WorldWideScience

Sample records for estimates show annual

  1. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND... § 305.5 Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

  2. Estimated Annual Maintenance Costs for Educational Facilities in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea.......Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea....

  3. Multi-annual forward estimate - gas 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRDF, GRTgaz, SPEGNN and TIGF gas transport and distribution operators have the responsibility to publish a reference document about the multi-annual forward estimate of gas consumption evolution and renewable gas production. This document is the second joint forecast report published by the 4 French gas operators. It presents, first, the situation, hypotheses, analysis and perspectives of the 4 main sectoral gas markets (residential, tertiary, industrial, mobility), then, the centralized power generation and cogeneration, next, the production of renewable gas (different sectors, hypotheses, analysis and perspectives), and finally, a multi-sectorial vision according to 3 different scenarios

  4. Multi-annual forward estimate - gas 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    GRDF, GRTgaz, SPEGNN and TIGF gas transport and distribution operators have the responsibility to publish a reference document about the multi-annual forward estimate of gas consumption evolution and renewable gas production. This document is the first joint forecast report published by the 4 French gas operators. It presents, first, the situation, hypotheses, analysis and perspectives of the 4 main sectoral gas markets (residential, tertiary, industrial, mobility), then, the centralized power generation and cogeneration, next, the production of renewable gas (different sectors, hypotheses, analysis and perspectives), and finally, a multi-sectorial vision according to 3 different scenarios

  5. Estimated annual economic loss from organ condemnation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as a basis for the analysis of estimation of the economic significance of bovine .... percent involvement of each organ were used in the estimation of the financial loss from organ .... DVM thesis, Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary.

  6. Estimating annual bole biomass production using uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis J. Woolley; Mark E. Harmon; Kari B. O' Connell

    2007-01-01

    Two common sampling methodologies coupled with a simple statistical model were evaluated to determine the accuracy and precision of annual bole biomass production (BBP) and inter-annual variability estimates using this type of approach. We performed an uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo methods in conjunction with radial growth core data from trees in three Douglas...

  7. GIS Tools to Estimate Average Annual Daily Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project presents five tools that were created for a geographical information system to estimate Annual Average Daily : Traffic using linear regression. Three of the tools can be used to prepare spatial data for linear regression. One tool can be...

  8. Estimating carbon and showing impacts of drought using satellite data in regression-tree models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Danny; Dahal, Devendra; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2018-01-01

    Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large geographic spaces, allowing a better understanding of broad-scale ecosystem processes. The current study presents annual gross primary production (GPP) and annual ecosystem respiration (RE) for 2000–2013 in several short-statured vegetation types using carbon flux data from towers that are located strategically across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We calculate carbon fluxes (annual net ecosystem production [NEP]) for each year in our study period, which includes 2012 when drought and higher-than-normal temperatures influence vegetation productivity in large parts of the study area. We present and analyse carbon flux dynamics in the CONUS to better understand how drought affects GPP, RE, and NEP. Model accuracy metrics show strong correlation coefficients (r) (r ≥ 94%) between training and estimated data for both GPP and RE. Overall, average annual GPP, RE, and NEP are relatively constant throughout the study period except during 2012 when almost 60% less carbon is sequestered than normal. These results allow us to conclude that this modelling method effectively estimates carbon dynamics through time and allows the exploration of impacts of meteorological anomalies and vegetation types on carbon dynamics.

  9. Estimating forest conversion rates with annual forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The rate of land-use conversion from forest to nonforest or natural forest to forest plantation is of interest for forest certification purposes and also as part of the process of assessing forest sustainability. Conversion rates can be estimated from remeasured inventory plots in general, but the emphasis here is on annual inventory data. A new estimator is proposed...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Estimation of annual occupational effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nagasaki nuclear bomb survivors, who have demonstrated increased ... atomic numbers as soft tissue, and their energy responses to absorbed radiation show little ... suitable thermal treatment, making them cost-effective and viable in the long ...

  11. 76 FR 1065 - Security Zone; 23rd Annual North American International Auto Show, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; 23rd Annual North American International Auto Show, Detroit River, Detroit, MI... officials at the 23rd Annual North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) being held at Cobo Hall in... 23rd Annual North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) being held at Cobo Hall in downtown Detroit...

  12. 77 FR 76411 - Security Zone; 25th Annual North American International Auto Show, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; 25th Annual North American International Auto Show, Detroit River, Detroit, MI..., visitors, and public officials at the 25th Annual North American International Auto Show (NAIAS), which is... Purpose The 25th Annual North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) will be held at Cobo Hall in...

  13. 77 FR 2453 - Security Zone; 24th Annual North American International Auto Show, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; 24th Annual North American International Auto Show, Detroit River, Detroit, MI..., visitors, and public officials at the 24th Annual North American International Auto Show (NAIAS), which is... The 24th Annual North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) will be held at Cobo Hall in downtown...

  14. Challenges of estimating the annual caseload of severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deconinck, Hedwig; Pesonen, Anaïs; Hallarou, Mahaman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Reliable prospective estimates of annual severe acute malnutrition (SAM) caseloads for treatment are needed for policy decisions and planning of quality services in the context of competing public health priorities and limited resources. This paper compares the reliability of SAM...

  15. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

  16. R&W Club Frederick Hosts Second Annual Car Show | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 1994 Ford Thunderbird, a 2006 Porsche 911-S, and a 1996 Chevy Camaro Z28 were just a few of the rides on display this summer at R&W Club Frederick’s second annual Car and Motorcycle Show. “It’s a chance to raise money for a good cause,” said Geoff Seidel, one of the organizers of the event and program director for the Coordinating Center for Clinical Trials, NCI Office of

  17. Estimating annualized earthquake losses for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Bausch, Douglas; Chen, Rui; Bouabid, Jawhar; Seligson, Hope

    2015-01-01

    We make use of the most recent National Seismic Hazard Maps (the years 2008 and 2014 cycles), updated census data on population, and economic exposure estimates of general building stock to quantify annualized earthquake loss (AEL) for the conterminous United States. The AEL analyses were performed using the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Hazus software, which facilitated a systematic comparison of the influence of the 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps in terms of annualized loss estimates in different parts of the country. The losses from an individual earthquake could easily exceed many tens of billions of dollars, and the long-term averaged value of losses from all earthquakes within the conterminous U.S. has been estimated to be a few billion dollars per year. This study estimated nationwide losses to be approximately $4.5 billion per year (in 2012$), roughly 80% of which can be attributed to the States of California, Oregon and Washington. We document the change in estimated AELs arising solely from the change in the assumed hazard map. The change from the 2008 map to the 2014 map results in a 10 to 20% reduction in AELs for the highly seismic States of the Western United States, whereas the reduction is even more significant for Central and Eastern United States.

  18. Proceedings of the 20. annual CanWEA conference and trade show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Wind energy is the most competitive large-scale electricity alternative to hydro-electricity and natural gas. Approximately 10,000 MW of wind energy energy may be required in order to meet demand in Canada by 2010. This annual conference provided a forum for decision-makers, industry leaders, power marketers, and regulatory administrators to discuss methods of meeting Canada's future energy supplies. Financial and industrial challenges to the growth of the wind power industry were discussed. Market drivers for wind development in Canada were reviewed, as well as the global status of the wind power industry. Technological advances in wind power were assessed, and issues related to grid integration and reliability were discussed. The conference was divided into 3 sessions: (1) global status and future prospects; (2) the Canadian challenge and opportunity; and (3) the Canadian Wind Energy Association annual general meeting. The conference included a trade show with exhibitions of new technologies related to wind power. The conference featured 31 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Estimated annual cost of arterial hypertension treatment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Murilo W; Riera, Rachel; Ferraz, Marcos B

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the direct annual cost of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) treatment in Brazil's public and private health care systems, assess its economic impact on the total health care budget, and determine its proportion of the 2005 gross domestic product (GDP). A decision tree model was used to determine direct costs based on estimated use of various resources in SAH diagnosis and care, including treatment (medication and non-medication), complementary exams, doctor visits, nutritional assessments, and emergency room visits. Estimated direct annual cost of SAH treatment was approximately US$ 398.9 million for the public health care system and US$ 272.7 million for the private system, representing 0.08% of the 2005 GDP (ranging from 0.05% to 0.16%). With total health care expenses comprising about 7.6% of Brazil's GDP, this cost represented 1.11% of overall health care costs (0.62% to 2.06%)-1.43% of total expenses for the Unified Healthcare System (Sistema Unico de Saúde, SUS) (0.79% to 2.75%) and 0.83% of expenses for the private health care system (0.47% to 1.48%). Conclusion. To guarantee public or private health care based on the principles of universality and equality, with limited available resources, efforts must be focused on educating the population on prevention and treatment compliance in diseases such as SAH that require significant health resources.

  20. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  1. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Virgin America Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.

  2. Cost estimation of thermal and nuclear power using annual securities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Nagatomi, Yu; Murakami, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    Cost estimation of generation cost derived from various power sources was widely conducted using model plant or annual securities report of electric utilities. Although annual securities report method was subjected to some limitation in methodology itself, useful information was obtained for cost comparison of thermal and nuclear power. Studies on generation cost evaluation of thermal and nuclear power based on this method during past five years showed that nuclear power cost was almost stable 7 Yen/kWh and thermal power cost was varying 9 - 12 Yen/kWh dependent on violent fluctuations of primary energy cost. Nuclear power was expected cost increase due to enhanced safety requirements or damage compensation of accidents as well as decommissioning and back-end cost, which were difficult to evaluate accurately with annual securities report. Further comprehensive and accurate cost estimation should be encouraged including these items. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Proceedings of CanWEA's 24. annual conference and trade show : fast forward to wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Wind Energy Association's conference and trade show provides an annual forum for wind developers, wind turbine manufacturers, component suppliers and electric utility operators to discuss issues currently facing the wind industry and measures that must be taken to ensure its future growth in Canada. As part of a range of renewable energy initiatives designed to help Canada reach its target commitments for the Kyoto Protocol, the expansion of the wind industry is expected to reduce the country's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and provide significant economic benefits to local communities. However, the wind industry is facing a number of challenges and constraints due to a lack of clear policies from provincial and federal governments. Significant infrastructure investments and financial incentives will need to be put in place in order to provide a secure foundation for future growth. The conference was divided into 3 tracks: (1) wind energy enhancement in Canada; (2) trends in wind research and development; and (3) the business of wind. Presentations examined solutions related to wind energy integration with electricity grids and discussed methods of building social acceptance of wind projects in communities. Advances in forecasting and computerized simulations were presented, and methods of negotiating environmental assessments and planning permit requirements were discussed. The conference also included a small wind pre-conference that addressed issues related to the growth and manufacturing of small wind turbines in Canada. The conference featured 88 presentations, of which 69 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  4. Estimating Winter Annual Biomass in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts with Satellite- and Ground-Based Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley C. Reed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter annual plants in southwestern North America influence fire regimes, provide forage, and help prevent erosion. Exotic annuals may also threaten native species. Monitoring winter annuals is difficult because of their ephemeral nature, making the development of a satellite monitoring tool valuable. We mapped winter annual aboveground biomass in the Desert Southwest from satellite observations, evaluating 18 algorithms using time-series vegetation indices (VI. Field-based biomass estimates were used to calibrate and evaluate each algorithm. Winter annual biomass was best estimated by calculating a base VI across the period of record and subtracting it from the peak VI for each winter season (R2 = 0.92. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI derived from 8-day reflectance data provided the best estimate of winter annual biomass. It is important to account for the timing of peak vegetation when relating field-based estimates to satellite VI data, since post-peak field estimates may indicate senescent biomass which is inaccurately represented by VI-based estimates. Images generated from the best-performing algorithm show both spatial and temporal variation in winter annual biomass. Efforts to manage this variable resource would be enhanced by a tool that allows the monitoring of changes in winter annual resources over time.

  5. First-Annual Global Clean Energy Manufacturing Report Shows Strong Domestic Benefits for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EERE Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) commissioned the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center to conduct the first-ever annual assessment of the economic state of global clean energy manufacturing. The report, Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing, makes economic data on clean energy technology widely available.

  6. Global estimation of long-term persistence in annual river runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markonis, Y.; Moustakis, Y.; Nasika, C.; Sychova, P.; Dimitriadis, P.; Hanel, M.; Máca, P.; Papalexiou, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    Long-term persistence (LTP) of annual river runoff is a topic of ongoing hydrological research, due to its implications to water resources management. Here, we estimate its strength, measured by the Hurst coefficient H, in 696 annual, globally distributed, streamflow records with at least 80 years of data. We use three estimation methods (maximum likelihood estimator, Whittle estimator and least squares variance) resulting in similar mean values of H close to 0.65. Subsequently, we explore potential factors influencing H by two linear (Spearman's rank correlation, multiple linear regression) and two non-linear (self-organizing maps, random forests) techniques. Catchment area is found to be crucial for medium to larger watersheds, while climatic controls, such as aridity index, have higher impact to smaller ones. Our findings indicate that long-term persistence is weaker than found in other studies, suggesting that enhanced LTP is encountered in large-catchment rivers, were the effect of spatial aggregation is more intense. However, we also show that the estimated values of H can be reproduced by a short-term persistence stochastic model such as an auto-regressive AR(1) process. A direct consequence is that some of the most common methods for the estimation of H coefficient, might not be suitable for discriminating short- and long-term persistence even in long observational records.

  7. Using remotely sensed imagery to estimate potential annual pollutant loads in river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Oki, Kazuo; Wang, Yi; Oki, Taikan

    2009-01-01

    Land cover changes around river basins have caused serious environmental degradation in global surface water areas, in which the direct monitoring and numerical modeling is inherently difficult. Prediction of pollutant loads is therefore crucial to river environmental management under the impact of climate change and intensified human activities. This research analyzed the relationship between land cover types estimated from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery and the potential annual pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. Then an empirical approach, which estimates annual pollutant loads directly from satellite imagery and hydrological data, was investigated. Six water quality indicators were examined, including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), suspended sediment (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The pollutant loads of TN, TP, SS, BOD, COD, and DO were then estimated for 30 river basins in Japan. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. These results may be useful in establishing total maximum annual pollutant loads and developing best management strategies for surface water pollution at river basin scale.

  8. Proceedings of the 4. annual international greening rooftops for sustainable communities conference, awards and trade show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Green roof technologies represent opportunities for significant social, economic and environmental benefits, particularly in urban areas. This conference, awards and trade show provided a forum to discuss the integration of nature with architecture and demonstrated the possibilities of applying advanced green roof technology to residential, institutional, industrial and commercial buildings. Sustainable landscaping principles were reviewed along with methods and techniques of urban ecology. Green roofs have proven to filter polluted air, reduce energy demands, and assist in stormwater management. The additional benefits of green roof technology in urban settings include moderation of the urban heat island effect, creation of green spaces, and preservation of habitat and biodiversity. It was noted that the widespread adoption of green roof technology in North America lags behind Europe due to a lack of effective policy instruments and standards. The conference was divided into the following 3 main sessions: (1) policy and program development, (2) case studies and design, and (3) research on technical performance benefits. The conference featured 40 presentations, of which 36 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Plant Distribution Data Show Broader Climatic Limits than Expert-Based Climatic Tolerance Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A Curtis

    Full Text Available Although increasingly sophisticated environmental measures are being applied to species distributions models, the focus remains on using climatic data to provide estimates of habitat suitability. Climatic tolerance estimates based on expert knowledge are available for a wide range of plants via the USDA PLANTS database. We aim to test how climatic tolerance inferred from plant distribution records relates to tolerance estimated by experts. Further, we use this information to identify circumstances when species distributions are more likely to approximate climatic tolerance.We compiled expert knowledge estimates of minimum and maximum precipitation and minimum temperature tolerance for over 1800 conservation plant species from the 'plant characteristics' information in the USDA PLANTS database. We derived climatic tolerance from distribution data downloaded from the Global Biodiversity and Information Facility (GBIF and corresponding climate from WorldClim. We compared expert-derived climatic tolerance to empirical estimates to find the difference between their inferred climate niches (ΔCN, and tested whether ΔCN was influenced by growth form or range size.Climate niches calculated from distribution data were significantly broader than expert-based tolerance estimates (Mann-Whitney p values << 0.001. The average plant could tolerate 24 mm lower minimum precipitation, 14 mm higher maximum precipitation, and 7° C lower minimum temperatures based on distribution data relative to expert-based tolerance estimates. Species with larger ranges had greater ΔCN for minimum precipitation and minimum temperature. For maximum precipitation and minimum temperature, forbs and grasses tended to have larger ΔCN while grasses and trees had larger ΔCN for minimum precipitation.Our results show that distribution data are consistently broader than USDA PLANTS experts' knowledge and likely provide more robust estimates of climatic tolerance, especially for

  10. Groundwater recharge in Wisconsin--Annual estimates for 1970-99 using streamflow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Warren A.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2011-01-01

    The groundwater component of streamflow is important because it is indicative of the sustained flow of a stream during dry periods, is often of better quality, and has a smaller range of temperatures, than surface contributions to streamflow. All three of these characteristics are important to the health of aquatic life in a stream. If recharge to the aquifers is to be preserved or enhanced, it is important to understand the present partitioning of total streamflow into base flow and stormflow. Additionally, an estimate of groundwater recharge is important for understanding the flows within a groundwater system-information important for water availability/sustainability or other assessments. The U.S. Geological Survey operates numerous continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (Hirsch and Norris, 2001), which can be used to provide estimates of average annual base flow. In addition to these continuous record sites, Gebert and others (2007) showed that having a few streamflow measurements in a basin can appreciably reduce the error in a base-flow estimate for that basin. Therefore, in addition to the continuous-record gaging stations, a substantial number of low-flow partial-record sites (6 to 15 discharge measurements) and miscellaneous-measurement sites (1 to 3 discharge measurements) that were operated during 1964-90 throughout the State were included in this work to provide additional insight into spatial distribution of annual base flow and, in turn, groundwater recharge.

  11. Estimation of average annual streamflows and power potentials for Alaska and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdin, Kristine L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes the work done to develop average annual streamflow estimates and power potential for the states of Alaska and Hawaii. The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) database was used, along with climatic datasets, to develop flow and power estimates for every stream reach in the EDNA database. Estimates of average annual streamflows were derived using state-specific regression equations, which were functions of average annual precipitation, precipitation intensity, drainage area, and other elevation-derived parameters. Power potential was calculated through the use of the average annual streamflow and the hydraulic head of each reach, which is calculated from the EDNA digital elevation model. In all, estimates of streamflow and power potential were calculated for over 170,000 stream segments in the Alaskan and Hawaiian datasets.

  12. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for the annual phosphorus loss estimator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Carl H; Vadas, Peter A

    2013-07-01

    Models are often used to predict phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields. Although it is commonly recognized that model predictions are inherently uncertain, few studies have addressed prediction uncertainties using P loss models. In this study we assessed the effect of model input error on predictions of annual P loss by the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model. Our objectives were (i) to conduct a sensitivity analyses for all APLE input variables to determine which variables the model is most sensitive to, (ii) to determine whether the relatively easy-to-implement first-order approximation (FOA) method provides accurate estimates of model prediction uncertainties by comparing results with the more accurate Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method, and (iii) to evaluate the performance of the APLE model against measured P loss data when uncertainties in model predictions and measured data are included. Our results showed that for low to moderate uncertainties in APLE input variables, the FOA method yields reasonable estimates of model prediction uncertainties, although for cases where manure solid content is between 14 and 17%, the FOA method may not be as accurate as the MCS method due to a discontinuity in the manure P loss component of APLE at a manure solid content of 15%. The estimated uncertainties in APLE predictions based on assumed errors in the input variables ranged from ±2 to 64% of the predicted value. Results from this study highlight the importance of including reasonable estimates of model uncertainty when using models to predict P loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Estimating distribution parameters of annual maximum streamflows in Johor, Malaysia using TL-moments approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jan, Nur Amalina; Shabri, Ani

    2017-01-01

    TL-moments approach has been used in an analysis to identify the best-fitting distributions to represent the annual series of maximum streamflow data over seven stations in Johor, Malaysia. The TL-moments with different trimming values are used to estimate the parameter of the selected distributions namely: Three-parameter lognormal (LN3) and Pearson Type III (P3) distribution. The main objective of this study is to derive the TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 methods for LN3 and P3 distributions. The performance of TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 was compared with L-moments through Monte Carlo simulation and streamflow data over a station in Johor, Malaysia. The absolute error is used to test the influence of TL-moments methods on estimated probability distribution functions. From the cases in this study, the results show that TL-moments with four trimmed smallest values from the conceptual sample (TL-moments [4, 0]) of LN3 distribution was the most appropriate in most of the stations of the annual maximum streamflow series in Johor, Malaysia.

  14. A new method to estimate genetic gain in annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Breseghello

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic gain obtained by breeding programs to improve quantitative traits may be estimated by using data from regional trials. A new statistical method for this estimate is proposed and includes four steps: a joint analysis of regional trial data using a generalized linear model to obtain adjusted genotype means and covariance matrix of these means for the whole studied period; b calculation of the arithmetic mean of the adjusted genotype means, exclusively for the group of genotypes evaluated each year; c direct year comparison of the arithmetic means calculated, and d estimation of mean genetic gain by regression. Using the generalized least squares method, a weighted estimate of mean genetic gain during the period is calculated. This method permits a better cancellation of genotype x year and genotype x trial/year interactions, thus resulting in more precise estimates. This method can be applied to unbalanced data, allowing the estimation of genetic gain in series of multilocational trials.Os ganhos genéticos obtidos pelo melhoramento de caracteres quantitativos podem ser estimados utilizando resultados de ensaios regionais de avaliação de linhagens e cultivares. Um novo método estatístico para esta estimativa é proposto, o qual consiste em quatro passos: a análise conjunta da série de dados dos ensaios regionais através de um modelo linear generalizado de forma a obter as médias ajustadas dos genótipos e a matriz de covariâncias destas médias; b para o grupo de genótipos avaliados em cada ano, cálculo da média aritmética das médias ajustadas obtidas na análise conjunta; c comparação direta dos anos, conforme as médias aritméticas obtidas, e d estimativa de um ganho genético médio, por regressão. Aplicando-se o método de quadrados mínimos generalizado, é calculada uma estimativa ponderada do ganho genético médio no período. Este método permite um melhor cancelamento das interações genótipo x ano e gen

  15. Estimates of Annual Soil Loss Rates in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiela de Oliveira Rodrigues Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soil is a natural resource that has been affected by human pressures beyond its renewal capacity. For this reason, large agricultural areas that were productive have been abandoned due to soil degradation, mainly caused by the erosion process. The objective of this study was to apply the Universal Soil Loss Equation to generate more recent estimates of soil loss rates for the state of São Paulo using a database with information from medium resolution (30 m. The results showed that many areas of the state have high (critical levels of soil degradation due to the predominance of consolidated human activities, especially in growing sugarcane and pasture use. The average estimated rate of soil loss is 30 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 59 % of the area of the state (except for water bodies and urban areas had estimated rates above 12 Mg ha-1 yr-1, considered as the average tolerance limit in the literature. The average rates of soil loss in areas with annual agricultural crops, semi-perennial agricultural crops (sugarcane, and permanent agricultural crops were 118, 78, and 38 Mg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. The state of São Paulo requires attention to conservation of soil resources, since most soils led to estimates beyond the tolerance limit.

  16. Estimation of annual radiation dose received by some industrial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Ajay; Chauhan, R.P.; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Radon and its progeny in the atmosphere, soil, ground water, oil and gas deposits contributes the largest fraction of the natural radiation dose to populations, enhanced interest exhibited in tracking its concentration is thus fundamental for radiation protection. The combustion of coal in various industrial units like thermal power plants. National fertilizer plants, paper mill etc. results in the release of some natural radioactivity to the atmosphere through formation of fly ash and bottom ash or slag. This consequent increases the radioactivity in soil, water and atmosphere around thermal power plants. Keeping this in mind the measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentration in the environment of some industrial units has been carried out using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The specially designed twin cup dosimeter used here consists two chambers of cylindrical geometry separated by a wall in the middle with each having length of 4.5 cm and radius of 3.1 cm. This dosimeter employs three SSNTDs out of which two detectors were placed in each chamber and a third one was placed on the outer surface of the dosimeter. One chamber is fitted with glass fiber filter so that radon and thoron both can diffuse into the chamber while in other chamber, a semi permeable membrane is used. The membrane mode measures the radon concentration alone as it can diffuse through the membrane but suppresses the thoron. The twin cup dosimeter also has a provision for bare mode enabling it to register tracks due to radon, thoron and their progeny in total. Therefore, using this dosimeter we can measure the individual concentration of radon, thoron, and their progeny at the same time. The annual effective doses received by the workers in some industrial units has been calculated. The results indicate some higher levels in coal handling and fly ash area of the plants. (author)

  17. Estimating the whole-body exposure annual dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yizong; Gao Jianzheng; Liu Wenhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: By imitating experiment of radioactive sources being installed, to estimate the annual whole-body exposure dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells; Methods: To compre the values of the theory, imitating experiment and γ individual dose monitor calculations. Results: The three values measured above tally with one anather. Conclusion: The annual whole-body exposure doses of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells are no more than 5 mSv. (authors)

  18. The estimated cost of "no-shows" in an academic pediatric neurology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Lindsay M; Gentry, Shelley D; Golomb, Meredith R

    2015-02-01

    Missed appointments ("no-shows") represent an important source of lost revenue for academic medical centers. The goal of this study was to examine the costs of "no-shows" at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who missed appointments at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic during 1 academic year. Revenue lost was estimated based on average reimbursement for different insurance types and visit types. The yearly "no-show" rate was 26%. Yearly revenue lost from missed appointments was $257,724.57, and monthly losses ranged from $15,652.33 in October 2013 to $27,042.44 in January 2014. The yearly revenue lost from missed appointments at the academic pediatric neurology clinic represents funds that could have been used to improve patient access and care. Further work is needed to develop strategies to decrease the no-show rate to decrease lost revenue and improve patient care and access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying the Correlation between Water Quality Data and LOADEST Model Behavior in Annual Sediment Load Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Shik Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality samples are typically collected less frequently than flow since water quality sampling is costly. Load Estimator (LOADEST, provided by the United States Geological Survey, is used to predict water quality concentration (or load on days when flow data are measured so that the water quality data are sufficient for annual pollutant load estimation. However, there is a need to identify water quality data requirements for accurate pollutant load estimation. Measured daily sediment data were collected from 211 streams. Estimated annual sediment loads from LOADEST and subsampled data were compared to the measured annual sediment loads (true load. The means of flow for calibration data were correlated to model behavior. A regression equation was developed to compute the required mean of flow in calibration data to best calibrate the LOADEST regression model coefficients. LOADEST runs were performed to investigate the correlation between the mean flow in calibration data and model behaviors as daily water quality data were subsampled. LOADEST calibration data used sediment concentration data for flows suggested by the regression equation. Using the mean flow calibrated by the regression equation reduced errors in annual sediment load estimation from −39.7% to −10.8% compared to using all available data.

  20. 7 CFR 1435.301 - Annual estimates and quarterly re-estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing..., estimates, and re-estimates in this subpart will use available USDA statistics and estimates of production, consumption, and stocks, taking into account, where appropriate, data supplied in reports submitted pursuant...

