extremely low values. Radium equivalent activity and external hazard index were seen to exceed the permissible limits of 370 Bq kg(-1) and 1, respectively.

  18. Multi-A Graph Patrolling and Partitioning (United States)

    Elor, Y.; Bruckstein, A. M.


    We introduce a novel multi agent patrolling algorithm inspired by the behavior of gas filled balloons. Very low capability ant-like agents are considered with the task of patrolling an unknown area modeled as a graph. While executing the proposed algorithm, the agents dynamically partition the graph between them using simple local interactions, every agent assuming the responsibility for patrolling his subgraph. Balanced graph partition is an emergent behavior due to the local interactions between the agents in the swarm. Extensive simulations on various graphs (environments) showed that the average time to reach a balanced partition is linear with the graph size. The simulations yielded a convincing argument for conjecturing that if the graph being patrolled contains a balanced partition, the agents will find it. However, we could not prove this. Nevertheless, we have proved that if a balanced partition is reached, the maximum time lag between two successive visits to any vertex using the proposed strategy is at most twice the optimal so the patrol quality is at least half the optimal. In case of weighted graphs the patrol quality is at least (1)/(2){lmin}/{lmax} of the optimal where lmax (lmin) is the longest (shortest) edge in the graph.

  19. Screening of pesticides for environmental partitioning tendency. (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Di Guardo, Antonio


    The partitioning tendency of chemicals, in this study pesticides in particular, into different environmental compartments depends mainly on the concurrent relevance of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical itself. To rank the pesticides according to their distribution tendencies in the different environmental compartments we propose a multivariate approach: the combination, by principal component analysis, of those physico-chemical properties like organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc), n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), water solubility (Sw), vapour pressure and Henry's law constant (H) that are more relevant to the determination of environmental partitioning. The resultant macrovariables, the PC1 and PC2 scores here named leaching index (LIN) and volatality index (VIN), are proposed as preliminary environmental partitioning indexes in different media. These two indexes are modeled by theoretical molecular descriptors with satisfactory predictive power. Such an approach allows a rapid pre-determination and screening of the environmental distribution of pesticides starting only from the molecular structure of the pesticide, without any a priori knowledge of the physico-chemical properties.

  20. Atmospheric amines - Part II. Thermodynamic properties and gas/particle partitioning (United States)

    Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S.; Clegg, Simon L.


    Amines enter the atmosphere from a wide range of sources, but relatively little is known about their atmospheric behavior, especially their role in gas/particle partitioning. In Part I of this work ( Ge et al., 2011) a total of 154 amines, 32 amino acids and urea were identified as occurring in the atmosphere, based upon a survey of the literature. In this work we compile data for the thermodynamic properties of the amines which control gas/particle partitioning (Henry's Law constant, liquid vapor pressure, acid dissociation constant, activity coefficient and solubility in water), and also estimate the solid/gas dissociation constants of their nitrate and chloride salts. Prediction methods for boiling point, liquid vapor pressure, acid dissociation constant and the solubility of the amines in water are evaluated, and used to estimate values of the equilibrium constants where experimental data are lacking. Partitioning of amines into aqueous aerosols is strongly dependent upon pH and is greatest for acidic aerosols. For several common amines the tendency to partition to the particle phase is similar to or greater than that of ammonia. Our results are presented as tables of values of thermodynamic equilibrium constants, which are also incorporated into the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model ( E-AIM, to enable gas/aerosol partitioning and other calculations to be carried out.

  1. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity; Biocinetique et toxicite de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A


    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation.

  2. Geological and geochronological evidence for the effect of Paleogene and Miocene uplift of the Northern Ordos Basin on the formation of the Dongsheng uranium district, China (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yi, Chao; Dong, Qian; Cai, Yu-Qi; Liu, Hong-Xu


    The Dongsheng uranium district, located in the northern part of the Ordos Basin, contains the largest known sandstone-hosted uranium deposit in China. This district contains (from west to east) the Daying, Nalinggou, and Dongsheng uranium deposits that host tens of thousands of metric tonnes of estimated recoverable uranium resources at an average grade of 0.05% U. These uranium orebodies are generally hosted by the lower member of the Zhiluo Formation and are dominantly roll or tabular in shape. The uranium deposits in this district formed during two stages of mineralization (as evidenced by U-Pb dating) that occurred at 65-60 and 25 Ma. Both stages generated coffinite, pitchblende, anatase, pyrite, and quartz, with or without sericite, chlorite, calcite, fluorite, and hematite. The post-Late Cretaceous uplift of the Northern Ordos Basin exposed the northern margins of the Zhiluo Formation within the Hetao depression at 65-60 Ma, introducing groundwater into the formation and generating the first stage of uranium mineralization. The Oligocene (∼25 Ma) uplift of this northern margin exposed either the entirety of the southern flank of the Hetao depression or only the clastic sedimentary part of this region, causing a second gravitational influx of groundwater into the Zhiluo Formation and forming the second stage of uranium mineralization.

  3. Uranium deposits of the world. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlkamp, Franz J.


    Uranium Deposits of the World, in three volumes, comprises an unprecedented compilation of data and descriptions of the uranium regions in Asia, USA, Latin America and Europe structured by countries. With this third, the Europe volume, Uranium Deposits of the World presents the most extensive data collection of the set. It covers about 140 uranium regions in more than 20 European countries with nearly 1000 mentioned uranium deposits. Each country and region receives an analytical overview followed by the geologically- and economically-relevant synopsis of the individual regions and fields. The presentations are structured in three major sections: (a) location and magnitude of uranium regions, districts, and deposits, (b) principal features of regions and districts, and (c) detailed characteristics of selected ore fields and deposits. This includes sections on geology, alteration, mineralization, shape and dimensions of deposits, isotopes data, ore control and recognition criteria, and metallogenesis. Beside the main European uranium regions, for example in the Czech Republic, Eastern Germany, France, the Iberian Peninsula or Ukraine, also small regions an districts to the point of singular occurrences of interest are considered. This by far the most comprehensive presentation of European uranium geology and mining would not be possible without the author's access to extensive information covering the countries of the former Eastern Bloc states, which was partly not previously available. Abundantly illustrated with information-laden maps and charts throughout, this reference work is an indispensable tool for geologists, mining companies, government agencies, and others with an interest in European key natural resources. A great help for the reader's orientation are the substantial bibliography of uranium-related publications and the indices, latter containing about 3900 entries in the geographical part alone. The three volumes of Uranium Deposits of the

  4. Human dietary exposure to uranium in catalonia, Spain. (United States)

    Bellés, Montserrat; Linares, Victoria; Perelló, Gemma; Domingo, José L


    The purpose of this study was to determine the daily dietary intake of uranium (U) by the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Uranium concentrations were measured in foods widely consumed by the population living in that autonomous community. Food samples were randomly acquired in 12 representative cities of Catalonia. The dietary intake of U was estimated for various age-gender groups: children, adolescents, adults, and seniors. Fish and seafood was the food group showing the highest U concentrations (0.090 μg/g of fresh weight (fw)), followed by dairy products (0.044 μg/g fw). In contrast, the lowest U levels were found in oils and fats (0.003 μg/g fw), while in tubers and milk, U was not detected in any sample. The estimated dietary intake of U for a standard male adult of 70 kg body weight living in Catalonia was 15.48 μg/day. According to the age/gender of the population, the highest dietary intake of U corresponded to children (20.32 μg/day), while senior females was the subgroup with the lowest U intake (10.04 μg/day). Based on the tolerable daily intake established for U, the current dietary intake of this metal by the general population of Catalonia should not mean health risks for any of the different age/gender groups of consumers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Filippenko


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning. A graph is selected as a mathematical model describing integrated circuit. Modification of ant colony optimization algorithm is presented, which is used to solve graph partitioning problem. Ant colony optimization algorithm is an optimization method based on the principles of self-organization and other useful features of the ants’ behavior. The proposed search system is based on ant colony optimization algorithm with the improved method of the initial distribution and dynamic adjustment of the control search parameters. The experimental results and performance comparison show that the proposed method of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning provides the better search performance over other well known algorithms.

  6. Combinatorics and complexity of partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinok, Alexander


    Partition functions arise in combinatorics and related problems of statistical physics as they encode in a succinct way the combinatorial structure of complicated systems. The main focus of the book is on efficient ways to compute (approximate) various partition functions, such as permanents, hafnians and their higher-dimensional versions, graph and hypergraph matching polynomials, the independence polynomial of a graph and partition functions enumerating 0-1 and integer points in polyhedra, which allows one to make algorithmic advances in otherwise intractable problems. The book unifies various, often quite recent, results scattered in the literature, concentrating on the three main approaches: scaling, interpolation and correlation decay. The prerequisites include moderate amounts of real and complex analysis and linear algebra, making the book accessible to advanced math and physics undergraduates. .

  7. Study of reactions between uranium-plutonium mixed oxide and uranium nitride and between uranium oxide and uranium nitride; Etude des reactions entre l`oxyde mixte d`uranium-plutonium et le nitrure d`uranium et entre l`oxyde d`uranium et le nitrure d`uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecraz, C.


    A new type of combustible elements which is a mixture of uranium nitride and uranium-plutonium oxide could be used for Quick Neutrons Reactors. Three different studies have been made on the one hand on the reactions between uranium nitride (UN) and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (U,Pu)O{sub 2}, on the other hand on these between UN and uranium oxide UO{sub 2}. They show a sizeable reaction between nitride and oxide for the studied temperatures range (1573 K to 1973 K). This reaction forms a oxynitride compound, MO{sub x} N{sub y} with M=U or M=(U,Pu), whose crystalline structure is similar to oxide`s. Solubility of nitride in both oxides is studied, as the reaction kinetics. (TEC). 32 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. ZDC Effective Cross Section for Uranium-Uranium Collisions in Run 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    An accurate calibration of the luminosity measurement of the 2012 Uranium-Uranium RHIC run at 96 GeV per beam is of the greatest importance in order to measure the total uranium-uranium cross section with a reasonably small error bar. During the run, which lasted from April 20th to May 15th 2012, three vernier scans per experiment were performed. Beam intensities of up to 3.4 1010 Uranium ions in one ring were successfully accelerated to flattop at γ = 103.48 corresponding to 96 GeV/beam. The desired model β value was 0.7 m in the two low beta Interaction Points IP6 and IP8. With these beam parameters interaction rates of up to 15 kHz were achieved. This note presents the data associated with the vernier scans, and discusses the results and systematic effects.

  9. Uranium Carbide Powder Ignition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthinier, C.; Coullomb, S.; Rado, C.; Le Guyadec, F. [CEA, DEN, DTEC, SDTC, LEME, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Chatillon, C.; Blanquet, E.; Boichot, R. [SIMAP, Sciences et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, INPG-CNRS-UJF ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 St Martin-d' Heres (France)


    Mixed (U, Pu) carbide, constituted by means of 80% of uranium monocarbide (UC), is considered as a possible fuel material for future gas fast reactors or sodium fast reactor. However, UC undergoes a strong exothermic reaction with air and fine powders of UC are pyrophoric. Thus, it is necessary to understand this high reactivity in order to determine safe handling conditions for the production and reprocessing of carbide fuels. UC powder was obtained by arc melting and milling. The reactivity of uranium carbide was studied in oxidizing atmosphere and different experimental devices were used to determine ignition temperatures. The phases formed at the various observed stages of the oxidation process were determined by post-mortem X ray diffraction analysis. Studies were first performed using small quantities of UC powder (around 50 mg) in Differential Thermal Analysis / Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTA/TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Experiments were realized using different parameters, such as heating rate and gas flow rate and composition, to determine their influence on pyro-phoricity. Results obtained with small quantities (tens of milligrams) revealed that UC powder is highly reactive in air in the range 200- 250 deg. C. Studies were also performed in the 'Pyro' test facility multi-function furnace allowing CCD camera recording, during heating and ignition, through view-ports. Lower ignition temperatures, around 100 deg. C, were obtained using around 1 g UC powder samples. Results are discussed and analysed with theory of burning curve ignition and numerical simulations. Simulations aim to understand the influence of the different parameters on pyro-phoricity. Small scale simulations (on a spherical grain) confirm the influence of UC grains size, heat rate and gas composition on powder ignition temperature with small quantities. The issue is now to understand the influence of grain pile form factor and volume on the pyro-phoricity of

  10. Pseudo-periodic partitions of biological sequences. (United States)

    Li, Lugang; Jin, Renchao; Kok, Poh-Lin; Wan, Honghui


    Algorithm development for finding typical patterns in sequences, especially multiple pseudo-repeats (pseudo-periodic regions), is at the core of many problems arising in biological sequence and structure analysis. In fact, one of the most significant features of biological sequences is their high quasi-repetitiveness. Variation in the quasi-repetitiveness of genomic and proteomic texts demonstrates the presence and density of different biologically important information. It is very important to develop sensitive automatic computational methods for the identification of pseudo-periodic regions of sequences through which we can infer, describe and understand biological properties, and seek precise molecular details of biological structures, dynamics, interactions and evolution. We develop a novel, powerful computational tool for partitioning a sequence to pseudo-periodic regions. The pseudo-periodic partition is defined as a partition, which intuitively has the minimal bias to some perfect-periodic partition of the sequence based on the evolutionary distance. We devise a quadratic time and space algorithm for detecting a pseudo-periodic partition for a given sequence, which actually corresponds to the shortest path in the main diagonal of the directed (acyclic) weighted graph constructed by the Smith-Waterman self-alignment of the sequence. We use several typical examples to demonstrate the utilization of our algorithm and software system in detecting functional or structural domains and regions of proteins. A big advantage of our software program is that there is a parameter, the granularity factor, associated with it and we can freely choose a biological sequence family as a training set to determine the best parameter. In general, we choose all repeats (including many pseudo-repeats) in the SWISS-PROT amino acid sequence database as a typical training set. We show that the granularity factor is 0.52 and the average agreement accuracy of pseudo-periodic partitions

  11. Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Manschot, Jan


    This dissertation presents recent discoveries on partition functions for four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view within string theory and M-theory. The results are applied to two central research topics in modern theoretical physics, namely (1) the correspondence between the physics (including gravity) within an Anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, and (2) the relation between black holes and topological strings.

  12. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aa.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry


    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. Refs, figs, tabs.

  13. Cochlear implant in incomplete partition type I. (United States)

    Berrettini, S; Forli, F; De Vito, A; Bruschini, L; Quaranta, N


    In this investigation, we report on 4 patients affected by incomplete partition type I submitted to cochlear implant at our institutions. Preoperative, surgical, mapping and follow-up issues as well as results in cases with this complex malformation are described. The cases reported in the present study confirm that cochlear implantation in patients with incomplete partition type I may be challenging for cochlear implant teams. The results are variable, but in many cases satisfactory, and are mainly related to the surgical placement of the electrode and residual neural nerve fibres. Moreover, in some cases the association of cochlear nerve abnormalities and other disabilities may significantly affect results.

  14. Partitioning evapotranspiration fluxes using atmometer (United States)

    Orsag, Matej; Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Kucera, Jiri; Zalud, Zdenek


    This effort is aimed to derive a simple tool for separating soil evaporation and transpiration from evapotranspiration, measured by Bowen ration energy balance method (BREB) in short rotation coppice (SRC). The main idea is to utilize daily data of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measured above bare soil (spring 2010 - first year following harvest), reference evapotranspiration (ETo) measured by atmometer ETgage and precipitation data, in order to create an algorithm for estimation evaporation from bare soil. This approach is based on the following assumption: evaporation of wetted bare soil same as the ETo from atmometer is assumed to be identical in days with rain. In first and further days with no rain (and e.g. high evaporative demand) the easily evaporable soil water depletes and ETa so as crop coefficient of bare soil (Kcb) decreases in a way similar to decreasing power function. The algorithm represents a parameterized function of daily cumulated ETo (ETc) measured by atmometer in days elapsed from last rain event (Kcb = a*ETc^b). After each rain event the accumulation of ETo starts again till next rain event (e. g. only days with no rain are cumulated). The function provides decreasing Kcb for each day without rain. The bare soil evaporation can be estimated when the atmometer-recorded value is multiplied by Kcb for particular day without rain. In days with rain Kcb is assumed to be back at 1. This method was successfully tested for estimating evaporation from bare soil under closed canopy of poplar-based SRC. When subtracting the estimated soil evaporation from total ETa flux, measured above the canopy using BREB method, it is possible to obtain transpiration flux of the canopy. There is also possibility to test this approach on the contrary - subtracting transpiration derived from sap-flow measurement from total ETa flux is possible to get soil evaporation as well. Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of project Inter

  15. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  16. Constraints on the Use of 18O in CO2 as a Tracer to Partition Gross Carbon Fluxes (United States)

    Riley, W. J.; Still, C. J.


    Measurements of 18O in atmospheric CO2 can be used to partition measured net CO2 ecosystem fluxes into photosynthesis and respiration. However, uncertainties and temporal variability in the δ 18O value of the soil-surface CO2 flux (δ Fs) and the retro-diffused CO2 flux (δ Fr) can lead to substantial errors in partitioning estimates. We will discuss an integrated isotope and ecosystem model (ISOLSM) that simulates exchanges of 18O in H2O and CO2 in soil and plants, and will apply the model to identify critical factors associated with CO2 flux partitioning. Modeling results, regression analysis of model predictions, and an analysis of characteristic times of relevant processes indicate that, in contrast to previous reports, the δ 18O value of soil water (δ sw) in the top few cm of soil strongly impacts δ Fs. Thus, accurately characterizing near-surface δ sw is critical to the CO2 flux partitioning approach. We also discuss the impact of the soil CO2 source distribution within the column, soil temperature, and the δ 18O value of atmospheric CO2 on predictions of δ Fs. Disequilibrium between CO2 and leaf water, which may be common in C4 grasses, will impact δ Fr and therefore the partitioning of the measured net ecosystem CO2 flux. Finally, temporal variability in δ Fr, in particular, can lead to errors in flux partitioning when measurements of the δ 18O value of leaf water and of 18O in atmospheric CO2 and are not made concurrently. We will present results demonstrating the impact of these factors on partitioning estimates and discuss measurement protocol necessary to accurately partition measured net ecosystem CO2 fluxes into their component gross fluxes. We will also briefly discuss the relative merits of 18O versus 13C as a tracer for partitioning net fluxes.

  17. Uranium migration and favourable sites of potential radioelement concentrations in Gabal Umm Hammad area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Sabra, Mohamed Elsadek M.; Abdeldayem, Abdelaziz L.; Masoud, Alaa A.; Mansour, Salah A.


