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Sample records for ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate induces

  1. Galangin and kaempferol suppress phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells.

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    Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Young Hun; Lee, Seung-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 degrades type IV collagen in the basement membrane and plays crucial roles in several pathological implications, including tumorigenesis and inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of flavonols on MMP-9 expression in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. Galangin and kaempferol efficiently decreased MMP-9 secretion, whereas fisetin only weakly decreased its secretion. Galangin and kaempferol did not affect cell viability at concentrations up to 30 μM. Luciferase reporter assays showed that galangin and kaempferol decrease transcription of MMP-9 mRNA. Moreover, galangin and kaempferol strongly reduce IκBα phosphorylation and significantly decrease JNK phosphorylation. These results indicate that galangin and kaempferol suppress PMA-induced MMP-9 expression by blocking activation of NF-κB and AP-1. Therefore, these flavonols could be used as chemopreventive agents to lower the risk of diseases involving MMP-9.

  2. NRF2 Signaling Negatively Regulates Phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate (PMA-Induced Differentiation of Human Monocytic U937 Cells into Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages.

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    Min-Gu Song

    Full Text Available Blood monocytes are recruited to injured tissue sites and differentiate into macrophages, which protect against pathogens and repair damaged tissues. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are known to be an important contributor to monocytes' differentiation and macrophages' function. NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2, a transcription factor regulating cellular redox homeostasis, is known to be a critical modulator of inflammatory responses. We herein investigated the role of NRF2 in macrophage differentiation using the human monocytic U937 cell line and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA. In U937 cells with NRF2 silencing, PMA-stimulated cell adherence was significantly facilitated when compared to control U937 cells. Both transcript and protein levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukine-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα were highly elevated in PMA-stimulated NRF2-silenced U937 compared to the control. In addition, PMA-inducible secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 was significantly high in NRF2-silenced U937. As an underlying mechanism, we showed that NRF2-knockdown U937 retained high levels of cellular ROS and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers expression; and subsequently, PMA-stimulated levels of Ca2+ and PKCα were greater in NRF2-knockdown U937 cells, which caused enhanced nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-ҡB (NFҡB p50 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Whereas the treatment of NRF2-silenced U937 cells with pharmacological inhibitors of NFҡB or ERK1/2 largely blocked PMA-induced IL-1β and IL-6 expression, indicating that these pathways are associated with cell differentiation. Taken together, our results suggest that the NRF2 system functions to suppress PMA-stimulated U937 cell differentiation into pro-inflammatory macrophages and provide evidence that the ROS-PKCα-ERK-NFҡB axis is involved in PMA-facilitated differentiation of NRF2-silenced U937

  3. Effect of Dark Chocolate Extracts on Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Burst in Leukocytes Isolated by Normo-Weight and Overweight/Obese Subjects.

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    Ioannone, Francesca; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative and inflammatory stress represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in overweight and obese subjects. Between the different plant foods, chocolate has been shown to decrease CVD risk due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as we recently showed in epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and human trials, dietary antioxidants resulted more effective in subjects characterized by an ongoing oxidative stress, than in healthy people. Aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of chocolate phenolic extract (CPE) on in vitro free radical production, stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), in leukocytes extracted from blood of normo-weight and overweight/obese subjects. Neutrophils from overweight/obese group had a significantly higher free radical production compared to the normo-weight group. In neutrophils, the lowest CPE concentration significantly reduced free radical production in overweight/obese group only, and higher CPE concentrations were effective in both groups. In monocytes, the CPE concentration that was significantly effective in reducing free radical production was lower in overweight/obese subjects than in normo-weight subjects. Chocolate polyphenol extracts inhibit oxidative burst in human neutrophils and monocytes with a higher efficiency in subjects characterized by an unphysiological oxidative/inflammatory stress, such as overweight and obese. Results of this study provide further evidence about a differential role of dietary antioxidant strictly related to the "stress" condition of the subjects.

