WorldWideScience

Sample records for estimating forest canopy

  1. Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefsky; David J. Harding; Michael Keller; Warren B. Cohen; Claudia C. Carabajal; Fernando Del Bom; Maria O. Hunter; Raimundo Jr. de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a vital component of the global carbon cycle. Satellite laser altimetry has a unique capability for estimating forest canopy height, which has a direct and increasingly well understood relationship to aboveground carbon storage. While the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land...

  2. ForestCrowns: a transparency estimation tool for digital photographs of forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Winn; Jeff Palmer; S.-M. Lee; Philip Araman

    2016-01-01

    ForestCrowns is a Windows®-based computer program that calculates forest canopy transparency (light transmittance) using ground-based digital photographs taken with standard or hemispherical camera lenses. The software can be used by forest managers and researchers to monitor growth/decline of forest canopies; provide input for leaf area index estimation; measure light...

  3. Estimating foliar biochemistry from hyperspectral data in mixed forest canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, S.; Kneubühler, M.; Psomas, A.; Itten, K.I.; Zimmerman, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating canopy biochemical composition in mixed forests at the level of tree species represents a critical tool for a better understanding and modeling of ecosystem functioning since many species exhibit differences in functional attributes or decomposition rates. We used airborne hyperspectral

  4. Estimating foliar biochemistry from hyperspectral data in mixed forest canopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Kneubühler, Mathias; Psomas, Achilleas

    2008-01-01

    data to estimate the foliar concentration of nitrogen, carbon and water in three mixed forest canopies in Switzerland. With multiple linear regression models, continuum-removed and normalized HyMap spectra were related to foliar biochemistry on an individual tree level. The six spectral wavebands used...

  5. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  6. Estimating canopy cover from standard forest inventory measurements in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne McIntosh; Andrew Gray; Steven. Garman

    2012-01-01

    Reliable measures of canopy cover are important in the management of public and private forests. However, direct sampling of canopy cover is both labor- and time-intensive. More efficient methods for estimating percent canopy cover could be empirically derived relationships between more readily measured stand attributes and canopy cover or, alternatively, the use of...

  7. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Joe Scott; Kathy Gray; James Reardon

    2005-01-01

    Canopy bulk density (CBD) is an important crown characteristic needed to predict crown fire spread, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Presented here is a comprehensive research effort to evaluate six indirect sampling techniques for estimating CBD. As reference data, detailed crown fuel biomass measurements were taken on each tree within fixed-area plots...

  8. CMS: GLAS LiDAR-derived Global Estimates of Forest Canopy Height, 2004-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of forest canopy height derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) LiDAR instrument that was aboard the NASA Ice,...

  9. Forest canopy height estimation using double-frequency repeat pass interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamvasis, Kleanthis; Karathanassi, Vassilia

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made in order to assess forest stand parameters from remote sensing data, as a mean to estimate the above-ground carbon stock of forests in the context of the Kyoto protocol. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) techniques have gained traction in last decade as a viable technology for vegetation parameter estimation. Many works have shown that forest canopy height, which is a critical parameter for quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle, can be estimated with InSAR. However, research is still needed to understand further the interaction of SAR signals with forest canopy and to develop an operational method for forestry applications. This work discusses the use of repeat pass interferometry with ALOS PALSAR (L band) HH polarized and COSMO Skymed (X band) HH polarized acquisitions over the Taxiarchis forest (Chalkidiki, Greece), in order to produce accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) and estimate canopy height with interferometric processing. The effect of wavelength-dependent penetration depth into the canopy is known to be strong, and could potentially lead to forest canopy height mapping using dual-wavelength SAR interferometry at X- and L-band. The method is based on scattering phase center separation at different wavelengths. It involves the generation of a terrain elevation model underneath the forest canopy from repeat-pass L-band InSAR data as well as the generation of a canopy surface elevation model from repeat pass X-band InSAR data. The terrain model is then used to remove the terrain component from the repeat pass interferometric X-band elevation model, so as to enable the forest canopy height estimation. The canopy height results were compared to a field survey with 6.9 m root mean square error (RMSE). The effects of vegetation characteristics, SAR incidence angle and view geometry, and terrain slope on the accuracy of the results have also been studied in this work.

  10. High-Resolution Forest Canopy Height Estimation in an African Blue Carbon Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, David; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Simard, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most productive and carbon dense ecosystems that are only found at tidally inundated coastal areas. Forest canopy height is an important measure for modeling carbon and biomass dynamics, as well as land cover change. By taking advantage of the flat terrain and dense canopy cover, the present study derived digital surface models (DSMs) using stereophotogrammetric techniques on high-resolution spaceborne imagery (HRSI) for southern Mozambique. A mean-weighted ground surface elevation factor was subtracted from the HRSI DSM to accurately estimate the canopy height in mangrove forests in southern Mozambique. The mean and H100 tree height measured in both the field and with the digital canopy model provided the most accurate results with a vertical error of 1.18-1.84 m, respectively. Distinct patterns were identified in the HRSI canopy height map that could not be discerned from coarse shuttle radar topography mission canopy maps even though the mode and distribution of canopy heights were similar over the same area. Through further investigation, HRSI DSMs have the potential of providing a new type of three-dimensional dataset that could serve as calibration/validation data for other DSMs generated from spaceborne datasets with much larger global coverage. HSRI DSMs could be used in lieu of Lidar acquisitions for canopy height and forest biomass estimation, and be combined with passive optical data to improve land cover classifications.

  11. Mapping Forest Canopy Height Across Large Areas by Upscaling ALS Estimates with Freely Available Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Wilkes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Operational assessment of forest structure is an on-going challenge for land managers, particularly over large, remote or inaccessible areas. Here, we present an easily adopted method for generating a continuous map of canopy height at a 30 m resolution, demonstrated over 2.9 million hectares of highly heterogeneous forest (canopy height 0–70 m in Victoria, Australia. A two-stage approach was utilized where Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS derived canopy height, captured over ~18% of the study area, was used to train a regression tree ensemble method; random forest. Predictor variables, which have a global coverage and are freely available, included Landsat Thematic Mapper (Tasselled Cap transformed, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data and other ancillary datasets. Reflectance variables were further processed to extract additional spatial and temporal contextual and textural variables. Modeled canopy height was validated following two approaches; (i random sample cross validation; and (ii with 108 inventory plots from outside the ALS capture extent. Both the cross validation and comparison with inventory data indicate canopy height can be estimated with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of ≤ 31% (~5.6 m at the 95th percentile confidence interval. Subtraction of the systematic component of model error, estimated from training data error residuals, rescaled canopy height values to more accurately represent the response variable distribution tails e.g., tall and short forest. Two further experiments were carried out to test the applicability and scalability of the presented method. Results suggest that (a no improvement in canopy height estimation is achieved when models were constructed and validated for smaller geographic areas, suggesting there is no upper limit to model scalability; and (b training data can be captured over a small

  12. Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joetzjer, E.; Pillet, M.; Ciais, P.; Barbier, N.; Chave, J.; Schlund, M.; Maignan, F.; Barichivich, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Hérault, B.; von Poncet, F.; Poulter, B.

    2017-07-01

    Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.

  13. Forest canopy water fluxes can be estimated using canopy structure metrics derived from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes; Christiansen, Jesper Riis

    2015-01-01

    Forests contribute to improve water quality, affect drinking water resources, and therefore influence water supply on a regional level. The forest canopy structure affects the retention of precipitation (Pr) in the canopy and hence the amount of water transferred to the forest floor termed canopy...... throughfall (TF). We investigated the possibilities of estimating TF based on bulk Pr and canopy structure estimated from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Bulk Pr and TF fluxes combined with airborne LiDAR data from 11 locations representing the most common forest types (mono......-species broadleaf/coniferous and mixed forests) in Denmark were used to develop empirical models to estimate TF on a monthly, seasonal, and annual basis. This new approach offers the opportunity to greatly improve predictions of TF on catchment wide scales. Overall, results show that TF can be estimated by Pr...

  14. Estimating under-canopy ablation in a subalpine red-fir forest, southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, P. B.; Bales, R. C.; Rice, R.; Musselman, K. N.; Molotch, N. P.

    2010-12-01

    approach provides a basis for estimating under canopy ablation and, in conjunction with MODSCAG estimates of snow covered area in forest gaps, an accurate prediction of total snow cover in forested areas.

  15. Estimation of tropical forest canopy temperatures, thermal response numbers, and evapotranspiration using an aircraft-based thermal sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Lieberman, Diana; Lieberman, Milton; Hartshorn, Gary S.; Peralta, Rodolfo

    1990-01-01

    Thermal infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were collected at a resolution of 5 to 10 m from a tropical rain forest over an elevation gradient from 35 to 2700 m in the Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. Flight lines were repeated with a 15 to 30 minute time difference for measurement of forest canopy thermal response over time. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air temperature and moisture provided inputs to LOWTRAN6 for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Techniques for using calibrated aircraft-based thermal scanner data to examine tropical forest canopy thermal properties are described. Forest canopy temperature changes over time assessed between repeated, duplicated flight lines were combined with estimates of surface radiative energy measurements from towers above the forest canopy to determine temperature spatial variability, calculate Thermal Response Numbers (TRN), and estimate evapotranspiration along the elevation gradient from selected one hectare forest inventory plots.

  16. Estimating Canopy Height of a Temperate Forest from TanDEM-X and LVIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W.; Dubayah, R.; Kugler, F.

    2014-12-01

    The recently launched TanDEM-X mission is the first single-pass polarimetric interferometer in space allowing global estimation of forest parameters without any temporal decorrelation. This study investigates the potential of single-polarized TanDEM-X data for forest height inversion and structure characterization. For this purpose, a temperate forest - Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire is chosen for experiment. Stripmap-mode HH-polarized TanDEM-X bistatic data (with resolution at 3 m) acquired at different baselines was used. LVIS data was applied to remove the ground phase component of the TanDEM-X interferogram and to validate the derived results. Forest parameters, e.g. canopy height and extinction coefficient were estimated based on Random Volume over Ground (RVoG) model. Scattering phase height (SPH) was also calculated and validated against LVIS rh100. A clear correlation was observed between TanDEM-X SPH and the reference height with an r2 of around 0.6 at 150m resolution. The inverted tree height had an RMSE of less than 3.4 m and an r2 of around 0.7 at the same resolution. It is shown that TanDEM-X data has great potential for improving the understanding and quantification of global forest canopy height and structure.

  17. Integration of lidar and Landsat ETM+ data for estimating and mapping forest canopy height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Michael A. Lefsky; Warren B. Cohen; Mercedes Berterretche

    2002-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data provide accurate measurements of forest canopy structure in the vertical plane; however, current LIDAR sensors have limited coverage in the horizontal plane. Landsat data provide extensive coverage of generalized forest structural classes in the horizontal plane but are relatively insensitive to variation in forest canopy height...

  18. Estimating sources, sinks and fluxes of reactive atmospheric compounds within a forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannam, K.; Duman, T.; Walker, J. T.; Bash, J. O.; Huang, C. W.; Khlystov, A.; Katul, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    While few dispute the significance of within-canopy sources or sinks of reactive gaseous and particulate compounds, their estimation continues to be the subject of active research and debate. Reactive species undergo turbulent dispersion within an inhomogeneous flow field, and may be subjected to chemical, biological and/or physical deposition, emissions or transformations on leaves, woody elements, and the forest floor. This system involves chemical reactions and biological processes with multiple time scales and represents the terrestrial ecosystem's exposure to nutrient and acid deposition and atmospheric oxidants. The quantification of these processes is a first step in better understanding the ecological impact of air pollution and feedback to atmospheric composition. Hence, it follows that direct measurements of sources or sinks is difficult to conduct in the presence of all these processes. However, mean scalar concentration profiles measured within the canopy can be used to infer the profile distribution of effective sinks and sources if the flow field is known. This is commonly referred to as the 'inverse problem'. In-canopy and above-canopy multi-level concentration measurements of reactive nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitric acid, nitrous acid), as well as other compounds that are highly reactive to ammonia and its secondary products (hydrochloric acid and sulfur dioxide), are presented within a deciduous second-growth 180 year old oak-hickory forest situated within the Southeastern U.S. Two different approaches are used to solve for the source-sink distribution from the measured mean scalar concentration profiles: (1) an Eulerian high-order closure model that solves the scalar flux budget equation and (2) a new Lagrangian stochastic model that estimates the dispersion matrix. As each of these methods is subject to different assumptions, the combination of the two can be used to constrain the solution to the inverse problem and permit inference on the

  19. A polar grid estimator of forest canopy structure metrics using airborne laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas R. Vaughn; Greg P. Asner; Christian P. Giardina

    2013-01-01

    The structure of a forest canopy is the key determinant of light transmission, use and understory availability. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been used successfully to measure multiple canopy structural properties, thereby greatly reducing the fieldwork required to map spatial variation in structure. However, lidar metrics to date do not reflect the...

  20. The accuracy of large-area forest canopy cover estimation using Landsat in boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi; Korhonen, Lauri; Hovi, Aarne; Rönnholm, Petri; Rautiainen, Miina

    2016-12-01

    Large area prediction of continuous field of tree cover i.e., canopy cover (CC) using Earth observation data is of high interest in practical forestry, ecology, and climate change mitigation activities. We report the accuracy of using Landsat images for CC prediction in boreal forests validated with field reference plots (N = 250) covering large variation in latitude, forest structure, species composition, and site type. We tested two statistical models suitable for estimating CC: the beta regression (BetaReg) and random forest (RanFor). Landsat-based predictors utilized include individual bands, spectral vegetation indices (SVI), and Tasseled cap (Tass) features. Additionally, we tested an alternative model based on spectral mixture analysis (SMA). Finally, we carried out a first validation in boreal forests of the recently published Landsat Tree Cover Continuous (TCC) global product. Results showed simple BetaReg with red band reflectance provided the highest prediction accuracy (leave-site-out RMSECV 13.7%; R2CV 0.59; biasCV 0.5%). Spectral transformations into SVI and Tass did not improve accuracy. Including additional predictors did not significantly improve accuracy either. Nonlinear model RanFor did not outperform BetaReg. The alternative SMA model did not outperform the empirical models. However, empirical models cannot resolve the underestimation of high cover and overestimation of low cover. SMA prediction errors appeared less dependent on forest structure, while there seemed to be a potential for improvement by accounting for endmember variability of different tree species. Finally, using temporally concurrent observations, we showed the reasonably good accuracy of Landsat TCC product in boreal forests (RMSE 13.0%; R2 0.53; bias -2.1%), however with a tendency to underestimate high cover.

  1. Challenges to estimating tree height via LiDAR in closed-canopy forest: a parable from western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Jeremy S. Fried; Vicente S. Monleon

    2010-01-01

    We examine the accuracy of tree height estimates obtained via light detection and ranging (LiDAR) in a temperate rainforest characterized by complex terrain, steep slopes, and high canopy cover. The evaluation was based on precise top and base locations for > 1,000 trees in 45 plots distributed across three forest types, a dense network of ground elevation...

  2. Remotely sensed estimation of forest canopy density: A comparison of the performance of four methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, C.; Leeuw, de J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Duren, van I.C.; Oosten, van H.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a number of alternative methods have been proposed to predict forest canopy density from remotely sensed data. To date, however, it remains difficult to decide which method to use, since their relative performance has never been evaluated. In this study the performance of: (1) an

  3. Radiative transfer modeling within a heterogeneous canopy for estimation of forest fire fuel properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetz, B.; Schaepman, M.E.; Morsdorf, F.; Bowyer, P.; Itten, K.I.; Allgower, B.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer data were acquired over conifer stands to retrieve spatially distributed information on canopy structure and foliage water content, which may be used to assess fire risk and to manage the impact of forest fires. The study relied on a comprehensive field campaign using stratified

  4. Canopy height estimation in French Guiana with LiDAR ICESat/GLAS data using principal component analysis and random forest regressions

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Fayad; Nicolas Baghdadi; Jean-Stéphane Bailly; Nicolas Barbier; Valéry Gond; Mahmoud El Hajj; Frédéric Fabre; Bernard Bourgine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Estimating forest canopy height from large-footprint satellite LiDAR waveforms is challenging given the complex interaction between LiDAR waveforms, terrain, and vegetation, especially in dense tropical and equatorial forests. In this study, canopy height in French Guiana was estimated using multiple linear regression models and the Random Forest technique (RF). This analysis was either based on LiDAR waveform metrics extracted from the GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter...

  5. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  6. Estimating Canopy Gap Fraction Using ICESat GLAS within Australian Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Mahoney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne laser altimetry waveform estimates of canopy Gap Fraction (GF vary with respect to discrete return airborne equivalents due to their greater sensitivity to reflectance differences between canopy and ground surfaces resulting from differences in footprint size, energy thresholding, noise characteristics and sampling geometry. Applying scaling factors to either the ground or canopy portions of waveforms has successfully circumvented this issue, but not at large scales. This study develops a method to scale spaceborne altimeter waveforms by identifying which remotely-sensed vegetation, terrain and environmental attributes are best suited to predicting scaling factors based on an independent measure of importance. The most important attributes were identified as: soil phosphorus and nitrogen contents, vegetation height, MODIS vegetation continuous fields product and terrain slope. Unscaled and scaled estimates of GF are compared to corresponding ALS data for all available data and an optimized subset, where the latter produced most encouraging results (R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 0.10. This methodology shows potential for successfully refining estimates of GF at large scales and identifies the most suitable attributes for deriving appropriate scaling factors. Large-scale active sensor estimates of GF can establish a baseline from which future monitoring investigations can be initiated via upcoming Earth Observation missions.

  7. Canopy Height Estimation in French Guiana with LiDAR ICESat/GLAS Data Using Principal Component Analysis and Random Forest Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fayad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimating forest canopy height from large-footprint satellite LiDAR waveforms is challenging given the complex interaction between LiDAR waveforms, terrain, and vegetation, especially in dense tropical and equatorial forests. In this study, canopy height in French Guiana was estimated using multiple linear regression models and the Random Forest technique (RF. This analysis was either based on LiDAR waveform metrics extracted from the GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System spaceborne LiDAR data and terrain information derived from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM (Digital Elevation Model or on Principal Component Analysis (PCA of GLAS waveforms. Results show that the best statistical model for estimating forest height based on waveform metrics and digital elevation data is a linear regression of waveform extent, trailing edge extent, and terrain index (RMSE of 3.7 m. For the PCA based models, better canopy height estimation results were observed using a regression model that incorporated both the first 13 principal components (PCs and the waveform extent (RMSE = 3.8 m. Random Forest regressions revealed that the best configuration for canopy height estimation used all the following metrics: waveform extent, leading edge, trailing edge, and terrain index (RMSE = 3.4 m. Waveform extent was the variable that best explained canopy height, with an importance factor almost three times higher than those for the other three metrics (leading edge, trailing edge, and terrain index. Furthermore, the Random Forest regression incorporating the first 13 PCs and the waveform extent had a slightly-improved canopy height estimation in comparison to the linear model, with an RMSE of 3.6 m. In conclusion, multiple linear regressions and RF regressions provided canopy height estimations with similar precision using either LiDAR metrics or PCs. However, a regression model (linear regression or RF based on the PCA of waveform samples with waveform

  8. Is methane released from the forest canopy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Ambus, Per

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that rates of CH4 emission from plant material depend exponentially on temperature and linearly on UV irradiance. The UV irradiance shall be spectrally weighted and shorter wavelengths results in higher CH4 emissions. Global upscaling models for estimating aerobic CH4......, based on lab results, have be conducted with varying results, but until now field measurements based on profile and eddy covariance measurements have failed to show CH4 emissions from forest canopies. To detect CH4 production or consumption in the canopy of a beech stand we connected a CH4 analyzer...... indications of periodic CH4 emissions in the canopy, but more data need to be analyzed before the magnitude of the canopy source of CH4 can be established....

  9. Comparison of Aerial and Terrestrial Remote Sensing Techniques for Quantifying Forest Canopy Structural Complexity and Estimating Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, R. T.; Tallant, J.; Gough, C. M.; Hardiman, B. S.; Atkins, J.; Scheuermann, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Canopy structure can be an important driver of forest ecosystem functioning - affecting factors such as radiative transfer and light use efficiency, and consequently net primary production (NPP). Both above- (aerial) and below-canopy (terrestrial) remote sensing techniques are used to assess canopy structure and each has advantages and disadvantages. Aerial techniques can cover large geographical areas and provide detailed information on canopy surface and canopy height, but are generally unable to quantitatively assess interior canopy structure. Terrestrial methods provide high resolution information on interior canopy structure and can be cost-effectively repeated, but are limited to very small footprints. Although these methods are often utilized to derive similar metrics (e.g., rugosity, LAI) and to address equivalent ecological questions and relationships (e.g., link between LAI and productivity), rarely are inter-comparisons made between techniques. Our objective is to compare methods for deriving canopy structural complexity (CSC) metrics and to assess the capacity of commonly available aerial remote sensing products (and combinations) to match terrestrially-sensed data. We also assess the potential to combine CSC metrics with image-based analysis to predict plot-based NPP measurements in forests of different ages and different levels of complexity. We use combinations of data from drone-based imagery (RGB, NIR, Red Edge), aerial LiDAR (commonly available medium-density leaf-off), terrestrial scanning LiDAR, portable canopy LiDAR, and a permanent plot network - all collected at the University of Michigan Biological Station. Our results will highlight the potential for deriving functionally meaningful CSC metrics from aerial imagery, LiDAR, and combinations of data sources. We will also present results of modeling focused on predicting plot-level NPP from combinations of image-based vegetation indices (e.g., NDVI, EVI) with LiDAR- or image-derived metrics of

  10. Revised method for forest canopy height estimation from Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefskya; Michael Keller; Yong Panga; Plinio B. de Camargod; Maria O. Hunter

    2007-01-01

    The vertical extent of waveforms collected by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (onboard ICESat - the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) increases as a function of terrain slope and footprint size (the area on the ground that is illuminated by the laser). Over sloped terrain, returns from both canopy and ground surfaces can occur at the same elevation. As a...

  11. Estimating canopy cover in forest stands used by Mexican spotted owls: Do stand-exam routines provide estimates comparable to field-based techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Regis H. Cassidy; William M. Block

    2008-01-01

    Canopy cover has been identified as an important correlate of Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) habitat, yet management guidelines in a 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery plan for the Mexican spotted owl did not address canopy cover. These guidelines emphasized parameters included in U.S. Forest Service stand exams, and...

  12. An energy balance model for forest canopies: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. M. Goltz; James A. Smith

    1996-01-01

    The use of thermal scanning devices to map underlying terrain surface temperatures has been recognized as a potential tool for estimating evapotranspiration and latent heat flux densities in forest canopies.

  13. Wet canopy evaporation from a Puerto Rican lower montane rain forest: the importance of realistically estimated aerodynamic conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Holwerda; L.A. Bruijnzeel; F.N. Scatena; H.F. Vugts; A.G.C.A. Meesters

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall interception (I) was measured in 20 m tall Puerto Rican tropical forest with complex topography for a 1-year period using totalizing throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) gauges that were measured every 2–3 days. Measured values were then compared to evaporation under saturated canopy conditions (E) determined with the Penman–Monteith (P–M) equation, using (i)...

  14. Forests and Their Canopies: Achievements and Horizons in Canopy Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Kitching, Roger L; Cao, Min; Creedy, Thomas J; Fayle, Tom M; Freiberg, Martin; Hewitt, C N; Itioka, Takao; Koh, Lian Pin; Ma, Keping; Malhi, Yadvinder; Mitchell, Andrew; Novotny, Vojtech; Ozanne, Claire M P; Song, Liang; Wang, Han; Ashton, Louise A

    2017-06-01

    Forest canopies are dynamic interfaces between organisms and atmosphere, providing buffered microclimates and complex microhabitats. Canopies form vertically stratified ecosystems interconnected with other strata. Some forest biodiversity patterns and food webs have been documented and measurements of ecophysiology and biogeochemical cycling have allowed analyses of large-scale transfer of CO2, water, and trace gases between forests and the atmosphere. However, many knowledge gaps remain. With global research networks and databases, and new technologies and infrastructure, we envisage rapid advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the spatial and temporal dynamics of forests and their canopies. Such understanding is vital for the successful management and conservation of global forests and the ecosystem services they provide to the world. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in Alpine Forests: A Semi-Empirical Approach Considering Canopy Transparency Derived from Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rutzinger

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model that was originally developed for stem volume estimation is used for aboveground biomass (AGB estimation of a spruce dominated alpine forest. The reference AGB of the available sample plots is calculated from forest inventory data by means of biomass expansion factors. Furthermore, the semi-empirical model is extended by three different canopy transparency parameters derived from airborne LiDAR data. These parameters have not been considered for stem volume estimation until now and are introduced in order to investigate the behavior of the model concerning AGB estimation. The developed additional input parameters are based on the assumption that transparency of vegetation can be measured by determining the penetration of the laser beams through the canopy. These parameters are calculated for every single point within the 3D point cloud in order to consider the varying properties of the vegetation in an appropriate way. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA is performed to evaluate the influence of the additional LiDAR derived canopy transparency parameters for AGB estimation. The study is carried out in a 560 km2 alpine area in Austria, where reference forest inventory data and LiDAR data are available. The investigations show that the introduction of the canopy transparency parameters does not change the results significantly according to R2 (R2 = 0.70 to R2 = 0.71 in comparison to the results derived from, the semi-empirical model, which was originally developed for stem volume estimation.

  16. Estimating Canopy Dark Respiration for Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje Mejia, Oscar Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Crop production is obtained from accurate estimates of daily carbon gain.Canopy gross photosynthesis (Pgross) can be estimated from biochemical models of photosynthesis using sun and shaded leaf portions and the amount of intercepted photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR).In turn, canopy daily net carbon gain can be estimated from canopy daily gross photosynthesis when canopy dark respiration (Rd) is known.

  17. Application of Physically-Based Slope Correction for Maximum Forest Canopy Height Estimation Using Waveform Lidar across Different Footprint Sizes and Locations: Tests on LVIS and GLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Taejin Park; Robert E. Kennedy; Sungho Choi; Jianwei Wu; Lefsky, Michael A.; Jian Bi; Joshua A. Mantooth; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yuri Knyazikhin

    2014-01-01

    Forest canopy height is an important biophysical variable for quantifying carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Active light detection and ranging (lidar) sensors with discrete-return or waveform lidar have produced reliable measures of forest canopy height. However, rigorous procedures are required for an accurate estimation, especially when using waveform lidar, since backscattered signals are likely distorted by topographic conditions within the footprint. Based on extracted waveform p...

  18. Estimation of Forest Canopy Attenuation at L-band by a Time-Domain Analysis of Radar Backscatter Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new technique for determining the canopy attenuation, using the measured stepped frequency radar backscatter response, is proposed. It employs details found in a transient solution where the canopy (volume scattering) and the tree-ground (double interaction) effects appear at different times in th...

  19. Electromagnetic wave extinction within a forested canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    A forested canopy is modeled by a collection of randomly oriented finite-length cylinders shaded by randomly oriented and distributed disk- or needle-shaped leaves. For a plane wave exciting the forested canopy, the extinction coefficient is formulated in terms of the extinction cross sections (ECSs) in the local frame of each forest component and the Eulerian angles of orientation (used to describe the orientation of each component). The ECSs in the local frame for the finite-length cylinders used to model the branches are obtained by using the forward-scattering theorem. ECSs in the local frame for the disk- and needle-shaped leaves are obtained by the summation of the absorption and scattering cross-sections. The behavior of the extinction coefficients with the incidence angle is investigated numerically for both deciduous and coniferous forest. The dependencies of the extinction coefficients on the orientation of the leaves are illustrated numerically.

  20. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.

    2010-01-01

    a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...

  1. Summertime canopy albedo is sensitive to forest thinning

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, J.; Berveiller, D.; F. M. Bréon; Delpierre, N.; Geppert, G.; Granier, A.; Jans, W.W.P.; Knohl, A.; MOORS, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an emerging body of literature linking canopy albedo to forest management, understanding of the process is still fragmented. We combined a stand-level forest gap model with a canopy radiation transfer model and satellite-derived model parameters to quantify the effects of forest thinning, that is removing trees at a certain time during the forest rotation, on summertime canopy albedo. The effects of different forest species (pine, beech, oak) and four thinning strategies (light to int...

  2. Leaf-on canopy closure in broadleaf deciduous forests predicted during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Ayala, Andrea J.; Shickel, Madeline R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest canopy influences light transmittance, which in turn affects tree regeneration and survival, thereby having an impact on forest composition and habitat conditions for wildlife. Because leaf area is the primary impediment to light penetration, quantitative estimates of canopy closure are normally made during summer. Studies of forest structure and wildlife habitat that occur during winter, when deciduous trees have shed their leaves, may inaccurately estimate canopy closure. We estimated percent canopy closure during both summer (leaf-on) and winter (leaf-off) in broadleaf deciduous forests in Mississippi and Louisiana using gap light analysis of hemispherical photographs that were obtained during repeat visits to the same locations within bottomland and mesic upland hardwood forests and hardwood plantation forests. We used mixed-model linear regression to predict leaf-on canopy closure from measurements of leaf-off canopy closure, basal area, stem density, and tree height. Competing predictive models all included leaf-off canopy closure (relative importance = 0.93), whereas basal area and stem density, more traditional predictors of canopy closure, had relative model importance of ≤ 0.51.

  3. Summertime canopy albedo is sensitive to forest thinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, J.; Berveiller, D.; Bréon, F.M.; Delpierre, N.; Geppert, G.; Granier, A.; Jans, W.W.P.; Knohl, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an emerging body of literature linking canopy albedo to forest management, understanding of the process is still fragmented. We combined a stand-level forest gap model with a canopy radiation transfer model and satellite-derived model parameters to quantify the effects of forest thinning,

  4. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height Estimates from Remote Imagery, Zambezi Delta, Mozambique

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides high resolution canopy height estimates for mangrove forests in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique, Africa. The estimates were derived from three...

  5. Canopy dynamics of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The canopy dynamics (i.e. the formation and closure of canopy gaps) of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana are described. The formation of canopy gaps is investigated. The difficulties with gap size measurements are studied, and causes and consequences of treefalls and branchfalls are

  6. Effects of canopy photosynthesis saturation on the estimation of gross primary productivity from MODIS data in a tropical forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propastin, P.; Ibrom, Andreas; Knohl, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gross primary production (GPP) product (GPPMOD17A2) was evaluated against GPP from the eddy covariance flux measurements (GPPm) at a CO2 flux tower test site in a tropical rainforest in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The dynamics of 8-day GPPMOD17A2...... global GPP at the example of a moist tropical rain forest in Indonesia and demonstrated a potential need for MOD17 enhancement....

  7. Comparing alternative tree canopy cover estimates derived from digital aerial photography and field-based assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2012-01-01

    A spatially-explicit representation of live tree canopy cover, such as the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) percent tree canopy cover layer, is a valuable tool for many applications, such as defining forest land, delineating wildlife habitat, estimating carbon, and modeling fire risk and behavior. These layers are generated by predictive models wherein their accuracy...

  8. ForestCrowns: a software tool for analyzing ground-based digital photographs of forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Sang-Mook Lee; Phillip A. Araman

    2013-01-01

    Canopy coverage is a key variable used to characterize forest structure. In addition, the light transmitted through the canopy is an important ecological indicator of plant and animal habitat and understory climate conditions. A common ground-based method used to document canopy coverage is to take digital photographs from below the canopy. To assist with analyzing...

  9. Canopy structure on forest lands in western Oregon: differences among forest types and stand ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne C.S. McIntosh; Andrew N. Gray; Steven L. Garman

    2009-01-01

    Canopy structure is an important attribute affecting economic and ecological values of forests in the Pacific Northwest. However, canopy cover and vertical layering are rarely measured directly; they are usually inferred from other forest measurements. In this study, we quantified and compared vertical and horizontal patterns of tree canopy structure and understory...

  10. Canopy Surface Reconstruction and Tropical Forest Parameters Prediction from Airborne Laser Scanner for Large Forest Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Yang, Z.; Chen, Y.; Wang, C.; Qian, J.; Yang, Q.; Chen, X.; Lei, J.

    2017-10-01

    Canopy height model(CHM) and tree mean height are critical forestry parameters that many other parameters such as growth, carbon sequestration, standing timber volume, and biomass can be derived from. LiDAR is a new method used to rapidly estimate these parameters over large areas. The estimation of these parameters has been derived successfully from CHM. However, a number of challenges limit the accurate retrieval of tree height and crowns, especially in tropical forest area. In this study, an improved canopy estimation model is proposed based on dynamic moving window that applied on LiDAR point cloud data. DEM, DSM and CHM of large tropical forest area can be derived from LiDAR data effectively and efficiently.

  11. [Turbulent characteristics in forest canopy under atmospheric neutral condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yi-Wei; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Pei, Tie-Fan

    2010-02-01

    Based on the micrometeorological data of broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain in 2003, a second-order closure model was employed to calculate and analyze the turbulent characteristics within and above the canopy of the forest. The calculated mean wind profile was coincident with the measured one. The Reynolds stress within the forest was significantly attenuated. The turbulent strength, velocity flux, and skew were the largest at forest-atmosphere interface, as well the wind shear. With the increase of velocity skew, the turbulent intermittence became more significant, and the downward turbulent eddy within the canopy was limited. Most of the turbulent deeply within the forest canopy was produced by the non-local contributions above the canopy.

  12. Bias in lidar-based canopy gap fraction estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaccari, S.; Leeuwen, van M.; Calders, K.; Coops, N.C.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf area index and canopy gap fraction (GF) provide important information to forest managers regarding the ecological functioning and productivity of forest resources. Traditional measurements such as those obtained from hemispherical photography (HP) measure solar irradiation, penetrating the

  13. Application of Physically-Based Slope Correction for Maximum Forest Canopy Height Estimation Using Waveform Lidar across Different Footprint Sizes and Locations: Tests on LVIS and GLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taejin Park

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopy height is an important biophysical variable for quantifying carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Active light detection and ranging (lidar sensors with discrete-return or waveform lidar have produced reliable measures of forest canopy height. However, rigorous procedures are required for an accurate estimation, especially when using waveform lidar, since backscattered signals are likely distorted by topographic conditions within the footprint. Based on extracted waveform parameters, we explore how well a physical slope correction approach performs across different footprint sizes and study sites. The data are derived from airborne (Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor; LVIS and spaceborne (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System; GLAS lidar campaigns. Comparisons against field measurements show that LVIS data can satisfactorily provide a proxy for maximum forest canopy heights (n = 705, RMSE = 4.99 m, and R2 = 0.78, and the simple slope correction grants slight accuracy advancement in the LVIS canopy height retrieval (RMSE of 0.39 m improved. In the same vein of the LVIS with relatively smaller footprint size (~20 m, substantial progress resulted from the physically-based correction for the GLAS (footprint size = ~50 m. When compared against reference LVIS data, RMSE and R2 for the GLAS metrics (n = 527 are improved from 12.74–7.83 m and from 0.54–0.63, respectively. RMSE of 5.32 m and R2 of 0.80 are finally achieved without 38 outliers (n = 489. From this study, we found that both LVIS and GLAS lidar campaigns could be benefited from the physical correction approach, and the magnitude of accuracy improvement was determined by footprint size and terrain slope.

  14. Soil carbon estimation from eucalyptus grandis using canopy spectra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping soil fertility parameters, such as soil carbon (C), is fundamentally important for forest management and research related to forest growth and climate change. This study seeks to establish the link between Eucalyptus grandis canopy spectra and soil carbon using raw and continuum-removed spectra. Canopy-level ...

  15. Forest canopy BRDF simulation using Monte Carlo method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Wu, B.; Zeng, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Monte Carlo method is a random statistic method, which has been widely used to simulate the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of vegetation canopy in the field of visible remote sensing. The random process between photons and forest canopy was designed using Monte Carlo method.

  16. The canopy spiders (Araneae of the floodplain forest in Leipzig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The canopy spiders of the floodplain forest in Leipzig have become a focus of ecological studies in recent years. In 2006 we sampled 30 tree canopies in the ‘Burgaue’ nature reserve with pyrethrum knock-down fogging, recording 502 adult spiders belonging to 48 species and 11 families. Based on these data and the results of a previous fogging study, the studied spider community was dominated by forest and forest-edge species with a preference for the shrub and canopy strata as well as by spiders of the web spider feeding guild. The community structure was typical for arboreal spider communities from northern temperate forests but very different from communities in the tropics. Species richness and evenness were similar to the old growth near-primary Białowieża Forest in Poland. The checklist of 96 canopy spider species of the floodplain forest of Leipzig includes 54 additions to the spider fauna of Leipzig and vicinity by recent canopy studies and eight first canopy records for Leipzig from our field work. The theridiid Dipoena torva (Thorell, 1875 was recorded for the first time in Saxony. The floodplain forest of Leipzig sustains a large and species-rich arboreal spider community and is thus a valuable habitat for a large proportion of endangered species (12%.

  17. Forests and their canopies: Archievements and horizons in canopy science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakamura, A.; Kitching, R. L.; Cao, M.; Creedy, T. J.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Freiberg, M.; Hewitt, C. N.; Itioka, T.; Koh, L. P.; Ma, K.; Malhi, Y.; Mitchell, A.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Ozanne, C. M. P.; Song, L.; Wang, H.; Ashton, L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2017), s. 438-451 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09427S; GA ČR GB14-36098G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * canopy * cranes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 15.268, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534717300599

  18. ASSESSMENT OF MANGROVE FOREST DEGRADATION THROUGH CANOPY FRACTIONAL COVER IN KARIMUNJAWA ISLAND, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Karimunjawa Islands mangrove forest has been subjected to various direct and indirect human disturbances in the recent years. If not properly managed, this disturbance will lead to the degradation of mangrove habitat health. Assessing forest canopy fractional cover (fc using remote sensing data is one way of measuring mangrove forest degradation. This study aims to (1 estimate the forest canopy fc using a semi-empirical method, (2 assess the accuracy of the fc estimation and (3 create mangrove forest degradation from the canopy fc results. A sample set of in-situ fc was collected using the hemispherical camera for model development and accuracy assessment purposes. We developed semi-empirical relationship models between pixel values of ALOS AVNIR-2 image (10m pixel size and field fc, using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI as a proxy of the image spectral response. The results show that the EVI provides reasonable estimation accuracy of mangrove canopy fc in Karimunjawa Island with the values ranged from 0.17 to 0.96 (n = 69. The low fc values correspond to vegetation opening and gaps caused by human activities or mangrove dieback. The high fc values correspond to the healthy and dense mangrove stands, especially the Rhizophora sp formation at the seafront. The results of this research justify the use of simple canopy fractional cover model for assessing the mangrove forest degradation status in the study area. Further research is needed to test the applicability of this approach at different sites.

  19. Effects of species selection and management on forest canopy albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Juliane; Berveiller, Daniel; Bréon, François-Marie; Delpierre, Nicolas; Geppert , Gernot; Granier, André; Gunia, Katja; Jans, Wilma; Knohl, Alexander; Kuusk, Andres; Longdoz, Bernard; Moors, Eddy; Mund, Martina; Pinty, Bernard; Rautiainen, Miina

    2013-01-01

    Forest management is considered to be one of the key instruments available to mitigate climate change as it can lead to increased sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, the changes in canopy albedo may neutralise or offset the climate benefits of carbon sequestration. Although there is an emerging body of literature linking canopy albedo to management, understanding is still fragmented. We make use of a generally applicable approach: we combine a stand-level forest gap model wi...

  20. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-04-23

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  1. Emergence time in forest bats: the influence of canopy closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Danilo; Cistrone, Luca; Jones, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    The role of the forest canopy in protecting bats roosting in forest from predators is poorly known. We analysed the effect of canopy closure on emergence time in Barbastella barbastellus in a mountainous area of central Italy. We used radio-tracking to locate roosts and filmed evening emergence. Comparisons were made between roosts in open areas and those in dense forest. Median emergence time and illuminance were correlated. Moreover, from pregnancy to late lactation bats emerged progressively earlier, probably because of the exceptionally high wing loading affecting pregnant bats and the high energy demand of lactation. A significant influence of canopy closure on median emergence time was revealed after adjusting for the effects of light and reproductive state. Bats in open habitat emerged later than those roosting beneath closed canopy. In cluttered habitats, predators relying on vision may find it more difficult to detect and catch bats at light levels which would offer more chances of success when attacking prey in open habitats. Bats in dense forest are less vulnerable to predators and may take advantage of an earlier emergence by prolonging foraging. Although more vulnerable, lactating females roosting at open sites may benefit from warmer roosting conditions. Roosts in dense forest may be preferred under intense predation pressure. Forest management should favour canopy heterogeneity to provide bats with a range of roosting conditions. Our work emphasises the role of a fine-grained spatial scale in the roosting ecology of forest bats.

  2. Characterizing stand-level forest canopy cover and height using Landsat time series, samples of airborne LiDAR, and the Random Forest algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Oumer S.; Franklin, Steven E.; Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.

    2015-03-01

    Many forest management activities, including the development of forest inventories, require spatially detailed forest canopy cover and height data. Among the various remote sensing technologies, LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) offers the most accurate and consistent means for obtaining reliable canopy structure measurements. A potential solution to reduce the cost of LiDAR data, is to integrate transects (samples) of LiDAR data with frequently acquired and spatially comprehensive optical remotely sensed data. Although multiple regression is commonly used for such modeling, often it does not fully capture the complex relationships between forest structure variables. This study investigates the potential of Random Forest (RF), a machine learning technique, to estimate LiDAR measured canopy structure using a time series of Landsat imagery. The study is implemented over a 2600 ha area of industrially managed coastal temperate forests on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. We implemented a trajectory-based approach to time series analysis that generates time since disturbance (TSD) and disturbance intensity information for each pixel and we used this information to stratify the forest land base into two strata: mature forests and young forests. Canopy cover and height for three forest classes (i.e. mature, young and mature and young (combined)) were modeled separately using multiple regression and Random Forest (RF) techniques. For all forest classes, the RF models provided improved estimates relative to the multiple regression models. The lowest validation error was obtained for the mature forest strata in a RF model (R2 = 0.88, RMSE = 2.39 m and bias = -0.16 for canopy height; R2 = 0.72, RMSE = 0.068% and bias = -0.0049 for canopy cover). This study demonstrates the value of using disturbance and successional history to inform estimates of canopy structure and obtain improved estimates of forest canopy cover and height using the RF algorithm.

  3. EVALUATION OF FOREST CANOPY AND UNDERSTORY GAP FRACTION DERIVED FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K C; Wang, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of forest carbon sequestration is helpful to understand the carbon storage on the Earth. The estimation of forest carbon sequestration can be achieved by the use of leaf area index (LAI), which is derived from forest gap fraction. The hemispherical image-based technique is the most popular non-destructive means for obtaining such information. However, only the gap fraction of the top canopy is derived due to the limitation of imaging technique. The gap fraction information ...

  4. Mapping forest canopy disturbance in the Upper Great Lakes, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Garner; Mark D. Nelson; Brian G. Tavernia; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ian W. Housman

    2015-01-01

    A map of forest canopy disturbance was generated for Michigan, Wisconsin, and most of Minnesota using 42 Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) and a vegetation change tracker (VCTw) algorithm. Corresponding winter imagery was used to reduce commission errors of forest disturbance by identifying areas of persistent snow cover. The resulting disturbance age map was classed...

  5. The influence of the forest canopy on nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Cindy E

    2002-11-01

    Rates of key soil processes involved in recycling of nutrients in forests are governed by temperature and moisture conditions and by the chemical and physical nature of the litter. The forest canopy influences all of these factors and thus has a large influence on nutrient cycling. The increased availability of nutrients in soil in clearcuts illustrates how the canopy retains nutrients (especially N) on site, both by storing nutrients in foliage and through the steady input of available C in litter. The idea that faster decomposition is responsible for the flush of nitrate in clearcuts has not been supported by experimental evidence. Soil N availability increases in canopy gaps as small as 0.1 ha, so natural disturbances or partial harvesting practices that increase the complexity of the canopy by creating gaps will similarly increase the spatial variability in soil N cycling and availability within the forest. Canopy characteristics affect the amount and composition of leaf litter produced, which largely determines the amount of nutrients to be recycled and the resulting nutrient availability. Although effects of tree species on soil nutrient availability were thought to be brought about largely through differences in the decomposition rate of their foliar litter, recent studies indicate that the effect of tree species can be better predicted from the mass and nutrient content of litter produced, hence total nutrient return, than from litter decay rate. The greater canopy complexity in mixed species forests creates similar heterogeneity in nutritional characteristics of the forest floor. Site differences in slope position, parent material and soil texture lead to variation in species composition and productivity of forests, and thus in the nature and amount of litter produced. Through this positive feedback, the canopy accentuates inherent differences in site fertility.

  6. Air-Parcel Residence Times Within Forest Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Tobias; Chamecki, Marcelo; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2017-10-01

    We present a theoretical model, based on a simple model of turbulent diffusion and first-order chemical kinetics, to determine air-parcel residence times and the out-of-canopy export of reactive gases emitted within forest canopies under neutral conditions. Theoretical predictions of the air-parcel residence time are compared to values derived from large-eddy simulation for a range of canopy architectures and turbulence levels under neutral stratification. Median air-parcel residence times range from a few sec in the upper canopy to approximately 30 min near the ground and the distribution of residence times is skewed towards longer times in the lower canopy. While the predicted probability density functions from the theoretical model and large-eddy simulation are in good agreement with each other, the theoretical model requires only information on canopy height and eddy diffusivities inside the canopy. The eddy-diffusivity model developed additionally requires the friction velocity at canopy top and a parametrized profile of the standard deviation of vertical velocity. The theoretical model of air-parcel residence times is extended to include first-order chemical reactions over a range of of Damköhler numbers ( Da) characteristic of plant-emitted hydrocarbons. The resulting out-of-canopy export fractions range from near 1 for Da =10^{-3} to less than 0.3 at Da = 10. These results highlight the necessity for dense and tall forests to include the impacts of air-parcel residence times when calculating the out-of-canopy export fraction for reactive trace gases.

  7. Characterization of Canopy Layering in Forested Ecosystems Using Full Waveform Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Dubayah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canopy structure, the vertical distribution of canopy material, is an important element of forest ecosystem dynamics and habitat preference. Although vertical stratification, or “canopy layering,” is a basic characterization of canopy structure for research and forest management, it is difficult to quantify at landscape scales. In this paper we describe canopy structure and develop methodologies to map forest vertical stratification in a mixed temperate forest using full-waveform lidar. Two definitions—one categorical and one continuous—are used to map canopy layering over Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire with lidar data collected in 2009 by NASA’s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS. The two resulting canopy layering datasets describe variation of canopy layering throughout the forest and show that layering varies with terrain elevation and canopy height. This information should provide increased understanding of vertical structure variability and aid habitat characterization and other forest management activities.

  8. Amazonian functional diversity from forest canopy chemical assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Sinca, Felipe; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Martinez, Paola

    2014-04-15

    Patterns of tropical forest functional diversity express processes of ecological assembly at multiple geographic scales and aid in predicting ecological responses to environmental change. Tree canopy chemistry underpins forest functional diversity, but the interactive role of phylogeny and environment in determining the chemical traits of tropical trees is poorly known. Collecting and analyzing foliage in 2,420 canopy tree species across 19 forests in the western Amazon, we discovered (i) systematic, community-scale shifts in average canopy chemical traits along gradients of elevation and soil fertility; (ii) strong phylogenetic partitioning of structural and defense chemicals within communities independent of variation in environmental conditions; and (iii) strong environmental control on foliar phosphorus and calcium, the two rock-derived elements limiting CO2 uptake in tropical forests. These findings indicate that the chemical diversity of western Amazonian forests occurs in a regionally nested mosaic driven by long-term chemical trait adjustment of communities to large-scale environmental filters, particularly soils and climate, and is supported by phylogenetic divergence of traits essential to foliar survival under varying environmental conditions. Geographically nested patterns of forest canopy chemical traits will play a role in determining the response and functional rearrangement of western Amazonian ecosystems to changing land use and climate.

  9. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Bei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI and plant area index (PAI are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI, canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  10. Evaporation from rain-wetted forest in relation to canopy wetness, canopy cover, and net radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporation from wet canopies is commonly calculated using E-PM, the Penman-Monteith equation with zero surface resistance. However, several observations show a lower evaporation from rain-wetted forest. Possible causes for the difference between E-PM and experiments are evaluated to provide rules

  11. Variation of snow cover ablation in the boreal forest: A sensitivity study on the effects of conifer canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. E.; Hardy, J. P.; Ni, W.; Woodcock, C.; McKenzie, J. C.; Jordan, R.; Li, X.

    1997-12-01

    The duration and meteorological history of winter and thaw periods in the boreal forest affect carbon exchange during the growing season. Characteristics of conifer canopies exert important control on the energy exchange at the forest floor, which in turn controls snow cover processes such as melting. This analysis investigated the role of the conifer tree characteristics, including height and canopy density. Canopy and snow models estimated radiation incoming to the snow surface, the net energy budget of the snow, and melting rates of snow cover under conifer forests with different canopy density and tree height. This analysis assumed that canopy effects dominated snow surface energy exchange under conifers in the boreal forest. We used data layers of forest characteristics from the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) modeling subareas in Saskatchewan and Manitoba to guide the choice of modeled tree height and canopy density. Modeled stand characteristics assumed random location of trees and used a uniform tree height within a stand and regular crown geometry scaled to tree height. Measurements during winter and thaw in 1994 of incoming solar and longwave radiation, humidity, and wind speed above the forest canopy provided input to the models, along with air temperature measured in the canopy. Results showed the importance of canopy density and tree height as the first-order controls on cumulative incoming solar radiation at the forest floor for the range of these variables in the BOREAS test area. The combined canopy and snow models showed a large range of snow ablation within conifers, which showed the trade-offs between canopy density and tree height. Solar fluxes dominated the net transfer of energy to the snow in the north, while sensible heat exchange, net solar, and net longwave radiation played important roles in the south.

  12. Vegetation Indices for Mapping Canopy Foliar Nitrogen in a Mixed Temperate Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing serves as an effective tool for estimating foliar nitrogen using a variety of techniques. Vegetation indices (VIs are a simple means of retrieving foliar nitrogen. Despite their popularity, few studies have been conducted to examine the utility of VIs for mapping canopy foliar nitrogen in a mixed forest context. In this study, we assessed the performance of 32 vegetation indices derived from HySpex airborne hyperspectral images for estimating canopy mass-based foliar nitrogen concentration (%N in the Bavarian Forest National Park. The partial least squares regression (PLSR was performed for comparison. These vegetation indices were classified into three categories that are mostly correlated to nitrogen, chlorophyll, and structural properties such as leaf area index (LAI. %N was destructively measured in 26 broadleaf, needle leaf, and mixed stand plots to represent the different species and canopy structure. The canopy foliar %N is defined as the plot-level mean foliar %N of all species weighted by species canopy foliar mass fraction. Our results showed that the variance of canopy foliar %N is mainly explained by functional type and species composition. The normalized difference nitrogen index (NDNI produced the most accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.79, RMSECV = 0.26. A comparable estimation of %N was obtained by the chlorophyll index Boochs2 (R2CV = 0.76, RMSECV = 0.27. In addition, the mean NIR reflectance (800–850 nm, representing canopy structural properties, also achieved a good accuracy in %N estimation (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 0.30. The PLSR model provided a less accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.69, RMSECV = 0.32. We argue that the good performance of all three categories of vegetation indices in %N estimation can be attributed to the synergy among plant traits (i.e., canopy structure, leaf chemical and optical properties while these traits may converge across plant species for evolutionary reasons. Our

  13. Patterns of Canopy and Surface Layer Consumption in a Boreal Forest Fire from Repeat Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Babcock, Chad; Pattison, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fire in the boreal region is the dominant agent of forest disturbance with direct impacts on ecosystem structure, carbon cycling, and global climate. Global and biome-scale impacts are mediated by burn severity, measured as loss of forest canopy and consumption of the soil organic layer. To date, knowledge of the spatial variability in burn severity has been limited by sparse field sampling and moderate resolution satellite data. Here, we used pre- and post-fire airborne lidar data to directly estimate changes in canopy vertical structure and surface elevation for a 2005 boreal forest fire on Alaskas Kenai Peninsula. We found that both canopy and surface losses were strongly linked to pre-fire species composition and exhibited important fine-scale spatial variability at sub-30m resolution. The fractional reduction in canopy volume ranged from 0.61 in lowland black spruce stands to 0.27 in mixed white spruce and broad leaf forest. Residual structure largely reflects standing dead trees, highlighting the influence of pre-fire forest structure on delayed carbon losses from above ground biomass, post-fire albedo, and variability in understory light environments. Median loss of surface elevation was highest in lowland black spruce stands (0.18 m) but much lower in mixed stands (0.02 m), consistent with differences in pre-fire organic layer accumulation. Spatially continuous depth-of-burn estimates from repeat lidar measurements provide novel information to constrain carbon emissions from the surface organic layer and may inform related research on post-fire successional trajectories. Spectral measures of burn severity from Landsat were correlated with canopy (r = 0.76) and surface (r = -0.71) removal in black spruce stands but captured less of the spatial variability in fire effects for mixed stands (canopy r = 0.56, surface r = -0.26), underscoring the difficulty in capturing fire effects in heterogeneous boreal forest landscapes using proxy measures of burn severity

  14. Amazon forest carbon dynamics predicted by profiles of canopy leaf area and light environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. C. Stark; V. Leitold; J. L. Wu; M. O. Hunter; C. V. de Castilho; F. R. C. Costa; S. M. McMahon; G. G. Parker; M. Takako Shimabukuro; M. A. Lefsky; M. Keller; L. F. Alves; J. Schietti; Y. E. Shimabukuro; D. O. Brandao; T. K. Woodcock; N. Higuchi; P. B de Camargo; R. C. de Oliveira; S. R. Saleska

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forest structural variation across heterogeneous landscapes may control above-ground carbon dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that canopy structure (leaf area and light availability) – remotely estimated from LiDAR – control variation in above-ground coarse wood production (biomass growth). Using a statistical model, these factors predicted biomass growth...

  15. Effects of woody elements on simulated canopy reflectance: implications for forest chlorophyll content retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrelst, J.; Schaepman, M.E.; Malenovsky, Z.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    2010-01-01

    An important bio-indicator of actual plant health status, the foliar content of chlorophyll a and b (Cab), can be estimated using imaging spectroscopy. For forest canopies, however, the relationship between the spectral response and leaf chemistry is confounded by factors such as background (e.g.

  16. A source-orientated approach for estimating daytime concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds in an upper layer of a boreal forest canopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, H.K. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Sevanto, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Taipale, R.; Kajos, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Kolari, P.; Back, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology Sciences

    2013-06-01

    Biologically justified statistical models for daytime atmospheric concentrations of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpene were tested using measurements at a boreal forest stand in southern Finland in 2006-2007 and in summer 2008. The canopy-scale concentrations of all compounds except monotepene were closely correlated with shoot-scale concentrations indicating a strong link to biological emission source. All the models were based on the exponential relationship between air temperature and atmospheric concentration of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The first model - an exponential function of air temperature (T model) - could explain 27%-64% of the variation in BVOC daytime concentrations in the test data. The second model - a Temperature-State of Development model (T-S model) having two explaining variables (air temperature and seasonal photosynthetic efficiency) - was derived from an empirical adjustment of seasonality. This model slightly increased the fraction of explained variation but it still could not explain the high concentration peaks, which accounted for most of the unexplained variation. To better analyse these peaks we tested the Trigger model including two potential environmental triggers, a PAR index (high photosynthetically active photon flux density (PAR) and high ozone concentration, that could increase the concentrations momentarily. However, the Trigger model described the peak concentrations only somewhat better than the T or T-S model. It seems that it is very difficult to explain more than 32%-67% of variation in BVOC concentrations by a straightforward source-oriented modelling without deep understanding of biological and physical processes. In order to improve the models profound studies on specific stress factors and events inducing BVOC emissions are needed. (orig.)