    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data, covering Gabal Umm Hammad area, near Quseir City, in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, has been utilized to identify the uranium migration path, and U, Th and K-favorability indices. The following of the uranium migration technique enabled estimation of the amount of migrated uranium, in and out of the rock units. Investigation of the Taref Formation, Nakhil Formation, Tarawan Formation and Dawi Formation shows large negative amount of uranium migration, indicating that uranium leaching is outward from the geologic body toward surrounding rock units. Moreover, calculation of the U, Th and K-favorability indices has been carried out for the various rock units to locate the rocks having the highest radioelement potentialities. The rock units that possess relatively major probability of uranium potentiality include Mu‧tiq Group, weakly deformed granitic rocks, and Trachyte plugs and sheets. Meanwhile, the rock units with major potential of Th-index are Taref Formation, Quseir Formation and Dawi Formation. The rock units with major potential of K-index are Dokhan volcanic and Mu‧tiq group.

  18. Uranium-235 and childhood leukaemia around Greenham Common airfield. (United States)

    Bithell, J F; Draper, G J


    There has been considerable publicity recently concerning the possible release of enriched uranium from the Greenham Common USAF base near Newbury in Berkshire. Evidence for the release relies on an internal report of the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment at Aldermaston, the authors of which postulated that it resulted from a fire in 1958 involving a B47 bomber standing on the runway. Their report contained a much publicised contour map of excess 235U levels estimated from the ratio of 235U to 238U in 26 evergreen leaf samples examined. The current concern of the inhabitants of Newbury centres mostly on the incidence of leukaemia, which was known beforehand to be slightly elevated in parts of West Berkshire, at least for young children. A number of cases have received considerable press publicity, with suggestions that their homes are located close to the base or the flight-path. The reports are, however, anecdotal and are not based on a complete register of cases. We have examined the evidence for this putative association by re-analysing the uranium data and determining the spatial relationship to the base of cases of childhood leukaemia diagnosed in the years 1966-87. We conclude that, although the excess uranium found has a non-random distribution, it does not support the pattern depicted by the contours and bears no relation to the incidence of childhood leukaemia for the period we examined. In any case, the increase in level of environmental radiation as a result of the putative release must be very small and is at variance with the reporting in some of the national press.

  19. Uranium Mines and Mills | RadTown USA | US EPA (United States)


    Uranium is used as nuclear fuel for electric power generation. U.S. mining industries can obtain uranium in two ways: mining or milling. Mining waste and mill tailings can contaminate water, soil and air if not disposed of properly.

  20. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2007. A report from the Swedish reference group on P-T-research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem, Per-Eric (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Blomgren, Jan [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Ekberg, Christian; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Wallenius, Jan; Westlen, Daniel [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)


    This report is written on behalf of the Swedish reference group for research on partitioning and transmutation. The reference group has been assembled by SKB and its members represent the teams that are active in this field at Swedish universities. The present report summarises the progress in the field through the years 2004-2006. A prerequisite for transmutation by irradiation with neutrons is that the nuclides to be transmuted are separated (partitioned) from the other nuclides in the spent fuel. In particular the remaining uranium must be taken away unless you want to produce more plutonium and other transuranium elements. Separation of the various elements can at least in principle be achieved by mechanical and chemical processes. Currently there exist some large scale facilities for separation of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel-reprocessing plants. These can, however, not separate the minor actinides - neptunium, americium and curium - from the high level waste that goes to a repository. Plutonium constitutes about 90% of the transuranium elements in fuel from light water reactors. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the aforementioned long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving

  1. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole. (United States)

    Abdi, S; Nasiri, M; Mesbahi, A; Khani, M H


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Urine proteomic profiling of uranium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malard, V.; Gaillard, J.C.; Sage, N. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Laboratoire de Biochimie des Systemes Perturbes (LBSP), Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France); Berenguer, F. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Laboratoire d' Etude des Proteines Cibles (LEPC), Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France); Quemeneur, E. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France)


    Uranium is used in many chemical forms in civilian and military industries and is a known nephro-toxicant. A key issue in monitoring occupational exposure is to be able to evaluate the potential damage to the body, particularly the kidney. In this study we used innovative proteomic techniques to analyse urinary protein modulation associated with acute uranium exposure in rats. Given that the rat urinary proteome has rarely been studied, we first identified 102 different proteins in normal urine, expanding the current proteome data set for this central animal in toxicology. Rats were exposed intravenously to uranyl nitrate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg and samples were collected 24 h later. Using two complementary proteomic methods, a classic 2-DE approach and semi-quantitative SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, 14 modulated proteins (7 with increased levels and 7 with decreased levels) were identified in urine after uranium exposure. Modulation of three of them was confirmed by western blot. Some of the modulated proteins corresponded to proteins already described in case of nephrotoxicity, and indicated a loss of glomerular permeability (albumin, alpha-1-anti-proteinase, sero-transferrin). Others revealed tubular damage, such as EGF and vitamin D-binding protein. A third category included proteins never described in urine as being associated with metal stress, such as ceruloplasmin. Urinary proteomics is thus a valuable tool to profile uranium toxicity non-invasively and could be very useful in follow-up in case of accidental exposure to uranium. (authors)

  3. Development of Novel Porous Sorbents for Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wenbin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    Climate disruption is one of the greatest crises the global community faces in the 21st century. Alarming increases in CO2, NO, SO2 and particulate matter levels will have catastrophic consequences on the environment, food supplies, and human health if no action is taken to lessen their worldwide prevalence. Nuclear energy remains the only mature technology capable of continuous base-load power generation with ultralow carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, and sulfur dioxide emissions. Over the lifetime of the technology, nuclear energy outputs less than 1.5% the carbon dioxide emissions per gigawatt hour relative to coal—about as much as onshore wind power.1 However, in order for nuclear energy to be considered a viable option in the future, a stable supply of uranium must be secured. Current estimates suggest there is less than 100 years’ worth of uranium left in terrestrial ores (6.3 million tons) if current consumption levels remain unchanged.2 It is likely, however, that demand for nuclear fuel will rise as a direct consequence of the ratification of global climate accords. The oceans, containing approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium (U) at a uniform concentration of ~3 ppb, represent a virtually limitless supply of this resource.3 Development of technologies to recover uranium from seawater would greatly improve the U resource availability, providing a U price ceiling for the current generation and sustaining the nuclear fuel supply for future generations. Several methods have been previously evaluated for uranium sequestration including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons including cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity.4,5 While polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups to afford U adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg,6 further discoveries are needed to make uranium

  4. Subsets of configurations and canonical partition functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, J.; Bruckmann, F.; Kieburg, M.


    We explain the physical nature of the subset solution to the sign problem in chiral random matrix theory: the subset sum over configurations is shown to project out the canonical determinant with zero quark charge from a given configuration. As the grand canonical chiral random matrix partition...

  5. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  6. Scheduling Driven Partitioning of Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo


    In this paper we present an algorithm for system level hardware/software partitioning of heterogeneous embedded systems. The system is represented as an abstract graph which captures both data-flow and the flow of control. Given an architecture consisting of several processors, ASICs and shared b...

  7. Integral complete r-partite graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ligong; Li, Xueliang; Hoede, C.


    A graph is called integral if all the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix are integers. In this paper, we give a useful sufficient and necessary condition for complete r-partite graphs to be integral, from which we can construct infinite many new classes of such integral graphs. It is proved that

  8. Fair partitions of polygons: An elementary introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 122, No. 3, August 2012, pp. 459–467. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Fair partitions of polygons: An elementary introduction. R NANDAKUMAR1 and N RAMANA ... uses only elementary topology and is essentially a constructive one, could still be of non- trivial interest and have updated [9] ...

  9. Hashing for Statistics over K-Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Soren; Knudsen, Mathias Baek Tejs; Rotenberg, Eva


    In this paper we analyze a hash function for k-partitioning a set into bins, obtaining strong concentration bounds for standard algorithms combining statistics from each bin. This generic method was originally introduced by Flajolet and Martin [FOCS'83] in order to save a factor Ω(k) of time per...

  10. Thirring model partition functions and harmonic differentials (United States)

    Freedman, D. Z.; Pilch, K.


    The partition function of the Thirring model on a Riemann surface is calculated using the representation of the model as a fermion interacting with an auxiliary vector potential. The Hodge decomposition of the potential is used and the integral over the harmonic forms is shown to reproduce exactly the soliton sum in the bosonic version of the theory.

  11. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV


    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  12. Protium, an infrastructure for partitioned applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.; Young, C.; Szymanski, T.; Reppy, J.; Presotto, D.; Pike, R.; Narlikar, G.

    Remote access feels different from local access. The major issues are consistency (machines vary in GUIs, applications, and devices) and responsiveness (the user must wait for network and server delays). Protium attacks these by partitioning programs into local viewers that connect to remote


    Schmitt, J.M.


    A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions. An acidic aqueous solution containing uranium values is contacted with an organic phase comprising an organic diluent and the reaction product of phosphorous pentoxide and a substantially pure dialkylphosphoric acid. The uranium values are transferred to the organic phase even from aqueous solutions containing a high concentration of strong uranium complexing agents such as phosphate ions. (AEC)


    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.


    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  15. Selective Removal of Uranium from the Washing Solution of Uranium-Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study examined selective removal methods of uranium from the waste solution by ion exchange resins or solvent extraction methods to reduce amount of the 2{sup nd} waste. Alamine-336, known as an excellent extraction reagent of uranium from the leaching solution of uranium ore, did not remove uranium from the acidic washing solution of soil. Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on ampholyte resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a washing with 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution at 60 .deg. C. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. A great amount of uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil had been generated from the decommissioning of a uranium conversion plant. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods to decrease the amount of waste to be disposed of. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions.

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of uranium and thorium powders and uranium ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Barefield, James E., E-mail: [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Berg, John M. [Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M.; Havrilla, George J.; Montoya, Velma M.; Le, Loan A.; Lopez, Leon N. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze depleted uranium and thorium oxide powders and uranium ore as a potential rapid in situ analysis technique in nuclear production facilities, environmental sampling, and in-field forensic applications. Material such as pressed pellets and metals, has been extensively studied using LIBS due to the high density of the material and more stable laser-induced plasma formation. Powders, on the other hand, are difficult to analyze using LIBS since ejection and removal of the powder occur in the laser interaction region. The capability of analyzing powders is important in allowing for rapid analysis of suspicious materials, environmental samples, or trace contamination on surfaces since it most closely represents field samples (soil, small particles, debris etc.). The rapid, in situ analysis of samples, including nuclear materials, also reduces costs in sample collection, transportation, sample preparation, and analysis time. Here we demonstrate the detection of actinides in oxide powders and within a uranium ore sample as both pressed pellets and powders on carbon adhesive discs for spectral comparison. The acquired LIBS spectra for both forms of the samples differ in overall intensity but yield a similar distribution of atomic emission spectral lines. - Highlights: • LIBS analysis of mixed actinide samples: depleted uranium oxide and thorium oxide • LIBS analysis of actinide samples in powder form on carbon adhesive discs • Detection of uranium in a complex matrix (uranium ore) as a precursor to analyzing uranium in environmental samples.

  17. Effect of uranium (VI) on two sulphate-reducing bacteria cultures from a uranium mine site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, DQF, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB-Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, DQF, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)


    This work was conducted to assess the impact of uranium (VI) on sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) communities obtained from environmental samples collected on the Portuguese uranium mining area of Urgeirica. Culture U was obtained from a sediment, while culture W was obtained from sludge from the wetland of that mine. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was used to monitor community changes under uranium stress conditions. TGGE profiles of dsrB gene fragment demonstrated that the initial cultures were composed of SRB species affiliated with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfomicrobium spp. (sample U), and by species related to D. desulfuricans (sample W). A drastic change in SRB communities was observed as a result of uranium (VI) exposure. Surprisingly, SRB were not detected in the uranium removal communities. Such findings emphasize the need of monitoring the dominant populations during bio-removal studies. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the uranium removal consortia are composed by strains affiliated to Clostridium genus, Caulobacteraceae and Rhodocyclaceae families. Therefore, these communities can be attractive candidates for environmental biotechnological applications associated to uranium removal.

  18. A Highly Expressed High-Molecular-Weight S-Layer Complex of Pelosinus sp. Strain UFO1 Binds Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorgersen, Michael P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Lancaster, W. Andrew [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Rajeev, Lara [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Ge, Xiaoxuan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Vaccaro, Brian J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Poole, Farris L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Arkin, Adam P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Adams, Michael W. W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology


    Cell suspensions of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 were previously shown, using spectroscopic analysis, to sequester uranium as U(IV) complexed with carboxyl and phosphoryl group ligands on proteins. The goal of our present study was to characterize the proteins involved in uranium binding. Virtually all of the uranium in UFO1 cells was associated with a heterodimeric protein, which was termed the uranium-binding complex (UBC). The UBC was composed of two S-layer domain proteins encoded by UFO1_4202 and UFO1_4203. Samples of UBC purified from the membrane fraction contained 3.3 U atoms/heterodimer, but significant amounts of phosphate were not detected. The UBC had an estimated molecular mass by gel filtration chromatography of 15 MDa, and it was proposed to contain 150 heterodimers (UFO1_4203 and UFO1_4202) and about 500 uranium atoms. The UBC was also the dominant extracellular protein, but when purified from the growth medium, it contained only 0.3 U atoms/heterodimer. The two genes encoding the UBC were among the most highly expressed genes within the UFO1 genome, and their expressions were unchanged by the presence or absence of uranium. Therefore, the UBC appears to be constitutively expressed and is the first line of defense against uranium, including by secretion into the extracellular medium. Although S-layer proteins were previously shown to bind U(VI), here we showed that U(IV) binds to S-layer proteins, we identified the proteins involved, and we quantitated the amount of uranium bound. Widespread uranium contamination from industrial sources poses hazards to human health and to the environment. Here in this paper, we identified a highly abundant uranium-binding complex (UBC) from Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1. The complex makes up the primary protein component of the S-layer of strain UFO1 and binds 3.3 atoms of U(IV) per heterodimer. Finally, while other bacteria have been shown to bind U(VI) on their S-layer, we demonstrate here an example of U(IV) bound by

  19. First experimentally determined thermodynamic values of francium: hydration energy, energy of partitioning, and thermodynamic radius. (United States)

    Delmau, Lætitia H; Moine, Jérôme; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A


    The Gibbs energy of partitioning of Fr(+) ion between water and nitrobenzene has been determined to be 14.5 ± 0.6 kJ/mol at 25 °C, the first ever Gibbs energy of partitioning for francium in particular and the first ever solution thermodynamic quantity for francium in general. This value enabled the ionic radius and standard Gibbs energy of hydration for Fr(+) to be estimated as 173 pm and -251 kJ/mol, respectively, the former value being significantly smaller than previously thought. A new experimental method was established using a cesium dicarbollide as a cation-exchange agent, overcoming problems inherent to the trace-level concentrations of francium. The methodology opens the door to the study of the partitioning behavior of francium to other water-immiscible solvents and the determination of complexation constants for francium binding by receptor molecules.

  20. Effect of fuzzy partitioning in Crohn's disease classification: a neuro-fuzzy-based approach. (United States)

    Ahmed, Sk Saddam; Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Bălas-Timar, Dana; Balas, Valentina E; Tavares, João Manuel R S


    Crohn's disease (CD) diagnosis is a tremendously serious health problem due to its ultimately effect on the gastrointestinal tract that leads to the need of complex medical assistance. In this study, the backpropagation neural network fuzzy classifier and a neuro-fuzzy model are combined for diagnosing the CD. Factor analysis is used for data dimension reduction. The effect on the system performance has been investigated when using fuzzy partitioning and dimension reduction. Additionally, further comparison is done between the different levels of the fuzzy partition to reach the optimal performance accuracy level. The performance evaluation of the proposed system is estimated using the classification accuracy and other metrics. The experimental results revealed that the classification with level-8 partitioning provides a classification accuracy of 97.67 %, with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.07 and 100 %, respectively.

  1. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liao, W. -P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Byers, Maggie Flicker [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  2. Isotope fractionation of benzene during partitioning - Revisited. (United States)

    Kopinke, F-D; Georgi, A; Imfeld, G; Richnow, H-H


    Isotope fractionation between benzene-D0 and benzene-D6 caused by multi-step partitioning of the benzenes between water and two organic solvents, n-octane and 1-octanol, as well as between water and the gas phase, was measured. The obtained fractionation factors αH = KH/KD are αH = 1.080 ± 0.015 and αH = 1.074 ± 0.015 for extraction into n-octane and 1-octanol, respectively, and αH = 1.049 ± 0.010 for evaporation from aqueous solution. The comparison of solvent- and gas-phase partitioning reveals that about 2/3 of the driving force of fractionation is due to different interactions in the aqueous phase, whereas 1/3 is due to different interactions in the organic phase. The heavy benzene isotopologue behaves more 'hydrophilically' and the light one more 'hydrophobically'. This synergistic alignment gives rise to relatively large fractionation effects in partitioning between water and non-polar organic matter. In contrast to a previous study, there is no indication of strong fractionation by specific interactions between benzene and octanol. Partitioning under non-equilibrium conditions yields smaller apparent fractionation effects due to opposite trends of thermodynamic and kinetic fractionation parameters, i.e. partition and diffusion coefficients of the isotopologues. This may have consequences which should be taken into account when considering isotope fractionation due to sorption in environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Constrained partitioning of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration reduces model uncertainties of forest ecosystem carbon fluxes but not stocks (United States)

    Carbone, Mariah S.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Chen, Min; Davidson, Eric A.; Hughes, Holly; Savage, Kathleen E.; Hollinger, David Y.


    We partitioned the soil carbon dioxide flux (Rs) into its respective autotrophic and heterotrophic components in a mature temperate-boreal forest (Howland Forest in Maine, USA). We combined automated chamber measurements of Rs with two different partitioning methods: (1) a classic root trenching experiment and (2) a radiocarbon (14C) mass balance approach. With a model-data fusion approach, we used these data to constrain a parsimonious ecosystem model (FöBAAR), and we investigated differences in modeled C fluxes and pools under both current and future climate scenarios. The trenching experiment indicated that heterotrophic respiration accounted for 53 ± 11% of total Rs. In comparison, using the 14C method, the heterotrophic contribution was 42 ± 9%. For both current and future model runs, incorporating the partitioning data as constraints substantially reduced the uncertainties of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration fluxes. Moreover, with best fit model parameters, the two partitioning methods yielded fundamentally different estimates of the relative contributions of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to total Rs, especially at the annual time scale. Surprisingly, however, modeled soil C and biomass C pool size trajectories did not differ significantly between model runs based on the different methods. Instead, model differences in partitioning were compensated for by changes in C allocation, resulting in similar, but still highly uncertain, soil C pool trajectories. Our findings show that incorporating constraints on the partitioning of Rs can reduce model uncertainties of fluxes but not pools, and the results are sensitive to the partitioning method used.