  1. Radiation dose to technologists per nuclear medicine examination and estimation of annual dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Tuncay; Yilmaz, A Hakan; Demir, Mustafa; Sonmez, Bircan

    2011-03-01

    Conventional diagnostic nuclear medicine applications have been continuously increasing in most nuclear medicine departments in Turkey, but to our knowledge no one has studied the doses to technologists who perform nuclear medicine procedures. Most nuclear medicine laboratories do not have separate control rooms for technologists, who are quite close to the patient during data acquisition. Technologists must therefore stay behind lead shields while performing their task if they are to reduce the radiation dose received. The aim of this study was to determine external radiation doses to technologists during nuclear medicine procedures with and without a lead shield. Another aim was to investigate the occupational annual external radiation doses to Turkish technologists. This study used a Geiger-Müller detector to measure dose rates to technologists at various distances from patients (0.25, 0.50, 1, and 2 m and behind a lead shield) and determined the average time spent by technologists at these distances. Deep-dose equivalents to technologists were obtained. The following conventional nuclear medicine procedures were considered: thyroid scintigraphy performed using (99m)Tc pertechnetate, whole-body bone scanning performed using (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate, myocardial perfusion scanning performed using (99m)Tc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, and (201)Tl (thallous chloride) and renal scanning performed using (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid. The measured deep-dose equivalent to technologists per procedure was within the range of 0.13 ± 0.05 to 0.43 ± 0.17 μSv using a lead shield and 0.21 ± 0.07 to 1.01 ± 0.46 μSv without a lead shield. Also, the annual individual dose to a technologist performing only a particular scintigraphic procedure throughout a year was estimated. For a total of 95 clinical cases (71 patients), effective external radiation doses to technologists were found to be within the permissible levels. This study showed that a 2-mm lead shield

  2. Incorporation of Finite Element Analysis into Annual Energy Loss Estimation for Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    Several methods of estimating the annual energy losses for wind turbine generators are investigated in this paper. Utilizing a high amount of transient simulations with motion is first demonstrated. Usage of a space-time transformation for prediction of iron losses is also explored. The methods, ...

  3. A sampling strategy for estimating plot average annual fluxes of chemical elements from forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.; Vries, de W.

    2010-01-01

    A sampling strategy for estimating spatially averaged annual element leaching fluxes from forest soils is presented and tested in three Dutch forest monitoring plots. In this method sampling locations and times (days) are selected by probability sampling. Sampling locations were selected by

  4. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  5. Analytical estimation show low depth-independent water loss due to vapor flux from deep aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selker, John S.

    2017-06-01

    Recent articles have provided estimates of evaporative flux from water tables in deserts that span 5 orders of magnitude. In this paper, we present an analytical calculation that indicates aquifer vapor flux to be limited to 0.01 mm/yr for sites where there is negligible recharge and the water table is well over 20 m below the surface. This value arises from the geothermal gradient, and therefore, is nearly independent of the actual depth of the aquifer. The value is in agreement with several numerical studies, but is 500 times lower than recently reported experimental values, and 100 times larger than an earlier analytical estimate.

  6. Estimate of Annual Ultraviolet-A Exposures in Cars in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, A.V.; Kimlin, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The annual solar UVA exposures in four cars were estimated by measuring the UVA irradiances in the vehicles in each of the four seasons and in the morning, noon and afternoon. For the cars with untinted windows the maximum UVA irradiances in cars do not necessarily occur at noon when the outside irradiances are at their highest. Additionally, they do not occur in summer. The range of annual UVA exposures between 9:00 and 15:00 EST is 1918 to 6177 J.cm -2 for the cars without the after-market window tint. These correspond to 5% to 17% of the ambient UVA on a horizontal plane over the same period outside the cars. The range is for the different sites in the car. For the car with the after-market window tint, the range of the annual UVA exposures was 489 to 2969 J.cm -2 or 1% to 8% of the ambient UVA. (author)

  7. Estimating 1970-99 average annual groundwater recharge in Wisconsin using streamflow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Warren A.; Walker, John F.; Kennedy, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Average annual recharge in Wisconsin for the period 1970-99 was estimated using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations and partial-record sites. Partial-record sites have discharge measurements collected during low-flow conditions. The average annual base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area is a good approximation of the recharge rate; therefore, once average annual base flow is determined recharge can be calculated. Estimates of recharge for nearly 72 percent of the surface area of the State are provided. The results illustrate substantial spatial variability of recharge across the State, ranging from less than 1 inch to more than 12 inches per year. The average basin size for partial-record sites (50 square miles) was less than the average basin size for the gaging stations (305 square miles). Including results for smaller basins reveals a spatial variability that otherwise would be smoothed out using only estimates for larger basins. An error analysis indicates that the techniques used provide base flow estimates with standard errors ranging from 5.4 to 14 percent.

  8. Estimating Loess Plateau Average Annual Precipitation with Multiple Linear Regression Kriging and Geographically Weighted Regression Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiutong Jin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the spatial distribution of precipitation is an important and challenging task in hydrology, climatology, ecology, and environmental science. In order to generate a highly accurate distribution map of average annual precipitation for the Loess Plateau in China, multiple linear regression Kriging (MLRK and geographically weighted regression Kriging (GWRK methods were employed using precipitation data from the period 1980–2010 from 435 meteorological stations. The predictors in regression Kriging were selected by stepwise regression analysis from many auxiliary environmental factors, such as elevation (DEM, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, solar radiation, slope, and aspect. All predictor distribution maps had a 500 m spatial resolution. Validation precipitation data from 130 hydrometeorological stations were used to assess the prediction accuracies of the MLRK and GWRK approaches. Results showed that both prediction maps with a 500 m spatial resolution interpolated by MLRK and GWRK had a high accuracy and captured detailed spatial distribution data; however, MLRK produced a lower prediction error and a higher variance explanation than GWRK, although the differences were small, in contrast to conclusions from similar studies.

  9. Intra-annual patterns in adult band-tailed pigeon survival estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Overton, Cory T.; Howe, Kristy H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) is a migratory species occurring in western North America with low recruitment potential and populations that have declined an average of 2.4% per year since the 1960s. Investigations into band-tailed pigeon demographic rates date back to the early 1900s, and existing annual survival rate estimates were derived in the 1970s using band return data.

  10. Evaluating Annual Maximum and Partial Duration Series for Estimating Frequency of Small Magnitude Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlul Karim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of frequent floods is important for characterising channel morphology, riparian and aquatic habitat, and informing river restoration efforts. This paper presents results from an analysis on frequency estimates of low magnitude floods using the annual maximum and partial series data compared to actual flood series. Five frequency distribution models were fitted to data from 24 gauging stations in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon catchments in north-eastern Australia. Based on the goodness of fit test, Generalised Extreme Value, Generalised Pareto and Log Pearson Type 3 models were used to estimate flood frequencies across the study region. Results suggest frequency estimates based on a partial series are better, compared to an annual series, for small to medium floods, while both methods produce similar results for large floods. Although both methods converge at a higher recurrence interval, the convergence recurrence interval varies between catchments. Results also suggest frequency estimates vary slightly between two or more partial series, depending on flood threshold, and the differences are large for the catchments that experience less frequent floods. While a partial series produces better frequency estimates, it can underestimate or overestimate the frequency if the flood threshold differs largely compared to bankfull discharge. These results have significant implications in calculating the dependency of floodplain ecosystems on the frequency of flooding and their subsequent management.

  11. Estimates of annual survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, C.A.; O'Shea, T.J.; Pradel, R.; Beck, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The population dynamics of large, long-lived mammals are particularly sensitive to changes in adult survival. Understanding factors affecting survival patterns is therefore critical for developing and testing theories of population dynamics and for developing management strategies aimed at preventing declines or extinction in such taxa. Few studies have used modern analytical approaches for analyzing variation and testing hypotheses about survival probabilities in large mammals. This paper reports a detailed analysis of annual adult survival in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), an endangered marine mammal, based on a mark-recapture approach. Natural and boat-inflicted scars distinctively 'marked' individual manatees that were cataloged in a computer-based photographic system. Photo-documented resightings provided 'recaptures.' Using open population models, annual adult-survival probabilities were estimated for manatees observed in winter in three areas of Florida: Blue Spring, Crystal River, and the Atlantic coast. After using goodness-of-fit tests in Program RELEASE to search for violations of the assumptions of mark-recapture analysis, survival and sighting probabilities were modeled under several different biological hypotheses with Program SURGE. Estimates of mean annual probability of sighting varied from 0.948 for Blue Spring to 0.737 for Crystal River and 0.507 for the Atlantic coast. At Crystal River and Blue Spring, annual survival probabilities were best estimated as constant over the study period at 0.96 (95% CI = 0.951-0.975 and 0.900-0.985, respectively). On the Atlantic coast, where manatees are impacted more by human activities, annual survival probabilities had a significantly lower mean estimate of 0.91 (95% CI = 0.887-0.926) and varied unpredictably over the study period. For each study area, survival did not differ between sexes and was independent of relative adult age. The high constant adult-survival probabilities estimated

  12. Annual survival rate estimate of satellite transmitter–marked eastern population greater sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, David L.; Andersen, David E.; Hanna, Everett E.; Cooper, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Several surveys have documented the increasing population size and geographic distribution of Eastern Population greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida since the 1960s. Sport hunting of this population of sandhill cranes started in 2012 following the provisions of the Eastern Population Sandhill Crane Management Plan. However, there are currently no published estimates of Eastern Population sandhill crane survival rate that can be used to inform harvest management. As part of two studies of Eastern Population sandhill crane migration, we deployed solar-powered global positioning system platform transmitting terminals on Eastern Population sandhill cranes (n  =  42) at key concentration areas from 2009 to 2012. We estimated an annual survival rate for Eastern Population sandhill cranes from data resulting from monitoring these cranes by using the known-fates model in the MARK program. Estimated annual survival rate for adult Eastern Population sandhill cranes was 0.950 (95% confidence interval  =  0.885–0.979) during December 2009–August 2014. All fatalities (n  =  5) occurred after spring migration in late spring and early summer. We were unable to determine cause of death for crane fatalities in our study. Our survival rate estimate will be useful when combined with other population parameters such as the population index derived from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service fall survey, harvest, and recruitment rates to assess the effects of harvest on population size and trend and evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies.

  13. Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

    2014-09-15

    The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of peak discharge quantiles for selected annual exceedance probabilities in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas M.; Saito, Riki J.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.; Ishii, Audrey L.

    2016-06-28

    This report provides two sets of equations for estimating peak discharge quantiles at annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) of 0.50, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 (recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years, respectively) for watersheds in Illinois based on annual maximum peak discharge data from 117 watersheds in and near northeastern Illinois. One set of equations was developed through a temporal analysis with a two-step least squares-quantile regression technique that measures the average effect of changes in the urbanization of the watersheds used in the study. The resulting equations can be used to adjust rural peak discharge quantiles for the effect of urbanization, and in this study the equations also were used to adjust the annual maximum peak discharges from the study watersheds to 2010 urbanization conditions.The other set of equations was developed by a spatial analysis. This analysis used generalized least-squares regression to fit the peak discharge quantiles computed from the urbanization-adjusted annual maximum peak discharges from the study watersheds to drainage-basin characteristics. The peak discharge quantiles were computed by using the Expected Moments Algorithm following the removal of potentially influential low floods defined by a multiple Grubbs-Beck test. To improve the quantile estimates, regional skew coefficients were obtained from a newly developed regional skew model in which the skew increases with the urbanized land use fraction. The drainage-basin characteristics used as explanatory variables in the spatial analysis include drainage area, the fraction of developed land, the fraction of land with poorly drained soils or likely water, and the basin slope estimated as the ratio of the basin relief to basin perimeter.This report also provides the following: (1) examples to illustrate the use of the spatial and urbanization-adjustment equations for estimating peak discharge quantiles at ungaged

  15. Annual survival estimation of migratory songbirds confounded by incomplete breeding site-fidelity: study designs that may help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, M. R.

    2004-06-01

    surrounding areas to minimize bias. Therefore, as an alternative protocol, we analyzed the data with subsets of three progressively larger areas surrounding the core. The data subsets provided four estimates of apparent survival that asymptotically approached true survival. This study design and analytical approach is likely to be logistically feasible in field settings and yields estimates of true survival unbiased (bias < 0.03 by incomplete breeding site–fidelity over a range of inter–annual territory movement patterns. The third approach we investigated used a robust design data collection and analysis approach. This approach resulted in estimates of survival that were unbiased (bias < 0.02, but were very imprecise and likely would not yield reliable estimates in field situations. The fourth approach utilized a fixed study area size, but modeled detection probability as a function of bird proximity to the study plot boundary (e.g., those birds closest to the edge are more likely to emigrate. This approach also resulted in estimates of survival that were unbiased (bias < 0.02, but because the individual covariates were normalized, the average capture probability was 0.50, and thus did not provide an accurate estimate of the true capture probability. Our results show that the core–area with surrounding resight–only can provide estimates of survival that are not biased by the effects of incomplete breeding site–fidelity.

  16. Annual global tree cover estimated by fusing optical and SAR satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Tree cover defined structurally as the proportional, vertically projected area of vegetation (including leaves, stems, branches, etc.) of woody plants above a given height affects terrestrial energy and water exchanges, photosynthesis and transpiration, net primary production, and carbon and nutrient fluxes. Tree cover provides a measurable attribute upon which forest cover may be defined. Changes in tree cover over time can be used to monitor and retrieve site-specific histories of forest disturbance, succession, and degradation. Measurements of Earth's tree cover have been produced at regional, national, and global extents. However, most representations are static, and those for which multiple time periods have been produced are neither intended nor adequate for consistent, long-term monitoring. Moreover, although a substantial proportion of change has been shown to occur at resolutions below 250 m, existing long-term, Landsat-resolution datasets are either produced as static layers or with annual, five- or ten-year temporal resolution. We have developed an algorithms to retrieve seamless and consistent, sub-hectare resolution estimates of tree-canopy from optical and radar satellite data sources (e.g., Landsat, Sentinel-2, and ALOS-PALSAR). Our approach to estimation enables assimilation of multiple data sources and produces estimates of both cover and its uncertainty at the scale of pixels. It has generated the world's first Landsat-based percent tree cover dataset in 2013. Our previous algorithms are being adapted to produce prototype percent-tree and water-cover layers globally in 2000, 2005, and 2010—as well as annually over North and South America from 2010 to 2015—from passive-optical (Landsat and Sentinel-2) and SAR measurements. Generating a global, annual dataset is beyond the scope of this support; however, North and South America represent all of the world's major biomes and so offer the complete global range of environmental sources of error and

  17. Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Precipitation areal-reduction factor estimation using an annual-maxima centered approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Famiglietti, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are often computed by multiplying point depths by areal-reduction factors (ARF). ARF range from 0 to 1, vary according to storm characteristics, such as recurrence interval; and are a function of watershed characteristics, such as watershed size, shape, and geographic location. This paper presents a new approach for estimating ARF and includes applications for the 1-day design storm in Austin, Dallas, and Houston, Texas. The approach, termed 'annual-maxima centered,' specifically considers the distribution of concurrent precipitation surrounding an annual-precipitation maxima, which is a feature not seen in other approaches. The approach does not require the prior spatial averaging of precipitation, explicit determination of spatial correlation coefficients, nor explicit definition of a representative area of a particular storm in the analysis. The annual-maxima centered approach was designed to exploit the wide availability of dense precipitation gauge data in many regions of the world. The approach produces ARF that decrease more rapidly than those from TP-29. Furthermore, the ARF from the approach decay rapidly with increasing recurrence interval of the annual-precipitation maxima. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are

  19. Calibration and Evaluation of Different Estimation Models of Daily Solar Radiation in Seasonally and Annual Time Steps in Shiraz Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Fooladmand

    2017-06-01

    2006 to 2008 were used for calibrating fourteen estimated models of solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps and the measured data of years 2009 and 2010 were used for evaluating the obtained results. The equations were used in this study divided into three groups contains: 1 The equations based on only sunshine hours. 2 The equations based on only air temperature. 3 The equations based on sunshine hours and air temperature together. On the other hand, statistical comparison must be done to select the best equation for estimating solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps. For this purpose, in validation stage the combination of statistical equations and linear correlation was used, and then the value of mean square deviation (MSD was calculated to evaluate the different models for estimating solar radiation in mentioned time steps. Results and Discussion: The mean values of mean square deviation (MSD of fourteen models for estimating solar radiation were equal to 24.16, 20.42, 4.08 and 16.19 for spring to winter respectively, and 15.40 in annual time step. Therefore, the results showed that using the equations for autumn enjoyed high accuracy, however for other seasons had low accuracy. So, using the equations for annual time step were appropriate more than the equations for seasonally time steps. Also, the mean values of mean square deviation (MSD of the equations based on only sunshine hours, the equations based on only air temperature, and the equations based on the combination of sunshine hours and air temperature for estimating solar radiation were equal to 14.82, 17.40 and 14.88, respectively. Therefore, the results indicated that the models based on only air temperature were the worst conditions for estimating solar radiation in Shiraz region, and therefore, using the sunshine hours for estimating solar radiation is necessary. Conclusions: In this study for estimating solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps in Shiraz region

  20. Use of Annual Phosphorus Loss Estimator (APLE) Model to Evaluate a Phosphorus Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorellino, Nicole M; McGrath, Joshua M; Vadas, Peter A; Bolster, Carl H; Coale, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    The Phosphorus (P) Index was developed to provide a relative ranking of agricultural fields according to their potential for P loss to surface water. Recent efforts have focused on updating and evaluating P Indices against measured or modeled P loss data to ensure agreement in magnitude and direction. Following a recently published method, we modified the Maryland P Site Index (MD-PSI) from a multiplicative to a component index structure and evaluated the MD-PSI outputs against P loss data estimated by the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model, a validated, field-scale, annual P loss model. We created a theoretical dataset of fields to represent Maryland conditions and scenarios and created an empirical dataset of soil samples and management characteristics from across the state. Through the evaluation process, we modified a number of variables within the MD-PSI and calculated weighting coefficients for each P loss component. We have demonstrated that our methods can be used to modify a P Index and increase correlation between P Index output and modeled P loss data. The methods presented here can be easily applied in other states where there is motivation to update an existing P Index. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Development of an Estimating Procedure for the Annual PLAN Process - with Special Emphasis on the Estimating Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, Steen

    2003-01-01

    This research study deals with the PLAN 2000 procedure. This complex annual estimating procedure is based on the Swedish law on financing, 1992:1537. It requires the Swedish Nuclear Power inspectorate, SKI, to submit to the Government a fully supported annual proposal for the following year's unit fee for nuclear generated electricity to be paid by the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The function of this Fund, KAF, is to finance the future Swedish decommissioning programme. The underlying reason for the study is current criticism of the existing procedure, not least of the composition and working conditions of the analysis group. The purpose of the study is to improve the procedure. The aim is (1) to maximise the realism and neutrality of the necessary estimates in order to allow the KAF Fund to grow steadily at the current rate to the desired target size, allowing it to pay all relevant costs associated with this large decommissioning programme; (2) to do this with a controlled degree of safety; (3) to improve the transparency of the whole procedure in order to avoid any distrust of the procedure and its results. The scope covers all technical and statistical issues; and to some degree also the directly related organisational aspects, notably in respect of the present law and its administration. However, some details are dealt with which seem contrary to the aim of the law. Since 1996, SKI has delegated to the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, the task of performing the basic part of the necessary annual estimating procedure. SKI has then evaluated and supplemented the base estimate before the drafting of the final proposals for the Government and the Board of the Fund, KAFS. Some basic requirements are crucial to the quality of the result of the study: (1) full identification of all potential sources of major uncertainty and the subsequent correct handling of these, (2) balanced and unbiased quantitative evaluation of uncertain

  2. Optimizing estimates of annual variations and trends in geocenter motion and J2 from a combination of GRACE data and geophysical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Riva, Riccardo; Ditmar, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The focus of the study is optimizing the technique for estimating geocenter motion and variations in J2 by combining data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission with output from an Ocean Bottom Pressure model and a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model. First, we conduct an end-to-end numerical simulation study. We generate input time-variable gravity field observations by perturbing a synthetic Earth model with realistically simulated errors. We show that it is important to avoid large errors at short wavelengths and signal leakage from land to ocean, as well as to account for self-attraction and loading effects. Second, the optimal implementation strategy is applied to real GRACE data. We show that the estimates of annual amplitude in geocenter motion are in line with estimates from other techniques, such as satellite laser ranging (SLR) and global GPS inversion. At the same time, annual amplitudes of C10 and C11 are increased by about 50% and 20%, respectively, compared to estimates based on Swenson et al. (2008). Estimates of J2 variations are by about 15% larger than SLR results in terms of annual amplitude. Linear trend estimates are dependent on the adopted GIA model but still comparable to some SLR results.

  3. Methods to estimate annual mean spring discharge to the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Many individual springs and groups of springs discharge water from volcanic rocks that form the north canyon wall of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill. Previous estimates of annual mean discharge from these springs have been used to understand the hydrology of the eastern part of the Snake River Plain. Four methods that were used in previous studies or developed to estimate annual mean discharge since 1902 were (1) water-budget analysis of the Snake River; (2) correlation of water-budget estimates with discharge from 10 index springs; (3) determination of the combined discharge from individual springs or groups of springs by using annual discharge measurements of 8 springs, gaging-station records of 4 springs and 3 sites on the Malad River, and regression equations developed from 5 of the measured springs; and (4) a single regression equation that correlates gaging-station records of 2 springs with historical water-budget estimates. Comparisons made among the four methods of estimating annual mean spring discharges from 1951 to 1959 and 1963 to 1980 indicated that differences were about equivalent to a measurement error of 2 to 3 percent. The method that best demonstrates the response of annual mean spring discharge to changes in ground-water recharge and discharge is method 3, which combines the measurements and regression estimates of discharge from individual springs.

  4. Proceedings of APPrO 2005, the 17. annual Canadian power conference and trade show : making the pieces fit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian power conference and trade show is one of the leading conferences in the Ontario electricity sector. It examines how Ontario plans to build or replace power capacity following a path for new generation, based on both renewable and conventional sources. The current implementation of new generation and prospects for future expansion were discussed along with supply and demand issues. Topics of discussion focused on the Ontario electricity market and what is perceived by industry representatives to be the elements that need to be improved. The best structure for the industry and the degree of government involvement to meet future demand was discussed. The green power conference, which was run concurrently with this event, focused on renewable energy sources and zero greenhouse gas emission technologies. Eight sessions from the conference were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  5. ESTIMATING ANNUAL SOIL LOSS BY WATER EROSION IN THE MIDDLE PRUT PLAIN, REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDOR CASTRAVEŢ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimating annual soil loss by water erosion in the middle Prut Plain, Republic of Moldova. Modern technology has provided efficient tools such as advanced models and Geographic Information Systems to facilitate decision making for environmental management. Studies at this subject are available in literature, ranging from those that use a simple model such as USLE to others of a more sophisticated nature. In this study the model selected (modified Universal Soil Loss Equation – USLE and the case itself is kept simple due to significant limitations in data on land processes. An effective investigation of soil loss by using GIS – USLE integration requires spatially distributed data on several parameters describing the terrain surface. Such parameters include topography, rainfall characteristics, soil types, vegetation, land use, and the similar. In Republic of Moldova data on most of these parameters are collected often on a local or individual basis, and therefore, a well-organized regional or basin-wide database is not available. In the Republic of Moldova soil erosion is often as high as 30 tons/ha/year and more than 1.4*106 ha run a potential risk of erosion (Summer & Diernhof, 2003. The model estimated an annual quantity of soil eroded ranging over the Prut River tributaries watersheds between the mean values of 6.2 and 20.4 t/ha/yr. Much of the areas are within the range 10-20 t/ha/yr. The highest values of the quantity of eroded soil is carried out on strong inclined slopes corresponding to areas with agricultural lands and herbaceous vegetation. The results have shown that GIS can be effectively used to investigate critical regions within a basin with respect to erosion.

  6. Risk estimation and annual fluxes of emerging contaminants from a Scottish priority catchment to the estuary and North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zulin; Lebleu, Melanie; Osprey, Mark; Kerr, Christine; Courtot, Estelle

    2017-06-28

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) attracted global concern during the last decades due to their potential adverse effects on humans and ecosystems. This work is the first study to assess the spatiotemporal changes, annual fluxes and ecological risk of ECs (4 EDCs and 6 PPCPs) by different monitoring strategies (spot and passive sampling) over 12 months in a Scottish priority catchment (River Ugie, Scotland, 335 km 2 ). Overall, the total concentration in water ranged from contaminants in the River Ugie. The total annual fluxes of 4 EDCs transported to the Ugie estuary and North Sea were estimated to be 409 and 294 g based on the spot and passive sampling data, respectively, while they were 4636 and 4517 g for 6 PPCPs by spot and passive sampling, respectively. The spatiotemporal trend suggested that human activities and medication usages were the primary source of the contaminants. The overall comparison of the two sampling strategies supported the hypothesis that passive sampling tends to integrate the contaminants over a period of exposure and allows quantification of contamination at low concentration. The ecological risk assessment showed that bisphenol A posed the highest risks with 21.5% of the spot samples, resulting in a risk quotient >1. This suggests that mitigation measures might need to be taken to reduce the input of emerging contaminants into the river and its adjacent estuary and sea.

  7. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  8. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie R Kirk

    Full Text Available Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined. Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1 was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  9. Circumpolar assessment of rhizosphere priming shows limited increase in carbon loss estimates for permafrost soils but large regional variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, B.; Keuper, F.; Kummu, M.; Beer, C.; Blume-Werry, G.; Fontaine, S.; Gavazov, K.; Gentsch, N.; Guggenberger, G.; Hugelius, G.; Jalava, M.; Koven, C.; Krab, E. J.; Kuhry, P.; Monteux, S.; Richter, A.; Shazhad, T.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2017-12-01

    Predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) losses in the northern circumpolar permafrost area converge around 15% (± 3% standard error) of the initial C pool by 2100 under the RCP 8.5 warming scenario. Yet, none of these estimates consider plant-soil interactions such as the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE). While laboratory experiments have shown that the input of plant-derived compounds can stimulate SOC losses by up to 1200%, the magnitude of RPE in natural ecosystems is unknown and no methods for upscaling exist so far. We here present the first spatial and depth explicit RPE model that allows estimates of RPE on a large scale (PrimeSCale). We combine available spatial data (SOC, C/N, GPP, ALT and ecosystem type) and new ecological insights to assess the importance of the RPE at the circumpolar scale. We use a positive saturating relationship between the RPE and belowground C allocation and two ALT-dependent rooting-depth distribution functions (for tundra and boreal forest) to proportionally assign belowground C allocation and RPE to individual soil depth increments. The model permits to take into account reasonable limiting factors on additional SOC losses by RPE including interactions between spatial and/or depth variation in GPP, plant root density, SOC stocks and ALT. We estimate potential RPE-induced SOC losses at 9.7 Pg C (5 - 95% CI: 1.5 - 23.2 Pg C) by 2100 (RCP 8.5). This corresponds to an increase of the current permafrost SOC-loss estimate from 15% of the initial C pool to about 16%. If we apply an additional molar C/N threshold of 20 to account for microbial C limitation as a requirement for the RPE, SOC losses by RPE are further reduced to 6.5 Pg C (5 - 95% CI: 1.0 - 16.8 Pg C) by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Although our results show that current estimates of permafrost soil C losses are robust without taking into account the RPE, our model also highlights high-RPE risk in Siberian lowland areas and Alaska north of the Brooks Range. The small overall impact of

  10. Methods for estimating annual exceedance-probability discharges and largest recorded floods for unregulated streams in rural Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Regression analysis techniques were used to develop a : set of equations for rural ungaged stream sites for estimating : discharges with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent : annual exceedance probabilities, which are equivalent to : ann...