  17. Canopy processes, fluxes and microclimate in a pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launiainen, S.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction between forests and the atmosphere occurs by radiative and turbulent transport. The fluxes of energy and mass between surface and the atmosphere directly influence the properties of the lower atmosphere and in longer time scales the global climate. Boreal forest ecosystems are central in the global climate system, and its responses to human activities, because they are significant sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and of aerosol particles. The aim of the present work was to improve our understanding on the existing interplay between biologically active canopy, microenvironment and turbulent flow and quantify. In specific, the aim was to quantify the contribution of different canopy layers to whole forest fluxes. For this purpose, long-term micrometeorological and ecological measurements made in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest at SMEAR II research station in Southern Finland were used. The properties of turbulent flow are strongly modified by the interaction between the canopy elements: momentum is efficiently absorbed in the upper layers of the canopy, mean wind speed and turbulence intensities decrease rapidly towards the forest floor and power spectra is modulated by spectral short-cut . In the relative open forest, diabatic stability above the canopy explained much of the changes in velocity statistics within the canopy except in strongly stable stratification. Large eddies, ranging from tens to hundred meters in size, were responsible for the major fraction of turbulent transport between a forest and the atmosphere. Because of this, the eddy-covariance (EC) method proved to be successful for measuring energy and mass exchange inside a forest canopy with exception of strongly stable conditions. Vertical variations of within canopy microclimate, light attenuation in particular, affect strongly the assimilation and transpiration rates. According to model simulations, assimilation rate decreases with height more rapidly than stomatal

  18. A GIS-based tool for estimating tree canopy cover on fixed-radius plots using high-resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes; Erik Lindblom; John Chase; Dennis M. Jacobs; Robert. Benton

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes to the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program's definition of forest land precipitated the development of a geographic information system (GIS)-based tool for efficiently estimating tree canopy cover for all FIA plots. The FIA definition of forest land has shifted from a density-related criterion based on stocking to a 10 percent tree canopy...

  19. Testing the Application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning to Measure Forest Canopy Gap Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mark Danson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS have the potential to revolutionise measurement of the three-dimensional structure of vegetation canopies for applications in ecology, hydrology and climate change. This potential has been the subject of recent research that has attempted to measure forest biophysical variables from TLS data, and make comparisons with two-dimensional data from hemispherical photography. This research presents a systematic comparison between forest canopy gap fraction estimates derived from TLS measurements and hemispherical photography. The TLS datasets used in the research were obtained between April 2008 and March 2009 at Delamere Forest, Cheshire, UK. The analysis of canopy gap fraction estimates derived from TLS data highlighted the repeatability and consistency of the measurements in comparison with those from coincident hemispherical photographs. The comparison also showed that estimates computed considering only the number of hits and misses registered in the TLS datasets were consistently lower than those estimated from hemispherical photographs. To examine this difference, the potential information available in the intensity values recorded by TLS was investigated and a new method developed to estimate canopy gap fraction proposed. The new approach produced gap fractions closer to those estimated from hemispherical photography, but the research also highlighted the limitations of single return TLS data for this application.

  20. ASSESSING THE CANOPY INTEGRITY USING CANOPY DIGITAL IMAGES IN SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT IN SÃO CARLOS - SP- BRAZIL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Yamada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is well-known that conducting experimental research aiming the characterization of canopy structure of forests can be a difficult and costly task and, generally, requires an expert to extract, in loco, relevant information. Aiming at easing studies related to canopy structures, several techniques have been proposed in the literature and, among them, various are based on canopy digital image analysis. The research work described in this paper empirically compares two techniques that measure the integrity of the canopy structure of a forest fragment; one of them is based on central parts of canopy cover images and, the other, on canopy closure images. For the experiments, 22 central parts of canopy cover images and 22 canopy closure images were used. The images were captured along two transects: T1 (located in the conserved area and T2 (located in the naturally disturbance area. The canopy digital images were computationally processed and analyzed using the MATLAB platform for the canopy cover images and the Gap Light Analyzer (GLA, for the canopy closure images. The results obtained using these two techniques showed that canopy cover images and, among the employed algorithms, the Jseg, characterize the canopy integrity best. It is worth mentioning that part of the analysis can be automatically conducted, as a quick and precise process, with low material costs involved.

  1. Total canopy transmittance estimated from small-footprint, full-waveform airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang; Quast, Raphael; Hollaus, Markus; Ressl, Camillo; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2017-06-01

    Canopy transmittance is a directional and wavelength-specific physical parameter that quantifies the amount of radiation attenuated when passing through a vegetation layer. The parameter has been estimated from LiDAR data in many different ways over the years. While early LiDAR methods treated each returned echo equally or weighted the echoes according to their return order, recent methods have focused more on the echo energy. In this study, we suggest a new method of estimating the total canopy transmittance considering only the energy of ground echoes. Therefore, this method does not require assumptions for the reflectance or absorption behavior of vegetation. As the oblique looking geometry of LiDAR is explicitly considered, canopy transmittance can be derived for individual laser beams and can be mapped spatially. The method was applied on a contemporary full-waveform LiDAR data set collected under leaf-off conditions and over a study site that contains two sub regions: one with a mixed (coniferous and deciduous) forest and another that is predominantly a deciduous forest in an alluvial plain. The resulting canopy transmittance map was analyzed for both sub regions and compared to aerial photos and the well-known fractional cover method. A visual comparison with aerial photos showed that even single trees and small canopy openings are visible in the canopy transmittance map. In comparison with the fractional cover method, the canopy transmittance map showed no saturation, i.e., there was better separability between patches with different vegetation structure.

  2. Influence of Crown Biomass Estimators and Distribution on Canopy Fuel Characteristics in Ponderosa Pine Stands of the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Keyser; Frederick Smith

    2009-01-01

    Two determinants of crown fire hazard are canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH). The Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS) is a model that predicts CBD and CBH. Currently, FFE-FVS accounts for neither geographic variation in tree allometries nor the nonuniform distribution of crown mass when one is estimating CBH and CBD...

  3. Effect of forest canopy on GPS-based movement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. DeCesare; John R. Squires; Jay A. Kolbe

    2005-01-01

    The advancing role of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in ecology has made studies of animal movement possible for larger and more vagile species. A simple field test revealed that lengths of GPS-based movement data were strongly biased (P<0.001) by effects of forest canopy. Global Positioning System error added an average of 27.5% additional...

  4. Assessment of Light Environment Variability in Broadleaved Forest Canopies Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Van der Zande

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Light availability inside a forest canopy is of key importance to many ecosystem processes, such as photosynthesis and transpiration. Assessment of light availability and within-canopy light variability enables a more detailed understanding of these biophysical processes. The changing light-vegetation interaction in a homogeneous oak (Quercus robur L. stand was studied at different moments during the growth season using terrestrial laser scanning datasets and ray tracing technology. Three field campaigns were organized at regular time intervals (24 April 2008; 07 May 2008; 23 May 2008 to monitor the increase of foliage material. The laser scanning data was used to generate 3D representations of the forest stands, enabling structure feature extraction and light interception modeling, using the Voxel-Based Light Interception Model (VLIM. The VLIM is capable of estimating the relative light intensity or Percentage of Above Canopy Light (PACL at any arbitrary point in the modeled crown space. This resulted in a detailed description of the dynamic light environments inside the canopy. Mean vertical light extinction profiles were calculated for the three time frames, showing significant differences in light attenuation by the canopy between April 24 on the one hand, and May 7 and May 23 on the other hand. The proposed methodology created the opportunity to link these within-canopy light distributions to the increasing amount of photosynthetically active leaf material and its distribution in the considered 3D space.

  5. Estimating wood volume from canopy area in deciduous woodlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we tested the predictive ability of canopy area in estimating wood volume in deciduous woodlands of Zimbabwe. The study was carried out in four sites of different climatic conditions. We used regression analysis to statistically quantify the prediction of wood volume from canopy area at species and stand level ...

  6. Amazon Forest Structure from IKONOS Satellite Data and the Automated Characterization of Forest Canopy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Stephen Hagen; Bobby . Braswell

    2008-01-01

    We developed an automated tree crown analysis algorithm using 1-m panchromatic IKONOS satellite images to examine forest canopy structure in the Brazilian Amazon. The algorithm was calibrated on the landscape level with tree geometry and forest stand data at the Fazenda Cauaxi (3.75◦ S, 48.37◦ W) in the eastern Amazon, and then compared with forest...

  7. Canopy structure effects on the wind at a complex forested site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Etienne; Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the canopy description in a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method based on key flow results from a complex forested site. The canopy structure in RANS is represented trough the frontal area of canopy elements per unit volume, a variable required as input in canopy...

  8. Can defensible estimates of canopy proximity be obtained based on single point eddy covariance measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Heinesch, Bernard; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Understanding if and how the spatial and temporal variability of the surrounding environment affects turbulence is essential for long-term eddy covariance measurements above growing and heterogeneous ecosystems. It requires characterizing the surrounding environment. One way to achieve this is to analyse the canopy aerodynamic distance, which is the difference between measurement height (z) and displacement height (d). In this study, twenty years of eddy covariance measurements from the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory, a site located in a mixed temperate forest, were used. Canopy aerodynamic distance (z-d) estimates were obtained using two micrometeorological methods: the first one, which is original so far as we know, was based on analysing sensible heat cospectra; the second one was derived from the wind speed profile equation. Canopy height estimates based on inventories were used to validate both methods. The micrometeorological methods allowed the z-d variations due to changes in canopy or measurement height to be detected. In addition, the results obtained using the two methods were well correlated, spatially and temporally, with the z-d derived from canopy height measurements. The micrometeorological approaches used could therefore be a promising tool for investigating z-d variability at a high directional and temporal resolution. Questions remain, however, particularly with regard to the variability observed that cannot be explained by canopy or measurement height variation. Forest management practices and the non-fulfilment of similarity relationships were suspected to be the main explanatory factors.

  9. Modelling the vertical distribution of canopy fuel load using national forest inventory and low-density airbone laser scanning data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Ferreiro

    Full Text Available The fuel complex variables canopy bulk density and canopy base height are often used to predict crown fire initiation and spread. Direct measurement of these variables is impractical, and they are usually estimated indirectly by modelling. Recent advances in predicting crown fire behaviour require accurate estimates of the complete vertical distribution of canopy fuels. The objectives of the present study were to model the vertical profile of available canopy fuel in pine stands by using data from the Spanish national forest inventory plus low-density airborne laser scanning (ALS metrics. In a first step, the vertical distribution of the canopy fuel load was modelled using the Weibull probability density function. In a second step, two different systems of models were fitted to estimate the canopy variables defining the vertical distributions; the first system related these variables to stand variables obtained in a field inventory, and the second system related the canopy variables to airborne laser scanning metrics. The models of each system were fitted simultaneously to compensate the effects of the inherent cross-model correlation between the canopy variables. Heteroscedasticity was also analyzed, but no correction in the fitting process was necessary. The estimated canopy fuel load profiles from field variables explained 84% and 86% of the variation in canopy fuel load for maritime pine and radiata pine respectively; whereas the estimated canopy fuel load profiles from ALS metrics explained 52% and 49% of the variation for the same species. The proposed models can be used to assess the effectiveness of different forest management alternatives for reducing crown fire hazard.

  10. Modelling the vertical distribution of canopy fuel load using national forest inventory and low-density airbone laser scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferreiro, Eduardo; Arellano-Pérez, Stéfano; Castedo-Dorado, Fernando; Hevia, Andrea; Vega, José Antonio; Vega-Nieva, Daniel; Álvarez-González, Juan Gabriel; Ruiz-González, Ana Daría

    2017-01-01

    The fuel complex variables canopy bulk density and canopy base height are often used to predict crown fire initiation and spread. Direct measurement of these variables is impractical, and they are usually estimated indirectly by modelling. Recent advances in predicting crown fire behaviour require accurate estimates of the complete vertical distribution of canopy fuels. The objectives of the present study were to model the vertical profile of available canopy fuel in pine stands by using data from the Spanish national forest inventory plus low-density airborne laser scanning (ALS) metrics. In a first step, the vertical distribution of the canopy fuel load was modelled using the Weibull probability density function. In a second step, two different systems of models were fitted to estimate the canopy variables defining the vertical distributions; the first system related these variables to stand variables obtained in a field inventory, and the second system related the canopy variables to airborne laser scanning metrics. The models of each system were fitted simultaneously to compensate the effects of the inherent cross-model correlation between the canopy variables. Heteroscedasticity was also analyzed, but no correction in the fitting process was necessary. The estimated canopy fuel load profiles from field variables explained 84% and 86% of the variation in canopy fuel load for maritime pine and radiata pine respectively; whereas the estimated canopy fuel load profiles from ALS metrics explained 52% and 49% of the variation for the same species. The proposed models can be used to assess the effectiveness of different forest management alternatives for reducing crown fire hazard.

  11. Radon 222 tracing of soil and forest canopy trace gas exchange in an open canopy boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussler, William, III; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Kelley, Cheryl A.; Martens, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    A set of continuous, high-resolution atmospheric radon (Rn-222) concentration time series and radon soil flux measurements were acquired during the summer of 1990 at a micrometeorological tower site 13 km northwest of Schefferville, Quebec, Canada. The tower was located in a dry upland, open-canopy lichen-spruce woodland. For the period July 23 to August 1, 1990, the mean radon soil flux was 41.1 +/- 4.8 Bq m(exp -2)/h. Radon surface flux from the two end-member forest floor cover types (lichen mat and bare soil) were 38.8 +/- 5.1 and 61.8 +/- 15.6 Bq m(exp -2)/h, respectively. Average total forest canopy resistances computed using a simple 'flux box' model for radon exchange between the forest canopy and the overlying atmosphere range from 0.47 +/- 0.24 s cm(exp -1) to 2.65 +/- 1.61 cm(exp -1) for daytime hours (0900-1700 LT) and from 3.44 +/- 0.91 s cm(exp -1) to 10.55 +/- 7.16 s cm(exp -1) for nighttime hours (2000-0600) for the period July 23 to August 6, 1990. Continuous radon profiling of canopy atmospheres is a suitable approach for determining rates of biosphere/atmosphere trace gas exchange for remote field sites where daily equipment maintenance is not possible. where daily equipment maintenance is not possible.

  12. Mapping growing stock at 1-km spatial resolution for Spanish forest areas from ground forest inventory data and GLAS canopy height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ruiz, S.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Gilabert, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    National forest inventories provide measurements of forest variables (e.g. growing stock) that can be used for the estimation of above ground biomass (AGB). Mapping growing stock brings knowledge about spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of ABG, which is necessary for carbon cycle analysis. Several studies have been conducted on the integration of ground and optical remote sensing data to map forest biomass over Europe. Nevertheless, more direct information on forest biomass could be obtained by LiDAR techniques, which directly assess vertical forest structure by measuring the distance between the sensor and the scattering elements located inside the canopy volume. Thus, global 1-km maps of forest canopy height have been recently obtained from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The current study aims to produce a forest growing stock map in Spain. Five different forest type areas were identified in three provinces along a North - South gradient accounting for different ecosystems and climatic conditions. Growing stock ground data from the Third Spanish National Forest Inventory were assigned to each forest type and aggregated to 1-km spatial resolution. GLAS-derived canopy height was extracted for the locations of selected ground data. A relationship between inventory growing stock and satellite canopy height was found for each class. The obtained relationships were then extended all over Spain. The accuracy of the resulting growing stock map was assessed at province level against the Third Spanish National Forest Inventory growing stock estimations (R = 0.85, RMSE = 21 m3 ha-1).

  13. Examining conifer canopy structural complexity across forest ages and elevations with LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; Jonathan D. Bakker; Robert J. McGaughey; James A. Lutz; Rolf F. Gersonde; Jerry F. Franklin

    2010-01-01

    LiDAR measurements of canopy structure can be used to classify forest stands into structural stages to study spatial patterns of canopy structure, identify habitat, or plan management actions. A key assumption in this process is that differences in canopy structure based on forest age and elevation are consistent with predictions from models of stand development. Three...

  14. Removing forest canopy cover restores a reptile assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A; Webb, Jonathan K; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Humans are rapidly altering natural systems, leading to changes in the distribution and abundance of species. However, so many changes are occurring simultaneously (e.g., climate change, habitat fragmentation) that it is difficult to determine the cause of population fluctuations from correlational studies. We used a manipulative field experiment to determine whether forest canopy cover directly influences reptile assemblages on rock outcrops in southeastern Australia. Our experimental design consisted of three types of rock outcrops: (1) shady sites in which overgrown vegetation was manually removed (n = 25); (2) overgrown controls (n = 30); and (3) sun-exposed controls (n = 20). Following canopy removal, we monitored reptile responses over 30 months. Canopy removal increased reptile species richness, the proportion of shelter sites used by reptiles, and relative abundances of five species that prefer sun-exposed habitats. Our manipulation also decreased the abundances of two shade-tolerant species. Canopy cover thus directly influences this reptile assemblage, with the effects of canopy removal being dependent on each species' habitat preferences (i.e., selection or avoidance of sun-exposed habitat). Our study suggests that increases in canopy cover can cause declines of open-habitat specialists, as previously suggested by correlative studies from a wide range of taxa. Given that reptile colonization of manipulated outcrops occurred rapidly, artificially opening the canopy in ecologically informed ways could help to conserve imperiled species with patchy distributions and low vagility that are threatened by vegetation overgrowth. One such species is Australia's most endangered snake, the broadheaded snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides).

  15. Boreal forest BVOC exchange: emissions versus in-canopy sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Putian; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Taipale, Ditte; Rannik, Üllar; Rantala, Pekka; Petteri Rissanen, Matti; Chen, Dean; Boy, Michael

    2017-12-01

    A multilayer gas dry deposition model has been developed and implemented into a one-dimensional chemical transport model SOSAA (model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols) to calculate the dry deposition velocities for all the gas species included in the chemistry scheme. The new model was used to analyse in-canopy sources and sinks, including gas emissions, chemical production and loss, dry deposition, and turbulent transport of 12 featured biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) or groups of BVOCs (e.g. monoterpenes, isoprene+2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), sesquiterpenes, and oxidation products of mono- and sesquiterpenes) in July 2010 at the boreal forest site SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations). According to the significance of modelled monthly-averaged individual source and sink terms inside the canopy, the selected BVOCs were classified into five categories: 1. Most of emitted gases are transported out of the canopy (monoterpenes, isoprene + MBO). 2. Chemical reactions remove a significant portion of emitted gases (sesquiterpenes). 3. Bidirectional fluxes occur since both emission and dry deposition are crucial for the in-canopy concentration tendency (acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, formaldehyde). 4. Gases removed by deposition inside the canopy are compensated for by the gases transported from above the canopy (acetol, pinic acid, β-caryophyllene's oxidation product BCSOZOH). 5. The chemical production is comparable to the sink by deposition (isoprene's oxidation products ISOP34OOH and ISOP34NO3). Most of the simulated sources and sinks were located above about 0.2 hc (canopy height) for oxidation products and above about 0.4 hc for emitted species except formaldehyde. In addition, soil deposition (including deposition onto understorey vegetation) contributed 11-61 % to the overall in-canopy deposition. The emission sources peaked at about 0.8-0.9 hc, which was higher than 0.6 hc

  16. Chlorophyll fluorescence tracks seasonal variations of photosynthesis from leaf to canopy in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hualei; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Yongguang; Heskel, Mary A; Lu, Xiaoliang; Munger, J William; Sun, Shucun; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-07-01

    Accurate estimation of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) remains a challenge despite its importance in the global carbon cycle. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been recently adopted to understand photosynthesis and its response to the environment, particularly with remote sensing data. However, it remains unclear how ChlF and photosynthesis are linked at different spatial scales across the growing season. We examined seasonal relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis at the leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales and explored how leaf-level ChlF was linked with canopy-scale solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in a temperate deciduous forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. Our results show that ChlF captured the seasonal variations of photosynthesis with significant linear relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis across the growing season over different spatial scales (R2  = 0.73, 0.77, and 0.86 at leaf, canopy, and satellite scales, respectively; P < 0.0001). We developed a model to estimate GPP from the tower-based measurement of SIF and leaf-level ChlF parameters. The estimation of GPP from this model agreed well with flux tower observations of GPP (R2  = 0.68; P < 0.0001), demonstrating the potential of SIF for modeling GPP. At the leaf scale, we found that leaf Fq '/Fm ', the fraction of absorbed photons that are used for photochemistry for a light-adapted measurement from a pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer, was the best leaf fluorescence parameter to correlate with canopy SIF yield (SIF/APAR, R2  = 0.79; P < 0.0001). We also found that canopy SIF and SIF-derived GPP (GPPSIF ) were strongly correlated to leaf-level biochemistry and canopy structure, including chlorophyll content (R2  = 0.65 for canopy GPPSIF and chlorophyll content; P < 0.0001), leaf area index (LAI) (R2  = 0.35 for canopy GPPSIF and LAI; P < 0.0001), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (R2  = 0.36 for canopy GPPSIF

  17. Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Danson, F. M.; Hetherington, D; Morsdorf, F; Koetz, B; Allgöwer, B

    2007-01-01

    A terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) was used to measure canopy directional gap fraction distribution in forest stands in the Swiss National Park, eastern Switzerland. A scanner model was derived to determine the expected number of laser shots in all directions, and these data were compared with the measured number of laser hits to determine directional gap fraction at eight sampling points. Directional gap fraction distributions were determined from digital hemispherical photographs recor...

  18. [Responses of canopy stomatal conductance of Acacia mangium forest to environmental driving factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xingquan; Ma, Ling; Cai, Xi'an; Zeng, Xiaoping

    2006-07-01

    Employing Granierś probes, this paper measured the sap flow of 14 sample trees in an Acacia mangium forest on the Heshan hilly lands of Guangdong Province, and recorded the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), air relative humidity (RH) , and air temperature (T) above the forest canopy. The whole-tree transpiration (E), stand transpiration (Et), and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc) were calculated, and the relationships between tree morphological characters and whole-tree water use as well as the responses of gc to PAR and vapor pressure deficit (D) were analyzed. The results showed that the whole-tree transpiration had logarithmical positive correlations with tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (P < 0.0001) , sapwood area (P < 0.0001) and canopy size (P = 0.0007), and an exponential positive correlation with tree height (P = 0. 014). The maximum gc (gc max) changed with PAR hyperbolically (P < 0.0001), and with D logarithmically (P < 0.0001). The sap flow measurement system used in this study was reliable and accurate in estimating the transpiration of whole-tree and stand and the canopy stomatal conductance, being an effective tool in studying the relationships between forest water use and environmental factors.

  19. The influence of canopy-layer composition on understory plant diversity in southern temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mestre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Understory plants represents the largest component of biodiversity in most forest ecosystems and plays a key role in forest functioning. Despite their importance, the influence of overstory-layer composition on understory plant diversity is relatively poorly understood within deciduous-evergreen broadleaved mixed forests. The aim of this work was to evaluate how tree overstory-layer composition influences on understory-layer diversity in three forest types (monospecific deciduous Nothofagus pumilio (Np, monospecific evergreen Nothofagus betuloides (Nb, and mixed N. pumilio-N. betuloides (M forests, comparing also between two geographical locations (coast and mountain to estimate differences at landscape level. Results We recorded 46 plant species: 4 ferns, 12 monocots, and 30 dicots. Canopy-layer composition influences the herb-layer structure and diversity in two different ways: while mixed forests have greater similarity to evergreen forests in the understory structural features, deciduous and mixed were similar in terms of the specific composition of plant assemblage. Deciduous pure stands were the most diverse, meanwhile evergreen stands were least diverse. Lack of exclusive species of mixed forest could represent a transition where evergreen and deciduous communities meet and integrate. Moreover, landscape has a major influence on the structure, diversity and richness of understory vegetation of pure and mixed forests likely associated to the magnitude and frequency of natural disturbances, where mountain forest not only had highest herb-layer diversity but also more exclusive species. Conclusions Our study suggests that mixed Nothofagus forest supports coexistence of both pure deciduous and pure evergreen understory plant species and different assemblages in coastal and mountain sites. Maintaining the mixture of canopy patch types within mixed stands will be important for conserving the natural patterns of understory plant

  20. Patterns of canopy and surface layer consumption in a boreal forest fire from repeat airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Babcock, Chad; Pattison, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Fire in the boreal region is the dominant agent of forest disturbance with direct impacts on ecosystem structure, carbon cycling, and global climate. Global and biome-scale impacts are mediated by burn severity, measured as loss of forest canopy and consumption of the soil organic layer. To date, knowledge of the spatial variability in burn severity has been limited by sparse field sampling and moderate resolution satellite data. Here, we used pre- and post-fire airborne lidar data to directly estimate changes in canopy vertical structure and surface elevation for a 2005 boreal forest fire on Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula. We found that both canopy and surface losses were strongly linked to pre-fire species composition and exhibited important fine-scale spatial variability at sub-30 m resolution. The fractional reduction in canopy volume ranged from 0.61 in lowland black spruce stands to 0.27 in mixed white spruce and broadleaf forest. Residual structure largely reflects standing dead trees, highlighting the influence of pre-fire forest structure on delayed carbon losses from aboveground biomass, post-fire albedo, and variability in understory light environments. Median loss of surface elevation was highest in lowland black spruce stands (0.18 m) but much lower in mixed stands (0.02 m), consistent with differences in pre-fire organic layer accumulation. Spatially continuous depth-of-burn estimates from repeat lidar measurements provide novel information to constrain carbon emissions from the surface organic layer and may inform related research on post-fire successional trajectories. Spectral measures of burn severity from Landsat were correlated with canopy (r = 0.76) and surface (r = -0.71) removal in black spruce stands but captured less of the spatial variability in fire effects for mixed stands (canopy r = 0.56, surface r = -0.26), underscoring the difficulty in capturing fire effects in heterogeneous boreal forest landscapes using proxy measures of burn

  1. Spectroscopic Remote Sensing of Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Forest Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC are products of photosynthesis, and leaf NSC concentration may be a prognostic indicator of climate-change tolerance in woody plants. However, measurement of leaf NSC is prohibitively labor intensive, especially in tropical forests, where foliage is difficult to access and where NSC concentrations vary enormously by species and across environments. Imaging spectroscopy may allow quantitative mapping of leaf NSC, but this possibility remains unproven. We tested the accuracy of NSC remote sensing at leaf, canopy and stand levels using visible-to-shortwave infrared (VSWIR spectroscopy with partial least squares regression (PLSR techniques. Leaf-level analyses demonstrated the high precision (R2 = 0.69–0.73 and accuracy (%RMSE = 13%–14% of NSC estimates in 6136 live samples taken from 4222 forest canopy species worldwide. The leaf spectral data were combined with a radiative transfer model to simulate the role of canopy structural variability, which led to a reduction in the precision and accuracy of leaf NSC estimation (R2 = 0.56; %RMSE = 16%. Application of the approach to 79 one-hectare plots in Amazonia using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory VSWIR spectrometer indicated the good precision and accuracy of leaf NSC estimates at the forest stand level (R2 = 0.49; %RMSE = 9.1%. Spectral analyses indicated strong contributions of the shortwave-IR (1300–2500 nm region to leaf NSC determination at all scales. We conclude that leaf NSC can be remotely sensed, opening doors to monitoring forest canopy physiological responses to environmental stress and climate change.

  2. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula; Michael D. Ulyshen; John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinera) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 gree ntree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data...

  3. Evaluation of radiative transfer models for estimation of foliar nitrogen content at leaf and canopy level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Skidmore, A. K.; Wang, T.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Hearne, J.

    2016-12-01

    Foliar nitrogen is often a limiting factor for plant growth, and is a primary regulator of physiological processes such as photosynthesis, leaf respiration, and transpiration. Foliar nitrogen has been recently proposed as one of the key ecosystem biodiversity variables. Estimation of foliar nitrogen using hyperspectral data will further improve our understanding of the photosynthetic process and net primary productivity and will be beneficial to the assessment of biodiversity, ecosystem services and carbon sequestration. Empirical approaches have dominated the retrieval of nitrogen using hyperspectral data; physically based approaches using radiative transfer models remain elusive. This study aimed to evaluate radiative transfer models for estimating foliar nitrogen at the leaf and canopy level. A leaf-level optical properties model PROSPECT-5 was first recalibrated, and then linked with a canopy reflectance model for canopy level analysis. Our results confirmed the feasibility of retrieving foliar nitrogen from fresh leaf spectra by inversion of the recalibrated PROSPECT-5. Moderate accuracies were obtained for the previously published LOPEX agricultural data set (R2 = 0.47, NRMSE = 0.17) and a Bavarian forest data set (R2 = 0.49, NRMSE = 0.20). At the canopy level, foliar nitrogen content was estimated with a lower accuracy (R2 = 0.38, NRMSE = 0.20) when using canopy spectra extracted from airborne hyperspectral imagery.

  4. Automated lidar-derived canopy height estimates for the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek, Enrika

    2015-01-01

    Land cover/land use (LCU) classifications serve as important decision support products for researchers and land managers. The LCU classifications produced by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) include canopy height estimates that are assigned through manual aerial photography interpretation techniques. In an effort to improve upon these techniques, this project investigated the use of high-density lidar data for the Upper Mississippi River System to determine canopy height. An ArcGIS tool was developed to automatically derive height modifier information based on the extent of land cover features for forest classes. The measurement of canopy height included a calculation of the average height from lidar point cloud data as well as the inclusion of a local maximum filter to identify individual tree canopies. Results were compared to original manually interpreted height modifiers and to field survey data from U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of utilizing lidar data to more efficiently assign height modifier attributes to LCU classifications produced by the UMESC.

  5. Wind Regimes above and below a Temperate Deciduous Forest Canopy in Complex Terrain: Interactions between Slope and Valley Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermally driven wind over mountainous terrains challenges the estimation of CO2 exchange between forests and the atmosphere when using the eddy covariance technique. In this study, the wind regimes were investigated in a temperate deciduous forested valley at the Maoershan site, Northeast China. The wind direction above the canopy was preferentially up-valley in the daytime and down-valley in the nighttime, corresponding to the diurnal patterns of above-canopy temperature gradient and stability parameter. In both leaf-on and -off nighttime, a down-valley flow with a maximum velocity of 1~3 m∙s−1 was often developed at 42 m above the ground (2.3-fold of the canopy height. However, the below-canopy prevailing wind was down-slope in the night, contrast to the below-canopy temperature lapse and unstable conditions. This substantial directional shear illustrated shallow slope winds were superimposed on larger-scale valley winds. As a consequence, the valley-wind component becomes stronger with increasing height, indicating a clear confluence of drainage flow to the valley center. In the daytime, the below-canopy wind was predominated down-slope due to the temperature inversion and stable conditions in the leaf-on season, and was mainly up-valley or down-slope in the leaf-off season. The isolation of momentum flux and radiation by the dense canopy played a key role in the formation of the below-canopy unaligned wind and inverse stability. Significant lateral kinematic momentum fluxes were detected due to the directional shear. These findings suggested a significant interaction between slope and valley winds at this site. The frequent vertical convergence / divergence above the canopy and horizontal divergence/convergence below the canopy in the nighttime / daytime is likely to induce significant advections of trace gases and energy flux.

  6. Weak Environmental Controls of Tropical Forest Canopy Height in the Guiana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youven Goulamoussène

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Canopy height is a key variable in tropical forest functioning and for regional carbon inventories. We investigate the spatial structure of the canopy height of a tropical forest, its relationship with environmental physical covariates, and the implication for tropical forest height variation mapping. Making use of high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived Digital Canopy Model (DCM and environmental covariates from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM acquired over 30,000 ha of tropical forest in French Guiana, we first show that forest canopy height is spatially correlated up to 2500 m. Forest canopy height is significantly associated with environmental variables, but the degree of correlation varies strongly with pixel resolution. On the whole, bottomland forests generally have lower canopy heights than hillslope or hilltop forests. However, this global picture is very noisy at local scale likely because of the endogenous gap-phase forest dynamic processes. Forest canopy height has been predictively mapped across a pixel resolution going from 6 m to 384 m mimicking a low resolution case of 3 points·km − 2 . Results of canopy height mapping indicated that the error for spatial model with environment effects decrease from 8.7 m to 0.91 m, depending of the pixel resolution. Results suggest that, outside the calibration plots, the contribution of environment in shaping the global canopy height distribution is quite limited. This prevents accurate canopy height mapping based only on environmental information, and suggests that precise canopy height maps, for local management purposes, can only be obtained with direct LiDAR monitoring.

  7. Regional and historical factors supplement current climate in shaping global forest canopy height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott; Mao, Lingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Summary Canopy height is a key factor that affects carbon storage, vegetation productivity and biodiversity in forests, as well as an indicator of key processes such as biomass allocation. However, global variation in forest canopy height and its determinants are poorly known. We used global data...

  8. Forest canopy height from Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) assessed with high resolution discrete return lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Chopping; Anne Nolin; Gretchen G. Moisen; John V. Martonchik; Michael Bull

    2009-01-01

    In this study retrievals of forest canopy height were obtained through adjustment of a simple geometricoptical (GO) model against red band surface bidirectional reflectance estimates from NASA's Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), mapped to a 250 m grid. The soil-understory background contribution was partly isolated prior to inversion using regression...

  9. Influence of the forest canopy on total and methyl mercury deposition in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.L. Witt; R.K. Kolka; E.A. Nater; T.R. Wickman

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition by wet and dry processes contributes mercury to terrestrial and aquatic systems. Factors influencing the amount of mercury deposited to boreal forests were identified in this study. Throughfall and open canopy precipitation samples were collected in 2005 and 2006 using passive precipitation collectors from pristine sites located across...

  10. Comparative physiology of a central hardwood old-growth forest canopy and forest gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. R. Gillespie; J. Waterman; K. Saylors

    1993-01-01

    Concerns of poor oak regeneration, changing climate, biodiversity patterns, and carbon cycling in the Central Hardwoods have prompted ecological and physiological studies of old-growth forests and their role in maintaining the landscape. To examine the effects of old-growth canopy structure on the physiological productivity of overstory and understory species, we...

  11. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass in a Tropical Forest in Cambodia Using Canopy Textures Derived from Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a modelling framework for utilizing very high-resolution (VHR aerial imagery for monitoring stocks of above-ground biomass (AGB in a tropical forest in Southeast Asia. Three different texture-based methods (grey level co-occurrence metric (GLCM, Gabor wavelets and Fourier-based textural ordination (FOTO were used in conjunction with two different machine learning (ML-based regression techniques (support vector regression (SVR and random forest (RF regression. These methods were implemented on both 50-cm resolution Digital Globe data extracted from Google Earth™ (GE and 8-cm commercially obtained VHR imagery. This study further examines the role of forest biophysical parameters, such as ground-measured canopy cover and vertical canopy height, in explaining AGB distribution. Three models were developed using: (i horizontal canopy variables (i.e., canopy cover and texture variables plus vertical canopy height; (ii horizontal variables only; and (iii texture variables only. AGB was variable across the site, ranging from 51.02 Mg/ha to 356.34 Mg/ha. GE-based AGB estimates were comparable to those derived from commercial aerial imagery. The findings demonstrate that novel use of this array of texture-based techniques with GE imagery can help promote the wider use of freely available imagery for low-cost, fine-resolution monitoring of forests parameters at the landscape scale.

  12. The Atmospheric Chemistry and Canopy Exchange Simulation System (ACCESS: model description and application to a temperate deciduous forest canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Saylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopies are primary emission sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and have the potential to significantly influence the formation and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA mass. Biogenically-derived SOA formed as a result of emissions from the widespread forests across the globe may affect air quality in populated areas, degrade atmospheric visibility, and affect climate through direct and indirect forcings. In an effort to better understand the formation of SOA mass from forest emissions, a 1-D column model of the multiphase physical and chemical processes occurring within and just above a vegetative canopy is being developed. An initial, gas-phase-only version of this model, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Canopy Exchange Simulation System (ACCESS, includes processes accounting for the emission of BVOCs from the canopy, turbulent vertical transport within and above the canopy and throughout the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL, near-explicit representation of chemical transformations, mixing with the background atmosphere and bi-directional exchange between the atmosphere and canopy and the atmosphere and forest floor. The model formulation of ACCESS is described in detail and results are presented for an initial application of the modeling system to Walker Branch Watershed, an isoprene-emission-dominated forest canopy in the southeastern United States which has been the focal point for previous chemical and micrometeorological studies. Model results of isoprene profiles and fluxes are found to be consistent with previous measurements made at the simulated site and with other measurements made in and above mixed deciduous forests in the southeastern United States. Sensitivity experiments are presented which explore how canopy concentrations and fluxes of gas-phase precursors of SOA are affected by background anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx. Results from these experiments suggest that the

  13. Thermal Imaging of Forest Canopy Temperatures: Relationships with Biological and Biophysical Drivers and Ecosystem Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Kim, Y.; Hanson, C. V.; Law, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Schulze, M.; Pau, S.; Detto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is a primary environmental control on plant processes at a range of spatial and temporal scales, affecting enzymatic reactions, ecosystem biogeochemistry, and species distributions. Although most focus is on air temperature, the radiative or skin temperature of plants is more relevant. Canopy skin temperature dynamics reflect biophysical, physiological, and anatomical characteristics and interactions with environmental drivers, and can be used to examine forest responses to stresses like droughts and heat waves. Direct measurements of plant canopy temperatures using thermocouple sensors have been challenging and offer limited information. Such measurements are usually conducted over short periods of time and a limited spatial extent of the canopy. By contrast, thermal infrared (TIR) imaging allows for extensive temporal and spatial measurement of canopy temperature regimes. We present results of TIR imaging of forest canopies at a range of well-studied forest sites in the United States and Panama. These forest types include temperate rainforests, a semi­arid pine forest, and a semi­deciduous tropical forest. Canopy temperature regimes at these sites are highly variable spatially and temporally and display frequent departures from air temperature, particularly during clear sky conditions. Canopy tissue temperatures are often warmer (daytime) and colder (nighttime) than air temperature, and canopy structure seems to have a large influence on the thermal regime. Additionally, comparison of canopy temperatures to eddy covariance fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy reveals relationships not apparent using air temperature. Initial comparisons between our forest canopy temperatures and remotely sensed skin temperature using Landsat and MODIS data show reasonably good agreement. We conclude that temporal and spatial changes in canopy temperature and its relationship to biological and environmental factors can improve our understanding of how

  14. Modelling canopy radiation budget through multiple scattering approximation: a case study of coniferous forest in Mexico City Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silván-Cárdenas, Jose L.; Corona-Romero, Nirani

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we describe some results from a study on hyperspectral analysis of coniferous canopy scattering for the purpose of estimating forest biophysical and structural parameters. Georeferenced airborne hyperspectral measurements were taken from a flying helicopter over a coniferous forest dominated by Pinus hartweguii and Abies religiosa within the Federal District Conservation Land in Mexico City. Hyperspectral data was recorded in the optical range from 350 to 2500 nm at 1nm spectral resolution using the FieldSpec 4 (ASD Inc.). Spectral measurements were also carried out in the ground for vegetation and understory components, including leaf, bark, soil and grass. Measurements were then analyzed through a previously developed multiple scattering approximation (MSA) model, which represents above-canopy spectral reflectance through a non-linear combination of pure spectral components (endmembers), as well as through a set of photon recollision probabilities and interceptance fractions. In this paper we provide an expression for the canopy absorptance as the basis for estimating the components of canopy radiation budget using the MSA model. Furthermore, since MSA does not prescribe a priori the endmembers to incorporate in the model, a multiple endmember selection method (MESMSA) was developed and tested. Photon recollision probabilities and interceptance fractions were estimated by fitting the model to airborne spectral reflectance and selected endmembers where then used to estimate the canopy radiation budget at each measured location.

  15. Regional Estimates of Drought-Induced Tree Canopy Loss across Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, A.; Swenson, J. J.; González-Roglich, M.; Johnson, D. M.; Domec, J. C.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    The severe drought of 2011 killed millions of trees across the state of Texas. Drought-induced tree-mortality can have significant impacts to carbon cycling, regional biophysics, and community composition. We quantified canopy cover loss across the state using remotely sensed imagery from before and after the drought at multiple scales. First, we classified ~200 orthophotos (1-m spatial resolution) from the National Agriculture Imagery Program, using a supervised maximum likelihood classification. Area of canopy cover loss in these classifications was highly correlated (R2 = 0.8) with ground estimates of canopy cover loss, measured in 74 plots across 15 different sites in Texas. These 1-m orthophoto classifications were then used to calibrate and validate coarser scale (30-m) Landsat imagery to create wall-to-wall tree canopy cover loss maps across the state of Texas. We quantified percent dead and live canopy within each pixel of Landsat to create continuous maps of dead and live tree cover, using two approaches: (1) a zero-inflated beta distribution model and (2) a random forest algorithm. Widespread canopy loss occurred across all the major natural systems of Texas, with the Edwards Plateau region most affected. In this region, on average, 10% of the forested area was lost due to the 2011 drought. We also identified climatic thresholds that controlled the spatial distribution of tree canopy loss across the state. However, surprisingly, there were many local hot spots of canopy loss, suggesting that not only climatic factors could explain the spatial patterns of canopy loss, but rather other factors related to soil, landscape, management, and stand density also likely played a role. As increases in extreme droughts are predicted to occur with climate change, it will become important to define methods that can detect associated drought-induced tree mortality across large regions. These maps could then be used (1) to quantify impacts to carbon cycling and regional

  16. Phylogenetic Structure of Foliar Spectral Traits in Tropical Forest Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. McManus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spectranomics approach to tropical forest remote sensing has established a link between foliar reflectance spectra and the phylogenetic composition of tropical canopy tree communities vis-à-vis the taxonomic organization of biochemical trait variation. However, a direct relationship between phylogenetic affiliation and foliar reflectance spectra of species has not been established. We sought to develop this relationship by quantifying the extent to which underlying patterns of phylogenetic structure drive interspecific variation among foliar reflectance spectra within three Neotropical canopy tree communities with varying levels of soil fertility. We interpreted the resulting spectral patterns of phylogenetic signal in the context of foliar biochemical traits that may contribute to the spectral-phylogenetic link. We utilized a multi-model ensemble to elucidate trait-spectral relationships, and quantified phylogenetic signal for spectral wavelengths and traits using Pagel’s lambda statistic. Foliar reflectance spectra showed evidence of phylogenetic influence primarily within the visible and shortwave infrared spectral regions. These regions were also selected by the multi-model ensemble as those most important to the quantitative prediction of several foliar biochemical traits. Patterns of phylogenetic organization of spectra and traits varied across sites and with soil fertility, indicative of the complex interactions between the environmental and phylogenetic controls underlying patterns of biodiversity.

  17. Remote sensing detection of droughts in Amazonian forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Ladle, Richard; Arai, Egidio; Barbier, Nicolas; Phillips, Oliver

    2010-08-01

    *Remote sensing data are a key tool to assess large forested areas, where limitations such as accessibility and lack of field measurements are prevalent. Here, we have analysed datasets from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite measurements and field data to assess the impacts of the 2005 drought in Amazonia. *We combined vegetation indices (VI) and climatological variables to evaluate the spatiotemporal patterns associated with the 2005 drought, and explore the relationships between remotely-sensed indices and forest inventory data on tree mortality. *There were differences in results based on c4 and c5 MODIS products. C5 VI showed no spatial relationship with rainfall or aerosol optical depth; however, distinct regions responded significantly to the increased radiation in 2005. The increase in the Enhanced VI (EVI) during 2005 showed a significant positive relationship (P drought was associated with a positive response of forest photosynthesis to changes in the radiation income. We discuss the evidence that this increase could be related to structural changes in the canopy.

  18. Changes of ndvi across vertical canopy layers in temperate deciduous forest during a litterfall period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. M.; Ryu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a key variable indicating changes in vegetation dynamics and carbon flux. Previous studies have paid little attention to the changes in NDVI during litterfall period. In this study, we report the changes of NDVI across vertical canopy layers in a temperate deciduous forest during a litterfall period. To monitor changes in canopy structure, functions, and spectral properties during the litterfall period, we combined automatic observations of NDVI derived from LED-spectral sensors and LAI derived from digital cover photography installed at multiple canopy layer depths. Furthermore, we collected hyperspectral optical properties of leaves across multiple canopy layers and hyperspectral reflectance of forest background using ASD-FieldSpec. We found that NDVI in forest floor became greater than the NDVI measured from the top of canopy during the litterfall period. We discuss what satellite-derived NDVI exactly sees during the litterfall period, which will be useful to better understand forest autumn phenology at large scales.

  19. Polarimetric, Two-Color, Photon-Counting Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Laser altimeter measurements of forest stands with distinct structures and compositions have been acquired at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near-infrared) wavelengths and parallel and perpendicular polarization states using the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL). The micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach employed by SIMPL provides canopy structure measurements with high vertical and spatial resolution. Using a height distribution analysis method adapted from conventional, 1064 nm, full-waveform lidar remote sensing, the sensitivity of two parameters commonly used for above-ground biomass estimation are compared as a function of wavelength. The results for the height of median energy (HOME) and canopy cover are for the most part very similar, indicating biomass estimations using lidars operating at green and near-infrared wavelengths will yield comparable estimates. The expected detection of increasing depolarization with depth into the canopies due to volume multiple-scattering was not observed, possibly due to the small laser footprint and the small detector field of view used in the SIMPL instrument. The results of this work provide pathfinder information for NASA's ICESat-2 mission that will employ a 532 nm, micropulse, photon counting laser altimeter.

  20. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  1. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  2. Sub-canopy radiant energy during snowmelt in non-uniform forests spanning a latitudinal transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, T. E.; Essery, R.; Marks, D.; Pomeroy, J.; Hardy, J.; Sicart, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    In mountainous, forested environments, snowcover dynamics exert a strong control on hydrologic and atmospheric processes. Snowcover ablation patterns in forests are controlled by a complex combination of depositional patterns coupled with radiative and turbulent heat flux patterns related to topographic and canopy cover variations. Quantification of small-scale variations of radiant energy in forested environments is necessary to understand how canopy structure affects snowcover energetics to improve the representation of snowmelt processes in spatially-explicit physically-based snowmelt models. Incoming solar and thermal radiation were measured during the melt season within continuous and discontinuous forest stands, and at the interface between forest patches and small clearings along a transect spanning the North American Cordillera. Results indicate that reductions in solar radiation at the snow surface are partially balanced by increased thermal radiation from the forest canopy, relative to open locations. The differences between the transfer processes for solar and thermal radiation can produce two net incoming and net snowcover radiation paradoxes in heterogeneous environments. In discontinuous canopies, net radiation in forested areas may exceed radiation in open sites, whereas in other situations, net radiation may be less than net radiation in closed canopy forests. The empirical results coupled with theoretical modeling indicates that the effects of forest canopies on the radiative regimes at the snow surface are controlled by complex interactions of slope, aspect, gap sizes, canopy height, canopy density, canopy temperature, snow surface temperature and snowcover albedo. In higher latitude, closed canopy forests, radiative regimes may be characterized by relatively simple geometric optical radiation transfer methods, whereas at lower latitude and more non- uniform forests, other processes such as canopy and stem heating must be considered. These net

  3. Mapping Forest Canopy Height over Continental China Using Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-detailed forest height data are useful to monitor local, regional and global carbon cycle. LiDAR remote sensing can measure three-dimensional forest features but generating spatially-contiguous forest height maps at a large scale (e.g., continental and global is problematic because existing LiDAR instruments are still data-limited and expensive. This paper proposes a new approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN for modeling of forest canopy heights over the China continent. Our model ingests spaceborne LiDAR metrics and multiple geospatial predictors including climatic variables (temperature and precipitation, forest type, tree cover percent and land surface reflectance. The spaceborne LiDAR instrument used in the study is the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS, which can provide within-footprint forest canopy heights. The ANN was trained with pairs between spatially discrete LiDAR metrics and full gridded geo-predictors. This generates valid conjugations to predict heights over the China continent. The ANN modeled heights were evaluated with three different reference data. First, field measured tree heights from three experiment sites were used to validate the ANN model predictions. The observed tree heights at the site-scale agreed well with the modeled forest heights (R = 0.827, and RMSE = 4.15 m. Second, spatially discrete GLAS observations and a continuous map from the interpolation of GLAS-derived tree heights were separately used to evaluate the ANN model. We obtained R of 0.725 and RMSE of 7.86 m and R of 0.759 and RMSE of 8.85 m, respectively. Further, inter-comparisons were also performed with two existing forest height maps. Our model granted a moderate agreement with the existing satellite-based forest height maps (R = 0.738, and RMSE = 7.65 m (R2 = 0.52, and RMSE = 8.99 m. Our results showed that the ANN model developed in this paper is capable of estimating forest heights over the China continent with a

  4. A canopy trimming experiment in Puerto Rico: the response of litter invertebrate communities to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest subject to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Richardson; Michael J. Richardson; Grizelle Gonzalez; Aaron B. Shiels; Diane S. Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Hurricanes cause canopy removal and deposition of pulses of litter to the forest floor. A Canopy Trimming Experiment (CTE) was designed to decouple these two factors, and to investigate the separate abiotic and biotic consequences of hurricane-type damage and monitor recovery processes. As part of this experiment, effects on forest floor invertebrate communities were...

  5. Prediction of forest canopy and surface fuels from Lidar and satellite time series data in a bark beetle-affected forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Benjamin C.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jenny S.; Kennedy, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire behavior depends on the type, quantity, and condition of fuels, and the effect that bark beetle outbreaks have on fuels is a topic of current research and debate. Remote sensing can provide estimates of fuels across landscapes, although few studies have estimated surface fuels from remote sensing data. Here we predicted and mapped field-measured canopy and surface fuels from light detection and ranging (lidar) and Landsat time series explanatory variables via random forest (RF) modeling across a coniferous montane forest in Colorado, USA, which was affected by mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) approximately six years prior. We examined relationships between mapped fuels and the severity of tree mortality with correlation tests. RF models explained 59%, 48%, 35%, and 70% of the variation in available canopy fuel, canopy bulk density, canopy base height, and canopy height, respectively (percent root-mean-square error (%RMSE) = 12–54%). Surface fuels were predicted less accurately, with models explaining 24%, 28%, 32%, and 30% of the variation in litter and duff, 1 to 100-h, 1000-h, and total surface fuels, respectively (%RMSE = 37–98%). Fuel metrics were negatively correlated with the severity of tree mortality, except canopy base height, which increased with greater tree mortality. Our results showed how bark beetle-caused tree mortality significantly reduced canopy fuels in our study area. We demonstrated that lidar and Landsat time series data contain substantial information about canopy and surface fuels and can be used for large-scale efforts to monitor and map fuel loads for fire behavior modeling at a landscape scale.

  6. Prediction of Forest Canopy and Surface Fuels from Lidar and Satellite Time Series Data in a Bark Beetle-Affected Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Bright

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire behavior depends on the type, quantity, and condition of fuels, and the effect that bark beetle outbreaks have on fuels is a topic of current research and debate. Remote sensing can provide estimates of fuels across landscapes, although few studies have estimated surface fuels from remote sensing data. Here we predicted and mapped field-measured canopy and surface fuels from light detection and ranging (lidar and Landsat time series explanatory variables via random forest (RF modeling across a coniferous montane forest in Colorado, USA, which was affected by mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins approximately six years prior. We examined relationships between mapped fuels and the severity of tree mortality with correlation tests. RF models explained 59%, 48%, 35%, and 70% of the variation in available canopy fuel, canopy bulk density, canopy base height, and canopy height, respectively (percent root-mean-square error (%RMSE = 12–54%. Surface fuels were predicted less accurately, with models explaining 24%, 28%, 32%, and 30% of the variation in litter and duff, 1 to 100-h, 1000-h, and total surface fuels, respectively (%RMSE = 37–98%. Fuel metrics were negatively correlated with the severity of tree mortality, except canopy base height, which increased with greater tree mortality. Our results showed how bark beetle-caused tree mortality significantly reduced canopy fuels in our study area. We demonstrated that lidar and Landsat time series data contain substantial information about canopy and surface fuels and can be used for large-scale efforts to monitor and map fuel loads for fire behavior modeling at a landscape scale.

  7. A LiDAR method of canopy structure retrieval for wind modeling of heterogeneous forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Etienne; Bechmann, Andreas; Taryainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty of obtaining accurate information about the canopy structure is a current limitation towards higher accuracy in numerical predictions of the wind field in forested terrain. The canopy structure in computational fluid dynamics is specified through the frontal area density...

  8. Missing Peroxy Radical Sources Within a Rural Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Cantrell, C.; Kim, S.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Turnipseed, A.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F.; Apel, E. C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Organic peroxy (RO2) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key intermediates in the photochemical processes that generate ozone, secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen reservoirs throughout the troposphere. In regions with ample biogenic hydrocarbons, the richness and complexity of peroxy radical chemistry presents a significant challenge to current-generation models, especially given the scarcity of measurements in such environments. We present peroxy radical observations acquired within a Ponderosa pine forest during the summer 2010 Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study (BEACHON-ROCS). Total peroxy radical mixing ratios reach as high as 180 pptv and are among the highest yet recorded. Using the comprehensive measurement suite to constrain a near-explicit 0-D box model, we investigate the sources, sinks and distribution of peroxy radicals below the forest canopy. The base chemical mechanism underestimates total peroxy radicals by as much as a factor of 3. Since primary reaction partners for peroxy radicals are either measured (NO) or under-predicted (HO2 and RO2, i.e. self-reaction), missing sources are the most likely explanation for this result. A close comparison of model output with observations reveals at least two distinct source signatures. The first missing source, characterized by a sharp midday maximum and a strong dependence on solar radiation, is consistent with photolytic production of HO2. The diel profile of the second missing source peaks in the afternoon and suggests a process that generates RO2 independently of sun-driven photochemistry, such as ozonolysis of reactive hydrocarbons. The maximum magnitudes of these missing sources (approximately 120 and 50 pptv min-1, respectively) are consistent with previous observations alluding to unexpectedly intense oxidation within forests. We conclude that a similar mechanism may underlie many such observations.

  9. Estimation of Forest Degradation with Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus

    Our global climate system is changing and there is now broad agreement among climate scientists that changes are most likely human induced and primarily caused by CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. One important source of carbon emissions is forest disturbance by various anthropogenic activities....... This has led to the establishment of a globally accepted forest based climate change mitigation system with the purpose to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation while at the same time establish forest enhancement, sustainable management of forests, and forest conservation (REDD......+). An indirect remote sensing (RS) approach has been suggested to map the infrastructure used for degradation rather than the actual change in forest canopy cover. This offers a way to delineate intact forest land and to model and estimate emissions from forest degradation in the non‐intact forest land – thereby...

  10. Comparison of LiDAR- and photointerpretation-based estimates of canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation of the agreement between photointerpretation- and LiDARbased estimates of canopy cover was performed using 397 90 x 90 m reference areas in Oregon. It was determined that at low canopy cover levels LiDAR estimates tend to exceed those from photointerpretation and that this tendency reverses at high canopy cover levels. Characteristics of the airborne...

  11. Canopy gap replacement failure in a Pennsylvania forest preserve subject to extreme deer herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian S. Pedersen; Angela M. Wallis

    2003-01-01

    While research has demonstrated the adverse effects of deer herbivory on forest regeneration in forests managed for timber production, less study has been devoted to the long term effects of deer on the dynamics of forests set aside as natural areas. At sufficiently high population densities, deer could interrupt the typical cycle of canopy gap formation and...

  12. Canopy microclimate response to pattern and density of thinning in a Sierra Nevada forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Rambo; M. North

    2009-01-01

    Restoring Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests after a century of fire suppression has become an important management priority as fuel reduction thinning has been mandated by the Healthy Forests Restoration Act. However, in mechanically thinned stands there is little information on the effects of different patterns and densities of live-tree retention on forest canopy...