  4. Rays Emitted by Compounds of Uranium and of Thorium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    27 from 2 to 14. 20. 11 from 3 to 7 very active. All the uranium compounds studied are active, and are, in general, more active to the extent that they contain more uranium. The compounds of thorium are very active. Thorium oxide surpasses even metallic uranium in activity. It is remarkable that the two most active elements, ...

  5. Trace determination of uranium in fertilizer samples by total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Uranium is reported to be present in phosphate fertilizers. The recovery of uranium from the fertilizers is important because it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors and also because of en- vironmental concerns. For both these activities suitable method of uranium determinations at trace levels in these fertilizers ...

  6. 78 FR 75579 - Low Enriched Uranium From France (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Low Enriched Uranium From France Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium from France would be likely to lead to continuation or...), entitled Low Enriched Uranium from France: Investigation No. 731-TA-909 (Second Review). By order of the...

  7. Depleted Uranium | RadTown USA | US EPA (United States)


    Depleted uranium is the material left after most of the highly radioactive uranium-235 is removed from uranium ore for nuclear power and weapons. DU is used for tank armor, armor-piercing bullets and as weights to help balance aircraft. DU is both a toxic chemical and radiation health hazard when inside the body.

  8. Trace determination of uranium in fertilizer samples by total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For TXRF determinations the fertilizer samples were processed with nitric acid and the uranium present in it was removed by solvent extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate as the extractant. The organic phase containing uranium was equilibrated with 1.5% suprapure nitric acid to bring out uranium in aqueous phase.

  9. Measurement of photoexcitation cross-sections of uranium by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    type time-of-flight mass spectrometer, digital oscilloscope, home-made hollow cath- ode discharge lamp and a fast photodiode. Uranium atomic beam was generated by resistive heating of uranium metal in tantalum crucible in a vacuum chamber hav- ing vacuum better than 10−7mbar. Uranium vapours, thus produced, ...

  10. Partitioning of F-Cl-OH between minerals and hydrothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhu; Sverjensky, D.A. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))


    A thermodynamic analysis of F-Cl-OH partitioning between minerals and hydrothermal fluids has resulted in the retrieval of standard-state Gibbs free energies for fluormuscovite, fluorphlogopite, fluorannite, fluortremolite, fluortalc, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and chlorannite from hydrothermal experimental studies. Standard-state entropies, heat capacities, and volumes are either derived from experimental studies or estimated following HELGESON et al. (1978). The derived thermodynamic properties are internally consistent and consistent with the thermodynamic properties of minerals and aqueous species from BERMAN (1988,1990), SVERJENSKY et al. (1991a), SHOCK and HELGESON (1988), and SHOCK et al. (1989), and therefore can be extrapolated over a wide range of temperatures and pressures for application to geochemistry, igneous and metamorphic petrology, and ore deposits. The derived standard-state thermodynamic properties for F and Cl endmember phases provide a basis for predicting the fluoride and chloride concentrations of former aqueous fluids from the measured F and Cl concentrations in minerals. Speciation and solubility calculations simulating F and Cl partitioning between minerals and hydrothermal fluids, and systems containing apatites, show that the partitioning is a strong function of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition. The decrease of both pressure and pH of fluids favors partitioning of Cl into annite with respect to fluids. In addition to predicting fluoride and chloride concentrations in hydrothermal fluids, the results of this study enable mass transfer calculations including both F-Cl-OH partitioning and metal complexing of halides during water-rock interactions in a variety of geological systems.

  11. Mass budget partitioning during explosive eruptions: insights from the 2006 paroxysm of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador (United States)

    Bernard, Julien; Eychenne, Julia; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Narváez, Diego


    How and how much the mass of juvenile magma is split between vent-derived tephra, PDC deposits and lavas (i.e., mass partition) is related to eruption dynamics and style. Estimating such mass partitioning budgets may reveal important for hazard evaluation purposes. We calculated the volume of each product emplaced during the August 2006 paroxysmal eruption of Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador) and converted it into masses using high-resolution grainsize, componentry and density data. This data set is one of the first complete descriptions of mass partitioning associated with a VEI 3 andesitic event. The scoria fall deposit, near-vent agglutinate and lava flow include 28, 16 and 12 wt. % of the erupted juvenile mass, respectively. Much (44 wt. %) of the juvenile material fed Pyroclastic Density Currents (i.e., dense flows, dilute surges and co-PDC plumes), highlighting that tephra fall deposits do not depict adequately the size and fragmentation processes of moderate PDC-forming event. The main parameters controlling the mass partitioning are the type of magmatic fragmentation, conditions of magma ascent, and crater area topography. Comparisons of our data set with other PDC-forming eruptions of different style and magma composition suggest that moderate andesitic eruptions are more prone to produce PDCs, in proportions, than any other eruption type. This finding may be explained by the relatively low magmatic fragmentation efficiency of moderate andesitic eruptions. These mass partitioning data reveal important trends that may be critical for hazard assessment, notably at frequently active andesitic edifices.

  12. Experimental partitioning of Zr, Ti, and Nb between silicate liquid and a complex noble metal alloy and the partitioning of Ti between perovskite and platinum metal (United States)

    Jurewicz, Stephen R.; Jones, John H.


    El Goresy et al.'s observation of Nb, Zr, and Ta in refractory platinum metal nuggets (RPMN's) from Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) in the Allende meteorite led them to propose that these lithophile elements alloyed in the metallic state with noble metals in the early solar nebula. However, Grossman pointed out that the thermodynamic stability of Zr in the oxide phase is vastly greater than metallic Zr at estimated solar nebula conditions. Jones and Burnett suggested this discrepancy may be explained by the very non-ideal behavior of some lithophile transition elements in noble metal solutions and/or intermetallic compounds. Subsequently, Fegley and Kornacki used thermodynamic data taken from the literature to predict the stability of several of these intermetallic compounds at estimated solar nebula conditions. Palme and Schmitt and Treiman et al. conducted experiments to quantify the partitioning behavior of certain lithophile elements between silicate liquid and Pt-metal. Although their results were somewhat variable, they did suggest that Zr partition coefficients were too small to explain the observed 'percent' levels in some RPMN's. Palme and Schmitt also observed large partition coefficients for Nb and Ta. No intermetallic phases were identified. Following the work of Treiman et al., Jurewicz and Jones performed experiments to examine Zr, Nb, and Ti partitioning near solar nebula conditions. Their results showed that Zr, Nb, and Ti all have an affinity for the platinum metal, with Nb and Ti having a very strong preference for the metal. The intermetallic phases (Zr,Fe)Pt3, (Nb,Fe)Pt3, and (Ti,Fe)Pt3 were identified. Curiously, although both experiments and calculations indicate that Ti should partition strongly into Pt-metal (possibly as TiPt3), no Ti has ever been observed in any RPMN's. Fegley and Kornacki also noticed this discrepancy and hypothesized that the Ti was stabilized in perovskite which is a common phase in Allende CAI's.

  13. Fission enhanced diffusion of uranium in zirconia (United States)

    Bérerd, N.; Chevarier, A.; Moncoffre, N.; Sainsot, Ph.; Faust, H.; Catalette, H.


    This paper deals with the comparison between thermal and Fission Enhanced Diffusion (FED) of uranium into zirconia, representative of the inner face of cladding tubes. The experiments under irradiation are performed at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble using the Lohengrin spectrometer. A thin 235UO2 layer in direct contact with an oxidised zirconium foil is irradiated in the ILL high flux reactor. The fission product flux is about 1011 ions cm-2 s-1 and the target temperature is measured by an IR pyrometer. A model is proposed to deduce an apparent uranium diffusion coefficient in zirconia from the energy distribution broadening of two selected fission products. It is found to be equal to 10-15 cm2 s-1 at 480 °C and compared to uranium thermal diffusion data in ZrO2 in the same pressure and temperature conditions. The FED results are analysed in comparison with literature data.

  14. Monitoring genotoxic exposure in uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, R.J.; Vesela, D.; Vesely, D. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic)] [and others


    Recent data from deep uranium mines in Czechoslovakia indicated that miners are exposed to other mutagenic factors in addition to radon daughter products. Mycotoxins were identified as a possible source of mutagens in these mines. Mycotoxins were examined in 38 samples from mines and in throat swabs taken from 116 miners and 78 controls. The following mycotoxins were identified from mines samples: aflatoxins B{sub 1} and G1, citrinin, citreoviridin, mycophenolic acid, and sterigmatocystin. Some mold strains isolated from mines and throat swabs were investigated for mutagenic activity by the SOS chromotest and Salmonella assay with strains TA100 and TA98. Mutagenicity was observed, especially with metabolic activation in citro. These data suggest that mycotoxins produced by molds in uranium mines are a new genotoxic factor im uranium miners. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Trivalent-uranium thioether coordination compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalkin, A.; Brennan, J.G.


    Tris(methylcyclopentadienyl)(tetrahydrothiophene)uranium(III), (U(CH3C5H4)3(C4H8S)), Msub(r)=563.57, orthorhombic, Pbca, a=15.146 (5), b=27.598 (8), c=9.911 (4) A, V=4143 (4) AT, Z=8, Dsub(x)=1.81 g cm T, Mo K , lambda( 1)=0.70930 A, =75.3 cm , F(000)=2152, T=296 K, R=0.035 for 1382 observed reflections. The structure consists of uranium-centered monomolecular units in which the uranium atom is coordinated to three cyclopentadiene rings and to the sulfur atom of a tetrahydrothiophene molecule. The average U-C distance is 2.81 +- 0.04 A and the U-S distance is 2.986 (5) A.

  16. Open software tools for eddy covariance flux partitioning (United States)

    Agro-ecosystem management and assessment will benefit greatly from the development of reliable techniques for partitioning evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). Among other activities, flux partitioning can aid in evaluating consumptive vs. non-consumptive agricultural...

  17. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    , the partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render was studied. In this study the partitioning constants of benzoisothiazolinone, carbendazim, dichlorooctylisothiazolinone, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, irgarol, mecoprop, methylisothiazolinone, octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn...

  18. Uncertain Henry's law constants compromise equilibrium partitioning calculations of atmospheric oxidation products (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yuan, Tiange; Wood, Stephen A.; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Wania, Frank


    Gas-particle partitioning governs the distribution, removal, and transport of organic compounds in the atmosphere and the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The large variety of atmospheric species and their wide range of properties make predicting this partitioning equilibrium challenging. Here we expand on earlier work and predict gas-organic and gas-aqueous phase partitioning coefficients for 3414 atmospherically relevant molecules using COSMOtherm, SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry (SPARC), and poly-parameter linear free-energy relationships. The Master Chemical Mechanism generated the structures by oxidizing primary emitted volatile organic compounds. Predictions for gas-organic phase partitioning coefficients (KWIOM/G) by different methods are on average within 1 order of magnitude of each other, irrespective of the numbers of functional groups, except for predictions by COSMOtherm and SPARC for compounds with more than three functional groups, which have a slightly higher discrepancy. Discrepancies between predictions of gas-aqueous partitioning (KW/G) are much larger and increase with the number of functional groups in the molecule. In particular, COSMOtherm often predicts much lower KW/G for highly functionalized compounds than the other methods. While the quantum-chemistry-based COSMOtherm accounts for the influence of intra-molecular interactions on conformation, highly functionalized molecules likely fall outside of the applicability domain of the other techniques, which at least in part rely on empirical data for calibration. Further analysis suggests that atmospheric phase distribution calculations are sensitive to the partitioning coefficient estimation method, in particular to the estimated value of KW/G. The large uncertainty in KW/G predictions for highly functionalized organic compounds needs to be resolved to improve the quantitative treatment of SOA formation.

  19. Uncertain Henry's law constants compromise equilibrium partitioning calculations of atmospheric oxidation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang


    Full Text Available Gas–particle partitioning governs the distribution, removal, and transport of organic compounds in the atmosphere and the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. The large variety of atmospheric species and their wide range of properties make predicting this partitioning equilibrium challenging. Here we expand on earlier work and predict gas–organic and gas–aqueous phase partitioning coefficients for 3414 atmospherically relevant molecules using COSMOtherm, SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry (SPARC, and poly-parameter linear free-energy relationships. The Master Chemical Mechanism generated the structures by oxidizing primary emitted volatile organic compounds. Predictions for gas–organic phase partitioning coefficients (KWIOM/G by different methods are on average within 1 order of magnitude of each other, irrespective of the numbers of functional groups, except for predictions by COSMOtherm and SPARC for compounds with more than three functional groups, which have a slightly higher discrepancy. Discrepancies between predictions of gas–aqueous partitioning (KW/G are much larger and increase with the number of functional groups in the molecule. In particular, COSMOtherm often predicts much lower KW/G for highly functionalized compounds than the other methods. While the quantum-chemistry-based COSMOtherm accounts for the influence of intra-molecular interactions on conformation, highly functionalized molecules likely fall outside of the applicability domain of the other techniques, which at least in part rely on empirical data for calibration. Further analysis suggests that atmospheric phase distribution calculations are sensitive to the partitioning coefficient estimation method, in particular to the estimated value of KW/G. The large uncertainty in KW/G predictions for highly functionalized organic compounds needs to be resolved to improve the quantitative treatment of SOA formation.

  20. The Nopal 1 Uranium Deposit: an Overview (United States)

    Calas, G.; Allard, T.; Galoisy, L.


    The Nopal 1 natural analogue is located in the Pena Blanca uranium district, about 50 kms north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit is hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs, dated at 44 Ma (Nopal and Colorados formations), and overlying the Pozos conglomerate formation and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. The deposit is exposed at the ground surface and consists of a near vertical zone extending over about 100 m with a diameter of 40 m. An interesting characteristic is that the primary mineralization has been exposed above the water table, as a result of the uplift of the Sierra Pena Blanca, and subsequently oxidized with a remobilization of hexavalent uranium. The primary mineralization has been explained by various genetic models. It is associated to an extensive hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic tuffs, locally associated to pyrite and preserved by an intense silicification. Several kaolinite parageneses occur in fissure fillings and feldspar pseudomorphs, within the mineralized breccia pipe and the barren surrounding rhyolitic tuffs. Smectites are mainly developed in the underlying weakly welded tuffs. Several radiation-induced defect centers have been found in these kaolinites providing a unique picture of the dynamics of uranium mobilization (see Allard et al., this session). Another evidence of this mobilization is given by the spectroscopy of uranium-bearing opals, which show characteristic fluorescence spectra of uranyl groups sorbed at the surface of silica. By comparison with the other uranium deposits of the Sierra Pena Blanca and the nearby Sierra de Gomez, the Nopal 1 deposit is original, as it is one of the few deposits hving retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  1. Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and Partition-Wise joins (United States)

    Mathe, Zoltan; Charpentier, Philippe


    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as range-hash partition, partition pruning and usage of the Partition-Wise joins. The system has to serve thousands of queries per minute, the performance and capability of the system is measured when the above performance optimization techniques are used.

  2. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael


    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different ...... partitions, and thereby limit the amount of disk access and network communication. We report on several experiments made with our verification platform ASAP that implements the dynamic partitioning scheme proposed in this paper....

  3. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Khater, Ashraf E M


    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia.

  4. Uranium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.G.; Bauer, L.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Hayes, D.W.; Martin, H.L.; McDowell, W.L.; Pickett, J.B.


    The purpose of this report is to consolidate the history of environmental uranium studies conducted by SRS and to describe the status of uranium in the environment. The report is intended to be a living document'' that will be updated periodically. This draft issue, February 1992, documents studies that occurred from 1954 to 1989. Data in this report are taken primarily from annual and semiannual environmental reports for SRS. Semiannual reports were published from 1954 through 1962. Annual reports have been published since 1963. Occasionally unpublished data are included in this report for completeness.

  5. Uranium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.G.; Bauer, L.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Hayes, D.W.; Martin, H.L.; McDowell, W.L.; Pickett, J.B.


    The purpose of this report is to consolidate the history of environmental uranium studies conducted by SRS and to describe the status of uranium in the environment. The report is intended to be a ``living document`` that will be updated periodically. This draft issue, February 1992, documents studies that occurred from 1954 to 1989. Data in this report are taken primarily from annual and semiannual environmental reports for SRS. Semiannual reports were published from 1954 through 1962. Annual reports have been published since 1963. Occasionally unpublished data are included in this report for completeness.

  6. AREVA's uranium mining business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V., E-mail: [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    'Full text:' In 2009, AREVA became the world's 1st uranium producer. Historically, since the closure of all uranium mines in France, AREVA's production was essentially coming from Canada and Niger. Most recently intense development in Kazakhstan contributed to AREVA's ascension to its current leading position. AREVA's production will continue to increase in Kazakhstan, in Canada and in Niger and preparations are under way for the launch of production in Namibia. AREVA plans to remain a major player in the long term, with its aggressive exploration program across the world. This is particularly true here in Canada with world class projects such as Shea Creek in the Western Athabasca Basin and Kiggavik in Nunavut that will add during the coming decades to AREVA's flagship state of the art uranium mill at McClean Lake and its participation in the two world largest uranium high-grade projects, the McArthur River mine and the Cigar Lake project scheduled for start-up in 2013.In 2009, AREVA became the world's 1st uranium producer. Historically, since the closure of all uranium mines in France, AREVA's production was essentially coming from Canada and Niger. Most recently intense development in Kazakhstan contributed to AREVA's ascension to its current leading position. AREVA's production will continue to increase in Kazakhstan, in Canada and in Niger and preparations are under way for the launch of production in Namibia. AREVA plans to remain a major player in the long term, with its aggressive exploration program across the world. This is particularly true here in Canada with world class projects such as Shea Creek in the Western Athabasca Basin and Kiggavik in Nunavut that will add during the coming decades to AREVA's flagship state of the art uranium mill at McClean Lake and its participation in the two world largest uranium high-grade projects, the McArthur River mine and the Cigar Lake project scheduled for

  7. Disposition of Depleted Uranium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, J.L.


    This document summarizes environmental information which has been collected up to June 1983 at Savannah River Plant. Of particular interest is an updating of dose estimates from changes in methodology of calculation, lower cesium transport estimates from Steel Creek, and new sports fish consumption data for the Savannah River. The status of various permitting requirements are also discussed.