  11. Estimating inter-annual variability in winter wheat sowing dates from satellite time series in Camargue, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfron, Giacinto; Delmotte, Sylvestre; Busetto, Lorenzo; Hossard, Laure; Ranghetti, Luigi; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Boschetti, Mirco

    2017-05-01

    Crop simulation models are commonly used to forecast the performance of cropping systems under different hypotheses of change. Their use on a regional scale is generally constrained, however, by a lack of information on the spatial and temporal variability of environment-related input variables (e.g., soil) and agricultural practices (e.g., sowing dates) that influence crop yields. Satellite remote sensing data can shed light on such variability by providing timely information on crop dynamics and conditions over large areas. This paper proposes a method for analyzing time series of MODIS satellite data in order to estimate the inter-annual variability of winter wheat sowing dates. A rule-based method was developed to automatically identify a reliable sample of winter wheat field time series, and to infer the corresponding sowing dates. The method was designed for a case study in the Camargue region (France), where winter wheat is characterized by vernalization, as in other temperate regions. The detection criteria were chosen on the grounds of agronomic expertise and by analyzing high-confidence time-series vegetation index profiles for winter wheat. This automatic method identified the target crop on more than 56% (four-year average) of the cultivated areas, with low commission errors (11%). It also captured the seasonal variability in sowing dates with errors of ±8 and ±16 days in 46% and 66% of cases, respectively. Extending the analysis to the years 2002-2012 showed that sowing in the Camargue was usually done on or around November 1st (±4 days). Comparing inter-annual sowing date variability with the main local agro-climatic drivers showed that the type of preceding crop and the weather conditions during the summer season before the wheat sowing had a prominent role in influencing winter wheat sowing dates.

  12. Comparison of calculation methods for estimating annual carbon stock change in German forests under forest management in the German greenhouse gas inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhling, Steffi; Dunger, Karsten; Kändler, Gerald; Klatt, Susann; Riedel, Thomas; Stümer, Wolfgang; Brötz, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    The German greenhouse gas inventory in the land use change sector strongly depends on national forest inventory data. As these data were collected periodically 1987, 2002, 2008 and 2012, the time series on emissions show several "jumps" due to biomass stock change, especially between 2001 and 2002 and between 2007 and 2008 while within the periods the emissions seem to be constant due to the application of periodical average emission factors. This does not reflect inter-annual variability in the time series, which would be assumed as the drivers for the carbon stock changes fluctuate between the years. Therefore additional data, which is available on annual basis, should be introduced into the calculations of the emissions inventories in order to get more plausible time series. This article explores the possibility of introducing an annual rather than periodical approach to calculating emission factors with the given data and thus smoothing the trajectory of time series for emissions from forest biomass. Two approaches are introduced to estimate annual changes derived from periodic data: the so-called logging factor method and the growth factor method. The logging factor method incorporates annual logging data to project annual values from periodic values. This is less complex to implement than the growth factor method, which additionally adds growth data into the calculations. Calculation of the input variables is based on sound statistical methodologies and periodically collected data that cannot be altered. Thus a discontinuous trajectory of the emissions over time remains, even after the adjustments. It is intended to adopt this approach in the German greenhouse gas reporting in order to meet the request for annually adjusted values.

  13. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  14. Estimating the proportion of groundwater recharge from flood events in relation to total annual recharge in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvory, N. Z.; Ronen, A.; Livshitz, Y.; Adar, E.; Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater production from karstic aquifers is primarily dictated by its recharge rate. Therefore, in order to limit over-exploitation, it is essential to accurately quantify groundwater recharge. Infiltration during erratic floods in karstic basins may contribute substantial amount to aquifer recharge. However, the complicated nature of karst systems, which are characterized in part by multiple springs, sinkholes, and losing/gaining streams, present a large obstacle to accurately assess the actual contribution of flood water to groundwater recharge. In this study, we aim to quantify the proportion of groundwater recharge during flood events in relation to the annual recharge for karst aquifers. The role of karst conduits on flash flood infiltration was examined during four flood and artificial runoff events in the Sorek creek near Jerusalem, Israel. The events were monitored in short time steps (four minutes). This high resolution analysis is essential to accurately estimating surface flow volumes, which are of particular importance in arid and semi-arid climate where ephemeral flows may provide a substantial contribution to the groundwater reservoirs. For the present investigation, we distinguished between direct infiltration, percolation through karst conduits and diffused infiltration, which is most affected by evapotranspiration. A water balance was then calculated for the 2014/15 hydrologic year using the Hydrologic Engineering Center - Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). Simulations show that an additional 8% to 24% of the annual recharge volume is added from runoff losses along the creek that infiltrate through the karst system into the aquifer. The results improve the understanding of recharge processes and support the use of the proposed methodology for quantifying groundwater recharge.

  15. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  16. Estimated average annual rate of change of CD4(+) T-cell counts in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Phillips, Andrew N; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) might continue treatment with a virologically failing regimen. We sought to identify annual change in CD4(+) T-cell count according to levels of viraemia in patients on cART. METHODS: A total of 111,371 CD4(+) T-cell counts...... and viral load measurements in 8,227 patients were analysed. Annual change in CD4(+) T-cell numbers was estimated using mixed models. RESULTS: After adjustment, the estimated average annual change in CD4(+) T-cell count significantly increased when viral load was cells/mm(3), 95......% confidence interval [CI] 26.6-34.3), was stable when viral load was 500-9,999 copies/ml (3.1 cells/mm(3), 95% CI -5.3-11.5) and decreased when viral load was >/=10,000 copies/ml (-14.8 cells/mm(3), 95% CI -4.5--25.1). Patients taking a boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimen had more positive annual CD4(+) T-cell...

  17. Using Annual Data to Estimate the Public Health Impact of Extreme Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggins, William B; Yang, Chunyuh; Hokama, Tomiko; Law, Lewis S K; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Short-term associations between both hot and cold ambient temperatures and higher mortality have been found worldwide. Few studies have examined these associations on longer time scales. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated for 1976-2012 for Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, defining "annual" time periods in 2 ways: from May through April of the following year and from November through October. Annual frequency and severity of extreme temperatures were summarized by using a degree-days approach with extreme heat expressed as annual degree-days >29.3°C and cold as annual degree-days ASMR, with adjustment for long-term trends. Increases of 10 hot or 200 cold degree-days in an annual period, the approximate interquartile ranges for these variables, were significantly (all P's ≤ 0.011) associated with 1.9% or 3.1% increases, respectively, in the annual ASMR for the May-April analyses and with 2.2% or 2.8% increases, respectively, in the November-October analyses. Associations were stronger for noncancer and elderly mortality. Mortality increases associated with extreme temperature are not simply due to short-term forward displacement of deaths that would have occurred anyway within a few weeks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Estimation of annual suspended-sediment fluxes, 1931-95, and evaluation of geomorphic changes, 1950-2010, in the Arkansas River near Tulsa, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jason M.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Buck, Stephanie D.; Strong, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of fluvial sediment transport and changing channel morphology can assist planners in making responsible decisions with future riverine development or restoration projects. Sediment rating curves can serve as simple models and can provide predictive tools to estimate annual sediment fluxes. Sediment flux models can aid in the design of river projects by providing insight to past and potential future sediment fluxes. Historical U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment and discharge data were evaluated to estimate annual suspended-sediment fluxes for two stations on the Arkansas River located downstream from Keystone Dam in Tulsa County. Annual suspended-sediment fluxes were estimated from 1931-95 for the Arkansas River at Tulsa streamflow-gaging station (07164500) and from 1973-82 for the Arkansas River near Haskell streamflow-gaging station (07165570). The annual flow-weighted suspended-sediment concentration decreased from 1,970 milligrams per liter to 350 milligrams per liter after the completion of Keystone Dam at the Tulsa station. The streambed elevation at the Arkansas River at Tulsa station has changed less than 1 foot from 1970 to 2005, but the thalweg has shifted from a location near the right bank to a position near the left bank. There was little change in the position of most of the banks of the Arkansas River channel from 1950 to 2009. The most substantial change evident from visual inspection of aerial photographs was an apparent decrease in sediment storage in the form of mid-channel and meander bars. The Arkansas River channel between Keystone Dam and the Tulsa-Wagoner County line showed a narrowing and lengthening (increase in sinuosity) over the transition period 1950-77 followed by a steady widening and shortening of the river channel (decrease in sinuosity) during the post-dam (Keystone) periods 1977-85, 1985-2003, and 2003-10.

  19. Methods for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2010-01-01

    Flow statistics can be used to provide decision makers with surface-water information needed for activities such as water-supply permitting, flow regulation, and other water rights issues. Flow statistics could be needed at any location along a stream. Most often, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no flow data are available to compute the statistics. Methods are presented in this report for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams in Oklahoma. Flow statistics included the (1) annual (period of record), (2) seasonal (summer-autumn and winter-spring), and (3) 12 monthly duration statistics, including the 20th, 50th, 80th, 90th, and 95th percentile flow exceedances, and the annual mean-flow (mean of daily flows for the period of record). Flow statistics were calculated from daily streamflow information collected from 235 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Oklahoma and areas in adjacent states. A drainage-area ratio method is the preferred method for estimating flow statistics at an ungaged location that is on a stream near a gage. The method generally is reliable only if the drainage-area ratio of the two sites is between 0.5 and 1.5. Regression equations that relate flow statistics to drainage-basin characteristics were developed for the purpose of estimating selected flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams that are not near gaging stations on the same stream. Regression equations were developed from flow statistics and drainage-basin characteristics for 113 unregulated gaging stations. Separate regression equations were developed by using U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in regions with similar drainage-basin characteristics. These equations can increase the accuracy of regression equations used for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics at ungaged stream locations in Oklahoma. Streamflow-gaging stations were grouped by selected drainage

  20. Evaluation of soil-plant transfer factors of iodine. Estimation of annual ingestion for iodine from the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene.

    1980-11-01

    The author presents the iodine middle contents of the soils and vegetables. A synthesis on the iodine evolution in the soils and vegetables allows to conclude that the vegetable absorption of this isotope is correlated with the isotopiquely exchangeable iodine of the soil. The soil-plant transfer-factors are calculated for the vegetables, cereals, fruits from the stable iodine quantitative analysis. The annual iodine ingestion has been estimated from the dietary of the European Communites areas. This one is a little different of the quantity estimated by CRESTA-LACOURLY-R 2979, yet the contribution by consummation unity is different [fr

  1. A quantitative model for estimating mean annual soil loss in cultivated land using 137Cs measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hao; Zhao Qiguo; Du Mingyuan; Minami, Katsuyuki; Hatta, Tamao

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 137 Cs has been widely used to determine rates of cultivated soil loss, Many calibration relationships (including both empirical relationships and theoretical models) have been employed to estimate erosion rates from the amount of 137 Cs lost from the cultivated soil profile. However, there are important limitations which restrict the reliability of these models, which consider only the uniform distribution of 137 Cs in the plough layer and the depth. As a result, erosion rates they may be overestimated or underestimated. This article presents a quantitative model for the relation the amount of 137 Cs lost from the cultivate soil profile and the rate of soil erosion. According to a mass balance model, during the construction of this model we considered the following parameters: the remaining fraction of the surface enrichment layer (F R ), the thickness of the surface enrichment layer (H s ), the depth of the plough layer (H p ), input fraction of the total 137 Cs fallout deposition during a given year t (F t ), radioactive decay of 137 Cs (k), and sampling year (t). The simulation results showed that the amounts of erosion rates estimated using this model were very sensitive to changes in the values of the parameters F R , H s , and H p . We also observed that the relationship between the rate of soil loss and 137 Cs depletion is neither linear nor logarithmic, and is very complex. Although the model is an improvement over existing approaches to derive calibration relationships for cultivated soil, it requires empirical information on local soil properties and the behavior of 137 Cs in the soil profile. There is clearly still a need for more precise information on the latter aspect and, in particular, on the retention of 137 Cs fallout in the top few millimeters of the soil profile and on the enrichment and depletion effects associated with soil redistribution (i.e. for determining accurate values of F R and H s ). (author)

  2. Randomization of grab-sampling strategies for estimating the annual exposure of U miners to Rn daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, T B

    1986-04-01

    Periodic grab sampling in combination with time-of-occupancy surveys has been the accepted procedure for estimating the annual exposure of underground U miners to Rn daughters. Temporal variations in the concentration of potential alpha energy in the mine generate uncertainties in this process. A system to randomize the selection of locations for measurement is described which can reduce uncertainties and eliminate systematic biases in the data. In general, a sample frequency of 50 measurements per year is sufficient to satisfy the criteria that the annual exposure be determined in working level months to within +/- 50% of the true value with a 95% level of confidence. Suggestions for implementing this randomization scheme are presented.

  3. Estimate of annual daily maximum rainfall and intense rain equation for the Formiga municipality, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Mara Rodrigues Borges

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the probabilistic behavior of rainfall is extremely important to the design of drainage systems, dam spillways, and other hydraulic projects. This study therefore examined statistical models to predict annual daily maximum rainfall as well as models of heavy rain for the city of Formiga - MG. To do this, annual maximum daily rainfall data were ranked in decreasing order that best describes the statistical distribution by exceedance probability. Daily rainfall disaggregation methodology was used for the intense rain model studies and adjusted with Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF and Exponential models. The study found that the Gumbel model better adhered to the data regarding observed frequency as indicated by the Chi-squared test, and that the exponential model best conforms to the observed data to predict intense rains.

  4. Annual national direct and indirect cost estimates of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Itria, Alexander; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Rama, Cristina Helena; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil. METHODS: This cost description study used a "gross-costing" methodology and adopted the health system and societal perspectives. The estimates were grouped into sets of procedures performed in phases of cervical cancer care: the screening, diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions and the treatment of cervical cancer. The costs were estimated for the public and private health systems, using data from national health information systems, population surveys, and literature reviews. The cost estimates are presented in 2006 USD. RESULTS: From the societal perspective, the estimated total costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer amounted to USD $1,321,683,034, which was categorized as follows: procedures (USD $213,199,490), visits (USD $325,509,842), transportation (USD $106,521,537) and productivity losses (USD $676,452,166). Indirect costs represented 51% of the total costs, followed by direct medical costs (visits and procedures) at 41% and direct non-medical costs (transportation) at 8%. The public system represented 46% of the total costs, and the private system represented 54%. CONCLUSION: Our national cost estimates of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, indicating the economic importance of cervical cancer screening and care, will be useful in monitoring the effect of the HPV vaccine introduction and are of interest in research and health care management. PMID:26017797

  5. Comparisons of estimates of annual exceedance-probability discharges for small drainage basins in Iowa, based on data through water year 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the Iowa Department of Transportation : has used the Iowa Runoff Chart and single-variable regional-regression equations (RREs) from a U.S. Geological Survey : report (published in 1987) as the primary methods to estimate : annual exce...

  6. Comparisons of estimates of annual exceedance-probability discharges for small drainage basins in Iowa, based on data through water year 2013 : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the Iowa DOT has used the Iowa Runoff Chart and single-variable regional regression equations (RREs) from a USGS report : (published in 1987) as the primary methods to estimate annual exceedance-probability discharge : (AEPD) for small...

  7. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  8. Estimating the annual risk of HIV transmission within HIV sero-discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Susanne F; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the annual risk of HIV transmission (ϕ) within HIV sero-discordant couples in 23 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), by utilizing newly available national population-based data and accounting for factors known to potentially affect this estimation. We used a recently developed pair-based mathematical model that accommodates for HIV-dynamics temporal variation, sexual risk-behavior heterogeneity, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. Estimated country-specific ϕ (in absence of ART) ranged between 4.2% (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.9%-6.3%) and 47.4% (95% UI: 37.2%-69.0%) per person-year (ppy), with a median of 12.4%. ϕ was strongly associated with HIV prevalence, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.92, and was larger in high- versus low-HIV-prevalence countries. ϕ increased by 1.31% (95% confidence interval: 1.00%-1.55%) ppy for every 1% increase in HIV prevalence. ϕ estimates were similar to earlier estimates, and suggested considerable heterogeneity in HIV infectiousness across SSA. This heterogeneity may explain, partly, the differences in epidemic scales. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Can weekly noise levels of urban road traffic, as predominant noise source, estimate annual ones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Gajardo, Carlos; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Vílchez-Gómez, Rosendo

    2016-11-01

    The effects of noise pollution on human quality of life and health were recognised by the World Health Organisation a long time ago. There is a crucial dilemma for the study of urban noise when one is looking for proven methodologies that can allow, on the one hand, an increase in the quality of predictions, and on the other hand, saving resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. The temporal structure of urban noise is studied in this work from a different point of view. This methodology, based on Fourier analysis, is applied to several measurements of urban noise, mainly from road traffic and one-week long, carried out in two cities located on different continents and with different sociological life styles (Cáceres, Spain and Talca, Chile). Its capacity to predict annual noise levels from weekly measurements is studied. The relation between this methodology and the categorisation method is also analysed.

  10. Hazus® estimated annualized earthquake losses for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Bausch, Doug; Rozelle, Jesse; Holub, John; McGowan, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Large earthquakes can cause social and economic disruption that can be unprecedented to any given community, and the full recovery from these impacts may or may not always be achievable. In the United States (U.S.), the 1994 M6.7 Northridge earthquake in California remains the third costliest disaster in U.S. history; and it was one of the most expensive disasters for the federal government. Internationally, earthquakes in the last decade alone have claimed tens of thousands of lives and caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic impact throughout the globe (~90 billion U.S. dollars (USD) from 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan China, ~20 billion USD from 2010 M8.8 Maule earthquake in Chile, ~220 billion USD from 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Japan earthquake, ~25 billion USD from 2011 M6.3 Christchurch New Zealand, and ~22 billion USD from 2016 M7.0 Kumamoto Japan). Recent earthquakes show a pattern of steadily increasing damages and losses that are primarily due to three key factors: (1) significant growth in earthquake-prone urban areas, (2) vulnerability of the older building stock, including poorly engineered non-ductile concrete buildings, and (3) an increased interdependency in terms of supply and demand for the businesses that operate among different parts of the world. In the United States, earthquake risk continues to grow with increased exposure of population and development even though the earthquake hazard has remained relatively stable except for the regions of induced seismic activity. Understanding the seismic hazard requires studying earthquake characteristics and locales in which they occur, while understanding the risk requires an assessment of the potential damage from earthquake shaking to the built environment and to the welfare of people—especially in high-risk areas. Estimating the varying degree of earthquake risk throughout the United States is critical for informed decision-making on mitigation policies, priorities, strategies, and funding levels in the

  11. Estimation of return levels against different return periods of extreme annual rainfall over Baluchistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Jan, B.; Iqbal, J.

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented heavy monsoon rainfall began in the last week of July 2010 in the Northern part of our country, causes floods in Baluchistan and Sindh. As the high frequency rainfall events are a significant cause of current severe flooding in Pakistan and any fluctuation in the level of such events may cause huge economic losses as well as social problem, urban structures (i.e. dams, urban drainage systems and flood). Statistical distributions are used to identify extremes of annual rainfall of different cities of Baluchistan (Quetta, Sibbi, Khuzdar, Lasbella, Dalbandin and Pasni) with their return periods. Analysis predicts that Gumbel Max. (GM) Distribution is the best fitted distribution for Sibbi and Lasbella while the GEV distribution is the best fitted for Quetta, Khuzdar, Dalbandin and Pasni. The analysis also suggests that different cities of Baluchistan have 30-years return period for getting more than 90 mm average daily rainfall while they have 100-years return period for receiving more than 118 mm daily rainfall. This suggests for suitable flood forecasting and improving the river structure in Baluchistan, Pakistan. (author)

  12. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-12-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  13. Estimating long-term statistics for annual precipitation for six regions of the United States from tree-ring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, H.C.; DeWitt, E.; Gordon, G.A.; Hunt, J.H.; Lofgren, G.R.

    1979-12-01

    Spatial anomalies of seasonal precipitation for the United States and southwestern Canada have been reconstructed from 1602 through 1961 using dendrochronological and multivariate techniques on 65 arid-site tree-ring chronologies from western North America. Seasonal reconstructions are averaged to obtain mean annual precipitation values for six regions of importance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Nuclear Waste Management Program (NWMP). Statistics calculated from the regionally averaged annual values for 25-year and longer intervals show annual precipitation in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries to be lower than in the twentieth century for three regions in the American Southwest and higher for one region in the Northwest and two regions in the East. The variability of precipitation generally was higher in the past three centuries than in the present century. Twenty-five-year intervals with noteworthy statistics are identified and important results are summarized and tabulated for use in the hydrologic modeling of the NWMP. Additional research is recommended to incorporate temperature and precipitation into a single hydrologic parameter

  14. Long term estimation of carbon dynamic and sequestration for Iranian agro-ecosystem: I- Net primary productivity and annual carbon input for common agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nassiri Mahalati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of carbon input is one of the most important factors for estimating soil carbon changes and potential for carbon sequestration. To evaluate the net primary productivity (NPP and soil carbon input in agricultural eco-systems of Iran, data for yield, cultivated area, harvest index (HI and shoot /root ratio in different crops including: wheat, barley, maize, cotton, rice, alfalfa and chickpea were obtained for different provinces. Then, allocated carbon to different organs of plant were calculated based on carbon allocation coefficients and finally, the net primary productivity based on carbon (NPPc was calculated. The ratio of NPPc that was annually returned to soil was considered as carbon annual input. The results showed that the maximum amount of NPPc for wheat, barely and alfalfa were obtained in Khazari climate for rice, chickpea and cotton was achieved in warm-wet climate and for maize was gained in warm-dry climate. In all regions of Iran, chickpea had the lowest effect on NPPc and consequently on carbon sequestration. The highest amount of carbon input per unit area among studied crops and different regions were observed in Khazari region for alfalfa whereas, the lowest carbon input per unit area was relation to chickpea in cold region. The lowest gap between actual and potential of carbon sequestration was observed in alfalfa whereas wheat, rice and cotton showed the most gap by 0.4, 0.38 and 0.37, respectively.

  15. A comprehensive biogeochemical record and annual flux estimates for the Sabaki River (Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwick, Trent R.; Tamooh, Fredrick; Ogwoka, Bernard; Borges, Alberto V.; Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Inland waters impart considerable influence on nutrient cycling and budget estimates across local, regional and global scales, whilst anthropogenic pressures, such as rising populations and the appropriation of land and water resources, are undoubtedly modulating the flux of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) between terrestrial biomes to inland waters, and the subsequent flux of these nutrients to the marine and atmospheric domains. Here, we present a 2-year biogeochemical record (October 2011-December 2013) at biweekly sampling resolution for the lower Sabaki River, Kenya, and provide estimates for suspended sediment and nutrient export fluxes from the lower Sabaki River under pre-dam conditions, and in light of the approved construction of the Thwake Multipurpose Dam on its upper reaches (Athi River). Erratic seasonal variation was typical for most parameters, with generally poor correlation between discharge and material concentrations, and stable isotope values of C (δ13C) and N (δ15N). Although high total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations are reported here (up to ˜ 3.8 g L-1), peak concentrations of TSM rarely coincided with peak discharge. The contribution of particulate organic C (POC) to the TSM pool indicates a wide biannual variation in suspended sediment load from OC poor (0.3 %) to OC rich (14.9 %), with the highest %POC occurring when discharge is Wet season flows (October-December and March-May) carried > 80 % of the total load for TSM (˜ 86 %), POC (˜ 89 %), dissolved organic carbon (DOC; ˜ 81 %), PN (˜ 89 %) and particulate phosphorus (TPP; ˜ 82 %), with > 50 % of each fraction exported during the long wet season (March-May). Our estimated sediment yield (85 Mg km-2 yr-1) is relatively low on the global scale and is considerably less than the recently reported average sediment yield of ˜ 630 Mg km-2 yr-1 for African river basins. Regardless, sediment and OC yields were all at least equivalent or greater than reported yields

  16. Unauthorized Immigration to the United States: Annual Estimates and Components of Change, by State, 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert; Warren, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for producing annual estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United Sates and components of population change, for each state and D.C., for 1990 to 2010. We quantify a sharp drop in the number of unauthorized immigrants arriving since 2000, and we demonstrate the role of departures from the population (emigration, adjustment to legal status, removal by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and deaths) in reducing population growth from one million in 2000 to population losses in 2008 and 2009. The number arriving in the U.S. peaked at more than one million in 1999 to 2001, and then declined rapidly through 2009. We provide evidence that population growth stopped after 2007 primarily because entries declined and not because emigration increased during the economic crisis. Our estimates of the total unauthorized immigrant population in the U.S. and in the top ten states are comparable to those produced by DHS and the Pew Hispanic Center. For the remaining states and D.C., our data and methods produce estimates with smaller ranges of sampling error. PMID:23956482

  17. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio

    2008-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  18. Unauthorized Immigration to the United States: Annual Estimates and Components of Change, by State, 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert; Warren, John Robert

    2013-06-01

    We describe a method for producing annual estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United Sates and components of population change, for each state and D.C., for 1990 to 2010. We quantify a sharp drop in the number of unauthorized immigrants arriving since 2000, and we demonstrate the role of departures from the population (emigration, adjustment to legal status, removal by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and deaths) in reducing population growth from one million in 2000 to population losses in 2008 and 2009. The number arriving in the U.S. peaked at more than one million in 1999 to 2001, and then declined rapidly through 2009. We provide evidence that population growth stopped after 2007 primarily because entries declined and not because emigration increased during the economic crisis. Our estimates of the total unauthorized immigrant population in the U.S. and in the top ten states are comparable to those produced by DHS and the Pew Hispanic Center. For the remaining states and D.C., our data and methods produce estimates with smaller ranges of sampling error.

  19. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1999-03-01

    This report consists of two parts describing research activities completed during 1997 under Bonneville Power Administration Project Number 93-29. Part 1 provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 1997 for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. The results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More detailed information on methodology and the statistical models used in the analysis are provided in previous annual reports cited in the text. Analysis of the relationships among travel time, survival, and environmental factors for 1997 and previous years of the study will be reported elsewhere. Part 2 of this report describes research to determine areas of loss and delay for juvenile hatchery salmonids above Lower Granite Reservoir.