  13. Regional and historical factors supplement current climate in shaping global forest canopy height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott; Mao, Lingfeng

    2016-01-01

    for 32 304 forested 55-km grid cells using 1-km global canopy height data (maximum height of 1-km cells within a 55-km grid). Variation in Hmax was related to latitude and biomes, along with environmental and historical variables. Both spatial and non-spatial linear models were used to assess......Summary Canopy height is a key factor that affects carbon storage, vegetation productivity and biodiversity in forests, as well as an indicator of key processes such as biomass allocation. However, global variation in forest canopy height and its determinants are poorly known. We used global data...... on Light Detection and Ranging-derived maximum forest canopy height (Hmax) to test hypotheses relating Hmax to current climate (water availability, ambient energy and water–energy dynamics), regional evolutionary and biogeographic history, historical climate change, and human disturbance. We derived Hmax...

  14. Regional and historical factors supplement current climate in shaping global forest canopy height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott; Mao, Lingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Summary Canopy height is a key factor that affects carbon storage, vegetation productivity and biodiversity in forests, as well as an indicator of key processes such as biomass allocation. However, global variation in forest canopy height and its determinants are poorly known. We used global data...... on Light Detection and Ranging-derived maximum forest canopy height (Hmax) to test hypotheses relating Hmax to current climate (water availability, ambient energy and water–energy dynamics), regional evolutionary and biogeographic history, historical climate change, and human disturbance. We derived Hmax...... for 32 304 forested 55-km grid cells using 1-km global canopy height data (maximum height of 1-km cells within a 55-km grid). Variation in Hmax was related to latitude and biomes, along with environmental and historical variables. Both spatial and non-spatial linear models were used to assess...

  15. ECHIDNA LIDAR Campaigns: Forest Canopy Imagery and Field Data, U.S.A., 2007-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains forest canopy scan data from the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI) and field measurements data from three campaigns conducted in the United...

  16. ECHIDNA LIDAR Campaigns: Forest Canopy Imagery and Field Data, U.S.A., 2007-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains forest canopy scan data from the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI) and field measurements data from three campaigns conducted in...

  17. Assessing the performance of aerial image point cloud and spectral metrics in predicting boreal forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, M.; Korhonen, L.; Kukkonen, M.; Packalen, P.

    2017-07-01

    Canopy cover (CC) is a variable used to describe the status of forests and forested habitats, but also the variable used primarily to define what counts as a forest. The estimation of CC has relied heavily on remote sensing with past studies focusing on satellite imagery as well as Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) using light detection and ranging (lidar). Of these, ALS has been proven highly accurate, because the fraction of pulses penetrating the canopy represents a direct measurement of canopy gap percentage. However, the methods of photogrammetry can be applied to produce point clouds fairly similar to airborne lidar data from aerial images. Currently there is little information about how well such point clouds measure canopy density and gaps. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of aerial image point clouds for CC estimation and compare the results with those obtained using spectral data from aerial images and Landsat 5. First, we modeled CC for n = 1149 lidar plots using field-measured CCs and lidar data. Next, this data was split into five subsets in north-south direction (y-coordinate). Finally, four CC models (AerialSpectral, AerialPointcloud, AerialCombi (spectral + pointcloud) and Landsat) were created and they were used to predict new CC values to the lidar plots, subset by subset, using five-fold cross validation. The Landsat and AerialSpectral models performed with RMSEs of 13.8% and 12.4%, respectively. AerialPointcloud model reached an RMSE of 10.3%, which was further improved by the inclusion of spectral data; RMSE of the AerialCombi model was 9.3%. We noticed that the aerial image point clouds managed to describe only the outermost layer of the canopy and missed the details in lower canopy, which was resulted in weak characterization of the total CC variation, especially in the tails of the data.

  18. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Luo, Yao; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Zhiqi; Hao, Jiming; Duan, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exchange between forests and the atmosphere plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global emission of Hg from natural source has large uncertainty, partly due to the lack of chronical and valid field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces in China, the most important contributor to global atmospheric Hg. In this study, the micrometeorological method (MM) was used to continuously observe gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over forest canopy at a mildly polluted site (Qianyanzhou, QYZ) and a moderately polluted site (Huitong, HT, near a large Hg mine) in subtropical south China for a full year from January to December in 2014. The GEM flux measurements over forest canopy in QYZ and HT showed net emission with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively. Daily variations of GEM fluxes showed an increasing emission with the increasing air temperature and solar radiation in the daytime to a peak at 13:00, and decreasing emission thereafter, even as a GEM sink or balance at night. High temperature and low air Hg concentration resulted in the high Hg emission in summer. Low temperature in winter and Hg absorption by plant in spring resulted in low Hg emission, or even adsorption in the two seasons. GEM fluxes were positively correlated with air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation, while it is negatively correlated with air humidity and atmospheric GEM concentration. The lower emission fluxes of GEM at the moderately polluted site (HT) when compared with that in the mildly polluted site (QYZ) may result from a much higher adsorption fluxes at night in spite of a similar or higher emission fluxes during daytime. This shows that the higher atmospheric GEM concentration at HT restricted the forest GEM emission. Great attention should be paid to forests as a crucial increasing Hg emission source with the decreasing atmospheric GEM concentration in polluted areas because of Hg

  19. Multidisciplinary Research on Canopy Photosynthetic Productivity in a Cool-Temperate Deciduous Broadleaf Forest in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, H.; Noda, H. M.; Saitoh, T. M.; Nagai, S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy has crucial roles in regulating energy and material exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems and in ecological processes with respect to carbon cycle and growth in the ecosystems. Challenges to the canopy of tall forests for such research involve the access to the leaves for ecophysiological observations, responses of leaves to the changing environments from seconds to years, and up-scaling the leaf-level phenomena to canopy and landscape-levels. A long-term, multidisciplinary approach has been conducted in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Takayama site (ca. 1400m a.s.l.) in central Japan. This forest canopy is dominated by Quercus crispula and Betula ermanii. We have been focusing on the phenology of photosynthetic productivity from a single leaf to canopy, and to landscape level, by combining leaf ecophysiological research, optical observations by spectroradiometers and time-laps cameras with the aid of "Phenological Eyes Network (PEN)", and process-based modellings. The canopy-level photosynthesis is then compared with the micrometeorolgical observation of CO2 flux at the site. So far we have been clarifying that (1) inter-annual variations in seasonal growth rate and senescence rate of leaf photosynthetic capacity and canopy leaf area are largely responsible for the inter-annual change in forest photosynthesis, and (2) spectral vegetation indices such as enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and chlorophyll index (CCI) can be the indicator to observe the phenology of forest canopy photosynthesis. In addition to these efforts since 2003, we established an open-field warming experiment on the branches of the canopy trees, to investigate the possible influence of temperature increase on leaf photosynthetic and optical properties and then to examine whether the optical satellite remote sensing can detect the changes in photosynthetic capacity and phenology by ongoing global warming.

  20. From leaf longevity to canopy seasonality: a carbon optimality phenology model for tropical evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Wu, J.; Wright, S. J.; Kitajima, K.; Pacala, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical evergreen forests play a key role in the global carbon, water and energy cycles. Despite apparent evergreenness, this biome shows strong seasonality in leaf litter and photosynthesis. Recent studies have suggested that this seasonality is not directly related to environmental variability but is dominated by seasonal changes of leaf development and senescence. Meanwhile, current terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) can not capture this pattern because leaf life cycle is highly underrepresented. One challenge to model this leaf life cycle is the remarkable diversity in leaf longevity, ranging from several weeks to multiple years. Ecologists have proposed models where leaf longevity is regarded as a strategy to optimize carbon gain. However previous optimality models can not be readily integrated into TBMs because (i) there are still large biases in predicted leaf longevity and (ii) it is never tested whether the carbon optimality model can capture the observed seasonality in leaf demography and canopy photosynthesis. In this study, we develop a new carbon optimality model for leaf demography. The novelty of our approach is two-fold. First, we incorporate a mechanistic photosynthesis model that can better estimate leaf carbon gain. Second, we consider the interspecific variations in leaf senescence rate, which strongly influence the modelled optimal carbon gain. We test our model with a leaf trait database for Panamanian evergreen forests. Then, we apply the model at seasonal scale and compare simulated seasonality of leaf litter and canopy photosynthesis with in-situ observations from several Amazonian forest sites. We find that (i) compared with original optimality model, the regression slope between observed and predicted leaf longevity increases from 0.15 to 1.04 in our new model and (ii) that our new model can capture the observed seasonal variations of leaf demography and canopy photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the phenology in tropical evergreen

  1. Mapping canopy gaps in an indigenous subtropical coastal forest using high resolution WorldView-2 data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malahlela, O

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species usually colonize canopy gaps in tropical and sub-tropical forests, which results in loss of native species. Therefore, an understanding of the location and distribution of canopy gaps will assist in predicting the occurrence...

  2. Effect of canopy density on litter invertebrate community structure in pine forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brygadyrenko Viktor V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the structure of the litter invertebrate community in 141 pine (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus, 1753 forest sites with five variants of canopy density (30-44, 45-59, 60-74, 75-89 and 90-100% in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The total number of litter macrofauna specimens collected at each site decreased from an average of 84/100 trap-days in the sparsest stands (30-40% density to 4-39 specimens/100 trap-days in the forests with a denser canopy. The number of macrofauna species caught in the pitfall traps does not vary significantly with different degrees of canopy density. The Shannon-Weaver and Pielou diversity indexes show increases corresponding to increasing stages of canopy density. The average share of phytophages in the trophic structure of the litter macrofauna does not vary with canopy density. The relative number of saprophages decreases from 54% in the forests with the sparsest canopy to 11-13% in the forests with denser canopies. The relative number of saprophages in pine forests (22% is lower than that in deciduous forests (40%. The share of zoophages in the trophic structure of the litter macrofauna increases significantly with the increase in the pine forest canopy density (from 21% in the sparsest plots to 59% in the densest. The relative number of polyphages is highest (47-65% when the canopy density is 45-89%. At canopy densities below or above this range, the share of polyphages in the community decreases to 20 and 24%, respectively. Regardless of canopy density, Formicidae and Lycosidae invariably rank amongst the first three dominant families. Nine families of invertebrates dominate in the pine forest stands with the highest density (90-100%, and 5-7 families dominate in the stands with lower density. For the pine forest litter macrofauna, we have observed an extreme simplification of the community size structure compared with natural and planted deciduous forests of the steppe zone of Ukraine.

  3. Spatial Upscaling of Soil Respiration under a Complex Canopy Structure in an Old‐Growth Deciduous Forest, Central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilanee Suchewaboripont

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural complexity, especially canopy and gap structure, of old‐growth forests affects the spatial variation of soil respiration (Rs. Without considering this variation, the upscaling of Rs from field measurements to the forest site will be biased. The present study examined responses of Rs to soil temperature (Ts and water content (W in canopy and gap areas, developed the best fit modelof Rs and used the unique spatial patterns of Rs and crown closure to upscale chamber measurements to the site scale in an old‐growth beech‐oak forest. Rs increased with an increase in Ts in both gap and canopy areas, but the effect of W on Rs was different between the two areas. The generalized linear model (GLM analysis identified that an empirical model of Rs with thecoupling of Ts and W was better than an exponential model of Rs with only Ts. Moreover, because of different responses of Rs to W between canopy and gap areas, it was necessary to estimate Rs in these areas separately. Consequently, combining the spatial patterns of Rs and the crown closure could allow upscaling of Rs from chamber‐based measurements to the whole site in the present study.

  4. Upper canopy pollinators of Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., a tree of South American temperate rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Smith-Ramírez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological processes in the upper canopy of temperate forests have been seldom studied because of the limited accessibility. Here, we present the results of the first survey of the pollinator assemblage and the frequency of insect visits to flowers in the upper branches of ulmo, Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., an emergent 30-40 m-tall tree in rainforests of Chiloé Island, Chile. We compared these findings with a survey of flower visitors restricted to lower branches of E. cordifolia 1- in the forest understory, 2- in lower branches in an agroforestry area. We found 10 species of pollinators in canopy, and eight, 12 and 15 species in understory, depending of tree locations. The main pollinators of E. cordifolia in the upper canopy differed significantly from the pollinator assemblage recorded in lower tree branches. We conclude that the pollinator assemblages of the temperate forest canopy and interior are still unknown.

  5. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    Full Text Available Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40% and red-listed threatened species (26%. The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small

  6. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košulič, Ondřej; Michalko, Radek; Hula, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40%) and red-listed threatened species (26%). The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small-scale improvements

  7. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košulič, Ondřej; Michalko, Radek; Hula, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40%) and red-listed threatened species (26%). The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small-scale improvements

  8. Variation in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux rates among species and canopy layers in a wet tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Bedoya-Arrieta, Ricardo; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    As tropical forests respond to environmental change, autotrophic respiration may consume a greater proportion of carbon fixed in photosynthesis at the expense of growth, potentially turning the forests into a carbon source. Predicting such a response requires that we measure and place autotrophic respiration in a complete carbon budget, but extrapolating measurements of autotrophic respiration from chambers to ecosystem remains a challenge. High plant species diversity and complex canopy structure may cause respiration rates to vary and measurements that do not account for this complexity may introduce bias in extrapolation more detrimental than uncertainty. Using experimental plantations of four native tree species with two canopy layers, we examined whether species and canopy layers vary in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux and whether the variation relates to commonly used scalars of mass, nitrogen (N), photosynthetic capacity and wood size. Foliar respiration rate varied threefold between canopy layers, ∼0.74 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the overstory and ∼0.25 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the understory, but little among species. Leaf mass per area, N and photosynthetic capacity explained some of the variation, but height explained more. Chamber measurements of foliar respiration thus can be extrapolated to the canopy with rates and leaf area specific to each canopy layer or height class. If area-based rates are sampled across canopy layers, the area-based rate may be regressed against leaf mass per area to derive the slope (per mass rate) to extrapolate to the canopy using the total leaf mass. Wood CO2 efflux varied 1.0-1.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for overstory trees and 0.6-0.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for understory species. The variation in wood CO2 efflux rate was mostly related to wood size, and little to species, canopy layer or height. Mean wood CO2 efflux rate per surface area, derived by regressing CO2 efflux per mass against the ratio of surface

  9. Patterns of vegetation composition across levels of canopy disturbance in temperate forests of west Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Subodh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the impacts of canopy disturbance on vegetation compositional attributes of two characteristic temperate forests (i.e., mixed broad-leaf and banj-oak forests in west Himalayan part of India. Following the standard approaches, quantitative information on compositional attributes of forest vegetation was generated and analyzed. Considerable changes in these attributes were revealed across different levels of canopy disturbance in both forests. In particular, tree density and total basal area (TBA exhibited significant decline from undegraded to degraded stands. Among others, seedling and sapling density of mixed broad-leaf forest was affected adversely by increased level of canopy disturbance. However, herb density in this forest increased significantly with increasing levels of disturbance; the same was not true for banj-oak forest. A significant decline in relative frequency and density of native herbaceous species was apparent towards degraded stands, implying that the disturbed sites in both forests created an opportunity for the establishment and proliferation of non-natives. However, with significant increase in relative density of non-native herbs, the degraded stands of banj-oak forest emerged as critically vulnerable to non-native proliferation. The patterns of tree size class distribution in both forests also exhibited certain trends across canopy disturbance, which suggested possible future changes in composition. In particular, the patterns of common tree associates (i.e., Myrica esculenta and Rhododendron arboreum in banj-oak forest and Pinus roxburghii in mixed broad-leaf forest were indicative of likely compositional changes in near future. The study concludes that: (i compositional attributes of both mixed broad-leaf and banj-oak forests were sensitive to increasing levels of canopy disturbance, (ii mixed broad-leaf forest exhibited greater sensitivity to canopy disturbance at recruitment levels, (iii increased

  10. Detecting forest canopy layering: applying lidar remote sensing to further understand the role of vertical structure in species habitat preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, A. S.; Dubayah, R.; Swatantran, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full waveform lidar reflects off all forest canopy elements, showing not only height, but also the structure within the canopy from the top to the forest floor, making it an ideal remote sensing technology for research in forest ecosystem dynamics. Vertical stratification or canopy layering has long been noted as an essential element in the forest ecosystem and of importance for species habitat. This project explores the utility of lidar for characterizing forest canopy layering and applying canopy layering information to better understand species habitat preference. Canopy layering will be mapped across the landscape using full-waveform lidar remote sensing data from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). Two methods for quantifying layering have been developed from LVIS data collected during the summer of 2009 for Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. The two layering datasets (one categorical, one continuous) describe how vertical stratification varies across the forest with canopy height and elevation. The relationships between of canopy layering and avian species habitat preference will also be assessed for bird species within Hubbard Brook Experimental forest. These results will provide ecologically meaningful information and a relevant method for quantifying canopy layering at the landscape scale, which will aid in a better understanding of forest ecosystem dynamics for forest management and species habitat research.

  11. Cascading Effects of Canopy Opening and Debris Deposition from a Large-Scale Hurricane Experiment in a Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron B. Shiels; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge; Michael R Willig; Jess K. Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    Intense hurricanes disturb many tropical forests, but the key mechanisms driving post-hurricane forest changes are not fully understood. In Puerto Rico, we used a replicated factorial experiment to determine the mechanisms of forest change associated with canopy openness and organic matter (debris) addition. Cascading effects from canopy openness accounted for...

  12. Long-term fragmentation effects on the distribution and dynamics of canopy gaps in a tropical montane forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas R. Vaughn; Gregory P. Asner; Christian P. Giardina

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation alters forest canopy structure through various mechanisms, which in turn drive subsequent changes to biogeochemical processes and biological diversity. Using repeated airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) mappings, we investigated the size distribution and dynamics of forest canopy gaps across a topical montane forest landscape in Hawaii naturally...

  13. Subpixel urban land cover estimation: comparing cubist, random forests, and support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey T. Walton

    2008-01-01

    Three machine learning subpixel estimation methods (Cubist, Random Forests, and support vector regression) were applied to estimate urban cover. Urban forest canopy cover and impervious surface cover were estimated from Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery using a higher resolution cover map resampled to 30 m as training and reference data. Three different band combinations (...

  14. Canopy tree species drive local heterogeneity in soil nitrogen availability in a lowland tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B. B.; Nasto, M.; Asner, G. P.; Balzotti, C.; Cleveland, C. C.; Taylor, P.; Townsend, A. R.; Porder, S.

    2016-12-01

    The high phylogenetic and functional diversity of tree species in lowland tropical forests make field-based investigations of organismal influences on soil nutrient cycling challenging. Here, we used remotely-detected canopy nitrogen (N) data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to identify and characterize ¼ ha plots of a mature forest with either high or low canopy N on the Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica. Specifically we were interested in mechanisms by which foliar N might influence soil N, or the reverse. A non-dimensional scaling analysis suggested that high and low canopy N plots differ in their emergent (≥40 cm DBH) tree communities, though there were few putative N fixers in any of the plots. We found litterfall mass was similar beneath all canopies. However, mean DOC solubility of litter was 0.40% of dry biomass in low canopy N plots compared to 0.26% in high N plots. Additionally, litter leachate C:N was twice as high in litter from the low canopy N plots (61±1.4) compared with litter from the high N plots (30±1.4). We found strong positive correlations between canopy N and concentrations of soil KCl-extractable soil NO3- and net nitrification and net N mineralization rates (N=5; P<0.0001 in all cases). Under high canopy N, mean NO3-N concentrations were roughly an order of magnitude higher than beneath low N canopies (2.7±0.39 and 0.19±0.05, respectively). We hypothesize that differences in litter chemistry lead to differences in leachate quality that promote high soil N under canopies with high foliar N. Our findings suggest that remote sensing of foliar characteristics may offer an effective way to study spatial patterns in soil biogeochemistry in diverse tropical forests.

  15. Waveform- and Terrestrial Lidar Assessment of the Usual (Structural) Suspects in a Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aardt, J. A.; Romanczyk, P.; Kelbe, D.; van Leeuwen, M.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; Gough, C. M.; Kampe, T. U.

    2015-12-01

    Forest inventory has evolved from standard stem diameter-height relationships, to coarse canopy metrics, to more involved ecologically-meaningful variables, such as leaf area index (LAI) and even canopy radiative transfer as a function of canopy gaps, leaf clumping, and leaf angle distributions. Accurate and precise measurement of the latter set of variables presents a challenge to the ecological and modeling communities; however, relatively novel remote sensing modalities, e.g., waveform lidar (wlidar) and terrestrial lidar systems (TLS), have the potential to adress this challenge. Research teams at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) have been collaborating with the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON) to assess vegetation canopy structure and variation at the University of Michigan Biological Research Station and the NEON Northeast domain (Harvard Forest, MA). Airborne small-footprint wlidar data, in-situ TLS data, and first-principles, physics-based simulation tools are being used to study (i) the impact of vegetation canopy geometric elements on wlidar signals (twigs and petioles have been deemed negligible), (ii) the analysis of airborne wlidar data for top-down assessment of canopy metrics such as LAI, and (iii) our ability to extract "bottom-up" canopy structure from TLS using scans registered to each other using a novel marker-free registration approach (e.g., basal area: R2=0.82, RMSE=7.43 m2/ha). Such studies indicate that we can potentially assess radiative transfer through vegetation canopies remotely using a vertically-stratified approach with wlidar, and augment such an approach via rapid-scan TLS technology to gain a better understanding of fine-scale variation in canopy structure. This in turn is key to quantifying and modeling radiative transfer based on understanding of forest canopy structural change as a function of ecosystem development, climate, and anthropogenic drivers.

  16. Association between sap flow-derived and eddy covariance-derived measurements of forest canopy CO2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Rotenberg, Eyal; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Yakir, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The carbon sink intensity of the biosphere depends on the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) of forest canopies and ecosystem respiration. GPP, however, cannot be directly measured and estimates are not well constrained. A new approach relying on canopy transpiration flux measured as sap flow, and water-use efficiency inferred from carbon isotope analysis (GPPSF ) has been proposed, but not tested against eddy covariance-based estimates (GPPEC ). Here we take advantage of parallel measurements using the two approaches at a semi-arid pine forest site to compare the GPPSF and GPPEC estimates on diurnal to annual timescales. GPPSF captured the seasonal dynamics of GPPEC (GPPSF  = 0.99 × GPPEC , r(2)  = 0.78, RMSE = 0.82, n = 457 d) with good agreement at the annual timescale (653 vs 670 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ). Both methods showed that GPP ranged between 1 and 8 g C m(-2)  d(-1) , and the GPPSF /GPPEC ratio was between 0.5 and 2.0 during 82% of the days. Carbon uptake dynamics at the individual tree scale conformed with leaf scale rates of net assimilation. GPPSF can produce robust estimations of tree- and canopy-scale rates of CO2 uptake, providing constraints and greatly extending current GPPEC estimations. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Tree Death Not Resulting in Gap Creation: An Investigation of Canopy Dynamics of Northern Temperate Deciduous Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Senécal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several decades of research have shown that canopy gaps drive tree renewal processes in the temperate deciduous forest biome. In the literature, canopy gaps are usually defined as canopy openings that are created by partial or total tree death of one or more canopy trees. In this study, we investigate linkages between tree damage mechanisms and the formation or not of new canopy gaps in northern temperate deciduous forests. We studied height loss processes in unmanaged and managed forests recovering from partial cutting with multi-temporal airborne Lidar data. The Lidar dataset was used to detect areas where canopy height reduction occurred, which were then field-studied to identify the tree damage mechanisms implicated. We also sampled the density of leaf material along transects to characterize canopy structure. We used the dataset of the canopy height reduction areas in a multi-model inference analysis to determine whether canopy structures or tree damage mechanisms most influenced the creation of new canopy gaps within canopy height reduction areas. According to our model, new canopy gaps are created mainly when canopy damage enlarges existing gaps or when height is reduced over areas without an already established dense sub-canopy tree layer.

  18. Temperate and Tropical Forest Canopies are Already Functioning beyond Their Thermal Thresholds for Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida C. Mau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical tree species have evolved under very narrow temperature ranges compared to temperate forest species. Studies suggest that tropical trees may be more vulnerable to continued warming compared to temperate species, as tropical trees have shown declines in growth and photosynthesis at elevated temperatures. However, regional and global vegetation models lack the data needed to accurately represent such physiological responses to increased temperatures, especially for tropical forests. To address this need, we compared instantaneous photosynthetic temperature responses of mature canopy foliage, leaf temperatures, and air temperatures across vertical canopy gradients in three forest types: tropical wet, tropical moist, and temperate deciduous. Temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis occurred were greater in the tropical forests canopies than the temperate canopy (30 ± 0.3 °C vs. 27 ± 0.4 °C. However, contrary to expectations that tropical species would be functioning closer to threshold temperatures, photosynthetic temperature optima was exceeded by maximum daily leaf temperatures, resulting in sub-optimal rates of carbon assimilation for much of the day, especially in upper canopy foliage (>10 m. If trees are unable to thermally acclimate to projected elevated temperatures, these forests may shift from net carbon sinks to sources, with potentially dire implications to climate feedbacks and forest community composition.

  19. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Twedt; Scott G. Somershoe

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after...

  20. Centennial impacts of fragmentation on the canopy structure of tropical montane forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Vaughn; Greg Asner; Christian Giardina

    2014-01-01

    Fragmentation poses one of the greatest threats to tropical forests with short-term changes to the structure of forest canopies affecting microclimate, tree mortality, and growth. Yet the long-term effects of fragmentation are poorly understood because (1) most effects require many decades to materialize, but long-term studies are very rare, (2) the effects of edges on...

  1. Methane exchange in a boreal forest estimated by gradient method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Sundqvist

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are generally considered to be net sinks of atmospheric methane (CH4 because of oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria in well-aerated forests soils. However, emissions from wet forest soils, and sometimes canopy fluxes, are often neglected when quantifying the CH4 budget of a forest. We used a modified Bowen ratio method and combined eddy covariance and gradient methods to estimate net CH4 exchange at a boreal forest site in central Sweden. Results indicate that the site is a net source of CH4. This is in contrast to soil, branch and leaf chamber measurements of uptake of CH4. Wetter soils within the footprint of the canopy are thought to be responsible for the discrepancy. We found no evidence for canopy emissions per se. However, the diel pattern of the CH4 exchange with minimum emissions at daytime correlated well with gross primary production, which supports an uptake in the canopy. More distant source areas could also contribute to the diel pattern; their contribution might be greater at night during stable boundary layer conditions.

  2. Impact of Canopy Cover on Butterfly Abundance and Diversity in Intermediate Zone Forest of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.B Weerakoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the influence of canopy cover on butterfly abundance in young secondary forest and regenerating forest at Maragamuwa area of Kumaragala forest reserve in Naula, Matale district of Sri Lanka. Line transect method was used to collect data. Hundred meter long five transects were established in each forest area. Butterfly abundance data were collected weekly for eight months from January to August 2014. Regenerating forest had low canopy cover (<50% than young secondary forest (20-90%. Total of 2,696 butterflies belonging to 87 species in six families were recorded. Some butterfly species were restricted to shady areas, but most butterflies were abundant in sunny areas. Butterflies in some families (Family Lycanidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae were abundant in sunny conditions and some families (Family Hesperiidae, Papilionidae abundant in shade. ANOVA was conducted to identify the variation of number of species (F=54.05, p<0.001 and among abundance (F=10.49, p<0.05 with the canopy cover. Species richness was high in moderate canopy cover (20±5%. Negative Pearson correlation coefficient stated butterfly abundance decreased with the canopy cover (r=-0.91 and species richness decreased with canopy cover (r=-0.85.Some butterflies were common in sunny areas and some species were confined to shady areas. However, most of the species were generally found throughout the area. Regenerating forest encountered more shrubs than in young secondary forest, which butterflies preferred to food on. Main findings of the study were that butterfly abundance was high in sunny areas and butterfly species richness was high in moderate shady areas.

  3. Coupling gross primary production and transpiration for a consistent estimate of canopy water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra, Marta; van Dijk, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE, the amount of transpiration or evapotranspiration per unit gross (GPP) or net CO2 uptake) is key in all areas of plant production and forest management applications. Therefore, mutually consistent estimates of GPP and transpiration are needed to analysed WUE without introducing any artefacts that might arise by combining independently derived GPP and ET estimates. GPP and transpiration are physiologically linked at ecosystem level by the canopy conductance (Gc). Estimates of Gc can be obtained by scaling stomatal conductance (Kelliher et al. 1995) or inferred from ecosystem level measurements of gas exchange (Baldocchi et al., 2008). To derive large-scale or indeed global estimates of Gc, satellite remote sensing based methods are needed. In a previous study, we used water vapour flux estimates derived from eddy covariance flux tower measurements at 16 Fluxnet sites world-wide to develop a method to estimate Gc using MODIS reflectance observations (Yebra et al. 2013). We combined those estimates with the Penman-Monteith combination equation to derive transpiration (T). The resulting T estimates compared favourably with flux tower estimates (R2=0.82, RMSE=29.8 W m-2). Moreover, the method allowed a single parameterisation for all land cover types, which avoids artefacts resulting from land cover classification. In subsequent research (Yebra et al, in preparation) we used the same satellite-derived Gc values within a process-based but simple canopy GPP model to constrain GPP predictions. The developed model uses a 'big-leaf' description of the plant canopy to estimate the mean GPP flux as the lesser of a conductance-limited and radiation-limited GPP rate. The conductance-limited rate was derived assuming that transport of CO2 from the bulk air to the intercellular leaf space is limited by molecular diffusion through the stomata. The radiation-limited rate was estimated assuming that it is proportional to the absorbed photosynthetically

  4. Dynamics of canopy stomatal conductance, transpiration, and evaporation in a temperate deciduous forest, validated by carbonyl sulfide uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Richard; Commane, Róisín; Munger, J. William; McManus, J. Barry; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Saleska, Scott R.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    Stomatal conductance influences both photosynthesis and transpiration, thereby coupling the carbon and water cycles and affecting surface-atmosphere energy exchange. The environmental response of stomatal conductance has been measured mainly on the leaf scale, and theoretical canopy models are relied on to upscale stomatal conductance for application in terrestrial ecosystem models and climate prediction. Here we estimate stomatal conductance and associated transpiration in a temperate deciduous forest directly on the canopy scale via two independent approaches: (i) from heat and water vapor exchange and (ii) from carbonyl sulfide (OCS) uptake. We use the eddy covariance method to measure the net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of OCS, and we use a flux-gradient approach to separate canopy OCS uptake from soil OCS uptake. We find that the seasonal and diurnal patterns of canopy stomatal conductance obtained by the two approaches agree (to within ±6 % diurnally), validating both methods. Canopy stomatal conductance increases linearly with above-canopy light intensity (in contrast to the leaf scale, where stomatal conductance shows declining marginal increases) and otherwise depends only on the diffuse light fraction, the canopy-average leaf-to-air water vapor gradient, and the total leaf area. Based on stomatal conductance, we partition evapotranspiration (ET) and find that evaporation increases from 0 to 40 % of ET as the growing season progresses, driven primarily by rising soil temperature and secondarily by rainfall. Counterintuitively, evaporation peaks at the time of year when the soil is dry and the air is moist. Our method of ET partitioning avoids concerns about mismatched scales or measurement types because both ET and transpiration are derived from eddy covariance data. Neither of the two ecosystem models tested predicts the observed dynamics of evaporation or transpiration, indicating that ET partitioning such as that provided here is needed to further

  5. High Upward Fluxes of Formic Acid from a Boreal Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Lopez-Hilifiker, Felipe D.; Taipale, Ditte; Millet, Dylan B.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Rantala, Pekka; Mammarella, Ivan; Zhou, Putian; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Lee, Ben H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Eddy covariance fluxes of formic acid, HCOOH, were measured over a boreal forest canopy in spring/summer 2014. The HCOOH fluxes were bidirectional but mostly upward during daytime, in contrast to studies elsewhere that reported mostly downward fluxes. Downward flux episodes were explained well by modeled dry deposition rates. The sum of net observed flux and modeled dry deposition yields an upward gross flux of HCOOH, which could not be quantitatively explained by literature estimates of direct vegetative soil emissions nor by efficient chemical production from other volatile organic compounds, suggesting missing or greatly underestimated HCOOH sources in the boreal ecosystem. We implemented a vegetative HCOOH source into the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to match our derived gross flux and evaluated the updated model against airborne and spaceborne observations. Model biases in the boundary layer were substantially reduced based on this revised treatment, but biases in the free troposphere remain unexplained.

  6. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  7. Building capacity for providing canopy cover and canopy height at FIA plot locations using high-resolution imagery and leaf-off LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Riemann; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; Greg C. Liknes

    2012-01-01

    Tree canopy cover and canopy height information are essential for estimating volume, biomass, and carbon; defining forest cover; and characterizing wildlife habitat. The amount of tree canopy cover also influences water quality and quantity in both rural and urban settings. Tree canopy cover and canopy height are currently collected at FIA plots either in the field or...

  8. Climatic, biological, and land cover controls on the exchange of gas-phase semivolatile chemical pollutants between forest canopies and the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizzetto, Luca; Perlinger, Judith A

    2012-03-06

    An ecophysiological model of a structured broadleaved forest canopy was coupled to a chemical fate model of the air-canopy exchange of gaseous semivolatile chemicals to dynamically assess the short-term (hours) and medium term (days to season) air-canopy exchange and the influence of biological, climatic, and land cover drivers on the dynamics of the air-canopy exchange and on the canopy storage for airborne semivolatile pollutants. The chemical fate model accounts for effects of short-term variations in air temperature, wind speed, stomatal opening, and leaf energy balance, all as a function of layer in the canopy. Simulations showed the potential occurrence of intense short/medium term re-emission of pollutants having log K(OA) up to 10.7 from the canopy as a result of environmental forcing. In addition, relatively small interannual variations in seasonally averaged air temperature, canopy biomass, and precipitation can produce relevant changes in the canopy storage capacity for the chemicals. It was estimated that possible climate change related variability in environmental parameters (e.g., an increase of 2 °C in seasonally averaged air temperature in combination with a 10% reduction in canopy biomass due to, e.g., disturbance or acclimatization) may cause a reduction in canopy storage capacity of up to 15-25%, favoring re-emission and potential for long-range atmospheric transport. On the other hand, an increase of 300% in yearly precipitation can increase canopy sequestration by 2-7% for the less hydrophobic compounds.

  9. Soil types and forest canopy structures in southern Missouri: A first look with AIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance properties of deciduous oak-hickory forests covering the eastern half of the Rolla Quadrangle were examined using Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in August and December, 1982 and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data acquired in August, 1985. For the TM data distinctly high relative reflectance values (greater than 0.3) in the near infrared (Band 4, 0.73 to 0.94 micrometers) correspond to regions characterized by xeric (dry) forests that overlie soils with low water retention capacities. These soils are derived primarily from rhyolites. More mesic forests characterized by lower TM band 4 relative reflectances are associated with soils of higher retention capacities derived predominately from non-cherty carbonates. The major factors affecting canopy reflectance appear to be the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf optical properties. The Suits canopy reflectance model predicts the relative reflectance values for the xeric canopies. The mesic canopy reflectance is less well matched and incorporation of canopy shadowing caused by the irregular nature of the mesic canopy may be necessary. Preliminary examination of high spectral resolution AIS data acquired in August of 1985 reveals no more information than found in the broad band TM data.

  10. Accounting for seasonal isotopic patterns of forest canopy intercepted precipitation in streamflow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Michael P.; Lücke, Andreas; Vereecken, Harry; Bogena, Heye R.

    2017-12-01

    Forest canopy interception alters the isotopic tracer signal of precipitation leading to significant isotopic differences between open precipitation (δOP) and throughfall (δTF). This has important consequences for the tracer-based modeling of streamwater transit times. Some studies have suggested using a simple static correction to δOP by uniformly increasing it because δTF is rarely available for hydrological modeling. Here, we used data from a 38.5 ha spruce forested headwater catchment where three years of δOP and δTF were available to develop a data driven method that accounts for canopy effects on δOP. Changes in isotopic composition, defined as the difference δTF-δOP, varied seasonally with higher values during winter and lower values during summer. We used this pattern to derive a corrected δOP time series and analyzed the impact of using (1) δOP, (2) reference throughfall data (δTFref) and (3) the corrected δOP time series (δOPSine) in estimating the fraction of young water (Fyw), i.e., the percentage of streamflow younger than two to three months. We found that Fyw derived from δOPSine came closer to δTFref in comparison to δOP. Thus, a seasonally-varying correction for δOP can be successfully used to infer δTF where it is not available and is superior to the method of using a fixed correction factor. Seasonal isotopic enrichment patterns should be accounted for when estimating Fyw and more generally in catchment hydrology studies using other tracer methods to reduce uncertainty.

  11. Scale dependence of canopy trait distributions along a tropical forest elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Anderson, Christopher B; Kryston, Katherine; Vaughn, Nicholas; Knapp, David E; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Shenkin, Alexander; Salinas, Norma; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul; Quispe Huaypar, Katherine; Montoya Pillco, Milenka; Ccori Álvarez, Flor Delis; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2017-05-01

    Average responses of forest foliar traits to elevation are well understood, but far less is known about trait distributional responses to elevation at multiple ecological scales. This limits our understanding of the ecological scales at which trait variation occurs in response to environmental drivers and change. We analyzed and compared multiple canopy foliar trait distributions using field sampling and airborne imaging spectroscopy along an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient. Field-estimated traits were generated from three community-weighting methods, and remotely sensed estimates of traits were made at three scales defined by sampling grain size and ecological extent. Field and remote sensing approaches revealed increases in average leaf mass per unit area (LMA), water, nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) and polyphenols with increasing elevation. Foliar nutrients and photosynthetic pigments displayed little to no elevation trend. Sample weighting approaches had little impact on field-estimated trait responses to elevation. Plot representativeness of trait distributions at landscape scales decreased with increasing elevation. Remote sensing indicated elevation-dependent increases in trait variance and distributional skew. Multiscale invariance of LMA, leaf water and NSC mark these traits as candidates for tracking forest responses to changing climate. Trait-based ecological studies can be greatly enhanced with multiscale studies made possible by imaging spectroscopy. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Towards Automated Characterization of Canopy Layering in Mixed Temperate Forests Using Airborne Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reik Leiterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Canopy layers form essential structural components, affecting stand productivity and wildlife habitats. Airborne laser scanning (ALS provides horizontal and vertical information on canopy structure simultaneously. Existing approaches to assess canopy layering often require prior information about stand characteristics or rely on pre-defined height thresholds. We developed a multi-scale method using ALS data with point densities >10 pts/m2 to determine the number and vertical extent of canopy layers (canopylayer, canopylength, seasonal variations in the topmost canopy layer (canopytype, as well as small-scale heterogeneities in the canopy (canopyheterogeneity. We first tested and developed the method on a small forest patch (800 ha and afterwards tested transferability and robustness of the method on a larger patch (180,000 ha. We validated the approach using an extensive set of ground data, achieving overall accuracies >77% for canopytype and canopyheterogeneity, and >62% for canopylayer and canopylength. We conclude that our method provides a robust characterization of canopy layering supporting automated canopy structure monitoring.

  13. Estimation of canopy structure parameters from multiangular measurements of scattering components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Structure parameters for characterization of vegetation canopies are often estimated from remote optical measurements. Existing methods include those based on measurements of gap fraction, spectral vegetation indices, or the inversion of spectral canopy reflectance models. This paper proposes...... a novel method based on inversion of multiangular measurements of the abundances of light scattering components, which may be estimated using spectral unmixing. An algorithm is described for predicting the abundances of various scattering components using Monte Carlo simulation with a Poisson canopy model...

  14. A comparison between wet canopy evaporation estimated by stable isotope ratios of water and canopy interception measured by water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeki; Hattori, Shohei; Uemura, Ryu

    2017-04-01

    Some papers proved that canopy interception is proportional to rainfall not only on a rain event basis but also on an hourly basis (e.g. Murakami, 2006, J. Hydrol.; Saito et al., 2013, J. Hydrol.). However, theoretically, evaporation does not depend on rainfall amount. These results are enigmatic and we need to reevaluate wet canopy evaporation. We measured gross rainfall and net rainfall in a plastic Christmas tree stand with a height of 165 cm placed on a 180-cm square tray as described in Murakami and Toba (2013, Hydrol. Res. Lett.). The measurement was conducted outside under natural rainfall. We also estimated wet canopy evaporation using stable isotope ratios of water. During a rain event, we manually sampled gross and net rainwater on an hourly basis. Evaporation was calculated using the difference between the δ18O (or δ2H) values in gross and net rainfall using isotope fractionation factor. Total gross rainfall in a target rain event in October, 2014, was 28.0 mm and net rainfall (discharge from the tray) was 22.7 mm, i.e. canopy interception was 5.3 mm (18.9% of gross rainfall). The δ18O (or δ2H) value in net rainfall was higher than that in gross rainfall because of fractionation by evaporation on wet canopy surface. Hourly evaporation calculated by the values of δ18O varied from 2% to 24% of gross rainfall, and the weighted average by hourly gross rainfall was 5.2% of gross rainfall. Further, we estimated rainfall interception using a tank model (Yoshida et al., 1993) assuming constant evaporation rate, i.e. 20% of gross rainfall. Total net rainfall calculated by the model was 23.1 mm, i.e. calculated canopy interception was 4.9 mm (17.5% of gross rainfall). Then, keeping the parameters of the model, we simulated net rainfall using hourly surface evaporation obtained by the δ18O values. Calculated net rainfall was 25.6 mm, i.e. wet canopy evaporation was only 2.4 mm (8.6% of gross rainfall). So far, possible explanation of the discrepancy between

  15. Estimation of Tropical Forest Structure Using the Full Waveform Lidar from ICESat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Hagen, S.; Braswell, B. H.; Hunter, M. O.; Ducey, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Amazon basin contains the world’s largest continuous tropical forest constituting 40% of the remaining area for this ecotype and is made up of heterogeneous canopies and forest communities with unique assemblages of tree species, complex vegetation dynamics and history, and high biodiversity. Forest structural components include canopy geometry and tree architecture, size distributions of trees, and are closely linked with ecosystem functioning. The dynamic processes of growth and disturbance are reflected in the structural components of forest. Large footprint lidar has been used to estimate biomass in tropical and temperate forests, primarily through the correlation with field measured height, basal area, and plot biomass estimates. However, in tall-stature forests height loses much of its correlation with basal area, so the height-biomass curve becomes asymptotic and is associated with greater error at large biomass values. Use of lidar in such an analysis also does not include estimations of other stand level structural properties. We used full lidar waveforms from ICESat GLAS to estimate forest stand structure. We developed a 3D canopy model that uses trunk or crown diameter distributions and allometric equations of associated crown depth and canopy height to generate a synthetic canopy. Using geometric series of tree size distributions, we generated thousands of synthetic vegetation profiles. These synthesized forest canopy profiles were rapidly and efficiently compared with lidar waveforms and matches identified using least squared difference. Using GLAS lidar waveforms, we identified patterns of forest structure across Amazonia. . Landscape level estimates of q-values derived from lidar estimates are similar to estimates of q-values from field based data from a 400 ha area in Tapajos National Forest, approximately q=1.7, with a range of 1.69 to 1.82 per 100 ha plot. Estimates comparing field data collected in areas associated specifically with a GLAS

  16. Estimation of canopy height using lidar and radar interferometry: an assessment of combination methods and sensitivity to instrument, terrain and canopy height profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, M.; Neumann, M.; Pinto, N.; Brolly, M.; Brigot, G.

    2014-12-01

    The combined use of Lidar and radar interferometry to estimate canopy height can be classified into 3 categories: cross-validation, simple combination and fusion methods. In this presentation, we investigate the potential of each category for local and regional scale applications, and assess their sensitivity to instrument configuration, terrain topography and variations in the vertical forest canopy profiles. In addition to field data, we use data from TanDEM-X, UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar), LVIS (Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor) and a commercial discrete lidar. TanDEM-X is a pair of X-band spaceborne radars flying in formation to provide a global digital surface model and can also be used to perform polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (polinSAR) inversion of canopy height. The UAVSAR is an airborne fully polarimetric radar enabling repeat-pass interferometry and has been used for polinsar. While LVIS records the full waveform within a 20m footprint, the discrete lidar collects a cloud of points. The lidar data can be used to validate the polinSAR results (validation), to obtain ground elevation (simple combination with radar surface models) or within the polinSAR inversion model through a common model framework. The data was collected over the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve, a managed territory covering 7861km2 which is located between Québec city and Saguenay. The variety of management practices offers the possibility for long term and comparative studies of natural forest dynamics as well as the impact of human, fires and insect disturbances. The large elevational gradient of the region (~1000m) allows study of variations in structure and type of forests. Depending on the method used, several factors may degrade the accuracy of canopy height estimates from the combined use of lidar and radar interferometry. Here we will consider misregistration of datasets, differences in spatial resolution and viewing geometry, geometric

  17. AREA-BASED SNOW DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST CANOPIES USING BI- TEMPORAL LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vastaranta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal LiDAR data provide means for mapping structural changes in forest canopies. We demonstrate the use of area-based estimation method for snow damage assessment. Change features of bi-temporal LiDAR point height distributions were used as predictors in combination with in situ training data. In the winter 2009–2010, snow damages occurred in Hyytiälä (62°N, 24°E, southern Finland. Snow load resulted in broken, bent and fallen trees changing the canopy structure. The damages were documented at the tree level at permanent field plots and dense LiDAR data from 2007 and 2010 were used in the analyses. A 5 × 5-m grid was established in one pine%ndash;spruce stand and change metrics from the LiDAR point height distribution were extracted for the cells. Cells were classified as damaged (n = 43 or undamaged (n = 42 based on the field data. Stepwise logistic regression detected the damaged cells with an overall accuracy of 78.6% (Kappa = 0.57. The best predictors were differences in h-distribution percentage points 5, 35, 40, 50 and 70 of first-or-single return data. The tentative results from the single stand suggest that dense bi-temporal LiDAR data and an area-based approach could be feasible in mapping canopy changes. The accuracy of the point h-distribution is dependent on the pulse density per grid cell. Depending on the time span between LiDAR acquisitions, the natural changes of the h- distributions due to tree growth need to be accounted for as well as differences in the scanning geometry, which can substantially affect the LiDAR h-metrics.

  18. [Characteristics of canopy plant substratum in a low land humid tropical forest (Upper Orinoco, Venezuela)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rosas, José Ibrahin

    2004-01-01

    By international agreement (Austria-Venezuela) a tower crane was installed near Surumoni river, Upper Orinoco, for canopy research in a tropical rain forest. From the 1.5 ha crane-accessible area of the forest, an experimental plot was selected for assessment of the canopy plants' aerial substrates and to determine their relationship with spatial distribution, presence or absence of vascular plants, and some of the strategies used in their ecological space. In the middle and lower canopy strata myrmecophytic associations appear, where the conformation of the aerial substrates determines the establishment and maintenance of these associations. The high content of nutrients of these aerial substrata represents a reservoir for the forest, where the mirmecophytic activity is determining. A higher fertility of aerial substrates of the ants gardens can be related to a higher number of vascular epiphytes present in these gardens.

  19. Estimation of Forest Degradation with Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus

    simplifying Monitoring, Reporting and Verification as well as reducing monitoring costs. With dry forests in Tanzania as case, this PhD‐project assesses the applicability of direct and indirect RS approaches to estimate biomass loss by some of the most significant degradation activities here including......+). An indirect remote sensing (RS) approach has been suggested to map the infrastructure used for degradation rather than the actual change in forest canopy cover. This offers a way to delineate intact forest land and to model and estimate emissions from forest degradation in the non‐intact forest land – thereby...... charcoal production and wood extraction for fuel and construction. In the papers of this PhD dissertation various approaches and instruments were located, tested and recommended for application to identify and estimate subsistence wood extraction and charcoal production using optical satellites....

  20. Landscape biogeochemistry reflected in shifting distributions of chemical traits in the Amazon forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Knapp, David E.; Sinca, Felipe

    2015-07-01

    Tropical forest functional diversity, which is a measure of the diversity of organismal interactions with the environment, is poorly understood despite its importance for linking evolutionary biology to ecosystem biogeochemistry. Functional diversity is reflected in functional traits such as the concentrations of different compounds in leaves or the density of leaf mass, which are related to plant activities such as plant defence, nutrient cycling, or growth. In the Amazonian lowlands, river movement and microtopography control nutrient mobility, which may influence functional trait distributions. Here we use airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy to develop maps of 16 forest canopy traits, throughout four large landscapes that harbour three common forest community types on the Madre de Dios and Tambopata rivers in southwestern Amazonia. Our maps, which are based on quantitative chemometric analysis of forest canopies with visible-to-near infrared (400-2,500 nm) spectroscopy, reveal substantial variation in canopy traits and their distributions within and among forested landscapes. Forest canopy trait distributions are arranged in a nested pattern, with location along rivers controlling trait variation between different landscapes, and microtopography controlling trait variation within landscapes. We suggest that processes of nutrient deposition and depletion drive increasing phosphorus limitation, and a corresponding increase in plant defence, in an eastward direction from the base of the Andes into the Amazon Basin.

  1. Seasonal variations of leaf and canopy properties tracked by ground-based NDVI imagery in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hualei; Yang, Xi; Heskel, Mary; Sun, Shucun; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-04-28

    Changes in plant phenology affect the carbon flux of terrestrial forest ecosystems due to the link between the growing season length and vegetation productivity. Digital camera imagery, which can be acquired frequently, has been used to monitor seasonal and annual changes in forest canopy phenology and track critical phenological events. However, quantitative assessment of the structural and biochemical controls of the phenological patterns in camera images has rarely been done. In this study, we used an NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) camera to monitor daily variations of vegetation reflectance at visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and found that the infrared camera based NDVI (camera-NDVI) agreed well with the leaf expansion process that was measured by independent manual observations at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. We also measured the seasonality of canopy structural (leaf area index, LAI) and biochemical properties (leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content). We found significant linear relationships between camera-NDVI and leaf chlorophyll concentration, and between camera-NDVI and leaf nitrogen content, though weaker relationships between camera-NDVI and LAI. Therefore, we recommend ground-based camera-NDVI as a powerful tool for long-term, near surface observations to monitor canopy development and to estimate leaf chlorophyll, nitrogen status, and LAI.

  2. Centennial impacts of fragmentation on the canopy structure of tropical montane forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Nicholas R; Asner, Gregory P; Giardina, Christian P

    Fragmentation poses one of the greatest threats to tropical forests with short-term changes to the structure of forest canopies affecting microclimate, tree mortality, and growth. Yet the long-term effects of fragmentation are poorly understood because (1) most effects require many decades to materialize, but long-term studies are very rare, (2) the effects of edges on forest canopy structure as a function of fragment size are unknown, and (3) edge effects are often confounded by fragment shape. We quantified the long-term (centennial) effects of fragmentation on forest canopy structure using airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) of 1060 Hawaiian rain forest fragments ranging in size from 0.02 to 1000 ha, created more than 130 years ago by flowing lava. Along with distance from edge, we developed a metric, minimum span, to gain additional insight into edge effects on three measures of canopy structure: canopy height, height variation, and gap fraction. Fragment size was a strong determinant of the three structural variables. Larger fragments had greater average height, larger variation in height, and smaller gap fraction. Minimum span had a large effect on the depth and magnitude of edge effects for the three structural variables. Locations associated with high span values (those surrounded by more forest habitat) showed little effect of distance to fragment edge. In contrast, locations with low span values (those more exposed to edges) were severely limited in canopy height, showed lower height variation, and were associated with greater gap fraction values. The minimum span attribute allows for a more accurate characterization of edge as well as fragment-level effects, and when combined with high resolution imagery, can improve planning of protected areas for long-term ecological sustainability and biodiversity protection.

  3. Light, canopy closure, and overstory retention in upland Ozark forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; David R. Larsen; Stephen G. Pallardy; David P. Gwaze

    2013-01-01

    Foresters, wildlife biologists, and naturalists manipulate forest composition and structure for numerous reasons including forest regeneration, timber production, wildlife habitat, conservation of native biodiversity, and ecosystem restoration. Light conditions in the understory of forests and woodlands are often key in meeting the management objectives. In this study...

  4. Estimating Mangrove Canopy Height and Above-Ground Biomass in the Everglades National Park with Airborne LiDAR and TanDEM-X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle A. Feliciano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests are important natural ecosystems due to their ability to capture and store large amounts of carbon. Forest structural parameters, such as canopy height and above-ground biomass (AGB, provide a good measure for monitoring temporal changes in carbon content. The protected coastal mangrove forest of the Everglades National Park (ENP provides an ideal location for studying these processes, as harmful human activities are minimal. We estimated mangrove canopy height and AGB in the ENP using Airborne LiDAR/Laser (ALS and TanDEM-X (TDX datasets acquired between 2011 and 2013. Analysis of both datasets revealed that mangrove canopy height can reach up to ~25 m and AGB can reach up to ~250 Mg•ha−1. In general, mangroves ranging from 9 m to 12 m in stature dominate the forest canopy. The comparison of ALS and TDX canopy height observations yielded an R2 = 0.85 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 1.96 m. Compared to a previous study based on data acquired during 2000–2004, our analysis shows an increase in mangrove stature and AGB, suggesting that ENP mangrove forests are continuing to accumulate biomass. Our results suggest that ENP mangrove forests have managed to recover from natural disturbances, such as Hurricane Wilma.

  5. Estimating Understory Temperatures Using MODIS LST in Mixed Cordilleran Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Laskin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing provides a rapid and broad-scale means for monitoring vegetation phenology and its relationship with fluctuations in air temperature. Investigating the response of plant communities to climate change is needed to gain insight into the potentially detrimental effects on ecosystem processes. While many studies have used satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST as a proxy for air temperature, few studies have attempted to create and validate models of forest understory temperature (Tust, as it is obscured from these space-borne observations. This study worked to predict instantaneous values of Tust using daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST data over a 99,000 km2 study area located in the Rocky Mountains of western Alberta, Canada. Specifically, we aimed to identify the forest characteristics that improve estimates of Tust over using LST alone. Our top model predicted Tust to within a mean absolute error (MAE of 1.4 °C with an overall model fit of R2 = 0.89 over two growing seasons. Canopy closure and the LiDAR-derived standard deviation of canopy height metric were found to significantly improve estimations of Tust over MODIS LST alone. These findings demonstrate that canopy structure and forest stand-type function to differentiate understory air temperatures from ambient canopy temperature as seen by the sensor overhead.

  6. Seasonal variability of interception evaporation from the canopy of a mixed deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; McNeil, David D.

    2008-01-01

    Gross rainfall, net rainfall and stemflow were measured in a mixed deciduous woodland in southern England over a period of 14 months. Continuous measurements of standard weather data and momentum and sensible heat fluxes between the forest canopy and the atmosphere accompanied the investigation. ....... Separate parameters were derived for the leafed and the leafless canopy. The model explained the seasonal variability in the interception loss very well and is a suitable tool to analyse and predict this important component of the annual water balance of deciduous forests....

  7. Architecture of the Black Moshannon forest canopy measured by hemispherical photographs and a LI-COR LAI-2000 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. S. Wang; J. Welles; D. R. Miller; D. E. Anderson; G. Heisler; M. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Non-destructive measurements of light penetration were made at 10 heights in the canopy on twelve different sites in the PA oak forest where the Blackmo 88 spray-micrometeorological experiment was conducted. Vertical profiles of Leaf Area Index, LAI, were calculated from these measurements, and the data were used to define the spatial variability of the forest canopy...