  8. Standard specification for uranium metal enriched to more than 15 % and less Than 20 % 235U

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification covers nuclear grade uranium metal that has either been processed through an enrichment plant, or has been produced by the blending of highly enriched uranium with other uranium, to obtain uranium of any 235U concentration below 20 % (and greater than 15 %) and that is intended for research reactor fuel fabrication. The scope of this specification includes specifications for enriched uranium metal derived from commercial natural uranium, recovered uranium, or highly enriched uranium. Commercial natural uranium, recovered uranium and highly enriched uranium are defined in Section 3. The objectives of this specification are to define the impurity and uranium isotope limits for commercial grade enriched uranium metal. 1.2 This specification is intended to provide the nuclear industry with a standard for enriched uranium metal which is to be used in the production of research reactor fuel. In addition to this specification, the parties concerned may agree to other appropriate conditions. ...

  9. Aspects of system modelling in Hardware/Software partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan


    This paper addresses fundamental aspects of system modelling and partitioning algorithms in the area of Hardware/Software Codesign. Three basic system models for partitioning are presented and the consequences of partitioning according to each of these are analyzed. The analysis shows...

  10. GPU Acceleration of Graph Matching, Clustering, and Partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagginger Auer, B.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326659072


    We consider sequential algorithms for hypergraph partitioning and GPU (i.e., fine-grained shared-memory parallel) algorithms for graph partitioning and clustering. Our investigation into sequential hypergraph partitioning is concerned with the efficient construction of high-quality matchings for

  11. Mineralogy and uranium leaching of ores from Triassic Peribaltic sandstones. (United States)

    Gajda, Dorota; Kiegiel, Katarzyna; Zakrzewska-Koltuniewicz, Grazyna; Chajduk, Ewelina; Bartosiewicz, Iwona; Wolkowicz, Stanislaw

    The recovery of uranium and other valuable metals from Polish Peribaltic sandstones were examined. The solid-liquid extraction is the first stage of the technology of uranium production and it is crucial for the next stages of processing. In the laboratory experiments uranium was leached with efficiencies 71-100 % by acidic lixiviants. Satisfactory results were obtained for the alkaline leaching process. Almost 100 % of uranium was leached with alkaline carbonate solution. In post leaching solutions only uranium and small amounts of vanadium were present.

  12. Bioaccumulation in earthworm exposed to uranium particles and anions


    Basnet, Pabitra


    This study contains information about the bioaccumulation of uranium (U) in earthworms following exposure of the worms exposed to different uranium species in food (horse manure). Three different uranium species were used: synthesized uranium nano-micrometer particles (UO2 and U3O8) and uranyl ions at two different concentrations (50 and 500 μg/g dw manure). The study started with the culturing of worms, growing them in OECD soil and ended by performing uranium measurements by ICP-MS of fo...

  13. Calcrete-type uranium deposits of Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aral, H. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship (Australia); Hackl, R., E-mail: [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Waterford, WA (Australia); CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship (Australia); Pownceby, M. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship (Australia)


    CSIRO is undertaking advanced mineralogical and elemental characterisation studies of lowgrade and refractory Australian uranium deposits. Of particular interest are the calcrete-type uranium deposits of Western Australia. These deposits are found in playa lake sediments and channels which drain a uranium-rich source. The primary uranium mineral is carnotite. The ore is highly friable and is usually found in association with clayey and calcareous minerals, such as gypsum, dolomite and halite. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the characteristics and formation of these calcrete-type uranium deposits to assist in the development of new and improved processing routes. (author)

  14. Leaching of molybdenum and arsenic from uranium ore and mill tailings (United States)

    Landa, E.R.


    A sequential, selective extraction procedure was used to assess the effects of sulfuric acid milling on the geochemical associations of molybdenum and arsenic in a uranium ore blend, and the tailings derived therefrom. The milling process removed about 21% of the molybdenum and 53% of the arsenic initially present in the ore. While about one-half of the molybdenum in the ore was water soluble, only about 14% existed in this form in the tailings. The major portion of the extractable molybdenum in the tailings appears to be associated with hydrous oxides of iron, and with alkaline earth sulfate precipitates. In contrast with the pattern seen for molybdenum, the partitioning of arsenic into the various extractable fractions differs little between the ore and the tailings. ?? 1984.

  15. Uranium: active even at low doses; Uranium: actif meme a faible dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, M.; Lestaevel, Ph.; Gueguen, Y. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France)


    The human body, in normal conditions, contains 40 to 90 10{sup -6} grams of uranium, this quantity is mainly stored in the bones (66%), in the kidneys (8%) and in soft tissues. Man daily absorbs between 1 to 3 10{sup -6} grams of uranium. A recent experiment on rats has showed that water contaminated with low quantities of uranium (10{sup -6} grams a day and per rat) can lead to short-term memory impairment, to higher level of anxiety and to a 38% increase of the paradoxal sleep. No toxic effects on liver and kidneys have been found but it has been showed that low quantities of uranium can entail changes, in some organs, concerning the expression of the genes coding the P450 cytochromes. (A.C.)

  16. Integrating communication protocol selection with partitioning in hardware/software codesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan


    frequencies of system components such as buses, CPU's, ASIC's, software code size, hardware area, and component prices. A distinct feature of the model is the modeling of driver processing of data (packing, splitting, compression, etc.) and its impact on communication throughput. The integration......This paper explores the problem of determining the characteristics of the communication links in a computer system as well as determining the best functional partitioning. In particular, we present a communication estimation model and show, by the use of this model, the importance of integrating...... communication protocol selection with hardware/software partitioning. The communication estimation model allows for fast estimation but is still sufficiently detailed as to allow the designer or design tool to efficiently explore tradeoffs between throughputs, bus widths, burst/nonburst transfers, operating...

  17. The Benefits of Adaptive Partitioning for Parallel AMR Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensland, Johan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Advanced Software Research and Development


    Parallel adaptive mesh refinement methods potentially lead to realistic modeling of complex three-dimensional physical phenomena. However, the dynamics inherent in these methods present significant challenges in data partitioning and load balancing. Significant human resources, including time, effort, experience, and knowledge, are required for determining the optimal partitioning technique for each new simulation. In reality, scientists resort to using the on-board partitioner of the computational framework, or to using the partitioning industry standard, ParMetis. Adaptive partitioning refers to repeatedly selecting, configuring and invoking the optimal partitioning technique at run-time, based on the current state of the computer and application. In theory, adaptive partitioning automatically delivers superior performance and eliminates the need for repeatedly spending valuable human resources for determining the optimal static partitioning technique. In practice, however, enabling frameworks are non-existent due to the inherent significant inter-disciplinary research challenges. This paper presents a study of a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning and discusses implied potential benefits from the perspective of common groups of users within computational science. The study is based on a large set of data derived from experiments including six real-life, multi-time-step adaptive applications from various scientific domains, five complementing and fundamentally different partitioning techniques, a large set of parameters corresponding to a wide spectrum of computing environments, and a flexible cost function that considers the relative impact of multiple partitioning metrics and diverse partitioning objectives. The results show that even a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning can automatically generate results statistically equivalent to the best static partitioning. Thus, it is possible to effectively eliminate the problem of determining the

  18. Uranium-induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana: influence of pH on uranium toxicity


    Saenen, Eline


    Uranium (U) is a naturally and commonly occurring radioactive element and heavy metal. Due to anthropogenic activities, such as U mining and milling, large areas have been contaminated with U. Uranium has a complex chemistry and its behaviour, mobility and bioavailability in the soil is strongly dependent on the U speciation. One of the important factors controlling the speciation is the pH value. Toxicity of U in plants (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana), is mainly investigated in lab experiments u...

  19. A Mine-Based Uranium Market Clearing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Auzans


    Full Text Available Economic analysis and market simulation tools are used to evaluate uranium (U supply shocks, sale or purchase of uranium stockpiles, or market effects of new uranium mines or enrichment technologies. This work expands on an existing U market model that couples the market for primary U from uranium mines with those of secondary uranium, e.g., depleted uranium (DU upgrading or highly enriched uranium (HEU down blending, and enrichment services. This model accounts for the interdependence between the primary U supply on the U market price, the economic characteristics of each individual U mine, sources of secondary supply, and the U enrichment market. This work defines a procedure for developing an aggregate supply curve for primary uranium from marginal cost curves for individual firms (Uranium mines. Under this model, market conditions drive individual mines’ startup and short- and long-term shutdown decisions. It is applied to the uranium industry for the period 2010–2030 in order to illustrate the evolution of the front end markets under conditions of moderate growth in demand for nuclear fuel. The approach is applicable not only to uranium mines but also other facilities and reactors within the nuclear economy that may be modeled as independent, decision-making entities inside a nuclear fuel cycle simulator.

  20. Enhanced Uranium Immobilization and Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens Biofilms (United States)

    Cologgi, Dena L.; Speers, Allison M.; Bullard, Blair A.; Kelly, Shelly D.


    Biofilms formed by dissimilatory metal reducers are of interest to develop permeable biobarriers for the immobilization of soluble contaminants such as uranium. Here we show that biofilms of the model uranium-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens immobilized substantially more U(VI) than planktonic cells and did so for longer periods of time, reductively precipitating it to a mononuclear U(IV) phase involving carbon ligands. The biofilms also tolerated high and otherwise toxic concentrations (up to 5 mM) of uranium, consistent with a respiratory strategy that also protected the cells from uranium toxicity. The enhanced ability of the biofilms to immobilize uranium correlated only partially with the biofilm biomass and thickness and depended greatly on the area of the biofilm exposed to the soluble contaminant. In contrast, uranium reduction depended on the expression of Geobacter conductive pili and, to a lesser extent, on the presence of the c cytochrome OmcZ in the biofilm matrix. The results support a model in which the electroactive biofilm matrix immobilizes and reduces the uranium in the top stratum. This mechanism prevents the permeation and mineralization of uranium in the cell envelope, thereby preserving essential cellular functions and enhancing the catalytic capacity of Geobacter cells to reduce uranium. Hence, the biofilms provide cells with a physically and chemically protected environment for the sustained immobilization and reduction of uranium that is of interest for the development of improved strategies for the in situ bioremediation of environments impacted by uranium contamination. PMID:25128347

  1. Acyl-CoA metabolism and partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevengoed, Trisha J; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A


    Long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme As (CoAs) are critical regulatory molecules and metabolic intermediates. The initial step in their synthesis is the activation of fatty acids by one of 13 long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms. These isoforms are regulated independently and have different tissue...... expression patterns and subcellular locations. Their acyl-CoA products regulate metabolic enzymes and signaling pathways, become oxidized to provide cellular energy, and are incorporated into acylated proteins and complex lipids such as triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters. Their differing...... metabolic fates are determined by a network of proteins that channel the acyl-CoAs toward or away from specific metabolic pathways and serve as the basis for partitioning. This review evaluates the evidence for acyl-CoA partitioning by reviewing experimental data on proteins that are believed to contribute...

  2. Nested partitions method, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Leyuan


    There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...

  3. Biosorption of uranium by chemically modified Rhodotorula glutinis. (United States)

    Bai, Jing; Yao, Huijun; Fan, Fangli; Lin, Maosheng; Zhang, Lina; Ding, Huajie; Lei, Fuan; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Xiaofei; Guo, Junsheng; Qin, Zhi


    The present paper reports the biosorption of uranium onto chemically modified yeast cells, Rhodotorula glutinis, in order to study the role played by various functional groups in the cell wall. Esterification of the carboxyl groups and methylation of the amino groups present in the cells were carried out by methanol and formaldehyde treatment, respectively. The uranium sorption capacity increased 31% for the methanol-treated biomass and 11% for the formaldehyde-treated biomass at an initial uranium concentration of 140 mg/L. The enhancement of uranium sorption capacity was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, with amino and carboxyl groups were determined to be the important functional groups involved in uranium binding. The biosorption isotherms of uranium onto the raw and chemically modified biomass were also investigated with varying uranium concentrations. Langmuir and Freundlich models were well able to explain the sorption equilibrium data with satisfactory correlation coefficients higher than 0.9.

  4. Recovery and removal of uranium by using plant wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Akira; Sakaguchi, Takashi (Miyazaki Medical Coll. (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry)


    The uranium-adsorbing abilities of seven plant wastes were investigated. High abilities to adsorb uranium from non-saline water containing 10 mg dm{sup -3} of uranium were observed with a number of plant wastes tested. However, with seawater supplemented with 10 mg dm {sup -3} of uranium, similar results were found only with chestnut residues. When the plant wastes were immobilized with formaldehyde, their ability to adsorb uranium was increased. Uranium and copper ions were more readily adsorbed by all plant wastes tested than other metal ions from a solution containing a mixture of seven different heavy metals. The selective adsorption of heavy metal ions differs with different species of plant wastes. The immobilization of peanut inner skin, orange peel and grapefruit peel increased the selectivity for uranium. (author).

  5. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude, Ambiente e Trabalho; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica da Terra. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira, E-mail: [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LAFIR/NTS/IFBA) Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica


    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  6. Life-cycle effects of sediment-associated uranium on Chironomus riparius (diptera: chironomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, V.; Ksas, B.; Camilleri, V.; Bonzom, J.M. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    In aquatic ecosystems, sediments function as reservoir for many of the more persistent chemicals that are introduced into surface waters. Sediments provide a habitat for various benthic macro-invertebrates, which are exposed to sediment-associated chemicals both directly and via food intake. These chemicals may be directly toxic to benthic macro-invertebrates and can be integrated into food chain. Benthic macro-invertebrates play an important role in the ecosystem structure and functioning. In particular, they represent an important component of aquatic food chains. Among the non biologically essential metals, data concerning uranium fate and effects on freshwater benthic invertebrates are sparse. The present study aimed to estimate effects of a chronic uranium exposure on life-cycle traits of Chironomus riparius. To achieve this goal, (i) first instar larvae were exposed to a series of concentrations of uranium via the sediment, and (ii) a number of developmental (e.g. growth) and reproductive (e.g. emergence, fecundity, viability) endpoints, through parental and into F1 generations, were evaluated. Within the framework of ecological risk assessment, these data will help the derivation of a sediment guideline value for uranium that does not currently exist in France or elsewhere due to a lack of toxicity data. (author)

  7. An analysis of uranium dispersal and health effects using a Gulf War case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Albert Christian


    The study described in this report used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to depleted uranium (DU) during the 1991 Gulf War for both U.S. troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. Only a few veterans in vehicles accidentally struck by U.S. DU munitions are predicted to have inhaled sufficient quantities of DU particulate to incur any significant health risk (i.e., the possibility of temporary kidney damage from the chemical toxicity of uranium and about a 1% chance of fatal lung cancer). The health risk to all downwind civilians is predicted to be extremely small. Recommendations for monitoring are made for certain exposed groups. Although the study found fairly large calculational uncertainties, the models developed and used are generally valid. The analysis was also used to assess potential uranium health hazards for workers in the weapons complex. No illnesses are projected for uranium workers following standard guidelines; nonetheless, some research suggests that more conservative guidelines should be considered.

  8. Lung Cancer Mortality among Uranium Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers: A Cohort Study 1952–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Figgs


    Full Text Available Background: 9%–15% of all lung cancers are attributable to occupational exposures. Reports are disparate regarding elevated lung cancer mortality risk among workers employed at uranium gaseous diffusion plants. Objective: To investigate whether external radiation exposure is associated with lung cancer mortality risk among uranium gaseous diffusion workers. Methods: A cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003 at the Paducah uranium gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP was assembled. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine likely toxic metal exposure categories. In addition, radiation film badge dosimeters were used to monitor cumulative external ionizing radiation exposure. International Classification for Disease (ICD codes 9 and 10 were used to identify 147 lung cancer deaths. Logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to estimate lung cancer mortality risk. Results: Lung cancer mortality risk was elevated among workers who experienced external radiation >3.5 mrem and employment duration >12 years. Conclusion: Employees of uranium gaseous diffusion plants carry a higher risk of lung cancer mortality; the mortality is associated with increased radiation exposure and duration of employment.

  9. Integrated assessmet of the impacts associated with uranium mining and milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Baes, C.F. III; Berry, L.G.


    The occupational health and safety impacts are assessed for domestic underground mining, open pit mining, and milling. Public health impacts are calculated for a population of 53,000 located within 88 km (55 miles) of a typical southwestern uranium mill. The collective annual dose would be 6.5 man-lung rem/year, 89% of which is from /sup 222/Rn emitted from mill tailings. The dose to the United States population is estimated to be 6 x 10/sup 4/ man-lung rem from combined mining and milling operations. This may be comparedd with 5.7 x 10/sup 5/ man-lung rem from domestic use of natural gas and 4.4 x 10/sup 7/ man-lung rem from building interiors. Unavoidable adverse environmental impacts appear to be severe in a 250 ha area surrounding a mill site but negligible in the entire potentially impacted area (500,000 ha). The contemporary uranium resource and supply industry and its institutional settings are described in relation to the socio-economic impacts likely to emerge from high levels of uranium mining and milling. Radon and radon daughter monitoring techniques associated with uranium mining and milling are discussed.

  10. Extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.H.; Frame, J.M.; Dudey, N.D.; Kiel, G.R.; Mesec, V.; Woodfield, F.W.; Binney, S.E.; Jante, M.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Clark, G.T.


    A major assessment was made of the uranium resources in seawater. Several concepts for moving seawater to recover the uranium were investigated, including pumping the seawater and using natural ocean currents or tides directly. The optimal site chosen was on the southeastern Puerto Rico coast, with the south U.S. Atlantic coast as an alternate. The various processes for extracting uranium from seawater were reviewed, with the adsorption process being the most promising at the present time. Of the possible adsorbents, hydrous titanium oxide was found to have the best properties. A uranium extraction plant was conceptually designed. Of the possible methods for contacting the seawater with the adsorbent, a continuous fluidized bed concept was chosen as most practical for a pumped system. A plant recovering 500 tonnes of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ per year requires 5900 cubic meters per second of seawater to be pumped through the adsorbent beds for a 70% overall recovery efficiency. Total cost of the plant was estimated to be about $6.2 billion. A computer model for the process was used for parametric sensitivity studies and economic projections. Several design case variations were developed. Other topics addressed were the impact of co-product recovery, environmental considerations, etc.

  11. Solute Partitioning and Hindered Diffusion in Hydrogels


    Liu, David Ezra


    Solute uptake and release govern the efficacy of hydrogels in controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, and chromatographic separations. In soft contact lenses, uptake and release of wetting, packaging, and care-solution agents is extensively employed to improve on-eye lens performance. Key physical parameters are the equilibrium solute partition coefficient and the solute diffusion coefficient in the gel that dictate the amounts and rates of uptake/release, respectively. To investigate t...