  20. Estimation of the annual production and composition of C&D Debris in Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Lage, Isabel; Martínez Abella, Fernando; Herrero, Cristina Vázquez; Ordóñez, Juan Luis Pérez

    2010-04-01

    One of the key aspects that must be taken into consideration within the framework of Sustainable Construction is the management of Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris. As for other types of waste, specific handling procedures are required to manage C&D Debris; these include reduction, reuse, recycling, and if all other possibilities fail, recovery or disposal. For public planning strategies aimed at the management of C&D Debris to be effective, it is first necessary to have specific knowledge of the type of waste materials generated in a particular region. After verifying that the methods available to determine the production and composition of C&D Debris are limited, this paper presents a procedure to ascertain the production and composition of C&D Debris, in any region. The procedure utilizes data on the surface areas of newly constructed buildings, renovations and demolitions, which are estimated from available data for recent years, as well as information on the quantity of debris generated per surface area in any type of construction site, which is obtained from recently executed constructions or from the ground plans of older buildings. The method proposed here has been applied to Galicia, one of Spain's autonomous communities, for which the quantity and composition of C&D Debris have been estimated for the horizon year 2011. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A comprehensive biogeochemical record and annual flux estimates for the Sabaki River (Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Marwick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inland waters impart considerable influence on nutrient cycling and budget estimates across local, regional and global scales, whilst anthropogenic pressures, such as rising populations and the appropriation of land and water resources, are undoubtedly modulating the flux of carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P between terrestrial biomes to inland waters, and the subsequent flux of these nutrients to the marine and atmospheric domains. Here, we present a 2-year biogeochemical record (October 2011–December 2013 at biweekly sampling resolution for the lower Sabaki River, Kenya, and provide estimates for suspended sediment and nutrient export fluxes from the lower Sabaki River under pre-dam conditions, and in light of the approved construction of the Thwake Multipurpose Dam on its upper reaches (Athi River. Erratic seasonal variation was typical for most parameters, with generally poor correlation between discharge and material concentrations, and stable isotope values of C (δ13C and N (δ15N. Although high total suspended matter (TSM concentrations are reported here (up to ∼ 3.8 g L−1, peak concentrations of TSM rarely coincided with peak discharge. The contribution of particulate organic C (POC to the TSM pool indicates a wide biannual variation in suspended sediment load from OC poor (0.3 % to OC rich (14.9 %, with the highest %POC occurring when discharge is < 100 m3 s−1 and at lower TSM concentrations. The consistent 15N enrichment of the particulate nitrogen (PN pool compared to other river systems indicates anthropogenic N loading is a year-round driver of N export from the Sabaki Basin. The lower Sabaki River was consistently oversaturated in dissolved methane (CH4; from 499 to 135 111 % and nitrous oxide (N2O; 100 to 463 % relative to atmospheric concentrations. Wet season flows (October–December and March–May carried > 80 % of the total load for TSM (∼ 86 %, POC (∼ 89 %, dissolved

  2. A neural network-based estimate of the seasonal to inter-annual variability of the Atlantic Ocean carbon sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landschützer, P.; Gruber, N.; Bakker, D.C.E.

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but this sink is known to vary substantially in time. Here we use surface ocean CO2 observations to estimate this sink and the temporal variability from 1998 to 2007 in the Atlantic Ocean. We benefit from ......, leading to a substantial trend toward a stronger CO2 sink for the entire South Atlantic (–0.14 Pg C yr–1 decade–1). The Atlantic carbon sink varies relatively little on inter-annual time-scales (±0.04 Pg C yr–1; 1σ)......The Atlantic Ocean is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but this sink is known to vary substantially in time. Here we use surface ocean CO2 observations to estimate this sink and the temporal variability from 1998 to 2007 in the Atlantic Ocean. We benefit from (i...... poleward of 40° N, but many other parts of the North Atlantic increased more slowly, resulting in a barely changing Atlantic carbon sink north of the equator (–0.007 Pg C yr–1 decade–1). Surface ocean pCO2 was also increasing less than that of the atmosphere over most of the Atlantic south of the equator...

  3. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris. Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  4. Inter-annual variations in water yield to lakes in northeastern Alberta: implications for estimating critical loads of acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick HAZEWINKEL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of water were applied to estimate water yield to fifty lakes in northeastern Alberta as part of an acid sensitivity study underway since 2002 in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR. Herein, we apply site-specific water yields for each lake to calculate critical loads of acidity using water chemistry data and a steady-state water chemistry model. The main goal of this research was to improve site-specific critical load estimates and to understand the sensitivity to hydrologic variability across a Boreal Plains region under significant oil sands development pressure. Overall, catchment water yields were found to vary significantly over the seven year monitoring period, with distinct variations among lakes and between different regions, overprinted by inter-annual climate-driven shifts. Analysis of critical load estimates based on site-specific water yields suggests that caution must be applied to establish hydrologic conditions and define extremes at specific sites in order to protect more sensitive ecosystems. In general, lakes with low (high water yield tended to be more (less acid sensitive but were typically less (more affected by interannual hydrological variations. While it has been customary to use long-term water yields to define a static critical load for lakes, we find that spatial and temporal variability in water yield may limit effectiveness of this type of assessment in areas of the Boreal Plain characterized by heterogeneous runoff and without a long-term lake-gauging network. Implications for predicting acidification risk are discussed for the AOSR.

  5. Source-Sink Estimates of Genetic Introgression Show Influence of Hatchery Strays on Wild Chum Salmon Populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Jasper, James R.; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D.; Grant, W. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. H...

  6. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  7. Linking annual N2O emission in organic soils to mineral nitrogen input as estimated by heterotrophic respiration and soil C/N ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2014-01-01

    Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of annual CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted.

  8. A new NDVI measure that overcomes data sparsity in cloud-covered regions predicts annual variation in ground-based estimates of high arctic plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune Karlsen, Stein; Anderson, Helen B.; van der Wal, René; Bremset Hansen, Brage

    2018-02-01

    Efforts to estimate plant productivity using satellite data can be frustrated by the presence of cloud cover. We developed a new method to overcome this problem, focussing on the high-arctic archipelago of Svalbard where extensive cloud cover during the growing season can prevent plant productivity from being estimated over large areas. We used a field-based time-series (2000-2009) of live aboveground vascular plant biomass data and a recently processed cloud-free MODIS-Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set (2000-2014) to estimate, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the onset of plant growth. We then summed NDVI values from onset of spring to the average time of peak NDVI to give an estimate of annual plant productivity. This remotely sensed productivity measure was then compared, at two different spatial scales, with the peak plant biomass field data. At both the local scale, surrounding the field data site, and the larger regional scale, our NDVI measure was found to predict plant biomass (adjusted R 2 = 0.51 and 0.44, respectively). The commonly used ‘maximum NDVI’ plant productivity index showed no relationship with plant biomass, likely due to some years having very few cloud-free images available during the peak plant growing season. Thus, we propose this new summed NDVI from onset of spring to time of peak NDVI as a proxy of large-scale plant productivity for regions such as the Arctic where climatic conditions restrict the availability of cloud-free images.

  9. Proceedings of the 11. annual North American natural gas and electricity market conference and trade show : GasFair power 2002. CD-Rom ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The electricity market is undergoing changes, from deregulation to competition and convergence. This conference provided an opportunity for North American natural gas and electricity industries representatives and stake holders to share their views concerning the many challenges, issues and opportunities in this field. Emerging market developments, issues and strategies are some of the topics discussed during this conference and trade show. The organizers placed emphasis on energy purchasers and managers, and the opportunities facing them for the improvement of their company's financial health by means of savings on natural gas costs and electricity purchases. In addition, there are several opportunities for improved energy efficiency and technologies and integrated energy and risk management programs which were all discussed. The economic challenges and opportunities arising from the supply, demand, marketing and pricing for gas and power products and services facing energy marketers, traders, producers, utilities and transporters were addressed. A detailed and practical examination of ways by which energy consumers can address issues of volatile gas and power prices was provided. Effective, cost saving purchasing options and risk management strategies and tools, contracting, outsourcing, aggregating and cost-effective energy management programs were also explored. In all, approximately 900 delegates attended the conference and trade show from all across Canada and the United States. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Parameterization of vertical chlorophyll a in the Arctic Ocean: impact of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum on regional, seasonal, and annual primary production estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ardyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Predicting water-column phytoplankton biomass from near-surface measurements is a common approach in biological oceanography, particularly since the advent of satellite remote sensing of ocean color (OC. In the Arctic Ocean, deep subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCMs that significantly contribute to primary production (PP are often observed. These are neither detected by ocean color sensors nor accounted for in the primary production models applied to the Arctic Ocean. Here, we assemble a large database of pan-Arctic observations (i.e., 5206 stations and develop an empirical model to estimate vertical chlorophyll a (Chl a according to (1 the shelf–offshore gradient delimited by the 50 m isobath, (2 seasonal variability along pre-bloom, post-bloom, and winter periods, and (3 regional differences across ten sub-Arctic and Arctic seas. Our detailed analysis of the dataset shows that, for the pre-bloom and winter periods, as well as for high surface Chl a concentration (Chl asurf; 0.7–30 mg m−3 throughout the open water period, the Chl a maximum is mainly located at or near the surface. Deep SCMs occur chiefly during the post-bloom period when Chl asurf is low (0–0.5 mg m−3. By applying our empirical model to annual Chl asurf time series, instead of the conventional method assuming vertically homogenous Chl a, we produce novel pan-Arctic PP estimates and associated uncertainties. Our results show that vertical variations in Chl a have a limited impact on annual depth-integrated PP. Small overestimates found when SCMs are shallow (i.e., pre-bloom, post-bloom > 0.7 mg m−3, and the winter period somehow compensate for the underestimates found when SCMs are deep (i.e., post-bloom −3. SCMs are, however, important seasonal features with a substantial impact on depth-integrated PP estimates, especially when surface nitrate is exhausted in the Arctic Ocean and where highly stratified and oligotrophic conditions prevail.

  11. Methods for estimating annual exceedance-probability streamflows for streams in Kansas based on data through water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Colin C.; Heimann, David C.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.

    2017-08-14

    A study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Transportation and the Federal Emergency Management Agency to develop regression models to estimate peak streamflows of annual exceedance probabilities of 50, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.2 percent at ungaged locations in Kansas. Peak streamflow frequency statistics from selected streamgages were related to contributing drainage area and average precipitation using generalized least-squares regression analysis. The peak streamflow statistics were derived from 151 streamgages with at least 25 years of streamflow data through 2015. The developed equations can be used to predict peak streamflow magnitude and frequency within two hydrologic regions that were defined based on the effects of irrigation. The equations developed in this report are applicable to streams in Kansas that are not substantially affected by regulation, surface-water diversions, or urbanization. The equations are intended for use for streams with contributing drainage areas ranging from 0.17 to 14,901 square miles in the nonirrigation effects region and, 1.02 to 3,555 square miles in the irrigation-affected region, corresponding to the range of drainage areas of the streamgages used in the development of the regional equations.

  12. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 1 of 3: estimating annual foliar biomass for a deciduous-dominant urban riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Goldman, Jami H.

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we explored the amount, type, and distribution of foliar biomass that is deposited annually as leaf litter to Fanno Creek and its floodplain in Portland, Oregon, USA. Organic matter is a significant contributor to the decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations observed in Fanno Creek each year and leaf litter is amongst the largest sources of organic matter to the stream channel and floodplain. Using a combination of field measurements and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data, the annual foliar biomass was estimated for 13 stream reaches along the creek. Biomass estimates were divided into two sets: (1) the annual foliage available from the entire floodplain overstory canopy, and (2) the annual foliage overhanging the stream, which likely contributes leaf litter directly to the creek each year. Based on these computations, an estimated 991 (±22%) metric tons (tonnes, t) of foliar biomass is produced annually above the floodplain, with about 136 t (±24%) of that foliage falling directly into Fanno Creek. The distribution of foliar biomass varies by reach, with between 150 and 640 t/km2 produced along the floodplain and between 400 and 1100 t/km2 available over the channel. Biomass estimates vary by reach based primarily on the density of tree cover, with forest-dominant reaches containing more mature deciduous trees with broader tree canopies than either wetland or urban-dominant reaches, thus supplying more organic material to the creek. By quantifying the foliar biomass along Fanno Creek we have provided a reach-scale assessment of terrestrial organic matter loading, thereby providing land managers useful information for planning future restoration efforts.

  13. Measuring hospital-acquired pressure injuries: A surveillance programme for monitoring performance improvement and estimating annual prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Andrew; McCall, Elaine; Chappell, Matt; Tobin, Sam

    2016-06-01

    To describe a surveillance approach for monitoring the effect of improvement initiatives on hospital-acquired pressure injuries and findings arising from that surveillance. Random sampling of patients on the same day of each successive month from a campus of child and adult hospitals using a standard audit tool to identify presence of hospital-acquired pressure injury. Where multiple pressure injuries were present, the most severe grade injury contributed to prevalence. Statistical process control charts were used to monitor monthly performance and Maximum Likelihood Estimation to determine timing of step change. 8274 patients were assessed over 3 years from an eligible population of 32,259 hospitalised patients. 517 patients had hospital-acquired pressure injuries giving an overall prevalence of 6.2% (95% CI 5.7-6.8%). Annual prevalence was 8.4% (95% CI 7.4-9.5%) in the first year, falling to 5.6% (95% CI 4.7-6.4%) in the second year and 4.8% (95% CI 4.0-5.6%) in the third year. A step change was signalled with mean prevalence up to July 2013 being 7.9% (95% CI 7.1-8.8%) and mean prevalence thereafter 4.8% (95% CI 4.2-5.4%). Hospital-acquired pressure injuries were found in all age ranges, but were more frequent in children up to 14 years (17.4%) and those aged 75 years or older (38.7%). Monthly random sampling of patients within clinical units can be used to monitor performance improvement. This approach represents a rational alternative to cross-sectional prevalence surveys especially if the focus is on performance improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  15. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  16. Estimation of annual effective dose from 226Ra and 228Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asefi, M.; Fathivand, A. A.; Amidi, J.

    2005-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra contents in foodstuffs of Ramsar which is a coastal city in the northern part of lran were determined by gamma spectrometry. Measurement results together with food consumption rates were used to estimate annual effective dose from 226 Ra and 228 Ra, due to consumption of food stuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city. Materials and methods: a total of 33 samples from 11 different foodstuffs including root vegetables (beetroot), leafy vegetables (lettuce, parsley and spinach) and tea, meat, chicken, pea, broad bean, rice, and cheese were purchased from markets of Ramsar city and were analyzed for their 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentration. 1-8 kg of fresh weight sample was placed in Marinnelli beaker and sealed. The measurement of natural radioactivity levels as performed by gamma-spectrometry system, using a high purity germanium detector with 40% relative efficiency. Results: The highest concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in tea samples with 1570 and 1140 mBq/kg, respectively, and the lowest concentration of 226 Ra was in pea, cheese, chicken, broad bean, and beetroot. Conclusion:The maximum estimated annual effective dose from 226 Ra and 228 Ra due to consumption, foodstuffs were determined to be 19.22 and 0.71 mSv from rice and meat samples respectively, where as, minimum estimated annual effective dose for 226 Ra was 0.017, 0.018 and 0.019 mSv from beetroot, cheese and pea samples respectively

  17. Evaluation of precipitation estimates over CONUS derived from satellite, radar, and rain gauge data sets at daily to annual scales (2002-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, O. P.; Nelson, B. R.

    2015-04-01

    We use a suite of quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) derived from satellite, radar, and surface observations to derive precipitation characteristics over the contiguous United States (CONUS) for the period 2002-2012. This comparison effort includes satellite multi-sensor data sets (bias-adjusted TMPA 3B42, near-real-time 3B42RT), radar estimates (NCEP Stage IV), and rain gauge observations. Remotely sensed precipitation data sets are compared with surface observations from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily (GHCN-D) and from the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model). The comparisons are performed at the annual, seasonal, and daily scales over the River Forecast Centers (RFCs) for CONUS. Annual average rain rates present a satisfying agreement with GHCN-D for all products over CONUS (±6%). However, differences at the RFC are more important in particular for near-real-time 3B42RT precipitation estimates (-33 to +49%). At annual and seasonal scales, the bias-adjusted 3B42 presented important improvement when compared to its near-real-time counterpart 3B42RT. However, large biases remained for 3B42 over the western USA for higher average accumulation (≥ 5 mm day-1) with respect to GHCN-D surface observations. At the daily scale, 3B42RT performed poorly in capturing extreme daily precipitation (> 4 in. day-1) over the Pacific Northwest. Furthermore, the conditional analysis and a contingency analysis conducted illustrated the challenge in retrieving extreme precipitation from remote sensing estimates.

  18. Estimation of annual heat flux balance at the sea surface from sst (NOAA-satellite and ships drift data off southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimine Ikeda

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the possibility of estimating the heat flux balance at the sea surface from GOSSTCOMP (Global Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Computation developed by NOAA/NESS, USA, and sea surface current data based from ships drift information obtained from Pilot Charts, published by the Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (DHN, Brazilian Navy. The annual mean value of the heat flux balance at the sea surface off southeast Brazil for 1977, is estimated from data on the balance between the heat transported by the currents and that transported by eddy diffusion for each volume defined as 2º x 2º (Lat. x Long. square with a constant depth equivalent to an oceanic mixed layer, 100 m thick. Results show several oceanic areas where there are net flows of heat from atmosphere towards the sea surface. In front of Rio de Janeiro the heat flow was downward and up to 70 ly day-1 and is probably related to the upwellirug phenomenon normally occurring in that area. Another coastal area between Lat. 25ºS to 28ºS indicated an downward flow up to 50 ly day-1; and for an area south of Lat. 27ºS, Long. 040ºW - 048ºW an downward flow up to 200 ly day-1, where the transfer was probably due to the cold water of a nortward flux from the Falkland (Malvinas Current. Results also show several oceanic areas where net flows of heat (of about -100 ly day-1 were toward the atmosphere. In the oceanic areas Lat. 19ºS - 23ºS and Lat. 24ºS - 30ºS, the flows were probably due to the warm water of a southward flux of the Brazil Current. The resulting fluxes from the warm waters of the Brazil Current when compared with those from warm waters of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, indicate that the Gulf Stream carries about 3.3 times and the Kuroshio 1.7 times more heat than the Brazil Current. These values agree with those of data available on the heat fluxes of the above mentioned Currents calculated by different methods (Budyko, 1974.

  19. Integrating field plots, lidar, and landsat time series to provide temporally consistent annual estimates of biomass from 1990 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Hans-Erik Andersen; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; Zhiqiang Yang; Robert E. Kennedy; Stephen V. Stehman; Curtis Woodcock; Jim Vogelmann; Zhe Zhu; Chengquan. Huang

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a system that provides temporally consistent biomass estimates for national greenhouse gas inventory reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our model-assisted estimation framework relies on remote sensing to scale from plot measurements to lidar strip samples, to Landsat time series-based maps. As a demonstration, new...

  20. Survival estimates for the passage of juvenile chinook salmon through Snake River dams and reservoirs. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, R.N.; Muir, W.D.; Sandford, B.P.; McIntyre, K.W.; Frost, D.A.; Williams, J.G.; Smith, S.G.; Skalski, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers

  1. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Robert N.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; McIntyre, Kenneth W.

    1994-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  2. Regional climate pattern during two millennia estimated from annual tree rings of Yaku cedar trees: a hint for solar variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Yasushi; Mitsutani, Takumi; Shibata, Shoichi; Kuramata, Syuichi; Masuda, Kimiaki; Nagaya, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed trees that have survived on Yaku island (Yakushima) for 2,000 years. Quite surprisingly, the Fourier and wavelet analyses of the annual growth rate identified 2 cycles of periodicities of 11 and (24 ± 4) years during the Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder, and Dalton minima. The 11-year periodicity originated from solar activity, while the (24 ± 4)-year periodicity may be related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). In particular, we have discovered an 11-year periodicity in the meteorological daylight-hour data from Yakushima in the month of June during 1938 to 2013 and a 24-year periodicity in July. The growth rate of the tree rings may be affected by the variation of the daylight hour.

  3. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program Population Estimates for Juvenile Salmonids in Nason Creek, WA ; 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Matthew; Murdoch, Keely [Yakama Nation Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-07-20

    This report summarizes juvenile coho, spring Chinook, and steelhead salmon migration data collected at a 1.5m diameter cone rotary fish trap on Nason Creek during 2008; providing abundance and freshwater productivity estimates. We used species enumeration at the trap and efficiency trials to describe emigration timing and to estimate the number of emigrants. Trapping began on March 2, 2008 and was suspended on December 11, 2008 when snow and ice accumulation prevented operation. During 2008, 0 brood year (BY) 2006 coho, 1 BY2007 coho, 906 BY2006 spring Chinook, 323 BY2007 fry Chinook, 2,077 BY2007 subyearling Chinook, 169 steelhead smolts, 414 steelhead fry and 2,390 steelhead parr were trapped. Mark-recapture trap efficiency trials were performed over a range of stream discharge stages. A total of 2,639 spring Chinook, 2,154 steelhead and 12 bull trout were implanted with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. Most PIT tagged fish were used for trap efficiency trials. We were unable to identify a statistically significant relationship between stream discharge and trap efficiency, thus, pooled efficiency estimates specific to species and trap size/position were used to estimate the number of fish emigrating past the trap. We estimate that 5,259 ({+-} 359; 95% CI) BY2006 Chinook, 16,816 ({+-} 731; 95% CI) BY2007 Chinook, and 47,868 ({+-} 3,780; 95% CI) steelhead parr and smolts emigrated from Nason Creek in 2008.

  4. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.

    1995-02-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the second year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through the dams and reservoirs of the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected at selected locations above, at, and below Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release, Modified Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models.

  5. Survival estimates for the passage of juvenile salmonids through Snake River dams and reservoirs, 1996. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.G.; Muir, W.D.; Hockersmith, E.E.; Achord, S.; Eppard, M.B.; Ruehle, T.E.; Williams, J.G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature

  6. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

  7. Measuring and modeling carbon stock change estimates for US forests and uncertainties from apparent inter-annual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath

    2015-01-01

    Our approach is based on a collection of models that convert or augment the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis program survey data to estimate all forest carbon component stocks, including live and standing dead tree aboveground and belowground biomass, forest floor (litter), down deadwood, and soil organic carbon, for each inventory plot. The data, which include...

  8. Annual variation in δ13C values of maize and wheat: Effect on estimates of decadal scale soil carbon turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2011-01-01

    the active growth period. Using the smallest (−12.44‰) and the largest (−11.26‰) δ13C measured during 1988 and 2006, estimates of maize-derived C in soil after 18 years ranged from 13.2% to 14.2% of the soil total C. Despite a loss of 31% of the soil C pool under bare fallow, the increase in soil δ13C...

  9. Continuous Estimates of Surface Density and Annual Snow Accumulation with Multi-Channel Snow/Firn Penetrating Radar in the Percolation Zone, Western Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, T.; Marshall, H. P.; Bradford, J.; Hawley, R. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; McCarthy, F.; Lewis, G.; Graeter, K.

    2017-12-01

    A priority of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) prediction is ascertaining the surface density and annual snow accumulation. These forcing data can be supplied into firn compaction models and used to tune Regional Climate Models (RCM). RCMs do not accurately capture subtle changes in the snow accumulation gradient. Additionally, leading RCMs disagree among each other and with accumulation studies in regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) over large distances and temporal scales. RCMs tend to yield inconsistencies over GrIS because of sparse and outdated validation data in the reanalysis pool. Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS) implemented multi-channel 500 MHz Radar in multi-offset configuration throughout two traverse campaigns totaling greater than 3500 km along the western percolation zone of GrIS. The multi-channel radar has the capability of continuously estimating snow depth, average density, and annual snow accumulation, expressed at 95% confidence (+-) 0.15 m, (+-) 17 kgm-3, (+-) 0.04 m w.e. respectively, by examination of the primary reflection return from the previous year's summer surface.

  10. Estimation of annual effective dose from 226Ra 228Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of high level natural radiation of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A.A.; Asefi, M.; Amidi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A knowledge of natural radioactivity in man and his environment is important since naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to man. Radioactive nuclides present in the natural environment enter the human body mainly through food and water.Besides, measurement of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment can be used not only as a reference when routine releases from nuclear installation or accidental radiation exposures are assessed, but also as a baseline to evaluate the impact caused by non-nuclear activities. In Iran, measurement of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples in normal and high-background radiation areas have been performed by some investigators but no information has been available on 226 Ra and 228 Ra in foodstuffs. Therefore we have started measurements of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in foodstuffs of Ramsar which is a coastal city in the north part of Iran and has been known as one of the world's high level natural radiation areas, using low level gamma spectrometry measurement system .The results from our measurements and food consumption rates for inhabitants of Ramsar city have been used for the estimation of annual effective dose due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city. A total of 33 samples from 11 different foodstuffs including root vegetables (beetroot), leafy vegetables (lettuce, parsley and spinach) and tea, meat,chicken, pea,broad bean, rice, and cheese were purchased from markets and were analyzed for their 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentrations. The highest concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in tea samples with 1570 and 1140 mBq kg -1 respectively and the maximum estimated annual effective dose from 226 Ra and Ra due to consumption foodstuffs were determined to be 19.22 and 0.71 μSv from rice and meat samples respectively

  11. Revised estimates of the annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management 1850-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent analyses of land-use change in the US and China, together with the latest estimates of tropical deforestation and afforestation from the FAO, were used to calculate a portion of the annual flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The calculated flux includes only that portion of the flux resulting from direct human activity. In most regions, activities included the conversion of natural ecosystems to cultivated lands and pastures, including shifting cultivation, harvest of wood (for timber and fuel) and the establishment of tree plantations. In the US, woody encroachment and woodland thickening as a result of fire suppression were also included. The calculated flux of carbon does not include increases or decreases in carbon storage as a result of environmental changes (e.g.; increasing concentrations of CO 2 , N deposition, climatic change or pollution). Globally, the long-term (1850-2000) flux of carbon from changes in land use and management released 156 PgC to the atmosphere, about 60% of it from the tropics. Average annual fluxes during the 1980s and 1990s were 2.0 and 2.2 PgC/yr, respectively, dominated by releases of carbon from the tropics. Outside the tropics, the average net flux of carbon attributable to land-use change and management decreased from a source of 0.06 PgC/yr during the 1980s to a sink of 0.02 PgC/yr during the 1990s. According to the analyses summarized here, changes in land use were responsible for sinks in North America and Europe and for small sources in other non-tropical regions. The revisions were as large as 0.3 PgC/yr in individual regions but were largely offsetting, so that the global estimate for the 1980s was changed little from an earlier estimate. Uncertainties and recent improvements in the data used to calculate the flux of carbon from land-use change are reviewed, and the results are compared to other estimates of flux to evaluate the extent to which processes other than land-use change and

  12. Improved radiation dosimetry/risk estimates to facilitate environmental management of plutonium contaminated sites. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to evaluate distributions of possible alpha radiation doses to the lung, bone, and liver and associated health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of PuO 2 -contaminated sites. Currently available dosimetry/risk models do not apply to exposure scenarios where, at most, a small number of highly radioactive PuO 2 particles are inhaled (stochastic exposure [SE] paradigm). For the SE paradigm, risk distributions are more relevant than point estimates of risk. The focus of the research is on the SE paradigm and on high specific activity, alpha-emitting (HSA-aE) particles such as 238 PuO 2 . The scientific goal is to develop a stochastic respiratory tract dosimetry/risk computer model for evaluating the desired absorbed dose distributions and associated health-risk distributions, for Department of Energy (DOE) workers and members of the public. This report summarizes results after 1 year of a 2-year project.'

  13. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jonker, W R

    2014-06-29

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent.

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION QUANTITY VARIABILITY BASED ON ESTIMATED CHANGES BY THE REGIONAL CLIMATIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Furtună

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climatic changes are representing one of the major challenges of our century, these being forcasted according to climate scenarios and models, which represent plausible and concrete images of future climatic conditions. The results of climate models comparison regarding future water resources and temperature regime trend can become a useful instrument for decision makers in choosing the most effective decisions regarding economic, social and ecologic levels. The aim of this article is the analysis of temperature and pluviometric variability at the closest grid point to Cluj-Napoca, based on data provided by six different regional climate models (RCMs. Analysed on 30 year periods (2001-2030,2031-2060 and 2061-2090, the mean temperature has an ascending general trend, with great varability between periods. The precipitation expressed trough percentage deviation shows a descending general trend, which is more emphazied during 2031-2060 and 2061-2090.