  8. Trait estimation in herbaceous plant assemblages from in situ canopy spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H.D.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Kooistra, L.; Witte, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating plant traits in herbaceous plant assemblages from spectral reflectance data requires aggregation of small scale trait variations to a canopy mean value that is ecologically meaningful and corresponds to the trait content that affects the canopy spectral signal. We investigated estimation

  9. Trait estimation in herbaceous plant assemblages from in situ canopy spectra.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H.D.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Kooistra, L.; Witte, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating plant traits in herbaceous plant assemblages from spectral reflectance data requires aggregation of small scale trait variations to a canopy mean value that is ecologically meaningful and corresponds to the trait content that affects the canopy spectral signal. We investigated estimation

  10. Estimating Uncertainty in Annual Forest Inventory Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Veronica C. Lessard

    1999-01-01

    The precision of annual forest inventory estimates may be negatively affected by uncertainty from a variety of sources including: (1) sampling error; (2) procedures for updating plots not measured in the current year; and (3) measurement errors. The impact of these sources of uncertainty on final inventory estimates is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation...

  11. Processing of Aerosols within a Mixed-Hardwood Forest Canopy: Results from the 2009 CABINEX Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erupe, M.; Mwaniki, G.; Rosenkrance, C.; Pressley, S. N.; Kanawade, V. P.; Lee, S.; Slade, J. H.; Shepson, P. B.; VanReken, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    During the summer of 2009 the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteractions EXperiment (CABINEX) was conducted at the Program for Research on Oxidants: Photochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET) facility in northern Michigan. A major goal of the study was to understand how aerosol physical and chemical properties are affected by emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and by other environmental drivers within and just above the forest canopy. During CABINEX, extensive measurements of aerosol properties were made below the forest canopy, including particle size distribution, water-soluble composition, cloud-forming potential, and light scattering properties. Further measurements were made at two additional heights on the PROPHET tower and above the canopy from an airborne platform. This presentation synthesizes the available aerosol data from CABINEX to examine how processes on the canopy scale affect the aerosol population. The analysis will focus largely on two questions: 1) how does the variability in local turbulence conditions affect the gradient of particle size distribution through the canopy?; and 2) what are the hygroscopic properties of the aerosol population, and how do these measured properties reconcile with the available composition, size distribution, and light scattering data? Results of these analyses will be compared to meteorological and trace gas observations made during CABINEX to evaluate the importance of local canopy-scale aerosol processing relative to the larger-scale spatial and temporal variability.

  12. Assessing alternative measures of tree canopy cover: Photo-interpreted NAIP and ground-based estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Greg Liknes; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for the development of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project for research and method development was completed in 2010 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC).This paper explores one of several topics investigated during the NLCD...

  13. Use spectral derivatives for estimating canopy water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper the spectral information provided by the canopy water

  14. Natural canopy bridges effectively mitigate tropical forest fragmentation for arboreal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Tremaine; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah; Alonso, Alfonso; Kolowski, Joseph; Deichmann, Jessica L

    2017-06-20

    Linear infrastructure development and resulting habitat fragmentation are expanding in Neotropical forests, and arboreal mammals may be disproportionately impacted by these linear habitat clearings. Maintaining canopy connectivity through preservation of connecting branches (i.e. natural canopy bridges) may help mitigate that impact. Using camera traps, we evaluated crossing rates of a pipeline right-of-way in a control area with no bridges and in a test area where 13 bridges were left by the pipeline construction company. Monitoring all canopy crossing points for a year (7,102 canopy camera nights), we confirmed bridge use by 25 mammal species from 12 families. With bridge use beginning immediately after exposure and increasing over time, use rates were over two orders of magnitude higher than on the ground. We also found a positive relationship between a bridge's use rate and the number of species that used it, suggesting well-used bridges benefit multiple species. Data suggest bridge use may be related to a combination of bridge branch connectivity, multiple connections, connectivity to adjacent forest, and foliage cover. Given the high use rate and minimal cost, we recommend all linear infrastructure projects in forests with arboreal mammal populations include canopy bridges.

  15. Modeling of leachable 137Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Nicolas; Onda, Yuichi; Kawamori, Ayumi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-09-15

    The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in an area located 40 km from the power plant. Leachable (137)Cs loss was modeled by a double exponential (DE) model. This model could not reproduce the variation in activity concentration observed. In order to refine the DE model, the main physical measurable parameters (rainfall intensity, wind velocity, and snowfall occurrence) were assessed, and rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling observed variation. A corrective factor was then developed to incorporate rainfall intensity in an improved DE model. With the original DE model, we estimated total (137)Cs loss by leaching from canopies to be 72 ± 4%, 67 ± 4%, and 48 ± 2% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. In contrast, with the improved DE model, the total (137)Cs loss by leaching was estimated to be 34 ± 2%, 34 ± 2%, and 16 ± 1% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. The improved DE model corresponds better to observed data in literature. Understanding (137)Cs and (134)Cs forest dynamics is important for forecasting future contamination of forest soils around the FDNPP. It also provides a basis for understanding forest transfers in future potential nuclear disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A multi-sensor lidar, multi-spectral and multi-angular approach for mapping canopy height in boreal forest regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, David J.; Green, Gordon; Peterson, Birgit E.; Wylie, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Spatially explicit representations of vegetation canopy height over large regions are necessary for a wide variety of inventory, monitoring, and modeling activities. Although airborne lidar data has been successfully used to develop vegetation canopy height maps in many regions, for vast, sparsely populated regions such as the boreal forest biome, airborne lidar is not widely available. An alternative approach to canopy height mapping in areas where airborne lidar data is limited is to use spaceborne lidar measurements in combination with multi-angular and multi-spectral remote sensing data to produce comprehensive canopy height maps for the entire region. This study uses spaceborne lidar data from the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) as training data for regression tree models that incorporate multi-angular and multi-spectral data from the Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) to map vegetation canopy height across a 1,300,000 km2 swath of boreal forest in Interior Alaska. Results are compared to in situ height measurements as well as airborne lidar data. Although many of the GLAS-derived canopy height estimates are inaccurate, applying a series of filters incorporating both data associated with the GLAS shots as well as ancillary data such as land cover can identify the majority of height estimates with significant errors, resulting in a filtered dataset with much higher accuracy. Results from the regression tree models indicate that late winter MISR imagery acquired under snow-covered conditions is effective for mapping canopy heights ranging from 5 to 15 m, which includes the vast majority of forests in the region. It appears that neither MISR nor MODIS imagery acquired during the growing season is effective for canopy height mapping, although including summer multi-spectral MODIS data along with winter MISR imagery does appear to provide a slight increase in the accuracy of

  17. Canopy water balance of windward and leeward Hawaiian cloud forests on Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; DeLay, John K.; Nullet, Michael A.; Scholl, Martha A.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of intercepted cloud water to precipitation at windward and leeward cloud forest sites on the slopes of Haleakalā, Maui was assessed using two approaches. Canopy water balance estimates based on meteorological monitoring were compared with interpretations of fog screen measurements collected over a 2-year period at each location. The annual incident rainfall was 973 mm at the leeward site (Auwahi) and 2550 mm at the windward site (Waikamoi). At the leeward, dry forest site, throughfall was less than rainfall (87%), and, at the windward, wet forest site, throughfall exceeded rainfall (122%). Cloud water interception estimated from canopy water balance was 166 mm year−1 at Auwahi and 1212 mm year−1 at Waikamoi. Annual fog screen measurements of cloud water flux, corrected for wind-blown rainfall, were 132 and 3017 mm for the dry and wet sites respectively. Event totals of cloud water flux based on fog screen measurements were poorly correlated with event cloud water interception totals derived from the canopy water balance. Hence, the use of fixed planar fog screens to estimate cloud water interception is not recommended. At the wet windward site, cloud water interception made up 32% of the total precipitation, adding to the already substantial amount of rainfall. At the leeward dry site, cloud water interception was 15% of the total precipitation. Vegetation at the dry site, where trees are more exposed and isolated, was more efficient at intercepting the available cloud water than at the rainy site, but events were less frequent, shorter in duration and lower in intensity. A large proportion of intercepted cloud water, 74% and 83%, respectively for the two sites, was estimated to become throughfall, thus adding significantly to soil water at both sites

  18. Energy balance above a boreal coniferous forest: a difference in turbulent fluxes between snow-covered and snow-free canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Tomoki; Terajima, Tomomi; Kitamura, Kenzo; Shirai, Tomoki

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the interactive effects of snow and forest on turbulent fluxes between the forest surface and the atmosphere, the surface energy balance above a forest was measured by the eddy correlation method during the winter of 1995-1996. The forest was a young coniferous plantation comprised of spruce and fir. The study site, in Sapporo, northern Japan, had heavy and frequent snowfalls and the canopy was frequently covered with snow during the study period. A comparison of the observed energy balance above the forest for periods with and without a snow-covered canopy and an analysis using a single-source model gave the following results: during daytime when the canopy was covered with snow, the upward latent heat flux was large, about 80% of the net radiation, and the sensible heat flux was positive but small. On the other hand, during daytime when the canopy was dry and free from snow, the sensible heat flux was dominant and the latent heat flux was minor, about 10% of the net radiation. To explain this difference of energy partition between snow-covered and snow-free conditions, not only differences in temperature but also differences in the bulk transfer coefficients for latent heat flux were necessary in the model. Therefore, the high evaporation rate from the snow-covered canopy can be attributed largely to the high moisture availability of the canopy surface. Evaporation from the forest during a 60-day period in midwinter was estimated on a daily basis as net radiation minus sensible heat flux. The overall average evaporation during the 60-day period was 0·6 mm day-1, which is larger than that from open snow fields.

  19. Uncertainty in LiDAR derived Canopy Height Models in three unique forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, T.; Leisso, N.; Scholl, V.; Hass, B.

    2016-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale ecological observation platform designed to collect and disseminate data that contributes to understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON will collect in-situ and airborne data over 81 sites across the US, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) group within the NEON project operates a payload suite that includes a waveform / discrete LiDAR, imaging spectrometer (NIS) and high resolution RGB camera. One of the products derived from the discrete LiDAR is a canopy height model (CHM) raster developed at 1 m spatial resolution. Currently, it is hypothesized that differencing annually acquired CHM products allows identification of tree growth at in-situ distributed plots throughout the NEON sites. To test this hypothesis, the precision of the CHM product was determined through a specialized flight plan that independently repeated up to 20 observations of the same area with varying view geometries. The flight plan was acquired at three NEON sites, each with a unique forest types including 1) San Joaquin Experimental Range (SJER, open woodland dominated by oaks), 2) Soaproot Saddle (SOAP, mixed conifer deciduous forest), and 3) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, oak hickory and pine forest). A CHM was developed for each flight line at each site and the overlap area was used to empirically estimate a site-specific precision of the CHM. The average cell-by-cell CHM precision at SJER, SOAP and ORNL was 1.34 m, 4.24 m and 0.72 m respectively. Given the average growth rate of the dominant species at each site and the average CHM uncertainty, the minimum time interval required between LiDAR acquisitions to confidently conclude growth had occurred at the plot scale was estimated to be between one and four years. The minimum interval time was shown to be primarily dependent on the CHM

  20. Relationship between LiDAR-derived forest canopy height and Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Pascual; Antonio Garcia-Abril; Warren B. Cohen; Susana. Martin-Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    The mean and standard deviation (SD) of light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived canopy height are related to forest structure. However, LiDAR data typically cover a limited area and have a high economic cost compared with satellite optical imagery. Optical images may be required to extrapolate LiDAR height measurements across a broad landscape. Different spectral...

  1. Forest service contributions to the national land cover database (NLCD): Tree Canopy Cover Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie Ruefenacht; Robert Benton; Vicky Johnson; Tanushree Biswas; Craig Baker; Mark Finco; Kevin Megown; John Coulston; Ken Winterberger; Mark. Riley

    2015-01-01

    A tree canopy cover (TCC) layer is one of three elements in the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 suite of nationwide geospatial data layers. In 2010, the USDA Forest Service (USFS) committed to creating the TCC layer as a member of the Multi-Resolution Land Cover (MRLC) consortium. A general methodology for creating the TCC layer was reported at the 2012 FIA...

  2. Simulating ozone dry deposition at a boreal forest with a multi-layer canopy deposition model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Putian; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Rannik, Ullar; Zhou, Luxi; Gierens, Rosa; Taipale, Ditte; Mammarella, Ivan; Boy, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A multi-layer ozone (O3) dry deposition model has been implemented into SOSAA (a model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols) to improve the representation of O3 concentration and flux within and above the forest canopy in the planetary boundary layer. We

  3. Dynamics of transpiration, sap flow and use of stored water in tropical forest canopy trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Meinzer; Shelley A. James; Guillermo. Goldstein

    2004-01-01

    In large trees the daily onset of transpiration causes water to be withdrawn from internal storage compartments resulting in lags between changes in transpiration and sap flow at the base of the tree. We measured time courses of sap flow, hydraulic resistance, plant water potential and stomatal resistance in co-occuring tropical forest canopy trees with trunk diameters...

  4. Ozone uptake by an evergreen forest canopy - temporal variation and possible mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Pilegaard, K.

    2000-01-01

    Patterns of ozone concentration ([O(3)]), O(3) deposition velocity (nu(d)) and O(3) flux (F(c)) over an evergreen forest canopy are shown in relation to measuring method, physiological activity of the trees, and lime of year. The gradient and eddy correlation methods were compared and showed...

  5. Temperature regimes and turbulent heat fluxes across a heterogeneous canopy in an Alaskan boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluate local differences in thermal regimes and turbulent heat fluxes across the heterogeneous canopy of a black spruce boreal forest on discontinuous permafrost in interior Alaska. The data was taken during an intensive observing period in the summer of 2013 from two micrometeorological tower...

  6. Employing canopy hyperspectral narrowband data and random forest algorithm to differentiate palmer amaranth from colored cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) invasion negatively impacts cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems throughout the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate canopy hyperspectral narrowband data as input into the random forest machine learning algorithm to dis...

  7. The impact of forest canopy structure on simulations of atmosphere-biosphere NO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firanj, Ana; Lalic, Branislava; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Podrascanin, Zorica

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and fluxes of reactive nitrogen species in the land-atmosphere system are controlled by complex interactions between emissions, turbulent transfer, dry deposition and chemical transformations. The forest canopy can significantly affect turbulent fluxes between the atmosphere,

  8. Vertical Profiles of NOx, O3, and Volatile Organic Compounds in a Deciduous Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Wallace, H. W.; Erickson, M. H.; Pressley, S. N.; Rausch, J. L.; O'Donnell, K.

    2010-12-01

    Vertical profiles of traces gases were made through a deciduous forest canopy as part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiments (CABINEX) conducted in July-August, 2009 at the University of Michigan Biological Station. Measurements of O3, NO, NO2 and VOCs were made from three heights: 6 m, the top of the forest canopy at 20 m, and at a height of 34 m. O3 was continuously monitored from each of these heights. NOx and VOC measurements switched between these sampling heights every 10 minutes. VOCs were measured using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). Measured VOCs include formaldehyde and methylhydroperoxide as well as isoprene and monoterpenes. NO and NO2 were continuously measured using a two channel chemiluminescent instrument. NOx mixing ratios were often significantly greater at the 6 m sampling height compared to the top of the canopy, suggesting NOx emissions from the forest floor. A difference of 50 pptv or greater was measured 44% of the time and frequently observed at night and during the morning. Approximately 40% of the time the differences were less than 10 pptv, implying a well mixed environment. The NOX and VOC profiles and their diel behavior will be presented to illustrate the importance of surface sources and sinks on trace gas mixing ratios within a forest canopy.

  9. Breeding bird assemblages of hurricane-created gaps and adjacent closed canopy forest in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; J. Drew. Lanham

    2001-01-01

    We studied breeding bird assemblages in forest gaps created in 1995 by Hurricane Opal at the Bent Creek Experimental Forest in Asheville, NC. We hypothesized that forest gaps and adjacent closed-canopy forest would differ in bird density, richness, diversity, and relative abundances of some species. To test this hypothesis we censused breeding bird assemblages for 2...

  10. Estimating forest conversion rates with annual forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The rate of land-use conversion from forest to nonforest or natural forest to forest plantation is of interest for forest certification purposes and also as part of the process of assessing forest sustainability. Conversion rates can be estimated from remeasured inventory plots in general, but the emphasis here is on annual inventory data. A new estimator is proposed...

  11. Exploring canopy structure and function as a potential mechanism of sustain carbon sequestration in aging forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, A. T.; Curtis, P.; Ricart, R.

    2013-12-01

    The notion that old-growth forests reach carbon neutrality has recently been challenged, but the mechanisms responsible for continued productivity have remained elusive. Increases in canopy structural complexity, defined by high horizontal and vertical variability in leaf distribution (rugosity), has been proposed as a mechanism for sustained high rates of above ground net primary production (ANPPw) in forests up to ~170 years by enhancing light use efficiency (LUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, a detailed understanding of how rugosity affects resource distribution within and among trees leading to greater LUE and NUE is not known. We propose that leaves in high rugosity plots receive greater photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) than leaves in low rugosity plots, causing shifts from shade- to sun- adapted leaves into deeper portions of the canopy, which is thought to increase the photosynthetic capacity of individuals and lead to higher carbon assimilation in forests. The goal of this research was to: 1) quantify different canopy structural characteristics using a portable canopy LiDAR (PCL) and; 2) assess how these structural characteristics affect resource distribution and subsequent changes in leaf morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in three broadleaf species (e.g., Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra and Fagus grandifolia) and one conifer species (e.g., Pinus strobus) at different levels in the canopy in plots with similar leaf are index (LAI) but highly contrasting rugosity levels. We found that gap fraction had a strong positive correlation with rugosity. High rugosity plots had a bimodal distribution of LAI that was concentrated at the top and bottom of the canopy with an open midstory (between 10-50% of total canopy height) whereas low rugosity plots had a more even distribution of leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of all broadleaved species had a strong positive correlation with cumulative gap fraction (P. strobus had a relatively

  12. Representing Sub-Plot Canopy Heterogeneity Improves Model Prediction of Net Ecosystem Exchange in a Mixed-Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, R. P. M.; Bohrer, G.; Medvigy, D.; Vogel, C. S.; Gough, C. M.; Curtis, P.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy density and composition may vary within an eddy covariance tower's footprint in response to small-scale topographic features, biotic interactions such as herbivory, local disturbances, etc. We are investigating how different representations of canopy heterogeneity influence predictions of net ecosystem CO2 exchange in a mixed-deciduous forest by an age/plant functional type structured ecosystem model. Our study area is located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) where two eddy covariance towers and periodic tree censuses provide a rich long-term record of ecosystem structure, weather, and carbon uptake. Meteorological measurements collected at the US-UMB AmeriFlux tower served to force, optimize, and evaluate the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 (ED2), while tree census information was used to initialize ED2. To test the influence that representing canopy heterogeneity has on model-tower agreement, we ran a set of ED2 site-level simulations with an increasing number of sub-grid patches. The first simulation, which we call 'aggregated', had one large patch explicitly containing all trees. The aggregated canopy represents a case where different size cohorts of each plant functional type are distributed homogeneously throughout the plot with uniform stem density. Six other simulations represented patch-level canopies with varying degrees of heterogeneity, ranging from 5 to 64 sub-plot patches; each patch represented from one to several of the 0.1 ha tree census plots. A preliminary comparison of the aggregated and the 20-plot heterogeneous simulations showed that including patch-level heterogeneity in the canopy description improved model prediction quality. For example, compared to the single-patch, aggregated simulation, including 20 sub-plot patches improved model bias in the estimated accumulated 5-year net ecosystem exchange from 17% to 5%, which is smaller than our tower observation uncertainty. As a result of this study, we will

  13. Turbulence structure in a diabatically heated forest canopy composed of fractal Pythagoras trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröttle, Josef; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the turbulent flow through a heterogeneous forest canopy by high-resolution numerical modeling. For this purpose, a novel approach to model individual trees is implemented in our large-eddy simulation (LES). A group of sixteen fractal Pythagoras trees is placed in the computational domain and the tree elements are numerically treated as immersed boundaries. Our objective is to resolve the multiscale flow response starting at the diameter of individual tree elements up to the depth of the atmospheric surface layer. A reference run, conducted for the forest flow under neutral thermal stratification, produces physically meaningful turbulence statistics. Our numerical results agree quantitatively with data obtained from former field-scale LESs and wind tunnel experiments. Furthermore, the numerical simulations resolve vortex shedding behind individual branches and trunks as well as the integral response of the turbulent flow through the heterogeneous forest canopy. A focus is the investigation of the turbulence structure of the flow under stable thermal stratification and in response to the heating of the fractal tree crowns. For the stratified flows, statistical quantities, e.g. turbulent kinetic energy and vorticity, are presented and the turbulent exchange processes of momentum and heat are considered in detail. The onset and formation of coherent structures such as elevated shear layers above the diabatically heated forest canopy are analyzed. For the stably stratified flow, temperature ramps above the forest canopy were simulated in agreement with previous observations. Thermally driven vortices with a typical diameter of the canopy height were simulated when the tree crowns were diabatically heated. The impact of the coherent flow structures on the heat flux is investigated.

  14. A comparison of winter mercury accumulation at forested and no-canopy sites measured with different snow sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.J.; Johnson, K.B.; Weathers, K.C.; Loftin, C.S.; Fernandez, I.J.; Kahl, J.S.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is delivered to ecosystems via rain, snow, cloud/fog, and dry deposition. The importance of snow, especially snow that has passed through the forest canopy (throughfall), in delivering Hg to terrestrial ecosystems has received little attention in the literature. The snowpack is a dynamic system that links atmospheric deposition and ecosystem cycling through deposition and emission of deposited Hg. To examine the magnitude of Hg delivery via snowfall, and to illuminate processes affecting Hg flux to catchments during winter (cold season), Hg in snow in no-canopy areas and under forest canopies measured with four collection methods were compared: (1) Hg in wet precipitation as measured by the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) for the site in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA, (2) event throughfall (collected after snowfall cessation for accumulations of >8 cm), (3) season-long throughfall collected using the same apparatus for event sampling but deployed for the entire cold season, and (4) snowpack sampling. Estimates (mean ?? SE) of Hg deposition using these methods during the 91-day cold season in 2004-2005 at conifer sites showed that season-long throughfall Hg flux (1.80 ??g/m2) < snowpack Hg (2.38 ?? 0.68 ??g/m2) < event throughfall flux (5.63 ?? 0.38 ??g/m2). Mercury deposition at the MDN site (0.91 ??g/m2) was similar to that measured at other no-canopy sites in the area using the other methods, but was 3.4 times less than was measured under conifer canopies using the event sampling regime. This indicates that snow accumulated under the forest canopy received Hg from the overstory or exhibited less re-emission of Hg deposited in snow relative to open areas. The soil surface of field-scale plots were sprayed with a natural rain water sample that contained an Hg tracer (202Hg) just prior to the first snowfall to explore whether some snowpack Hg might be explained from soil emissions. The appearance of the 202Hg tracer in the snowpack (0

  15. Fire-induced changes in boreal forest canopy volume and soil organic matter from multi-temporal airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, M.; Cook, B.; Andersen, H. E.; Babcock, C. R.; Morton, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Fire in boreal forests initiates a cascade of biogeochemical and biophysical processes. Over typical fire return intervals, net radiative forcing from boreal forest fires depends on the offsetting impacts of greenhouse gas emissions and post-fire changes in land surface albedo. Whether boreal forest fires warm or cool the climate over these multi-decadal intervals depends on the magnitude of fire emissions and the time scales of decomposition, albedo changes, and forest regrowth. Our understanding of vegetation and surface organic matter (SOM) changes from boreal forest fires is shaped by field measurements and moderate resolution remote sensing data. Intensive field plot measurements offer detailed data on overstory, understory, and SOM changes from fire, but sparse plot data can be difficult to extend across the heterogeneous boreal forest landscape. Conversely, satellite measurements of burn severity are spatially extensive but only provide proxy measures of fire effects. In this research, we seek to bridge the scale gap between existing intensive and extensive methods using a combination of airborne lidar data and time series of Landsat data to evaluate pre- and post-fire conditions across Alaska's Kenai Peninsula. Lidar-based estimates of pre-fire stand structure and composition were essential to characterize the loss of canopy volume from fires between 2001 and 2014, quantify transitions from live to dead standing carbon pools, and isolate vegetation recovery following fire over 1 to 13 year time scales. Results from this study demonstrate the utility of lidar for estimating pre-fire structure and species composition at the scale of individual tree crowns. Multi-temporal airborne lidar data also provide essential insights regarding the heterogeneity of canopy and SOM losses at a sub-Landsat pixel scale. Fire effects are forest-structure and species dependent with variable temporal lags in carbon release due to delayed mortality (>5 years post fire) and

  16. Measuring global canopy reduction: A forest degradation proxy for FRA2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth MacDicken; Erik Lidquist

    2013-01-01

    Global interest in forest degradation is widespread – but is fraught with widely differing views. Forest degradation by one definition may be sustainable forest management by another. The Global Forest Resources Assessment, conducted by FAO every five years, is working to find an approach to a global estimation of forest area that can address these differing...

  17. Correction of Erroneous LiDAR Measurements in Artificial Forest Canopy Experimental Setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cifuentes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS data makes possible to directly characterize the three-dimensional (3D distribution of canopy foliage elements. The scanned edges of these elements may result in incorrectly point measurements (i.e., “ghost points” impacting the quality of point cloud data. Therefore, estimation of the ghost points’ spatial visibilities, measurement of their characteristics and their removal are essential. In order to quantify the improvements on data quality, a method is developed in this study to efficiently correct for ghost points. Since the occurrence of ghost points is governed by a number of factors, (e.g., scanning resolution and distance, object properties, incident angle; the developed method is based on the analysis of the effects of these factors under controlled conditions where canopy-like objects (i.e., leaves, branches and layers of leaves were scanned using a continuous-wave TLS system that employs phase-shift technology. Manual extraction of ghost points was done in order to calculate the relative amount of ghost points per scan, or ghost points ratio (gpr. The gpr values were computed in order to: (i analyze their relationships with variables representing the above factors; and (ii be used as a reference to evaluate the performance of filters used for extraction of ghost points. The ghost points’ occurrence was modeled by fitting regression models using different predictor variables that represent the variables under study. The obtained results indicated that reduced models with three predictors were suitable for gpr estimation in artificial leaves and in artificial branches, with a relative root mean squared error (RMSE of 4.7% and 3.7%, respectively; while the full model with four predictors was appropriate for artificial layers of leaves, with relative RMSE of 4.5%. According to the statistical analysis, scanning distance was identified as the most important variable for modeling ghost points

  18. Forest Canopy Cover and Height from MISR in Topographically Complex Southwestern US Landscape Assessed with High Quality Reference Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, Mark; North, Malcolm; Chen, Jiquan; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Blair, J. Bryan; Martonchik, John V.; Bull, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the retrieval of spatially contiguous canopy cover and height estimates in southwestern USforests via inversion of a geometric-optical (GO) model against surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) estimates from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Model inversion can provide such maps if good estimates of the background bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) are available. The study area is in the Sierra National Forest in the Sierra Nevada of California. Tree number density, mean crown radius, and fractional cover reference estimates were obtained via analysis of QuickBird 0.6 m spatial resolution panchromatic imagery usingthe CANopy Analysis with Panchromatic Imagery (CANAPI) algorithm, while RH50, RH75 and RH100 (50, 75, and 100 energy return) height data were obtained from the NASA Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), a full waveform light detection and ranging (lidar) instrument. These canopy parameters were used to drive a modified version of the simple GO model (SGM), accurately reproducing patterns ofMISR 672 nm band surface reflectance (mean RMSE 0.011, mean R2 0.82, N 1048). Cover and height maps were obtained through model inversion against MISR 672 nm reflectance estimates on a 250 m grid.The free parameters were tree number density and mean crown radius. RMSE values with respect to reference data for the cover and height retrievals were 0.05 and 6.65 m, respectively, with of 0.54 and 0.49. MISR can thus provide maps of forest cover and height in areas of topographic variation although refinements are required to improve retrieval precision.

  19. How the environment, canopy structure and canopy physiological functioning influence carbon, water and energy fluxes of a temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest -- an assessment with the biophysical model CANOAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldocchi, D. D.; Gu, L. [Univ. of California-Berkeley, Dept. of Environmental Science, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilson, K. B. [NOAA. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Divison, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The interaction of the environment, canopy structure and its physiological functioning in controlling and driving the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapour between a temperate forest and the atmosphere are described. The modulation of carbon dioxide and water vapour by temporal and spatial variations in canopy structure and physiological functioning is reviewed. This review is followed by quantification of the effects of leaf dimension and thickness, vertical variations in leaf area and photosynthetic capacity, leaf clumping, leaf inclination angle stomatal conductance and weather on the annual sums of carbon dioxide and water vapour and sensible heat exchange, using the biophysical model CANOAK. The paper also attempts to estimate the amount of detail required in a model to reliably predict fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapour. A closer coupling between detailed biophysical models like CANOAK, with modules that compute the dynamics of canopy structure is envisaged. 105 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Aboveground biomass mapping of African forest mosaics using canopy texture analysis: toward a regional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Jean-François; Barbier, Nicolas; Couteron, Pierre; Adams, Benoît; Shapiro, Aurélie; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles

    In the context of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation (the REDD+ program), optical very high resolution (VHR) satellite images provide an opportunity to characterize forest canopy structure and to quantify aboveground biomass (AGB) at less expense than methods based on airborne remote sensing data. Among the methods for processing these VHR images, Fourier textural ordination (FOTO) presents a good method to detect forest canopy structural heterogeneity and therefore to predict AGB variations. Notably, the method does not saturate at intermediate AGB values as do pixelwise processing of available space borne optical and radar signals. However, a regional-scale application requires overcoming two difficulties: (1) instrumental effects due to variations in sun–scene–sensor geometry or sensor-specific responses that preclude the use of wide arrays of images acquired under heterogeneous conditions and (2) forest structural diversity including monodominant or open canopy forests, which are of particular importance in Central Africa. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a rigorous regional study of canopy texture by harmonizing FOTO indices of images acquired from two different sensors (Geoeye-1 and QuickBird-2) and different sun–scene–sensor geometries and by calibrating a piecewise biomass inversion model using 26 inventory plots (1 ha) sampled across very heterogeneous forest types. A good agreement was found between observed and predicted AGB (residual standard error [RSE] = 15%; R2 = 0.85; P map (100-m pixels) was produced for a 400-km2 area, and predictions obtained from both imagery sources were consistent with each other (r = 0.86; slope = 1.03; intercept = 12.01 Mg/ha). These results highlight the horizontal structure of forest canopy as a powerful descriptor of the entire forest stand structure and heterogeneity. In particular, we show that quantitative metrics resulting from such textural

  1. Techniques of Ozone Monitoring in a Mountain Forest Region: Passive and Continuous Sampling, Vertical and Canopy Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is the most harmful air pollutant for plant ecosystems in the Mediterranean and Alpine areas due to its biological and economic damage to crops and forests. In order to evaluate the relation between ozone exposure and vegetation injury under on-field conditions, suitable ozone monitoring techniques were investi-gated. In the framework of a 5-year research project aimed at ozone risk assessment on forests, both continuous analysers and passive samplers were employed during the summer seasons (1994�1998 in different sites of a wide mountain region (80 x 40 km2 on the southern slope of the European Alps. Continuous analysers allowed the recording of ozone hourly concentration means necessary both to calculate specific exposure indexes (such as AOT, SUM, W126 and to record daily time-courses. Passive samplers, even though supplied only weekly mean concentration values, made it possible to estimate the altitude concentration gradient useful to correct the altitude dependence of ozone concentrations to be inserted into exposure indexes. In-canopy ozone profiles were also determined by placing passive samplers at different heights inside the forest canopy. Vertical ozone soundings by means of tethered balloons (kytoons allowed the measurement of the vertical concentration gradient above the forest canopy. They also revealed ozone reservoirs aloft and were useful to explain the ozone advection dynamic in mountain slopes where ground measurement proved to be inadequate. An intercomparison between passive (PASSAM, CH and continuous measurements highlighted the necessity to accurately standardize all the exposure operations, particularly the pre- and postexposure conservation at cold temperature to avoid dye (DPE activity. Advantages and disadvantages from each mentioned technique are discussed.

  2. Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy of Forest Canopy Chemistry in the Andes-Amazon Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Anderson, C.; Knapp, D. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes-Amazon corridor is one of the most biologically diverse regions on Earth. Elevation gradients provide opportunities to explore the underlying sources and environmental controls on functional diversity of the forest canopy, however plot-based studies have proven highly variable. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) to quantify changes canopy functional traits in a series of eleven 25-ha landscapes distributed along a 3300 m elevation gradient from lowland Amazonia to treeline in the Peruvian Andes. Each landscape encompassed a 1 ha field plot in which all trees reaching the canopy were climbed and leaves were sampled for 20 chemical traits. We used partial least squares regression to relate plot-level chemical values with airborne spectroscopy from the 1 ha area. Sixteen chemical traits produced predictable relationships with the spectra and were used to generate maps of the 25 ha landscape. Ten chemical traits were significantly related to elevation at the 25 ha scale. These ten traits displayed 35% greater accuracy (R2) and precision (rmse) when evaluated at the 25 ha scale compared to values derived from tree climbing alone. The results indicate that high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy can be used as surrogate for laborious tree climbing and chemical assays to understand chemical diversity in Amazonian forests. Understanding how these chemicals vary among forest communities throughout the Andes-Amazon corridor will facilitate mapping of functional diversity and the response of canopies to climate change.

  3. Tree STEM and Canopy Biomass Estimates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, K.; Holmgren, J.

    2017-10-01

    In this study an automatic method for estimating both the tree stem and the tree canopy biomass is presented. The point cloud tree extraction techniques operate on TLS data and models the biomass using the estimated stem and canopy volume as independent variables. The regression model fit error is of the order of less than 5 kg, which gives a relative model error of about 5 % for the stem estimate and 10-15 % for the spruce and pine canopy biomass estimates. The canopy biomass estimate was improved by separating the models by tree species which indicates that the method is allometry dependent and that the regression models need to be recomputed for different areas with different climate and different vegetation.

  4. TREE STEM AND CANOPY BIOMASS ESTIMATES FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Olofsson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study an automatic method for estimating both the tree stem and the tree canopy biomass is presented. The point cloud tree extraction techniques operate on TLS data and models the biomass using the estimated stem and canopy volume as independent variables. The regression model fit error is of the order of less than 5 kg, which gives a relative model error of about 5 % for the stem estimate and 10–15 % for the spruce and pine canopy biomass estimates. The canopy biomass estimate was improved by separating the models by tree species which indicates that the method is allometry dependent and that the regression models need to be recomputed for different areas with different climate and different vegetation.

  5. Using Airborne Lidar for Detection and Morphologic Analysis of Waterbodies Obscured by the Forest Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Anamaria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to map watercourses, watersheds, and small wetland features that are completely obscured by the forest canopy using airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging within the archaeological site from Porolissum. This technology was used to generate a bare-earth Digital Terrain Model (DTM with 0.5 m spatial resolution in order to map small depressions and concavities across 10 km2 of forested landscape. Although further research is needed to determine the ecological, geological, and archaeological significance of the mapped waterbodies, the general methodology represents important progress in the rapid and accurate detection of wetland habitats in forested landscapes.

  6. UPSCALING OF SOLAR INDUCED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE FROM LEAF TO CANOPY USING THE DART MODEL AND A REALISTIC 3D FOREST SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar induced chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF has been shown to be an excellent proxy of photosynthesis at multiple scales. However, the mechanical linkages between fluorescence and photosynthesis at the leaf level cannot be directly applied at canopy or field scales, as the larger scale SIF emission depends on canopy structure. This is especially true for the forest canopies characterized by high horizontal and vertical heterogeneity. While most of the current studies on SIF radiative transfer in plant canopies are based on the assumption of a homogeneous canopy, recently codes have been developed capable of simulation of fluorescence signal in explicit 3-D forest canopies. Here we present a canopy SIF upscaling method consisting of the integration of the 3-D radiative transfer model DART and a 3-D object model BLENDER. Our aim was to better understand the effect of boreal forest canopy structure on SIF for a spatially explicit forest canopy.

  7. Upscaling of Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Leaf to Canopy Using the Dart Model and a Realistic 3d Forest Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Atherton, J.; Mõttus, M.; MacArthur, A.; Teemu, H.; Maseyk, K.; Robinson, I.; Honkavaara, E.; Porcar-Castell, A.

    2017-10-01

    Solar induced chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF) has been shown to be an excellent proxy of photosynthesis at multiple scales. However, the mechanical linkages between fluorescence and photosynthesis at the leaf level cannot be directly applied at canopy or field scales, as the larger scale SIF emission depends on canopy structure. This is especially true for the forest canopies characterized by high horizontal and vertical heterogeneity. While most of the current studies on SIF radiative transfer in plant canopies are based on the assumption of a homogeneous canopy, recently codes have been developed capable of simulation of fluorescence signal in explicit 3-D forest canopies. Here we present a canopy SIF upscaling method consisting of the integration of the 3-D radiative transfer model DART and a 3-D object model BLENDER. Our aim was to better understand the effect of boreal forest canopy structure on SIF for a spatially explicit forest canopy.

  8. Effects of structural complexity on within-canopy light environments and leaf traits in a northern mixed deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, Alexander T; Curtis, Peter S

    2017-10-01

    Canopy structure influences forest productivity through its effects on the distribution of radiation and the light-induced changes in leaf physiological traits. Due to the difficulty of accessing and measuring forest canopies, few field-based studies have quantitatively linked these divergent scales of canopy functioning. The objective of our study was to investigate how canopy structure affects light profiles within a forest canopy and whether leaves of mature trees adjust morphologically and biochemically to the light environments characteristic of canopies with different structural complexity. We used a combination of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and hemispherical photographs to quantify canopy structure and light environments, respectively, and a telescoping pole to sample leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA), nitrogen on an area basis (Narea) and chlorophyll on a mass basis (Chlmass) were measured in red maple (Acer rubrum), american beech (Fagus grandifolia), white pine (Pinus strobus), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) at different heights in plots with similar leaf area index but contrasting canopy complexity (rugosity). We found that more complex canopies had greater porosity and reduced light variability in the midcanopy while total light interception was unchanged relative to less complex canopies. Leaf phenotypes of F. grandifolia, Q. rubra and P. strobus were more sun-acclimated in the midstory of structurally complex canopies while leaf phenotypes of A. rubrum were more shade-acclimated (lower LMA) in the upper canopy of more complex stands, despite no differences in total light interception. Broadleaf species showed further differences in acclimation with increased Narea and reduced Chlmass in leaves with higher LMA, while P. strobus showed no change in Narea and Chlmass with higher LMA. Our results provide new insight on how light distribution and leaf acclimation in mature trees might be altered when natural and anthropogenic

  9. Edge effects and beta diversity in ground and canopy beetle communities of fragmented subtropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Marisa J; Catterall, Carla P; Stork, Nigel E

    2018-01-01

    Clearing of dry forests globally creates edges between remnant forest and open anthropogenic habitats. We used flight intercept traps to evaluate how forest beetle communities are influenced by distance from such edges, together with vertical height, spatial location, and local vegetation structure, in an urbanising region (Brisbane, Australia). Species composition (but not total abundance or richness) differed greatly between ground and canopy. Species composition also varied strongly among sites at both ground and canopy levels, but almost all other significant effects occurred only at ground level, where: species richness declined from edge to interior; composition differed between positions near edges ( 50 m); high local canopy cover was associated with greater total abundance and richness and differing composition; and greater distances to the city centre were associated with increased total abundances and altered composition. Analyses of individual indicator species associated with this variation enabled further biological interpretations. A global literature synthesis showed that most spatially well-replicated studies of edge effects on ground-level beetles within forest fragments have likewise found that positions within tens of metres from edges with open anthropogenic habitats had increased species richness and different compositions from forest interior sites, with fewer effects on abundance. Accordingly, negative edge effects will not prevent relatively small compact fragments (if >10-20 ha) from supporting forest-like beetle communities, although indirect consequences of habitat degradation remain a threat. Retention of multiple spatially scattered forest areas will also be important in conserving forest-dependent beetles, given high levels of between-site diversity.

  10. Glacial Amazonia at the canopy-scale: Using a biophysical model to understand forest robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromitsu; Cowling, Sharon Anne

    2017-09-01

    A canopy-scale model (CANOAK) was used to simulate lowland Amazonia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Modeled values of Net Ecosystem Exchange driven by glacial environmental conditions were roughly half the magnitude of modern fluxes. Factorial experiments reveal lowered [CO2] to be the primary cause of reduced carbon fluxes while lowered air temperatures enhance net carbon uptake. LGM temperatures are suggested to be closer to optimal for carbon uptake than modern temperatures, explained through the canopy energy balance. Further analysis of the canopy energy balance and resultant leaf temperature regime provide viable mechanisms to explain enhanced carbon-water relations at lowered temperatures and forest robustness over glaciations. An ecophysiological phenomena known as the 'cross-over' point, wherein leaf temperatures sink below air temperature, was reproduced and found to demarcate critical changes in energy balance partitioning.

  11. Forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone: sensitivity to very reactive biogenic VOC emissions and implications for in-canopy photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the fate of ozone within and above forested environments is vital to assessing the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems and air quality at the urban-rural interface. Observed forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone is often much faster than explicable by stomatal uptake alone, suggesting the presence of additional ozone sinks within the canopy. Using the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model in conjunction with summer noontime observations from the 2007 Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX-2007, we explore the viability and implications of the hypothesis that ozonolysis of very reactive but yet unidentified biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC can influence the forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone. Non-stomatal processes typically generate 67 % of the observed ozone flux, but reactions of ozone with measured BVOC, including monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, can account for only 2 % of this flux during the selected timeframe. By incorporating additional emissions and chemistry of a proxy for very reactive VOC (VRVOC that undergo rapid ozonolysis, we demonstrate that an in-canopy chemical ozone sink of ~2 × 108 molec cm−3 s−1 can close the ozone flux budget. Even in such a case, the 65 min chemical lifetime of ozone is much longer than the canopy residence time of ~2 min, highlighting that chemistry can influence reactive trace gas exchange even when it is "slow" relative to vertical mixing. This level of VRVOC ozonolysis could enhance OH and RO2 production by as much as 1 pptv s−1 and substantially alter their respective vertical profiles depending on the actual product yields. Reaction products would also contribute significantly to the oxidized VOC budget and, by extension, secondary organic aerosol mass. Given the potentially significant ramifications of a chemical ozone flux for both in-canopy chemistry and estimates of ozone

  12. Analyzing canopy structure in Pacific Northwest old-growth forests with a stand-scale crown model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Van Pelt; Malcolm P. North

    1996-01-01

    I n forests, the canopy is the locale of critical ecosystem processes such as photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. and it provides essential habitat for a highly diverse array of animals, plants, and other organisms. Despite its importance, the structure of the canopy as a whole has had little quantitative study because limited access makes quantification difficult...

  13. Random forests and stochastic gradient boosting for predicting tree canopy cover: Comparing tuning processes and model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Freeman; Gretchen G. Moisen; John W. Coulston; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson

    2015-01-01

    As part of the development of the 2011 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project was launched to test the use of high-resolution photography coupled with extensive ancillary data to map the distribution of tree canopy cover over four study regions in the conterminous US. Two stochastic modeling techniques, random forests (RF...

  14. Large area mapping of southwestern forest crown cover, canopy height, and biomass using the NASA Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Chopping; Gretchen G. Moisen; Lihong Su; Andrea Laliberte; Albert Rango; John V. Martonchik; Debra P. C. Peters

    2008-01-01

    A rapid canopy reflectance model inversion experiment was performed using multi-angle reflectance data from the NASA Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) on the Earth Observing System Terra satellite, with the goal of obtaining measures of forest fractional crown cover, mean canopy height, and aboveground woody biomass for large parts of south-eastern Arizona...

  15. Estimating Mangrove Canopy Height and Above-Ground Biomass in Everglades National Park with Airbone LiDAR and TanDEM-X Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal mangroves forests of Everglades National Park (ENP) are well protected from development. Nevertheless, climate change, hurricanes and other anthropogenic disturbances have affected these intertidal ecosystems. Understanding and monitoring forest structural parameters such as canopy height and above-ground biomass (AGB) are important for the establishment of an historical database for past, present and future ecosystem comparison. Forest canopy height has a well understood and directly proportional correlation with AGB. It is possible to derive it using (1) airborne LiDAR/Laser Scanning (ALS) or (2) space-borne radar systems such as Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and TanDEM-X (TDX). A previous study of the mangrove canopy height and AGB in the ENP was conducted a decade ago based on ALS data acquired in 2004 in conjunction with SRTM data, which were acquired in 2000 (Simard et al. 2006). In this study we estimated canopy height and AGB using an ALS dataset acquired in 2012 and TDX data acquired during the years 2012-2014. The ALS dataset was acquired along a 16.5 x 1.5 km swath of mangrove forest with variable canopy height. The sampled areas were representative of mangrove stature and structure in the whole ENP. Analysis of the ALS dataset showed that mangrove canopy height can reach up to ~25 meters close to the coastal ENP waters. Additionally, by comparing our ALS results with those of a previous study by Simard et al. (2006) we identified areas where mangrove height changes greater than ± 3 meters occurred. To expand the study area to the full ENP mangrove ecosystem we processed single-polarization TDX data to obtain a Digital Canopy Model (DCM) that represents the mangrove canopy height. In order to obtain the true canopy height we calibrated the TDX phase center height with ALS true canopy height. Preliminary results of a corrected single-polarized (HH) TDX scene show that mangrove canopy height can reach up to ~25 meters in the western

  16. Eddy covariance measurements of ozone fluxes at 4 levels above and within a forest canopy in the Po valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Finco, Angelo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Coyle, Mhairi; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    In June and July 2012, during the intensive field campaign of the ECLAIRE project, ozone fluxes as well as sensible heat and momentum fluxes were measured at four different levels at the Bosco Fontana site, a 26 m tall mixed oak-hornbeam forest in the Po valley (I). Each measuring level (41 m, 32 m, 24 m and 16 m) was equipped with a sonic anemometer and a fast ozone analyser, absolute ozone concentrations were measured by means of a UV photometer. Additional meteorological parameters were measured on the top and at each level and ozone concentrantions were measured at ground level (0.15 m) by another UV photometer. In order to compare measurements collected with different instruments, data were preliminary processed and the following methodology were applied: despiking, instantaneous rotations, WPL corrections, frequency loss corrections and calculation of the random error. The main aims of this field campaign were the description of the deposition processes within and above canopy and the test of the constant flux hypothesis. About this latter interesting features emerged: the conservation of the flux was valid for the momentum only outside the canopy and no conservation was observed for the sensible heat. On the contrary ozone fluxes showed a much more irregular behaviour: for the three upper levels, ozone fluxes were nearly constant in the first hours of the day while an enhancement of the fluxes was observed at 24 m. This latter fact was strictly linked with the in-canopy dynamics: a greater heating of the canopy was observed in the afternoon, leading to the formation of an inversion at this level. This inversion divided the in-canopy air volume into two layers: the lower one with a stable stratification and the upper one with a turbulent regime; as a consequence of this inversion a remarkable reduction of the ozone concentration was observed for the two lowest levels in the afternoon, when in the lowest layers ozone is consumed by NO emissions from soil. The

  17. Spread of an invasive grass in closed-canopy deciduous forests across local and regional environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2010-01-01

    Spread of Microstegium vimineum, an invasive exotic grass, in closed-canopy forests of West Virginia, U.S. was evaluated across a local (roadside to forest interior) and regional (across two geographic provinces) environmental gradient. Seed dispersal distances from roadside populations into forest interiors based on seed rain and soil seed bank data...

  18. Understory plant development in artificial canopy gaps in an 81-year-old forest stand on Chichagof Island, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Harris; Jeffrey Barnard

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the understory plant response and associated effects on forage resources available to Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis), to the creation of artificial canopy gaps in a young-growth forest stand in the coastal temperate rain forest of southeast Alaska. The forest stand was approximately 58 years old when gaps were created and...

  19. The influence of canopy snow parameterizations on snow albedo feedback in boreal forest regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Chad W.; Fletcher, Christopher G.; Derksen, Chris

    2014-08-01

    Variation in snow albedo feedback (SAF) among Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 climate models has been shown to explain much of the variation in projected 21st century warming over Northern Hemisphere land. Prior studies using observations and models have demonstrated both considerable spread in the albedo and a negative bias in the simulated strength of SAF, over snow-covered boreal forests. Boreal evergreen needleleaf forests are capable of intercepting snowfall throughout the winter and consequently exert a significant impact on seasonal surface albedo. Two satellite data products and tower-based observations of albedo are compared with simulations from multiple versions of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) to investigate the causes of weak simulated SAF over the boreal forest. The largest bias occurs in April and May, when simulated SAF is one half the strength of SAF in observations. This is traced to two features of the canopy snow parameterizations used in the land model. First, there is no mechanism for the dynamic removal of snow from the canopy when temperatures are below freezing, which results in albedo values in midwinter that are biased high. Second, when temperatures do rise above freezing, all snow on the canopy is melted instantaneously, which results in an unrealistically early transition from a snow-covered to a snow-free canopy. These processes combine to produce large differences between simulated and observed monthly albedo and are the source of the weak bias in SAF. This analysis highlights the importance of canopy snow parameterizations for simulating the hemispheric scale climate response to surface albedo perturbations.

  20. Spatial Structure of Soil Macrofauna Diversity and Tree Canopy in Riparian Forest of Maroon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sayad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sustainability and maintenance of riparian vegetation or restoring of degraded sites is critical to sustain inherent ecosystem function and values. Description of patterns in species assemblages and diversity is an essential step before generating hypotheses in functional ecology. If we want to have information about ecosystem function, soil biodiversity is best considered by focusing on the groups of soil organisms that play major roles in ecosystem functioning when exploring links with provision of ecosystem services. Information about the spatial pattern of soil biodiversity at the regional scale is limited though required, e.g. for understanding regional scale effects of biodiversity on ecosystem processes. The practical consequences of these findings are useful for sustainable management of soils and in monitoring soil quality. Soil macrofauna play significant, but largely ignored roles in the delivery of ecosystem services by soils at plot and landscape scales. One main reason responsible for the absence of information about biodiversity at regional scale is the lack of adequate methods for sampling and analyzing data at this dimension. An adequate approach for the analysis of spatial patterns is a transect study in which samples are taken in a certain order and with a certain distance between samples. Geostatistics provide descriptive tools such as variogram to characterize the spatial pattern of continuous and categorical soil attributes. This method allows assessment of consistency of spatial patterns as well as the scale at which they are expressed. This study was conducted to analyze spatial patterns of soil macrofauna in relation to tree canopy in the riparian forest landscape of Maroon. Materilas and Methods: The study was carried out in the Maroon riparian forest of the southeasternIran (30o 38/- 30 o 39/ N and 50 o 9/- 50 o 10/ E. The climate of the study area is semi-arid. Average yearly rainfall is about 350.04 mm

  1. Estimating canopy water content using hyperspectral remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper, in particular the spectral information provided by the

  2. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps six years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  3. Global estimate of lichen and bryophyte contributions to forest precipitation interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John; Porada, Philipp; Kleidon, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Interception of precipitation by forest canopies plays an important role in its partitioning to evaporation, transpiration and runoff. Field observations show arboreal lichens and bryophytes can substantially enhance forests' precipitation storage and evaporation. However, representations of canopy interception in global land surface models currently ignore arboreal lichen and bryophyte contributions. This study uses the lichen and bryophyte model (LiBry) to provide the first process-based modelling approach estimating these organisms' contributions to canopy water storage and evaporation. The global mean value of forest water storage capacity increased significantly from 0.87 mm to 1.33 mm by the inclusion of arboreal poikilohydric organisms. Global forest canopy evaporation of intercepted precipitation was also greatly enhanced by 44%. Ratio of total versus bare canopy global evaporation exceeded 2 in many forested regions. This altered global patterns in canopy water storage, evaporation, and ultimately the proportion of rainfall evaporated. A sensitivity analysis was also performed. Results indicate rainfall interception is of larger magnitude than previously reported by global land surface modelling work because of the important role of lichen and bryophytes in rainfall interception.

  4. Trait Estimation in Herbaceous Plant Assemblages from in situ Canopy Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans D. Roelofsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimating plant traits in herbaceous plant assemblages from spectral reflectance data requires aggregation of small scale trait variations to a canopy mean value that is ecologically meaningful and corresponds to the trait content that affects the canopy spectral signal. We investigated estimation capacities of plant traits in a herbaceous setting and how different trait-aggregation methods influence estimation accuracies. Canopy reflectance of 40 herbaceous plant assemblages was measured in situ and biomass was analysed for N, P and C concentration, chlorophyll, lignin, phenol, tannin and specific water concentration, expressed on a mass basis (mg∙g−1. Using Specific Leaf Area (SLA and Leaf Area Index (LAI, traits were aggregated to two additional expressions: mass per leaf surface (mg∙m−2 and mass per canopy surface (mg∙m−2. All traits were related to reflectance using partial least squares regression. Accuracy of trait estimation varied between traits but was mainly influenced by the trait expression. Chlorophyll and traits expressed on canopy surface were least accurately estimated. Results are attributed to damping or enhancement of the trait signal upon conversion from mass based trait values to leaf and canopy surface expressions. A priori determination of the most appropriate trait expression is viable by considering plant growing strategies.

  5. Investigation of forest canopy temperatures recorded by the thermal infrared multispectral scanner at H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were collected over the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Western Oregon on July 29, 1983 at approximately 1:30 p.m., Pacific Standard Time. The relation of changes in canopy temperature to green leaf biomass levels in reforested clearcuts and old-growth forest was investigated. A digital data base was generated in order to isolate that portion of the thermal emission that could be attributed to surface properties other than the vegetation biomass component. The TIMS appears to be capable of detecting subtle differences in ERT as related to canopy closure and green lead biomass, however calibration techniques are needed to correct for emissivity and atmospheric effects.