  12. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Uranium geochemical survey in the Crystal City and Beeville Quadrangles, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, C.E.; Butz, T.R.; Cagle, G.W.; Kane, V.E.


    A uranium geochemical survey was conducted in the Crystal City and western half of the Beeville Quadrangles, Texas, an area of approximately 34,000 km/sup 2/. Using the Texas Gulf Coast Uranium Province as a study area, this survey demonstrates the applicability of a 2 phase hierarchical sampling program with multielement analysis of the samples for regional geochemical reconnaissance for uranium. Phase I samples of stream sediment, stream water, and well water were collected from drainage basins with a target drainage of 250 km/sup 2/ to identify uranium province lines which define the area in which closer spaced Phase II sampling should be conducted. Phase II samples of stream sediment, stream water, well water, and tree branches were collected from drainage basins with a target drainage of 25 km/sup 2/ in order to identify uranium district lines. Stream sediment, stream water, well water, and ash of tree branches were analyzed for approximately 25 parameters. The most useful sample type for identifying potential uranium mineralization in the Texas Gulf Coast is well water. Wells were found to accurately distinguish both province lines at Phase I sample spacing and district lines at Phase II sample spacing by several methods of evaluation. Results of the survey indicate that the concept of 2 phase sampling with multielement analyses of samples, developed by the ORGDP Project, may yield good results for the remainder of the area to be surveyed by ORGDP with modifications for different geologic regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Naranjo


    Full Text Available Temporal segmentation of video data for partitioning the sequence into shots is a prerequisite in many applications: automatic video indexing and editing, old flm restoration, perceptual coding, etc. The detection of abrupt transitions or cuts has been thoroughly studied in previous works. In this paper we present a scheme to identify the most common gradual transitions, i.e., dissolves and wipes, which relies on mathematical morphology operators. The approach is restricted to fast techniques which require low computation (without motion estimation and adapted to compressed sequences and are able to cope with random brightness variations (often occurring in old flms. The present study illustrates how the morphological operators can be used to analyze temporal series for detecting particular events, either working directly on the 1D signal or building an intermediate 2D image from the 1D signals to take advantage of the spatial operators.

  14. Nonparametric Binary Recursive Partitioning for Deterioration Prediction of Infrastructure Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Pittou


    Full Text Available This paper introduces binary recursive partitioning (BRP as a method for estimating bridge deck deterioration and treats it as a classification and decision problem. The proposed BRP method is applied to the Indiana bridge inventory database containing 25 years of detailed information on approximately 5,500 bridges on state-maintained highways. Classification trees are separately created for 4 and 2 prediction classes and relatively high degrees of success are achieved for deck condition prediction. The significant variables identified as the most influential include current deck condition and deck age. The proposed method offers an alternative nonparametric approach for bridge deck condition prediction and could be used for cross comparisons of models calibrated using the widely applied parametric approaches.

  15. Atom-partitioned multipole expansions for electrostatic potential boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M., E-mail: [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Leiter, K. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Eisner, C. [Secure Mission Solutions, a Parsons Company (United States); Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Knap, J. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States)


    Applications such as grid-based real-space density functional theory (DFT) use the Poisson equation to compute electrostatics. However, the expected long tail of the electrostatic potential requires either the use of a large and costly outer domain or Dirichlet boundary conditions estimated via multipole expansion. We find that the oft-used single-center spherical multipole expansion is only appropriate for isotropic mesh domains such as spheres and cubes. In this work, we introduce a method suitable for high aspect ratio meshes whereby the charge density is partitioned into atomic domains and multipoles are computed for each domain. While this approach is moderately more expensive than a single-center expansion, it is numerically stable and still a small fraction of the overall cost of a DFT calculation. The net result is that when high aspect ratio systems are being studied, form-fitted meshes can now be used in lieu of cubic meshes to gain computational speedup.

  16. Improved ionic model of liquid uranium dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryaznov, [No Value; Iosilevski, [No Value; Yakub, E; Fortov, [No Value; Hyland, GJ; Ronchi, C

    The paper presents a model for liquid uranium dioxide, obtained by improving a simplified ionic model, previously adopted to describe the equation of state of this substance [1]. A "chemical picture" is used for liquid UO2 of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric composition. Several ionic species

  17. Uranium occurrences and exploration experience in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, A., E-mail: [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Hyderabad (India)


    As per the Indian Government laws, minerals containing uranium are classified as strategic and uranium exploration and mining is an exclusive subject of the Central Government. Exploration for atomic minerals began in India in the year 1949 and, over a period of sixty years, India has created a large pool of uranium scientists and, at present, more than 500 scientists are employed by the Government of India for exploration of atomic minerals in India. In line with other countries, India's efforts in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were focused in the exploration for vein-type mineralization and succeeded in the discovery in three provinces, viz. Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), Jharkhand; Umra, Rajasthan and Lesser Himalayas of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. Of these, the SSZ has emerged as a major uranium province with 17 low-grade, low- to medium-tonnage deposits. Presently, the only uranium producing mines are situated in this province. Simultaneously, many uranium occurrences and deposits of QPC, vein and metasomatite types, essentially of low grade, low tonnage, were located all over the country. In the early eighties, the Cretaceous Mahadek basin in the northeastern state of Meghalaya was recognized as a potential province for sandstone-type uranium mineralization and, within a span of fifteen years, five low- to medium-grade, low-tonnage deposits were established. The 180-km long belt of Cretaceous fluviatile felspathic sandstones along the southern fringe of Shillong plateau below a moderate cover of tertiary sediments holds potential for more resources. Ground and airborne geophysical techniques are being looked at to provide vital clues on depositional controls for future sub-surface exploration. In the mean time, a major uranium province in the southern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin was discovered, where uranium mineralization is hosted in dolomitic limestone. The mineralization is stratabound and occurs intermittently over a strike length of nearly

  18. Regulatory harmonization of the Saskatchewan uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, R. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Moulding, T. [Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan (Canada); Alderman, G. [Saskatchewan Labour, Saskatchewan (Canada)


    The uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan produces approximately 30% of the world's production of uranium. The industry is regulated by federal and provincial regulators. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the principal federal regulator. The principal Saskatchewan provincial regulators are Saskatchewan Environment for provincial environmental regulations and Saskatchewan Labour for occupational health and safety regulations. In the past, mine and mill operators have requested harmonization in areas such as inspections and reporting requirements from the regulators. On February 14, 2003, Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan Labour and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission signed a historical agreement for federal/provincial co-operation called the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - Saskatchewan Administrative Agreement for the Regulation of Health, Safety and the Environment at Saskatchewan Uranium Mines and Mills. This initiative responds to a recommendation made by the Joint Federal-Provincial Panel on Uranium Mining Developments in Northern Saskatchewan in 1997 and lays the groundwork to co-ordinate and harmonize their respective regulatory regimes. The implementation of the Agreement has been very successful. This paper will address the content of the Agreement including the commitments, the deliverables and the expectations for a harmonized compliance program, harmonized reporting, and the review of harmonized assessment and licensing processes as well as possible referencing of Saskatchewan Environment and Saskatchewan Labour regulations in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The management and implementation process will also be discussed including the schedule, stakeholder communication, the results to date and the lessons learned. (author)

  19. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.


    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  20. Deformed Topological Partition Function and Nekrasov Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Narain, K S; Taylor, T R


    A deformation of the N=2 topological string partition function is analyzed by considering higher dimensional F-terms of the type W^{2g}*Upsilon^n, where W is the chiral Weyl superfield and each Upsilon factor stands for the chiral projection of a real function of N=2 vector multiplets. These terms generate physical amplitudes involving two anti-self-dual Riemann tensors, 2g-2 anti-self-dual graviphoton field strengths and 2n self-dual field strengths from the matter vector multiplets. Their coefficients F_{g,n} generalizing the genus g partition function F_{g,0} of the topological twisted type II theory, can be used to define a generating functional by introducing deformation parameters besides the string coupling. Choosing all matter field strengths to be that of the dual heterotic dilaton supermultiplet, one obtains two parameters that we argue should correspond to the deformation parameters of the Nekrasov partition function in the field theory limit, around the conifold singularity. Its perturbative part ...

  1. Diversity partitioning during the Cambrian radiation. (United States)

    Na, Lin; Kiessling, Wolfgang


    The fossil record offers unique insights into the environmental and geographic partitioning of biodiversity during global diversifications. We explored biodiversity patterns during the Cambrian radiation, the most dramatic radiation in Earth history. We assessed how the overall increase in global diversity was partitioned between within-community (alpha) and between-community (beta) components and how beta diversity was partitioned among environments and geographic regions. Changes in gamma diversity in the Cambrian were chiefly driven by changes in beta diversity. The combined trajectories of alpha and beta diversity during the initial diversification suggest low competition and high predation within communities. Beta diversity has similar trajectories both among environments and geographic regions, but turnover between adjacent paleocontinents was probably the main driver of diversification. Our study elucidates that global biodiversity during the Cambrian radiation was driven by niche contraction at local scales and vicariance at continental scales. The latter supports previous arguments for the importance of plate tectonics in the Cambrian radiation, namely the breakup of Pannotia.

  2. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the ... (United States)

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it accounts for the varying bioavailability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms.  This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document was prepared by scientists from the Atlantic Ecology Division, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, and Western Ecology Division, the Office of Water, and private consultants. The document describes procedures to determine the interstitial water concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in contaminated sediments. Based on these concentrations, guidance is provided on the derivation of toxic units to assess whether the sediments are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it is based on the concentrations of chemical(s) that are known to be harmful and bioavailable in the environment.  This document, and five others published over the last nine years, will be useful for the Program Offices, including Superfund, a

  3. Geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site, southeastern Utah - Indications of contaminant migration (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Horton, Robert J.


    well field suggest that the paleochannel persists at least 900 m to the north of the heap leach and pond sites. Contamination of groundwater beneath the stream terraces may extend at least that far. Fry Creek surface water (six samples), seeps and springs (six samples), and wells (eight samples) were collected during a dry period of April 16-19, 2007. The most uranium-rich (18.7 milligrams per liter) well water on the site displays distinctive Ca-Mg-SO4-dominant chemistry indicating the legacy of heap leaching copper-uranium ores with sulfuric acid. This same water has strongly negative d34S of sulfate (-13.3 per mil) compared to most local waters of -2.4 to -5.4 per mil. Dissolved uranium species in all sampled waters are dominantly U(VI)-carbonate complexes. All waters are undersaturated with respect to U(VI) minerals. The average 234U/238U activity ratio (AR) in four well waters from the site (0.939 + or ? 0.011) is different from that of seven upstream waters (1.235 + or ? 0.069). This isotopic contrast permits quantitative estimates of mixing of site-derived uranium with natural uranium in waters collected downstream. At the time of sampling, uranium in downstream surface water was mostly (about 67 percent) site-derived and subject to further concentration by evaporation. Three monitoring wells located approximately 0.4 kilometer downstream contained dominantly (78-87 percent) site-derived uranium. Distinctive particles of chalcopyrite (CuFeS) and variably weathered pyrite (FeS2) are present in tailings at the stream edge on the site and are identified in stream sediments 1.3 kilometers downstream, based on inspection of polished grain mounts of magnetic mineral separates.

  4. Enhancement of Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dietz, Travis [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tsinas, Zois [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tomaszewski, Claire [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pazos, Ileana M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Nigliazzo, Olga [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Li, Weixing [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Barkatt, Aaron [Univ. of Palermo (Italy)


    Even at a concentration of 3 μg/L, the world’s oceans contain a thousand times more uranium than currently know terrestrial sources. In order to take advantage of this stockpile, methods and materials must be developed to extract it efficiently, a difficult task considering the very low concentration of the element and the competition for extraction by other atoms in seawater such as sodium, calcium, and vanadium. The majority of current research on methods to extract uranium from seawater are vertical explorations of the grafting of amidoxime ligand, which was originally discovered and promoted by Japanese studies in the late 1980s. Our study expands on this research horizontally by exploring the effectiveness of novel uranium extraction ligands grafted to the surface of polymer substrates using radiation. Through this expansion, a greater understanding of uranium binding chemistry and radiation grafting effects on polymers has been obtained. While amidoxime-functionalized fabrics have been shown to have the greatest extraction efficiency so far, they suffer from an extensive chemical processing step which involves treatment with powerful basic solutions. Not only does this add to the chemical waste produced in the extraction process and add to the method’s complexity, but it also significantly impacts the regenerability of the amidoxime fabric. The approach of this project has been to utilize alternative, commercially available monomers capable of extracting uranium and containing a carbon-carbon double bond to allow it to be grafted using radiation, specifically phosphate, oxalate, and azo monomers. The use of commercially available monomers and radiation grafting with electron beam or gamma irradiation will allow for an easily scalable fabrication process once the technology has been optimized. The need to develop a cheap and reliable method for extracting uranium from seawater is extremely valuable to energy independence and will extend the quantity of

  5. Uranium mining in Virginia: scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining and processing in Virginia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Uranium Mining in Virginia; Committee on Earth Resources; National Research Council


    .... Uranium Mining in Virginia examines the scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining, milling, and processing as they relate to the Common...

  6. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: prospects for phytoremediation. (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S


    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n=200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1,217 μg L(-1). The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4,979 mg kg(-1)) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963mgkg(-1)), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg(-1)), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg(-1)), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg(-1)), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg(-1)). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg(-1)). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg(-1)) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. © 2013.

  7. Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian; Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth. L.


    The dissolution of synthetic boehmite (?-AlOOH) by 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) was examined in a series of batch adsorption/dissolution experiments. Additionally, the leaching behavior of {sup 233}U(VI) from boehmite was examined as a function of pH and HEDPA concentration. The results are discussed in terms of sludge washing procedures that may be utilized during underground tank waste remediation. In the pH range 4 to 10, complexation of Al(III) by HEDPA significantly enhanced dissolution of boehmite. This phenomenon was especially pronounced in the neutral pH region where the solubility of aluminum, in the absence of complexants, is limited by the formation of sparsely soluble aluminum hydroxides. At pH higher than 10, dissolution of synthetic boehmite was inhibited by HEDPA, likely due to sorption of Al(III):HEDPA complexes. Addition of HEDPA to equilibrated U(VI)-synthetic boehmite suspensions yielded an increase in the aqueous phase uranium concentration. Partitioning of uranium between the solid and aqueous phase is described in terms of U(VI):HEDPA speciation and dissolution of the boehmite solid phase.

  8. Circulatory disease in French nuclear fuel cycle workers chronically exposed to uranium: a nested case-control study. (United States)

    Zhivin, Sergey; Guseva Canu, Irina; Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Garsi, Jérôme-Philippe; Samson, Eric; Niogret, Christine; Zablotska, Lydia B; Laurier, Dominique


    There is growing evidence of an association between low-dose external γ-radiation and circulatory system diseases (CSDs), yet sparse data exist about an association with chronic internal uranium exposure and the role of non-radiation risk factors. We conducted a nested case-control study of French AREVA NC Pierrelatte nuclear workers employed between 1960 and 2005 to estimate CSD risks adjusting for major CSD risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol and glycaemia) and external γ-radiation dose. The study included 102 cases of death from CSD and 416 controls individually matched on age, gender, birth cohort and socio-professional status. Information on CSD risk factors was collected from occupational medical records. Organ-specific absorbed doses were estimated using biomonitoring data, taking into account exposure regime and uranium physicochemical properties. External γ-radiation was measured by individual dosimeter badges. Analysis was conducted with conditional logistic regression. Workers were exposed to very low radiation doses (mean γ-radiation dose 2 and lung uranium dose 1 mGy). A positive but imprecise association was observed (excess OR per mGy 0.2, 95% CI 0.004 to 0.5). Results obtained after adjustment suggest that uranium exposure might be an independent CSD risk factor. Our results suggest that a positive association might exist between internal uranium exposure and CSD mortality, not confounded by CSD risk factors. Future work should focus on numerous uncertainties associated with internal uranium dose estimation and on understanding biological pathway of CSD after protracted low-dose internal radiation exposure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Deposition of inhaled uranium in Brazilian reference man; Deposicao interna de uranio inalado, considerando-se um homem referencia brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Moraes, Jose Carlos T.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Lab. de Engenharia Biomedica


    Brazilian`s morphometric and physiological parameters were selected for use in assessment of deposition of inhaled uranium. The assessment results were compared with estimates of deposition made with parameters recommended in ICRP 66. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M. (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (USA))


    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Study of the oocyte degenerescence at mouse: role of the caspases and toxicity of natural uranium; Etude de la degenerescence ovocytaire chez la souris: role des caspases et toxicite de l'uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnault, E


    The aim of this work is to estimate the uranium toxicity on the ovarian function and on the oocyte and more fundamentally to characterize the molecular ways regulating the oocyte degenerescence. At first, will be described the different exposure modes at uranium and the known toxic effects of this heavy metal on man and animal. The mechanisms regulating the follicle genesis and the oogenesis are then developed. At last, will be given the data available in literature and concerning the apoptosis ways intervening in the follicular atresia and in the oocyte degenerescence while referring to the known ways of the somatic cells. (O.M.)