  15. Annual variation of deoxynivalenol in Danish wheat flour 1998-2003 and estimated daily intake by the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Petersen, Annette; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani

    2007-01-01

    of precipitation around flowering time, i.e. from the end of June to the beginning of July covering weeks 25 - 27. The lowest average levels were found in samples from the 2001 harvest, where weeks 25 - 27 were dry compared with other harvest years. The highest value ( 705 mu gkg(-1)) was obtained in a flour...... and the retail market in Denmark. Contamination levels varied considerably from year-to-year with the highest concentrations occurring in samples from the 2002 harvest with mean and median concentrations of 255 and 300 mu gkg(-1), respectively. Compared to other harvest years, 2002 had the highest amount...... sample from the 2002 harvest, but none of the tested samples exceeded the maximum limit of 750 mu g kg(-1), which has been recently introduced by the European Commission for DON in flour used as raw materials in food products. Calculation of chronic or usual intake by a deterministic approach showed...

  16. Estimated annual cost of arterial hypertension treatment in Brazil Costo estimado anual del tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo W. Dib

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct annual cost of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH treatment in Brazil's public and private health care systems, assess its economic impact on the total health care budget, and determine its proportion of the 2005 gross domestic product (GDP. METHODS: A decision tree model was used to determine direct costs based on estimated use of various resources in SAH diagnosis and care, including treatment (medication and non-medication, complementary exams, doctor visits, nutritional assessments, and emergency room visits. RESULTS: Estimated direct annual cost of SAH treatment was approximately US$ 398.9 million for the public health care system and US$ 272.7 million for the private system, representing 0.08% of the 2005 GDP (ranging from 0.05% to 0.16%. With total health care expenses comprising about 7.6% of Brazil's GDP, this cost represented 1.11% of overall health care costs (0.62% to 2.06%-1.43% of total expenses for the Unified Healthcare System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS (0.79% to 2.75% and 0.83% of expenses for the private health care system (0.47% to 1.48%. Conclusion. To guarantee public or private health care based on the principles of universality and equality, with limited available resources, efforts must be focused on educating the population on prevention and treatment compliance in diseases such as SAH that require significant health resources.OBJETIVOS: Estimar el costo directo anual del tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial sistémica (HAS en los sistemas sanitarios público y privado de Brasil, evaluar su impacto económico en el presupuesto total de salud y determinar la proporción del producto interno bruto (PIB que ocupó en 2005. MÉTODOS: Se empleó un modelo de árbol de decisión para determinar los costos directos según el uso estimado de varios recursos en el diagnóstico y la atención de la HAS, incluidos el tratamiento (con medicamentos y sin ellos, los exámenes complementarios

  17. Estimated annual incomes of South African traditional healers as generated by their practices and sales of their pre-modern traditional health products for 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background In South Africa, it is an accepted fact that the main role players in the manufacturing and selling of so called traditional medicine (TAM are traditional healers. The Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 not only strengthened this perception in 2007 by giving statutory recognition to traditional healers as traditional health practitioners, but also with its various definitions as they are reflected in the Act. There is an estimation that South African research on traditional healing that TAM, specifically under the guardianship of the traditional healers, generates in excess of R2 billion (R2,000 million annually. The idea also exists that the traditional healers offer a widespread indispensable medical service, specifically through their medical and health products, which contributes to a further R1 billion (R1,000 million or more in income. Aims The study aims to estimate the annual income generated by South African traditional healers in their practices and with the manufacturing, prescription and selling of their traditional health products for the period 2015/2016. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the South African traditional healers’ estimated annual incomes as generated by their practices and the manufacturing, prescription and selling of their health and medical products for the period 2015/2016. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results Over the years, it seems that a misconception was established in South Africa about what traditional medicines really are and who the specific manufacturers and sellers are. There is no differentiation between the traditional medicines offered and marketed in the South African retail and commercial market, and those prepared by traditional healers

  18. Using ‘snapshot’ measurements of CH4 fluxes from an ombrotrophic peatland to estimate annual budgets: interpolation versus modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Green

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flux-chamber measurements of greenhouse gas exchanges between the soil and the atmosphere represent a snapshot of the conditions on a particular site and need to be combined or used in some way to provide integrated fluxes for the longer time periods that are often of interest. In contrast to carbon dioxide (CO2, most studies that have estimated the time-integrated flux of CH4 on ombrotrophic peatlands have not used models. Typically, linear interpolation is used to estimate CH4 fluxes during the time periods between flux-chamber measurements. CH4 fluxes generally show a rise followed by a fall through the growing season that may be captured reasonably well by interpolation, provided there are sufficiently frequent measurements. However, day-to-day and week-to-week variability is also often evident in CH4 flux data, and will not necessarily be properly represented by interpolation. Using flux chamber data from a UK blanket peatland, we compared annualised CH4 fluxes estimated by interpolation with those estimated using linear models and found that the former tended to be higher than the latter. We consider the implications of these results for the calculation of the radiative forcing effect of ombrotrophic peatlands.

  19. Estimation of Radionuclide Concentrations and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose due to Ingestion for the Population in the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Tran Thi; Bat, Luu Tam; Nhan, Dang Duc; Quang, Nguyen Hao; Cam, Bui Duy; Hung, Luu Viet

    2018-02-16

    Radioactivity concentrations of nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U radioactive chains and 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu were surveyed for raw and cooked food of the population in the Red River delta region, Vietnam, using α-, γ-spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The concentration of 40 K in the cooked food was the highest compared to those of other radionuclides ranging from (23 ± 5) (rice) to (347 ± 50) Bq kg -1 dw (tofu). The 210 Po concentration in the cooked food ranged from its limit of detection (LOD) of 5 mBq kg -1  dw (rice) to (4.0 ± 1.6) Bq kg -1  dw (marine bivalves). The concentrations of other nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U chains in the food were low, ranging from LOD of 0.02 Bq kg -1  dw to (1.1 ± 0.3) Bq kg -1  dw. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu in the food were minor compared to that of the natural radionuclides. The average annual committed effective dose to adults in the study region was estimated and it ranged from 0.24 to 0.42 mSv a -1 with an average of 0.32 mSv a -1 , out of which rice, leafy vegetable, and tofu contributed up to 16.2%, 24.4%, and 21.3%, respectively. The committed effective doses to adults due to ingestion of regular diet in the Red River delta region, Vietnam are within the range determined in other countries worldwide. This finding suggests that Vietnamese food is safe for human consumption with respect to radiation exposure.

  20. The Annual Economic Burden of Syphilis: An Estimation of Direct, Productivity, and Intangible Costs for Syphilis in Guangdong Initiative for Comprehensive Control of Syphilis Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaming; Liao, Yu; Liu, Fengying; Chen, Lei; Shen, Hongcheng; Huang, Shujie; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin; Hao, Yuantao

    2017-11-01

    Syphilis has continuously posed a great challenge to China. However, very little data existed regarding the cost of syphilis. Taking Guangdong Initiative for Comprehensive Control of Syphilis area as the research site, we aimed to comprehensively measure the annual economic burden of syphilis from a societal perspective. Newly diagnosed and follow-up outpatient cases were investigated by questionnaire. Reported tertiary syphilis cases and medical institutions cost were both collected. The direct economic burden was measured by the bottom-up approach, the productivity cost by the human capital method, and the intangible burden by the contingency valuation method. Three hundred five valid early syphilis cases and 13 valid tertiary syphilis cases were collected in the investigation to estimate the personal average cost. The total economic burden of syphilis was US $729,096.85 in Guangdong Initiative for Comprehensive Control of Syphilis sites in the year of 2014, with medical institutions cost accounting for 73.23% of the total. Household average direct cost of early syphilis was US $23.74. Average hospitalization cost of tertiary syphilis was US $2,749.93. Of the cost to medical institutions, screening and testing comprised the largest proportion (26%), followed by intervention and case management (22%) and operational cost (21%). Household average productivity cost of early syphilis was US $61.19. Household intangible cost of syphilis was US $15,810.54. Syphilis caused a substantial economic burden on patients, their families, and society in Guangdong. Household productivity and intangible costs both shared positive relationships with local economic levels. Strengthening the prevention and effective treatment of early syphilis could greatly help to lower the economic burden of syphilis.

  1. THE REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OF GPP ESTIMATION BY SOLAR INDUCED FLUORESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating gross primary productivity (GPP at large spatial scales is important for studying the global carbon cycle and global climate change. In this study, the relationship between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF and GPP is analysed in different levels of annual average temperature and annual total precipitation respectively using simple linear regression analysis. The results showed high correlation between SIF and GPP, when the area satisfied annual average temperature in the range of −5 °C to 15 °C and the annual total precipitation is higher than 200 mm. These results can provide a basis for future estimation of GPP research.

  2. The Regional Differences of Gpp Estimation by Solar Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Lu, S.

    2018-04-01

    Estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) at large spatial scales is important for studying the global carbon cycle and global climate change. In this study, the relationship between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) and GPP is analysed in different levels of annual average temperature and annual total precipitation respectively using simple linear regression analysis. The results showed high correlation between SIF and GPP, when the area satisfied annual average temperature in the range of -5 °C to 15 °C and the annual total precipitation is higher than 200 mm. These results can provide a basis for future estimation of GPP research.

  3. Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.

    1984-05-01

    The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. A quantitative analytical method for yellowcake was developed based on the infrared absorption of ammonium diuranate and U 3 O 8 mixtures in KBr. The method was applied to yellowcake samples obtained from six operating mills. The composition of yellowcake from the six mills ranged from nearly pure ammonium diuranate to nearly pure U 3 O 8 . The composition of yellowcake samples taken from lots from the same mill was only somewhat less variable. Because uranium mill workers might be exposed to yellowcake either by contamination of a wound or by inhalation, a study of retention and translocation of uranium after subcutaneous implantation in rats was done. The results showed that 49% of the implanted yellowcake cleared from the body with a half-time (T sub 1/2) in the body of 0.3 days, and the remainder was cleared with a T sub 1/2 of 11 to 30 days. Exposures of Beagle dogs by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of commercial yellowcake were completed. Biochemical indicators of kidney dysfunction that appeared in blood and urine 4 to 8 days after exposure to the more soluble yellowcake showed significant changes in dogs, but levels returned to normal by 16 days after exposure. No biochemical evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed in dogs exposed to the less soluble yellowcake form. 18 figures, 9 tables

  4. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term persistence of surface air temperature in long historical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qimin; Nian, Da; Fu, Zuntao

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies in the literature show that the annual cycle of surface air temperature (SAT) is changing in both amplitude and phase, and the SAT departures from the annual cycle are long-term correlated. However, the classical definition of temperature anomalies is based on the assumption that the annual cycle is constant, which contradicts the fact of changing annual cycle. How to quantify the impact of the changing annual cycle on the long-term correlation of temperature anomaly variability still remains open. In this paper, a recently developed data adaptive analysis tool, the nonlinear mode decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle to reach the new defined temperature anomalies in which time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been considered. By means of detrended fluctuation analysis, the impact induced by inter-annual variability from the time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been quantified on the estimation of long-term correlation of long historical temperature anomalies in Europe. The results show that the classical climatology annual cycle is supposed to lack inter-annual fluctuation which will lead to a maximum artificial deviation centering around 600 days. This maximum artificial deviation is crucial to defining the scaling range and estimating the long-term persistence exponent accurately. Selecting different scaling range could lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the long-term persistence exponent. By using NMD method to extract the inter-annual fluctuations of annual cycle, this artificial crossover can be weakened to extend a wider scaling range with fewer uncertainties.

  5. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Lagarde, F [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine; Falk, R; Swedjemark, G A [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m{sup 3}, an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs.

  6. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, M.; Lagarde, F.

    1996-12-01

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m 3 , an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs

  7. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  8. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  9. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  10. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  11. Global Annual Final AC Yield Comparison between HCPV and c-Si PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Ferrer-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide comparison of the annual yield between conventional c-Si photovoltaic (PV technology and high concentrated photovoltaic (HCPV technology is presented. The idea of this paper is to find the most appropriate locations for HCPV systems in terms of the annual energy produced when comparing to fixed tilt PV systems and two-axis oriented PY systems. For estimating the annual energy generation, the method of the Performance Ratio is used. For some locations with high annual direct normal irradiation values, which are distributed around the world, HCPV systems are found to be more advantageous than fixed tilt PV systems. World maps showing this comparison are presented.

  12. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  13. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  14. Simulation of annual electric lighting demand using various occupancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the effect on electric lighting demand of applying occupancy models of various resolution to climate-based daylight modelling. The lighting demand was evaluated for a building zone with the occupant always present, with occupancy corresponding to absence...... factors, based on an estimated annual mean occupancy, based on estimated 1-hour mean occupancy, and based on 2-min occupancy intervals. The results showed little difference in the annual electric lighting demand when the same occupancy profile was used every day, as opposed to when profiles were used...... where occupancy varied every day. Furthermore, the results showed that annual electric lighting demand was evaluated slightly conservatively when a mean absence factor was applied as opposed to using dynamic occupancy profiles....

  15. Year 2006. GRNC's appreciation of the dose estimates presented in the annual environmental monitoring report of Areva-NC La Hague facility. Forth GRNC viewpoint. Detailed report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 'Groupe Radioecologie Nord Cotentin' (GRNC) has carried out a very thorough evaluation of the assessment of doses due to discharges from the Cap de la Hague nuclear site carried out by Areva NC, the site operators. The group has looked at all aspects of the assessment methods and data to ensure that they agree with the results presented in the 2006 annual environmental report of the operator. The computer tool, ACADIE, developed to assess the doses, has been used by the GRNC members to carry out their own calculations. This document comprises the detailed report of the GRNC and its synthesis. The detailed report includes: 1 - a critical analysis of the 2006 source term; a note about the uranium content in liquid effluents; the data transmitted by Areva NC (status of atmospheric effluents, status of liquid effluents at sea, fuel data); the data transmitted by the IRSN - the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (status of the radioactive effluents of Areva La Hague facility); the history of liquid and gaseous effluents between 1966 and 2006; 2 - detailed comparison between model and 2006 measurements; critical analysis of 14 C and tritium data available for the Nord Cotentin and the English Channel area; 3 - detail of the 2006 efficient dose calculations; presentation of the environmental dispersion of tritium and of its effects on living organisms. (J.S.)

  16. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  17. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  18. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Dunne, John P.; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30°S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m-2 yr-1) from 40 to 50°S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 for all regions south of 40°S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50°S is 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area.Plain Language SummaryThis manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

  19. Kootenai River fisheries investigations. Chapter 3: Mainstem habitat use and recruitment estimates of rainbow trout in the Kootenai River, Idaho. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredericks, J.; Hendricks, S.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if recruitment is limiting the population of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the mainstem Kootenai River. The authors used snorkeling and electrofishing techniques to estimate juvenile rainbow trout density and total numbers in Idaho tributaries, and they trapped juvenile outmigrants to identify the age at which juvenile trout migrate from tributaries to the Kootenai River. The authors radio and reward-tagged post-spawn adult rainbow trout captured in Deep Creek to identify river reach and habitat used by those fish spawning and rearing in the Deep Creek drainage. They also conducted redd surveys in the Kootenai River to determine the extent of mainstem spawning. Based on the amount of available habitat and juvenile rainbow trout densities, the Deep Creek drainage was the most important area for juvenile production. Population estimates of age 0, age 1+, and age 2+ rainbow trout indicated moderate to high densities in several streams in the Deep Creek drainage whereas other streams, such as Deep Creek, had very low densities of juvenile trout. The total number of age 0, age 1+, and age 2+ rainbow trout in Deep Creek drainage in 1996 was estimated to be 63,743, 12,095, and 3,095, respectively. Radio telemetry efforts were hindered by the limited range of the transmitters, but movements of a radio-tagged trout and a returned reward tag indicated that at least a portion of the trout utilizing the Deep Creek drainage migrated downriver from the mouth of Deep Creek to the meandering section of river. They found no evidence of mainstem spawning by rainbow trout, but redd counting efforts were hindered by high flows from mid-April through June

  20. Estimating annual high-flow statistics and monthly and seasonal low-flow statistics for ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Curran, Janet H.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating daily mean flow-duration statistics for seven regions in Alaska and low-flow frequencies for one region, southeastern Alaska, were developed from daily mean discharges for streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. The 15-, 10-, 9-, 8-, 7-, 6-, 5-, 4-, 3-, 2-, and 1-percent duration flows were computed for the October-through-September water year for 222 stations in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. The 98-, 95-, 90-, 85-, 80-, 70-, 60-, and 50-percent duration flows were computed for the individual months of July, August, and September for 226 stations in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. The 98-, 95-, 90-, 85-, 80-, 70-, 60-, and 50-percent duration flows were computed for the season July-through-September for 65 stations in southeastern Alaska. The 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low-flow frequencies for the season July-through-September were computed for 65 stations for most of southeastern Alaska. Low-flow analyses were limited to particular months or seasons in order to omit winter low flows, when ice effects reduce the quality of the records and validity of statistical assumptions. Regression equations for estimating the selected high-flow and low-flow statistics for the selected months and seasons for ungaged sites were developed from an ordinary-least-squares regression model using basin characteristics as independent variables. Drainage area and precipitation were significant explanatory variables for high flows, and drainage area, precipitation, mean basin elevation, and area of glaciers were significant explanatory variables for low flows. The estimating equations can be used at ungaged sites in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada where streamflow regulation, streamflow diversion, urbanization, and natural damming and releasing of water do not affect the streamflow data for the given month or season. Standard errors of estimate ranged from 15 to 56 percent for high-duration flow

  1. Estimation of the annual primary production of the lichen Cetrariella delisei in a glacier foreland in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Masaki; Nakatsubo, Takayuki; Kanda, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The fruticose lichen Cetrariella delisei is among the dominant lichen species in the deglaciated High Arctic areas of Svalbard. As part of a study of carbon cycling in the High Arctic, we aimed to estimate the primary production of lichen in a deglaciated area in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79° N), by examining the effects of abiotic factors on the net photosynthesis (Pn) and dark respiration (R) rates of C. delisei. Experiments were conducted in the snow-free season of 2000 using an open-fl ow gas...

  2. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop; Exigencias termicas e estimativa do numero de geracoes anuais de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) em morangueiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnica. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mails: RS; alinondillo@yahoo.com.br, luredael@ufrgs.br; silviapi@portoweb.com.br; rogitz29@yahoo.com.br; Botton, Marcos [Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br

    2008-11-15

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  3. Estimates of long-term mean-annual nutrient loads considered for use in SPARROW models of the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States, 2002 base year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, David A.; Benoy, Glenn A.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2018-05-11

    Streamflow and nutrient concentration data needed to compute nitrogen and phosphorus loads were compiled from Federal, State, Provincial, and local agency databases and also from selected university databases. The nitrogen and phosphorus loads are necessary inputs to Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) models. SPARROW models are a way to estimate the distribution, sources, and transport of nutrients in streams throughout the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States. After screening the data, approximately 1,500 sites sampled by 34 agencies were identified as having suitable data for calculating the long-term mean-annual nutrient loads required for SPARROW model calibration. These final sites represent a wide range in watershed sizes, types of nutrient sources, and land-use and watershed characteristics in the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States.

  4. Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grassley, James M.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, Quantitive Ecology Program, Seattle, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the

  5. Studies on the power output of a MADE AE-30 operating on complex terrain. Annual Energy Production estimation and Multivariable analysis. A case of multi-stall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-12-01

    The main need of the EWTS-II Sub-project IV group is to have a suitable data-base which allows it to reach proper conclusions on the characteristics of power performance of wind turbines in complex terrain. With this aim, this document presents an analysis on the power output of the MADE AE-30 Wind turbine operating at Tarifa (also data from flat terrain are enclosed as a reference). An application of the bin method and AEP estimation for energy production method, in the two last issues a directional analysis and an study for two different turbulence intensity ranges are enclosed. Finally the Stepwise multirregression method is applied on the measurements to identify the stored parameters that have influence on the power output. A brief description of multi stall effect is enclosed. (Author)

  6. Studies on the power output of a MADEAE-30 operating on complex terrain. Annual Energy Production estimation and Multivariable analysis. A case of multi-stall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-01-01

    The main need of the EWTS-II Sub-project IV group is to have a suitable data-base which allows it to reach proper conclusions on the characteristics of power performance of wind turbines in complex terrain. With this aim, this document presents an analysis on the power output of the MADE AE-30 Wind turbine operating at Tarifa (also data from flat terrain are enclosed as a reference). An application of the bin method and AEP estimation for energy production method. In the two last issues a directional analysis and an study for two different turbulence intensity ranges are enclosed. Finally the STEPWISE multirregression method is applied on the measurements to identify the stored parameters that have influence on the power output. A brief description of multi stall effect is enclosed. (Author) 7 refs

  7. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  8. Estimating the Effect of Urban Growth on Annual Runoff Volume Using GIS in the Erbil Sub-Basin of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammed Hameed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth and spread of impervious surfaces within urbanizing catchment areas pose signiificant threats to the quality of natural and built-up environments. Impervious surfaces prevent water infiltration into the soil, resulting in increased runoff generation. The Erbil Sub-basin was selected because the impervious cover is increasing rapidly and is affecting the hydrological condition of the watershed. The overall aim of this study is to examine the impact of urban growth and other changes in land use on runoff response during the study period of 1984 to 2014. The study describes long-term hydrologic responses within the rapidly developing catchment area of Erbil city, in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Data from six rainfall stations in and around the Erbil Sub-basin were used. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was also used to extract the distribution of the drainage network. Historical levels of urban growth and the corresponding impervious areas, as well as land use/land cover changes were mapped from 1984 to 2014 using a temporal satellite image (Landsat to determine land use/land cover changes. Land use/land cover was combined with a hydrological model (SCS-CN to estimate the volume of runoff from the watershed. The study indicates that the urbanization of the watershed has increased the impervious land cover by 71% for the period from 1984 to 2004 and by 51% from 2004 to 2014. The volume of runoff was 85% higher in 2014 as compared to 1984 due to the increase in the impervious surface area; this is attributed to urban growth. The study also points out that the slope of the watershed in the Erbil sub-basin should be taken into account in surface runoff estimation as the upstream part of the watershed has a high gradient and the land is almost barren with very little vegetation cover; this causes an increase in the velocity of the flow and increases the risk of flooding in Erbil city.

  9. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  10. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  12. Estimating the magnitude of annual peak discharges with recurrence intervals between 1.1 and 3.0 years for rural, unregulated streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.; Newell, Dawn A.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple and simple least-squares regression models for the log10-transformed 1.5- and 2-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges with independent variables describing the basin characteristics (log10-transformed and untransformed) for 236 streamflow-gaging stations were evaluated, and the regression residuals were plotted as areal distributions that defined three regions in West Virginia designated as East, North, and South. Regional equations for the 1.1-, 1.2-, 1.3-, 1.4-, 1.5-, 1.6-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 1.9-, 2.0-, 2.5-, and 3-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression. Log10-transformed drainage area was the most significant independent variable for all regions. Equations developed in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia. The accuracies of estimating equations are quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 27.4 to 52.4 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 1.1 to 3.4 years).

  13. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  14. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  15. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  16. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  17. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  18. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  19. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  20. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  1. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  2. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  3. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  4. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  5. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  6. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  7. Estimating extreme dry-spell risk in the Middle Ebro valley (Northeastern Spain). a comparative analysis of partial duration series with a General Pareto distribution and annual maxima series with a Gumbel distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente-Serrano, S.; Beguería, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses fifty-year time series of daily precipitation in a region of the middle Ebro valley (northern Spain) in order to predict extreme dry-spell risk. A comparison of observed and estimated maximum dry spells (50-year return period) showed that the Generalised Pareto (GP)

  8. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  9. Uranium industry annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data collected on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ''Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,'' is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2

  10. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  11. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

    2012-04-01

    and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

  12. Is annual recharge coefficient a valid concept in arid and semi-arid regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep soil recharge (DSR (at depth greater than 200 cm is an important part of water circulation in arid and semi-arid regions. Quantitative monitoring of DSR is of great importance to assess water resources and to study water balance in arid and semi-arid regions. This study used a typical bare land on the eastern margin of Mu Us Sandy Land in the Ordos Basin of China as an example to illustrate a new lysimeter method of measuring DSR to examine if the annual recharge coefficient is valid or not in the study site, where the annual recharge efficient is the ratio of annual DSR over annual total precipitation. Positioning monitoring was done on precipitation and DSR measurements underneath mobile sand dunes from 2013 to 2015 in the study area. Results showed that use of an annual recharge coefficient for estimating DSR in bare sand land in arid and semi-arid regions is questionable and could lead to considerable errors. It appeared that DSR in those regions was influenced by precipitation pattern and was closely correlated with spontaneous strong precipitation events (with precipitation greater than 10 mm other than the total precipitation. This study showed that as much as 42 % of precipitation in a single strong precipitation event can be transformed into DSR. During the observation period, the maximum annual DSR could make up 24.33 % of the annual precipitation. This study provided a reliable method of estimating DSR in sandy areas of arid and semi-arid regions, which is valuable for managing groundwater resources and ecological restoration in those regions. It also provided strong evidence that the annual recharge coefficient was invalid for calculating DSR in arid and semi-arid regions. This study shows that DSR is closely related to the strong precipitation events, rather than to the average annual precipitation, as well as the precipitation patterns.

  13. Areva, annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report contains information on AREVA objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in chapters 4 and 7. This information is a not meant as a presentation of past performance data and should not be interpreted as a guarantee that events or data set forth herein are assured or that objectives will be met. Forward looking statements made in this document also address known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could, were they to translate into fact, cause AREVA future financial performance, operating performance and production to differ significantly from the objectives presented or suggested herein. Those factors include, in particular, changes in international, economic or market conditions, as well as risk factors presented in Section 4.14.3. Neither AREVA nor the AREVA group is committing to updating forward looking statements or information contained in the annual report. This annual report contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Unless otherwise indicated, all historical data and forward looking information are based on Group estimates (source: AREVA) and are provided as examples only. To AREVA knowledge, no report is available on the AREVA group markets that is sufficiently complete or objective to serve as a sole reference source. The AREVA group developed estimates based on several sources, including in-house studies and reports, statistics provided by international organizations and professional associations, data published by competitors and information collected by AREVA subsidiaries. The main sources, studies and reports used include (i) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the World Nuclear Association (WNA), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEA), Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for the nuclear business; and (ii) the

  14. Areva, annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report contains information on AREVA objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in chapters 4 and 7. This information is a not meant as a presentation of past performance data and should not be interpreted as a guarantee that events or data set forth herein are assured or that objectives will be met. Forward looking statements made in this document also address known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could, were they to translate into fact, cause AREVA future financial performance, operating performance and production to differ significantly from the objectives presented or suggested herein. Those factors include, in particular, changes in international, economic or market conditions, as well as risk factors presented in Section 4.14.3. Neither AREVA nor the AREVA group is committing to updating forward looking statements or information contained in the annual report. This annual report contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Unless otherwise indicated, all historical data and forward looking information are based on Group estimates (source: AREVA) and are provided as examples only. To AREVA knowledge, no report is available on the AREVA group markets that is sufficiently complete or objective to serve as a sole reference source. The AREVA group developed estimates based on several sources, including in-house studies and reports, statistics provided by international organizations and professional associations, data published by competitors and information collected by AREVA subsidiaries. The main sources, studies and reports used include (i) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the World Nuclear Association (WNA), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEA), Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for the nuclear business; and (ii) the

  15. Areva, annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report contains information on AREVA objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in chapters 4 and 7. This information is a not meant as a presentation of past performance data and should not be interpreted as a guarantee that events or data set forth herein are assured or that objectives will be met. Forward looking statements made in this document also address known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could, were they to translate into fact, cause AREVA future financial performance, operating performance and production to differ significantly from the objectives presented or suggested herein. Those factors include, in particular, changes in international, economic or market conditions, as well as risk factors presented in Section 4.14.3. Neither AREVA nor the AREVA group is committing to updating forward looking statements or information contained in the annual report. This annual report contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Unless otherwise indicated, all historical data and forward looking information are based on Group estimates (source: AREVA) and are provided as examples only. To AREVA knowledge, no report is available on the AREVA group markets that is sufficiently complete or objective to serve as a sole reference source. The AREVA group developed estimates based on several sources, including in-house studies and reports, statistics provided by international organizations and professional associations, data published by competitors and information collected by AREVA subsidiaries. The main sources, studies and reports used include (i) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the World Nuclear Association (WNA), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEA), Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for the nuclear business; and (ii

  16. Applying ARIMA model for annual volume time series of the Magdalena River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Amaris

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The simulated results obtained with the ARIMA model compared to the observed data showed a fairly good adjustment of the minimum and maximum magnitudes. This allows concluding that it is a good tool for estimating minimum and maximum volumes, even though this model is not capable of simulating the exact behaviour of an annual volume time series.