  6. Isotopic evidence for the occurrence of biological nitrification and nitrogen deposition processing in forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Vanguelova, Elena I; Michalski, Greg; Heaton, Timothy H E; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the role of tree canopies in processing atmospheric nitrogen (Ndep ) for four forests in the United Kingdom subjected to different Ndep : Scots pine and beech stands under high Ndep (HN, 13-19 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), compared to Scots pine and beech stands under low Ndep (LN, 9 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ). Changes of NO3 -N and NH4 -N concentrations in rainfall (RF) and throughfall (TF) together with a quadruple isotope approach, which combines δ(18) O, Δ(17) O and δ(15) N in NO3 (-) and δ(15) N in NH4 (+) , were used to assess N transformations by the canopies. Generally, HN sites showed higher NH4 -N and NO3 -N concentrations in RF compared to the LN sites. Similar values of δ(15) N-NO3 (-) and δ(18) O in RF suggested similar source of atmospheric NO3 (-) (i.e. local traffic), while more positive values for δ(15) N-NH4 (+) at HN compared to LN likely reflected the contribution of dry NHx deposition from intensive local farming. The isotopic signatures of the N-forms changed after interacting with tree canopies. Indeed, (15) N-enriched NH4 (+) in TF compared to RF at all sites suggested that canopies played an important role in buffering dry Ndep also at the low Ndep site. Using two independent methods, based on δ(18) O and Δ(17) O, we quantified for the first time the proportion of NO3 (-) in TF, which derived from nitrification occurring in tree canopies at the HN site. Specifically, for Scots pine, all the considered isotope approaches detected biological nitrification. By contrast for the beech, only using the mixing model with Δ(17) O, we were able to depict the occurrence of nitrification within canopies. Our study suggests that tree canopies play an active role in the N cycling within forest ecosystems. Processing of Ndep within canopies should not be neglected and needs further exploration, with the combination of multiple isotope tracers, with particular reference to Δ(17) O. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Could the canopy structure of bryophytes serve as an indicator of microbial biodiversity? A test for testate amoebae and microcrustaceans from a subtropical cloud forest in Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Mercado, D; Cancel-Morales, N; Chinea, J D; Santos-Flores, C J; De Jesús, I Sastre

    2012-07-01

    The mechanisms that ultimately regulate the diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities in bryophyte ecosystems remain a contentious topic in microbial ecology. Although there is robust consensus that abiotic factors, such as water chemistry of the bryophyte and pH, explain a significant proportion of protist and microcrustacean diversity, there is no systematic assessment of the role of bryophyte habitat complexity on such prominent microbial groups. Water-holding capacity is correlated with bryophyte morphology and canopy structure. Similarly, canopy structure explains biodiversity dynamics of the macrobiota suggesting that canopy structure may also be a potential parameter for understanding microbial diversity. Canopy roughness of the dominant bryophyte species within the Bahoruco Cloud Forest, Cachote, Dominican Republic, concomitant with their associated diversity of testate amoebae and microcrustaceans was estimated to determine whether canopy structure could be added to the list of factors explaining microbial biodiversity in bryophytes. We hypothesized that smooth (with high moisture content) canopies will have higher species richness, density, and biomass of testate amoebae and higher richness and density of microcrustaceans than rough (desiccation-prone) canopies. For testate amoebae, we found 83 morphospecies with relative low abundances. Species richness and density differed among bryophytes with different bryophyte canopy structures and based on non-metric multidimensional scaling, canopy roughness explained 25% of the variation in species composition although not as predicted. Acroporium pungens (low roughness, LR) had the lowest species richness (2 ± 0.61 SD per gram dry weight bryophyte), and density (2.1 ± 0.61 SD individual per gram of dry weight bryophyte); whereas Thuidium urceolatum (high roughness) had the highest richness (24 ± 10.82 SD) and density (94 ± 64.30 SD). The fact that the bryophyte with the highest roughness had the highest

  8. Algorithm for Extracting Digital Terrain Models under Forest Canopy from Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasi S. Maguya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracting digital elevationmodels (DTMs from LiDAR data under forest canopy is a challenging task. This is because the forest canopy tends to block a portion of the LiDAR pulses from reaching the ground, hence introducing gaps in the data. This paper presents an algorithm for DTM extraction from LiDAR data under forest canopy. The algorithm copes with the challenge of low data density by generating a series of coarse DTMs by using the few ground points available and using trend surfaces to interpolate missing elevation values in the vicinity of the available points. This process generates a cloud of ground points from which the final DTM is generated. The algorithm has been compared to two other algorithms proposed in the literature in three different test sites with varying degrees of difficulty. Results show that the algorithm presented in this paper is more tolerant to low data density compared to the other two algorithms. The results further show that with decreasing point density, the differences between the three algorithms dramatically increased from about 0.5m to over 10m.

  9. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Michael; Sullivan, Franklin B; Ducey, Mark; Herrick, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p lidar metrics (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.76 number ha-1). Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of multiple features in canopy profiles and geometry that are related to field-measured structure. Models for biomass estimation included structural canopy variables in addition to height metrics. Our work indicates that vegetation profiles from TLS data can provide useful information on forest structure. PMID:27124295

  10. A note on estimating urban roof runoff with a forest evaporation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gash, J.H.C.; Rosier, P.T.W.; Ragab, R.

    2008-01-01

    A model developed for estimating the evaporation of rainfall intercepted by forest canopies is applied to estimate measurements of the average runoff from the roofs of six houses made in a previous study of hydrological processes in an urban environment. The model is applied using values of the mean

  11. A Photogrammetric Workflow for the Creation of a Forest Canopy Height Model from Small Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lejeune

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of operational small unmanned aerial systems (UASs opens the door for their extensive use in forest mapping, as both the spatial and temporal resolution of UAS imagery better suit local-scale investigation than traditional remote sensing tools. This article focuses on the use of combined photogrammetry and “Structure from Motion” approaches in order to model the forest canopy surface from low-altitude aerial images. An original workflow, using the open source and free photogrammetric toolbox, MICMAC (acronym for Multi Image Matches for Auto Correlation Methods, was set up to create a digital canopy surface model of deciduous stands. In combination with a co-registered light detection and ranging (LiDAR digital terrain model, the elevation of vegetation was determined, and the resulting hybrid photo/LiDAR canopy height model was compared to data from a LiDAR canopy height model and from forest inventory data. Linear regressions predicting dominant height and individual height from plot metrics and crown metrics showed that the photogrammetric canopy height model was of good quality for deciduous stands. Although photogrammetric reconstruction significantly smooths the canopy surface, the use of this workflow has the potential to take full advantage of the flexible revisit period of drones in order to refresh the LiDAR canopy height model and to collect dense multitemporal canopy height series.

  12. Ozone deposition in relation to canopy physiology in a mixed conifer forest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ro-Poulsen, H.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Hovmand, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    In this study CO(2) and H(2)O flux measurements made above a spruce forest was compared with the ozone flux to the canopy during growing season 1995. The fluxes were determined by micro meteorological gradient methods using a 36-m tall meteorological mast. The trees were about 12 m high and air...... sampling was done from 36 and 18 m. The preliminary results suggest that there is only little correlation between ozone concentration in 36 m and the ozone flux to the forest, but the diurnal pattern of ozone uptake seems to be significantly influenced by stomatal conductance. The cumulative total ozone...

  13. Nitrogen dynamics across silvicultural canopy gaps in young forests of western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A.L.; Perakis, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Silvicultural canopy gaps are emerging as an alternative management tool to accelerate development of complex forest structure in young, even-aged forests of the Pacific Northwest. The effect of gap creation on available nitrogen (N) is of concern to managers because N is often a limiting nutrient in Pacific Northwest forests. We investigated patterns of N availability in the forest floor and upper mineral soil (0-10 cm) across 6-8-year-old silvicultural canopy gaps in three 50-70-year-old Douglas-fir forests spanning a wide range of soil N capital in the Coast Range and Cascade Mountains of western Oregon. We used extractable ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) pools, net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and NH4+ and NO3- ion exchange resin (IER) concentrations to quantify N availability along north-south transects run through the centers of 0.4 and 0.1 ha gaps. In addition, we measured several factors known to influence N availability, including litterfall, moisture, temperature, and decomposition rates. In general, gap-forest differences in N availability were more pronounced in the mineral soil than in the forest floor. Mineral soil extractable NH4+ and NO3- pools, net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and NH4+ and NO3- IER concentrations were all significantly elevated in gaps relative to adjacent forest, and in several cases exhibited significantly greater spatial variability in gaps than forest. Nitrogen availability along the edges of gaps more often resembled levels in the adjacent forest than in gap centers. For the majority of response variables, there were no significant differences between northern and southern transect positions, nor between 0.4 and 0.1 ha gaps. Forest floor and mineral soil gravimetric percent moisture and temperature showed few differences along transects, while litterfall carbon (C) inputs and litterfall C:N ratios in gaps were significantly lower than in the adjacent forest. Reciprocal transfer incubations of

  14. Mapping Canopy Damage from Understory Fires in Amazon Forests Using Annual Time Series of Landsat and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Hurtt, George C.; Dubayah, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Understory fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. The annual extent of fire-damaged forest in Amazonia remains uncertain due to difficulties in separating burning from other types of forest damage in satellite data. We developed a new approach, the Burn Damage and Recovery (BDR) algorithm, to identify fire-related canopy damages using spatial and spectral information from multi-year time series of satellite data. The BDR approach identifies understory fires in intact and logged Amazon forests based on the reduction and recovery of live canopy cover in the years following fire damages and the size and shape of individual understory burn scars. The BDR algorithm was applied to time series of Landsat (1997-2004) and MODIS (2000-2005) data covering one Landsat scene (path/row 226/068) in southern Amazonia and the results were compared to field observations, image-derived burn scars, and independent data on selective logging and deforestation. Landsat resolution was essential for detection of burn scars less than 50 ha, yet these small burns contributed only 12% of all burned forest detected during 1997-2002. MODIS data were suitable for mapping medium (50-500 ha) and large (greater than 500 ha) burn scars that accounted for the majority of all fire-damaged forest in this study. Therefore, moderate resolution satellite data may be suitable to provide estimates of the extent of fire-damaged Amazon forest at a regional scale. In the study region, Landsat-based understory fire damages in 1999 (1508 square kilometers) were an order of magnitude higher than during the 1997-1998 El Nino event (124 square kilometers and 39 square kilometers, respectively), suggesting a different link between climate and understory fires than previously reported for other Amazon regions. The results in this study illustrate the potential to address critical questions concerning climate and fire risk in Amazon forests by

  15. Distribution of Carbon Uptake Capacity of Plant Functional Groups Across the Canopy Gradient in Old-Growth Tropical Wet Forest in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, S. F.; Cruz, H. O.; Ryan, M. G.; Clark, D. B.; Clark, D. A.; Olivas, P.

    2004-12-01

    Because of the difficulties of accessing leaves within tree crowns, little is known about the photosynthetic capacity of different functional groups within tropical rain forest canopies. To address this deficiency, we measured photosynthetic capacity (Amax) in situ along vertical transects through old-growth forest canopy using a mobile walkup tower at the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We asked: What groups are responsible for most C-fixation and at what height in the canopy does most C-fixation occur? Photosynthesis (using a LI-COR Li-6400) and total leaf area were measured for all vascular plant species encountered within the tower footprint (4.6 m2). Plants were grouped into trees, palms, ferns, lianas, epiphytes, herbs, Pentaclethra macroloba (the dominant canopy tree), and vines. Amax values differed among functional groups. The ranking of Amax among the groups was trees > P. macroloba > palms > lianas > vines > epiphytes > herbs > ferns. Trees and P. macroloba had the highest photosynthetic rates, but the maximum rates occur at different heights. Amax of P. macroloba increases with canopy height to a maximum 10.3 \\mumol m-2 s-1 at 17.5 m. Amax of trees increases with canopy height (r2 = 0.77) and attains the highest Amax at 32.5 m (10.6 \\mumol m-2 s-1). Palms and lianas presented similar patterns of Amax. However, lianas reach the canopy top whereas palms are shorter and were not observed above 27.5 m. The maximum photosynthetic rates for both groups were: lianas 9.2 \\mumol m-2 s-1 at 27.5 m and palms 9.6 \\mumol m-2 s-1 at 17.5 m. By scaling the functional group Amax values with their leaf area, we estimated that most of the photosynthetic capacity occurs between 17.5 m and 37.5 m and is attributed mainly to trees, followed by P. macroloba and then lianas.

  16. A comparison of two sampling approaches for assessing the urban forest canopy cover from aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar Zennure; Pete Bettinger; Krista Merry; Jacek Siry; J.M. Bowker

    2016-01-01

    Two different sampling approaches for estimating urban tree canopy cover were applied to two medium-sized cities in the United States, in conjunction with two freely available remotely sensed imagery products. A random point-based sampling approach, which involved 1000 sample points, was compared against a plot/grid sampling (cluster sampling) approach that involved a...

  17. How vertical patterns in leaf traits shift seasonally and the implications for modeling canopy photosynthesis in a temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; VanderWall, Brittany; Mau, Alida; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2016-09-01

    Leaf functional traits are used in modeling forest canopy photosynthesis (Ac) due to strong correlations between photosynthetic capacity, leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen per area (Narea). Vertical distributions of these traits may change over time in temperate deciduous forests as a result of acclimation to light, which may result in seasonal changes in Ac To assess both spatial and temporal variations in key traits, we measured vertical profiles of Narea and LMA from leaf expansion through leaf senescence in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest. To investigate mechanisms behind coordinated changes in leaf morphology and function, we also measured vertical variation in leaf carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C), predawn turgor pressure, leaf water potential and osmotic potential. Finally, we assessed potential biases in Ac estimations by parameterizing models with and without vertical and seasonal Narea variations following leaf expansion. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that hydrostatic constraints on leaf morphology drive the vertical increase in LMA with height early in the growing season; however, LMA in the upper canopy continued to increase over time during light acclimation, indicating that light is primarily driving gradients in LMA later in the growing season. Models with no seasonal variation in Narea overestimated Ac by up to 11% early in the growing season, while models with no vertical variation in Narea overestimated Ac by up to 60% throughout the season. According to the multilayer model, the upper 25% of leaf area contributed to over 50% of Ac, but when gradients of intercellular CO2, as estimated from δ(13)C, were accounted for, the upper 25% of leaf area contributed to 26% of total Ac Our results suggest that ignoring vertical variation of key traits can lead to considerable overestimation of Ac. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Forest floor methane flux modelled by soil water content and ground vegetation - comparison to above canopy flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Peltola, Olli; Haikarainen, Iikka; Ryhti, Kira; Rannik, Üllar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important and strong greenhouse gas of which atmospheric concentration is rising. While boreal forests are considered as an important sink of CH4 due to soil CH4 oxidation, the soils have also a capacity to emit CH4. Moreover, vegetation is shown to contribute to the ecosystem-atmosphere CH4 flux, and it has been estimated to be the least well known natural sources of CH4. In addition to well-known CH4 emissions from wetland plants, even boreal trees have been discovered to emit CH4. At the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) II station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland (61° 51' N, 24°17' E; 181 m asl), we have detected small CH4 emissions from above the canopy of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated forest. To assess the origin of the observed emissions, we conducted forest floor CH4 flux measurements with 54 soil chambers at the footprint area of the above canopy flux measurements during two growing seasons. In addition, we measured the soil volumetric water content (VWC) every time next to the forest floor chamber measurements, and estimated vegetation coverages inside the chambers. In order to model the forest floor CH4 flux at the whole footprint area, we combined lidar (light detection and ranging) data with the field measurements. To predict the soil water content and thus the potential CH4 flux, we used local elevation, slope, and ground return intensity (GRI), calculated from the lidar data (National Land Survey of Finland). We categorized the soil chambers into four classes based on the VWC so that the class with the highest VWC values includes all the soil chambers with a potential to emit CH4. Based on a statistically significant correlation between the VWC and the forest floor CH4 flux (r = 0.30, p area. The results of the soil chamber measurements show a few areas of the forest floor with significant CH4 emissions. The modelled map of the potential CH4 flux is consistent with the measurements of the

  19. Seasonal diets of insectivorous birds using canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa, T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Mike D.

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT. Little is known about how insectivorous bird diets are influenced by arthropod availability and about how these relationships vary seasonally. We captured birds in forest-canopy gaps and adjacent mature forest during 2001 and 2002 at the Savannah River Site in Barnwell County, South Carolina, and flushed their crops to gather information about arthropods eaten during four periods: spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration. Arthropod availability for foliage- and ground-gleaning birds was examined by leaf clipping and pitfall trapping. Coleopterans and Hemipterans were used by foliage- and ground-gleaners more than expected during all periods, whereas arthropods in the orders Araneae and Hymenoptera were used as, or less than, expected based on availability during all periods. Ground-gleaning birds used Homopterans and Lepidopterans in proportions higher than availability during all periods. Arthropod use by birds was consistent from spring through all migration, with no apparent seasonal shift in diet. Based on concurrent studies, heavily used orders of arthropods were equally abundant or slightly less abundant in canopy gaps than in the surrounding mature forest, but bird species were most frequently detected in gaps. Such results suggest that preferential feeding on arthropods by foliage-gleaning birds in p p habitats reduced arthropod densities or, alternatively, that bird use of gap and forest habitat was not determined y food resources. The abundance of arthropods across the stand may have allowed birds to remain in the densely vegetated gaps where thick cover provides protection from predators.

  20. Estimation of regional-scale forest resources using ICESat/GLAS spaceborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masato; Saigusa, Nobuko; Borjigin, Habura; Sawada, Yoshito; Yamagata, Yoshiki; Hirano, Takashi; Ichii, Kazuhito

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the demand of forest resources monitoring technology on a large scale is growing, and spaceborne LiDAR is expected to provide a means for accurate monitoring. This study aims to clarify the potential of ICESat/GLAS spaceborne LiDAR for forest resources monitoring on a regional scale. The study areas were Hokkaido Island in Japan (cool-temperate forest), Borneo Island (tropical forest), and Siberia (boreal forest). Firstly, we conducted field measurements in Hokkaido and Borneo, and calculated the average canopy height (Lorey's height) and the above-ground biomass (AGB) for each GLAS-footprint. Then, we developed some models to estimate canopy height and AGB from the GLAS waveform parameters based on the field measurement data. Next, we applied the developed models to the GLAS data in Hokkaido and Borneo. The average canopy height and AGB were 17.8 m and 119.4 Mg ha-1, respectively, in Hokkaido, and 16.2 m and 190.2 Mg ha-1, respectively, in Borneo. These results suggest that the tropical forest in Borneo has a higher biomass than the cool-temperate forest in Hokkaido. Furthermore, we applied the estimation model to the GLAS data acquired in Siberia. The average AGB was 86.2 Mg ha-1, and it has decreased especially in Southern area of Western Siberia. This study showed that spaceborne LiDAR had an ability of forest resources monitoring on a regional scale, for each of boreal, cool-temperate, and tropical forests.

  1. Growing Canopy on a College Campus: Understanding Urban Forest Change through Archival Records and Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Lara A.; Fristensky, Jason P.; Eisenman, Theodore S.; Greenfield, Eric J.; Lundgren, Robert E.; Cerwinka, Chloe E.; Hewitt, David A.; Welsh, Caitlin C.

    2017-12-01

    Many municipalities are setting ambitious tree canopy cover goals to increase the extent of their urban forests. A historical perspective on urban forest development can help cities strategize how to establish and achieve appropriate tree cover targets. To understand how long-term urban forest change occurs, we examined the history of trees on an urban college campus: the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. Using a mixed methods approach, including qualitative assessments of archival records (1870-2017), complemented by quantitative analysis of tree cover from aerial imagery (1970-2012), our analysis revealed drastic canopy cover increase in the late 20th and early 21st centuries along with the principle mechanisms of that change. We organized the historical narrative into periods reflecting campus planting actions and management approaches; these periods are also connected to broader urban greening and city planning movements, such as City Beautiful and urban sustainability. University faculty in botany, landscape architecture, and urban design contributed to the design of campus green spaces, developed comprehensive landscape plans, and advocated for campus trees. A 1977 Landscape Development Plan was particularly influential, setting forth design principles and planting recommendations that enabled the dramatic canopy cover gains we observed, and continue to guide landscape management today. Our results indicate that increasing urban tree cover requires generational time scales and systematic management coupled with a clear urban design vision and long-term commitments. With the campus as a microcosm of broader trends in urban forest development, we conclude with a discussion of implications for municipal tree cover planning.

  2. A Forest Structure Dynamics Model for Driving Three-Dimensional Canopy Radiative Transfer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Kobayashi, H.; Kondoh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) Monte Carlo (MC)-based radiative transfer (RT) models can simulate highly detailed forest environments, and have produced simulations that agree well with observations; thus, they are routinely used for benchmarking in intercomparisons of RT models. However, MC-based RT models have not been widely applied to the development of inversion algorithms for generating global remote sensing products of forests, due mainly to the difficulties in obtaining realistic forest structures for a variety of forest biomes. In this study, we developed a Forest Structure Dynamics Model (FSDM) to facilitate the application of MC-based RT models to global forests. In this model, the tree architectures are determined based on allometric equations, and the tree locations within a study domain are determined by statistical distributions. The performance of the FSDM was evaluated using field measurements of forest landscapes at two sites located at Järvselja, Estonia and the Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), USA, respectively. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) for the two study sites was simulated by an MC-based RT model, based on the measured forest stands and modeled stands from the FSDM. A comparison of the results demonstrated that the simulated BRF based on the measured forest stands agreed well with the simulated BRF based on the modeled stands from the FSDM for the two study sites. The applicability of the FSDM to a leaf area index (LAI) retrieval algorithm was also verified using simulations from the MC-based RT model. The results indicate that the FSDM can provide reasonable forest structures to drive 3-D canopy RT models, with no loss of simulation accuracy. When combined with several existing field data sets and satellite products, the FSDM can be used to generate a typical stand structure database for global forest biomes.

  3. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  4. Phylogenetic Structure of Tree Species across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in a Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Qian, Hong; Yu, Mingjian

    2015-01-01

    Investigating patterns of phylogenetic structure across different life stages of tree species in forests is crucial to understanding forest community assembly, and investigating forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration is necessary for understanding forest community assembly. Here, we examine the phylogenetic structure of tree species across life stages from seedlings to canopy trees, as well as forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration in a forest of the subtropical region in China. We investigate changes in phylogenetic relatedness (measured as NRI) of tree species from seedlings, saplings, treelets to canopy trees; we compare the phylogenetic turnover (measured as βNRI) between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory with that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We found that phylogenetic relatedness generally increases from seedlings through saplings and treelets up to canopy trees, and that phylogenetic relatedness does not differ between seedlings in forest understory and those in forest gaps, but phylogenetic turnover between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory is lower than that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We conclude that tree species tend to be more closely related from seedling to canopy layers, and that forest gaps alter the seedling phylogenetic turnover of the studied forest. It is likely that the increasing trend of phylogenetic clustering as tree stem size increases observed in this subtropical forest is primarily driven by abiotic filtering processes, which select a set of closely related evergreen broad-leaved tree species whose regeneration has adapted to the closed canopy environments of the subtropical forest developed under the regional monsoon climate.

  5. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins

    2015-01-01

    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  6. Establishment of an invasive grass in closed-canopy deciduous forests across local and regional environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2010-01-01

    Establishment of Microstegium vimineum, an invasive exotic grass, in closed-canopy U.S. eastern forests was evaluated across a local (roadside to forest interior) and regional (across two geographic provinces) environmental gradient in West Virginia. The two geographic provinces were the Allegheny Plateau (more mesic) and the Ridge and Valley...

  7. Canopy disturbance intervals, early growth rates, and canopy accession trends of oak-dominated old-growth forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; Ray R., Jr. Hicks

    2003-01-01

    Using a radial growth averaging technique, changes in growth rates of overstory oaks were used to quantify canopy disturbance events at five old-growth sites. On average, at least one canopy disturbance occurred on these sites every 3 years; larger multiple-tree disturbances occurred every 17 years. Although there was some variation by site and by historical period,...

  8. ESTIMATION OF STAND HEIGHT AND FOREST VOLUME USING HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY AND FOREST TYPE MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha using normalized digital surface model (nDSM from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching. Then, digital terrain model (DTM was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.. Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (% and stand height (m. First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri’s ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service’s FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s–present will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  9. Estimation of Stand Height and Forest Volume Using High Resolution Stereo Photography and Forest Type Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. M.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model (nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (%) and stand height (m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  10. A model-based comparison of organic matter dynamics between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenroth Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The food webs of forest streams are primarily based upon inputs of organic matter from adjacent terrestrial ecosystems. However, streams that run through open landscapes generally lack closed riparian canopies, and an increasing number of studies indicate that terrestrial organic matter may be an important resource in these systems as well. Combining key abiotically-controlled factors (stream discharge, water temperature, and litter input rate with relevant biotic processes (e.g. macroinvertebrate CPOM consumption, microbial processing, we constructed a model to predict and contrast organic matter dynamics (including temporal variation in CPOM standing crop, CPOM processing rate, FPOM production, and detritivore biomass in small riparian-forested and open-canopy streams. Our modeled results showed that the standing crop of CPOM was similar between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams, despite considerable differences in litter input rate. This unexpected result was partly due to linkages between CPOM supply and consumer abundance that produced higher detritivore biomass in the forest stream than the open-canopy stream. CPOM standing crop in the forest stream was mainly regulated by top-down consumer control, depressing it to a level similar to that of the open-canopy stream. In contrast, CPOM standing crop in the open-canopy stream was primarily controlled by physical factors (litter input rates and discharge, not consumption. This suggests that abiotic processes (e.g. discharge may play a greater role in limiting detrital resource availability and consumer biomass in open-canopy streams than in forest streams. These model results give insight on functional differences that exists among streams and they can be used to predict effects of anthropogenic influences such as forestry, agriculture, urbanization, and climate change on streams and how riparian management and conservation tools can be employed to mitigate undesirable effects.

  11. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to changes in soil water content associated with rainfall seasonality. We assessed the effect of adding a slow-release fertilizer. We determined plant growth from 2010 to 2012 and gas exchange in the wet and dry season of 2012. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect sapling growth or leaf gas exchange parameters. Although soil amendment increased phosphorus content by 60 %, neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic parameters were influenced by the addition of mineral nutrients. However, photosynthetic rates and growth of saplings decreased as the forest canopy became denser. Even when Amazonian soils are poor in nutrients, photosynthesis and sapling growth are more responsive to slight variations in light availability in the forest understory than to the availability of nutrients. Therefore, the response of saplings to future increases in atmospheric [CO2] will not be limited by the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil.

  12. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, Andreas; Korhonen, J. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally...... showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem...... of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech), higher foliage longevity (fir) or both (boreal pine forest). In combination with data from a literature review...

  13. Estimating forest variables from top-of-atmosphere radiance satellite measurements using coupled radiative transfer models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, V.C.E.; Verhoef, W.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, it is necessary to pre-process remote sensing data to obtain top of canopy (TOC) reflectances before applying physically-based model inversion techniques to estimate forest variables. Corrections for atmospheric, adjacency, topography, and surface directional effects are applied

  14. Variation in forest canopy nitrogen and albedo in response to N fertilization and elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, H. F.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Collatz, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    It is important to understand how high levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, through changes in N status, could influence a forest’s albedo and photosynthetic rates, and therefore the forest’s overall feedback (positive or negative) to global warming. Foliar N and albedo have recently been shown to covary at the canopy level across temperate and boreal forests. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of this relationship from leaf to canopy scales and how it might change in response N and CO2 fertilization. Research was conducted at two long-term forest experimental sites. The chronic N amendment site at Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA includes three treatments: high N (fertilized with 150 kg N ha-1 yr-1), low N (50 kg N ha-1 yr-1), and ambient deposition (around 8 kg N ha-1 yr-1). The Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park in Oak Ridge, TN includes a Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site where plots receive either ambient and elevated CO2 (540 ppm), and an N amendment site where plots are either fertilized with N (200 kg N ha-1 yr-1) or receive ambient deposition (10-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1). At Harvard Forest we measured seven black oak (Quercus velutina) and five red maple (Acer rubrum) trees in each treatment plot. At Oak Ridge we measured five sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees in each FACE treatment plot, and four sweetgum trees in each N amendment treatment plot. Leaves were collected from two to three canopy heights from trees in each treatment plot. For each tree height we measured reflectance and transmittance spectra for stacks of 1, 2, 4, and 8 leaves, both abaxial and adaxial sides. We also measured N concentration, water content, and leaf mass per unit area (LMA) of the leaves. Canopy-level reflectance was modeled using the Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves (SAIL-2) radiative transfer model. Preliminary results show significant differences in average leaf-level reflectance in the N fertilized treatments, with higher NIR

  15. Impacts of a spring heat wave on canopy processes in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filewod, Ben; Thomas, Sean C

    2014-02-01

    Heat wave frequency, duration, and intensity are predicted to increase with global warming, but the potential impacts of short-term high temperature events on forest functioning remain virtually unstudied. We examined canopy processes in a forest in Central Ontario following 3 days of record-setting high temperatures (31–33 °C) that coincided with the peak in leaf expansion of dominant trees in late May 2010. Leaf area dynamics, leaf morphology, and leaf-level gas-exchange were compared to data from prior years of sampling (2002–2008) at the same site, focusing on Acer saccharum Marsh., the dominant tree in the region. Extensive shedding of partially expanded leaves was observed immediately following high temperature days, with A. saccharum losing ca. 25% of total leaf production but subsequently producing an unusual second flush of neoformed leaves. Both leaf losses and subsequent reflushing were highest in the upper canopy; however, retained preformed leaves and neoformed leaves showed reduced size, resulting in an overall decline in end-of-season leaf area index of 64% in A. saccharum, and 16% in the entire forest. Saplings showed lower leaf losses, but also a lower capacity to reflush relative to mature trees. Both surviving preformed and neoformed leaves had severely depressed photosynthetic capacity early in the summer of 2010, but largely regained photosynthetic competence by the end of the growing season. These results indicate that even short-term heat waves can have severe impacts in northern forests, and suggest a particular vulnerability to high temperatures during the spring period of leaf expansion in temperate deciduous forests.

  16. Evaluating the national land cover database tree canopy and impervious cover estimates across the conterminous United States: a comparison with photo-interpreted estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    The 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides 30-m resolution estimates of percentage tree canopy and percentage impervious cover for the conterminous United States. Previous estimates that compared NLCD tree canopy and impervious cover estimates with photo-interpreted cover estimates within selected counties and places revealed that NLCD underestimates tree...

  17. Disruption of ant-aphid mutualism in canopy enhances the abundance of beetles on the forest floor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m. The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web.

  18. Spatial and phylogenetic variation in plant defense in a tropical moist forest canopy community

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, K. M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.

    2013-12-01

    Plants employ physical and chemical defenses to mitigate damage caused by herbivory. Spatial patterns of plant defense may provide insight into the role of plant-herbivore interactions in the assembly of plant communities. Within plant communities, the spatial overdispersion of anti-herbivore defenses by individuals may reflect a strategy to avoid host shifts from herbivore assemblages of neighboring plants. However, variation in plant defense may also result from trade-offs between foliar investment into defense and growth, mediated by variations in abiotic nutrient availability, or constrained by phylogeny. We measured four defensive traits (leaf toughness, total phenols, condensed tannins, and hydrolysable tannins) and three growth traits (LMA, C:N, total protein) of outer canopy foliage for 345 canopy trees representing 78 species, 65 genera, and 34 families in a moist tropical rainforest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The outer canopy provides an important, but rarely evaluated, cross-sectional image of the tropical forest ecosystem, and observations at this scale may provide an important link between field and remote sensing based studies. We used existing data on edaphic and geological properties to investigate the relationships of abiotic nutrient variation on variation in defense. Using regression and nested random-effects variance modeling, we found strong phylogenetic association with defensive traits at the family and species level, and little evidence for a trade-off between defensive traits. Greater understanding of phylogenetic structure in trait variation may yield improved characterizations of tropical biodiversity, from functional traits to risk assessments.

  19. Relative abundance of amphibians in forest canopy gaps of natural origin vs. timber harvest origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strojny, C. A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale canopy gaps created by logging may retain adequate habitat structure to maintain amphibian abundance. We used pitfalls with drift fences to measure relative abundance of amphibians in 44 harvested gaps, 19 natural treefall gaps, and 36 closed-canopy forest plots. Metamorphs had relatively lower capture rates in large harvest gaps for Ambystoma maculatum, Lithobates catesbeianus, L. clamitans, and L. sylvaticus but we did not detect statistically significant (p < 0.1 differences among gap types for Lithobates palustris metamorphs. L. clamitans juveniles and L. sylvaticus juveniles and adults had relatively lower capture rates in large harvest gaps. For juvenile-adult A. maculatum, we caught relatively fewer individuals in all gap types than in closed-canopy areas. Some groups with overall lower capture rates (immature Plethodon cinereus, juvenile L. palustris had mixed differences among gap types, and Notophthalmus viridescens (efts and adult P. cinereus showed no differences among gap types. One species, L. clamitans, was captured more often at gap edges than gap centers. These results suggest that harvest gaps, especially small gaps, provided habitat similar to natural gaps for some, but not all, amphibian species or life-stages.

  20. Changes in canopy cover alter surface air and forest floor temperature in a high-elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny L. Boggs; Steven G. McNulty

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe winter and summer surface air and forest floor temperature patterns and diurnal fluctuations in high-elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forests with different levels of canopy cover. In 1988, a series of 10- x 10-meter plots (control, low nitrogen [N] addition, and high nitrogen addition) were...

  1. Estimation of canopy carotenoid content of winter wheat using multi-angle hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiping; Huang, Wenjiang; Liu, Jiangui; Chen, Pengfei; Qin, Qiming; Ye, Huichun; Peng, Dailiang; Dong, Yingying; Mortimer, A. Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Precise estimation of carotenoid (Car) content in crops, using remote sensing data, could be helpful for agricultural resources management. Conventional methods for Car content estimation were mostly based on reflectance data acquired from nadir direction. However, reflectance acquired at this direction is highly influenced by canopy structure and soil background reflectance. Off-nadir observation is less impacted, and multi-angle viewing data are proven to contain additional information rarely exploited for crop Car content estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of multi-angle observation data for winter wheat canopy Car content estimation. Canopy spectral reflectance was measured from nadir as well as from a series of off-nadir directions during different growing stages of winter wheat, with concurrent canopy Car content measurements. Correlation analyses were performed between Car content and the original and continuum removed spectral reflectance. Spectral features and previously published indices were derived from data obtained at different viewing angles and were tested for Car content estimation. Results showed that spectral features and indices obtained from backscattering directions between 20° and 40° view zenith angle had a stronger correlation with Car content than that from the nadir direction, and the strongest correlation was observed from about 30° backscattering direction. Spectral absorption depth at 500 nm derived from spectral data obtained from 30° backscattering direction was found to reduce the difference induced by plant cultivars greatly. It was the most suitable for winter wheat canopy Car estimation, with a coefficient of determination 0.79 and a root mean square error of 19.03 mg/m2. This work indicates the importance of taking viewing geometry effect into account when using spectral features/indices and provides new insight in the application of multi-angle remote sensing for the estimation of crop

  2. Biophysical relationship between leaf-level optical properties and phenology of canopy spectral reflectance in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest at Takayama, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H. M.; Nasahara, K. N.; Muraoka, H.

    2016-12-01

    Growing requirements to observe the spatial and temporal changes of forest canopy structure and functions under climate change expect advancement of ecophysiological interpretation of satellite remote sensing data. To achieve this we need mechanistic and quantitative understanding on the consequence between leaf-level traits and canopy-level spectral reflectance by coupling in-situ observation and analytical modeling. Deciduous forest is characterized by remarkable changes in canopy morphological and physiological structure through leaf expansion in spring to leaf fall in autumn. In addition, optical properties (spectral reflectance, absorption and transmittance of radiation) of leaves also change because they reflect leaf biochemical components such as pigments and water, and anatomical and surface structures. In this study we studied such consequence in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest, namely "Takayama site", on the northwestern slope of Mt. Norikura in central Japan. The forest canopy is dominated by Quercus crispula Blume and Betula ermanii Cham. In this forest, we measured the leaf optical properties of Q. crispula and B. ermanii during the growing season, from budburst in mid-May to senescence at beginning of November in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2010. The measurement was conducted for both adaxial and abaxial side of the leaves.In the near infrared band, the leaf reflectance increased and the transmittance decreased during development period. Those changed very little in senescence period. The leaf reflectance in visible region changes small during the development period, the transmittance dropped remarkably. The abaxial side reflectance was about twice higher than adaxial side in the visible region. Those changes in the growing period fitted well to the development model base on air temperature. To validate the model, we simulate the canopy reflectance by using radiative transfer model SAIL. As our leaf spectral data and canopy spectral model have

  3. Plant physiological and environmental controls over the exchange of acetaldehyde between forest canopies and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jardine

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We quantified fine scale sources and sinks of gas phase acetaldehyde in two forested ecosystems in the US. During the daytime, the upper canopy behaved as a net source while at lower heights, reduced emission rates or net uptake were observed. At night, uptake generally predominated throughout the canopies. Net ecosystem emission rates were inversely related to foliar density due to the extinction of light in the canopy and a respective decrease of the acetaldehyde compensation point. This is supported by branch level studies revealing much higher compensation points in the light than in the dark for poplar (Populus deltoides and holly oak (Quercus ilex implying a higher light/temperature sensitivity for acetaldehyde production relative to consumption. The view of stomata as the major pathway for acetaldehyde exchange is supported by strong linear correlations between branch transpiration rates and acetaldehyde exchange velocities for both species. In addition, natural abundance carbon isotope analysis of gas-phase acetaldehyde during poplar branch fumigation experiments revealed a significant kinetic isotope effect of 5.1±0.3‰ associated with the uptake of acetaldehyde. Similar experiments with dry dead poplar leaves showed no fractionation or uptake of acetaldehyde, confirming that this is only a property of living leaves. We suggest that acetaldehyde belongs to a potentially large list of plant metabolites where stomatal resistance can exert long term control over both emission and uptake rates due to the presence of both source(s and sink(s within the leaf which strongly buffer large changes in concentrations in the substomatal airspace due to changes in stomatal resistance. We conclude that the exchange of acetaldehyde between plant canopies and the atmosphere is fundamentally controlled by ambient acetaldehyde concentrations, stomatal resistance, and the compensation point which is a function of light/temperature.

  4. Use Of Crop Canopy Size To Estimate Water Requirements Of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planting time, plant density, variety, and cultural practices vary widely for horticultural crops. It is difficult to estimate crop water requirements for crops with these variations. Canopy size, or factional ground cover, as an indicator of intercepted sunlight, is related to crop water use. We...

  5. Accuracy of Kinematic Positioning Using Global Satellite Navigation Systems under Forest Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Kaartinen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A harvester enables detailed roundwood data to be collected during harvesting operations by means of the measurement apparatus integrated into its felling head. These data can be used to improve the efficiency of wood procurement and also replace some of the field measurements, and thus provide both less costly and more detailed ground truth for remote sensing based forest inventories. However, the positional accuracy of harvester-collected tree data is not sufficient currently to match the accuracy per individual trees achieved with remote sensing data. The aim in the present study was to test the accuracy of various instruments utilizing global satellite navigation systems (GNSS in motion under forest canopies of varying densities to enable us to get an understanding of the current state-of-the-art in GNSS-based positioning under forest canopies. Tests were conducted using several different combinations of GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU mounted on an all-terrain vehicle (ATV “simulating” a moving harvester. The positions of 224 trees along the driving route were measured using a total-station and real-time kinematic GPS. These trees were used as reference items. The position of the ATV was obtained using GNSS and IMU with an accuracy of 0.7 m (root mean squared error (RMSE for 2D positions. For the single-frequency GNSS receivers, the RMSE of real-time 2D GNSS positions was 4.2–9.3 m. Based on these results, it seems that the accuracy of novel single-frequency GNSS devices is not so dependent on forest conditions, whereas the performance of the tested geodetic dual-frequency receiver is very sensitive to the visibility of the satellites. When post-processing can be applied, especially when combined with IMU data, the improvement in the accuracy of the dual-frequency receiver was significant.

  6. Deriving airborne laser scanning based computational canopy volume for forest biomass and allometry studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauhkonen, Jari; Næsset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje

    2014-10-01

    A computational canopy volume (CCV) based on airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is proposed to improve predictions of forest biomass and other related attributes like stem volume and basal area. An approach to derive the CCV based on computational geometry, topological connectivity and numerical optimization was tested with sparse-density, plot-level ALS data acquired from 40 field sample plots of 500-1000 m2 located in a boreal forest in Norway. The CCV had a high correspondence with the biomass attributes considered when derived from optimized filtrations, i.e. ordered sets of simplices belonging to the triangulations based on the point data. Coefficients of determination (R2) between the CCV and total above-ground biomass, canopy biomass, stem volume, and basal area were 0.88-0.89, 0.89, 0.83-0.97, and 0.88-0.92, respectively, depending on the applied filtration. The magnitude of the required filtration was found to increase according to an increasing basal area, which indicated a possibility to predict this magnitude by means of ALS-based height and density metrics. A simple prediction model provided CCVs which had R2 of 0.77-0.90 with the aforementioned forest attributes. The derived CCVs always produced complementary information and were mainly able to improve the predictions of forest biomass relative to models based on the height and density metrics, yet only by 0-1.9 percentage points in terms of relative root mean squared error. Possibilities to improve the CCVs by a further analysis of topological persistence are discussed.

  7. Satellite air temperature estimation for monitoring the canopy layer heat island of Milan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichierri, Manuele; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    In this work, satellite maps of the urban heat island of Milan are produced using satellite-based infrared sensor data. For this aim, we developed suitable algorithms employing satellite brightness temperatures for the direct air temperature estimation 2 m above the surface (canopy layer), showing...... 2007 and 2010 were processed. Analysis of the canopy layer heat island (CLHI) maps during summer months reveals an average heat island effect of 3–4K during nighttime (with some peaks around 5K) and a weak CLHI intensity during daytime. In addition, the satellite maps reveal a well defined island shape...

  8. Estimating the distribution of forage mass for ungulates from vegetation plots in Bavarian Forest National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Ewald, Jörg; Braun, Luisa; Zeppenfeld, Thorsten; Jehl, Hans; Heurich, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Herbaceous ground vegetation is an important pool of biomass and nutrients, which is also used as the major forage source for wild ungulates. Up to now no standard methods exist to estimate herbaceous biomass on a landscape level for temperate forests, which are characterised by deciduous trees with closed canopies. Quantity and quality of the herbaceous forage accessible to herbivores can be estimated from estimated cover in vegetation plot data and information on biomass and element concent...

  9. Optical remote sensing for forest area estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph H. Wynne; Richard G. Oderwald; Gregory A. Reams; John A. Scrivani

    2000-01-01

    The air photo dot-count method is now widely and successfully used for estimating operational forest area in the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. Possible alternatives that would provide for more frequent updates, spectral change detection, and maps of forest area include the AVHRR calibration center technique and various Landsat TM classification...

  10. Relative linkages of canopy-level CO₂ fluxes with the climatic and environmental variables for US deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Khandker S; Abdul-Aziz, Omar I

    2015-04-01

    We used a simple, systematic data-analytics approach to determine the relative linkages of different climate and environmental variables with the canopy-level, half-hourly CO2 fluxes of US deciduous forests. Multivariate pattern recognition techniques of principal component and factor analyses were utilized to classify and group climatic, environmental, and ecological variables based on their similarity as drivers, examining their interrelation patterns at different sites. Explanatory partial least squares regression models were developed to estimate the relative linkages of CO2 fluxes with the climatic and environmental variables. Three biophysical process components adequately described the system-data variances. The 'radiation-energy' component had the strongest linkage with CO2 fluxes, whereas the 'aerodynamic' and 'temperature-hydrology' components were low to moderately linked with the carbon fluxes. On average, the 'radiation-energy' component showed 5 and 8 times stronger carbon flux linkages than that of the 'temperature-hydrology' and 'aerodynamic' components, respectively. The similarity of observed patterns among different study sites (representing gradients in climate, canopy heights and soil-formations) indicates that the findings are potentially transferable to other deciduous forests. The similarities also highlight the scope of developing parsimonious data-driven models to predict the potential sequestration of ecosystem carbon under a changing climate and environment. The presented data-analytics provides an objective, empirical foundation to obtain crucial mechanistic insights; complementing process-based model building with a warranted complexity. Model efficiency and accuracy (R(2) = 0.55-0.81; ratio of root-mean-square error to the observed standard deviations, RSR = 0.44-0.67) reiterate the usefulness of multivariate analytics models for gap-filling of instantaneous flux data.

  11. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)dimportant precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosolsdvary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typi-cally represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height vari-ation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homo-geneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting fo-liage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  12. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady S.; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, Allison L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)-important precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols-vary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typically represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height variation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homogeneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting foliage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  13. Linking canopy leaf area and light environments with tree size distributions to explain Amazon forest demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Scott C; Enquist, Brian J; Saleska, Scott R; Leitold, Veronika; Schietti, Juliana; Longo, Marcos; Alves, Luciana F; Camargo, Plinio B; Oliveira, Raimundo C

    2015-07-01

    Forest biophysical structure - the arrangement and frequency of leaves and stems - emerges from growth, mortality and space filling dynamics, and may also influence those dynamics by structuring light environments. To investigate this interaction, we developed models that could use LiDAR remote sensing to link leaf area profiles with tree size distributions, comparing models which did not (metabolic scaling theory) and did allow light to influence this link. We found that a light environment-to-structure link was necessary to accurately simulate tree size distributions and canopy structure in two contrasting Amazon forests. Partitioning leaf area profiles into size-class components, we found that demographic rates were related to variation in light absorption, with mortality increasing relative to growth in higher light, consistent with a light environment feedback to size distributions. Combining LiDAR with models linking forest structure and demography offers a high-throughput approach to advance theory and investigate climate-relevant tropical forest change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo D Shirima

    Full Text Available We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m, stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps, soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand

  15. Nitrous oxide fluxes from forest floor, tree stems and canopies of boreal tree species during spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikarainen, Iikka; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Machacova, Katerina; Pihlatie, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Boreal forests are considered as small sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) due to microbial N2O production in the soils. Recent evidence shows that trees may play an important role in N2O exchange of forest ecosystems by offering pathways for soil produced N2O to the atmosphere. To confirm magnitude, variability and the origin of the tree mediated N2O emissions more research is needed, especially in boreal forests which have been in a minority in such investigation. We measured forest floor, tree stem and shoot N2O exchange of three boreal tree species at the beginning of the growing season (13.4.-13.6.2015) at SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, located in Southern Finland (61˚ 51´N, 24˚ 17´E, 181 a.s.l.). The fluxes were measured in silver birch (Betula pendula), downy birch (B. pubescens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) on two sites with differing soil type and characteristics (paludified and mineral soil), vegetation cover and forest structure. The aim was to study the vertical profile of N2O fluxes at stem level and to observe temporal changes in N2O fluxes over the beginning of the growing season. The N2O exchange was determined using the static chamber technique and gas chromatographic analyses. Scaffold towers were used for measurements at multiple stem heights and at the canopy level. Overall, the N2O fluxes from the forest floor and trees at both sites were very small and close to the detection limit. The measured trees mainly emitted N2O from their stems and shoots, while the forest floor acted as a sink of N2O at the paludified site and as a small source of N2O at the mineral soil site. Stem emissions from all the trees at both sites were on average below 0.5 μg N2O m-2 of stem area h-1, and the shoot emissions varied between 0.2 and 0.5 ng N2O m-2 g-1 dry biomass. When the N2O fluxes were scaled up to the whole forest ecosystem, based on the tree biomass and stand density, the N2O emissions from birch and spruce trees at the paludified site

  16. Progressive forest canopy water loss during the 2012–2015 California drought

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregory P. Asner; Philip G. Brodrick; Christopher B. Anderson; Nicholas Vaughn; David E. Knapp; Roberta E. Martin

    2016-01-01

    The 2012-2015 drought has left California with severely reduced snowpack, soil moisture, ground water, and reservoir stocks, but the impact of this estimated millennial-scale event on forest health is unknown...

  17. Environmental controls on canopy foliar nitrogen distributions in a Neotropical lowland forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzotti, Christopher S; Asner, Gregory P; Taylor, Philip G; Cleveland, Cory C; Cole, Rebecca; Martin, Roberta E; Nasto, Megan; Osborne, Brooke B; Porder, Stephen; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-12-01

    Distributions of foliar nutrients across forest canopies can give insight into their plant functional diversity and improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling. We used airborne remote sensing and partial least squares regression to quantify canopy foliar nitrogen (foliar N) across ~164 km 2 of wet lowland tropical forest in the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. We determined the relative influence of climate and topography on the observed patterns of foliar N using a gradient boosting model technique. At a local scale, where climate and substrate were constant, we explored the influence of slope position on foliar N by quantifying foliar N on remnant terraces, their adjacent slopes, and knife-edged ridges. In addition, we climbed and sampled 540 trees and analyzed foliar N in order to quantify the role of species identity (phylogeny) and environmental factors in predicting foliar N. Observed foliar N heterogeneity reflected environmental factors working at multiple spatial scales. Across the larger landscape, elevation and precipitation had the highest relative influence on predicting foliar N (30% and 24%), followed by soils (15%), site exposure (9%), compound topographic index (8%), substrate (6%), and landscape dissection (6%). Phylogeny explained ~75% of the variation in the field collected foliar N data, suggesting that phylogeny largely underpins the response to the environmental factors. Taken together, these data suggest that a large fraction of the variance in foliar N across the landscape is proximately driven by species composition, though ultimately this is likely a response to abiotic factors such as climate and topography. Future work should focus on the mechanisms and feedbacks involved, and how shifts in climate may translate to changes in forest function. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Effects of canopy tree species on belowground biogeochemistry in a lowland wet tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Adrienne B.; Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rain forests are known for their high biological diversity, but the effects of plant diversity on important ecosystem processes in this biome remain unclear. Interspecies differences in both the demand for nutrients and in foliar and litter nutrient concentrations could drive variations in both the pool sizes and fluxes of important belowground resources, yet our understanding of the effects and importance of aboveground heterogeneity on belowground biogeochemistry is poor, especially in the species-rich forests of the wet tropics. To investigate the effects of individual tree species on belowground biogeochemical processes, we used both field and laboratory studies to examine how carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycles vary under nine different canopy tree species – including three legume and six non-legume species – that vary in foliar nutrient concentrations in a wet tropical forest in southwestern Costa Rica. We found significant differences in belowground C, N and P cycling under different canopy tree species: total C, N and P pools in standing litter varied by species, as did total soil and microbial C and N pools. Rates of soil extracellular acid phosphatase activity also varied significantly among species and functional groups, with higher rates of phosphatase activity under legumes. In addition, across all tree species, phosphatase activity was significantly positively correlated with litter N/P ratios, suggesting a tight coupling between relative N and P inputs and resource allocation to P acquisition. Overall, our results suggest the importance of aboveground plant community composition in promoting belowground biogeochemical heterogeneity at relatively small spatial scales.

  19. Estimating tropical forest structure using discrete return lidar data and a locally trained synthetic forest algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F. B.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Forests are complex ecosystems with diverse species assemblages, crown structures, size class distributions, and historical disturbances. This complexity makes monitoring, understanding and forecasting carbon dynamics difficult. Still, this complexity is also central in carbon cycling of terrestrial vegetation. Lidar data often is used solely to associate plot level biomass measurements with canopy height models. There is much more that may be gleaned from examining the full profile from lidar data. Using discrete return airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected in 2009 by the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network (TEAM), we compared synthetic vegetation profiles to lidar-derived relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) in La Selva, Costa Rica. To accomplish this, we developed RVPs to describe the vertical distribution of plant material on 20 plots at La Selva by transforming cumulative lidar observations to account for obscured plant material. Hundreds of synthetic profiles were developed for forests containing approximately 200,000 trees with random diameter at breast height (DBH), assuming a Weibull distribution with a shape of 1.0, and mean DBH ranging from 0cm to 500cm. For each tree in the synthetic forests, crown shape (width, depth) and total height were estimated using previously developed allometric equations for tropical forests. Profiles for each synthetic forest were generated and compared to TEAM lidar data to determine the best fitting synthetic profile to lidar profiles for each of 20 field plots at La Selva. After determining the best fit synthetic profile using the minimum sum of squared differences, we are able to estimate forest structure (diameter distribution, height, and biomass) and to compare our estimates to field data for each of the twenty field plots. Our preliminary results show promise for estimating forest structure and biomass using lidar data and computer modeling.

  20. Modelling canopy fuel and forest stand variables and characterizing the influence of thinning in the stand structure using airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hevia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a major threat in NW Spain. The importance and frequency of these events in the area suggests the need for fuel management programs to reduce the spread and severity of forest fires. Thinning treatments can contribute for fire risk reduction, because they cut off the horizontal continuity of forest fuels. Besides, it is necessary to conduct a fire risk management based on the knowledge of fuel allocation, since fire behaviour and fire spread study is dependent on the spatial factor. Therefore, mapping fuel for different silvicultural scenarios is essential. Modelling forest variables and forest structure parameters from LiDAR technology is the starting point for developing spatially explicit maps. This is essential in the generation of fuel maps since field measurements of canopy fuel variables is not feasible. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of LiDAR technology to estimate canopy fuel variables and other stand variables, as well as to identify structural differences between silvicultural managed and unmanaged P. pinaster Ait. stands. Independent variables (LiDAR metrics of greater explanatory significance were identified and regression analyses indicated strong relationships between those and field-derived variables (R2 varied between 0.86 and 0.97. Significant differences were found in some LiDAR metrics when compared thinned and unthinned stands. Results showed that LiDAR technology allows to model canopy fuel and stand variables with high precision in this species, and provides useful information for identifying areas with and without silvicultural management.

  1. Atmospheric deposition and canopy exchange of anions and cations in two plantation forests under acid rain influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijun; Ren, Huili; Darrel Jenerette, G.; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition as a widely concerned environmental problem in China has been less studied in plantation forests compared to urban and secondary forests, albeit they constitute 1/3 of the total forested areas of the country. We measured the rainwater amount and chemistry outside and beneath the canopies of two widely distributed plantations (Acacia mangium and Dimocarpus longan) in the severe acid rain influenced Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China for two years. Our results showed that the frequency of acid rain was 96% on the basis of pH value 88%) and NH (10-38%). The two tree species showed distinct impacts on rainfall redistribution and rainwater chemistry due to their differences in canopy architecture and leaf/bark texture, suggesting that species-specific effects should not be overlooked while assessing the acid deposition in forested areas.

  2. Vertical stratification of forest canopy for segmentation of understory trees within small-footprint airborne LiDAR point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamraz, Hamid; Contreras, Marco A.; Zhang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Airborne LiDAR point cloud representing a forest contains 3D data, from which vertical stand structure even of understory layers can be derived. This paper presents a tree segmentation approach for multi-story stands that stratifies the point cloud to canopy layers and segments individual tree crowns within each layer using a digital surface model based tree segmentation method. The novelty of the approach is the stratification procedure that separates the point cloud to an overstory and multiple understory tree canopy layers by analyzing vertical distributions of LiDAR points within overlapping locales. The procedure does not make a priori assumptions about the shape and size of the tree crowns and can, independent of the tree segmentation method, be utilized to vertically stratify tree crowns of forest canopies. We applied the proposed approach to the University of Kentucky Robinson Forest - a natural deciduous forest with complex and highly variable terrain and vegetation structure. The segmentation results showed that using the stratification procedure strongly improved detecting understory trees (from 46% to 68%) at the cost of introducing a fair number of over-segmented understory trees (increased from 1% to 16%), while barely affecting the overall segmentation quality of overstory trees. Results of vertical stratification of the canopy showed that the point density of understory canopy layers were suboptimal for performing a reasonable tree segmentation, suggesting that acquiring denser LiDAR point clouds would allow more improvements in segmenting understory trees. As shown by inspecting correlations of the results with forest structure, the segmentation approach is applicable to a variety of forest types.

  3. Long-term responses of canopy-understorey interactions to disturbance severity in primary Picea abies forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bače, R.; Schurman, J.S.; Brabec, Marek; Čada, V.; Deprés, T.; Janda, P.; Lábusová, J.; Mikoláš, M.; Morrissey, R. C.; Mrhalová, H.; Nagel, T.A.; Nováková, M. H.; Seedre, M.; Synek, M.; Trotsiuk, V.; Svoboda, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 6 (2017), s. 1128-1139 ISSN 1100-9233 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14840S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Disturbance regime * Natural regeneration * Primary forest * Picea abies (L.) Karst * Windstorms * Bark beetle * Understory light availability * Saplings and poles * Canopy openness * Mountain forest Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.924, year: 2016

  4. Assessing and Correcting Topographic Effects on Forest Canopy Height Retrieval Using Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhugeng Duan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Topography affects forest canopy height retrieval based on airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data a lot. This paper proposes a method for correcting deviations caused by topography based on individual tree crown segmentation. The point cloud of an individual tree was extracted according to crown boundaries of isolated individual trees from digital orthophoto maps (DOMs. Normalized canopy height was calculated by subtracting the elevation of centres of gravity from the elevation of point cloud. First, individual tree crown boundaries are obtained by carrying out segmentation on the DOM. Second, point clouds of the individual trees are extracted based on the boundaries. Third, precise DEM is derived from the point cloud which is classified by a multi-scale curvature classification algorithm. Finally, a height weighted correction method is applied to correct the topological effects. The method is applied to LiDAR data acquired in South China, and its effectiveness is tested using 41 field survey plots. The results show that the terrain impacts the canopy height of individual trees in that the downslope side of the tree trunk is elevated and the upslope side is depressed. This further affects the extraction of the location and crown of individual trees. A strong correlation was detected between the slope gradient and the proportions of returns with height differences more than 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 m in the total returns, with coefficient of determination R2 of 0.83, 0.76, and 0.60 (n = 41, respectively.