  12. Asymmetrical Damage Partitioning in Bacteria: A Model for the Evolution of Stochasticity, Determinism, and Genetic Assimilation. (United States)

    Chao, Lin; Rang, Camilla Ulla; Proenca, Audrey Menegaz; Chao, Jasper Ubirajara


    Non-genetic phenotypic variation is common in biological organisms. The variation is potentially beneficial if the environment is changing. If the benefit is large, selection can favor the evolution of genetic assimilation, the process by which the expression of a trait is transferred from environmental to genetic control. Genetic assimilation is an important evolutionary transition, but it is poorly understood because the fitness costs and benefits of variation are often unknown. Here we show that the partitioning of damage by a mother bacterium to its two daughters can evolve through genetic assimilation. Bacterial phenotypes are also highly variable. Because gene-regulating elements can have low copy numbers, the variation is attributed to stochastic sampling. Extant Escherichia coli partition asymmetrically and deterministically more damage to the old daughter, the one receiving the mother's old pole. By modeling in silico damage partitioning in a population, we show that deterministic asymmetry is advantageous because it increases fitness variance and hence the efficiency of natural selection. However, we find that symmetrical but stochastic partitioning can be similarly beneficial. To examine why bacteria evolved deterministic asymmetry, we modeled the effect of damage anchored to the mother's old pole. While anchored damage strengthens selection for asymmetry by creating additional fitness variance, it has the opposite effect on symmetry. The difference results because anchored damage reinforces the polarization of partitioning in asymmetric bacteria. In symmetric bacteria, it dilutes the polarization. Thus, stochasticity alone may have protected early bacteria from damage, but deterministic asymmetry has evolved to be equally important in extant bacteria. We estimate that 47% of damage partitioning is deterministic in E. coli. We suggest that the evolution of deterministic asymmetry from stochasticity offers an example of Waddington's genetic assimilation

  13. A partitioned likelihood analysis of swallowtail butterfly phylogeny (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae). (United States)

    Caterino, M S; Reed, R D; Kuo, M M; Sperling, F A


    Although it is widely agreed that data from multiple sources are necessary to confidently resolve phylogenetic relationships, procedures for accommodating and incorporating heterogeneity in such data remain underdeveloped. We explored the use of partitioned, model-based analyses of heterogeneous molecular data in the context of a phylogenetic study of swallowtail butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Despite substantial basic and applied study, phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of this prominent group remain contentious. We sequenced 3.3 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (2.3 kb of cytochrome oxidase I and II and 1.0 kb of elongation factor-1 alpha, respectively) from 22 swallowtails, including representatives of Baroniinae, Parnassiinae, and Papilioninae, and from several moth and butterfly outgroups. Using parsimony, we encountered considerable difficulty in resolving the deepest splits among these taxa. We therefore chose two outgroups with undisputed relationships to each other and to Papilionidae and undertook detailed likelihood analyses of alternative topologies. Following from previous studies that have demonstrated substantial heterogeneity in the evolutionary dynamics among process partitions of these genes, we estimated evolutionary parameters separately for gene-based and codon-based partitions. These values were then used as the basis for examining the likelihoods of possible resolutions and rootings under several partitioned and unpartitioned likelihood models. Partitioned models gave markedly better fits to the data than did unpartitioned models and supported different topologies. However, the most likely topology varied from model to model. The most likely ingroup topology under the best-fitting, six-partition GTR + gamma model favors a paraphyletic Parnassiinae. However, when examining the likelihoods of alternative rootings of this tree relative to rootings of the classical hypothesis, two rootings of the latter emerge as

  14. Structuring heterogeneous biological information using fuzzy clustering of k-partite graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theis Fabian J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive and automated data integration in bioinformatics facilitates the construction of large, complex biological networks. However, the challenge lies in the interpretation of these networks. While most research focuses on the unipartite or bipartite case, we address the more general but common situation of k-partite graphs. These graphs contain k different node types and links are only allowed between nodes of different types. In order to reveal their structural organization and describe the contained information in a more coarse-grained fashion, we ask how to detect clusters within each node type. Results Since entities in biological networks regularly have more than one function and hence participate in more than one cluster, we developed a k-partite graph partitioning algorithm that allows for overlapping (fuzzy clusters. It determines for each node a degree of membership to each cluster. Moreover, the algorithm estimates a weighted k-partite graph that connects the extracted clusters. Our method is fast and efficient, mimicking the multiplicative update rules commonly employed in algorithms for non-negative matrix factorization. It facilitates the decomposition of networks on a chosen scale and therefore allows for analysis and interpretation of structures on various resolution levels. Applying our algorithm to a tripartite disease-gene-protein complex network, we were able to structure this graph on a large scale into clusters that are functionally correlated and biologically meaningful. Locally, smaller clusters enabled reclassification or annotation of the clusters' elements. We exemplified this for the transcription factor MECP2. Conclusions In order to cope with the overwhelming amount of information available from biomedical literature, we need to tackle the challenge of finding structures in large networks with nodes of multiple types. To this end, we presented a novel fuzzy k-partite graph partitioning

  15. Asymmetrical Damage Partitioning in Bacteria: A Model for the Evolution of Stochasticity, Determinism, and Genetic Assimilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chao


    Full Text Available Non-genetic phenotypic variation is common in biological organisms. The variation is potentially beneficial if the environment is changing. If the benefit is large, selection can favor the evolution of genetic assimilation, the process by which the expression of a trait is transferred from environmental to genetic control. Genetic assimilation is an important evolutionary transition, but it is poorly understood because the fitness costs and benefits of variation are often unknown. Here we show that the partitioning of damage by a mother bacterium to its two daughters can evolve through genetic assimilation. Bacterial phenotypes are also highly variable. Because gene-regulating elements can have low copy numbers, the variation is attributed to stochastic sampling. Extant Escherichia coli partition asymmetrically and deterministically more damage to the old daughter, the one receiving the mother's old pole. By modeling in silico damage partitioning in a population, we show that deterministic asymmetry is advantageous because it increases fitness variance and hence the efficiency of natural selection. However, we find that symmetrical but stochastic partitioning can be similarly beneficial. To examine why bacteria evolved deterministic asymmetry, we modeled the effect of damage anchored to the mother's old pole. While anchored damage strengthens selection for asymmetry by creating additional fitness variance, it has the opposite effect on symmetry. The difference results because anchored damage reinforces the polarization of partitioning in asymmetric bacteria. In symmetric bacteria, it dilutes the polarization. Thus, stochasticity alone may have protected early bacteria from damage, but deterministic asymmetry has evolved to be equally important in extant bacteria. We estimate that 47% of damage partitioning is deterministic in E. coli. We suggest that the evolution of deterministic asymmetry from stochasticity offers an example of Waddington

  16. Radioactivity and the French uranium bearing minerals; La radioactivite et les mineraux uraniferes francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiollard, P.Ch.; Boisson, J.M.; Leydet, J.C. [Association Francaise de Micromineralogie, 13 - Carry le Rouet (France); Meisser, N. [Universite BFSH, Musee Geologique, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    This special issue of Regne Mineral journal is entirely devoted to the French uranium mining industry. It comprises 4 parts dealing with: the uranium mining industry in France (history, uranium rush, deposits, geologic setting, prosperity and recession, situation in 1998, ore processing); radioactivity and the uranium and its descendants (discovery, first French uranium bearing ores, discovery of radioactivity, radium and other uranium descendants, radium mines, uranium mines, atoms, elements and isotopes, uranium genesis, uranium decay, isotopes in an uranium ore, spontaneous fission, selective migration of radionuclides, radon in mines and houses, radioactivity units, radioprotection standards, new standards and controversies, natural and artificial radioactivity, hazards linked with the handling and collecting of uranium ores, conformability with radioprotection standards, radioactivity of natural uranium minerals); the French uranium bearing minerals (composition, crystal structure, reference, etymology, fluorescence). (J.S.)

  17. Newly discovered uranium mineralization at 2.0 Ma in the Menggongjie granite-hosted uranium deposit, South China (United States)

    Luo, Jin-Cheng; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Fayek, Mostafa; Bi, Xian-Wu; Shi, Shao-Hua; Chen, You-Wei


    The southeastern part of the Nanling metallogenic province, South China contains numerous economically important granite-hosted, hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits. The Miao'ershan (MES) uranium ore field is one of the most important uranium sources in China, hosts the largest Chanziping carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock-type uranium deposit and several representative granite-hosted uranium deposits. The geology and geochemistry of these deposits have been extensively studied. However, accurate and precise ages for the uranium mineralization are scarce because uranium minerals in these deposits are usually fine-grained, and may have formed in several stages, thus hindering the understanding of the uranium metallogenesis of this province. The Menggongjie (MGJ) uranium deposit is one of the largest granite-hosted uranium deposits in the MES ore field. Uranium mineralization in this deposit occurs at the central part of the MES granitic complex, accompanied with silicification, fluorination, K-metasomatism and hematitization. The ore minerals are dominated by uraninite, occurring in quartz or fluorite veinlets along fractures in altered granite. In-situ SIMS U-Pb dating on the uraninite yields the U-Pb isotopic age of 1.9 ± 0.7 Ma, which is comparable to the chemical U-Th-Pbtol uraninite age of 2.3 ± 0.1 Ma. Such ages agree well with the eruption ages of the extension-related Quaternary volcanics (2.1-1.2 Ma) in South China, suggesting that the uranium mineralization have formed at an extensional setting, possibly related to the Quaternary volcanic activities. Therefore, our robust, new dating results of the MGJ uranium deposit make it the youngest granite-hosted uranium deposit reported so far in South China and the mineralization event represents a newly identified mineralization epoch.

  18. 78 FR 66898 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review (United States)


    ... uranium. Low- enriched uranium is enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) with a U\\235\\ product assay of... a U\\235\\ assay of 20 percent or greater, also known as highly- enriched uranium. In addition... rods or assemblies. Natural uranium concentrates (U 3 O 8 ) with a U\\235\\ concentration of no greater...

  19. 78 FR 72123 - Request To Amend a License to Export High-Enriched Uranium (United States)


    ... contained in 6.2 kg uranium to a new cumulative total of 12.615 kg of U-235 contained in 13.5 kg uranium; 2... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License to Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... in Belgium. National Nuclear Security Uranium (HEU) uranium France for irradiation in Administration...

  20. 77 FR 51579 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium (United States)


    ... kilograms For the export of Canada. Complex, July 30, 2012, August Uranium (93.35%). uranium-235 high-enriched 1, 2012, XSNM3726, 11006037. contained in 7.5 uranium in the kilograms uranium. form of broken... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public...

  1. A simple method for determination of natural and depleted uranium in surface soil samples. (United States)

    Vukanac, I; Novković, D; Kandić, A; Djurasević, M; Milosević, Z


    A simple and efficient method for determination of uranium content in surface soil samples contaminated with depleted uranium, by gamma ray spectrometry is presented. The content of natural uranium and depleted uranium, as well as the activity ratio (235)U/(238)U of depleted uranium, were determined in contaminated surface soil samples by application of this method. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LHCb: Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and partition wise joins

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Z


    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as rang...

  3. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

  4. Biosorption of uranium by chemically modified Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Jing, E-mail: [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yao Huijun [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fan Fangli; Lin Maosheng [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang Lina; Ding Huajie; Lei Fuan; Wu Xiaolei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xiaofei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guo Junsheng; Qin Zhi [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    The present paper reports the biosorption of uranium onto chemically modified yeast cells, Rhodotorula glutinis, in order to study the role played by various functional groups in the cell wall. Esterification of the carboxyl groups and methylation of the amino groups present in the cells were carried out by methanol and formaldehyde treatment, respectively. The uranium sorption capacity increased 31% for the methanol-treated biomass and 11% for the formaldehyde-treated biomass at an initial uranium concentration of 140 mg/L. The enhancement of uranium sorption capacity was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, with amino and carboxyl groups were determined to be the important functional groups involved in uranium binding. The biosorption isotherms of uranium onto the raw and chemically modified biomass were also investigated with varying uranium concentrations. Langmuir and Freundlich models were well able to explain the sorption equilibrium data with satisfactory correlation coefficients higher than 0.9. -- Research highlights: {yields} Uranium biosorption on to chemically modified yeast cells {yields} Cells before and after uranium sorption were investigate by FTIR spectroscopy {yields} Amino and carboxyl groups were important functional groups involved in uranium binding {yields} The sorption equilibrium date of raw and chemically modified biomass fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich models

  5. A brief history of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath


    'Number rules the universe.' The Pythagoras 'If you wish to forsee the future of mathematics our course is to study the history and present conditions of the science.' Henri Poincaré 'The primary source (Urqell) of all mathematics are integers.' Hermann Minkowski This paper is written to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Mathematical Association of America. It deals with a short history of different kinds of natural numbers including triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal and k-gonal numbers, and their simple properties and their geometrical representations. Included are Euclid's and Pythagorean's main contributions to elementary number theory with the main contents of the Euclid Elements of the 13-volume masterpiece of mathematical work. This is followed by Euler's new discovery of the additive number theory based on partitions of numbers. Special attention is given to many examples, Euler's theorems on partitions of numbers with geometrical representations of Ferrers' graphs, Young's diagrams, Lagrange's four-square theorem and the celebrated Waring problem. Included are Euler's generating functions for the partitions of numbers, Euler's pentagonal number theorem, Gauss' triangular and square number theorems and the Jacobi triple product identity. Applications of the theory of partitions of numbers to different statistics such as the Bose- Einstein, Fermi- Dirac, Gentile, and Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics are briefly discussed. Special attention is given to pedagogical information through historical approach to number theory so that students and teachers at the school, college and university levels can become familiar with the basic concepts of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications, and can pursue advanced study and research in analytical and computational number theory.

  6. Appraisal of selected epidemiologic issues from studies of lung cancer among uranium and hard rock miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G R; Sever, L E


    An extensive body of published information about lung cancer among uranium miners was reviewed and diverse information, useful in identifying important issues but not in resolving them was found. Measuring exposure and response; thresholds of exposure; latency or the period from first mining experience to death; effort to predict excess risk of death, using a model; effects of smoking and radon daughter exposure on the histology of lung tumors; and the interplay of factors on the overall risk of death were all examined. The general concept of thresholds; that is, an exposure level below which risk does not increase was considered. The conclusion is that it should be possible to detect and estimate an epidemiologic threshold when the cohorts have been followed to the death of all members. Issues concerning latency in the studies of uranium miners published to date were examined. It is believed that the induction-latent period for lung cancer among uranium miners may be: as little as 10 to more than 40 years; dependent on age at which exposure begins; exposure rate; and ethnicity or smoking habits. Although suggested as factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been confirmed. The median induction-latent period appears to be in excess of the 15 years frequently cited for US uranium miner. A distinct pattern of shorter induction-latent periods with increasing age at first mining exposure is reported. The evidence for and against an unusual histologic pattern of lung cancers among uranium miners was examined. The ratio of epidermoid to small cell types was close to 1:2; the ratio in the general population is nearer 2:1. The histologic pattern warrants closer attention of pathologists and epidemiologists. (ERB) (ERB)

  7. Characterization of titanite generations from Gameleira-I deposit (U-anomaly 35) Lagoa Real Uranium Province (LRUP), Bahia state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Camila M. dos; Rios, Francisco Javier; Amorim, Lucas E.D.; Palmieri, Helena E., E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province (LRUP) is located in northwest of Bahia state and is the major uranium deposit of Brazil. Titanite is a common accessory mineral in rocks of LRUP and usually is part of uranium ore assemblage. Thirty three polished thin sections of F10 drill-hole located in Gameleira I deposit (anomaly 35) were petrographically studied and used for mineral chemistry study. Petrographically, titanite can be differentiated according to texture between granular and prismatic. Granular titanite is generally associated with magmatic assemblage (alkali feldspar hypersolvus granite) and it is present in some albitites (barren magnetite albitite). Prismatic titanite is restricted to albitite (garnet and mineralized magnetite albitite) and is associated with metamorphic assemblage. Microprobe analyses shows a trend from granites to mineralized albitites and do not cluster titanite by its texture, but by its host rocks. On the other hand, trace elements can distinguish titanite generation according to texture. Granular titanite is characterized by some highest high field strength elements (HFSE) values, like Hf, Pb, Th, U and HREE+Y, and the lowest V content. Vanadium has positive correlation with Zr/Hf ratio and inverse with U. Vanadium versus U relationship is inverse to the previously found by literature in LRUP what indicates that titanite was submitted to complexes processes of uranium loss after its crystallization. In addition, hafnium loss can be related to precipitation of hydrothermal zircon as it is strongly partitioned to this mineral. (author)

  8. GIS spatial data partitioning method for distributed data processing (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Yeting


    Spatial data partitioning strategy plays an important role in GIS spatial data distributed storage and processing, its key problem is how to partition spatial data to distributed nodes in network environment. Existing main spatial data partitioning methods doesn't consider spatial locality and unstructured variable length characteristics of spatial data, these methods simply partition spatial data based on one or more attributes value that could result in storage capacity imbalance between distributed processing nodes. Aiming at these, we point out the two basic principles that spatial data partitioning should meet to in this paper. We propose a new spatial data partitioning method based on hierarchical decomposition method of low order Hilbert space-filling curve, which could avoid excessively intensive space partitioning by hierarchically decomposing subspaces. The proposed method uses Hilbert curve to impose a linear ordering on the multidimensional spatial objects, and partition the spatial objects according to this ordering. Experimental results show the proposed spatial data partitioning method not only achieves better storage load balance between distributed nodes, but also keeps well spatial locality of data objects after partitioning.

  9. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin


    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River–Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Peña Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces.Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500–2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely

  10. Towards a global mean partitioning of solar absorption (United States)

    Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Schaepmann-Strub, Gabriela


    In a previous study, we have estimated the mean-state partitioning of absorbed solar radiation over Europe through the combination of surface-based and space-born observations of solar radiation, which yielded best estimates of European land annual mean surface and atmospheric absorption of 117 ±6 Wm¯² (42 ±2 % of TOA incident irradiance) and 65 ±3 Wm¯² (23 ±1 %). The fractional atmospheric absorption of 23% was found to be largely unaffected by variations in latitude and season. Here, we extend this study to the global scale, again by combining in-situ measurements of surface solar radiation (BSRN, GEBA) with satellite-based surface albedo (MODIS), and top-of-atmosphere net incoming solar radiation (CERES EBAF, 1° grid ). Preliminary results are in line with the European mean with fractional atmospheric absorption of around 22-24% found in various regions of the globe where direct observations are available. The partitioning as represented by the CERES EBAF dataset is validated against our reference dataset and supports the finding of a spatially and seasonally fairly robust fractional atmospheric absorption, making it a potentially useful quantity for first order validation of global climate models. To obtain best possible reference estimates and associated uncertainties, we study the spatial representativeness of the point observations for their collocated 1° CERES EBAF grid cells, using a high-resolution satellite-derived surface solar radiation product (CM SAF). This product is spatially limited, hence only regions covered by the METEOSAT disk can be analyzed with respect to sub-grid variability and point representativeness. The so-called spatial sampling errors and associated uncertainty are of similar magnitude as the uncertainty of monthly mean pyranometer measurements. Other sources of uncertainty arise mostly from the measurements themselves, in particular surface albedo and ground-based solar radiation. Uncertainties due to the multiplicative

  11. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone. (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota


    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the uptake and binding of uranium (VI) by the green alga Chlorella Vulgaris; Zur Aufnahme und Bindung von Uran(VI) durch die Gruenalge Chlorella Vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Manja


    of the algae cells during the sorption experiment and a behavior analogue to initially heat killed cells. Differences in the contribution of functional groups to the uranium binding depending on the metabolic activity of the algal biomass were also shown by the difference spectra of the ATR-FTIR measurements calculated between uranium contaminated and untreated biomass. All together the spectroscopic investigations showed in case of Chlorella vulgaris a mixture of functional groups is responsible for the coordination of U(VI). The metabolic activity of the cells influences the binding of uranium under the given experimental conditions. Models of the structure of the formed U(VI)-algae complexes in dependence of the metabolic activity were created. For living algal cells, mainly carboxylic and organic phosphate groups are involved in the binding of uranium, whereas in dead algal biomass additionally inorganic phosphates are involved to some extend in the interaction of uranium with algal cells. The transferability of the obtained findings concerning the experiments in mineral medium to natural occurring mining related waters was verified exemplary with the surface water of ''Gessenwiese'' (former ''Gessenhalde'' at Ronneburg). The obtained results of this study contribute to the prediction of the migration behavior of uranium under environmental conditions, the radiological risk assessment of geogenic and anthropogenic appearing uranium and a reliable estimation of the accumulation of uranium in the food chain.