  17. Annual Energy Review 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-14

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  18. Annual Energy Review 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA's renewables data, see p. xix, ''Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.'' Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986

  19. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  20. Uranium industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Uranium industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  2. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  3. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  4. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  5. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  6. Do agrometeorological data improve optical satellite-based estimations of the herbaceous yield in Sahelian semi-arid ecosystems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Hiernaux, Pierre; Brandt, Martin Stefan

    2016-01-01

    evapotranspiration satellite gridded data to estimate the annual herbaceous yield in the semi-arid areas of Senegal. It showed that a machine-learning model combining FAPAR seasonal metrics with various agrometeorological data provided better estimations of the in situ annual herbaceous yield (R2 = 0.69; RMSE = 483...... kg·DM/ha) than models based exclusively on FAPAR metrics (R2 = 0.63; RMSE = 550 kg·DM/ha) or agrometeorological variables (R2 = 0.55; RMSE = 585 kg·DM/ha). All the models provided reasonable outputs and showed a decrease in the mean annual yield with increasing latitude, together with an increase...

  7. The effect of water storage change in ET estimation in humid catchments based on water balance models and Budyko framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Sun, Fubao; Liu, Changming; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    An accurate estimation of ET in humid catchments is essential in water-energy budget research and water resource management etc, while it remains a huge challenge and there is no well accepted explanation for the difficulty of annual ET estimation in humid catchments so far. Here we presents the ET estimation in 102 humid catchments over China based on the Budyko framework and two hydrological models: abcd model and Xin'anjiang mdoel, in comparison with ET calculated from the water balance equation (ETwb) on the ground that the ΔS is approximately zero at multiannual and annual time scale. We provides a possible explanation for this poorly annual ET estimation in humid catchments as well. The results show that at multi-annual timescale, the Budyko framework works fine in ET estimation in humid catchments, while at annual time scale, neither the Budyko framework nor the hydrological models can estimate ET well. The major cause for this poorly estimated annual ET in humid catchments is the neglecting of the ΔS in ETwb since it enlarge the variability of real actual evapotranspiration. Much improvement has been made when compared estimated ET + ΔS with those ETwb, and the bigger the catchment area is, the better this improvement is. It provides a reasonable explanation for the poorly estimated annual ET in humid catchments and reveals the important role of the ΔS in ET estimation and validation. We highlight that the annual ΔS shouldn't be taken as zero in water balance equation in humid catchments.

  8. SKB annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. It contains in part 1 an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part 2 gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1992. Lectures and publications during 1992 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical report series are listed in part 4. Part 5 contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1992. SKB is the owner of CLAB, the Central Facility for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, located at Oskarshamn. CLAB was taken into operation in July 1985 and to the end of 1992 in total 1684 tonnes of spent fuel (measured as uranium) has been received. Transportation from the nuclear site to CLAB is made by a special ship, M/S Sigyn. At Forsmark the final repository for Radioactive Waste -SFR- was taken in operation in April 1988. At the end of 1992 a total of 11000 m 3 of waste have been deposited in SFR. The total cost for R and D during 1992 was 192.3 MSEK of which 24.8 MSEK came from participants outside Sweden. Some of the main areas for SKB research are: groundwater movements, bedrock stability, groundwater chemistry and nuclide migration, method and instruments for in situ characterization of crystalline bedrock, characterization and leaching of spent nuclear fuel, properties of bentonite for buffer, backfilling and sealing, radionuclide transport in biosphere and dose evaluations, development of performance and safety assessment methodology and assessment models, construction of an underground research laboratory. Cost calculations for the total nuclear waste management system, including decommissioning of all reactors, are updated annually. The total cost is estimated to 55 billion SEK

  9. 1994 MCAP annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmony, S.C.; Boyack, B.E.

    1995-04-01

    VELCOR is an integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants. The entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena, including reactor coolant system and containment thermal-hydraulic response, core heatup, degradation and relocation, and fission product release and transport is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework for both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Its current uses include the estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. Independent assessment efforts have been successfully completed by the US and international MELCOR user communities. Most of these independent assessment efforts have been conducted to support the needs and fulfill the requirements of the individual user organizations. The resources required to perform an extensive set of model and integral code assessments are large. A prudent approach to fostering code development and maturation is to coordinate the individual assessment efforts of the MELCOR user community. While retaining individual control over assessment resources, each organization using the MELCOR code could work with the other users to broaden assessment coverage and minimize duplication. In recognition of these considerations, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) has initiated the MELCOR Cooperative Assessment Program (MCAP), a vehicle for coordinating and standardizing the assessment practices of the various MELCOR users. In addition, the user community will have a forum to better communicate lessons learned regarding MELCOR applications, capabilities, and user guidelines and limitations and to provide a user community perspective on code development needs and priorities. This second Annual Report builds on the foundation laid with the first Annual Report

  10. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  11. 2016 annual electricity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Generation: Declines in generation were primarily seen with oil-fired, nuclear and coal-fired capacity in 2016. Nuclear power generation decreased due to the closure of several plants to conduct tests requested by French nuclear safety authority ASN starting in November. Nearly 20% of demand was met with generation from renewable sources. In 2016, total electricity generation capacity increased by 1,700 MW (+1.3%), to 130,818 MW, on the back of renewable energy development (+2,200 MW), which more than offset the contraction in thermal generation capacity. Consumption: Annual power consumption stabilised in France for the sixth consecutive year. Increasingly efficient appliances once again contributed to this trend. Markets: France's exchange balance decreased due to the drop in domestic nuclear power generation. Flexibility: RTE made further progress in 2016 toward implementing the capacity mechanism, the first delivery year of which started on 1 January 2017. This mechanism requires that suppliers obtain generation or demand response capacity certificates to show that they are covering their customers' annual consumption during peak demand periods. Network: RTE's investments are a reflection of the significant effort that will be required to meet the challenges of the energy transition over the coming years

  12. Annual report 1992-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the various constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and also of the institutions financially aided by DAE during the financial year 1992-93 are reported. The various constituent Units of DAE consist of research establishments, public sector undertakings and industrial organisations. These activities cover the gamut of nuclear fuel cycle, research and development in nuclear science and reactor technology, applications of radiation and radioisotopes, radiation protection, research and development in frontline areas such as robotics, lasers, parallel processing etc. The activities are described under the headings : General Survey, Research and Development, Public Sector Undertakings, Industrial Organisations, Aided Institutions, Other Activities, and Services. Other activities of DAE include international relations, emergency planning, training, technology transfer etc. Service activities include materials management, construction work, publicity and information work etc. Some of the highlights of the year's work are: (1)Unit-1 of the Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP) attained criticality and was synchronised with the western grid, (2) Unit-2 of the Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) began commercial production, (3) the heavy water enrichment plant at Hazira was commissioned (4) thorium bundles were used in KAPP-1 to achieve an efficient power flattening, (5) a thorium plant was commissioned at Chhatrapur, Orissa, and (6) the annual gross generation of electricity by nuclear power stations during 1992-93 is estimated to reach about 6600 MUs. The text is illustrated with a number of coloured photographs. A chart showing the organisational structure of atomic energy administration of the country and a map of India showing locations of various atomic energy establishments, spread all over the country are also given. (M.G.B.)

  13. Estimation of optimal biomass fraction measuring cycle formunicipal solid waste incineration facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seongmin; Cha, Jae Hyung; Hong, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Daekyeom; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2018-01-01

    This study estimates the optimum sampling cycle using a statistical method for biomass fraction. More than ten samples were collected from each of the three municipal solid waste (MSW) facilities between June 2013 and March 2015 and the biomass fraction was analyzed. The analysis data were grouped into monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual intervals and the optimum sampling cycle for the detection of the biomass fraction was estimated. Biomass fraction data did not show a normal distribution. Therefore, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare the average values for each sample group. The Kruskal-Wallis test results showed that the average monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual values for all three MSW incineration facilities were equal. Therefore, the biomass fraction at the MSW incineration facilities should be calculated on a yearly cycle which is the longest period of the temporal cycles tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Winstrup

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of hidden Markov models (HMMs, which originally was developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to two ice core records from Greenland: one displaying a distinct annual signal and one which is more challenging. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts, and the resulting timescale compares well to absolute-dated volcanic marker horizons where these exist.

  15. Exploring the correlation between annual precipitation and potential evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Buchberger, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    The interdependence between precipitation and potential evaporation is closely related to the classic Budyko framework. In this study, a systematic investigation of the correlation between precipitation and potential evaporation at the annual time step is conducted at both point scale and watershed scale. The point scale precipitation and potential evaporation data over the period of 1984-2015 are collected from 259 weather stations across the United States. The watershed scale precipitation data of 203 watersheds across the United States are obtained from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) dataset from 1983 to 2002; and potential evaporation data of these 203 watersheds in the same period are obtained from a remote-sensing algorithm. The results show that majority of the weather stations (77%) and watersheds (79%) exhibit a statistically significant negative correlation between annual precipitation and annual potential evaporation. The aggregated data cloud of precipitation versus potential evaporation follows a curve based on the combination of the Budyko-type equation and Bouchet's complementary relationship. Our result suggests that annual precipitation and potential evaporation are not independent when both Budyko's hypothesis and Bouchet's hypothesis are valid. Furthermore, we find that the wet surface evaporation, which is controlled primarily by short wave radiation as defined in Bouchet's hypothesis, exhibits less dependence on precipitation than the potential evaporation. As a result, we suggest that wet surface evaporation is a better representation of energy supply than potential evaporation in the Budyko framework.

  16. BESSY annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The annual report 1991 is drawn up as in the previous years, with general information on the organisational structure of the institution and its general purposes being given ahead of the research-specific reports. The achievements and developments in the fields of machines and experiments are reported, including contributions from the Litography laboratory of the Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructural Studies and Techniques, and from the Radiometry Laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, followed by reports on basic research work. The machine developments are reported in varions contributions, and a list of publications shows all available and known scientific publications resulting from research work done at the BESSY installations by the various users. Diploma, doctoral and habilitation theses are listed separately. (orig.) [de

  17. Trend Change Detection in NDVI Time Series: Effects of Inter-Annual Variability and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Neigh, Christopher S.R.; Reichstein, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Changing trends in ecosystem productivity can be quantified using satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the estimation of trends from NDVI time series differs substantially depending on analyzed satellite dataset, the corresponding spatiotemporal resolution, and the applied statistical method. Here we compare the performance of a wide range of trend estimation methods and demonstrate that performance decreases with increasing inter-annual variability in the NDVI time series. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. A breakpoint detection analysis reveals that an overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI trends can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Based on our results, we give practical recommendations for the application of trend methods on long-term NDVI time series. Particularly, we apply and compare different methods on NDVI time series in Alaska, where both greening and browning trends have been previously observed. Here, the multi-method uncertainty of NDVI trends is quantified through the application of the different trend estimation methods. Our results indicate that greening NDVI trends in Alaska are more spatially and temporally prevalent than browning trends. We also show that detected breakpoints in NDVI trends tend to coincide with large fires. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that seasonal trend methods need to be improved against inter-annual variability to quantify changing trends in ecosystem productivity with higher accuracy.

  18. An Annual Plant Growth Proxy in the Mojave Desert Using MODIS-EVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid Mojave Desert, the phenological response of vegetation is largely dependent upon the timing and amount of rainfall, and maps of annual plant cover at any one point in time can vary widely. Our study developed relative annual plant growth models as proxies for annual plant cover using metrics that captured phenological variability in Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI satellite images. We used landscape phenologies revealed in MODIS data together with ecological knowledge of annual plant seasonality to develop a suite of metrics to describe annual growth on a yearly basis. Each of these metrics was applied to temporally-composited MODIS-EVI images to develop a relative model of annual growth. Each model was evaluated by testing how well it predicted field estimates of annual cover collected during 2003 and 2005 at the Mojave National Preserve. The best performing metric was the spring difference metric, which compared the average of three spring MODIS-EVI composites of a given year to that of 2002, a year of record drought. The spring difference metric showed correlations with annual plant cover of R2 = 0.61 for 2005 and R2 = 0.47 for 2003. Although the correlation is moderate, we consider it supportive given the characteristics of the field data, which were collected for a different study in a localized area and are not ideal for calibration to MODIS pixels. A proxy for annual growth potential was developed from the spring difference metric of 2005 for use as an environmental data layer in desert tortoise habitat modeling. The application of the spring difference metric to other imagery years presents potential for other applications such as fuels, invasive species, and dust-emission monitoring in the Mojave Desert.

  19. An Annual Plant Growth Proxy in the Mojave Desert Using MODIS-EVI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S A; Thomas, Kathryn A

    2008-12-03

    In the arid Mojave Desert, the phenological response of vegetation is largely dependent upon the timing and amount of rainfall, and maps of annual plant cover at any one point in time can vary widely. Our study developed relative annual plant growth models as proxies for annual plant cover using metrics that captured phenological variability in Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) satellite images. We used landscape phenologies revealed in MODIS data together with ecological knowledge of annual plant seasonality to develop a suite of metrics to describe annual growth on a yearly basis. Each of these metrics was applied to temporally-composited MODIS-EVI images to develop a relative model of annual growth. Each model was evaluated by testing how well it predicted field estimates of annual cover collected during 2003 and 2005 at the Mojave National Preserve. The best performing metric was the spring difference metric, which compared the average of three spring MODIS-EVI composites of a given year to that of 2002, a year of record drought. The spring difference metric showed correlations with annual plant cover of R² = 0.61 for 2005 and R² = 0.47 for 2003. Although the correlation is moderate, we consider it supportive given the characteristics of the field data, which were collected for a different study in a localized area and are not ideal for calibration to MODIS pixels. A proxy for annual growth potential was developed from the spring difference metric of 2005 for use as an environmental data layer in desert tortoise habitat modeling. The application of the spring difference metric to other imagery years presents potential for other applications such as fuels, invasive species, and dust-emission monitoring in the Mojave Desert.

  20. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  1. NUKEM annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of this important undertaking in the German nuclear industry informs about its structure, holdings and activities in 1981. The report of the management is followed by remarks on the annual statement of accounts (annual balance, profit-loss accounting) and the report of the Supervisory Board. In the annex the annual balance of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH as per December 31, 1981, and the profit-loss accounting of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH for the business year 1981 are presented. (UA) [de

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  19. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  20. Estimation of evapotranspiration in the Mu Us Sandland of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET was estimated from 1981–2005 over Wushen County located in the Mu Us Sandland, China, by applying the Advection-Aridity model, which is based on the complementary relationship hypothesis. We used National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and meteorological data. Our results show that the estimated daily ET was about 4.5% higher than measurements using an Eddy Covariance (EC system after forcing energy balance closure over an alfalfa field from 22 July 2004 to 23 August 2004. At a regional scale, the estimated monthly ET was about 8.7% lower than measurements using the EC system after forcing energy balance closure over an alfalfa field in August 2004. These results were about 3.0% higher than ET measurements by microlysimeter over sand dunes during June 1988. From 1981 to 2005, the average annual ET and precipitation levels were 287 mm and 336 mm, respectively, in Wushen County. The average annual ET varied from 230 mm in western parts of Wushen County to 350 mm in eastern parts of the county. Both inter-annual and seasonal variations in ET were substantial in Wushen County. The annual ET was 200–400 mm from 1981–2005, and the seasonal pattern of ET showed a single peak distribution. The cumulative ET during the June–September 2004 period was 250 mm, which was 87% of the total annual ET. The annual ET, precipitation, and the maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVImax showed positive correlations temporally and spatially.

  1. A Web-Based Model to Estimate the Impact of Best Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Shik Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Spreadsheet Tool for the Estimation of Pollutant Load (STEPL can be used for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL processes, since the model is capable of simulating the impacts of various best management practices (BMPs and low impact development (LID practices. The model computes average annual direct runoff using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN method with average rainfall per event, which is not a typical use of the SCS-CN method. Five SCS-CN-based approaches to compute average annual direct runoff were investigated to explore estimated differences in average annual direct runoff computations using daily precipitation data collected from the National Climate Data Center and generated by the CLIGEN model for twelve stations in Indiana. Compared to the average annual direct runoff computed for the typical use of the SCS-CN method, the approaches to estimate average annual direct runoff within EPA STEPL showed large differences. A web-based model (STEPL WEB was developed with a corrected approach to estimate average annual direct runoff. Moreover, the model was integrated with the Web-based Load Duration Curve Tool, which identifies the least cost BMPs for each land use and optimizes BMP selection to identify the most cost-effective BMP implementations. The integrated tools provide an easy to use approach for performing TMDL analysis and identifying cost-effective approaches for controlling nonpoint source pollution.

  2. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  3. CSIR Annual report 1965

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. CSIR Annual report 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 86 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. CSIR Annual report 1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 75 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. CSIR Annual report 1978

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 78 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  10. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  11. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  12. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  13. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  14. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  15. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  16. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N; Mika, J R; Wieteska, K [eds.

    1999-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  17. Kootenai River fisheries investigations: rainbow and bull trout recruitment: annual progress report 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher Charles

    2001-01-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I.= 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m(sup 2), respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline

  18. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  19. Modelling of extreme rainfall events in Peninsular Malaysia based on annual maximum and partial duration series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Shinyie, Wendy Ling; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two series of data for extreme rainfall events are generated based on Annual Maximum and Partial Duration Methods, derived from 102 rain-gauge stations in Peninsular from 1982-2012. To determine the optimal threshold for each station, several requirements must be satisfied and Adapted Hill estimator is employed for this purpose. A semi-parametric bootstrap is then used to estimate the mean square error (MSE) of the estimator at each threshold and the optimal threshold is selected based on the smallest MSE. The mean annual frequency is also checked to ensure that it lies in the range of one to five and the resulting data is also de-clustered to ensure independence. The two data series are then fitted to Generalized Extreme Value and Generalized Pareto distributions for annual maximum and partial duration series, respectively. The parameter estimation methods used are the Maximum Likelihood and the L-moment methods. Two goodness of fit tests are then used to evaluate the best-fitted distribution. The results showed that the Partial Duration series with Generalized Pareto distribution and Maximum Likelihood parameter estimation provides the best representation for extreme rainfall events in Peninsular Malaysia for majority of the stations studied. Based on these findings, several return values are also derived and spatial mapping are constructed to identify the distribution characteristic of extreme rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia.

  20. 26 CFR 1.6655-2 - Annualized income installment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1... equal to 100 percent of the tax computed on the annualized income for the 2-month period, the following... estimated tax were equal to 100 percent of the tax computed on the annualized income for the 4-month period...

  1. Annual dose distribution of Nuclear Malaysia radiation workers for monitoring period from year 2003 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairul Nizam Idris; Azimawati Ahmad; Norain Ab Rahman

    2008-08-01

    Estimation of radiation dose (external exposure) received by Nuklear Malaysia's radiation workers are measured by using personal dosimetry device which are provided by SSDL-Nuklear Malaysia. Dose assessment report for monitoring period from year 2003 - 2007 shows that almost all radiation workers received annual doses less than 20 mSv, only in very small percentage of radiation workers received annual doses between 20.1 to 50 mSv and none of the workers received doses higher than 50 mSv/year. Exposure dose below 20 mSv/year (the new annual dose limit to be used in Malaysia soon) could be fully achieved by improving the compliance with the safety regulations and enhancing the awareness about radiation safety among the workers. (Author)

  2. Variabilidade genética da produção anual da seringueira: estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e estudo de interação genótipo x ambiente Genetic variability of rubber tree annual yielding: estimates of genetic parameters and study of genotype x environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecionaram-se dezenove genótipos de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. considerados como os melhores em vigor e produção em uma população de pés francos estabelecidos no campo de ensaios da Estação Experimental de Pindorama, com o objetivo de estudar a variabilidade genética e ambiental e a interação genótipo x ambiente sobre a produção durante cinco anos. Com base na análise da variância anual e conjunta, estimaram-se parâmetros genéticos para produção, na tentativa de quantificar o ganho genético com a seleção, e as correlações genéticas e fenotfpicas das produções ano a ano. Os resultados das análises da variância dentro de anos mostraram efeitos significativos para genótipos, sendo os efeitos da interação genótipo x ambiente altamente significativos. As estimativas de herdabilídade, no sentido amplo, ao nível de médias de parcelas, foram altas, com amplitude de 0,57 a 0,77, respectivamente, para o segundo e quinto ano de produção. As maiores percentagens de ganho genético foram obtidas no primeiro e quinto ano de produção, 39,03 e 27,57 respectivamente. Correlações genéticas e fenotípicas entre anos de sangria foram altas e significativas. Os altos valores de herdabilidade e ganho genético para o primeiro ano de sangria indicam que a seleção massal conduzida nesta fase proporciona, efetivamente, maior ganho na seleção.Nineteen rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. considered as the best in growth and yield performance, were selected from a mature seedling population in the experimental field at the Pindorama Experiment Station of the "Instituto Agronômico de Campinas", São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies were carried out aiming to assess the annual environmental influence on genetic variation in five years of yielding. Components of variance were estimated from these analyses in an attempt to quantify genotype x environment interactions. The results of the analysis of

  3. Genetic structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum populations estimated by RAPD Estrutura genética de populações de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum estimada por RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual ryegrass is a temperate climate annual foraging grass, grown mostly in the South of Brazil, especially in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Despite its importance, little is known about its genetic diversity, both within and among the populations cultivated. This knowledge is of fundamental importance for developing breeding and conservation strategies. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of four populations of annual ryegrass. Three of the populations were located in Rio Grande do Sul and the fourth in Uruguay. RAPD markers were used to study the genetic diversity and structure of these populations. Analysis of 375 individuals sampled from the populations, using six RAPD primers, generated a total of 82 amplified bands. They included 73 polymorphic bands (89,02%. The value of the total genetic diversity index obtained, (0,71 was high, indicating the presence of wide genetic diversity in the four populations. Genetic structure analysis revealed that 98% of total diversity is intrapopulational, whereas interpopulational genetic diversity was only 2%. These results suggest that before these populations separated, they had gone through a period of gene exchange and, even after the separation event, gene frequency stayed at levels similar to the original levels, with no differential selection for these genes in the different cultivation areas.O azevém anual é a gramínea anual forrageira de clima temperado de maior utilização no sul do Brasil, particularmente no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Apesar de toda a importância que a espécie apresenta, pouco se conhece a respeito da diversidade genética presente entre e dentro das populações cultivadas. Este conhecimento é de fundamental importância para o estabelecimento das estratégias de melhoramento genético e de conservação destes materiais. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a diversidade genética e a estrutura genética de quatro

  4. NIRE annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts.

  5. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  6. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  7. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  8. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  9. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  10. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  11. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  12. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  13. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  14. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  15. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  16. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  17. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  18. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  19. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2004-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2003 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  20. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  1. Annual Report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The annual report gives the specific scientific results in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and data processing with a list of publications. (orig.) [de

  2. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  3. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  4. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  5. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  6. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  7. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  8. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  9. Estimation of unregulated monthly, annual, and peak streamflows in Forest City Stream and lake levels in East Grand Lake, United States-Canada border between Maine and New Brunswick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2018-04-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Joint Commission, compiled historical data on regulated streamflows and lake levels and estimated unregulated streamflows and lake levels on Forest City Stream at Forest City, Maine, and East Grand Lake on the United States-Canada border between Maine and New Brunswick to study the effects on streamflows and lake levels if two or all three dam gates are left open. Historical regulated monthly mean streamflows in Forest City Stream at the outlet of East Grand Lake (referred to as Grand Lake by Environment Canada) fluctuated between 114 cubic feet per second (ft3 /s) (3.23 cubic meters per second [m3 /s]) in November and 318 ft3 /s (9.01 m3 /s) in September from 1975 to 2015 according to Environment Canada streamgaging data. Unregulated monthly mean streamflows at this location estimated from regression equations for unregulated sites range from 59.2 ft3 /s (1.68 m3 /s) in September to 653 ft3 /s (18.5 m3 /s) in April. Historical lake levels in East Grand Lake fluctuated between 431.3 feet (ft) (131.5 meters [m]) in October and 434.0 ft (132.3 m) in May from 1969 to 2016 according to Environment Canada lake level data for East Grand Lake. Average monthly lake levels modeled by using the estimated hydrology for unregulated flows, and an outflow rating built from a hydraulic model with all gates at the dam open, range from 427.7 ft (130.4 m) in September to 431.1 ft (131.4 m) in April. Average monthly lake levels would likely be from 1.8 to 5.4 ft (0.55 to 1.6 m) lower with the gates at the dam opened than they have been historically. The greatest lake level changes would be from June through September.