  5. Horizontal, but not vertical canopy structure is related to stand functional diversity in a subtropical slope forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, A.C.; Härdtle, W.; Bruelheide, H.; Kröber, W.; Schröter, M.; Wehrden, von H.; Oheimb, von G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relation of horizontal and vertical canopy structure to tree functional diversity of a highly diverse subtropical broad-leaved slope forest, stratified for different successional stages. This is of particular interest because many key ecosystem processes and

  6. Extracting forest canopy structure from spatial information of high resolution optical imagery: tree crown size versus leaf area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Song; M.B. Dickinson

    2008-01-01

    Leaves are the primary interface where energy, water and carbon exchanges occur between the forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. Leaf area index (LAI) is a measure of the amount of leaf area in a stand, and the tree crown size characterizes how leaves are clumped in the canopy. Both LAI and tree crown size are of essential ecological and management value. There is a...

  7. Harvest-created canopy gaps increase species and functional trait diversity of the forest ground-layer community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel C. Kern; Rebecca A. Montgomery; Peter B. Reich; Terry F. Strong

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation within managed forests depends, in part, on management practices that restore or maintain plant community diversity and function. Because many plant communities are adapted to natural disturbances, gap-based management has potential to meet this need by using the historical range of variation in canopy disturbances to guide elements of harvest...

  8. Understanding the key mechanisms of tropical forest responses to canopy loss and biomass deposition from experimental hurricane effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.B. Shiels; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    To date, it is not clear which are the factors that most influence tropical forest recovery from hurricanes.Increased canopy openness and increased detritus (debris) deposition are two of the most likely factors,but due to their simultaneous occurrence during a hurricane, their relative effects cannot be separated without a manipulative experiment. Hence, in the...

  9. FLUXES OF INORGANIC NITROGEN IN OPEN FIELD AND UNDER THE CANOPY OF DECIDUOUS FORESTS IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAŞOVEANU V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on a comparative analysis of atmospheric N-NO3- and N-NH4+ deposition in the open field and under the forest canopy of the Republic of Moldova, which are included in a systematic transnational grid (16x16 km of forest monitoring throughout Europe. Also, it was appreciated the role of the canopy to reduce the variability of the pH of the precipitation. Monitoring the flux of pollutant ions was performed according to the methodology recommended by International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests (ICP Forests, 2010. The N-NO3- and N-NH4+ deposition under forest canopy have tended lower in vegetative rest period. The N-NH4+ flux is 1.7-3.8 times more than the N-NO3- flux, which clearly demonstrates the dominance of ammonium ion to nitrate ion in atmospheric deposition of Republic of Moldova.

  10. Organismic-Scale Remote Sensing of Canopy Foliar Traits in Lowland Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dana Chadwick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne high fidelity imaging spectroscopy (HiFIS holds great promise for bridging the gap between field studies of functional diversity, which are spatially limited, and satellite detection of ecosystem properties, which lacks resolution to understand within landscape dynamics. We use Carnegie Airborne Observatory HiFIS data combined with field collected foliar trait data to develop quantitative prediction models of foliar traits at the tree-crown level across over 1000 ha of humid tropical forest. We predicted foliar leaf mass per area (LMA as well as foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium for canopy emergent trees (R2: 0.45–0.67, relative RMSE: 11%–14%. Correlations between remotely sensed model coefficients for these foliar traits are similar to those found in laboratory studies, suggesting that the detection of these mineral nutrients is possible through their biochemical stoichiometry. Maps derived from HiFIS provide quantitative foliar trait information across a tropical forest landscape at fine spatial resolution, and along environmental gradients. Multi-nutrient maps implemented at the fine organismic scale will subsequently provide new insight to the functional biogeography and biological diversity of tropical forest ecosystems.

  11. Estimating forest carbon stocks in tropical dry forests of Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation and mapping of forest dendrometric characteristics such as carbon stocks using remote sensing techniques is fundamental for improved understanding of the role of forests in the carbon cycle and climate change. In this study, we tested whether and to what extent spectral transforms, i.e. vegetation indices ...

  12. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Leaves in a Cotton Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Kupinski, Meredith; French, Andrew; Chipman, Russell; Dahlgren, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensing plant canopy water status remains a long-term goal of remote sensing research. Established approaches to estimating canopy water status the Crop Water Stress Index, the Water Deficit Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness involve measurements in the thermal or reflective infrared. Here we report plant water status estimates based upon analysis of polarized visible imagery of a cotton canopy measured by ground Multi-Spectral Polarization Imager (MSPI). Such estimators potentially provide access to the plant hydrological photochemistry that manifests scattering and absorption effects in the visible spectral region.Twice during one day, +- 3 hours from solar noon, we collected polarized imagery and relative water content data on a cotton test plot located at the Arid Land Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Maricopa, AZ. The test plot, a small portion of a large cotton field, contained stressed plants ready for irrigation. The evening prior to data collection we irrigated several rows of plants within the test plot. Thus, ground MSPI imagery from both morning and afternoon included cotton plants with a range of water statuses. Data analysis includes classifying the polarized imagery into sunlit reflecting, sunlit transmitting, shaded foliage and bare soil. We estimate the leaf surface reflection and interior reflection based upon the per pixel polarization and sunview directions. We compare our cotton results with our prior polarization results for corn and soybean leaves measured in the lab and corn leaves measured in the field.

  13. Global isoprene emissions estimated using MEGAN, ECMWF analyses and a detailed canopy environment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Müller

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The global emissions of isoprene are calculated at 0.5° resolution for each year between 1995 and 2006, based on the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2 model (Guenther et al., 2006 and a detailed multi-layer canopy environment model for the calculation of leaf temperature and visible radiation fluxes. The calculation is driven by meteorological fields – air temperature, cloud cover, downward solar irradiance, windspeed, volumetric soil moisture in 4 soil layers – provided by analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The estimated annual global isoprene emission ranges between 374 Tg (in 1996 and 449 Tg (in 1998 and 2005, for an average of ca. 410 Tg/year over the whole period, i.e. about 30% less than the standard MEGAN estimate (Guenther et al., 2006. This difference is due, to a large extent, to the impact of the soil moisture stress factor, which is found here to decrease the global emissions by more than 20%. In qualitative agreement with past studies, high annual emissions are found to be generally associated with El Niño events. The emission inventory is evaluated against flux measurement campaigns at Harvard forest (Massachussets and Tapajós in Amazonia, showing that the model can capture quite well the short-term variability of emissions, but that it fails to reproduce the observed seasonal variation at the tropical rainforest site, with largely overestimated wet season fluxes. The comparison of the HCHO vertical columns calculated by a chemistry and transport model (CTM with HCHO distributions retrieved from space provides useful insights on tropical isoprene emissions. For example, the relatively low emissions calculated over Western Amazonia (compared to the corresponding estimates in the inventory of Guenther et al., 1995 are validated by the excellent agreement found between the CTM and HCHO data over this region. The parameterized impact of the soil moisture

  14. LBA-ECO CD-02 Forest Canopy Structure, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: 1999-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports on Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Specific Leaf Area (SLA) measurements collected from forest and pasture sites in or near the Tapajos National...

  15. LBA-ECO CD-02 Forest Canopy Structure, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: 1999-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports on Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Specific Leaf Area (SLA) measurements collected from forest and pasture sites in or near the Tapajos...

  16. Using Small-Footprint Discrete and Full-Waveform Airborne LiDAR Metrics to Estimate Total Biomass and Biomass Components in Subtropical Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Cao; Nicholas C. Coops; Txomin Hermosilla; John Innes; Jinsong Dai; Guanghui She

    2014-01-01

    An accurate estimation of total biomass and its components is critical for understanding the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to explore the performances of forest canopy structure characterization from a single small-footprint Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset using two different techniques focusing on (i) 3-D canopy structural information by discrete (XYZ) LiDAR metrics (DR-metrics), and (ii) the detailed geometric and radiometric information...

  17. Comparing helicopter-borne profiling radar with airborne laser scanner data for forest structure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Hollaus, Markus; Pfeifer, Norbert; Chen, Yuwei; Karjalainen, Mika; Hakala, Teemu; Hyyppä, Juha; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Forests are complex ecosystems that show substantial variation with respect to climate, management regime, stand history, disturbance, and needs of local communities. The dynamic processes of growth and disturbance are reflected in the structural components of forests that include the canopy vertical structure and geometry (e.g. size, height, and form), tree position and species diversity. Current remote-sensing systems to measure forest structural attributes include passive optical sensors and active sensors. The technological capabilities of active remote sensing like the ability to penetrate the vegetation and provide information about its vertical structure has promoted an extensive use of LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging) system over the last 20 years. LiDAR measurements from aircraft (airborne laser scanning, ALS) currently represents the primary data source for three-dimensional information on forest vertical structure. Contrary, despite the potential of radar remote sensing, their use is not yet established in forest monitoring. In order to better understand the interaction of pulsed radar with the forest canopy, and to increase the feasibility of this system, the Finnish Geospatial Research Institute has developed a helicopter-borne profiling radar system, called TomoRadar. TomoRadar is capable of recording a canopy-penetrating profile of forests. To georeference the radar measurements the system was equipped with a global navigation satellite system and an inertial measurement unit with a centimeter level accuracy of the flight trajectory. The TomoRadar operates at Ku-band, (wave lengths λ 1.5cm) with two separated parabolic antennas providing co- and cross-polarization modes. The purpose of this work is to investigate the capability of the TomoRadar system, for estimating the forest vertical profile, terrain topography and tree height. We analysed 600 m TomoRadar crosspolarized (i.e. horizontal - vertical

  18. A Comparison of Simulated and Field-Derived Leaf Area Index (LAI and Canopy Height Values from Four Forest Complexes in the Southeastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Iiames

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative leaf area is a critical input to models that simulate human and ecosystem exposure to atmospheric pollutants. Leaf area index (LAI can be measured in the field or numerically simulated, but all contain some inherent uncertainty that is passed to the exposure assessments that use them. LAI estimates for minimally managed or natural forest stands can be particularly difficult to develop as a result of interspecies competition, age and spatial distribution. Satellite-based LAI estimates hold promise for retrospective analyses, but we must continue to rely on numerical models for alternative management analysis. Our objective for this study is to calculate and validate LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC model (a widely used, field-scale, biogeochemical model on four forest complexes spanning three physiographic provinces in Virginia and North Carolina. Measurements of forest composition (species and number, LAI, tree diameter, basal area, and canopy height were recorded at each site during the 2002 field season. Calibrated EPIC results show stand-level temporally resolved LAI estimates with R2 values ranging from 0.69 to 0.96, and stand maximum height estimates within 20% of observation. This relatively high level of performance is attributable to EPIC’s approach to the characterization of forest stand biogeochemical budgets, stand history, interspecies competition and species-specific response to local weather conditions. We close by illustrating the extension of this site-level approach to scales that could support regional air quality model simulations.

  19. A comparison of models to estimate in-canopy photosynthetically active radiation and their influence on canopy stomatal resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiming Zhang [Rumble Research, Ontario (Canada); Moran, M.D.; Brook, J. R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The models for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) used in a multi-layer canopy stomatal resistance (CSR) model developed by Baldocchi et al. (Atmospheric Environment 21 (1987) 91-101) and in a two-big-leaf CSR model developed by Hicks et al. (Water, Air and Soil Pollution 36 (1987) 311) are investigated in this study. The PAR received by shaded leaves in Baldocchi et al. (1987) is found to be larger than that predicted by a canopy radiative-transfer model developed by Norman (in: Barfield, Gerber, (Eds.), Modification of the Aerial Environment of Crops. ASAE Monograph No. 2. American Society for Agricultural. Engineering, St. Joseph, MI, 1979, p. 249) by as much as 50% even though the Baldocchi et al. (1987) model is indirectly based on Norman's model. This larger value of PAR results in turn in a smaller CSR by as much as 30% for canopies with larger leaf area indexes. A new formula to predict vertical profiles for PAR received by shaded leaves inside a canopy is suggested in the present study based on Norman (1979) and agrees well with the original model of Norman (1979). The simple treatment used in Hicks et al. (1987) for canopy-average PAR received by shaded leaves is found to diverge for canopies with leaf area indexes not close to two A new empirical formula for canopy-average PAR is then suggested for use in a two-big-leaf model, and it is shown that under most conditions the modified two-big-leaf CSR model can predict reasonable values when compared with the more complex multi-layer CSR model. Both the modified multi-layer CSR model and the modified two-big-leaf CSR model are also shown to predict reasonable dry deposition velocities for 03 when compared to several sets of measurements. (author)

  20. Using a semi-automated filtering process to improve large footprint lidar sub-canopy elevation models and forest structure metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, G. A.; Saatchi, S.; Meyer, V.; Gillespie, T.; Sheng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of sub-canopy topography and forest structure is important for developing a better understanding of how forest ecosystems function. This study focuses on a three-step method to adapt discrete return lidar (DRL) filtering techniques to Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) large-footprint lidar (LFL) waveforms to improve the accuracy of both sub-canopy digital elevation models (DEMs), as well as forest structure measurements. The results of the experiment demonstrate that LFL ground surfaces can be effectively filtered using methods adapted from DRL point filtering methods, and the resulting data will produce more accurate digital elevation models, as well as improved estimates of forest structure. The first step quantifies the slope present at the center of each LFL pulse, and the average error expected at each particular degree of slope is modeled. Areas of high terrain slope show consistently more error in LFL ground detection, and empirical relationships between terrain angle and expected LVIS ground detection error are established. These relationships are then used to create an algorithm for LFL ground elevation correction. The second step uses an iterative, expanding window filter to identify outlier points which are not part of the ground surface, as well as manual editing to identify laser pulses which are not at ground level. The semi-automated methods improved the LVIS DEM accuracy significantly by identifying significant outliers in the LVIS point cloud. The final step develops an approach which utilizes both the filtered LFL DEMs, and the modeled error introduced by terrain slope to improve both sub-canopy elevation models, and above ground LFL waveform metrics. DRL and LVIS data from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and La Selva, Costa Rica were used to develop and test the algorithm. Acknowledgements: Special thanks to Dr. Jim Dilling for providing the DRL lidar data for Barro Colorado Island.

  1. Lidar Applications for Fine Tuning Forest Inventory Estimates in the Nonforest and Understory Carbon Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. D.; Birdsey, R.; Huang, W.; Dolan, K. A.; Finley, A. O.; Domke, G. M.; Russell, M.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Dubayah, R.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the USDA Forest Service maintains permanent sample plots that provide valuable data for robust and consistent estimates of major forest carbon pools in the United States, and are currently used for official estimates to the greenhouse gas inventories compiled by EPA and reported to the UNFCCC and other entities. Nonetheless, there exist some carbon accounting gaps and indirectly measured pools that may be improved. Carbon in both "trees outside forest" and the understory is not currently measured directly in FIA plots. Understory carbon is predicted as a portion of total aboveground biomass, rather than from measurements of shrub, forbs or graminoid mass. In the current study, lidar data obtained at FIA plot locations was used to predict carbon in "trees outside forest" and the understory in the forests of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, USA, potentially improving current estimates. Results indicate that carbon in "trees outside forests" represent a significant and under-estimated stock in this region. Understory carbon remains difficult to quantify at the plot level, but meaningful relationships with lidar canopy height (a proxy for stand succession) suggest that reliable population estimates may be aided by lidar data. Fine tuning these estimates is important, not only for improving the accuracy of estimates, but also for reconciling estimates with independently created forest carbon maps.

  2. Can we use photography to estimate radiation interception by a crop canopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakwizira, E; Meenken, E D; George, M J; Fletcher, A L

    2015-03-01

    Accuracy of determining radiation interception, and hence radiation use efficiency, depends on the method of measuring photosynthetically active radiation intercepted. Methods vary, from expensive instruments such as Sunfleck ceptometers to simple methods such as digital photography. However, before universal use of digital photography there is need to determine its reliability and compare it with conventional, but expensive, methods. In a series of experiments at Lincoln, New Zealand, canopy development for barley, wheat, white clover and four forage brassica species was determined using both digital photographs and Sunfleck ceptometer. Values obtained were used to calculate conversion coefficient (Kf/Ki) ratios between the two methods. Digital photographs were taken at 45° and 90° for barley, wheat and white clover and at only 90° for brassicas. There was an interaction of effects of crop and cultivar for the cereal crops. Barley closed canopies earlier than wheat, and 'Emir' barley and 'Stettler' wheat had consistently higher canopy cover than 'Golden Promise' and 'HY459', respectively. Canopy cover was consistently larger at 45° than 90° for cereals. However, for white clover, the angle of digital photography was not important. There was also an interaction between effects of species and method of determining canopy cover for brassicas. Photographs gave higher cover values than ceptometer for forage rape and turnip, but the relationship was variable for forage kale and swede. Kf/Ki ratios of 1.0-1.10 for cereals, white clover and forage rape and turnip show that digital photographs can be used to estimated radiation interception, in place of Sunfleck ceptometer, for these crops. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Electromagnetic wave scattering from a forest or vegetation canopy - Ongoing research at the University of Texas at Arlington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Amar, Faouzi; Fung, Adrian K.

    1993-01-01

    The Wave Scattering Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington has developed a scattering model for forest or vegetation, based on the theory of electromagnetic-wave scattering in random media. The model generalizes the assumptions imposed by earlier models, and compares well with measurements from several forest canopies. This paper gives a description of the model. It also indicates how the model elements are integrated to obtain the scattering characteristics of different forest canopies. The scattering characteristics may be displayed in the form of polarimetric signatures, represented by like- and cross-polarized scattering coefficients, for an elliptically-polarized wave, or in the form of signal-distribution curves. Results illustrating both types of scattering characteristics are given.

  4. The effect of boreal forest canopy to reflectance of snow covered terrain based on airborne imaging spectrometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinilä, Kirsikka; Salminen, Miia; Pulliainen, Jouni; Cohen, Juval; Metsämäki, Sari; Pellikka, Petri

    2014-04-01

    Optical remote sensing methods for mapping of the seasonal snow cover are often obstructed by the masking effect of forest canopy. Therefore, optical algorithms tend to underestimate the amount of snow cover in forested regions. In this paper, we investigate the influence of boreal forest stand characteristics on the observed scene reflectance under full dry snow cover conditions by applying an advantageous experimental setup combining airborne hyperspectral imaging and LIDAR data sets from a test region in Sodankylä, northern Finland. This is particularly useful to the understanding of the composition of the mixed satellite scene reflectance behavior and it is relation to the natural ground targets' spectral signatures.

  5. Variability in estimated runoff in a forested area based on different cartographic data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, L.; Quirós, E.; Durán-Barroso, P.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The goal of this study is to analyse variations in curve number (CN) values produced by different cartographic data sources in a forested watershed, and determine which of them best fit with measured runoff volumes. Area of study: A forested watershed located in western Spain. Material and methods: Four digital cartographic data sources were used to determine the runoff CN in the watershed. Main results: None of the cartographic sources provided all the information necessary to determine properly the CN values. Our proposed methodology, focused on the tree canopy cover, improves the achieved results. Research highlights: The estimation of the CN value in forested areas should be attained as a function of tree canopy cover and new calibrated tables should be implemented in a local scale.

  6. Resource communication: Variability in estimated runoff in a forested area based on different cartographic data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fragoso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The goal of this study is to analyse variations in curve number (CN values produced by different cartographic data sources in a forested watershed, and determine which of them best fit with measured runoff volumes. Area of study: A forested watershed located in western Spain. Material and methods: Four digital cartographic data sources were used to determine the runoff CN in the watershed. Main results: None of the cartographic sources provided all the information necessary to determine properly the CN values. Our proposed methodology, focused on the tree canopy cover, improves the achieved results. Research highlights: The estimation of the CN value in forested areas should be attained as a function of tree canopy cover and new calibrated tables should be implemented in a local scale.

  7. Solar-induced Fluorescence as a Proxy for Canopy Photosynthesis in a Temperate Deciduous Forest: Comparisons between Observations and Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Lee, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Tang, J.; Mustard, J. F.; Van der Tol, C.; Kellner, J. R.; Silva, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis in the terrestrial ecosystems contributes to the largest carbon flux in the global carbon cycle. The use of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) as a proxy of photosynthesis at the ecosystem scale (Gross Primary Production, GPP) is a critical emerging technology. Satellite measurements of SIF were found to be significantly correlated with GPP, and several ground campaigns suggested that SIF could improve the GPP estimation. However, it remains unclear to what extent this relationship is due to absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and/or light use efficiency (LUE). In addition, models that simulate SIF have not been rigorously validated. Here we present the first time-series of near-surface measurement of canopy-scale SIF at 760nm in temperate deciduous forests during year 2013-2014. SIF correlated with GPP estimated with eddy covariance at diurnal and seasonal scales (r2=0.82 and 0.73, respectively), as well as with APAR diurnally and seasonally (r2=0.90 and 0.80, respectively). SIF/APAR is significantly positively correlated with LUE and is higher during cloudy days than sunny days. Weekly tower-based SIF agreed with SIF from GOME-2 (The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2, r2 = 0.82). We further compared SIF observations with those simulated by Soil Canopy Observation Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE) model. We found that key parameters in SCOPE including Vcmax, LAI, chlorophyll content, and viewing angles determine the agreement between observations and model. Our results provide support to the use of SIF to estimate canopy photosynthetic activities, and present a framework of validating fluorescence simulated by canopy radiative transfer models.

  8. Canopy Height Estimation by Characterizing Waveform LiDAR Geometry Based on Shape-Distance Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ariel L. Salas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There have been few approaches developed for the estimation of height using waveform LiDAR data. Unlike any existing methods, we illustrate how the new Moment Distance (MD framework can characterize the canopy height based on the geometry and return power of the LiDAR waveform without having to go through curve modeling processes. Our approach offers the possibilities of using the raw waveform data to capture vital information from the variety of complex waveform shapes in LiDAR. We assess the relationship of the MD metrics to the key waveform landmarks—such as locations of peaks, power of returns, canopy heights, and height metrics—using synthetic data and real Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS data. In order to verify the utility of the new approach, we use field measurements obtained through the DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice campaign. Our results reveal that the MDI can capture temporal dynamics of canopy and segregate generations of stands based on curve shapes. The method satisfactorily estimates the canopy height using the synthetic (r2 = 0.40 and the LVIS dataset (r2 = 0.74. The MDI is also comparable with existing RH75 (relative height at 75% and RH50 (relative height at 50% height metrics. Furthermore, the MDI shows better correlations with ground-based measurements than relative height metrics. The MDI performs well at any type of waveform shape. This opens the possibility of looking more closely at single-peaked waveforms that usually carries complex extremes.

  9. Inverting Aboveground Biomass–Canopy Texture Relationships in a Landscape of Forest Mosaic in the Western Ghats of India Using Very High Resolution Cartosat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Pargal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Large scale assessment of aboveground biomass (AGB in tropical forests is often limited by the saturation of remote sensing signals at high AGB values. Fourier Transform Textural Ordination (FOTO performs well in quantifying canopy texture from very high-resolution (VHR imagery, from which stand structure parameters can be retrieved with no saturation effect for AGB values up to 650 Mg·ha−1. The method is robust when tested on wet evergreen forests but is more demanding when applied across different forest types characterized by varying structures and allometries. The present study focuses on a gradient of forest types ranging from dry deciduous to wet evergreen forests in the Western Ghats (WG of India, where we applied FOTO to Cartosat-1a images with 2.5 m resolution. Based on 21 1-ha ground control forest plots, we calibrated independent texture–AGB models for the dry and wet zone forests in the area, as delineated from the distribution of NDVI values computed from LISS-4 multispectral images. This stratification largely improved the relationship between texture-derived and field-derived AGB estimates, which exhibited a R2 of 0.82 for a mean rRMSE of ca. 17%. By inverting the texture–AGB models, we finally mapped AGB predictions at 1.6-ha resolution over a heterogeneous landscape of ca. 1500 km2 in the WG, with a mean relative per-pixel propagated error <20% for wet zone forests, i.e., below the recommended IPCC criteria for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV methods. The method proved to perform well in predicting high-resolution AGB values over heterogeneous tropical landscape encompassing diversified forest types, and thus presents a promising option for affordable regional monitoring systems of greenhouse gas (GhG emissions related to forest degradation.

  10. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations in leaf photosynthesis and canopy leaf area index on gross primary production of a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Takayama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Nasahara, Kenlo N; Noda, Hibiki; Yoshino, Jun; Saitoh, Taku M; Nagai, Shin; Murayama, Shohei; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Revealing the seasonal and interannual variations in forest canopy photosynthesis is a critical issue in understanding the ecological mechanisms underlying the dynamics of carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and deciduous forests. This study examined the effects of temporal variations of canopy leaf area index (LAI) and leaf photosynthetic capacity [the maximum velocity of carboxylation (V (cmax))] on gross primary production (GPP) of a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest for 5 years in Takayama AsiaFlux site, central Japan. We made two estimations to examine the effects of canopy properties on GPP; one is to incorporate the in situ observation of V (cmax) and LAI throughout the growing season, and another considers seasonality of LAI but constantly high V (cmax). The simulations indicated that variation in V (cmax) and LAI, especially in the leaf expansion period, had remarkable effects on GPP, and if V (cmax) was assumed constant GPP will be overestimated by 15%. Monthly examination of air temperature, radiation, LAI and GPP suggested that spring temperature could affect canopy phenology, and also that GPP in summer was determined mainly by incoming radiation. However, the consequences among these factors responsible for interannual changes of GPP are not straightforward since leaf expansion and senescence patterns and summer meteorological conditions influence GPP independently. This simulation based on in situ ecophysiological research suggests the importance of intensive consideration and understanding of the phenology of leaf photosynthetic capacity and LAI to analyze and predict carbon fixation in forest ecosystems.

  11. Forest biomass estimation from polarimetric SAR interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mette, T.

    2007-07-01

    Polarimetric SAR interferometry (Pol-InSAR) is a radar remote sensing technique that allows extracting forest heights by means of model-based inversions. Forest biomass is closely related to forest height, and can be derived from it with allometric relations. This work investigates the combination of the two methods to estimate forest biomass from Pol-InSAR. It develops a concept for the use of height-biomass allometry, and outlines the Pol-InSAR height inversion. The methodology is validated against a set of forest inventory data and Pol-InSAR data at L-band of the test site Traunstein. The results allow drawing conclusions on the potential of Pol-InSAR forest biomass missions. (orig.)

  12. Avian response to microclimate in canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.

  13. Yield Estimation of Sugar Beet Based on Plant Canopy Using Machine Vision Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Latifaltojar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield estimation is one of the most important parameters for information and resources management in precision agriculture. This information is employed for optimizing the field inputs for successive cultivations. In the present study, the feasibility of sugar beet yield estimation by means of machine vision was studied. For the field experiments stripped images were taken during the growth season with one month intervals. The image of horizontal view of plants canopy was prepared at the end of each month. At the end of growth season, beet roots were harvested and the correlation between the sugar beet canopy in each month of growth period and corresponding weight of the roots were investigated. Results showed that there was a strong correlation between the beet yield and green surface area of autumn cultivated sugar beets. The highest coefficient of determination was 0.85 at three months before harvest. In order to assess the accuracy of the final model, the second year of study was performed with the same methodology. The results depicted a strong relationship between the actual and estimated beet weights with R2=0.94. The model estimated beet yield with about 9 percent relative error. It is concluded that this method has appropriate potential for estimation of sugar beet yield based on band imaging prior to harvest

  14. The Bonobo Pan paniscus (Mammalia: Primates: Hominidae nesting patterns and forest canopy layers in the Lake Tumba forests and Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bila-Isia Inogwabini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The description and differentiation of habitat types is a major concern in ecology.  This study examined relationships between Bonobo Pan paniscus nesting patterns and forest structure in the Lake Tumba Swampy Forests. Data on presence of fresh Bonobo nests, canopy cover, canopy structure, tree densities and tree basal areas were collected systematically along 134 transects at 400m and 800m intervals, and the leaf-covered area (LCA was calculated for each of seven forest types. I observed a significant correlation between bonobo nests and mixed mature forest/closed understory forest type (r=-0.730, df = 21, p <0.05, but not mixed mature forest/open understory, old secondary forest and young secondary forest.  Basal areas of non-nesting trees along transects did not differ significantly from those in sites where bonobos nested.  Higher LCA (55% and 55% occurred in nesting sites when compared with non-nesting sites (39% and 42% at elevations 4–8 m and 8–16 m above the soil.  There was greater leaf cover in the understorey at sites where bonobos did not nest, while there was greater leaf cover in the mid-storey at sites where bonobos did nest.  

  15. A review and evaluation of forest canopy epiphyte roles in the partitioning and chemical alteration of precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Stan, John T., E-mail: jvanstan@georgiasouthern.edu [Dept. of Geology and Geography, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States); Pypker, Thomas G. [Dept. of Natural Resource Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, BC (Canada)

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes exert a range of hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies—processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes, epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole. - Highlights: • Reviews > 100 studies on epiphyte effects on throughfall, stemflow, & interception • Identifies shared hydro

  16. Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll fluorescence in canopy leaves of Quercus crispula in a cool-temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Kato, T.; Nakaji, T.

    2016-12-01

    As well as a proxy of ecosystem level photosynthesis, sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) is expected to be an indicator of plant physiological information in photosynthesis (Frankenberg et al., 2011). Zhang et al. (2014) especially suggested that the SIF can be used to estimate the capacity of RuBP carboxylation, Vcmax, at the ecosystem scale by the simple inversion approach with the combination of both observation and modeling. However, the seasonal pattern of the relationships between SIF and such gas exchange physiological parameters has not been confirmed by the direct field observation, yet. Here, we present the field observation results of both gas exchange based photosynthetic parameters and fluorescence properties of canopy leaves of Japanese oak (Quercus crispula) in a cool-temperate forest. In the Tomakomai experimental forest site (42°40'N, 141°36'E), Hokkaido University in Japan, we conducted the periodical measurements of the seasonality in photosynthetic parameters (Li-6400, Li-Cor, USA) and LED-induced fluorescence yield (USB4000, OceanOptics, USA and mini-PAM, WALZ, Germany) from June to October in 2016. Every two or three weeks, the in-situ single leaf data were collected for 10-16 leaves (consisting of 3-4 leaves x 3-4 individual trees) of Japanese oak at the top of canopy at 15-20m above ground surface with approaching by the tall canopy crane. After the in-situ data acquisition, the leaves are frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately followed by removable from shoots, and are going to be analyzed their chemical properties (ex. Chla, Chlb etc.). By analyzing seasonal pattern of those leaf traits, we are going to show how effectively the chlorophyll fluorescence can assess the carbon assimilation capacity of cool temperate forest.

  17. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, Andreas; Korhonen, J. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally...... internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels...... of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech), higher foliage longevity (fir) or both (boreal pine forest). In combination with data from a literature review...

  18. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Content in a Heterogeneous Grassland with Varying Fire and Grazing Treatments: Konza Prairie, Kansas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Ling

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative, spatially explicit estimates of canopy nitrogen are essential for understanding the structure and function of natural and managed ecosystems. Methods for extracting nitrogen estimates via hyperspectral remote sensing have been an active area of research. Much of this research has been conducted either in the laboratory, or in relatively uniform canopies such as crops. Efforts to assess the feasibility of the use of hyperspectral analysis in heterogeneous canopies with diverse plant species and canopy structures have been less extensive. In this study, we use in situ and aircraft hyperspectral data to assess several empirical methods for extracting canopy nitrogen from a tallgrass prairie with varying fire and grazing treatments. The remote sensing data were collected four times between May and September in 2011, and were then coupled with the field-measured leaf nitrogen levels for empirical modeling of canopy nitrogen content based on first derivatives, continuum-removed reflectance and ratio-based indices in the 562–600 nm range. Results indicated that the best-performing model type varied between in situ and aircraft data in different months. However, models from the pooled samples over the growing season with acceptable accuracy suggested that these methods are robust with respect to canopy heterogeneity across spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Estimating spatial variation in Alberta forest biomass from a combination of forest inventory and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Huang, S.; Hogg, E. H.; Lieffers, V.; Qin, Y.; He, F.

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainties in the estimation of tree biomass carbon storage across large areas pose challenges for the study of forest carbon cycling at regional and global scales. In this study, we attempted to estimate the present aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alberta, Canada, by taking advantage of a spatially explicit data set derived from a combination of forest inventory data from 1968 plots and spaceborne light detection and ranging (lidar) canopy height data. Ten climatic variables, together with elevation, were used for model development and assessment. Four approaches, including spatial interpolation, non-spatial and spatial regression models, and decision-tree-based modeling with random forests algorithm (a machine-learning technique), were compared to find the "best" estimates. We found that the random forests approach provided the best accuracy for biomass estimates. Non-spatial and spatial regression models gave estimates similar to random forests, while spatial interpolation greatly overestimated the biomass storage. Using random forests, the total AGB stock in Alberta forests was estimated to be 2.26 × 109 Mg (megagram), with an average AGB density of 56.30 ± 35.94 Mg ha-1. At the species level, three major tree species, lodgepole pine, trembling aspen and white spruce, stocked about 1.39 × 109 Mg biomass, accounting for nearly 62% of total estimated AGB. Spatial distribution of biomass varied with natural regions, land cover types, and species. Furthermore, the relative importance of predictor variables on determining biomass distribution varied with species. This study showed that the combination of ground-based inventory data, spaceborne lidar data, land cover classification, and climatic and environmental variables was an efficient way to estimate the quantity, distribution and variation of forest biomass carbon stocks across large regions.

  20. Optimal Altitude, Overlap, and Weather Conditions for Computer Vision UAV Estimates of Forest Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Dandois

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological remote sensing is being transformed by three-dimensional (3D, multispectral measurements of forest canopies by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and computer vision structure from motion (SFM algorithms. Yet applications of this technology have out-paced understanding of the relationship between collection method and data quality. Here, UAV-SFM remote sensing was used to produce 3D multispectral point clouds of Temperate Deciduous forests at different levels of UAV altitude, image overlap, weather, and image processing. Error in canopy height estimates was explained by the alignment of the canopy height model to the digital terrain model (R2 = 0.81 due to differences in lighting and image overlap. Accounting for this, no significant differences were observed in height error at different levels of lighting, altitude, and side overlap. Overall, accurate estimates of canopy height compared to field measurements (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 3.6 m and LIDAR (R2 = 0.99, RMSE = 3.0 m were obtained under optimal conditions of clear lighting and high image overlap (>80%. Variation in point cloud quality appeared related to the behavior of SFM ‘image features’. Future research should consider the role of image features as the fundamental unit of SFM remote sensing, akin to the pixel of optical imaging and the laser pulse of LIDAR.

  1. A tool to determine crown and plot canopy transparency for forest inventory and analysis phase 3 plots using digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2012-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects crown foliage transparency estimates for individual trees on Phase 3 (P3) inventory plots. The FIA crown foliage estimate is obtained from a pair of perpendicular side views of the tree. Researchers with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station have developed a computer program that...

  2. Global gross primary production estimation based on satellite-derived canopy conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra, Marta; Van Dijk, Albert; Guerschman, Juan Pablo; Leuning, Ray

    2014-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides temporally and spatially continuous information on biophysical land surface properties related to gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET), such as leaf area index, and the fraction of radiation absorbed by the green vegetation (APAR). If water and carbon fluxes are to be interpreted jointly (e.g., to analyse water use effiency), they should be estimated in conceptually coupled approach that recognised the physiological role of stomatal control. In previous research using 16 flux towers world-wide (Yebra et al., 2013) we demonstrated that dry canopy canopy conductance (Gc) can be estimated from optical remote sensing and provides better ET estimates than alternative, more empirical approaches. Here we present a GPP estimation method that is explicitly coupled to ET by using the same satellite-based estimates of Gc and does not require vegetation class mapping. As well as the control of water availability on GPP (expressed in Gc), the algorithm considers radiation and temperature limitations. In addition to Gc the light use effiency (LUE) and APAR are also derived from MODIS reflectance data. We tested two alternative temperature functions, two approaches to estimate LUE and two satellite APAR algorithms. Preliminary results show that the optimal combination is to use the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to estimate LUE and the Donohue et al (2008) algorithm to estimate APAR. The Raich et al (1991) and MODIS GPP product ramp functions perform similarly well, but on conceptual grounds the former may be preferred. The best algorithm configuration performs very well compare to existing approaches, explaining 61% of the variance in observed 8-day GPP, with an RMSE of 4.8 µmol m-2 s-1.

  3. Mapping tropical forest canopy diversity using high‐fidelity imaging spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féret, Jean-Baptiste; Asner, Gregory P

    There is a growing need for operational biodiversity mapping methods to quantify and to assess the impact of climate change, habitat alteration, and human activity on ecosystem composition and function. Here, we present an original method for the estimation of α- and β-diversity of tropical forests based on high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy. We acquired imagery over high-diversity Amazonian tropical forest landscapes in Peru with the Carnegie Airborne Observatory and developed an unsupervised method to estimate the Shannon index (H′) and variations in species composition using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (BC) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). An extensive field plot network was used for the validation of remotely sensed α- and β-diversity. Airborne maps of H′ were highly correlated with field α-diversity estimates (r = 0.86), and BC was estimated with demonstrable accuracy (r = 0.61–0.76). Our findings are the first direct and spatially explicit remotely sensed estimates of α- and β-diversity of humid tropical forests, paving the way for new applications using airborne and space-based imaging spectroscopy.

  4. Individual tree detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) derived canopy height model in an open canopy mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midhun Mohan; Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Prahlad Jat; Glenn Catts; Adrian Cardil; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Mahendra Dia

    2017-01-01

    Advances in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology and data processing capabilities have made it feasible to obtain high-resolution imagery and three dimensional (3D) data which can be used for forest monitoring and assessing tree attributes. This study evaluates the applicability of low consumer grade cameras attached to UAVs and structure-from-motion (SfM)...

  5. Canopy uptake dominates nighttime carbonyl sulfide fluxes in a boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Seibt, Ulli; Sun, Wu; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan; Kolari, Pasi; Aalto, Juho; Franchin, Alessandro; Vecchi, Roberta; Valli, Gianluigi; Chen, Huilin

    2017-09-01

    Nighttime vegetative uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS) can exist due to the incomplete closure of stomata and the light independence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which complicates the use of COS as a tracer for gross primary productivity (GPP). In this study we derived nighttime COS fluxes in a boreal forest (the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Finland; 61°51' N, 24°17' E; 181 m a.s.l.) from June to November 2015 using two different methods: eddy-covariance (EC) measurements (FCOS-EC) and the radon-tracer method (FCOS-Rn). The total nighttime COS fluxes averaged over the whole measurement period were -6.8 ± 2.2 and -7.9 ± 3.8 pmol m-2 s-1 for FCOS-Rn and FCOS-EC, respectively, which is 33-38 % of the average daytime fluxes and 21 % of the total daily COS uptake. The correlation of 222Rn (of which the source is the soil) with COS (average R2 = 0.58) was lower than with CO2 (0.70), suggesting that the main sink of COS is not located at the ground. These observations are supported by soil chamber measurements that show that soil contributes to only 34-40 % of the total nighttime COS uptake. We found a decrease in COS uptake with decreasing nighttime stomatal conductance and increasing vapor-pressure deficit and air temperature, driven by stomatal closure in response to a warm and dry period in August. We also discuss the effect that canopy layer mixing can have on the radon-tracer method and the sensitivity of (FCOS-EC) to atmospheric turbulence. Our results suggest that the nighttime uptake of COS is mainly driven by the tree foliage and is significant in a boreal forest, such that it needs to be taken into account when using COS as a tracer for GPP.

  6. Estimation of effective plant area index for South Korean forests using LiDAR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kafatos, Menas; Son, Yowhan; Cho, Hyun-Kook; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2010-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems can be used to estimate both vertical and horizontal forest structure. Woody components, the leaves of trees and the understory can be described with high precision, using geo-registered 3D-points. Based on this concept, the Effective Plant Area Indices (PAI(e)) for areas of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis), Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis) and Oak (Quercus spp.) were estimated by calculating the ratio of intercepted and incident LIDAR laser rays for the canopies of the three forest types. Initially, the canopy gap fraction (G ( LiDAR )) was generated by extracting the LiDAR data reflected from the canopy surface, or inner canopy area, using k-means statistics. The LiDAR-derived PAI(e) was then estimated by using G ( LIDAR ) with the Beer-Lambert law. A comparison of the LiDAR-derived and field-derived PAI(e) revealed the coefficients of determination for Korean Pine, Japanese Larch and Oak to be 0.82, 0.64 and 0.59, respectively. These differences between field-based and LIDAR-based PAI(e) for the different forest types were attributed to the amount of leaves and branches in the forest stands. The absence of leaves, in the case of both Larch and Oak, meant that the LiDAR pulses were only reflected from branches. The probability that the LiDAR pulses are reflected from bare branches is low as compared to the reflection from branches with a high leaf density. This is because the size of the branch is smaller than the resolution across and along the 1 meter LIDAR laser track. Therefore, a better predictive accuracy would be expected for the model if the study would be repeated in late spring when the shoots and leaves of the deciduous trees begin to appear.

  7. Comparison of three methods to derive canopy-scale flux measurements above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, William; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Mentel, Thomas; Tomlinson, Sam; Dragosits, Ulrike; Hewitt, Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Plants emit a wide range of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) into the atmosphere. These BVOCs are a major source of reactive carbon into the troposphere and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry by, for example, acting as an OH sink and contributing to the formation of secondary organic aerosol. While the emission rates of some of these compounds are relatively well understood, large uncertainties are still associated with the emission estimates of many compounds. Here the fluxes and mixing ratios of BVOCs recorded during June/July 2012 over the Bosco Fontana forest reserve in northern Italy are reported and discussed, together with a comparison of three methods of flux calculation. This work was carried out as a part of the EC FP7 project ECLAIRE (Effects of Climate Change on Air Pollution and Response Strategies for European Ecosystems). The Bosco Fontana reserve is a semi natural deciduous forest dominated by Carpinus betulus (hornbeam), Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) and Quercus rubra (northern red oak). Virtual disjunct eddy covariance measurements made using Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) were used to calculate fluxes and mixing ratios of BVOCs above the forest canopy at Bosco Fontana. BVOC mixing ratios were dominated by methanol with acetaldehyde, acetone, acetic acid, isoprene, the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes also recorded. A large flux of isoprene was observed as well as significant fluxes of monoterpenes, methanol, acetaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone / methacrolein. The fluxes recorded using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed good agreement. Comparison of the isoprene fluxes calculated using these instruments also agreed well with fluxes modelled using the MEGAN algorithms (Guenther et al. 2006). The detailed tree distribution maps for the forest at Bosco Fontana compiled by Dalponte et

  8. Satellite Image-based Estimates of Snow Water Equivalence in Restored Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, T.; Springer, A. E.; O'Donnell, F. C.; Donald, J.; McVay, J.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service plans to conduct forest restoration treatments through the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) on hundreds of thousands of acres of ponderosa pine forest in northern Arizona over the next 20 years with the goals of reducing wildfire hazard and improving forest health. The 4FRI's key objective is to thin and burn the forests to create within-stand openings that "promote snowpack accumulation and retention which benefit groundwater recharge and watershed processes at the fine (1 to 10 acres) scale". However, little is known about how these openings created by restoration treatments affect snow water equivalence (SWE) and soil moisture, which are key parts of the water balance that greatly influence water availability for healthy trees and for downstream water users in the Sonoran Desert. We have examined forest canopy cover by calculating a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a key indicator of green vegetation cover, using Landsat satellite data. We have then compared NDVI between treatments at our study sites in northern Arizona and have found statistically significant differences in tree canopy cover between treatments. The control units have significantly greater forest canopy cover than the treated units. The thinned units also have significantly greater tree canopy cover than the thin-and-burn units. Winter season Landsat images have also been analyzed to calculate Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), a key indicator of snow water equivalence and snow accumulation at the treated and untreated forests. The NDSI values from these dates are examined to determine if snow accumulation and snow water equivalence vary between treatments at our study sites. NDSI is significantly greater at the treated units than the control units. In particular, the thinned forest units have significantly greater snow cover than the control units. Our results indicate that forest restoration treatments result in increased snow pack

  9. A state-space modeling approach to estimating canopy conductance and associated uncertainties from sap flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Ward, Eric J; Oishi, A Christopher; Oren, Ram; Flikkema, Paul G; Clark, James S

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainties in ecophysiological responses to environment, such as the impact of atmospheric and soil moisture conditions on plant water regulation, limit our ability to estimate key inputs for ecosystem models. Advanced statistical frameworks provide coherent methodologies for relating observed data, such as stem sap flux density, to unobserved processes, such as canopy conductance and transpiration. To address this need, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian State-Space Canopy Conductance (StaCC) model linking canopy conductance and transpiration to tree sap flux density from a 4-year experiment in the North Carolina Piedmont, USA. Our model builds on existing ecophysiological knowledge, but explicitly incorporates uncertainty in canopy conductance, internal tree hydraulics and observation error to improve estimation of canopy conductance responses to atmospheric drought (i.e., vapor pressure deficit), soil drought (i.e., soil moisture) and above canopy light. Our statistical framework not only predicted sap flux observations well, but it also allowed us to simultaneously gap-fill missing data as we made inference on canopy processes, marking a substantial advance over traditional methods. The predicted and observed sap flux data were highly correlated (mean sensor-level Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.88). Variations in canopy conductance and transpiration associated with environmental variation across days to years were many times greater than the variation associated with model uncertainties. Because some variables, such as vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture, were correlated at the scale of days to weeks, canopy conductance responses to individual environmental variables were difficult to interpret in isolation. Still, our results highlight the importance of accounting for uncertainty in models of ecophysiological and ecosystem function where the process of interest, canopy conductance in this case, is not observed directly. The StaCC modeling

  10. How deep does disturbance go? The long-term effects of canopy disturbance on tropical forest soil biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez del Arroyo, O.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    We used the Canopy Trimming Experiment (CTE), an ongoing ecosystem manipulation study in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico to determine the decadal-scale effects of canopy disturbance and debris deposition on biogeochemistry throughout the soil profile of a wet tropical forest. These manipulations represent the most significant effects of hurricanes, which may increase in frequency or intensity with warming, strengthening their ecosystem-level effects on carbon (C) and nutrient cycling. Four replicated treatments were applied in 2005 using a complete randomized block design: canopy trimming + debris deposition, canopy trimming only, debris deposition only, and untreated control. In 2015, we sampled soils at 10 cm intervals to 1 m depth in each of 12 plots (3 per treatment). We measured gravimetric moisture content, pH, HCl and citrate-ascorbate (CA) extractable iron (Fe) species, organic (Po) and inorganic fractions of NaHCO3 and NaOH phosphorus (P), as well as total C and nitrogen (N). Soil moisture decreased markedly with depth up to ~60-70 cm, and then stabilized at ~33% down to 1 m. Across all treatments, pH increased significantly with depth, ranging from 4.6 in surface soils (0-10 cm) of trimmed plots to 5.2 in deep soils (80-90 cm) of control plots. Canopy trimming decreased pH significantly, possibly due to increased root activity in surface soils as vegetation recovered. Both HCl and CA extractable Fe showed strong depth dependance, decreasing linearly to 50 cm, and stabilizing at very low concentrations (<0.2 mg/g) down to 1 m. Inorganic P concentrations were low and did not vary significantly with depth. The majority of P was associated with organic matter, with significantly higher values in the upper soil profile (<50 cm). Debris deposition significantly increased Po, revealing the role of hurricanes in subsidizing the available soil P pool in these highly productive, low-P wet tropical forests. Debris deposition also increased soil C

  11. Classification of Tree Species in Overstorey Canopy of Subtropical Forest Using QuickBird Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinsu Lin

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a supervised classification scheme to identify 40 tree species (2 coniferous, 38 broadleaf belonging to 22 families and 36 genera in high spatial resolution QuickBird multispectral images (HMS. Overall kappa coefficient (OKC and species conditional kappa coefficients (SCKC were used to evaluate classification performance in training samples and estimate accuracy and uncertainty in test samples. Baseline classification performance using HMS images and vegetation index (VI images were evaluated with an OKC value of 0.58 and 0.48 respectively, but performance improved significantly (up to 0.99 when used in combination with an HMS spectral-spatial texture image (SpecTex. One of the 40 species had very high conditional kappa coefficient performance (SCKC ≥ 0.95 using 4-band HMS and 5-band VIs images, but, only five species had lower performance (0.68 ≤ SCKC ≤ 0.94 using the SpecTex images. When SpecTex images were combined with a Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI, there was a significant improvement in performance in the training samples. The same level of improvement could not be replicated in the test samples indicating that a high degree of uncertainty exists in species classification accuracy which may be due to individual tree crown density, leaf greenness (inter-canopy gaps, and noise in the background environment (intra-canopy gaps. These factors increase uncertainty in the spectral texture features and therefore represent potential problems when using pixel-based classification techniques for multi-species classification.

  12. Classification of Tree Species in Overstorey Canopy of Subtropical Forest Using QuickBird Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chinsu; Popescu, Sorin C.; Thomson, Gavin; Tsogt, Khongor; Chang, Chein-I

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a supervised classification scheme to identify 40 tree species (2 coniferous, 38 broadleaf) belonging to 22 families and 36 genera in high spatial resolution QuickBird multispectral images (HMS). Overall kappa coefficient (OKC) and species conditional kappa coefficients (SCKC) were used to evaluate classification performance in training samples and estimate accuracy and uncertainty in test samples. Baseline classification performance using HMS images and vegetation index (VI) images were evaluated with an OKC value of 0.58 and 0.48 respectively, but performance improved significantly (up to 0.99) when used in combination with an HMS spectral-spatial texture image (SpecTex). One of the 40 species had very high conditional kappa coefficient performance (SCKC ≥ 0.95) using 4-band HMS and 5-band VIs images, but, only five species had lower performance (0.68 ≤ SCKC ≤ 0.94) using the SpecTex images. When SpecTex images were combined with a Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI), there was a significant improvement in performance in the training samples. The same level of improvement could not be replicated in the test samples indicating that a high degree of uncertainty exists in species classification accuracy which may be due to individual tree crown density, leaf greenness (inter-canopy gaps), and noise in the background environment (intra-canopy gaps). These factors increase uncertainty in the spectral texture features and therefore represent potential problems when using pixel-based classification techniques for multi-species classification. PMID:25978466

  13. An individual-based forest model links canopy dynamics and shade tolerances along a soil moisture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Jean; Strigul, Nikolay

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how forested ecosystems respond to climatic changes is a challenging problem as forest self-organization occurs simultaneously across multiple scales. Here, we explore the hypothesis that soil water availability shapes above-ground competition and gap dynamics, and ultimately alters the dominance of shade tolerant and intolerant species along the moisture gradient. We adapt a spatially explicit individual-based model with simultaneous crown and root competitions. Simulations show that the transition from xeric to mesic soils is accompanied by an increase in shade-tolerant species similar to the patterns documented in the North American forests. This transition is accompanied by a change from water to sunlight competitions, and happens at three successive stages: (i) mostly water-limited parkland, (ii) simultaneously water- and sunlight-limited closed canopy forests featuring a very sparse understory, and (iii) mostly sunlight-limited forests with a populated understory. This pattern is caused by contrasting successional dynamics that favour either shade-tolerant or shade-intolerant species, depending on soil moisture and understory density. This work demonstrates that forest patterns along environmental gradients can emerge from spatial competition without physiological trade-offs between shade and growth tolerance. Mechanistic understanding of population processes involved in the forest-parkland-desert transition will improve our ability to explain species distributions and predict forest responses to climatic changes.

  14. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L., Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech, higher foliage longevity (fir or both (boreal pine forest. In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re

  15. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech), higher foliage longevity (fir) or both (boreal pine forest). In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re-translocation efficiency with the time needed for canopy renewal was deduced, showing that leaves which live longer re

  16. A Lidar Point Cloud Based Procedure for Vertical Canopy Structure Analysis And 3D Single Tree Modelling in Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Weinacker, Holger; Koch, Barbara

    2008-06-12

    A procedure for both vertical canopy structure analysis and 3D single tree modelling based on Lidar point cloud is presented in this paper. The whole area of research is segmented into small study cells by a raster net. For each cell, a normalized point cloud whose point heights represent the absolute heights of the ground objects is generated from the original Lidar raw point cloud. The main tree canopy layers and the height ranges of the layers are detected according to a statistical analysis of the height distribution probability of the normalized raw points. For the 3D modelling of individual trees, individual trees are detected and delineated not only from the top canopy layer but also from the sub canopy layer. The normalized points are resampled into a local voxel space. A series of horizontal 2D projection images at the different height levels are then generated respect to the voxel space. Tree crown regions are detected from the projection images. Individual trees are then extracted by means of a pre-order forest traversal process through all the tree crown regions at the different height levels. Finally, 3D tree crown models of the extracted individual trees are reconstructed. With further analyses on the 3D models of individual tree crowns, important parameters such as crown height range, crown volume and crown contours at the different height levels can be derived.

  17. Accuracy Assessment of Lidar-Derived Digital Terrain Model (dtm) with Different Slope and Canopy Cover in Tropical Forest Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. R. M.; Ismail, Z.; Rahman, M. Z. A.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has been widely used recent years especially in generating high accuracy of Digital Terrain Model (DTM). High density and good quality of airborne LiDAR data promises a high quality of DTM. This study focussing on the analysing the error associated with the density of vegetation cover (canopy cover) and terrain slope in a LiDAR derived-DTM value in a tropical forest environment in Bentong, State of Pahang, Malaysia. Airborne LiDAR data were collected can be consider as low density captured by Reigl system mounted on an aircraft. The ground filtering procedure use adaptive triangulation irregular network (ATIN) algorithm technique in producing ground points. Next, the ground control points (GCPs) used in generating the reference DTM and these DTM was used for slope classification and the point clouds belong to non-ground are then used in determining the relative percentage of canopy cover. The results show that terrain slope has high correlation for both study area (0.993 and 0.870) with the RMSE of the LiDAR-derived DTM. This is similar to canopy cover where high value of correlation (0.989 and 0.924) obtained. This indicates that the accuracy of airborne LiDAR-derived DTM is significantly affected by terrain slope and canopy caver of study area.

  18. ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR-DERIVED DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL (DTM WITH DIFFERENT SLOPE AND CANOPY COVER IN TROPICAL FOREST REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. M. Salleh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology has been widely used recent years especially in generating high accuracy of Digital Terrain Model (DTM. High density and good quality of airborne LiDAR data promises a high quality of DTM. This study focussing on the analysing the error associated with the density of vegetation cover (canopy cover and terrain slope in a LiDAR derived-DTM value in a tropical forest environment in Bentong, State of Pahang, Malaysia. Airborne LiDAR data were collected can be consider as low density captured by Reigl system mounted on an aircraft. The ground filtering procedure use adaptive triangulation irregular network (ATIN algorithm technique in producing ground points. Next, the ground control points (GCPs used in generating the reference DTM and these DTM was used for slope classification and the point clouds belong to non-ground are then used in determining the relative percentage of canopy cover. The results show that terrain slope has high correlation for both study area (0.993 and 0.870 with the RMSE of the LiDAR-derived DTM. This is similar to canopy cover where high value of correlation (0.989 and 0.924 obtained. This indicates that the accuracy of airborne LiDAR-derived DTM is significantly affected by terrain slope and canopy caver of study area.