  13. Boron, beryllium, and lithium, partitioning in olivine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neroda, Elizabeth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    A one atmosphere experimental study was performed to determine the mineral/melt partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li in forsteritic olivine. Two compositions were chosen along the 1350{degrees}C isotherm, 1b (Fo{sub 17.3} Ab{sub 82.7} An{sub 0} by weight) and 8c (Fo{sub 30} Ab{sub 23.3} An{sub 47.8}, by weight) were then combined in equal amounts to form a composition was doped with 25ppm Li, B, Yb, Nb, Zr, Sr, and Hf, 50ppm Sm, and 100ppm Be, Nd, Ce, and Rb. Electron and ion microprobe analyses showed that the olivine crystals and surrounding glasses were homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Partition coefficients calculated from these analyses are as follows: 1b: D{sub B} = 4.41 ({+-} 2.3) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.45) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.54 ({+-} 0.21) E-01, 50/50: D{sub B} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.07 ({+-} 0.09) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.51 ({+-} 0.18) E-01, 8c: D{sub B} = 6.05 ({+-} 1.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 1.81 ({+-} 0.03) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.31 ({+-} 0.09) E-01. The results of this study will combined with similar data for other minerals as part of a larger study to understand the partitioning behavior of B, Be, and Li in melting of the upper mantle at subduction zones.

  14. Highly Reducing Partitioning Experiments Relevant to the Planet Mercury (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.


    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). With this limited amount of material, we must perform experiments to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity. Experiments are being conducted at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were selected for the final run products to contain metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity is controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, using the Si-SiO2 oxygen buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the Fe-FeO oxygen buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt compositional is diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. Elements detected on Mercury

  15. Language Constructs for Data Partitioning and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Crooks


    Full Text Available This article presents a survey of language features for distributed memory multiprocessor systems (DMMs, in particular, systems that provide features for data partitioning and distribution. In these systems the programmer is freed from consideration of the low-level details of the target architecture in that there is no need to program explicit processes or specify interprocess communication. Programs are written according to the shared memory programming paradigm but the programmer is required to specify, by means of directives, additional syntax or interactive methods, how the data of the program are decomposed and distributed.

  16. Uranium resource assessment through statistical analysis of exploration geochemical and other data. Final report. [Codes EVAL, SURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, G.S. Jr.; Howarth, R.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.


    We have developed a procedure that can help quadrangle evaluators to systematically summarize and use hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) and occurrence data. Although we have not provided an independent estimate of uranium endowment, we have devised a methodology that will provide this independent estimate when additional calibration is done by enlarging the study area. Our statistical model for evaluation (system EVAL) ranks uranium endowment for each quadrangle. Because using this model requires experience in geology, statistics, and data analysis, we have also devised a simplified model, presented in the package SURE, a System for Uranium Resource Evaluation. We have developed and tested these models for the four quadrangles in southern Colorado that comprise the study area; to investigate their generality, the models should be applied to other quandrangles. Once they are calibrated with accepted uranium endowments for several well-known quadrangles, the models can be used to give independent estimates for less-known quadrangles. The point-oriented models structure the objective comparison of the quandrangles on the bases of: (1) Anomalies (a) derived from stream sediments, (b) derived from waters (stream, well, pond, etc.), (2) Geology (a) source rocks, as defined by the evaluator, (b) host rocks, as defined by the evaluator, and (3) Aerial radiometric anomalies.

  17. Extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, M.R.; Gordon, L.I.; Chen, A.C.T.


    This report deals with the evaluation of U.S. coastal waters as a uranium resource and with the selection of a suitable site for construction of a large-scale plant for uranium extraction. Evaluation of the resource revealed that although the concentration of uranium is quite low, about 3.3 ppB in seawater of average oceanic salinity, the amount present in the total volume of the oceans is very great, some 4.5 billion metric tons. Of this, perhaps only that uranium contained in the upper 100 meters or so of the surface well-mixed layer should be considered accessible for recovery, some 160 million tonnes. The study indicated that open ocean seawater acquired for the purpose of uranium extraction would be a more favorable resource than rivers entering the sea, cooling water of power plants, or the feed or effluent streams of existing plants producing other products such as magnesium, bromine, or potable and/or agricultural water from seawater. Various considerations led to the selection of a site for a pumped seawater coastal plant at a coastal location. Puerto Yabucoa, Puerto Rico was selected. Recommendations are given for further studies. 21 figures, 8 tables.

  18. Calculation of internal dose from ingested soil-derived uranium in humans: Application of a new method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeber, S.C.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Oeh, U. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Neuherberg (Germany); Nebelung, K. [Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Institute of Geosciences, Jena (Germany); Michalke, B. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit BioGeoChemistry and Analytics, Neuherberg (Germany); Ruehm, W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)


    The aim of the present study was to determine the internal dose in humans after the ingestion of soil highly contaminated with uranium. Therefore, an in vitro solubility assay was performed to estimate the bioaccessibility of uranium for two types of soil. Based on the results, the corresponding bioavailabilities were assessed by using a recently published method. Finally, these bioavailability data were used together with the biokinetic model of uranium to assess the internal doses for a hypothetical but realistic scenario characterized by a daily ingestion of 10 mg of soil over 1 year. The investigated soil samples were from two former uranium mining sites of Germany with {sup 238}U concentrations of about 460 and 550 mg/kg. For these soils, the bioavailabilities of {sup 238}U were quantified as 0.18 and 0.28 % (geometric mean) with 2.5th percentiles of 0.02 and 0.03 % and 97.5th percentiles of 1.48 and 2.34 %, respectively. The corresponding calculated annual committed effective doses for the assumed scenario were 0.4 and 0.6 μSv (GM) with 2.5th percentiles of 0.2 and 0.3 μSv and 97.5th percentiles of 1.6 and 3.0 μSv, respectively. These annual committed effective doses are similar to those from natural uranium intake by food and drinking water, which is estimated to be 0.5 μSv. Based on the present experimental data and the selected ingestion scenario, the investigated soils - although highly contaminated with uranium - are not expected to pose any major health risk to humans related to radiation. (orig.)

  19. Environmental releases from fuel cycle facility: part 1: radionuclide resuspension vs. stack releases on ambient airborne uranium and thorium levels. (United States)

    Masson, Olivier; Pourcelot, Laurent; Boulet, Béatrice; Cagnat, Xavier; Videau, Gérard


    Airborne activity levels of uranium and thorium series were measured in the vicinity (1.1 km) of a uranium (UF4) processing plant, located in Malvési, south of France. Regarding its impact on the environment, this facility is characterized by its routine atmospheric releases of uranium and by the emission of radionuclide-labelled particles from a storage pond filled with waste water or that contain dried sludge characterized by traces of plutonium and thorium ((230)Th). This study was performed during a whole year (November 2009-November 2010) and based on weekly aerosol sampling. Thanks to ICP-MS results, it was possible to perform investigations of uranium and thorium decay product concentration in the air. The number of aerosol filters sampled (50) was sufficient to establish a relationship between airborne radionuclide variations and the wind conditions. As expected, the more the time spent in the plume, the higher the ambient levels. The respective contributions of atmospheric releases and resuspension from local soil and waste ponds on ambient dust load and uranium-bearing aerosols were estimated. Two shutdown periods dedicated to facility servicing made it possible to estimate the resuspension contribution and to specify its origin (local or regional) according to the wind direction and remote background concentration. Airborne uranium mainly comes from the emission stack and, to a minor extent (∼20%), from wind resuspension of soil particles from the surrounding fields and areas devoted to waste storage. Moreover, weighed activity levels were clearly higher during operational periods than for shutdown periods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of low concentration uranium glass working materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppich, G. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wimpenny, J. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leever, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hutcheon, I. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A series of uranium-doped silicate glasses were created at (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) LLNL, to be used as working reference material analogs for low uranium concentration research. Specifically, the aim of this effort was the generation of well-characterized glasses spanning a range of concentrations and compositions, and of sufficient homogeneity in uranium concentration and isotopic composition, for instrumentation research and development purposes. While the glasses produced here are not intended to replace or become standard materials for uranium concentration or uranium isotopic composition, it is hoped that they will help fill a current gap, providing low-level uranium glasses sufficient for methods development and method comparisons within the limitations of the produced glass suite. Glasses are available for research use by request.

  1. Size-exclusion partitioning of neutral solutes in crosslinked polymer networks: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Maroto-Centeno, José Alberto [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Linares, Universidad de Jaén, 23700 Linares, Jaén (Spain); Adroher-Benítez, Irene [Grupo de Física de Fluidos y Biocoloides, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)


    In this work, the size-exclusion partitioning of neutral solutes in crosslinked polymer networks has been studied through Monte Carlo simulations. Two models that provide user-friendly expressions to predict the partition coefficient have been tested over a wide range of volume fractions: Ogston's model (especially devised for fibrous media) and the pore model. The effects of crosslinking and bond stiffness have also been analyzed. Our results suggest that the fiber model can acceptably account for size-exclusion effects in crosslinked gels. Its predictions are good for large solutes if the fiber diameter is assumed to be the effective monomer diameter. For solutes sizes comparable to the monomer dimensions, a smaller fiber diameter must be used. Regarding the pore model, the partition coefficient is poorly predicted when the pore diameter is estimated as the distance between adjacent crosslinker molecules. On the other hand, our results prove that the pore sizes obtained from the pore model by fitting partitioning data of swollen gels are overestimated.

  2. Selection of cholesterol esterase aptamers using a dual-partitioning approach. (United States)

    Ashley, Jon; Ji, Kaili; Li, Sam F Y


    Non-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment and other capillary-based methods have grown in popularity for selection of aptamers since they provide a fast and efficient partitioning method when compared to classical techniques. Despite promising developments in these techniques, a major obstacle needs to be overcome for capillary-based selections to be widely accepted. Due to the small injection volumes associated with CE, only a small proportion of the nucleic acid library can be partitioned at any one time. In this paper, we propose a new two-step method for the selection of aptamers which firstly incorporates a nitrocellulose membrane filter followed by CE. This technique allows for nonbinding sequences to be eliminated, reducing the library size before subsequent capillary-based partitioning, while still reducing the time taken for aptamers to be selected. We demonstrated this technique on the selection of aptamers for cholesterol esterase and the highest binding truncated aptamer CES 4T displayed a K(D) of 203 ± 14 nM. In addition, an increase in the number of sequences partitioned was estimated using spectrophotometry and capillary injection volumes. The results suggested that for successful selection a two-step approach is needed. This hybrid technique could be used to select aptamers that bind to targets both in solution and immobilized onto a stationary phase, allowing the aptamers to be used in different binding environments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Solute partitioning under continuous cooling conditions as a cooling rate indicator. [in lunar rocks (United States)

    Onorato, P. I. K.; Hopper, R. W.; Yinnon, H.; Uhlmann, D. R.; Taylor, L. A.; Garrison, J. R.; Hunter, R.


    A model of solute partitioning in a finite body under conditions of continuous cooling is developed for the determination of cooling rates from concentration profile data, and applied to the partitioning of zirconium between ilmenite and ulvospinel in the Apollo 15 Elbow Crater rocks. Partitioning in a layered composite solid is described numerically in terms of concentration profiles and diffusion coefficients which are functions of time and temperature, respectively; a program based on the model can be used to calculate concentration profiles for various assumed cooling rates given the diffusion coefficients in the two phases and the equilibrium partitioning ratio over a range of temperatures. In the case of the Elbow Rock gabbros, the cooling rates are calculated from measured concentration ratios 10 microns from the interphase boundaries under the assumptions of uniform and equilibrium initial conditions at various starting temperatures. It is shown that the specimens could not have had uniform concentrations profiles at the previously suggested initial temperature of 1350 K. It is concluded that even under conditions where the initial temperature, grain sizes and solute diffusion coefficients are not well characterized, the model can be used to estimate the cooling rate of a grain assemblage to within an order of magnitude.

  4. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  5. Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cloud point extraction (CPE was used to extract uranium (VI from an aqueous solution in acetate media. The methodology used is based on the formation of uranyl-ionic liquid (I complexes and uranyl-D2EHPA soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100. The uranium (VI complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at ambient temperature. The ionic liquid (IL used as a chelating agent was synthesized and characterized in this study. It is composed of N-butyl N’-triethoxy methyl imidazolium cation and diethylhexylphosphate (D2EHPA-H as anion. The effect of the IL on the extraction efficiency was studied in presence and in absence of IL’s cation in acetate medium.

  7. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.


    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  8. Partitioning autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration at Howland Forest (United States)

    Carbone, Mariah; Hollinger, Dave; Davidson, Eric; Savage, Kathleen; Hughes, Holly


    Terrestrial ecosystem respiration is the combined flux of CO2 to the atmosphere from above- and below-ground, plant (autotrophic) and microbial (heterotrophic) sources. Flux measurements alone (e.g., from eddy covariance towers or soil chambers) cannot distinguish the contributions from these sources, which may change seasonally and respond differently to temperature and moisture. The development of improved process-based models that can predict how plants and microbes respond to changing environmental conditions (on seasonal, interannual, or decadal timescales) requires data from field observations and experiments to distinguish among these respiration sources. We tested the viability of partitioning of soil and ecosystem respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components with different approaches at the Howland Forest in central Maine, USA. These include an experimental manipulation using the classic root trenching approach and targeted ∆14CO2 measurements. For the isotopic measurements, we used a two-end member mass balance approach to determine the fraction of soil respiration from autotrophic and heterotrophic sources. When summed over the course of the growing season, the trenched chamber flux (heterotrophic) accounted for 53 ± 2% of the total control chamber flux. Over the four different 14C sampling periods, the heterotrophic component ranged from 35-55% and the autotrophic component ranges 45-65% of the total flux. Next steps will include assessing the value of the flux partitioning for constraining a simple ecosystem model using a model-data fusion approach to reduce uncertainties in estimates of NPP and simulation of future soil C stocks and fluxes.

  9. Niche partitioning in a sympatric cryptic species complex. (United States)

    Scriven, Jessica J; Whitehorn, Penelope R; Goulson, Dave; Tinsley, Matthew C


    Competition theory states that multiple species should not be able to occupy the same niche indefinitely. Morphologically, similar species are expected to be ecologically alike and exhibit little niche differentiation, which makes it difficult to explain the co-occurrence of cryptic species. Here, we investigated interspecific niche differentiation within a complex of cryptic bumblebee species that co-occur extensively in the United Kingdom. We compared the interspecific variation along different niche dimensions, to determine how they partition a niche to avoid competitive exclusion. We studied the species B. cryptarum, B. lucorum, and B. magnus at a single location in the northwest of Scotland throughout the flight season. Using mitochondrial DNA for species identification, we investigated differences in phenology, response to weather variables and forage use. We also estimated niche region and niche overlap between different castes of the three species. Our results show varying levels of niche partitioning between the bumblebee species along three niche dimensions. The species had contrasting phenologies: The phenology of B. magnus was delayed relative to the other two species, while B. cryptarum had a relatively extended phenology, with workers and males more common than B. lucorum early and late in the season. We found divergent thermal specialisation: In contrast to B. cryptarum and B. magnus, B. lucorum worker activity was skewed toward warmer, sunnier conditions, leading to interspecific temporal variation. Furthermore, the three species differentially exploited the available forage plants: In particular, unlike the other two species, B. magnus fed predominantly on species of heather. The results suggest that ecological divergence in different niche dimensions and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the environment may contribute to the persistence of cryptic species in sympatry. Furthermore, our study suggests that cryptic species provide distinct

  10. Separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium and identified by {alpha}-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, G.J.; Iturbe G, J.L.; Solache-Rios, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Hidalgo (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica


    Plutonium was separated by ionic exchange from irradiated metallic uranium. Solutions of plutonium and uranium were electrodeposited on stainless-steel discs and identified by {alpha}-spectroscopy. Plutonium could be separated from uranium and the fission products. (author).

  11. Partitioning-based mechanisms under personalized differential privacy. (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Xiong, Li; Ji, Zhanglong; Jiang, Xiaoqian


    Differential privacy has recently emerged in private statistical aggregate analysis as one of the strongest privacy guarantees. A limitation of the model is that it provides the same privacy protection for all individuals in the database. However, it is common that data owners may have different privacy preferences for their data. Consequently, a global differential privacy parameter may provide excessive privacy protection for some users, while insufficient for others. In this paper, we propose two partitioning-based mechanisms, privacy-aware and utility-based partitioning, to handle personalized differential privacy parameters for each individual in a dataset while maximizing utility of the differentially private computation. The privacy-aware partitioning is to minimize the privacy budget waste, while utility-based partitioning is to maximize the utility for a given aggregate analysis. We also develop a t-round partitioning to take full advantage of remaining privacy budgets. Extensive experiments using real datasets show the effectiveness of our partitioning mechanisms.

  12. Alternatives for Disposal of Depleted Uranium Waste. (United States)


    minimize silting and root penetration into the cobble. The sand layer of the graded filter will also provide a lateral transport path for moisture to flow ...Form Release Source Model Computer Code Flow Chart .................... 184 E-11 Groundwater Pathway Release Model .. ........ 189 vii It.- ,.p ~ . f...kidney damaged by uranium. The earliest symptom of this damage is an increase in urinary catalase and albuminuria observed in both animals and humans

  13. Spectroscopic Evidence of Uranium Immobilization in Acidic ... (United States)

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6-5.8) conditions using U L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U-C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland process, U immobilization on roots was 2 orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was reoxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication on the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands. There were several former U processing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC. As a result of their operations, uranium has entered the surrounding environments. For example, approximately 45,000 kg o

  14. BTD building uranium mass balance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, S.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Athey, G.F.