  10. Residual risk over-estimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The way nuclear power plants are built practically excludes accidents with serious consequences. This is attended to by careful selection of material, control of fabrication and regular retesting as well as by several safety systems working independently. But the remaining risk, a 'hypothetic' uncontrollable incident with catastrophic effects is the main subject of the discussion on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. The this year's 'Annual Meeting on Nuclear Engineering' in Mannheim and the meeting 'Reactor Safety Research' in Cologne showed, that risk studies so far were too pessimistic. 'Best estimate' calculations suggest that core melt-down accidents only occur if almost all safety systems fail, that accidents take place much more slowly, and that the release of radioactive fission products is by several magnitudes lower than it was assumed until now. (orig.) [de

  11. Proceedings of the 6. annual greening rooftops for sustainable communities conference, awards and trade show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to increase the awareness of the economic, social, and environmental benefits of green roof infrastructure across North America and to advance market development for green roof products and services. The benefits of green roof systems were demonstrated along with an action plan on how to establish a local green roof industry through research and policy development. Supportive policy options were also introduced. Participants included landscape architects, architects, horticulturalists, urban planners, roofing contractors, building developers, environmental scientists, and policy makers. Those who attended learned the benefits of green roofs on storm water, air quality and urban heat island effects. The construction and maintenance of green roofs for the long-term was discussed along with other topics such as living walls and vertical gardens; selecting plants for peak performance and functionality; and the optimization of energy performance. The conference was divided into 3 broad sessions, notably policy and program development, design, and research. It featured 28 presentations of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Proceedings of the 3. annual international greening rooftops for sustainable communities conference, awards and trade show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Green roofs are gaining momentum as a viable technology to support sustainable development in urban areas. Although the green roof industry is well-established in many European countries, the industry has not yet fully emerged in North America. Many municipalities in both the United States and Canada are now exploring the potential of green roofs within urban stormwater and heat island management plans. While there are now green roofs that demonstrate their efficacy in reducing energy consumption and retaining precipitation, a lack of standards and effective policy instruments continues to constrain widespread market penetration. Many building owners and architects are unaware of the positive economic benefits of green roofs. This conference examined ways to improve the uptake of green roof technology in North America. Federal policies and standards supporting green roof technology were reviewed, as well as various initiatives to promote green roofs at the municipal level. Innovative research programs and demonstration programs were examined. Important policy developments in countries where green roof technology has been widely implemented were reviewed. Issues concerning public outreach, training and education were explored. Methods of negotiating with the varied disciplines and contractors involved with the installation of green roofs were investigated. New techniques in quantifying the benefits of green roofs using economic analyses and mathematical models were also presented. The conference was divided into 3 tracks: (1) policy and program development; (2) case studies and design; and (3) research on technical performance benefits. The conference featured 62 presentations, of which 49 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Proceedings of the 5. annual international greening rooftops for sustainable communities conference, awards and trade show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss a broad range of benefits associated with green roof construction. In addition to creating green space, green roofs save energy, mitigate the urban heat island effect, clean stormwater runoff, attenuate sound, and provide aesthetic value. Strategies to promote the widespread adoption of green roof technology in North America were presented along with federal policies and standards that support green roof applications. Some timely green roofing topics were also addressed, such as the residential green roof market and urban agriculture. Innovative research programs and demonstration programs were highlighted along with policy developments in countries where green roof technology has been widely implemented. Public outreach, training and education programs were also reviewed. The conference was divided into the following sessions: stormwater policy development; green roofs in Minnesota and Chicago; stormwater management and other benefits of green roofs; greening the green roof system; development of green roof standards and policies; stormwater management and life cycle calculation; stormwater research; overcoming the challenge of the residential green roof market; feasibility and impact assessments of green roof programs; green roof design case studies; energy and thermal performance; urban agriculture and green roofs; green roof policy, incentives and regulations in the City of Minneapolis; innovative uses of green roofs; green roof growing medium and vegetation; green walls and green roof gardens; studies on the benefits of green roofs; and, careers in greening. The conference featured 47 presentations, of which 34 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Proceedings of CanWEA's 21. annual conference and trade show 2005. On-line Ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Wind energy presents significant potential in the Canadian energy mix. The Canadian Wind Energy Association has established a national wind target of 10,000 MW of wind power capacity by 2010. The focus of this conference was on federal wind policy, as well as issues concerning research and development and interconnection with electrical grids. Small wind policy developments with details of bylaws and funding scenarios were also examined, as well as various provincial policies and initiatives. Other topics of discussion included energy capture; technical challenges in remote communities; wind and First Nations communities; dynamic analyses of various wind-hydro systems; wind energy as a social development tool; wind energy and the development of a greenhouse gas offset systems; environmental assessment guidance with reference to birds; and wind energy and industrial development. In addition, new wind power technologies were examined. Various provincial policy updates were presented. Issues concerning wind forecasting and the modelling of climatological reference data were discussed. Marketing strategies for wind power producers were presented. Canadian grid interconnection standards were reviewed and issues concerning education and training were examined in relation to the industry's projected growth. Various international policies and strategies were reviewed. Insurance and risk assessment strategies in the wind power industry were examined. Ninety-four presentations were given at this conference, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  15. Proceedings of the 2. annual international greening rooftops for sustainable communities conference, awards and trade show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the many private and public benefits that can be derived from green roofs. The benefits of green roofs include energy savings, creation of green space, mitigation of the urban heat island effect, cleaner stormwater runoff, sound attenuation, aesthetic value, oxygen production, and mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions. The presentations at this conference addressed a broad range of issues, including strategies to improve the commercialization of green roof technology in North America. Federal policies and standards that support green roof applications were reviewed, along with initiatives that promote green roofs at the municipal level. Innovative research programs and demonstration programs were highlighted along with policy developments in countries where green roof technology has been widely implemented. Public outreach, training and education programs were also reviewed. The conference was divided into the following 3 sessions: (1) policy and program development, (2) case studies and design, and (3) research on technical performance and benefits. The conference featured 53 presentations, of which 43 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Proceedings of the 6. annual greening rooftops for sustainable communities conference, awards and trade show

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this conference was to increase the awareness of the economic, social, and environmental benefits of green roof infrastructure across North America and to advance market development for green roof products and services. The benefits of green roof systems were demonstrated along with an action plan on how to establish a local green roof industry through research and policy development. Supportive policy options were also introduced. Participants included landscape architects, architects, horticulturalists, urban planners, roofing contractors, building developers, environmental scientists, and policy makers. Those who attended learned the benefits of green roofs on storm water, air quality and urban heat island effects. The construction and maintenance of green roofs for the long-term was discussed along with other topics such as living walls and vertical gardens; selecting plants for peak performance and functionality; and the optimization of energy performance. The conference was divided into 3 broad sessions, notably policy and program development, design, and research. It featured 28 presentations of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The GKSS (Society for the Utilization of Nuclear Energy in Shipbuilding and Nautics) gives in this annual report a comprehensive survey of the research and development efforts carried out and a survey on the organisation and its sociological position. More detailed and generally explicable presentations of selected spheres of research deal this year with solid combustible neutron poisons, water desalination systems, pollution at the Elbe-mouth, trace analysis with x-ray fluor essence, heat conduction in water and under-water systems. The research and development programme is, in comparison with previous years better understandable. The range of tasks, 'utilization of nuclear energy', especially covers projects on the field of reactor safety research which were comprised in one project and fully integrated in the reactor safety programme of the Fed. Ministry for Research and Technology. Furthermore, nuclear energy ship development and works concerning working material technology are being carried out, to a smaller extent. The project of a nuclear container ship which run over a period of 5 years, was finished in 1977. Profitability calculations show that nuclear trade ships can be used in a profitable way, when the oil price has increased three-fold. This might be the case in about 15-20 years. Further plans of the GKSS on the field of nuclear energy ship development take into account this result. The range of tasks 'utilization of the sea and the shores' was comprised in a frame programme and divided in the research, fields of environment technique, water desalination, resources, and sea technique. These works are, beside reactor safety research, the main range of works of the GKSS. (orig./HK) [de

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  19. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This annual report is the fifth issued in English from the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Uppsala since research was started in November 1970. It covers work performed during the calendar year 1976 and updates information given in earlier annual reports with regard to laboratory facilities such as computer configuration and layout of the experimental area. The descriptions of the research projects are also in general more detailed than usual and may sometime contain results obtained before 1976 in order to avoid too many references to earlier annual reports. It has, for instance, been thought of interest to make the sections on the study of beam foil excitation of atoms and on the measurements of nuclear deformations by the REPREC method quite extensive. (Auth.)

  20. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  1. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  2. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Serinaldi, F.; Bales, J.; Bates, P.D.; Krajewski, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110 km2) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2 to a maximum of 5.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2 ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Smith, James A.; Serinaldi, Francesco; Bales, Jerad; Bates, Paul D.; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2009-08-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110km) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1mskm to a maximum of 5.1mskm. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2mskm). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2mskm ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades.

  4. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  5. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  6. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha−1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y−1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y−1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y−1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests. PMID:26115195

  7. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  8. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yin

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE. We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  9. Estimating Green Water Footprints in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hess

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The “green” water footprint (GWF of a product is often considered less important than the “blue” water footprint (BWF as “green” water generally has a low, or even negligible, opportunity cost. However, when considering food, fibre and tree products, is not only a useful indicator of the total appropriation of a natural resource, but from a methodological perspective, blue water footprints are frequently estimated as the residual after green water is subtracted from total crop water use. In most published studies, green water use (ETgreen has been estimated from the FAO CROPWAT model using the USDA method for effective rainfall. In this study, four methods for the estimation of the ETgreen of pasture were compared. Two were based on effective rainfall estimated from monthly rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, and two were based on a simulated water balance using long-term daily, or average monthly, weather data from 11 stations in England. The results show that the effective rainfall methods significantly underestimate the annual ETgreen in all cases, as they do not adequately account for the depletion of stored soil water during the summer. A simplified model, based on annual rainfall and reference evapotranspiration (ETo has been tested and used to map the average annual ETgreen of pasture in England.

  10. Inconvenient messages. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    In their annual report of 2007, the Dutch Energy Council (AER) advices the Dutch government to show more decisiveness in the implementation of energy policy. The analyses of the council resulted in a series of advices: enforce energy saving; be prepared for a new oil crisis; be more efficient with natural gas from the Groningen province; maintain a friendly relationship with gas nation Russia; Acknowledge the fact that coal and or /nuclear energy cannot be missed. Finally, the Energy Council appreciatively ascertained that most of the above points of advice have been incorporated in the Energy memorandum published by the Minister of Economic Affairs on June 18th. [mk] [nl

  11. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  12. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  13. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the work done at the named institute. These concern the study of hyperfine interactions, experiments with synchroton radiation, experiments at storage rings, and experiments at CERN. Furthermore, a list of publications, contributions to conferences and these is presented. (HSI) [de

  14. CSIR Annual report 1966

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty second annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1966, to the 31st December 1966. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  15. Annual Report - ESCELSA - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; market overview; market expansion; customers; technological stream; measuring quality; electric system; investments; protecting the environment; and resource allocation

  16. Annual Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  17. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  18. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  19. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  20. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  1. CSIR Annual report 1968

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fourth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1968, to the 31st December 1968. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  2. CSIR Annual report 1971

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1971, to the 31st December 1971. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  3. CSIR Annual report 1970

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1970, to the 31st December 1970. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  4. CSIR Annual report 1969

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fifth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1969, to the 31st December 1969. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  5. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  6. KTA annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report gives an overview of the rulemaking work in the individual fields as well as other activities, such as meetings, international codes of rules, and publications. KTA organization, including its administration and funds is listed. (orig./HP) [de

  7. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 145 refs.; 20 figs.; 4 fotos; 2 tabs

  8. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In this annual report the work done at the named Institute is described. This concerns particle and fields in the solar system, infrared astronomy, X-ray astronomy, γ-astronomy, and molecule spectroscopy. A list of publications is added. (HSI)

  9. ANCLI annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2003. (A.L.B.)

  10. ANCLI annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2004. (A.L.B.)

  11. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N; Skalski, J [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given.

  12. TIARA annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Narumi, Kazumasa; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiro; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru

    2006-01-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005. The 126 of the presented papers are indexed individually. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  13. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  14. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  15. ANCLI annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2002. (A.L.B.)

  16. Annual General Meetings

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have produced this information booklet to explain why companies must – by law – hold an Annual General Meeting (AGM). The laws which cover AGMs are known as the Companies Acts. This guide gives only a summary of the rules for AGMs. If you have a concern about the AGM of a particular company, you should get independent legal advice.

  17. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  18. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains.

  19. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2007-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2006. The document consist of four parts: 'Laboratory Overview', 'Experiments and Experimental Set-ups', 'Experiments Using the Outside Facilities' and 'General Information on HIL Activities'. An 'Introduction' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  20. Annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The annual report from IKU (Continental Shelf Institute) in Norway deals with the market adjustment of research activities at the institute as a result of offshore cost-cutting policy in the petroleum industry. The market is about to shift focus from volume to competence. In practice, that means buying competence instead of project ideas or proposals

  1. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK) [de

  2. Annual report - ENERSUL - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of ENERSUL - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: Outlook for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sold; capacity increases; customers; customers; energy balance; performance and quality; electric system; investments; people; human resources; synergies; awards; workplace safety; social balance; and patrimonial balance

  3. 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French union of the petroleum industry (UFIP). It summarizes the highlights of the petroleum industry activity in France in 2001 and gives some additional information about the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  4. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2008-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2007. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  5. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  6. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  7. Annual report - ESCELSA - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of 1999 of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power company - introduces the next main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; customers; quality; electric system; investments; people; resources; synergies; awards; outlook; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  8. IKF annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The annual report of 1988 gives a survey of the following category of themes: nuclear physics, atom physics, nuclear methods, nuclear solid-state physics and developments of machines. Apart from the use of its own Van de Graaff accelerators the institute takes part in joint ventures in research, for example with the GSI (Association for Heavy-Ion Research) in Darmstadt. (DG) [de

  9. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2006-05-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2005. The document consist of four parts: Laboratory Overview, Experiments and Experimental Set-ups, Experiments Using the Outside Facilities and General Information on HIL Activities. An Introduction written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  10. KVI Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This annual report offers 93 informative descriptions of the current research projects at the KVI cyclotron during 1982. The projects are classed under the following heads: elastic and inelastic scattering; giant resonances; transfer and charge exchange reactions; breakup reactions; heavy ion reactions; electromagnetic and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; atomic physics; nuclear solid state physics; cyclotron, computers and instrumentation; nuclear medicine; environmental studies. (Auth.)

  11. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  12. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    In this annual report the work done at the named institute is described. This concerns experiments with synchrotron radiations, high energy physics experiments at the PETRA and DORIS storage rings, studies of MFS interactions, and some neutrino experiments at CERN. A list of publications is included. (HSI)

  13. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  14. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  15. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  16. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  17. Annual report SNET 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the SNET (National Society of Electricity and thermic) presents the society activities and the financial report for the year 2003. The society position in the market, the environmental policy, the performance, the workers and financial data are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  18. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  19. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  20. CSIR Annual report 1967

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty third annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1967, to the 31st December 1967. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  1. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  2. CSIR Annual report 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty-sixth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1980 to 31 December 1980. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1980, certified...

  3. NRCC annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer

  4. GKSS annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report reviews the structure and activities of the GKSS in 1983. R and D work was done on reactor safety engineering, environmental research/environmental engineering and underwater technology. It also reports on cooperation with outside partners, the organization, financing, and developments in the staff structure as well as on publications, lectures, applications for patents, etc. (UA) [de

  5. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules (Ed.), John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  6. ELETRONUCLEAR - Annual report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual activities report of 1997 of ELETRONUCLEAR - Brazilian company responsible by the electric power generation from the nuclear technology - introduces the next main topics: company vision and mission; energy production and commercialization; investments in the electric power generation; economic and financial situation; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  7. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  8. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG) [de

  9. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  10. NIKHEF Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this annual report 1982, the NIKHEF research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry is described in a wide context. Next, the reports of the individual projects of section-H and section-K are described in detail. Finally, the report gives some statistical information of publications, colloquia and co-workers. (Auth.)

  11. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary and detailed reports are presented of current research during 1987 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics. (H.W.). 61 refs.; 13 figs.; 14 tabs

  12. NIKHEF Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) during its first year. Following a general introduction to the research areas in which NIKHEF is involved, 29 brief reports from the project groups are presented. Details concerning personnel, participation in councils and committees, finances, publications, colloquia and participation in congresses and schools are included. (Auth.)

  13. Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacz, M.; Zielinska, M.

    2011-06-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2010. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments at HIL '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' Appendices '' where general information on HIL activities are described. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Heavy Ion Laboratory prof. K. Rusek is also given.

  14. CSIR Annual report 1962

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the eighteenth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1962 to 31 December 1962. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1962, certified...

  15. CSIR Annual report 1983

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty ninth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1983 to 31 December 1983. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1983, certified...

  16. CSIR Annual report 1981

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty seventh annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1981 to 31 December 1981. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1981, certified...

  17. CSIR Annual report 1982

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty eighth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1982 to 31 December 1982. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1982, certified...

  18. CSIR Annual report 1963

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the nineteenth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1963, to the 31st December 1963. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  19. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, N.; Skalski, J.

    2009-01-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  20. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Luo, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Zhou, T.; Bahn, M.; Black, A.; Desai, A.R.; Cescatti, A.; Marcolla, B.; Jacobs, C.; Chen, J.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Gielen, B.; Bohrer, G.; Cook, D.R.; Dragoni, D.; Dunn, A.L.; Gianelle, D.; Grnwald, T.; Ibrom, A.; Leclerc, M.Y.; Lindroth, A.; Liu, H.; Marchesini, L.B.; Montagnani, L.; Pita, G.; Rodeghiero, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Starr, G.; Stoy, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ∼3°S to ∼70°N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual temperature can be considered as BR in empirical models. A strong correlation was found between the mean annual ER and mean annual gross primary production (GPP). Consequently, GPP, which is typically more accurately modeled, can be used to estimate BR. A light use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr −1, with the highest respiration rate over tropical forests and the lowest value in dry and high-latitude areas.

  1. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.

    2011-01-01

    influenced by the leakage of hydrological signals from the surrounding land. After applying the corresponding correction, we found a good agreement with water mass variations derived from steric-corrected satellite altimetry observations. Both GRACE and altimetry show significant annual water mass variations......This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily...

  2. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany); Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2011. The official submission of 2011 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2013. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2011 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2012 submissions to UNFCCC (which relate to emissions in 2010). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2011. Finally, the EEA has also used the early estimates of 2011 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2011 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (LN)

  3. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A.; Busche, J.; Hermann, H.; Joerss, W.; Scheffler, M. (OEko-Institut, Freiburg (Germany))

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2010. The official submission of 2010 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2012. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2010 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2011 submissions to UNFCCC (which re-late to emissions in 2009). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2010. Finally, EEA has also used the early estimates of 2010 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2010 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (Author)

  4. Monthly paleostreamflow reconstruction from annual tree-ring chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. H. Stagge; D. E. Rosenberg; R. J. DeRose; T. M. Rittenour

    2018-01-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions are increasingly used to characterize annual climate variability prior to the instrumental record, to improve estimates of climate extremes, and to provide a baseline for climate change projections. To date, paleoclimate records have seen limited engineering use to estimate hydrologic risks because water systems models and managers usually...

  5. Fish Passage Center 2000 annual report.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish Passage Center

    2001-01-01

    plan, spill hours were increased at Lower Monumental Dam. Spill volume at The Dalles was reduced and daytime spill tests were conducted at John Day and Bonneville Dams. Although provided for fish, most spill that occurred in 2000 was either in excess of project hydraulic capacity or excess generation. This effectively reduced the actual cost of the spill program. For the most part, spill in 2000 was managed to the waiver limits for total dissolved gas levels and the NMFS action criteria for dissolved gas signs were not exceeded. Hatchery spring chinook returns comprised an estimated 81.4% of the total spring chinook adult return to Lower Granite Dam. Smolt travel time and survival were similar to past years for most Smolt Monitoring Program groups. The notable exceptions were Snake River hatchery steelhead groups and mid-Columbia hatchery sub-yearling groups from Wells and Ringold hatcheries, which had significantly lower survival than previous years. Yearling chinook travel time showed variation from past years, reflecting the atypical flow shape in 2000 which had high flows in April, declining through May

  6. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  7. Climate reconstruction analysis using coexistence likelihood estimation (CRACLE): a method for the estimation of climate using vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, Robert S; Nixon, Kevin C

    2015-08-01

    • Plant distributions have long been understood to be correlated with the environmental conditions to which species are adapted. Climate is one of the major components driving species distributions. Therefore, it is expected that the plants coexisting in a community are reflective of the local environment, particularly climate.• Presented here is a method for the estimation of climate from local plant species coexistence data. The method, Climate Reconstruction Analysis using Coexistence Likelihood Estimation (CRACLE), is a likelihood-based method that employs specimen collection data at a global scale for the inference of species climate tolerance. CRACLE calculates the maximum joint likelihood of coexistence given individual species climate tolerance characterization to estimate the expected climate.• Plant distribution data for more than 4000 species were used to show that this method accurately infers expected climate profiles for 165 sites with diverse climatic conditions. Estimates differ from the WorldClim global climate model by less than 1.5°C on average for mean annual temperature and less than ∼250 mm for mean annual precipitation. This is a significant improvement upon other plant-based climate-proxy methods.• CRACLE validates long hypothesized interactions between climate and local associations of plant species. Furthermore, CRACLE successfully estimates climate that is consistent with the widely used WorldClim model and therefore may be applied to the quantitative estimation of paleoclimate in future studies. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Estimativa da produção anual de serapilheira dos bosques de mangue no Furo Grande, Bragança-Pará Estimates of the annual litter production in mangrove stands in Furo Grande, Bragança-Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As condições ambientais de determinado local podem influenciar a produtividade dos manguezais. Assim, este estudo estimou a produção total e dos componentes da serapilheira no Furo Grande, Bragança, PA. Este estudo compreendeu quatro ciclos anuais (julho/2000 a agosto/2004 em três sítios. Foram instaladas sete cestas em cada sítio ao longo de uma transecção de 140 m, com intervalos de 20 m. Cada cesta possuía uma área útil de 1 m², com tela de 1 mm², suspensa acima do nível das marés de sizígia. O material acumulado nas cestas foi coletado mensalmente, separado em folha, flor, fruto, estípula, galho e miscelânea, sendo posteriormente secado a 70 ºC até alcançar peso constante. A produção média dos quatro anos foi de 9,85 t.ha-1.ano-1 no sítio 1, 6,41 t.ha-1.ano-1 no sítio 2 e 5,99 t.ha-1.ano-1 no sítio 3, cuja comparação apresenta diferença significativa entre os sítios 1 e 3 (H=7,53; gl=2; pIt is well known that environmental conditions of a determined place can influence the productivity of mangroves. So, the present study estimated the total and components litter production in Furo Grande, Bragança-PA. This study comprised four annual cycles (July/2000 to August/2004 at three sites. Seven traps were placed at each site along a 140 m transect, with 20 m intervals. Each trap had a useful area of 1 m², with 1 mm² mesh, suspended above the spring tide level. Accumulated material in the traps was collected on a monthly basis, sorted manually into leaves, flowers, fruits, stipules, twigs, and miscellaneous and then oven-dried to constant weight at 70ºC. The mean production of four years was 9.85 t.ha-1.year-1 at site 1, 6.41 t.ha-1. year-1 at site 2, and 5.99 t.ha-1. year-1 at site 3, with significant difference between sites 1 and 3 (H=7.53; df=2; p<0.05. Overall, the results showed that leaf was the most productive component, and together with flower, had peak in the dry season, which seems to favor energy

  9. Preface. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwek-Wilczynska, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This Annual Report summarizes the research activities of the Nuclear Physics Division in the year 2004. As in previous years, contributions are grouped in two sections: - Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure, - Experimental Methods and Instrumentation. The research program of our Division includes ''in-house'' activities and experiments with beams from the Warsaw Cyclotron of the Heavy Ion Laboratory as well as participation in the research at large accelerator facilities around the world. Most of the work described throughout this report was carried out as joint efforts of various international collaborations. During the last year we continued our participation in the FOPI, TAPS and WASA-PROMISE international collaborations. Starting this year, we joined a new international Compressed Baryonic Matter project with the aim of building a heavy ion detector to investigate the properties of highly compressed baryonic matter using the future accelerator facility in Darmstadt - FAIR. The first report deals with the question of feasibility of J/ψ detection in the CBM via dimuon decays. In particular, the key issue in this measurement is the suppression of muons originating from weak decays of pions and kaons. The separation of those muons from primary muons emerging from the target area can be accomplished with a number of tracking devices placed on the path to the muon identification detector. We also continue our involvement in the FOPI project. The present Report presents an analysis of Φ meson production in the Ni + Ni reaction at 1.93 AGeV. The first experiment performed in 1995 was repeated in 2003 with highly increased statistics. Two subdetectors, the CDC chamber and the Barrel scintillator, were used for kaon identification. About 120 Φ mesons were found by reconstructing the Φ invariant mass from K + K - candidates. The probability of meson production was obtained. Data from two bremstrahlung-photon interferometry experiments carried out for

  10. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  11. REDUPP First Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterstrom Evins, L. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB), Stockholm (Sweden); Vahanen, M. (eds.)

    2012-06-15

    The REDUPP project aims to investigate how surfaces of solids with a fluorite structure change with time during dissolution. Laboratory experiments are performed to monitor dissolution of CaF{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, ThO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}, in connection with ab initio calculations. Another aspect of the project involves investigating if using natural groundwater in the leaching tests has an effect on the measured dissolution rate of UO{sub 2}. The preliminary results after one project year are documented here. Samples have been prepared as sintered pellets with similar microstructures as UO{sub 2}. For the UO{sub 2} study, pellets doped with U-233 are used. Preliminary dissolution data show the expected trends for pH and temperature dissolution kinetics dependence. Studies on CeO{sub 2} monolith samples indicate that there is a crystallographic control on leaching, and that the grain boundaries are preferentially attacked. Measurable Th concentrations are achieved in pre-tests for ThO{sub 2} dissolution where the effect of carbonate complexation is also observed. The preliminary results of the studies performed on U-233-doped UO{sub 2} samples in natural groundwater are in agreement with previous results, and show no observable effect of trace elements or level of alpha radiolysis. In the modelling work, the stabilities of surfaces corresponding to different crystal planes have been computed, and work is in progress to develop a model involving stepped surfaces. Preliminary results show that only a few energies of reference planes need to be computed, and all other surface energies can be accurately estimated from a linear relation. The goal is to develop a model of how the surfaces of fluorite-structures evolve during dissolution. (orig.)

  12. Fourth annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Independent Radiation Monitoring Scheme for Clwyd began its monitoring programme in Clwyd in 1988. This is the fourth report on the results of the radiation monitoring carried out within Clwyd. The historical reasons for the conception of the Radiation Monitoring Scheme are given in the First Annual Report together with the protocol of operation and detailed sampling and monitoring information. The fourth Annual Report identifies any changes in techniques that have occurred in the last twelve months together with the latest monitoring and analytical data. Samples of air, beach materials, coastal sand and silt, seaweed, meat, fish and milk were taken from various locations within the county. No significant charges in radiation levels were found when compared with data from previous years. The values have remained within the range currently being expected throughout the United Kingdom. (author)

  13. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Document Server

    Pension Fund

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  14. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  15. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  16. Annual recertification: fun? Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A

    1994-01-01

    Learning is critical to fostering a knowledge base required for maintaining currency and furthering professional development. In the ever-changing field of nephrology, most skills practised in nursing are considered to be sanctioned medical acts or added nursing skills. Therefore, annual recertification of the skills designated as sanctioned medical acts is an expectation of the College of Nurses of Ontario. The Wellesley Hospital policy indicates one time only or annual approval of the added nursing skills. The article will discuss the use of games as a creative, non-threatening educational tool in the recertification/re-approval process currently in place at The Wellesley Hospital, renal programs. In the past two years, several games or alternative teaching strategies have been utilized to assist the staff in preparing for recertification. This paper will examine the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing alternative teaching formats. Commentary regarding the response of staff nurses, nursing management and education will be highlighted.