  4. Effect of Dark Chocolate Extracts on Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Burst in Leukocytes Isolated by Normo-Weight and Overweight/Obese Subjects

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    Francesca Ioannone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in overweight and obese subjects. Between the different plant foods, chocolate has been shown to decrease CVD risk due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as we recently showed in epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and human trials, dietary antioxidants resulted more effective in subjects characterized by an ongoing oxidative stress, than in healthy people. Aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of chocolate phenolic extract (CPE on in vitro free radical production, stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, in leukocytes extracted from blood of normo-weight and overweight/obese subjects. Neutrophils from overweight/obese group had a significantly higher free radical production compared to the normo-weight group. In neutrophils, the lowest CPE concentration significantly reduced free radical production in overweight/obese group only, and higher CPE concentrations were effective in both groups. In monocytes, the CPE concentration that was significantly effective in reducing free radical production was lower in overweight/obese subjects than in normo-weight subjects. Chocolate polyphenol extracts inhibit oxidative burst in human neutrophils and monocytes with a higher efficiency in subjects characterized by an unphysiological oxidative/inflammatory stress, such as overweight and obese. Results of this study provide further evidence about a differential role of dietary antioxidant strictly related to the “stress” condition of the subjects.

  5. Induction of CD3 delta epsilon omega by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A; Neisig, A; Wallin, H

    1993-01-01

    The effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the synthesis, assembly and processing of the components of the T cell receptor (TcR) was studied with special focus on the CD3 omega chain. Treatment of the human leukemic T cell line Jurkat with PMA increased the synthesis of the Ti alpha, CD......3 gamma and CG3 zeta chains two- to threefold and the synthesis of Ti beta and CD3 delta epsilon omega complexes five- to sevenfold as assessed by metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by scanning densitometry. The amount...... of TcR complexes expressed on the cell surface was decreased after 16 h of PMA treatment. Based on these results we propose a role of CD3 omega in retention of TcR complexes. From PMA-treated CEM cells more than 50-fold the amount of CD3 delta epsilon omega complexes was immunoprecipitated as compared...

  6. Nanomechanical measurement of adhesion and migration of leukemia cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment.

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    Zhou, Zhuo Long; Ma, Jing; Tong, Ming-Hui; Chan, Barbara Pui; Wong, Alice Sze Tsai; Ngan, Alfonso Hing Wan

    The adhesion and traction behavior of leukemia cells in their microenvironment is directly linked to their migration, which is a prime issue affecting the release of cancer cells from the bone marrow and hence metastasis. In assessing the effectiveness of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, the conventional batch-cell transwell-migration assay may not indicate the intrinsic effect of the treatment on migration, since the treatment may also affect other cellular behavior, such as proliferation or death. In this study, the pN-level adhesion and traction forces between single leukemia cells and their microenvironment were directly measured using optical tweezers and traction-force microscopy. The effects of PMA on K562 and THP1 leukemia cells were studied, and the results showed that PMA treatment significantly increased cell adhesion with extracellular matrix proteins, bone marrow stromal cells, and human fibroblasts. PMA treatment also significantly increased the traction of THP1 cells on bovine serum albumin proteins, although the effect on K562 cells was insignificant. Western blots showed an increased expression of E-cadherin and vimentin proteins after the leukemia cells were treated with PMA. The study suggests that PMA upregulates adhesion and thus suppresses the migration of both K562 and THP1 cells in their microenvironment. The ability of optical tweezers and traction-force microscopy to measure directly pN-level cell-protein or cell-cell contact was also demonstrated.

  7. The phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate differentiation protocol is critical to the interaction of THP-1 macrophages with Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Tregei; Bauler, Timothy J; Malik-Kale, Preeti; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2018-01-01

    THP-1 cells differentiated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) are widely used as a model for function and biology of human macrophages. However, the conditions used for differentiation, particularly the concentration of PMA and the duration of treatment, vary widely. Here we compare several differentiation conditions and compare the ability of THP-1 macrophages to interact with the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The results show that THP-1 macrophages differentiated in high concentrations of PMA rapidly died following infection whereas those differentiated in low concentrations of PMA survived and were able to control the intracellular bacteria similar to primary human macrophages.