    Fifteen test firings of depleted uranium (DU) munitions were made during the qualification study of the new target building at the BTD Range operated by the US Army Combat Systems Test Activity (CSTA) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Following these test firings, the total mass and mass distribution of DU inside the BTD facility was determined to define decontamination requirements for the new target building. 4 references, 17 figures, 17 tables.

  15. Basic characterization of highly enriched uranium by gamma spectrometry


    Nguyen, Cong Tam; Zsigrai, Jozsef


    Gamma-spectrometric methods suitable for the characterization of highly enriched uranium samples encountered in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials are presented. In particular, procedures for determining the 234U, 235U, 238U, 232U and 236U contents and the age of highly enriched uranium are described. Consequently, the total uranium content and isotopic composition can be calculated. For determining the 238U and 232U contents a low background chamber was used. In addition, age dating of...

  16. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennen, T.E.; Glicken, J.


    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints.

  17. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption (United States)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun; Hongyu, Gong; Yujun, Zhang


    Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  18. Texturing formulations for uranium skin decontamination. (United States)

    Belhomme-Henry, Corinne; Phan, Guillaume; Huang, Nicolas; Bouvier, Céline; Rebière, François; Agarande, Michelle; Fattal, Elias


    Since no specific treatment exists in case of cutaneous contamination by radionuclides such as uranium, a nanoemulsion comprising calixarene molecules, known for their good chelation properties, was previously designed. However, this fluid topical form may be not suitable for optimal application on the skin or wounds. To develop a texturing pharmaceutical form for the treatment of wounded skins contaminated by uranium. The formulations consisted in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions, loaded with calixarene molecules. The external phase of the initial liquid nanoemulsion was modified with a combination of thermosensitive gelifying polymers: Poloxamer and HydroxyPropylMethylcellulose (HPMC) or methylcellulose (MC). These new formulations were characterized then tested by ex vivo experiments on Franz cells to prevent uranyl ions diffusion through excoriated pig ear skin explants. Despite strong changes in rheological properties, the physico-chemical characteristics of the new nanoemulsions, such as the size and the zeta potential as well as macroscopic aspect were preserved. In addition, on wounded skin, diffusion of uranyl ions, measured by ICP-MS, was limited to less than 5% for both HPMC and MC nanoemulsions. These results demonstrated that a hybrid formulation of nanoemulsion in hydrogel is efficient to treat uranium skin contamination.

  19. Magnetic graphene based nanocomposite for uranium scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maghrabi, Heba H. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727, Cairo (Egypt); Abdelmaged, Shaimaa M. [Nuclear Materials Authority, 6530 P.O. Box Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Nada, Amr A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727, Cairo (Egypt); Zahran, Fouad, E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Helwan University, 11795, Cairo (Egypt); El-Wahab, Saad Abd; Yahea, Dena [Faculty of Science, Ain shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Hussein, G.M.; Atrees, M.S. [Nuclear Materials Authority, 6530 P.O. Box Maadi, Cairo (Egypt)


    Graphical abstract: Graphical representation of U{sup 6+} adsorption on Magnetic Ferberite-Graphene Nanocomposite. - Highlights: • Synthesis of new magnetic wolframite bimetallic nanostructure on graphene. • A promising adsorption capacity of 455 mg/g was recorded for FG-20 within 60 min at room temperature. • The uranium removal was followed pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm. - Abstract: Magnetic graphene based ferberite nanocomposite was tailored by simple, green, low cost and industrial effective method. The microstructure and morphology of the designed nanomaterials were examined via XRD, Raman, FTIR, TEM, EDX and VSM. The prepared nanocomposites were introduced as a novel adsorbent for uranium ions scavenging from aqueous solution. Different operating conditions of time, pH, initial uranium concentration, adsorbent amount and temperature were investigated. The experimental data shows a promising adsorption capacity. In particular, a maximum value of 455 mg/g was obtained within 60 min at room temperature with adsorption efficiency of 90.5%. The kinetics and isotherms adsorption data were fitted with the pseudo-second order model and Langmuir equation, respectively. Finally, the designed nanocomposites were found to have a great degree of sustainability (above 5 times of profiteering) with a complete maintenance of their parental morphology and adsorption capacity.

  20. Microbes: uranium miners, money makers, problem solvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.L., E-mail: [MIRARCO, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Payne, R.; Kerr, F. [Pele Mountain Resources Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hall, S. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Spiers, G.A. [MIRARCO, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada)


    Bioleaching, the microbial dissolution of minerals, is potentially useful in exploiting a variety of ore deposits, including the lower-grade uraniferous quartz-pebble conglomerate beds of the Quirke Syncline, Elliot Lake, Ontario. The metabolism of chemolithotropic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is dependent on its ability to derive energy and reducing power from the oxidation of ferrous iron. The characteristics of this bacterium, in particular the ability to oxidize both iron and sulphur with an associated high tolerance of low acidity, allow the organism to contribute significantly to bioleaching processes. Under ideal conditions, A. ferrooxidans promotes the oxidation of iron-containing sulphide ore materials, breaking their crystal structure and promoting the dissolution of iron, base metals, as well as uranium, rare earth elements and associated elements of toxicological interest such as arsenic and selenium. The current study documents an overview of the recovery of uranium and rare earth elements to solution, plus investigates the acid generating potential of the solid residues from a series of environmentally controlled, biologically-mediated uranium ore extraction experiments. The findings will be used in the design of larger scale bioleaching experiments to further assess the potential for success of bioleaching as a metallurgical extraction technique potentially leading to minimum maintenance decommissioning strategies for the ore deposits of the Quirke Syncline. (author)

  1. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)


    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  2. Geology of the Cluff Lake uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, C.T.


    The uranium deposits discovered by Amok (Canada) Ltd. in the Cluff Lake area of northwestern Saskatchewan occur at or near the southern edge of the uplifted basement core of the Carswell circular structure. Two types of mineralization, distinguishable by their geological and structural setting and mineral paragenesis, have been recognized. The N-Claude type is characterized by a relatively simple mineral assemblage, consisting of uraninite or pitchblende with coffinite, and is accompanied by variable amounts of graphite and organic matter, and Fe, Cu, Pb and Mo sulphides. Both N and Claude orebodies occur within quartzofeldspathic gneisses of the basement core. On the other hand, the D-type ore has a complex mineral assemblage consisting of: uraninite, pitchblende, thucholite and coffinite, along with native gold and selenium; gold tellurides, and selenides of Pb, Bi, Ni and Co; sulphides of Fe, Cu and Pb; and organic matter. The D orebody occurs within carbonaceous shales at the base of the Athabasca Formation as well as in fault zones in regolithic quartzofeldspathic gneisses above the inverted unconformity. An age of 1050 m.y., which is consistent with a period (circa to 1200 to 1000 m.y.) of widespread hydrothermal activity and uranium mineralization or reworking within and adjacent to the Athabasca Basin, has been obtained from uranium mineralization from the D orebody. Later reworking (circa 470 m.y.) of the mineralization occurred at the intersection of older mineralized shear zones with radial faults produced during meteorite impact.

  3. On the partition dimension of two-component graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we continue investigating the partition dimension for disconnected graphs. We determine the partition dimension for some classes of disconnected graphs G consisting of two components. If G = G 1 ∪ G 2 , then we give the bounds of the partition dimension of G for G 1 = P n or G 1 = C n and also for p ...

  4. Method for chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.


    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  5. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri


    Full Text Available In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments.

  6. New parallel SOR method by domain partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Dexuan [Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences New York Univ., NY (United States)


    In this paper, we propose and analyze a new parallel SOR method, the PSOR method, formulated by using domain partitioning together with an interprocessor data-communication technique. For the 5-point approximation to the Poisson equation on a square, we show that the ordering of the PSOR based on the strip partition leads to a consistently ordered matrix, and hence the PSOR and the SOR using the row-wise ordering have the same convergence rate. However, in general, the ordering used in PSOR may not be {open_quote}consistently ordered{close_quotes}. So, there is a need to analyze the convergence of PSOR directly. In this paper, we present a PSOR theory, and show that the PSOR method can have the same asymptotic rate of convergence as the corresponding sequential SOR method for a wide class of linear systems in which the matrix is {open_quotes}consistently ordered{close_quotes}. Finally, we demonstrate the parallel performance of the PSOR method on four different message passing multiprocessors (a KSR1, the Intel Delta, an Intel Paragon and an IBM SP2), along with a comparison with the point Red-Black and four-color SOR methods.

  7. Bicarbonate Elution of Uranium from Amidoxime-Based Polymer Adsorbents for Sequestering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Horng-Bin [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 USA; Wai, Chien M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 USA; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington 98382 USA; Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington 98382 USA; Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 USA; Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 USA; Das, Sadananda [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA; Mayes, Richard T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA; Janke, Christopher J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA


    Uranium adsorbed on amidoxime-based polyethylene fibers in simulated seawater can be quantitatively eluted using 3 M KHCO3 at 40°C. Thermodynamic calculations are in agreement with the experimental observation that at high bicarbonate concentrations (3 M) uranyl ions bound to amidoxime molecules are converted to uranyl tris-carbonato complex in the aqueous solution. The elution process is basically the reverse reaction of the uranium adsorption process which occurs at a very low bicarbonate concentration (~10-3 M) in seawater. In real seawater experiments, the bicarbonate elution is followed by a NaOH treatment to remove natural organic matter adsorbed on the polymer adsorbent. Using the sequential bicarbonate and NaOH elution, the adsorbent is reusable after rinsing with deionized water and the recycled adsorbent shows no loss of uranium loading capacity based on real seawater experiments.

  8. Microbial reduction of uranium(VI) by anaerobic microorganisms isolated from a former uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Ulrike; Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Arnold, Thuro [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures


    The former uranium mine Koenigstein (Germany) is currently in the process of controlled flooding by reason of remediation purposes. However, the flooding water still contains high concentrations of uranium and other heavy metals. For that reason the water has to be cleaned up by a conventional waste water treatment plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between anaerobic microorganisms and uranium for possible bioremediation approaches, which could be an great alternative for the intensive and expensive waste water treatment. EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) measurements were performed and revealed a complete reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) only by adding 10 mM glycerol.

  9. Study of uranium leaching from industrial residues of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. (INB), Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formiga, Thiago S.; Morais, Carlos A., E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gomiero, Luiz A., E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)


    The uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, has reserves estimated at 100,000 tons of uranium, which is enough to supply Angra I, II and III for 100 more years. The process adopted for the beneficiation of the uranium ore from Lagoa Real is heap leaching, a static process in which the ore is crushed, disposed in heaps and irrigated with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the uranium. This technique has a relatively low cost of implementation, although the yield of uranium recovery is low, with an uranium content in the leached residue of 700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for ores with an initial content of 2,700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. With the deepening of the mine pit, an increase in the carbonate content in the ore was noted, which required a higher acid consumption in the leaching. In order to reduce the concentration of carbonates, a study of the ore concentration by flotation column was accomplished. The flotation reject had high carbonate content, with a uranium content of about 2,300 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in one column and 1,100 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in two columns. This paper presents the study of the leaching process for the recovery of the uranium present in the residue of the heap leaching and in the carbonated residue from the flotation of the anomaly 13 ore. The results indicate the feasibility of treating the waste of the heap leaching through dynamic leaching. The study of the uranium leaching from the flotation residue through acid leaching technique indicated a recovery of 96% of uranium, however with a high consumption of acid, around 450 kg/t, showing that for this case, the most suitable technique for the process is alkaline leaching. (author)

  10. Impacts of Hydrologic and Geochemical Uncertainty on Predicting Uranium Migration at the Hanford 300 Area (United States)

    Chen, X.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Rockhold, M. L.


    In modeling the uranium migration within the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site at the Hanford 300 Area, the model simulations are affected by both the hydrologic and geochemical uncertainties. This study investigates the propagation of both types of uncertainty in the simulation of a uranium desorption experiment using a Monte-Carlo framework. The hydrologic uncertainty arises from estimating the transient flow boundary conditions induced by the dynamics in the Columbia River and the underlying heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity field, while the geochemical uncertainty is a result of limited knowledge in the geochemical reaction processes that take place in field and heterogeneity in source terms and reaction coefficients. We also evaluated the effectiveness of various conditioning data in reducing the uncertainty in the simulated uranium plume. For example, identifying the optimal boundary condition and estimating the 3D hydraulic conductivity field through inversion of concurrent conservative tracer test, and exploring the possibility of including the geophysical and geochemical data available at the site to characterize hydrologic and geochemical heterogeneities. The multi-realization capability of the parallel simulator, PFLOTRAN, enables this computationally demanding task to be completed within a reasonable turn-around time.

  11. Irradiation of organic matter by uranium decay in the Alum Shale, Sweden (United States)

    Lewan, M. D.; Buchardt, B.


    The Alum Shale of Sweden contains black shales with anomalously high uranium concentrations in excess of 100 ppm. Syngenetic or early diagenetic origin of this uranium indicates that organic matter within these shales has been irradiated by decaying uranium for approximately 500 Ma. Radiation-induced polymerization of alkanes through a free-radical cross-linking mechanism appears to be responsible for major alterations within the irradiated organic matter. Specific radiation-induced alterations include generation of condensate-like oils at reduced yields from hydrous pyrolysis experiments, decrease in atomic H/C ratios of kerogens, decrease in bitumen/organic-carbon ratios, and a relative increase in low-molecular weight triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons. Conversely, stable carbon isotopes of kerogens, reflectance of vitrinite-like macerais, oil-generation kinetics, and isomerization of 20R to 20S αα C 29-steranes were not affected by radiation. The radiation dosage needed to cause the alterations observed in the Alum Shale has been estimated to be in excess of 10 5 Mrads with respect to organic carbon. This value is used to estimate the potential for radiation damage to thermally immature organic matter in black shales through the geological rock record. High potential for radiation damage is not likely in Cenozoic and Mesozoic black shales but becomes more likely in lower Paleozoic and Precambrian black shales.

  12. Measurement uncertainty for the determination of uranium in urine by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jichang; Lee, Seungjae; Seol, Jeunggun; Cho, Namchan [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    There is growing concern about measurement of radioactive material because of radiation accidents such as Fukushima NPP accidents. Generally radioactive material cause external and internal radiation exposure. KEPCO NF is interested in internal dosimetry and intensely focuses on establishment of urine analysis which is one of indirect method to estimate internal dosimetry. Urine samples are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In this study, we have focused on evaluating uncertainty for the determination of uranium in urine by ICP-MS. To achieve it, three main uncertainty factors are considered. In the present work, we estimated uncertainty for the determination of uranium in urine by ICP-MS. We considered the uncertainty factors as three parts which were initial volume uncertainty, final volume uncertainty and instrument analysis uncertainty. Then the relative expanded uncertainty of uranium concentration in urine of worker was 9%. From an uncertainty contribution point of view, uncertainties caused by calibration curve and ICP-MS repeatability contribute the most to expanded uncertainty. Therefore, it is essential to maintain ICP-MS clean and use certified standard solution which has low uncertainty when making calibration curve.

  13. Measurement and Analysis of Fission Rates in a Spherical Mockup of Uranium and Polyethylene


    Tong-Hua, Zhu; Chao-Wen, YANG; Xin-Xin, Lu; Rong, Liu; Zi-Jie, Han; Li, Jiang; Mei, Wang


    Measurements of the reaction rate distribution were carried out using two kinds of Plate Micro Fission Chamber(PMFC). The first is a depleted uranium chamber and the second an enriched uranium chamber. The material in the depleted uranium chamber is strictly the same as the material in the uranium assembly. With the equation solution to conduct the isotope contribution correction, the fission rate of 238U and 235U were obtained from the fission rate of depleted uranium and enriched uranium. A...


    Brown, H.S.; Seaborg, G.T.


    The separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and from other substances is described. In general, the method comprises the steps of contacting the uranium with chlorine in the presence of a holdback material selected from the group consisting of lanthanum oxide and thorium oxide to form a uranium chloride higher than uranium tetrachloride, and thereafter heating the uranium chloride thus formed to a temperature at which the uranium chloride is volatilized off but below the volatilizalion temperature of plutonium chloride.

  15. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Todorov, Todor I; Ejnik, John W; Guandalini, Gustavo; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Centeno, Jose A


    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4-7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97-100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n=10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans' semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Methods for obtaining sorption data from uranium-series disequilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnegan, D.L.; Bryant, E.A.


    Two possible methods have been identified for obtaining in situ retardation factors from measurements of uranium-series disequilibria at Yucca Mountain. The first method would make use of the enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in groundwater to derive a signature for exchangeable uranium sorbed on the rock; the exchangeable uranium would be leached and assayed. The second method would use the ratio of {sup 222}Rn to {sup 234}U in solution, corrected for weathering, to infer the retardation factor for uranium. Similar methods could be applied to thorium and radium.

  17. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (United States)

    Todorov, Todor; Ejnik, John W.; Guandalini, Gustavo S.; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry W.; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Centeno, Jose A.


    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2 g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4–7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97–100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n = 10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans’ semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments.

  18. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)


    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  19. Imouraren - uranium leaching tests and specificities with analcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattinne-Morice, A., E-mail: [AREVA - Tour Areva, Paris la Defense (France); Belieres, M. [AREVA - Service d' Etudes de Procede et Analyses (SEPA), Bessines sur Gartempe (France)


    Imouraren is a sedimentary uranium deposit (total > 150 000 tU, average U ~ 0.08 %), located in Niger (~ 100 km from Agadez). Uranium mineralization is trapped in sandstones and is widely oxidized (uranotyle, metatuyamunite), but a part remains reduced (pitchblende, uraninite). The sandstones have a peculiar mineralogical assemblage (analcite partly chloritized) which can affect uranium recovery. Several acid heap leaching tests have been completed to determine the most suitable process parameters. Microscopic studies and XRD analysis performed on fresh ore and on leached residue highlight the complex behavior of uranium and the associated mineralogical families during the tests. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Goldstein, S. Luo, T. L. Ku, and M. T. Murrell


    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the vicinity of the Nopal I uranium ore deposit are used to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes at this site, and also, by analogy, at Yucca Mountain. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 suggest that groundwater flow rates are low (< 10 m/yr). Field tests, well productivity, and uranium isotopic constraints also suggest that groundwater flow and mixing is limited at this site. The uranium isotopic systematics for water collected in the mine adit are consistent with longer rock-water interaction times and higher uranium dissolution rates at the front of the adit where the deposit is located. Short-lived nuclide data for groundwater wells are used to calculate retardation factors that are on the order of 1,000 for radium and 10,000 to 10,000,000 for lead and polonium. Radium has enhanced mobility in adit water and fractures near the deposit.