  17. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  18. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  19. 1986 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report describes the reasearch activity carried out during 1986 by the Fusion Department of the Italian Commision for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA). The report outlines the main results obtained by the three major projects of the Fusion Department (Fusion Physics, Frascati Tokamak Upgrade, and Fusion Reactor Engineering), plus the divisional project Inertial Confinement mentioned separately because of its particular scientific content. Most of the research work was performed by the Fusion Department at its location at the ENEA Frascati Energy Research Center, but some work was also done elsewhere, or with recourse to other ENEA departments. The research activity described in this annual report was carried out with the frame of the Association Euratom-ENEA on Fusion, with the exception of some minor activities

  20. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  1. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  2. Nagra annual report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    This annual report made by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) takes a look at the cooperative’s activities and work done in 2013. Nagra’s task is recapitulated. Developments in 2013 concerning legislation, inventories of radioactive materials, sectorial planning and scientific and technical aspects are examined. Work done in the rock laboratories, in the public relations sector and consulting areas is looked at. Nagra’s organizational structure with its management, commissions and auditors is commented on and an organigram of the head office is presented. On the financial side of things, the annual financial statement with incomes, cash flow and accumulated accounts is presented as is the report made by the statutory auditors. An appendix to the report contains details on waste inventories and volumes, a list publications made in 2012 as well as Internet addresses and a glossary.

  3. Nagra annual report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This annual report made by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) takes a look at the cooperative’s activities and work done in 2013. Nagra’s task is recapitulated. Developments in 2013 concerning legislation, inventories of radioactive materials, sectorial planning and scientific and technical aspects are examined. Work done in the rock laboratories, in the public relations sector and consulting areas is looked at. Nagra’s organizational structure with its management, commissions and auditors is commented on and an organigram of the head office is presented. On the financial side of things, the annual financial statement with incomes, cash flow and accumulated accounts is presented as is the report made by the statutory auditors. An appendix to the report contains details on waste inventories and volumes, a list publications made in 2012 as well as Internet addresses and a glossary

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  5. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  6. TIARA annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Itoh, Hisayoshi [eds.; Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    2000-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 106 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  7. TIARA annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Namba, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    2001-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 103 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  8. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Areva is a world energy expert on technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. This 2005 annual report provides information on the Group results in the following domains: information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operations, new developments and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and outlook. (A.L.B.)

  9. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  10. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2006. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2006 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  11. Risoe annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    An explanation of Risoe National Laboratory's function within the Danish research system is followed by brief accounts of research activities at Risoe during 1987. Energy resources, technology and policy are discussed, the annual accounts are presented, a guide to the National Laboratory and a list of its publications are given. Some of the research activities that took place in 1987 described in more detail are within the fields of chemistry and the environment, superconductivity, new aspects of powdery mildew, polymers and robotics. (AB)

  12. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiboda, G [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented.

  13. Annual Report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1986-06-01

    This annual report covers the work carried out at the Radioisotope Department, ZfK Rossendorf, during the year 1985. It contains 12 contributions related to the development of processes for generating radioisotopes, 23 contributions related to the synthesis of radioactive compounds, and 26 contributions related to the characterization of radioactive compounds. All contributions are published in summary form only and are individually processed for the INIS database. Additionally, a list is given of publications and lectures issued between January and December 1985

  14. ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This annual report provides a general view of the activities of the different sections of the ILL. In 1974, twenty-two different neutron spectrometers with different characteristics were available on a regular basis. Moreover, a number of special neutron sources were employed for on-line experiments. The major effort was devoted to an increase in experimental systems and to the development of new measurement techniques [fr

  15. OPEC annual report 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This annual report is concerned with the following items: the general economic situation of OPEC member countries, other developing countries and the industrial countries; energy market developments (environment, crude oil, crude oil prices, oil stock movements); upstream and downstream activities (exploration, production and reserves, refining, petrochemicals, hydrocarbon transportation, legislation, contracts and agreements in Member Countries); activities of the Secretariat. The annexes contain statistical data, press releases and resolutions and a schedule of member Country representatives and officials of the Secretariat.

  16. Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Vyver, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    In 1983, the various research projects in which the nuclear physics laboratory of Ghent State University is involved, were continued. In the present Annual Report, the results obtained in the field of photofission, photonuclear reactions positron annihilation, dosimetry and nuclear theory are summarized. The new 10 MeV high duty factor linear electron accelerator is presently being installed: performance tests will be carried out until July 1984; after which this facility will gradually become available for nuclear research purposes. (AF)

  17. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  18. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    In this annual report a survey is given about the research programs of the named institute during 1980. The research concerns experiments with synchrotron radiation, hyperfine structure studies, experiments with the DORIS and PETRA storage rings, and experiments at the CERN accelerators. Furthermore the development of instruments in this institute is described. In addition a list of publications, contributions to conferences, and theses of this institute is given. (HSI)

  19. NERSC 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (ed.)

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  20. TIARA annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayosi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiaki; Tajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Susumu

    2004-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004. Summary reports of 115 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  1. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  2. Annual Report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This annual report from the Netherlands Centre for Energy Research, includes the progress made in the five main research areas: fission energy, nuclear fusion and superconductivity, combustion energy (including environmental research), current energy and non-energetic applications of nuclear fission. Studies performed by the Energy Study Centrum, a department within ECN, and the Bureau for Energy Research Projects are described. A financial report is presented and a list of publications included. (C.F.)

  3. Annual report ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggin, S.

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the 1988 Annual Report for ISIS (United Kingdom). A description is given of the accelerator and target station. The capability of ISIS is described including the facilities available and the type of science carried out using the instruments. The development and support activities are outlined, along with the ISIS organisation and user interaction. The appendix contains experimental reports on research work conducted at ISIS. (U.K.)

  4. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, J; Smulek, W; Godlewska-Para, E [eds.

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes the activities of the Institute in 2005. The document consist of four parts: (1) Radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies; (2) Radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry; (3) Radiobiology; (4) Nuclear technologies and methods. In total - 73 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity and the international cooperation is also listed.

  5. Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiboda, G [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented.

  6. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  7. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Gaz de France presents the activities for the year 2005 in four main chapters: the group profile, the governance and the challenges; the energy and services display and the infrastructures; the capital opening and some key data; the group collaborators, the energy conservation, the research programs and the future of the gas and the electricity. (A.L.B.)

  8. TIARA annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003. Summary reports of 113 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  9. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirejczyk, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of three parts: ''Research Reports on Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure'', ''Research Reports on Experimental Methods and Instrumentation'' and ''Seminars, Personnel and Publications''. The short description of the whole NPD activity is also given in ''Preface'' written by director of the Department prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  10. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2007-06-01

    The ''Annual Report 2006'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2006. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  11. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Zupranski, P [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2007-06-15

    The ''Annual Report 2006'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2006. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute Grzegorz Wrochna is also given.

  12. IKF - annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Steuer, E.

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed in the named institute during 1982 together with a list of publications. The work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high-energetic heavy ion physics, heavy ion-atom collisions, nuclear solidstate physics, solid-state particle detectors, the application of nuclear methods and mass spectroscopy, ion source development, instrumental development and data processing, interdisciplinary cooperation, as well as the Van de Graaf accelerator facilities. (HSI) [de

  13. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This annual report gives the activities during the year 2000 and information about the General Direction of the Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) in France. The highlights of the year are discussed in the main following topics: public utilities, the Erika oil slick, the petroleum products prices increase, the energy efficiency national program, Eole 2005, the nuclear industry management. The french energy accounting, the publications and the organization of the DGEMP are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  15. 2008 annual merit review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  16. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This year 2000 annual report of the CEA (atomic energy commissariat) gives a general overview of the CEA activities and organization in the domains of the defence, the nuclear energy the technological research and the fundamental research. It is presented in seven main parts: contribution to national defence, civil nuclear research, technological research for the industry, pushing back the frontiers of scientific knowledge in physics and life science, mastery of installations; institute for protection and nuclear safety, research resources. (A.L.B.)

  17. NSLS annual report 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.

  18. CRPP Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the CRPP in the domain of fusion and points out the main results and events of the past year. For the sake of clarity the activities have been grouped under five headings, resulting in sections of unequal size. These are: tokamak physics, development of new diagnostics, theory and numerical simulation, non-linear plasma physics and development of microwave sources. figs., tabs., refs

  19. TIARA annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Saido, Masahiro; Nashiyama, Isamu

    1998-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. Summary reports of 90 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  20. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2008. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by directors of the Heavy Ion Laboratory: prof. J. Jastrzebski, prof. J. Kownacki and prof. K. Rusek is also given

  1. TIARA annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. Summary reports of 88 papers and 4 brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  2. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Smulek, W.; Godlewska-Para, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes the activities of the Institute in 2005. The document consist of four parts: (1) Radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies; (2) Radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry; (3) Radiobiology; (4) Nuclear technologies and methods. In total - 73 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity and the international cooperation is also listed

  3. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    In part 1, the annual report informs of the organizational and administrative development of the Bundesanstalt, in its 2nd part it presents a survey of scientific activities in 1976, examinations carried out, measuring devices and operational equipment given permission to, and cooperation in national and international bodies. The 3rd part contains scientific summaries of activities published and not published, which were either concluded in the year under review or which came to some interim results. (orig.) [de

  4. 2002 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002. The following activities and developed topic in this report describe: radiation and nuclear safety, safeguards, physical protection, transport of radioactive materials, regulatory guides and standards, inspections, licensing, emergency systems, occupational and environmental surveillance, institutional relations with national and international organizations, training courses, information systems, human and economic resources

  5. CSIR Annual report 2003

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ACHIEVEMENTS OF OUR PEOPLE 14 THE STATE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE CSIR 15 ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 20 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 20 CSIR BOARD MEMBERS 24 REPORT OF THE AUDIT COMMITTEE 26 REPORT OF THE AUDITOR GENERAL 27 EXECUTIVE REPORT 28 FIVE..., which followed research and development of new technology related to the Hoodia plant, dubbed P57. Clinical trials relating to the product continue internationally. World-class genomics research > The African Centre for Gene Technologies, established...

  6. 2012 CPES Annual Report

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech. Center for Power Electronics Systems

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Power Electronics Systems at Virginia Tech is a research center dedicated to improving electrical power processing and distribution that impact systems of all sizes – from battery – operated electronics to vehicles to regional and national electrical distribution systems. Our mission is to provide leadership through global collaborative research and education for creating advanced electric power processing systems of the highest value to society. CPES, with annual research expe...

  7. GSF - annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The annual report of the GSF for 1976 describes in brief contributions and surveys the activities of the institutes for biology, microbiology, radiation botany, biochemistry, hematology, medical data processing, ecological chemistry, radiation protection, radiohydrometry, underground disposal, as well as the activities of associated departments and activities of the special departments for algae R+D, for toxicology, for coherent optics and of the physical-technical department. (HK) [de

  8. NSLS annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out

  9. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, R; Lesniak, L; Malecki, P; Stachura, Z; Wojciechowski, H [eds.

    1993-12-31

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author).

  10. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    1976-01-01

    This annual report contains research reports from the various groups of the Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm. Reports are made by workers in the Atomic and Molecular Physics group, the Surface Physics group, the Nuclear Physics group, the group researching into High Energy Physics and related topics and the Instrumentation and Methods group. The report also contains a list of the papers published by members of the Institute during the year and a list of the theses which were presented. (B.D.)

  11. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Lesniak, L.; Malecki, P.; Stachura, Z.; Wojciechowski, H.

    1992-01-01

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author)

  12. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, R.; Lesniak, L.; Malecki, P.; Stachura, Z.; Wojciechowski, H. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author).

  13. TIARA annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Namba, Hideki

    2002-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. Summary reports of 109 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  14. TIARA annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. Summary reports of 95 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  15. 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2002 provides information on financial highlights, corporate governance, organization of the Group, share, sustainable development policy (integration into the management practices, financial and environmental responsibility, responsibility to the employees and to the society), nuclear power (front end division, reactors and services division, back end division), connectors division, equity interests and financial report. (A.L.B.)

  16. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The 1979 annual report of HMI presents information on the major scientific findings of this year in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry, data processing and electronics as well as on the scientific cooperation with universities, institutions, and the industry. The general development of HMI, its structure and organisation are reviewed. A detailed list of publications and lectures (also by foreign guests of HMI) in the various fields of research is given. (RB) [de

  17. NIKHEF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report of NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands) describes experiments carried out at CERN (Geneve), DESY (Hamburg) viz. WA25; CHARM-collaboration; ACCMOR experiments; proton-antiproton collision; LEAR; MARK-J; Crystal Ball experiment; HERA. For the nuclear physics section, experiments are described on electro-excitation of nuclei; pion and muon physics. Theoretical studies are listed concerning electromagnetic interactions in the sigma-omega model and delta-nuclei dynamics. A radiochemical and technical part concludes the report. (Auth.)

  18. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Zupranski, P [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2006-06-15

    The ''Annual Report 2005'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2005. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute prof. Ziemowit Sujkowski is also given.

  19. Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Zupranski, P [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    The ''Annual Report 2007'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2007. Report consists of two parts. First one consist of of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given.

  20. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2006-06-01

    The ''Annual Report 2005'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2005. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute prof. Ziemowit Sujkowski is also given

  1. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2008-01-01

    The ''Annual Report 2007'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2007. Report consists of two parts. First one consist of of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  2. Areva 2005 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This annual report contains information on AREVA's objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7, as well as contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the annual report and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction; 3 - General information on the company and share capital: Information on AREVA, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organizational chart of the AREVA group, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, 5 - New developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, AREVA group energy businesses, Front End Division, Reactors and Services Division, Back End Division, Transmission and Distribution Division, Major Contracts, The Group's principal sites, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Human resources, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development, intellectual property and brand name programs, Risk and insurance; 6 - Assets - Financial position - financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the Group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report 2005, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA Financial statements 2005, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 7 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of administrative bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual General Meeting of Shareholders of May 2, 2006; 8 - Recent developments and outlook: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2005, Outlook

  3. Annual Report 2010-2011

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... 2013-2014 Annual Report 2013-2014 Rapport annuel 2013-2014 Annual Report 2014-2015 Annual Report 2014-2015 Rapport annuel 2014-2015 Investing in Solutions Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Investing in Solutions Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Investir dans des solutions Plan stratégique 2015-2020 Financial statements ...

  4. Estimating Climate Trends: Application to United States Plant Hardiness Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States Department of Agriculture classifies plant hardiness zones based on mean annual minimum temperatures over some past period (currently 1976–2005. Since temperatures are changing, these values may benefit from updating. I outline a multistep methodology involving imputation of missing station values, geostatistical interpolation, and time series smoothing to update a climate variable’s expected value compared to a climatology period and apply it to estimating annual minimum temperature change over the coterminous United States. I show using hindcast experiments that trend estimation gives more accurate predictions of minimum temperatures 1-2 years in advance compared to the previous 30 years’ mean alone. I find that annual minimum temperature increased roughly 2.5 times faster than mean temperature (~2.0 K versus ~0.8 K since 1970, and is already an average of 1.2  0.5 K (regionally up to ~2 K above the 1976–2005 mean, so that much of the country belongs to warmer hardiness zones compared to the current map. The methods developed may also be applied to estimate changes in other climate variables and geographic regions.

  5. Year 2003. GRNC's appreciation of the dose estimates presented in the annual environmental monitoring report of Cogema-La-Hague facility. Detailed reports; Annee 2003. Appreciation par le GRNC de l'estimation des doses presentee dans le rapport annuel de surveillance de l'environnement de COGEMA-LA-HAGUE. Rapports detailles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    The 'Groupe Radioecologie Nord Cotentin' (GRNC) has carried out a very thorough evaluation of the assessment of doses due to discharges from the Cap de la Hague nuclear site carried out by COGEMA, the site operators. The group has looked at all aspects of the assessment methods and data to ensure that they agree with the results presented in the 2003 annual environmental report of the operator. The computer tool, ACADIE, developed to assess the doses, has been used by the GRNC members to carry out their own calculations. This document comprises the detailed report of the GRNC and its synthesis. The detailed report includes: 1 - critical analysis of the 2003 source term, the data transmitted by Cogema (presentation of the July 6, 2005 meeting, status of atmospheric effluents, status of liquid effluents at sea, fuel data), the history of liquid and gaseous effluents between 1966 and 2003; 2 - detailed comparison between model and measurements; 3 - ACADIE users manual, doses calculated by the GRNC during its third mission (year 2003). (J.S.)

  6. Risø annual report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    of Governors in November 2000. The new strategy serves as a beacon for the transformation process Risø is undergoing in 2001. This Annual Report shows that we produce ahealthy return on the research funds invested in us, and it is our ambition for this return to grow over the next few years....

  7. Remotely sensed forest cover loss shows high spatial and temporal variation across Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia 2000-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew; Potapov, Peter; Margono, Belinda Arunarwati; Adusei, Bernard; Stolle, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The Indonesian islands of Sumatera and Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo) are a center of significant and rapid forest cover loss in the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity conservation, and local livelihoods. The aim of our research was to analyze and interpret annual trends of forest cover loss for different sub-regions of the study area. We mapped forest cover loss for 2000-2008 using multi-resolution remote sensing data from the Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM +) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors and analyzed annual trends per island, province, and official land allocation zone. The total forest cover loss for Sumatera and Kalimantan 2000-2008 was 5.39 Mha, which represents 5.3% of the land area and 9.2% of the year 2000 forest cover of these two islands. At least 6.5% of all mapped forest cover loss occurred in land allocation zones prohibiting clearing. An additional 13.6% of forest cover loss occurred where clearing is legally restricted. The overall trend of forest cover loss increased until 2006 and decreased thereafter. The trends for Sumatera and Kalimantan were distinctly different, driven primarily by the trends of Riau and Central Kalimantan provinces, respectively. This analysis shows that annual mapping of forest cover change yields a clearer picture than a one-time overall national estimate. Monitoring forest dynamics is important for national policy makers, especially given the commitment of Indonesia to reducing greenhouse gas emissions as part of the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries initiative (REDD +). The improved spatio-temporal detail of forest change monitoring products will make it possible to target policies and projects in meeting this commitment. Accurate, annual forest cover loss maps will be integral to many REDD + objectives, including policy formulation, definition of baselines, detection

  8. Assessing the Adequacy of Probability Distributions for Estimating the Extreme Events of Air Temperature in Dabaa Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanshoury, Gh.I.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the adequacy of probability distributions for estimating the extreme events of air temperature in Dabaa region is one of the pre-requisite s for any design purpose at Dabaa site which can be achieved by probability approach. In the present study, three extreme value distributions are considered and compared to estimate the extreme events of monthly and annual maximum and minimum temperature. These distributions include the Gumbel/Frechet distributions for estimating the extreme maximum values and Gumbel /Weibull distributions for estimating the extreme minimum values. Lieblein technique and Method of Moments are applied for estimating the distribution para meters. Subsequently, the required design values with a given return period of exceedance are obtained. Goodness-of-Fit tests involving Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling are used for checking the adequacy of fitting the method/distribution for the estimation of maximum/minimum temperature. Mean Absolute Relative Deviation, Root Mean Square Error and Relative Mean Square Deviation are calculated, as the performance indicators, to judge which distribution and method of parameters estimation are the most appropriate one to estimate the extreme temperatures. The present study indicated that the Weibull distribution combined with Method of Moment estimators gives the highest fit, most reliable, accurate predictions for estimating the extreme monthly and annual minimum temperature. The Gumbel distribution combined with Method of Moment estimators showed the highest fit, accurate predictions for the estimation of the extreme monthly and annual maximum temperature except for July, August, October and November. The study shows that the combination of Frechet distribution with Method of Moment is the most accurate for estimating the extreme maximum temperature in July, August and November months while t he Gumbel distribution and Lieblein technique is the best for October

  9. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  10. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  11. Annual electricity consumption forecasting by neural network in high energy consuming industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Sohrabkhani, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in high energy consumption industrial sectors. Chemicals, basic metals and non-metal minerals industries are defined as high energy consuming industries. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in high energy consumption industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. Although ANNs have been typically used to forecast short term consumptions, this paper shows that it is a more precise approach to forecast annual consumption in such industries. Furthermore, the ANN approach based on a supervised multi-layer perceptron (MLP) is used to show it can estimate the annual consumption with less error. Actual data from high energy consuming (intensive) industries in Iran from 1979 to 2003 is used to illustrate the applicability of the ANN approach. This study shows the advantage of the ANN approach through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the ANN forecast is compared with actual data and the conventional regression model through ANOVA to show its superiority. This is the first study to present an algorithm based on the ANN and ANOVA for forecasting long term electricity consumption in high energy consuming industries

  12. The SRTR/OPTN Annual Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Annual Data Report The SRTR/OPTN Annual Data Report Statistics on donation and transplantation in the United ... US in 2015. The SRTR/OPTN Annual Data Report SRTR/OPTN Annual Data Report Learn more from ...

  13. 2000 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000. The following activities and developed topic in this report describe: the Argentine regulatory system; the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in the Argentina since the beginnings in the National Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) of Argentina; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the safeguards and inspection of the nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants; the radiological emergency systems; the environmental monitoring; the institutional relations with national and international organizations; the biological and physics dosimetry; the training courses and meetings; the economic and human recourses

  14. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, J; Smulek, W; Godlewska-Para, E [eds.

    2007-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2006 obtained in seven fields: (1) radiation chemistry and technology, (2) radiochemistry and coordination chemistry, (3) radiobiology, (4) application of nuclear methods in material and process engineering, (5) design of instruments based on nuclear techniques, (6) trace analysis and radioanalytical techniques, (7) environmental research. In total - 83 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are presented.

  15. 1977 Annual Typhoon Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    George T. McKaige, USN *CAPT Frederick P. Milwer, USAF CAPT Alan W. Hassebrock, USAF CAPT Charles P. Guard , USAF CAPT”John D. Shewchuk, USAF ENS Edward...Det 1, lWW - USAF 1977 ANNUAL TYPHOON REPORT *Departed during 1977 season FRONTCOVER: ln&a.tedphoztogzaphof a - tmJ -A.toZmb.iaZatAn o.ulh a M dtig -&A...ships provide day and night coverage in the JTWC area of responsibility. Interpretation of this satellite imagery pro- vides cyclone positions, and for

  16. Uranium industry annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Uranium industry data collected in the EIA-858 survey provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of annual activities of the industry and include some information about industry plans over the next several years. This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities utility market requirements and related topics

  17. NIRE annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of `ecotechnology` that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts on such topics as: emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from advanced coal combustors; catalysts for diesel NO{sub x} removal; measuring dust from stationary sources; software for life cycle assessment; marine disposal of CO{sub 2}; emissions of greenhouse gases from coal mines in Japan; structural changes in coal particles during gasification; solubilization and desulfurization of high sulfur coal with trifluoromethane sulfuroic acid; and oxidation mechanisms of H{sub 2}S.

  18. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The annual report of the PTB for 1975 deals in part 1 with organization and activities of the executive committee and the administration, in the second part with work carried out by the departments mechanics, electric power, heat, optics, acoustics, nuclear physics, reactor radiation, general technical-scientific services, and the institute in Berlin. The second part deals with examinations, authorizations, permits, cooperation, advisory activities and scientific services. Part three presents R and D activities carried out in the nine departments in the form of scientific summaries. (HK) [de

  19. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and the research in cosmochemistry. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI) [de

  20. Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the work during 1982 of the Nuclear Physics Institute of Lyon. The achievement of SARA postaccelerator in Grenoble, realized in collaboration with the Nuclear Science Institute, permits to pursue new lines of research in heavy ion physics. A new isotope separator was realized by the nuclear spectroscopy group and the high energy experimental group cooperates with the LAPP to build in international collaboration the L3 detector for LEP. The topics covered include theoretical physics, high energy and intermediate energy physics, nuclear physics and interdisciplinary physics, such as solid state physics and neutronics [fr

  1. CEA Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The CEA, a prominent player in research development and innovation, is active in three main domains: energy, health care and information technology, defense and security. This annual report presents the CEA activities for the year 2007 in these three main areas: science and technology working for nuclear deterrence and global security, the energies without greenhouse effect gases emission against the climatic change, researches in the information sciences and technologies for a better communication and health. The CEA safety, organization, communication and international relations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  2. 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This 1996 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and external communication with some budgetary informations. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the condensed matter and life sciences, the advanced technologies, the protection and transfer of knowledge and technologies, the environmental activities, the management and processing of nuclear wastes, the nuclear protection and safety, the technical and scientific information, the teaching and training, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (J.S.)

  3. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  4. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  5. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1991, the Corporation undertook an examination of its future direction, having completed the divestment mandate assigned to it in 1986. This examination resulted in a reorientation of the Corporation's objectives toward enhancing participation in the energy sector by the Aboriginal Peoples and northern communities of the province. The Corporation's cash assets increased to $33 million in 1991, largely attributable to a Suncor dividend of $14.2 million. The financial statements have been prepared by management in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Management is also responsible for the other information in the annual report, which is consistent with that contained in the financial statements

  6. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of: a) Research activities carried out during 1975 within the framework of the scientific sections of the Institute, b) the central technical seπtions and their services, and c) the organizational structure. Enclosed are: 1) Report on the activities of the administrative management, the administration, and general services, 2) a list of all publications and conference reports issued by IPP Garching during 1975, and an annual report by the Institut fuer Plasmaphysik of the University of Stuttgart, an institute financed by IPP Garching. (GG) [de

  7. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  8. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  9. International energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided

  10. Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the activities at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) during the year 1981. It contains 74 short reports grouped under the headings: inelastic scattering studies, transfer and charge-exchange reactions, breakup reactions and fission studies, heavy-ion reactions, gamma, electron and X-ray spectroscopy, hyperfine interactions and nuclear orientation, weak interactions, IBA related studies, other theoretical studies, cyclotron and beam lines, data acquisition and data analysis, instrumentation and electronics and medical physics. Details are also presented of the personnel, scientific publications, internal reports, and attended and internal conferences and seminars. (C.F.)

  11. NPL 1999 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 NPL 1999 Annual Report. The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics research. Research activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current program includes ''in-house'' research on nuclear collisions using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators as well as local and remote non-accelerator research on fundamental symmetries and weak interactions and user-mode research on relativistic heavy ions at large accelerator facilities around the world.

  12. 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and communication with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the nuclear protection and safety, the advanced technologies, the quasi-particles, the effects of ionizing radiations on humans, the medical imagery, the transfer of technology, the protection and valorization of knowledge, the radioactive wastes and spent fuels management, the training and teaching, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (O.M.)

  13. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  14. Annual report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In this annual report, the Institut fuer Kernphysik of the university of Frankfurt/Main gives a survey on its scientific activities in the year 1974. Research activities in this period comprised the following fields: nuclear reactions and nuclear structure, heavy ion physics, atomic collision processes, neutron diffractometry and spectroscopy, solid state particle trace detectors, methods of nuclear analysis and mass spectroscopy, ion source development, electronics and data processing, and radiation protection. Furthermore, some application-oriented interdisciplinary research projects were started. (orig./AK) [de

  15. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and the research in cosmochemistry. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindh, U.; Sundberg, O.

    1977-01-01

    The Gustaf Werner Institute (GWI) annual report for the year 1976 presents in a condensed form the scientific activities in the disciplines High Energy Physics and Physical Biology at Uppsala University. The activities in High Energy Physics fall into three domains: Research with the local accelerator, participation in collaborations at international centers and work on the rebuilding of the Uppsala synchrocyclotron. A major subject of research in Physical Biology is control of growth and differentiation, as reflected in the kinetics of biochemical reactions or in the behaviour of healthy or malignant cells at various levels of organization. (Auth.)

  17. Annual Energy Review 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  18. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management [fr

  19. NERSC 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (editor)

    2001-12-12

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005.

  20. Uranium industry annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Uranium Industry Annual 1991, data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2. A feature article entitled ''The Uranium Industry of the Commonwealth of Independent States'' is included in this report