  19. Evaluating Different Methods for Grass Nutrient Estimation from Canopy Hyperspectral Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of plant nutrients is important to understand the process of plant growth in natural ecosystems. This study attempted to evaluate the performances of univariate linear regression with various vegetation indices (VIs and multivariate regression methods in estimating grass nutrients (i.e., nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P with canopy hyperspectral reflectance. Synthetically considering predictive accuracy, simplicity, robustness and interpretation, the successive projections algorithm coupled with multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR method was considered optimal for grass nutrient estimation at the canopy level, when compared with the performances of 12 statistical modeling methods, i.e., univariate linear regression with nine published VIs and three classical multivariate regression methods (stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR, partial least squares regression (PLSR and support vector regression (SVR. The simple ratio index ( ,  is derivative reflectance model had comparable performance to SPA-MLR model for P estimation. SPA-MLR provided comparable prediction accuracies with only three first derivative spectral bands for N (715, 731 and 2283 nm and P (714, 729 and 1319 nm estimations, compared with PLSR and SVR models, which used the full spectrum. Moreover, SPA-MLR provided robust prediction with the lowest bias values for N (−0.007% and P (0.001% estimations, and the fitting line between predicted and measured values was closer to the 1:1 line than the other models. Finally, most of the bands selected by SPA-MLR indirectly relate to foliar chlorophyll content, which suggests good physical interpretation.

  20. Vegetation chlorophyll estimates in the Amazon from multi-angle MODIS observations and canopy reflectance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Thomas; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; de Moura, Yhasmin M.; do Amaral, Cibele H.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wu, Jin; Albert, Loren P.; Ferreira, Marciel José; Anderson, Liana O.; dos Santos, Victor A. H. F.; Prohaska, Neill; Tribuzy, Edgard; Barbosa Ceron, João Vitor; Saleska, Scott R.; Wang, Yujie; de Carvalho Gonçalves, José Francisco; de Oliveira Junior, Raimundo Cosme; Cardoso Rodrigues, João Victor Figueiredo; Garcia, Maquelle Neves

    2017-06-01

    As a preparatory study for future hyperspectral missions that can measure canopy chemistry, we introduce a novel approach to investigate whether multi-angle Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can be used to generate a preliminary database with long-term estimates of chlorophyll. MODIS monthly chlorophyll estimates between 2000 and 2015, derived from a fully coupled canopy reflectance model (ProSAIL), were inspected for consistency with eddy covariance fluxes, tower-based hyperspectral images and chlorophyll measurements. MODIS chlorophyll estimates from the inverse model showed strong seasonal variations across two flux-tower sites in central and eastern Amazon. Marked increases in chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the early dry season. Remotely sensed chlorophyll concentrations were correlated to field measurements (r2 = 0.73 and r2 = 0.98) but the data deviated from the 1:1 line with root mean square errors (RMSE) ranging from 0.355 μg cm-2 (Tapajós tower) to 0.470 μg cm-2 (Manaus tower). The chlorophyll estimates were consistent with flux tower measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We also applied ProSAIL to mono-angle hyperspectral observations from a camera installed on a tower to scale modeled chlorophyll pigments to MODIS observations (r2 = 0.73). Chlorophyll pigment concentrations (ChlA+B) were correlated to changes in the amount of young and mature leaf area per month (0.59 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.64). Increases in MODIS observed ChlA+B were preceded by increased PAR during the dry season (0.61 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.62) and followed by changes in net carbon uptake. We conclude that, at these two sites, changes in LAI, coupled with changes in leaf chlorophyll, are comparable with seasonality of plant productivity. Our results allowed the preliminary development of a 15-year time series of chlorophyll estimates over the Amazon to support canopy chemistry studies using future

  1. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  2. Statistical properties of alternative national forest inventory area estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis Roesch; John Coulston; Andrew D. Hill

    2012-01-01

    The statistical properties of potential estimators of forest area for the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program are presented and discussed. The current FIA area estimator is compared and contrasted with a weighted mean estimator and an estimator based on the Polya posterior, in the presence of nonresponse. Estimator optimality is...

  3. Performance Considerations for the SIMPL Single Photon, Polarimetric, Two-Color Laser Altimeter as Applied to Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Harding, David J.; Valett, Susan R.; Vasilyev, Aleksey A.; Yu, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is a multi-beam, micropulse airborne laser altimeter that acquires active and passive polarimetric optical remote sensing measurements at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. SIMPL was developed to demonstrate advanced measurement approaches of potential benefit for improved, more efficient spaceflight laser altimeter missions. SIMPL data have been acquired for wide diversity of forest types in the summers of 2010 and 2011 in order to assess the potential of its novel capabilities for characterization of vegetation structure and composition. On each of its four beams SIMPL provides highly-resolved measurements of forest canopy structure by detecting single-photons with 15 cm ranging precision using a narrow-beam system operating at a laser repetition rate of 11 kHz. Associated with that ranging data SIMPL provides eight amplitude parameters per beam unlike the single amplitude provided by typical laser altimeters. Those eight parameters are received energy that is parallel and perpendicular to that of the plane-polarized transmit pulse at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near IR), for both the active laser backscatter retro-reflectance and the passive solar bi-directional reflectance. This poster presentation will cover the instrument architecture and highlight the performance of the SIMPL instrument with examples taken from measurements for several sites with distinct canopy structures and compositions. Specific performance areas such as probability of detection, after pulsing, and dead time, will be highlighted and addressed, along with examples of their impact on the measurements and how they limit the ability to accurately model and recover the canopy properties. To assess the sensitivity of SIMPL's measurements to canopy properties an instrument model has been implemented in the FLIGHT radiative transfer code, based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport. SIMPL data collected in 2010 over

  4. Modelling evapotranspiration at three boreal forest stands using the CLASS: tests of parameterizations for canopy conductance and soil evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Paul A.; McCaughey, J. Harry; Lafleur, Peter M.; Verseghy, Diana L.

    2003-03-01

    The performance of the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) was evaluated in off-line runs, using data collected at three boreal forest stands located near Thompson, Manitoba: young jack pine, mature jack pine, and mature black spruce. The data were collected in the late spring through autumn of 1994 and 1996, as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS).The diurnal range in modelled soil heat flux was exaggerated at all sites. Soil evaporation was modelled poorly at the jack pine stands, with overestimation common and a step change to low evaporation as the soil dried. Replacing the soil evaporation algorithm, which was based on the estimation of a surface relative humidity value, with one based on soil moisture in the top soil layer reduced the overestimation and eliminated the step changes. Modelled water movement between soil layers was too slow at the jack pine stands. Modifying the soil hydraulic parameters to match an observed characteristic curve at the young jack pine stand produced a soil water suction that agreed more closely with measurements and improved drainage between soil layers.The latent heat flux was overestimated and the sensible heat flux underestimated at all three stands. New Jarvis-Stewart-type canopy conductance algorithms were developed from stomatal conductance measurements. At the jack pine stands, stomatal conductance scaled by leaf area index reproduced canopy conductance, but a reduction in the scaled stomatal conductance by one half was necessary at the black spruce stand, indicating a nonlinearity in the scaling of stomatal conductance for this ecosystem. The root-mean-squared error for daily average latent heat flux for the control run of the CLASS and for the best test run are 49 W m-2 and 14 W m-2 respectively at the young jack pine stand, 50 W m-2 and 15 W m-2 respectively at the old jack pine stand, and 48 W m-2 and 13 W m-2 respectively at the old black spruce stand.

  5. Fire frequency and tree canopy structure influence plant species diversity in a forest-grassland ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Peterson; Peter B. Reich

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances and environmental heterogeneity are two factors thought to influence plant species diversity, but their effects are still poorly understood in many ecosystems. We surveyed understory vegetation and measured tree canopy cover on permanent plots spanning an experimental fire frequency gradient to test fire frequency and tree canopy effects on plant species...

  6. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest productivity – Part 1: Model calibration, evaluation and upscaling functions for canopy photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Mercado

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to parameterize and validate ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. In this study, a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model is calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites using eddy correlation measurements of carbon and energy fluxes.

    Results from the model-data evaluation suggest that with adequate parameterisation, photosynthesis models taking into account the separation of diffuse and direct irradiance and the dynamics of sunlit and shaded leaves can accurately represent photosynthesis in these forests. Also, stomatal conductance formulations that only take into account atmospheric demand fail to correctly simulate moisture and CO2 fluxes in forests with a pronounced dry season, particularly during afternoon conditions. Nevertheless, it is also the case that large uncertainties are associated not only with the eddy correlation data, but also with the estimates of ecosystem respiration required for model validation. To accurately simulate Gross Primary Productivity (GPP and energy partitioning the most critical parameters and model processes are the quantum yield of photosynthetic uptake, the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco, and simulation of stomatal conductance.

    Using this model-data synergy, we developed scaling functions to provide estimates of canopy photosynthetic parameters for a range of diverse forests across the Amazon region, utilising the best fitted parameter for maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco, and foliar nutrients (N and P for all sites.

  7. Options for monitoring and estimating historical carbon emissions from forest degradation in the context of REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Measuring forest degradation and related forest carbon stock changes is more challenging than measuring deforestation since degradation implies changes in the structure of the forest and does not entail a change in land use, making it less easily detectable through remote sensing. Although we anticipate the use of the IPCC guidance under the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), there is no one single method for monitoring forest degradation for the case of REDD+ policy. In this review paper we highlight that the choice depends upon a number of factors including the type of degradation, available historical data, capacities and resources, and the potentials and limitations of various measurement and monitoring approaches. Current degradation rates can be measured through field data (i.e. multi-date national forest inventories and permanent sample plot data, commercial forestry data sets, proxy data from domestic markets) and/or remote sensing data (i.e. direct mapping of canopy and forest structural changes or indirect mapping through modelling approaches), with the combination of techniques providing the best options. Developing countries frequently lack consistent historical field data for assessing past forest degradation, and so must rely more on remote sensing approaches mixed with current field assessments of carbon stock changes. Historical degradation estimates will have larger uncertainties as it will be difficult to determine their accuracy. However improving monitoring capacities for systematic forest degradation estimates today will help reduce uncertainties even for historical estimates. PMID:22115360

  8. Estimation of Biomass in Headwater Forest Using Radar and Optical Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying aboveground biomass and carbon sequestration in tropical forests remains a challenge. We used a fusion of L-band SAR and an optical image to estimate it in Afram Headwater Forest, Ghana. An ASTER image was fused with ALOS PALSAR radar data using principal component analysis (PCA) and intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transformation to obtain the advantages of both. Tree diameter was measured in 67 plots in natural forest, plantation forest, and agro-forest, and then converted to aboveground biomass using allometric equations. The correlation of biomass measured in each plot and radar backscatter extracted from the fused data were assessed by regression, and applied to estimate biomass for the whole study area. In general, the correlation in all land cover types between biomass and pixel value extracted from the fused image was weak and, in some cases, not significant. The only exception was in plantation forest with homogenous canopy structure, allowing estimation of biomass in plantation forest using fusion of optical and radar data. This promised a potential advantage to improve carbon accounting of plantation forest in a broader coverage, higher frequency and better scale. Key words: carbon, fusion, radar, optical

  9. Modeling uncertainties in estimation of canopy LAI from hyperspectral remote sensing data - A Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvia, Petri; Rautiainen, Miina; Seppänen, Aku

    2017-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing data carry information on the leaf area index (LAI) of forests, and thus in principle, LAI can be estimated based on the data by inverting a forest reflectance model. However, LAI is usually not the only unknown in a reflectance model; especially, the leaf spectral albedo and understory reflectance are also not known. If the uncertainties of these parameters are not accounted for, the inversion of a forest reflectance model can lead to biased estimates for LAI. In this paper, we study the effects of reflectance model uncertainties on LAI estimates, and further, investigate whether the LAI estimates could recover from these uncertainties with the aid of Bayesian inference. In the proposed approach, the unknown leaf albedo and understory reflectance are estimated simultaneously with LAI from hyperspectral remote sensing data. The feasibility of the approach is tested with numerical simulation studies. The results show that in the presence of unknown parameters, the Bayesian LAI estimates which account for the model uncertainties outperform the conventional estimates that are based on biased model parameters. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the Bayesian inference can also provide feasible measures for the uncertainty of the estimated LAI.

  10. Estimation of in-canopy ammonia sources and sinks in a fertilized Zea mays field

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical model was developed that describes the in-canopy vertical distribution of NH3 source and sinks and vertical fluxes in a fertilized agricultural setting using measured in-canopy concentration and wind speed profiles. This model was applied to quantify in-canopy air-s...

  11. Regeneration of Rhizophora mangle in a Caribbean mangrove forest: interacting effects of canopy disturbance and a stem-boring beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Wayne P; Quek, Swee P; Mitchell, Betsy J

    2003-11-01

    Current theory predicts that in low-density, seed-limited plant populations, seed predation will be more important than competition in determining the number of individuals that reach maturity. However, when plant density is high, competition for microsites suitable for establishment and growth is expected to have a relatively greater effect. This dichotomous perspective does not account for situations in which the risk of seed predation differs inside versus outside recruitment microsites. We report the results of a field experiment and sampling studies that demonstrate such an interaction between microsite quality and the risk of propagule predation in mangrove forests on the Caribbean coast of Panama, where it appears to play a key role in shaping the demography and dynamics of the mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Rhizophora's water-borne propagules establish wherever they strand, but long-term sampling revealed that only those that do so in or near lightning-created canopy gaps survive and grow to maturity. These microsites afford better growth conditions than the surrounding understory and, as importantly, provide a refuge from predation by the scolytid beetle, Coccotrypes rhizophorae. This refuge effect was confirmed with a field experiment in which Rhizophora seedlings were planted at different positions relative to gap edges, from 5 m inside to 20 m outside the gap. Mortality due to beetle attack increased linearly from an average of 10% inside a gap to 72% at 20 m into the forest. The interaction between canopy disturbance and propagule predation may be having a large impact on the composition of our study forests. Being shade-tolerant, Rhizophora seedlings that escape or survive beetle attack can persist in the understory for years. However, the high rate of beetle-induced mortality effectively eliminates the contribution of advance regeneration by Rhizophora saplings to gap succession. This may explain why the shade-intolerant mangrove, Laguncularia racemosa

  12. Estimating carbon stock in secondary forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breugel, Michiel van; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan

    2011-01-01

    of trees and species for destructive biomass measurements. We assess uncertainties associated with these decisions using data from 94 secondary forest plots in central Panama and 244 harvested trees belonging to 26 locally abundant species. AGB estimates from species-specific models were used to assess...... is the use of allometric regression models to convert forest inventory data to estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB). The use of allometric models implies decisions on the selection of extant models or the development of a local model, the predictor variables included in the selected model, and the number...... relative errors of estimates from multispecies models. To reduce uncertainty in the estimation of plot AGB, including wood specific gravity (WSG) in the model was more important than the number of trees used for model fitting. However, decreasing the number of trees increased uncertainty of landscape...

  13. Empirical and Physical Estimation of Canopy Water Content from CHRIS/PROBA Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Camacho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Efficient monitoring of Canopy Water Content (CWC is a central feature in vegetation studies. The potential of hyperspectral high spatial resolution CHRIS/PROBA satellite data for the retrieval of CWC was here investigated using empirical and physical based approaches. Special attention was paid to the spectral band selection, inversion technique and training process. Performances were evaluated with ground measurements from the SEN3EXP field campaign over a range of crops. Results showed that the optimal band selection includes four spectral bands: one centered about 970 nm absorption feature which is sensible to Cw, and three bands in green, red and near infrared to estimate LAI and compensate from leaf- and canopy-level effects. A simple neural network with a single hidden layer of five tangent sigmoid transfer functions trained over PROSAIL radiative transfer simulations showed benefits in the retrieval performances compared with a look up table inversion approach (root mean square error of 0.16 kg/m2 vs. 0.22 kg/m2. The neural network inversion approach showed a good agreement and performances similar to an empirical up-scaling approach based on a multivariate iteratively re-weighted least squares algorithm, demonstrating the applicability of radiative transfer model inversion methods to CHRIS/PROBA for high spatial resolution monitoring of CWC.

  14. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Characteristics and Land Cover Change, Tanzania, 1990-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides canopy height, land cover change, and stand age estimates for mangrove forests in the Rufiji River Delta in Tanzania. The estimates were...

  15. Disturbance severity and canopy position control the radial growth response of maple trees (Acer spp.) in forests of northwest Ohio impacted by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.C. Costilow; Kathleen Knight; Charles Flower

    2017-01-01

    Key message. Radial growth of silver and red maples was investigated across three forests in northwest Ohio following the outbreak of the invasive emerald ash borer. The growth response of maples was driven by an advancement in canopy class and disturbance severity. Context. Forest disturbances resulting in species-specific diffuse mortality cause shifts in aboveground...

  16. Deciduous birch canopy as unexpected contributor to stand level atmospheric reactivity in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Jaana; Taipale, Ditte; Aalto, Juho

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forests, deciduous trees such as birches may in future climate become more abundant due to their large biomass production capacity, relatively good resource use ability and large acclimation potential to elevated CO2 levels and warmer climate. Increase in birch abundance may lead to unpredicted consequences in atmospheric composition. Currently it is acknowledged that conifers such as Scots pine and Norway spruce are important sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially monoterpenes, throughout the year, although the strong temperature relationships implies that emissions are highest in summertime. However, the dynamics of the deciduous birch foliage VOC emissions and their relationship with environmental drivers during the development, maturation and senescence of foliage has not been well analyzed. Long-term measurements of birch, which are unfortunately very sparse, can provide very useful information for the development of biosphere-atmosphere models that simulate boreal and subarctic forested areas where birch is often a sub-canopy species, occurs as a mixture among conifers or forms even pure stands in the higher latitudes. We measured the branch level VOC emissions from a mature Silver birch with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer during 2014 and 2015 at the SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), southern Finland. Our results showed that the Silver birch foliage is a huge source for both short-chained volatiles such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone, as well as for monoterpenes. The mean emission rates from birch leaves were 5 to 10 times higher than the corresponding emissions from Scots pine shoots. We compared several semi-empirical model approaches for determining the birch foliage monoterpene standardized emission potentials, and utilized the continuous emission measurements from the two growing seasons for development of a novel algorithm which accounts for the leaf development and

  17. Tree Species Establishment in Urban Forest in Relation to Vegetation Composition, Tree Canopy Gap Area and Soil Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Jankovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of density and growth of pine, birch and oak seedlings and saplings in canopy gaps in the urban boreal forest in Riga, Latvia, indicates that natural regeneration can increase diversity in small gaps caused by tree mortality, and can ensure conversion from even-aged pine forest. Abundant regeneration in small gaps showed that light (gap area was only one of the factors affecting tree regeneration in the gaps. The depth of the O layer and pH were suggested to be important factors for the establishment and growth of pine and birch. For oak, the main factors for establishment and growth were favorable moisture, higher pH and N concentration. Knowledge of ecological factors affecting the establishment of seedlings and growth of saplings of the most common trees species in the urban boreal forest is needed to predict successional trajectories and to aid management.

  18. Life in the Treetops: Drought Tolerance and Water Balance of Canopy Epiphytes in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, S. G.; Nadkarni, N.; Darby, A.; Dix, M.; Glunk, A.; Davidson, K.; Dawson, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) inhabit regions rich in biodiversity that play an important role in the local and regional water cycle. Canopy plants such as epiphytes and hemiepiphytes are an important component of the biodiversity in the TMCF and therefore play a significant role in the carbon, nutrient and water cycles. With only partial or no access to resources on the ground, canopy plants may be vulnerable to changes in climate that increase canopy temperatures and decrease atmospheric humidity or precipitation inputs. Despite their importance in the TMCF, there is little information regarding drought tolerance and water balance in this community. In this study we quantified variation in functional traits and water relations in 12 species of epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in a Costa Rican TMCF. We also generated pressure-volume curves and xylem vulnerability curves that we used as indicators of drought tolerance. Lastly, we determined the capacity for foliar water uptake in the laboratory and measured whole-plant transpiration in the field. We found that all species had a high turgor loss point (ψTLP), high vulnerability to cavitation (P50), and low bulk elastic modulus (ɛmax, i.e. high cell wall elasticity). These results indicate that capacitance may be high in canopy plants and that stored water may help to maintain high leaf water potentials during dry periods. We also found that all species had the capacity for foliar uptake and that this process contributed substantially to their water status and water balance. On average, foliar uptake contributed to the reabsorption of 70% of the water transpired over a 34-day period at the beginning of the dry season. Our results indicate that canopy plants can mitigate water loss substantially, but they may be vulnerable to changes in the overall precipitation patterns or increases in cloud base heights.

  19. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition.

  20. Forest Canopy Heights in the Pacific Northwest Based on InSAR Phase Discontinuities across Short Spatial Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Prush

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid land use changes are substantially altering the global carbon budget, yet quantifying the impact of these changes, or assessing efforts to mitigate them, remains challenging. Methods for assessing forest carbon range from precise ground surveys to remote-sensing approaches that provide proxies for canopy height and structure. We introduce a method for extracting a proxy for canopy heights from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR data. Our method focuses on short-spatial scale differences between forested and cleared regions, reducing the impact of errors from variations in atmospheric water vapor or satellite orbital positions. We generate time-varying, Landsat-based maps of land use and perform our analysis on the original wrapped (modulo-2π data to avoid errors introduce by phase unwrapping and to allow assessment of the confidence of our results (within 3–4 m in many cases. We apply our approach to the Pacific Northwest, which contains some of the world’s tallest trees and has experienced extensive clearcutting. We use SAR imagery acquired at L-band by the PALSAR instrument on the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS. As SAR data archives expand, our approach can complement other remote-sensing methods and allow time-variable assessment of forest carbon budgets worldwide.

  1. Intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in wheat canopies estimated by spectral reflectance. [Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Asrar, G.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was evaluated relative to greenness and normalized difference (MSS 7-5/7+5) for five planting dates of wheat for 1978-79 and 1979-80 in Phoenix. Intercepted PAR was calculated from a model driven by leaf area index and stage of growth. Linear relationships were found between greenness and normalized difference with a separate model representing growth and senescence of the crop. Normalized difference was a significantly better model and would be easier to apply than the empirically derived greenness parameter. For the leaf area growth portion of the season the model between PAR interception and normalized difference was the same over years, however, for the leaf senescence the models showed more variability due to the lack of data on measured interception in sparse canopies. Normalized difference could be used to estimate PAR interception directly for crop growth models.

  2. Relative lack of regeneration of shade-intolerant canopy species in some South African forests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species such as Celtis Africana, are experiencing relative recruitment bottlenecks, because there are usually fewer recruits [i.e. individuals <20 cm diameter at breast height, (dbh)] than canopy individuals. The species with low recruitment...

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Adjacent Grid Point Wind Speed Profiles within and Above a Forest Canopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tunick, Arnold

    1999-01-01

    Adjacent grid point profile data from the canopy coupled to the surface layer (C-CSL) model are examined to illustrate the model's capability to represent effects of the surface boundary on wind flow...

  4. Leaf Spectra and Weight of Species in Canopy, Subcanopy, and Understory Layers in a Venezuelan Andean Cloud Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel F. Acevedo; Michele Ataroff

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the leaf spectra of tree species of an Andean cloud forest in Venezuela, grouped according to position in canopy, subcanopy and understory. We measured leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in the 400–750 nm range using a high-resolution spectrometer. Both signals were subtracted from unity to calculate the absorbance signal. Nine spectral variables were calculated for each signal, three based on wide-bands and six based on features. We measured leaf mass per unit area of...

  5. Canopy nitrogen, carbon assimilation, and albedo in temperate and boreal forests: Functional relations and potential climate feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollinger, S. V.; Richardson, A. D.; Martin, M. E.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Frolking, S. E.; Reich, P. B.; Plourde, L. C.; Katul, G. G.; Munger, J. W.; Oren, R.; Smith, M.-L.; Paw U, K. T.; Bolstad, P. V.; Cook, B. D.; Day, M. C.; Martin, T. A.; Monson, R. K.; Schmid, H. P.

    2008-01-01

    The availability of nitrogen represents a key constraint on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, and it is largely in this capacity that the role of N in the Earth's climate system has been considered. Despite this, few studies have included continuous variation in plant N status as a driver of broad-scale carbon cycle analyses. This is partly because of uncertainties in how leaf-level physiological relationships scale to whole ecosystems and because methods for regional to continental detection of plant N concentrations have yet to be developed. Here, we show that ecosystem CO2 uptake capacity in temperate and boreal forests scales directly with whole-canopy N concentrations, mirroring a leaf-level trend that has been observed for woody plants worldwide. We further show that both CO2 uptake capacity and canopy N concentration are strongly and positively correlated with shortwave surface albedo. These results suggest that N plays an additional, and overlooked, role in the climate system via its influence on vegetation reflectivity and shortwave surface energy exchange. We also demonstrate that much of the spatial variation in canopy N can be detected by using broad-band satellite sensors, offering a means through which these findings can be applied toward improved application of coupled carbon cycle–climate models. PMID:19052233

  6. Methods in Forest Canopy Research, Edited by Margaret D. Lowman, Timothy D. Schowalter, Jerry F. Franklin, University of California Press, 2012; 221 Pages. Price: £41.95, ISBN 978-0520-27371-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poised between soil and sky, forest canopies represent a critical point of exchange between the atmosphere and the earth, yet until recently, they remained a largely unexplored frontier. For a long time, problems with access and the lack of tools and methods suitable for monitoring these complex bioscopes made canopy analysis extremely difficult. Fortunately, canopy research has advanced dramatically in recent decades. Methods in Forest Canopy Research is a comprehensive overview of these developments for explorers of this astonishing environment. The authors describe methods for reaching the canopy and the best ways to measure how the canopy, atmosphere, and forest floor interact. They address how to replicate experiments in challenging environments and lay the groundwork for creating standardized measurements in the canopy — essential tools for understanding our changing world.

  7. Estimation of canopy nitrogen concentration across C3 and C4 grasslands using WorldView-2 multispectral data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adjorlolo, C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available production of plant functional types, litter decomposition, and rates of photosynthesis [1, 2]. The net primary production of quality biomass is one of the outcomes of complex interaction between vegetation and environment, which is one of the key factors...-band combination, have been used to improve the ability to predict the concentration per unit area of biochemicals at leaf or canopy scales [21-23]. The NDVI Estimation of canopy nitrogen concentration across C3 and C4 grasslands using WorldView-2 multispectral...

  8. Winners and losers in the competition for space in tropical forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, James R; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-05-01

    Trees compete for space in the canopy, but where and how individuals or their component parts win or lose is poorly understood. We developed a stochastic model of three-dimensional dynamics in canopies using a hierarchical Bayesian framework, and analysed 267,533 positive height changes from 1.25 m pixels using data from airborne LiDAR within 43 ha on the windward flank of Mauna Kea. Model selection indicates a strong resident's advantage, with 97.9% of positions in the canopy retained by their occupants over 2 years. The remaining 2.1% were lost to a neighbouring contender. Absolute height was a poor predictor of success, but short stature greatly raised the risk of being overtopped. Growth in the canopy was exponentially distributed with a scaling parameter of 0.518. These findings show how size and spatial proximity influence the outcome of competition for space, and provide a general framework for the analysis of canopy dynamics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Application of 3D triangulations of airborne laser scanning data to estimate boreal forest leaf area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Korhonen, Lauri; Korpela, Ilkka; Vauhkonen, Jari

    2017-07-01

    We propose 3D triangulations of airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds as a new approach to derive 3D canopy structures and to estimate forest canopy effective LAI (LAIe). Computational geometry and topological connectivity were employed to filter the triangulations to yield a quasi-optimal relationship with the field measured LAIe. The optimal filtering parameters were predicted based on ALS height metrics, emulating the production of maps of LAIe and canopy volume for large areas. The LAIe from triangulations was validated with field measured LAIe and compared with a reference LAIe calculated from ALS data using logarithmic model based on Beer's law. Canopy transmittance was estimated using All Echo Cover Index (ACI), and the mean projection of unit foliage area (β) was obtained using no-intercept regression with field measured LAIe. We investigated the influence species and season on the triangulated LAIe and demonstrated the relationship between triangulated LAIe and canopy volume. Our data is from 115 forest plots located at the southern boreal forest area in Finland and for each plot three different ALS datasets were available to apply the triangulations. The triangulation approach was found applicable for both leaf-on and leaf-off datasets after initial calibration. Results showed the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs) between LAIe from triangulations and field measured values agreed the most using the highest pulse density data (RMSE = 0.63, the coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.53). Yet, the LAIe calculated using ACI-index agreed better with the field measured LAIe (RMSE = 0.53 and R2 = 0.70). The best models to predict the optimal alpha value contained the ACI-index, which indicates that within-crown transmittance is accounted by the triangulation approach. The cover indices may be recommended for retrieving LAIe only, but for applications which require more sophisticated information on canopy shape and volume, such as radiative transfer models, the

  10. Regional dynamics of forest canopy change and underlying causal processes in the contiguous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Schleeweis; Samuel N. Goward; Chengquan Huang; Jeffrey G. Masek; Gretchen Moisen; Robert E. Kennedy; Nancy E. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The history of forest change processes is written into forest age and distribution and affects earth systems at many scales. No one data set has been able to capture the full forest disturbance and land use record through time, so in this study, we combined multiple lines of evidence to examine trends, for six US regions, in forest area affected by harvest, fire, wind...

  11. RECONSTRUCTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND VISUALIZATION OF FOREST CANOPY BASED ON 3D TRIANGULATIONS OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING POINT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vauhkonen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D forest canopy is described and quantified using airborne laser scanning (ALS data with densities of 0.6–0.8 points m-2 and field measurements aggregated at resolutions of 400–900 m2. The reconstruction was based on computational geometry, topological connectivity, and numerical optimization. More precisely, triangulations and their filtrations, i.e. ordered sets of simplices belonging to the triangulations, based on the point data were analyzed. Triangulating the ALS point data corresponds to subdividing the underlying space of the points into weighted simplicial complexes with weights quantifying the (empty space delimited by the points. Reconstructing the canopy volume populated by biomass will thus likely require filtering to exclude that volume from canopy voids. The approaches applied for this purpose were (i to optimize the degree of filtration with respect to the field measurements, and (ii to predict this degree by means of analyzing the persistent homology of the obtained triangulations, which is applied for the first time for vegetation point clouds. When derived from optimized filtrations, the total tetrahedral volume had a high degree of determination (R2 with the stem volume considered, both alone (R2=0.65 and together with other predictors (R2=0.78. When derived by analyzing the topological persistence of the point data and without any field input, the R2 were lower, but the predictions still showed a correlation with the field-measured stem volumes. Finally, producing realistic visualizations of a forested landscape using the persistent homology approach is demonstrated.

  12. Persistence of long-distance, insect-mediated pollen movement for a tropical canopy tree species in remnant forest patches in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, A M E; Niissalo, M A; Lum, S K Y; Webb, E L

    2016-12-01

    As deforestation and urbanization continue at rapid rates in tropical regions, urban forest patches are essential repositories of biodiversity. However, almost nothing is known about gene flow of forest-dependent tree species in urban landscapes. In this study, we investigated gene flow in the insect-pollinated, wind-dispersed tropical tree Koompassia malaccensis in and among three remnant forest patches in the urbanized landscape of Singapore. We genotyped the vast majority of adults (N=179) and a large number of recruits (N=2103) with 8 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Spatial genetic structure of the recruit and adult cohorts was significant, showing routine gene dispersal distances of ~100-400 m. Parentage analysis showed that 97% of recruits were within 100 m of their mother tree, and a high frequency of relatively short-distance pollen dispersal (median ~143-187 m). Despite routine seed and pollen dispersal distances of within a few hundred meters, interpatch gene flow occurred between all patches and was dominated by pollen movement: parentage analysis showed 76 pollen versus 2 seed interpatch dispersal events, and the seedling neighborhood model estimated ~1-6% seed immigration and ~21-46% pollen immigration rates, depending on patch. In addition, the smallest patch (containing five adult K. malaccensis trees) was entirely surrounded by >2.5 km of 'impervious' substrate, yet had the highest proportional pollen and seed immigration estimates of any patch. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, insect-mediated gene flow persisted across an urban landscape, and several of our results also parallel key findings from insect-pollinated canopy trees sampled in mixed agricultural-forest landscapes.

  13. Forest land area estimates from vegetation continuous fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Ronald E. McRoberts; Matthew C. Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program provides data, information, and knowledge about our Nation's forest resources. FIA regional units collect data from field plots and remotely sensed imagery to produce statistical estimates of forest extent (area); volume, growth, and removals; and health and condition. There is increasing...

  14. A general Landsat model to predict canopy defoliation in broadleaf deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip A. Townsend; Aditya Singh; Jane R. Foster; Nathan J. Rehberg; Clayton C. Kindon; Keith N. Eshleman; Steven W. Seagle

    2012-01-01

    Defoliation by insect herbivores can be a persistent disturbance affecting ecosystem functioning. We developed an approach to map canopy defoliation due to gypsy moth based on site differences in Landsat vegetation index values between non-defoliation and defoliation dates. Using field data from two study areas in the U.S. central Appalachians and five different years...

  15. Disturbance and canopy gaps as indicators of forest health in the Blue Mountains of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome S. Beatty; Brian W. Geils; John E. Lundquist

    1995-01-01

    Disturbance profiles, indices based on both spatial and non-spatial statistics, are used to examine how small-scale disturbances and the resulting canopy gaps disrupt ecosystem patterns and processes in selected stands in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. The biological meaning of many indices remains undefined for small scale disturbance phenomena, but their disturbance...

  16. Kinetic energy of Throughfall in subtropical forests of SE China - effects of tree canopy structure, functional traits, and biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Geißler

    Full Text Available Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE plays an important role in soil erosion in forests. We studied TKE as a function of biodiversity, functional diversity as well as structural stand variables in a secondary subtropical broad-leaved forest in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve (GNNR in south-east China, a biodiversity hotspot in the northern hemisphere with more than 250 woody species present. Using a mixed model approach we could identify significant effects of all these variables on TKE: TKE increased with rarefied tree species richness and decreased with increasing proportion of needle-leaved species and increasing leaf area index (LAI. Furthermore, for average rainfall amounts TKE was decreasing with tree canopy height whereas for high rainfall amounts this was not the case. The spatial pattern of throughfall was stable across several rain events. The temporal variation of TKE decreased with rainfall intensity and increased with tree diversity. Our results show that more diverse forest stands over the season have to cope with higher cumulative raindrop energy than less diverse stands. However, the kinetic energy (KE of one single raindrop is less predictable in diverse stands since the variability in KE is higher. This paper is the first to contribute to the understanding of the ecosystem function of soil erosion prevention in diverse subtropical forests.

  17. Kinetic energy of Throughfall in subtropical forests of SE China - effects of tree canopy structure, functional traits, and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Christian; Nadrowski, Karin; Kühn, Peter; Baruffol, Martin; Bruelheide, Helge; Schmid, Bernhard; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) plays an important role in soil erosion in forests. We studied TKE as a function of biodiversity, functional diversity as well as structural stand variables in a secondary subtropical broad-leaved forest in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve (GNNR) in south-east China, a biodiversity hotspot in the northern hemisphere with more than 250 woody species present. Using a mixed model approach we could identify significant effects of all these variables on TKE: TKE increased with rarefied tree species richness and decreased with increasing proportion of needle-leaved species and increasing leaf area index (LAI). Furthermore, for average rainfall amounts TKE was decreasing with tree canopy height whereas for high rainfall amounts this was not the case. The spatial pattern of throughfall was stable across several rain events. The temporal variation of TKE decreased with rainfall intensity and increased with tree diversity. Our results show that more diverse forest stands over the season have to cope with higher cumulative raindrop energy than less diverse stands. However, the kinetic energy (KE) of one single raindrop is less predictable in diverse stands since the variability in KE is higher. This paper is the first to contribute to the understanding of the ecosystem function of soil erosion prevention in diverse subtropical forests.

  18. Evaluation of LIDAR for Automating Recognition of Roads and Trails Beneath Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    11 a. Forest Inventory , Mapping and Watershed Management ....11 b. Stand Characterization...for detailed analysis of vegetation, watershed topography, and slope stability. a. Forest Inventory , Mapping and Watershed Management Critical to...displayed in yellow (From Kim et al., 2009) Forest inventory of stand tree heights can be collected and extrapolated to larger areas based on landscape

  19. Observations of HNO3, ΣAN, ΣPN and NO2 fluxes: evidence for rapid HOx chemistry within a pine forest canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Farmer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of exchange of reactive nitrogen oxides between the atmosphere and a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains are reported. During winter, we observe upward fluxes of NO2, and downward fluxes of total peroxy and peroxy acyl nitrates (ΣPNs, total gas and particle phase alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrates (ΣANs(g+p, and the sum of gaseous HNO3 and semi-volatile NO3− particles (HNO3(g+p. We use calculations of the vertical profile and flux of NO, partially constrained by observations, to show that net midday ΣNOyi fluxes in winter are –4.9 ppt m s−1. The signs and magnitudes of these wintertime individual and ΣNOyi fluxes are in the range of prior measurements. In contrast, during summer, we observe downward fluxes only of ΣANs(g+p, and upward fluxes of HNO3(g+p, ΣPNs and NO2 with signs and magnitudes that are unlike most, if not all, previous observations and analyses of fluxes of individual nitrogen oxides. The results imply that the mechanisms contributing to NOy fluxes, at least at this site, are much more complex than previously recognized. We show that the observations of upward fluxes of HNO3(g+p and σPNs during summer are consistent with oxidation of NO2 and acetaldehyde by an OH x residence time of 1.1×1010 molec OH cm−3 s, corresponding to 3 to 16×107 molecules cm−3 OH within the forest canopy for a 420 to 70 s canopy residence time. We show that ΣAN(g+p fluxes are consistent with this range in OH if the reaction of OH with ΣANs produces either HNO3 or NO2 with a 6–30% yield. Calculations of NO fluxes constrained by the NO2 observations and the inferred OH indicate that NOx fluxes are downward into the canopy because of the substantial conversion of NOx to HNO3 and σPNs in the canopy. Even so, we derive that NOx emission fluxes of ~15 ng(N m−2 s−1 at midday during summer are required to balance the NOx and NOy flux budgets. These fluxes are partly explained by estimates of soil

  20. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height from High-resolution Stereo Image Pairs, Mozambique, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides canopy height estimates for mangrove forests at 0.6 x 0.6 m resolution in three study sites located in southeastern Mozambique, Africa: two...

  1. Using the right slope of the 970 nm absorption feature for estimating canopy water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Canopy water content (CWC) is important for understanding the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Biogeochemical processes like photosynthesis, transpiration and net primary production are related to foliar water. The first derivative of the reflectance spectrum at wavelengths corresponding to

  2. A new pan-tropical estimate of carbon loss in natural and managed forests in 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Baccini, A.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Stehman, S. V.; Houghton, R. A.; Krylov, A.; Turubanova, S.; Goetz, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Clearing of tropical forests, which includes semi-permanent conversion of forests to other land uses (deforestation) and more temporary forest disturbances, is a significant source of carbon emissions. The previous estimates of tropical forest carbon loss vary among studies due to the differences in definitions, methodologies and data inputs. The best currently available satellite-derived datasets, such as a 30-m forest cover loss map by Hansen et al. (2013), may be used to produce methodologically consistent carbon loss estimates for the entire tropical region, but forest cover loss area derived from maps is biased due to classification errors. In this study we produced an unbiased estimate of forest cover loss area from a validation sample, as suggested by good practice recommendations. Stratified random sampling was implemented with forest carbon stock strata defined based on Landsat-derived tree canopy cover, height, intactness (Potapov et al., 2008) and forest cover loss (Hansen et al., 2013). The largest difference between the sample-based and Hansen et al. (2013) forest loss area estimates occurred in humid tropical Africa. This result supports the earlier finding (Tyukavina et al., 2013) that Landsat-based forest cover loss maps may significantly underestimate loss area in regions with small-scale forest dynamics while performing well in regions with large industrial forest clearing, such as Brazil and Indonesia (where differences between sample-based and map estimates were within 10%). To produce final carbon loss estimates, sample-based forest loss area estimates for each stratum were related to GLAS-lidar derived forest biomass (Baccini et al., 2012). Our sample-based results distinguish gross losses of aboveground carbon from natural forests (0.59 PgC/yr), which include primary, mature secondary forests and natural woodlands, and from managed forests (0.43 PgC/yr), which include plantations, agroforestry systems and areas of subsistence agriculture

  3. Leaf function in tropical rain forest canopy trees : the effect of light on leaf morphology and physiology in different-sized trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkers, T.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the effect of constant and fluctuating light availability on several leaf traits was studied for naturally growing trees of different sizes, i.e . from sapling to adult canopy tree, of five species in a tropical rain forest in French Guiana. Leaf

  4. Predicting nitrogen flux along a vertical canopy gradient in a mixed conifer forest stand of the San Bernardino Mountains in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Arbaugh; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Mark E. Fenn

    1998-01-01

    A 3-year study of nitrogenous (N) air pollution deposition to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws.) seedlings along a mature tree vertical canopy gradient was conducted in the mixed conifer forest of the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. Concentrations of nitric acid vapor (HNO3), particulate nitrate...

  5. Canopy arthropod responses to thinning and burning treatments in old-growth mixed-conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Rambo; Timothy Schowalter; Malcolm North

    2014-01-01

    We compared canopy arthropod responses to common fuels reduction treatments at Teakettle Experimental Forest in the south-central Sierra Nevada of California. We sampled arthropod communities among four dominant overstory conifer species and three dominant understory angiosperm species before and after overstory or understory thinning or no thinning treatments followed...

  6. Regeneration after 8 years in artificial canopy gaps in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a study of regeneration of Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forest in S.E. Australia in artificially created canopy gaps (0.01¿2 ha) and clearfelled coupes (4¿27 ha) with different seedbed treatments. Treatments were applied in 1988, 1989, and 1990. Our results are based on

  7. Responses to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest ecosystem: Synthesis from an experimental manipulation simulating effects of hurricane disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.B. Shiels; Grizelle Gonzalez; M.R. Willig

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes, cyclones, or typhoons are intense and broad-scale disturbances that affect many island and coastal ecosystems throughout the world. We summarize the findings of the articles that compose this special issue of Forest Ecology and Management, which focuses on a manipulative experiment (the Canopy Trimming Experiment, CTE) that simulates two key aspects of...

  8. Amazon droughts and forest responses: Largely reduced forest photosynthesis but slightly increased canopy greenness during the extreme drought of 2015/2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Chen, Guangsheng; Zhang, Bowen; Dangal, Shree

    2018-01-18

    Amazon droughts have major impacts on regional ecosystem functioning as well as global carbon cycling. The severe dry-season droughts in 2005 and 2010, driven by Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly, have been widely investigated in terms of drought severity and impacts on ecosystems. Although the influence of Pacific SST anomaly on wet-season precipitation has been well recognized, it remains uncertain to what extent the droughts driven by Pacific SST anomaly could affect forest greenness and photosynthesis in the Amazon. Here we examined the monthly and annual dynamics of forest greenness and photosynthetic capacity when Amazon ecosystems experienced an extreme drought in 2015/2016 driven by a strong El Niño event. We found that the drought during August 2015 - July 2016 was one of the two most severe meteorological droughts since 1901. Due to the enhanced solar radiation during this drought, overall forest greenness showed a small increase, and 21.6% of forests even greened up (greenness index anomaly ≥ 1 standard deviation). In contrast, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), an indicator of vegetation photosynthetic capacity, decreased by 8.2%. Responses of forest greenness and photosynthesis decoupled during this drought, indicating that forest photosynthesis could still be suppressed regardless of the variation of canopy greenness. If future El Niño frequency increases as projected by earth system models, droughts would result in persistent reduction in Amazon forest productivity, substantial changes in tree composition, and considerable carbon emissions from Amazon. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of aerosol composition and foliage characteristics on forest canopy deposition rates: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, K. E.; Pryor, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are a major sink for atmospheric aerosols. Hence it has been suggested that (i) increased tree planting in urban areas might lead to a reduction in aerosol particle concentrations and thus a reduction in respiratory conditions and heart complications, and (ii) forests may be responsible for removing a disproportionately large fraction of potentially climate-relevant fine and ultra-fine aerosol particles from the atmosphere. However, larger uncertainties remain with respect to controls on uptake rates for forests. E.g. the deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements, the influence of particle size and composition, the role of leaf surface morphology and stomatal aperture in surface uptake. Improved understanding of the relative importance of these factors and the variability across different tree species should help determine how much of a sink naturally occurring and planted forests can provide downstream of fine particle production. In this study, a sample of trees native to southern Indiana were exposed to ultra-fine aerosol particle populations in a 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.5 m Teflon chamber. Stable particle size distributions (PSD) with geometric mean diameters (GMD) ranging from 40 to 80 nm were generated from sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfite solutions using a TSI model 3940 Aerosol Generation System (AGS). The aerosol stream was diluted using scrubbed and dried zero air to allow a variation of total number concentration across two orders of magnitude. PSD in the chamber are continuously measured using a TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) comprising an Electrostatic Classifier (EC model 3080) attached to a Long DMA (LDMA model 3081) and a TSI model 3025A Butanol Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) operated with both the internal diffusion loss and multiple charge corrections turned on. The composition of the chamber air was also monitored for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor

  10. Leaf Spectra and Weight of Species in Canopy, Subcanopy, and Understory Layers in a Venezuelan Andean Cloud Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Miguel F.; Ataroff, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the leaf spectra of tree species of an Andean cloud forest in Venezuela, grouped according to position in canopy, subcanopy and understory. We measured leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in the 400–750 nm range using a high-resolution spectrometer. Both signals were subtracted from unity to calculate the absorbance signal. Nine spectral variables were calculated for each signal, three based on wide-bands and six based on features. We measured leaf mass per unit area of all species, and calculated efficiency of absorbance, as ratio of absorbance in photosynthetic range over leaf mass. Differences among groups were significant for several absorbance and transmittance variables, leaf mass, and efficiency of absorbance. The clearest differences are between canopy and understory species. There is strong correlation for at least one pair of band variables for each signal, and each band variable is strongly correlated with at least one feature variable for most signals. High canonical correlations are obtained between pairs of the three canonical axes for bands and the first three canonical axes for features. Absorbance variables produce species clusters having the closest correspondence to the species groups. Linear discriminant analysis shows that species groups can be sorted by all signals, particularly absorbance. PMID:24278746

  11. [Compatible biomass estimation models of natural forests in Changbai Mountains based on forest inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan-Qiu; Wang, Li-Hai

    2007-01-01

    Forest biomass estimation is the groundwork of analyzing carbon cycle and its dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, but the current estimation models had the problem of un-compatibility between total forest biomass and its components. Taking the Wangqing natural forest area in Jilin Province as a case, the compatible concept of building forest biomass models based on forest invent' tory was brought forward. A series of compatible biomass estimation models, taking stem volume as one of the independent variables, were established by using simultaneous equations. The accuracy of the models in estimating the biomass of coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, and mixed forest was all higher than 95% , suggesting that these models basically solved the problem of un-compatibility between total forest biomass and its components.

  12. Annual variation in canopy openness, air temperature and humidity inthe understory of three forested sites in southern Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing to the knowledge of physical factors affecting community structure in Atlantic Forest remnants of southern Bahia state, Brazil, we analyzed the annual variation in the understory microclimate of a hillside forest fragment in the ‘Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso’ (RST and a rustic cacao agroforestry system (Cabruca, located nearby the RST. Canopy openness (CO, air temperature (Ta, air relative humidity (RH and vapor pressure deficit (VPD data were collected between April, 2005 and April, 2006 at the base (RSTB, 340 m and the top (RSTT, 640 m of the RST and at the Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Data of rainfall, Ta, RH and VPD were also collected in an open area (OA, 270 m. The highest rainfalls (> 100 mm occurred in November, 2005 and April, 2006, whereas October, 2005 was the driest month (< 20 mm. CO ranged between 2.5 % in the CB (April, 2006 and 7.7 % in the RST (October, 2005. Low rainfall in October, 2005 affected VPDmax in all sites. Those effects were more pronounced in OA, followed by CB, RSTB and RSTT. During the period of measurements, the values of Ta, RH and VPD in CB were closer to the values measured in OA than to the values measured inside the forest.

  13. Electromagnetic Scattering from Vegetation Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabandi, Kamal

    Satellite-borne imaging radar has been proposed by the remote sensing community as a potential sensor for the acquisition of quantitative information about forested area on a global scale. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop retrieved algorithms that can provide reasonable estimate of vegetation biomass, leaf moisture content, and other physical parameters of tree canopies from multifrequency/multipolarization observations of their radar backscattering coefficients. Retrieval algorithms often are called "inverse problem" because their input/output parameters are the inverse of those associated with the direct problem, which in the present case refers to the development of a radar scattering model that relates the radar response to the canopy architecture and associated parameters. This thesis provides electromagnetic solutions to several problems associated with scattering from tree canopies. The forest canopy is modelled in the form of layers comprised of randomly distributed particles with known statistical properties. In Chapters 2-8 effective scattering models for different constituent particles of vegetation canopies are developed by employing appropriate asymptotic solutions and approximations. The effects of various physical features of the particles, such as curvature and variation in thickness for planar leaves and roughness for tree trunks, on their scattering behavior are examined. In Chapter 9 the scattering problem of inhomogeneous layered media is formulated via the vector radiative transfer equations and a first-order solution for the radar scattering coefficients is obtained. The radiative transfer solution is formulated in terms of two sets of input functions: the scattering matrices of the constituent particles, which are given in Chapters 2-8, and the size and orientation distribution functions of the particles. The radar scattering model and associated input functions can be used to conduct sensitivity analyses to determine the

  14. Influence of Tree Height on the Carbon Isotopic Discrimination of Canopy Photosynthesis in Southeastern Pine Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, B.; Chanton, J.; Conte, M.; Martin, T.

    2007-12-01

    Intensive investigations of carbon and water exchange in highly productive pine forests in the Southeastern US are restricted to a limited numbers of locations that are equipped with eddy covariance towers. These towers are mostly located within homogenous stands. However, the southeastern pine forests are composed of plantations of different ages/heights that are interlaced with hardwood forests. We have measured variability in photosynthetic parameters, and the 13C of ecosystem, foliage and soil respired CO2 over a 3-yr period at the Ameriflux tower site in Gainesville, FL, a slash pine ecosystem. Additionally we examined trends in canopy foliage bulk organic matter 13C, leaf wax 13C and the 13C of foliage respired CO2 as a function of tree height. Sampled tree heights ranged from 5 to 25 meters along the transect, characteristic of pine plantations within this region. A highly significant positive correlation was observed between tree height and the 13C of foliage bulk organic matter. Leaf wax 13C mirrored the trend observed in foliage respired CO2 and bulk organic matter, with approximately a -3 ‰ offset from foliage respired CO2. Point measurements of upper-crown light-saturated net photosynthesis rate were not correlated with height, but were likely confounded by water stress effects. Research in other forest ecosystems has demonstrated tree height effects on hydraulics and leaf gas exchange, but these effects have not been explored in southern pines. These data suggest that southern pine hydraulics and leaf gas exchange may be influenced by tree height, and that scaling of isotopic data in these forests will require careful consideration of age and height variation.

  15. Leaf, tree and soil properties in a Eucalyptus saligna forest exhibiting canopy decline

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Christine; Simpson, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    The extent of eucalypt decline in moist coastal forests of south-eastern Australia is increasing with resultant losses in biodiversity and productivity. This survey aimed to identify factors associated with the decline of Eucalyptus saligna (Sydney Blue Gum) in Cumberland State Forest, a moist sclerophyll forest within urban Sydney. Eucalyptus saligna was the dominant overstorey species in six 20 m radius plots, which differed in floristic composition, structure and crown condition. One plot ...

  16. Speciation of OH reactivity above the canopy of an isoprene-dominated forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of OH reactivity, the inverse lifetime of the OH radical, can provide a top–down estimate of the total amount of reactive carbon in an air mass. Using a comprehensive measurement suite, we examine the measured and modeled OH reactivity above an isoprene-dominated forest in the southeast United States during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS field campaign. Measured and modeled species account for the vast majority of average daytime reactivity (80–95 % and a smaller portion of nighttime and early morning reactivity (68–80 %. The largest contribution to total reactivity consistently comes from primary biogenic emissions, with isoprene contributing ∼  60 % in the afternoon, and ∼  30–40 % at night and monoterpenes contributing ∼  15–25 % at night. By comparing total reactivity to the reactivity stemming from isoprene alone, we find that ∼  20 % of the discrepancy is temporally related to isoprene reactivity, and an additional constant ∼  1 s−1 offset accounts for the remaining portion. The model typically overestimates measured OVOC concentrations, indicating that unmeasured oxidation products are unlikely to influence measured OH reactivity. Instead, we suggest that unmeasured primary emissions may influence the OH reactivity at this site.

  17. Use of Green-Red Normalized Difference (GRND) index to evaluate large-scale canopy phenology in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Yhasmin; Galvao, Lenio; Anderson, Liana; Siani, Sacha; Aragao, Luiz

    2017-04-01

    Canopy phenology is a vital indicator of environmental controls on species and ecosystems. However, tropical phenology remains one of the most challenging components to parameterize in ecosystem models. Recent studies have shown that certain components of phenology (e.g. leaf flushing or leaf abscission) respond in different regions of the spectra, allowing us to observe phenology using remote sensing (RS) data. As RS is one the most used data to describe environmental conditions in ecosystem models, a comprehensive understanding of the spectral intervals responsible for the signal to describe phenological patterns in the tropics is needed. Here, we explore the potential use of Green-Red Normalized Difference (GRND = ρ563 nm - ρ661 nm / ρ563 nm + ρ661 nm) index to describe spatial variability of canopy phenology across the Amazon forest. We used time-series observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospherically corrected using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction Algorithm (MAIAC) to derive GRND. Two others vegetation index were determined for comparison: Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We used time-series observations (2003-2013) and plotted biweekly long-term mean of MODIS GRND, EVI and NDVI. The results showed that the GRND and EVI were more sensitive to phenology components of leaves than the NDVI because of the respective changes in green and NIR reflectance. Changes of visible radiation are largely driven by leaf pigment concentrations, which, in turn, are closely linked to leaf age. Consequently, leaf demography is an important driver of photosynthetic potential. We suggest that the patterns observed of GRND was related with leaf flushing spectral response, while EVI was more related to changes in leaf area index (LAI). These variations may be missed when only observing reflectance sensitivity to changes in LAI. New remote sensing approaches will

  18. Isotopic characteristics of canopies in simulated leaf assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather V.; Patzkowsky, Mark E.; Wing, Scott L.; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2014-11-01

    site where leaves were sampled. The model predicts a persistent ∼1‰ difference in δ13Clitter for the two sites which is consistent with higher water availability in the tropical forests. This work provides a new framework for linking contemporary ecological observations to the geochemical record using flux-weighted isotope data and lends insights to the effect of forest architecture on organic and isotopic records of ancient terrestrial ecosystems. How many leaves from a litter assemblage are necessary to distinguish the isotopic gradient characteristics of canopy closure? Are mean δ13Cleaf values for a litter assemblage diagnostic of a forest biome? Can we predict the δ13C values of cumulative litter, soil organic matter, and organic carbon in sedimentary archives using litter flux and isotope patterns in canopies? We determined the δ13C range and mean for different sized assemblages of leaves sampled from data for each forest. We re-sampled very high numbers of leaves in order to estimate the isotopic composition of cumulative carbon delivered to soils as litter, and compared these results to available data from forest soils. Modeled leaf and soil organic carbon isotope patterns in this study offer insights to how forest structure can be derived from carbon isotope measurements of fossil leaves, as well as secondary material - such as teeth, hair, paleosol carbonates, or organic soil carbon (van der Merwe and Medina, 1989; Koch, 1998; Secord et al., 2008; Levin et al., 2011).Distinct climate and seasonal difference in the Panamá and Maryland, USA forests are reflected in their canopy isotope gradients. In the tropical forest of Panamá, leaves are produced throughout the year within a canopy that is both extensively and persistently closed (Leigh, 1975; Lowman and Wittman, 1996). In the temperate forest of Maryland leaves are produced during the spring when canopy conditions are relatively open (Korner and Basler, 2010).

  19. Towards Estimating Water Stress through Leaf and Canopy Water Content Derived from Optical and Thermal Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Amie; Timmermans, Joris; van der Tol, Christiaan; Verhoef, Wout

    2015-04-01

    A competition for available (drinkable) water has arisen. This competition originated due to increasing global population and the respective needs of this population. The water demand for human consumption and irrigation of food producing crops and biofuel related vegetation, has led to early indication of drought as a key issue in many studies. However, while drought monitoring systems might provide some reasonable predictions, at the time of visible symptoms of plant stress, a plant may already be critically affected. Consequently, pre-symptomatic non-destructive monitoring of plants is needed. In many studies of plant stress, this is performed by examining internal plant physiology through existing remote sensing techniques, with varying applications. However, a uniform remote sensing method for identifying early plant stress under drought conditions is still developing. In some instances, observations of vegetation water content are used to assess the impact of soil water deficit on the health of a plant or canopy. When considering water content as an indicator of water stress in a plant, this comments not only on the condition of the plant itself, but also provides indicators of photosynthetic activity and the susceptibility to drought. Several indices of canopy health currently exists (NDVI, DVI, SAVI, etc.) using optical and near infrared reflectance bands. However, these are considered inadequate for vegetation health investigations because such semi-empirical models result in less accuracy for canopy measurements. In response, a large amount of research has been conducted to estimate canopy health directly from considering the full spectral behaviour. In these studies , the canopy reflectance has been coupled to leaf parameters, by using coupling leaf radiative transfer models (RTM), such as PROSPECT, to a canopy RTM such as SAIL. The major shortcomings of these researches is that they have been conducted primarily for optical remote sensing. Recently

  20. Demographic disequilibrium caused by canopy gap expansion and recruitment failure triggers forest cover loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Barrette; Louis Bélanger; Louis De Grandpré; Alejandro A. Royo

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of large-scale stand replacing disturbances, boreal forests can remain in the old-growth stage over time because of a dynamic equilibrium between small-scale mortality and regeneration processes. Although this gap paradigm has been a cornerstone of forest dynamics theory and practice for decades, evidence suggests that it could be disrupted, threatening...

  1. Lidar-derived canopy architecture predicts Brown Creeper occupancy of two western coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody C. Vogeler; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Kerri T. Vierling

    2013-01-01

    In western conifer-dominated forests where the abundance of old-growth stands is decreasing, species such as the Brown Creeper (Certhia americana) may be useful as indicator species for monitoring the health of old-growth systems because they are strongly associated with habitat characteristics associated with old growth and are especially sensitive to forest...

  2. Forest canopy effects on snow accumulation and ablation: an integrative review of empirical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Varhola; Nicholas C. Coops; Markus Weiler; R. Dan Moore

    2010-01-01

    The past century has seen significant research comparing snow accumulation and ablation in forested and open sites. In this review we compile and standardize the results of previous empirical studies to generate statistical relations between changes in forest cover and the associated changes in snow accumulation and ablation rate. The analysis drew upon 33 articles...

  3. Characterization of seasonal variation of forest canopy in a temperate deciduous broadleaf forest, using daily MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingyuan Zhang; Xiangming Xiao; Bobby Braswell; Ernst Linder; Scott Ollinger; Marie-Louise Smith; Julian P. Jenkins; Fred Baret; Andrew D. Richardson; Berrien III Moore; Rakesh. Minocha

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved procedure for collecting no or little atmosphere- and snow-contaminated observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. The resultant time series of daily MODIS data of a temperate deciduous broadleaf forest (the Bartlett Experimental Forest) in 2004 show strong seasonal dynamics of surface...

  4. Estimating Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH from Digital Surface Models and Orthophotos Obtained with an Unmanned Aerial System for a Japanese Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Iizuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for accurately measuring biophysical parameters are a key component for quantitative evaluation regarding to various forest applications. Conventional in situ measurements of these parameters take time and expense, encountering difficultness at locations with heterogeneous microtopography. To obtain precise biophysical data in such situations, we deployed an unmanned aerial system (UAS multirotor drone in a cypress forest in a mountainous area of Japan. The structure from motion (SfM method was used to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the forest (tree structures from aerial photos. Tree height was estimated from the 3D model and compared to in situ ground data. We also analyzed the relationships between a biophysical parameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, of individual trees with canopy width and area measured from orthorectified images. Despite the constraints of ground exposure in a highly dense forest area, tree height was estimated at an accuracy of root mean square error = 1.712 m for observed tree heights ranging from 16 to 24 m. DBH was highly correlated with canopy width (R2 = 0.7786 and canopy area (R2 = 0.7923, where DBH ranged from 11 to 58 cm. The results of estimating forest parameters indicate that drone-based remote-sensing methods can be utilized to accurately analyze the spatial extent of forest structures.

  5. Regional Rates of Young US Forest Growth Estimated From Annual Landsat Disturbance History and IKONOS Stereo Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Bourget, Paul; Rishmawi, Khaldoun; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Chengquan; Cook, Bruce D.; Nelson, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Forests of the Contiguous United States (CONUS) have been found to be a large contributor to the global atmospheric carbon sink. The magnitude and nature of this sink is still uncertain and recent studies have sought to define the dynamics that control its strength and longevity. The Landsat series of satellites has been a vital resource to understand the long-term changes in land cover that can impact ecosystem function and terrestrial carbonstock. We combine annual Landsat forest disturbance history from 1985 to 2011 with single date IKONOS stereoimagery to estimate the change in young forest canopy height and above ground live dry biomass accumulation for selected sites in the CONUS. Our approach follows an approximately linear growth rate following clearing over short intervals and does not estimate the distinct non-linear growth rate over longer intervals.We produced canopy height models by differencing digital surface models estimated from IKONOS stereo pairs with national elevation data (NED). Correlations between height and biomass were established independently using airborne LiDAR, and then applied to the IKONOS-estimated canopy height models. Graphing current biomass against time since disturbance provided biomass accumulation rates. For 20 study sites distributed across five regions of the CONUS, 19 showed statistically significant recovery trends (p is less than 0.001) with canopy growth from 0.26 m yr-1to 0.73 m yr-1. Above ground live dry biomass (AGB) density accumulation ranged from 1.31 t/ha yr-1 to 12.47 t/ha yr-1. Mean forest AGB accumulationwas 6.31 t/ha yr-1 among all sites with significant growth trends. We evaluated the accuracy of our estimates by comparing to field estimated site index curves of growth, airborne LiDAR data, and independent model predictions of C accumulation. Growth estimates found with this approach are consistent with site index curves and total biomass estimates fall within the range of field estimates. This is aviable

  6. Airborne lidar-based estimates of tropical forest structure in complex terrain: opportunities and trade-offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas C; Cook, Bruce D; Shimabukuro, Yosio E

    2015-12-01

    Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas with complex topography present a challenge for lidar remote sensing. We compared digital terrain models (DTM) derived from airborne lidar data from a mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil to 35 ground control points measured with survey grade GNSS receivers. The terrain model generated from full-density (~20 returns m-2) data was highly accurate (mean signed error of 0.19 ± 0.97 m), while those derived from reduced-density datasets (8 m-2, 4 m-2, 2 m-2 and 1 m-2) were increasingly less accurate. Canopy heights calculated from reduced-density lidar data declined as data density decreased due to the inability to accurately model the terrain surface. For lidar return densities below 4 m-2, the bias in height estimates translated into errors of 80-125 Mg ha-1 in predicted aboveground biomass. Given the growing emphasis on the use of airborne lidar for forest management, carbon monitoring, and conservation efforts, the results of this study highlight the importance of careful survey planning and consistent sampling for accurate quantification of aboveground biomass stocks and dynamics. Approaches that rely primarily on canopy height to estimate aboveground biomass are sensitive to DTM errors from variability in lidar sampling density.

  7. Airborne Lidar-Based Estimates of Tropical Forest Structure in Complex Terrain: Opportunities and Trade-Offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas with complex topography present a challenge for lidar remote sensing. Results: We compared digital terrain models (DTM) derived from airborne lidar data from a mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil to 35 ground control points measured with survey grade GNSS receivers. The terrain model generated from full-density (approx. 20 returns/sq m) data was highly accurate (mean signed error of 0.19 +/-0.97 m), while those derived from reduced-density datasets (8/sq m, 4/sq m, 2/sq m and 1/sq m) were increasingly less accurate. Canopy heights calculated from reduced-density lidar data declined as data density decreased due to the inability to accurately model the terrain surface. For lidar return densities below 4/sq m, the bias in height estimates translated into errors of 80-125 Mg/ha in predicted aboveground biomass. Conclusions: Given the growing emphasis on the use of airborne lidar for forest management, carbon monitoring, and conservation efforts, the results of this study highlight the importance of careful survey planning and consistent sampling for accurate quantification of aboveground biomass stocks and dynamics. Approaches that rely primarily on canopy height to estimate aboveground biomass are sensitive to DTM errors from variability in lidar sampling density.

  8. Estimating mapped-plot forest attributes with ratios of means

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Zarnoch; W.A. Bechtold

    2000-01-01

    The mapped-plot design utilized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Inventory and Analysis and the National Forest Health Monitoring Programs is described. Data from 2458 forested mapped plots systematically spread across 25 States reveal that 35 percent straddle multiple conditions. The ratio-of-means estimator is developed as a method to obtain...

  9. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  10. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yin

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE. We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  11. Biomass estimation in forest ecosystems - a review | Wakawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest ecosystems plays an important role in global warming serving as both sink and source of one of the prominent green house gases, carbon dioxide (CO2). Biomass estimation in forest ecosystems is an important aspect of forest management processes aimed at ensuring sustainability. The choice of appropriate ...

  12. Influence of stocking, site quality, stand age, low-severity canopy disturbance, and forest composition on sub-boreal aspen mixedwood carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Michael; D’Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Low-severity canopy disturbance presumably influences forest carbon dynamics during the course of stand development, yet the topic has received relatively little attention. This is surprising because of the frequent occurrence of such events and the potential for both the severity and frequency of disturbances to increase as a result of climate change. We investigated the impacts of low-severity canopy disturbance and average insect defoliation on forest carbon stocks and rates of carbon sequestration in mature aspen mixedwood forests of varying stand age (ranging from 61 to 85 years), overstory composition, stocking level, and site quality. Stocking level and site quality positively affected the average annual aboveground tree carbon increment (CAAI), while stocking level, site quality, and stand age positively affected tree carbon stocks (CTREE) and total ecosystem carbon stocks (CTOTAL). Cumulative canopy disturbance (DIST) was reconstructed using dendroecological methods over a 29-year period. DIST was negatively and significantly related to soil carbon (CSOIL), and it was negatively, albeit marginally, related to CTOTAL. Minima in the annual aboveground carbon increment of trees (CAI) occurred at sites during defoliation of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner), and minima were more extreme at sites dominated by trembling aspen than sites mixed with conifers. At sites defoliated by forest tent caterpillar in the early 2000s, increased sequestration by the softwood component (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) compensated for overall decreases in CAI by 17% on average. These results underscore the importance of accounting for low-severity canopy disturbance events when developing regional forest carbon models and argue for the restoration and maintenance of historically important conifer species within aspen mixedwoods to enhance stand-level resilience to disturbance agents and maintain

  13. Out on a limb: Thermal microenvironments in the tropical forest canopy and their relevance to ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Adams, Benjamin J; Fredley, Jennifer L; Yanoviak, Stephen P

    2017-10-01

    Small, cursorial ectotherms like ants often are immersed in the superheated air layers that develop millimeters above exposed, insolated surfaces (i.e., the thermal boundary layer). We quantified the thermal microenvironments around tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy, and explored the effects of substrate color on the internal body temperature and species composition of arboreal ants. Branch temperatures during the day (09:00-16:00) were hottest (often > 50°C) and most variable on the upper surface, while the lowest and least variable temperatures occurred on the underside. Temperatures on black substrates declined with increasing distance above the surface in both the field and the laboratory. By contrast, a micro-scale temperature inversion occurred above white substrates. Wind events (ca. 2ms -1 ) eliminated these patterns. Internal temperatures of bodies of Cephalotes atratus workers experimentally heated in the laboratory were 6°C warmer on white vs. black substrates, and 6°C cooler than ambient in windy conditions. The composition of ant species foraging at baits differed between black-painted and unpainted tree branches, with a tendency for smaller ants to avoid the significantly hotter black surfaces. Collectively, these outcomes show that ants traversing canopy branches experience very heterogeneous thermal microenvironments that are partly influenced in predictable ways by branch surface coloration and breezy conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remote sensing of canopy dynamics and biochemical variables estimation of fodder crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchit K.; Das, S. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2010-04-01

    Non-destructive monitoring and diagnosis of plant nitrogen (N) concentration status is necessary for precision in N management. Leaf -N and chlorophyll (Chl) concentration of fodder crops are important indicators of plant N status. Studies were conducted to determine the relationship between canopy hyperspectral reflectance (325 to 1075 nm) and Chl or N concentration in field grown fodder crops [bajra (Pennisetum typhoides, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Kharif season and oat (Avena sativa) in Rabi season] without and with recommended dose of nitrogen of different crops. Nitrogen fertilizer application mainly affected leaf reflectance at 575 and 623 nm in sorghum, 565 and 657 nm in bajra and 563 and 716 nm in oat. The reflectance ratio at R581/R397 (R2=0.46**) and R619/R462 nm (R2=0.79***) had the highest correlation with sorghum and bajra leaf N concentration respectively with greatest R2 values. However in oat single reflectance at R542 (R2=0.53**) had the highest correlation with leaf N concentration. Similarly, sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl concentration were highly correlated with R677/R527 (R2=0.63**), R688/R409 (R2=0.71***) and R695 (R2=0.56** ), respectively. A linear relationship was found between sorghum leaf N and a simple ratio at R581/R397 (Intercept=8.85, slope=-2.64, R2=0.44). Bajra leaf N concentration was associated closely with ratio of R619/ R462, (R2= 0.78***). Oat leaf N concentration could be best estimate through single reflectance at R695 (Slope=-0.48, Intercept=0.15; R2=0.56). Similarly sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl could be best-estimated using reflectance ratio of R677/R527, R615/R411 and R695, respectively. Thus our results suggest that spectral reflectance measurements hold promise for the assessment of some physiological parameter at the leaf level real time monitoring of sorghum and bajra N status and N fertilizer management.

  15. Estimation of leaf area index and foliage clumping in deciduous forests using digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianucci, Francesco; Cutini, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Rapid, reliable and meaningful estimates of leaf area index (LAI) are essential to the characterization of forest ecosystems. In this contribution the accuracy of both fisheye and non-fisheye digital photography for the estimation of forest leaf area in deciduous stands was evaluated. We compared digital hemispherical photography (DHP), the most widely used technique that measures the gap fraction at multiple zenith angles, with methods that measure the gap fraction at a single zenith angle, namely 57.5 degree photography and cover photography (DCP). Comparison with other different gap fraction methods used to calculate LAI such as canopy transmittance measurements from AccuPAR ceptometer and LAI- 2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) were also performed. LAI estimated from all these indirect methods were compared with direct measurements obtained by litter traps (LAILT). We applied these methods in 10 deciduous stands of Quercus cerris, Castanea sativa and Fagus sylvatica, the most common deciduous species in Italy, where LAILT ranged from 3.9 to 7.3. DHP and DCP provided good indirect estimates of LAILT, and outperformed the other indirect methods. The DCP method provided estimates of crown porosity, crown cover, foliage cover and the clumping index at the zenith, but required assumptions about the light extinction coefficient at the zenith (k), to accurately estimate LAI. Cover photography provided good indirect estimates of LAI assuming a spherical leaf angle distribution, even though k appeared to decrease as LAI increased, thus affecting the accuracy of LAI estimates in DCP. In contrast, the accuracy of LAI estimates in DHP appeared insensitive to LAILT values, but the method was sensitive to photographic exposure, gamma-correction and was more time-consuming than DCP. Foliage clumping was estimated from all the photographic methods by analyzing either gap size distribution (DCP) or gap fraction distribution (DHP). Foliage clumping was also calculated from PCA and

  16. Small-area estimation of forest attributes within fire boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Frescino; G. Moisen; K. Adachi; J. Breidt

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires are gaining more attention every year as they burn more frequently, more intensely, and across larger landscapes. Generating timely estimates of forest resources within fire perimeters is important for land managers to quickly determine the impact of fi res on U.S. forests. The U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program needs tools to...

  17. Conservation thinning in secondary forest: negative but mild effect on land molluscs in closed-canopy mixed oak forest in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Rancka

    Full Text Available Secondary succession is changing the character of many temperate forests and often leads to closed-canopy stands. In such forests set aside for conservation, habitat management alternatives need to be tested experimentally, but this is rarely done. The Swedish Oak Project compares two often debated alternatives: minimal intervention and non-traditional active management (conservation thinning on plots of each type replicated at 25 sites. We study responses of several taxa, and here report results for land molluscs. They are considered to be sensitive to more open, drier forest and we predicted a negative effect of the thinning (26% reduction of the basal area; mean value for 25 experimental forests. We sampled molluscs in the litter in ten 20 x 25 cm subplots, and by standardised visual search, in each plot. In total, we recorded 53 species of snails and slugs (24 369 individuals and the mean species richness in plots was 17. Two seasons after thinning, mean (± SE species richness had decreased by 1.4 (± 0.9 species in thinning plots, but increased by 0.7 (± 1.0 species in minimal intervention plots, a significant but small change with considerable variation among sites. In matched comparisons with minimal intervention, thinning reduced the overall abundance of molluscs. Most species responded negatively to thinning - but only five of the 53 species were significantly affected, and reproduction seemed to be negatively affected in only one species. An ordination analysis did not reveal any particular change in the species community due to thinning. Thus, the negative effect of conservation thinning on land molluscs was apparently mild - one reason was that many trees, shrubs and other forest structures remained after the treatment. Conservation thinning may be recommended, since other taxa are favoured, but minimal intervention is also a useful form of management for molluscs and saproxylic taxa.

  18. Metrics of ozone risk assessment for Southern European forests: Canopy moisture content as a potential plant response indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, A.; Sicard, P.; Vitale, M.; Carriero, G.; Renou, C.; Paoletti, E.

    2015-11-01

    Present standards for protecting ecosystems from ozone (O3), such as AOT40, use atmospheric concentrations. A stomatal flux-based approach (Phytotoxic O3 Dose, PODY) has been suggested. We compared the spatial and temporal distribution of AOT40 and PODY - with and without a hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) - for Pinus halepensis and Fagus sylvatica in South-eastern France and North-western Italy. Ozone uptake was simulated by including limitation due to soil water content, as this is an important parameter in water-limited environments. Both AOT40 and POD1 exceeded the critical levels suggested for forests. AOT40 suggested a larger O3 risk relative to PODY. No significant spatial and temporal difference occurred between POD1 and POD0. The use of POD0 in the assessment of ambient O3 risk for vegetation is thus recommended, because it is more biologically-meaningful than AOT40 and easier to be calculated than POD1. Canopy Moisture Content (CMC), a proxy of foliar water content, was modelled and tested as a potential plant O3 response indicator. CMC response to O3 was species-specific, and thus cannot be recommended in the epidemiology of O3 injury to forests.

  19. Stomatal conductance, canopy temperature, and leaf area index estimation using remote sensing and OBIA techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Panda; D.M. Amatya; G. Hoogenboom

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed images including LANDSAT, SPOT, NAIP orthoimagery, and LiDAR and relevant processing tools can be used to predict plant stomatal conductance (gs), leaf area index (LAI), and canopy temperature, vegetation density, albedo, and soil moisture using vegetation indices like normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) or soil adjusted...

  20. Polygonal plot method for estimating the canopy-spread cover of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An optical method for measuring canopy-spread cover of shrubs is described by means of an illustrated example. Boundaries of plots are hypothetical lines joining the centres of wholly visible shrubs or groups of shrubs surrounding the observation point. Plots are subdivided into triangular subplots to allow calculation of ...

  1. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  2. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation using the remote sensing-based two-source model for an open orchard canopy in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammalleri, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Ciraolo, G.; D'Urso, G.; Kustas, W. P.; La Loggia, G.; Minacapilli, M.

    2010-07-01

    For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%), typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can highly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977), Massman (1987) and Lalic et al. (2003). The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model developed by Norman et al. (1995) and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999). High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy) comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters need to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlight the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical canopy properties range of these agricultural area. It is found that differences in wind just above surface among the models is most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (20-60%). The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micrometeorological measurements from a small aperture

  3. Evaluation of forest interception estimation in the continental scale Australian Water Resources Assessment - Landscape (AWRA-L) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jim; Macfarlane, Craig; McJannet, Dave; Ellis, Tim; Grigg, Andrew; van Dijk, Albert

    2013-08-01

    The AWRA-L model is a core component of the joint Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and CSIRO Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system which integrates hydrological models and a variety of observations and satellite products to produce a National Water Accounting system for Australia. AWRA-L is a continental scale sub-model which provides surface water balance component estimates for all landscape types, including forests ranging from sparse woody vegetation in dry climates to dense tropical rainforest in wet climates. This paper describes the AWRA-L interception sub-routine, which is based on the widely used Gash model, and considers how its predictions compare with measurements of interception in tropical rainforests in north Queensland and sparse jarrah forests in Western Australia. The results demonstrate the importance of having accurate estimates of the three parameters which dominate the interception loss (as a fraction of rainfall), i.e. canopy water holding capacity, S, the average wet canopy evaporation rate, E, and the average rainfall rate, R. The current ‘default’ values of these parameters used in AWRA-L lead to significant errors in interception, which will also be reflected in the AWRA stream flow estimates. Analysis of how E and R values vary across the Australian continent have led to recommendations for how the interception calculations made by the AWRA-L model can be improved using values of E and R calculated from forest height and latitude. Revisions of the canopy storage parameters based on regressions derived from measured values at the rainforest and jarrah sites are also evaluated. Overall, the adoption of both updated canopy storage and E/R ratios outlined in this paper does provide a measurable improvement to the performance of the AWRA-L interception model. The approach developed in this study also has direct relevance to other applications of interception models for water balance modelling at large spatial scales.

  4. Estimation of coniferous forest aboveground biomass with aggregated airborne small-footprint LiDAR full-waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Haiming; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Tian, Jianlin; Zhou, Guoqing

    2017-08-07

    Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is critical for assessing forest productivity and evaluating carbon sequestration rates. Discrete-return LiDAR has been widely used to estimate forest AGB, however, fewer studies have estimated the coniferous forest AGB using airborne small-footprint full-waveform LiDAR data. The objective of this study was to extract a suite of newly proposed metrics from airborne small-footprint full-waveform LiDAR data and to evaluate the ability of these metrics in estimating coniferous forest AGB. To achieve this goal, each waveform was first preprocessed, including de-noising, smoothing, and normalization. Next, all the waveforms within each plot were aggregated into a large pseudo waveform and the return energy profile was generated. Then, the foliage profile was retrieved from the return energy profile based on the Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model. Finally, a series of new return energy profile metrics and foliage profile metrics were extracted to estimate forest AGB. Simple linear regression was conducted to assess the correlation between each LiDAR metric and forest AGB. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was then carried out to select important prediction metrics and establish the optimal forest AGB estimation model. Results indicated that both return energy profile and foliage profile based height-related metrics were strongly correlated to forest AGB. The energy weighted canopy height (HEweight) (R = 0.88) and foliage area weighted height (HFweight) (R = 0.89) all had the highest correlation coefficients with forest AGB in return energy profile metrics and foliage profile metrics respectively. Energy height percentiles and foliage height percentiles also had the ability to explain AGB variation. The energy-related metrics, foliage area-related metrics, and bounding volume-related metrics derived from the return energy profile and foliage profile were not all sensitive to forest AGB. This study also concluded that

  5. Developing a global mixed-canopy, height-variable vegetation structure dataset for estimating global vegetation albedo by a clumped canopy radiative transfer scheme in the NASA Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model and GISS GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Carlo; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Yang, Wenze; Schaaf, Crystal; Aleinov, Igor; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Tian; Wang, Zhuosen; Sun, Qingsong; Carrer, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    products are a GVSD consisting of mixed plant communities (e.g. mixed forests, savannas, mixed PFTs) following the Ecosystem Demography model (Moorcroft et al., 2001) approach represented by multi-cohort community patches at the sub-grid level of the GCM, which are ensembles of identical individuals whose differences are represented by PFTs, canopy height, density and vegetation structure sensitivity to allometric parameters. The performance of the Ent TBM in estimating VIS-NIR vegetation albedo by the new GVSD and ACTS is assessed first by comparison against the previous GISS GCM vegetation classification and prescribed Lambertian albedoes of Matthews (1984), and secondly, against MODIS global estimations and FLUXNET site-scale observations. Ultimately, this GVSD will serve as a template for community data sets, and be used as boundary conditions to the Ent TBM for prediction of biomass, carbon balances and GISS GCM climate.

  6. Germination and establishment of Tillandsia eizii (Bromeliaceae) in the canopy of an oak forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo-Aceves, T.; Wolf, J.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of repopulating the inner canopy and middle canopy of oak trees with seeds and seedlings of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia eizii. Canopy germination was 4.7 percent, considerably lower than in vitro (92%). Of the tree-germinated seedlings, only 1.5 percent survived

  7. Improving the precision of dynamic forest parameter estimates using Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan B. Brooks; John W. Coulston; Randolph H. Wynne; Valerie A. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The use of satellite-derived classification maps to improve post-stratified forest parameter estimates is wellestablished.When reducing the variance of post-stratification estimates for forest change parameters such as forestgrowth, it is logical to use a change-related strata map. At the stand level, a time series of Landsat images is

  8. Forest inventory and stratified estimation: a cautionary note

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Coulston

    2008-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses stratified estimation techniques to produce estimates of forest attributes. Stratification must be unbiased and stratification procedures should be examined to identify any potential bias. This note explains simple techniques for identifying potential bias, discriminating between sample bias and stratification bias,...

  9. Annual forest inventory estimates based on the moving average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; James R. Steinman; Michael T. Thompson

    2002-01-01

    Three interpretations of the simple moving average estimator, as applied to the USDA Forest Service's annual forest inventory design, are presented. A corresponding approach to composite estimation over arbitrarily defined land areas and time intervals is given for each interpretation, under the assumption that the investigator is armed with only the spatial/...

  10. Atmospheric particulate deposition in temperate deciduous forest ecosystems: interactions with the canopy and nutrient inputs in two beech stands of Northeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequy, Emeline; Calvaruso, Christophe; Conil, Sébastien; Turpault, Marie-Pierre

    2014-07-15

    As wood harvests are expected to increase to satisfy the need for bio-energy in Europe, quantifying atmospheric nutrient inputs in forest ecosystems is essential for forest management. Current atmospheric measurements only take into account the 0.45 μm fraction of atmospheric deposition, below the canopy, to study the influence of the canopy on APD, and to determine the influence of APD below canopy to nutrient input-output budgets with a focus on base cations calcium, magnesium and potassium, and phosphorus. APD was sampled every four weeks by passive collectors. We divided APD into an organic and a mineral fraction, respectively POM and MDD. MDD was divided into a soluble and a hardly soluble fraction in hydrogen peroxide, referred to as S-MDD and H-MDD, respectively. In order to better understand the influence of the canopy on APD, we studied APD in three pathways below the canopy (litterfall, stemflow and throughfall), and in open field. Our results indicated that APD in throughfall (123 ± 64 kg ha(-1)year(-1)) was significantly higher and synchronic with that in open field (33 ±9 kg ha(-1)year(-1)) in the two study sites. This concerned both POM and MDD, suggesting a large interception of APD by foliar surfaces, which is rapidly washed off by rain within four weeks. Throughfall H-MDD was the main pathway with an average of 16 ± 2 kg ha(-1)year(-1). Stemflow and litterfall were neglected. In one study site, canopy intercepted about 8 kg ha(-1)year(-1) of S-MDD. Although base cations and phosphorus inputs by APD are lower than those of <0.45 μm deposition, they contributed from 5 to 32% to atmospheric deposition and improved the nutrient budget in one of the study sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Canopy stomatal conductance following drought, disturbance and death in an upland oak/pine forest of the New Jersey Pine Barrens, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina V.R. eSchäfer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Stomatal conductance controls carbon and water fluxes in forest ecosystems. Therefore, its accurate characterization in land surface flux models is necessary. Sap-flux scaled canopy conductance was used to evaluate the effect of drought, disturbance and mortality of three oak species (Quercus prinus, Q. velutina and Q. coccinia in an upland oak/pine stand in the New Jersey Pine Barrens from 2005 to 2008. Canopy conductance (GC was analyzed by performing boundary line analysis and selecting for the highest value under a given light condition. Regressing GC with the driving force vapor pressure deficit (VPD resulted in reference canopy conductance at 1 kPa VPD (GCref. Predictably, drought in 2006 caused GCref to decline. Quercus prinus GCref was least affected, followed by Q. coccina, with Q. velutina having the highest reductions in GCref. A defoliation event in 2007 caused GCref to increase due to reduced leaf area and a possible increase in water availability. In Q. prinus, GCref quadrupled, while doubling in Q. velutina, and increasing by 50% in Q. coccina. Tree mortality in 2008 led to higher GCref in the remaining Q. prinus but not in Q. velutina or Q. coccina. Comparing light response curves of canopy conductance (GCref and stomatal conductance (gS derived from gas-exchange measurements showed marked differences in behavior. Canopy GCref failed to saturate under ambient light conditions whereas leaf-level gS saturated at 1200 µmol m-2 s-1. The results presented here emphasize the differential responses of leaf and canopy level conductance to saturating light conditions and the effects of various disturbances (drought, defoliation and mortality on the carbon and water balance of an oak-dominated forest.

  13. The effects of forest canopy shading and turbulence on boundary layer ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, P. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Akingunola, A.; Zhang, J.; McLinden, C.; Kharol, S. K.; Pabla, B.; Cheung, P.; Zheng, Q.

    2017-05-01

    The chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere close to the surface is known to be strongly influenced by vegetation. However, two critical aspects of the forest environment have been neglected in the description of the large-scale influence of forests on air pollution: the reduction of photolysis reaction rates and the modification of vertical transport due to the presence of foliage. Here we show that foliage shading and foliage-modified vertical diffusion have a profound influence on atmospheric chemistry, both at the Earth's surface and extending throughout the atmospheric boundary layer. The absence of these processes in three-dimensional models may account for 59-72% of the positive bias in North American surface ozone forecasts, and up to 97% of the bias in forested regions within the continent. These processes are shown to have similar or greater influence on surface ozone levels as climate change and current emissions policy scenario simulations.

  14. The Polarization Orientation Shift Estimation and Compensation of PolSAR Data in Forest Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan; Li, Lan; Gu, Xinzhi

    2016-08-01

    Polarization orientation angle (POA) is a major parameter of electromagnetic wave. This angle will be shift due to azimuth slopes, which will affect the radiometric quality of PolSAR data. Under the assumption of reflection symmetrical medium, the shift value of polarization orientation angle (POAs) can be estimated by Circular Polarization Method (CPM). Then, the shift angle can be used to compensate PolSAR data or extract DEM information. However, it is less effective when using high-frequency SAR (L-, C-band) in the forest area. The main reason is that the polarization orientation angle shift of forest area not only influenced by topography, but also affected by the forest canopy. Among them, the influence of the former belongs to the interference information should be removed, but the impact of the latter belongs to the polarization feature information needs to be retained. The ALOS2 PALSAR2 L-band full polarimetric SAR data was used in this study. Base on the Circular Polarization and DEM-based method, we analyzed the variation of shift value of polarization orientation angle and developed the polarization orientation shift estimation and compensation of PolSAR data in forest.

  15. Modelling canopy and litter interception in commercial forest plantations in South Africa using the Variable Storage Gash model and idealised drying curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Bulcock

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There remains a gap in the knowledge of both canopy and litter interception processes in forest hydrology and limitations in the models used to represent them. In South Africa, interception is typically considered to constitute only a small portion of the total evaporation and in some models is disregarded. Interception is a threshold process, as a certain amount of water is required before successive processes can take place. Therefore an error or false assumption introduced in modelling interception will automatically introduce errors in the calibration of subsequent models/processes. Field experiments to assess these processes, viz. canopy and litter interception were established for the three main commercial forestry genera in South Africa, namely Pinus, Acacia and Eucalyptus, which are described in a companion paper. Drawing on both field and laboratory data, the "Variable Storage Gash" model for canopy interception and an idealised drying curve litter interception model were developed to represent these processes for South African conditions. The Variable Storage Gash model was compared with the original Gash model and it was found that it performed better than the original model in forests with high storage capacities yet was similar to the original model in stands with a low storage capacity. Thus, the models developed here were shown to adequately represent the interception processes and provide a way forward for more representative water resources planning modelling. It was found that canopy and litter interception can account for as much as 26.6% and 13.4% of gross precipitation, respectively, and are therefore important hydrological processes to consider in forested catchments in South Africa. Despite the limitation of both the Variable Storage Gash model and the idealised drying curve litter interception model being reliant on empirical relationships, their application highlights the importance of considering canopy

  16. High NDVI and Potential Canopy Photosynthesis of South American Subtropical Forests despite Seasonal Changes in Leaf Area Index and Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad M. Cristiano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The canopy photosynthesis and carbon balance of the subtropical forests are not well studied compared to temperate and tropical forest ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to assess the seasonal dynamics of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and potential canopy photosynthesis in relation to seasonal changes in leaf area index (LAI, chlorophyll concentration, and air temperatures of NE Argentina subtropical forests throughout the year. We included in the analysis several tree plantations (Pinus, Eucalyptus and Araucaria species that are known to have high productivity. Field studies in native forests and tree plantations were conducted; stem growth rates, LAI and leaf chlorophyll concentration were measured. MODIS satellite-derived LAI (1 km SIN Grid and NDVI (250m SIN Grid from February 2000 to 2012 were used as a proxy of seasonal dynamics of potential photosynthetic activity at the stand level. The remote sensing LAI of the subtropical forests decreased every year from 6 to 5 during the cold season, similar to field LAI measurements, when temperatures were 10 °C lower than during the summer. The yearly maximum NDVI values were observed during a few months in autumn and spring (March through May and November, respectively because high and low air temperatures may have a small detrimental effect on photosynthetic activity during both the warm and the cold seasons. Leaf chlorophyll concentration was higher during the cold season than the warm season which may have a compensatory effect on the seasonal variation of the NDVI values. The NDVI of the subtropical forest stands remained high and fairly constant throughout the year (the intra-annual coefficient of variation was 1.9%, and were comparable to the values of high-yield tree plantations. These results suggest that the humid subtropical forests in NE Argentina potentially could maintain high canopy photosynthetic activity throughout the year and thus this ecosystem may

  17. Scaling up stomatal conductance from leaf to canopy using a dual-leaf model for estimating crop evapotranspiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng Ding

    Full Text Available The dual-source Shuttleworth-Wallace model has been widely used to estimate and partition crop evapotranspiration (λET. Canopy stomatal conductance (Gsc, an essential parameter of the model, is often calculated by scaling up leaf stomatal conductance, considering the canopy as one single leaf in a so-called "big-leaf" model. However, Gsc can be overestimated or underestimated depending on leaf area index level in the big-leaf model, due to a non-linear stomatal response to light. A dual-leaf model, scaling up Gsc from leaf to canopy, was developed in this study. The non-linear stomata-light relationship was incorporated by dividing the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions and calculating each fraction separately according to absorbed irradiances. The model includes: (1 the absorbed irradiance, determined by separately integrating the sunlit and shaded leaves with consideration of both beam and diffuse radiation; (2 leaf area for the sunlit and shaded fractions; and (3 a leaf conductance model that accounts for the response of stomata to PAR, vapor pressure deficit and available soil water. In contrast to the significant errors of Gsc in the big-leaf model, the predicted Gsc using the dual-leaf model had a high degree of data-model agreement; the slope of the linear regression between daytime predictions and measurements was 1.01 (R2 = 0.98, with RMSE of 0.6120 mm s-1 for four clear-sky days in different growth stages. The estimates of half-hourly λET using the dual-source dual-leaf model (DSDL agreed well with measurements and the error was within 5% during two growing seasons of maize with differing hydrometeorological and management strategies. Moreover, the estimates of soil evaporation using the DSDL model closely matched actual measurements. Our results indicate that the DSDL model can produce more accurate estimation of Gsc and λET, compared to the big-leaf model, and thus is an effective alternative approach for estimating and

  18. Estimating Carbon Storage of a Temperate North American Forest with Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, A. E.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary forests in North America act as one of the largest active carbon sinks in the world, yet current estimates of forest biomass are widely varied when based on allometric equations alone. Remote sensing data such as LIDAR offers an excellent method of quantifying biomass, but information on structural heterogeneity is often lost, even with postings of approximately 0.5 meters. In order to inform estimates of biomass and carbon storage the use of a high-precision Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) can be employed and three-dimensional structure of the forest can be resolved with sub-centimeter accuracy, improving current allometric equations. This technology is utilized on 16 15-meter radius plots within the temperate forest of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute outside of Front Royal, VA with a Faro Focus 3D. A stem map of this forest has recently been created, allowing a direct comparison between manual measurement methods and TLS. Standard measurements such as DBH, tree height, and basal area can then quickly be calculated within the three-dimensional point cloud. A DEM at the plot scale is developed with the point cloud data and the structure of the forest can be resolved. Volumetric calculations can be used to determine biomass at the plot level, a fine-scale variable that is otherwise not obtainable without destruction of the sample. The calculation of biomass will inform current estimates of carbon storage that have been made with course 30 m resolution data (i.e. Landsat). Canopy and understory structure can be analyzed with these methods, helping inform current knowledge of habitat suitability and complexity.

  19. Tree dynamics in canopy gaps in old-growth forests of Nothofagus pumilio in Southern Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fajardo, Alex; Graaf, de N.R.

    2004-01-01

    The gap dynamics of two Nothofagus pumilio (lenga) stands have been investigated. We evaluated and compared tree diameter distributions, spatial patterns, tree fall and gap characteristics and regeneration responses in gaps in two old-growth forests of Nothofagus pumilio in Southern Chile

  20. Sustaining northern red oak forests: managing oak from regeneration to canopy dominance in mature stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Gary W. Miller; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Across the range of northern red oak, managers have problems sustaining current stocking of northern red oak in forests. Oak species are adapted to frequent stand disturbances that reduce the abundance of shade tolerant competitors and control fast-growing pioneer species. A widely recommended approach to regenerating northern red oak is to develop relatively large...

  1. Drought during canopy development has lasting effect on annual carbon balance in a deciduous temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Steve G. McNulty; Jared L. DeForest; Ge Sun; Qinglin Li; Jiquan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Climate change projections predict an intensifying hydrologic cycle and an increasing frequency of droughts, yet quantitative understanding of the effects on ecosystem carbon exchange remains limitedHere, the effect of contrasting precipitation and soil moisture dynamics were evaluated on forest carbon exchange using 2 yr of...

  2. Quantitative remote sensing for monitoring forest canopy structural variables in the Three Gorges region of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Bridging various scales ranging from local to regional and global, remote sensing has facilitated extraordinary advances in modeling and mapping ecosystems and their functioning. Since forests are one of the most important natural resources on the terrestrial Earth surface, accurate and up-to-date

  3. Leaf photosynthetic traits scale with hydraulic conductivity and wood density in Panamanian forest canopy trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.S. Santiago; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; J.B. Fisher; K. Maehado; D. Woodruff; T. Jones

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how water transport capacity, wood density and wood anatomy were related to leaf photosynthetic traits in two lowland forests in Panama. Leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity (kL) of upper branches was positively correlated with maximum rates of net CO2, assimilation per unit leaf area (Aarea...

  4. Stable water isotopes suggest sub-canopy water recycling in a northern forested catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. Green; Bethany K. Laursen; John L. Campbell; Kevin J. McGuire; Eric P. Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Stable water isotopes provide a means of tracing many hydrologic processes, including poorly understood dynamics like soil water interactions with the atmosphere. We present a four-year dataset of biweekly water isotope samples from eight fluxes and stores in a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. We use Dansgaard's...

  5. Regeneration in canopy gaps of tierra-firme forest in the Peruvian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Jovanovic, Milos; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Reduced impact logging (RIL) has been promoted as a cornerstone in sustainable forest management in the tropics, although the ecological implications of RIL guidelines are poorly understood. This study aims to identify the impact of RIL on the regeneration of commercial timber species by comparin...

  6. Spectroscopic Remote Sensing of Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Forest Canopies

    OpenAIRE

    Asner, Gregory P.; Martin, Roberta E.

    2015-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) are products of photosynthesis, and leaf NSC concentration may be a prognostic indicator of climate-change tolerance in woody plants. However, measurement of leaf NSC is prohibitively labor intensive, especially in tropical forests, where foliage is difficult to access and where NSC concentrations vary enormously by species and across environments. Imaging spectroscopy may allow quantitative mapping of leaf NSC, but this possibility remains unproven. We test...

  7. Estimating carbon stocks based on forest volume-age relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangnan, Y.; Lee, W.; Son, Y.; Kwak, D.; Nam, K.; Moonil, K.; Taesung, K.

    2012-12-01

    This research attempted to estimate potential change of forest carbon stocks between 2010 and 2110 in South Korea, using the forest cover map and National Forest Inventory (NFI) data. Allometric functions (logistic regression models) of volume-age relationships were developed to estimate carbon stock change during upcoming 100 years for Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, Pinus rigida, Larix kaempferi,and Quercus spp. The current forest volume was estimated with the developed regression model and 4th forest cover map. The future volume was predicted by developed volume-age models with adding n years to current age. As a result, we found that the total forest volume would increase from 126.89 m^3/ha to 246.61 m^3/ha and the carbon stocks would increase from 90.55 Mg C ha^(-1) to 174.62 Mg C ha^(-1) during 100 years when current forest remains unchanged. The carbon stocks would increase by approximately 0.84 Mg C ha^(-1) yr^(-1), which has high value if considering other northern countries' (Canada, Russia, China) -0.10 ~ 0.28 Mg C ha^(-1) yr^(-1) in pervious study. This can be attributed to the fact that mixed forest and bamboo forest in this study did not considered. Moreover, it must be influenced by that the change of carbon stocks was estimated without the consideration of mortality, thinning, and tree species' change in this study. ;

  8. Estimation of biomass and canopy height in bermudagrass, alfalfa, and wheat using ultrasonic, laser, and spectral sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Jeremy Joshua; Arnall, Daryl Brian; Interrante, Sindy M; Moffet, Corey A; Butler, Twain J

    2015-01-28

    Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral) as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick) and the traditional harvest method (clipping). Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha(-1), respectively), except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass 6.4 t·ha(-1)). These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation.

  9. Effects of Tree Canopy Structure and Understory Vegetation on the Effectiveness of Open-Top-Chamber in Manipulating Boreal Forest Microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, L. M.; Nilsson, M. C.; Wardle, D.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2014-12-01

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) are widely used to passively increase soil and air temperature in various open habitats, such as alpine and arctic tundra, and temperate grasslands. Several studies report warming effects of 1-2 °C in arctic and alpine tundra, and up to 6 °C in temperate grasslands. The variation between studies can be mostly attributed to differences in the abiotic environment, such as snow cover and solar irradiance. Vegetation height and openness affects the amount of irradiance that reaches the ground and may therefore indirectly impact the effectiveness of OTCs. The use of OTCs in forested ecosystems might therefore be limited by reduced canopy openness, while their effect on changes in soil temperature and soil moisture content might additionally be affected by the understory vegetation type and cover. Nevertheless, OTC's are an immensely useful tool in climate-change studies, and could benefit research in forest ecosystems. In this study we therefore investigated whether OTCs can be used to manipulate microclimate in the northern boreal forest and how tree canopy cover and understory vegetation influence OTC effects on air and soil temperature and on soil moisture content.We compared OTC effects at ten sites that were situated along a fire chronosequence in the northern boreal forest in Sweden. Sites were dominated by Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies, and time since the last fire ranged from 47-367 years, resulting in varying degrees of tree canopy openness. We applied full factorial combinations of OTC warming and dwarf shrub removal and moss removal at each site. We measured canopy cover using hemispherical photography; air and soil temperature as well as soil moisture were measured hourly from June until September. Preliminary analyses indicate that OTCs increased monthly mean air temperatures by up to 0.9 °C across all treatments and forest stands. However, the degree of warming showed clear relations with the presence or absence of the

  10. Estimating down deadwood from FIA forest inventory variables in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacky, David C; Heath, Linda S

    2002-01-01

    Down deadwood (DDW) is a carbon component important in the function and structure of forest ecosystems, but estimating DDW is problematic because these data are not widely available in forest inventory databases. However, DDW data were collected on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots during Maine's 1995 inventory. This study examines ways to predict DDW biomass from other FIA variables so that DDW could be estimated without tedious measurement. Our results include a regression model that predicts DDW as a function of stand size class, basal area of dead and cut trees, and dummy variables for forest type and forest industry ownership. We also found DDW similar to FIA's standing-tree mortality at a statewide scale.

  11. The role of terrestrial vegetation in mercury deposition: fate of stable mercury isotopes applied to upland and wetland forest canopies during the METAALICUS experiment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, J. A.; St. Louis, V. L.; Lindberg, S. E.; Sandilands, K.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Tate, M. T.; Harris, R.; Emmerton, C. A.; Richardson, M.; Asmath, H.

    2009-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an organic, neurotoxic form of mercury (Hg) that is responsible for fish consumption advisories in North American freshwaters. It is generally believed that increases in anthropogenic Hg emissions have resulted in high MeHg concentrations of fish. However, a direct relationship between deposition of inorganic Hg(II) and concentrations of MeHg in fish has been difficult to demonstrate because of our inability to distinguish newly-deposited Hg from Hg accumulated historically in ecosystems. The Mercury Experiment to Assess Atmospheric Loading In Canada and the US (METAALICUS) increased atmospheric inputs of mercury (Hg) to a small lake and its watershed to levels comparable to those in more industrialized regions. Between 2001 and 2006, three different enriched stable isotopes of Hg (spikes) were loaded to the watershed, one each to the surface of the lake (200Hg), the wetland (198Hg) and the forested upland (202Hg) areas of the catchment to determine the relative contribution of these sources to fish MeHg concentrations. Terrestrial vegetation often represents the first landscape compartment that new atmospheric Hg contacts upon deposition, and plants act as conduits of atmospheric Hg to the landscape. We will present pools and fluxes of spike Hg within upland and wetland canopy and ground vegetation compartments. Our Geographical Information Systems-based modeling approach to calculating spike pools used aircraft spray tracks, regressions between spike application rate and concentrations of spike in vegetation, a LiDAR-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) map and relationships between LAI and canopy biomass. We observed that 30-50% of spike Hg applied to the upland and wetland was initially intercepted by the forest canopy. Average half lives of spike Hg on deciduous (110±30 days) and coniferous (180±40 days) forest canopy and ground vegetation (890±620 days) indicated that retention of new atmospheric Hg(II) on terrestrial vegetation delays

  12. Coalescence of fog droplets: Differential fog water deposition on wet and dry forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, C.; Barrero, J.

    2010-07-01

    The Páramo ecosystem is a high-altitude (2800 - 4500 masl), natural ecosystems which comprises approximately 42000 km2, extending across the Andes from north of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and western part of Venezuela. Andean páramos are widely considered to be prime suppliers of large volumes of high-quality water for large cities and for hydropower production. As páramos tend to be subjected to persistent fog incidence, fog interception by the vegetation is a common process in these ecosystems, representing not only an extra input of water to the ecosystem but also to suppress evaporation. In this process, small drops of water, transported by the wind, are captured by the surfaces of the vegetation, acting as physical obstacles to the flow of fog. These drops condense in the exposed surfaces and drip towards the ground or evaporate from the surfaces. The quantification of the magnitude of these processes is important for the quantification of the water balance of river basins where these types of ecosystems exist. Although the great hydrological importance of fog in montane tropical ecosystems little is known about its physical principles related to the interception of fog by physical barriers as vegetation, notably the differential behaviour of a wet and dry vegetation in the efficiency of capturing water from the fog. To characterize and quantify this efficiency of páramo vegetation in capturing water from the fog, during wet and dry canopy conditions, an experimental design was set up at the Páramo de Chingaza (Colombia) where paired samples of espeletia branches (dry and wet) were exposed to different fog events, and at the same time Juvik cylinders were exposed by the side of the experimental site, to measured fog inputs. Cylinders were also paired (wet and dry) at the beginning of the experiments. Results indicated that exposed wet and dry samples have a significant difference on the magnitude of water intercepted from the fog, being, in average, the wet

  13. Monitoring phenology of photosynthesis in temperate evergreen and mixed deciduous forests using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) at leaf and canopy scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Arain, M. A.; Ensminger, I.

    2016-12-01

    Evergreen conifers in boreal and temperate regions undergo strong seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperatures, which determines their phenology of high photosynthetic activity in the growing season and downregulation during the winter. Monitoring the timing of the transition between summer activity and winter downregulation in evergreens is difficult since this is a largely invisible process, unlike in deciduous trees that have a visible budding and a sequence of leaf unfolding in the spring and leaf abscission in the fall. The light-use efficiency (LUE) model estimates gross primary productivity (GPP) and may be parameterized using remotely sensed vegetation indices. Using spectral reflectance data, we derived the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a measure of leaf "greenness", and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), a proxy for chlorophyll:carotenoid ratios which is related to photosynthetic activity. To better understand the relationship between these vegetation indices and photosynthetic activity and to contrast this relationship between plant functional types, the phenology of NDVI, PRI and photosynthesis was monitored in an evergreen forest and a mixed deciduous forest at the leaf and canopy scale. Our data indicates that the LUE model can be parameterized by NDVI and PRI to track forest phenology. Differences in the sensitivity of PRI and NDVI will be discussed. These findings have implications to address the phenology of evergreen conifers by using PRI to complement NDVI in the LUE model, potentially improving model productivity estimates in northern hemisphere forests, that are dominated by conifers.

  14. Hurricane disturbance and recovery of energy balance, CO2 fluxes and canopy structure in a mangrove forest of the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Smith, Thomas J.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and energy balance are examined to investigate the functional responses of a mature mangrove forest to a disturbance generated by Hurricane Wilma on October 24, 2005 in the Florida Everglades. At the EC site, high winds from the hurricane caused nearly 100% defoliation in the upper canopy and widespread tree mortality. Soil temperatures down to -50 cm increased, and air temperature lapse rates within the forest canopy switched from statically stable to statically unstable conditions following the disturbance. Unstable conditions allowed more efficient transport of water vapor and CO2 from the surface up to the upper canopy layer. Significant increases in latent heat fluxes (LE) and nighttime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were also observed and sensible heat fluxes (H) as a proportion of net radiation decreased significantly in response to the disturbance. Many of these impacts persisted through much of the study period through 2009. However, local albedo and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer) data (the Enhanced Vegetation Index) indicated a substantial proportion of active leaf area recovered before the EC measurements began 1 year after the storm. Observed changes in the vertical distribution and the degree of clumping in newly emerged leaves may have affected the energy balance. Direct comparisons of daytime NEE values from before the storm and after our measurements resumed did not show substantial or consistent differences that could be attributed to the disturbance. Regression analyses on seasonal time scales were required to differentiate the storm's impact on monthly average daytime NEE from the changes caused by interannual variability in other environmental drivers. The effects of the storm were apparent on annual time scales, and CO2 uptake remained approximately 250 g C m-2 yr-1 lower in 2009 compared to the average annual values measured in 2004–2005. Dry season CO2

  15. A Thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance Model for Estimating Evapotranspiration over Complex Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustas, William; Anderson, Martha; Nieto, Hector; Andreu, Ana; Yang, Yun; Cammalleri, Carmelo; Alfieri, Joseph; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Torres-Rua, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information for quantifying root-zone water availability, evapotranspiration (ET) and crop condition as well as providing useful information for constraining prognostic land surface models. This presentation describes a robust but relatively simple LST-based land surface model called the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model. The TSEB algorithms solve for the soil/substrate and canopy temperatures that achieves a balance in the radiation and turbulent heat flux exchange for the soil/substrate and vegetation elements coupled to the lower atmosphere. As a result, the TSEB modeling framework is applicable to a wide range of environmental and canopy cover conditions, which has been a limitation in many other LST-based energy balance approaches. This is particularly relevant in applying surface energy balance models using LST over heterogeneous landscapes with complex vegetation distribution and architecture/structure. An overview of applications of the TSEB modeling framework to a variety of landscapes will be presented. In addition, a modeling system will be described called the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) that couples the TSEB scheme with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely map continental-scale daily ET at 5 to 10-km resolution using geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI) spatially disaggregates ALEXI output down to finer spatial resolutions using polar orbiting satellites such as Landsat, which provides pixel resolutions at the scale of human management activities affecting land use⪉nd cover.

  16. Hyperspectral data mining to identify relevant canopy spectral features for estimating durum wheat growth, nitrogen status, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern hyperspectral sensors permit reflectance measurements of crop canopies in hundreds of narrow spectral wavebands. While these sensors describe plant canopy reflectance in greater detail than multispectral sensors, they also suffer from issues with data redundancy and spectral autocorrelation. ...

  17. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Currently available data on net primary production in tropical forests are extremely limited. Even the best estimates for this biome must be thought of as...

  18. Tropical forest biomass estimation from truncated stand tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. J. R. Gillespie; S. Brown; A. E. Lugo

    1992-01-01

    Total aboveground forest biomass may be estimated through a variety of techniques based on commercial inventory stand and stock tables. Stand and stock tables from tropical countries commonly omit trees bellow a certain commercial limit.

  19. Tree height integrated into pantropical forest biomass estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldpausch, T.R.; Lloyd, J.; Lewis, S.L.; Brienen, R.J.W.; Gloor, M.; Montegudo Mendoza, A.; Arets, E.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground tropical tree biomass and carbon storage estimates commonly ignore tree height (H). We estimate the effect of incorporating H on tropics-wide forest biomass estimates in 327 plots across four continents using 42 656 H and diameter measurements and harvested trees from 20 sites to answer

  20. An experimental analysis of canopy flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalini, Antonio; Fransson, Jens H. M.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    2011-12-01

    An analysis of forest canopy flows with a wind tunnel model at high Reynolds number is presented and discussed. Measured mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles agree with observations made in real canopies with no sensible Reynolds number dependence, adding confidence to the results obtained with the present setup. The analysis of power density spectra of the three velocity components and of the shear stress co-spectra is reported with new coordinate scalings able to improve the collapse of the spectra compared to standard normalizations. This scaling is mostly based on the respective integral time scale and a simple fit is proposed to estimate such a quantity in real canopies. From the analysis of joint probability density functions, three different regions have been localized where a change in the coherent structure behavior is supposed to take place, similarly to what happens in rough wall turbulent boundary layers.

  1. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Canopy Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Charest, Martin; Sy, Mikailou

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set contains canopy biochemistry data collected in 1994 in the NSA at the YJP, OJR, OBS, UBS, and OA sites, including biochemistry lignin, nitrogen, cellulose, starch, and fiber concentrations. These data were collected to study the spatial and temporal changes in the canopy biochemistry of boreal forest cover types and how a high-resolution radiative transfer model in the mid-infrared could be applied in an effort to obtain better estimates of canopy biochemical properties using remote sensing. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  2. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammalleri, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Ciraolo, G.; Durso, G.; Kustas, W. P.; La Loggia, G.; Minacapilli, M.

    2010-12-01

    For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%), typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can strongly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977), Massman (1987) and Lalic et al. (2003). The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model developed by Norman et al. (1995) and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999). High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy) comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters needed to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlights the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical range of canopy properties encountered in these agricultural areas. It is found that differences among the models in wind just above the soil surface are most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (15-50%). The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micro

  3. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cammalleri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%, typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer ca