  8. Effect of differentiating agents (all-trans retinoic acid and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on drug sensitivity of HL60 and NB4 cells in vitro.

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    Jadwiga Mirecka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies have shown that human myeloid leukemia cell lines: HL60 and NB4 can be stimulated to differentiation by various agents, for example, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differentiation of HL60 and NB4 leukemia cell lines induced by ATRA and PMA alters their drug sensitivity. The differentiation along the neutrophil lineage (upon stimulation with ATRA and along the monocyte/macrophage lineage (upon stimulation with PMA was proved by decreased proliferative potential of cells, changes in their morphology, increased ability for NBT reduction and increased expression of CD11b and CD14 cell surface markers. The effect of drugs: cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin, mitoxantrone and etoposide was examined by Alamar Blue test (proliferation and survival rates, as well as by evaluation of cell smears stained with Hoechst 33342 (apoptotic index. Differentiation resulted in the change of drug sensitivity in both cell lines: the differentiation along the neutrophil pathway (after stimulation with ATRA increased sensitivity to cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone but decreased sensitivity to etoposide; the differentiation along the monocyte/macrophage pathway (induced by PMA resulted in the decreased sensitivity of both cell lines to all drugs tested. In conclusion, we have shown that ATRA- and PMA-mediated differentiation of HL60 and NB4 cell lines results in the changes of their drug sensitivity. Our data may provide a contribution to a strategy aimed at a rational combination of differentiating agents and conventional anticancer drugs.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate plus A23187-mediated inflammation in HMC-1 cells.

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    Yang, Da-Wun; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Lee, Young-Seob; Han, Sin-Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Cha, Seon-Woo; Seo, Yun-Soo; Mun, Su-Hyun; Gong, Ryong; Shin, Dong-Won; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2016-12-01

    Salidroside [2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl β-D-gluco-pyranoside (SAS)] has been identified as the most potent ingredient of the plant Rhodiola rosea L. Previous studies have demonstrated that it possesses a number of pharmacological properties, including anti-aging, anti-fatigue, antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, to ascertain the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of SAS, we used phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187 to induce inflammation in human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were treated with SAS prior to being stimulated with PMA plus A23187. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Western blot analysis was used to examine the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). SAS inhibited the mRNA expression and production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In cells stimulated with PMA plus A23187, SAS suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), but not that of p38 MAPK. SAS suppressed the expression of NF-κB in the nucleus. On the whole, our results suggest that SAS exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the blocking of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  10. Tumor-promoting phorbol ester transiently down-modulates the p53 level and blocks the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouv, J.; Jensen, P O; Forchhammer, J

    1994-01-01

    Activation of the protein kinase C signaling pathway by tumor-promoting phorbol esters, such as 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), induced a decrease in the level of p53 mRNA in several serum-starved human cell lines. Also, the tumor-promoting phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induced...

  11. "Slow" Voltage-Dependent Inactivation of CaV2.2 Calcium Channels Is Modulated by the PKC Activator Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA.

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    Lei Zhu

    Full Text Available CaV2.2 (N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca2+ channels play key roles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells including the control of cellular excitability, neurotransmitter / hormone secretion, and gene expression. Calcium entry is precisely controlled by channel gating properties including multiple forms of inactivation. "Fast" voltage-dependent inactivation is relatively well-characterized and occurs over the tens-to- hundreds of milliseconds timeframe. Superimposed on this is the molecularly distinct, but poorly understood process of "slow" voltage-dependent inactivation, which develops / recovers over seconds-to-minutes. Protein kinases can modulate "slow" inactivation of sodium channels, but little is known about if/how second messengers control "slow" inactivation of Ca2+ channels. We investigated this using recombinant CaV2.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells and native CaV2 channels endogenously expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells. The PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA dramatically prolonged recovery from "slow" inactivation, but an inactive control (4α-PMA had no effect. This effect of PMA was prevented by calphostin C, which targets the C1-domain on PKC, but only partially reduced by inhibitors that target the catalytic domain of PKC. The subtype of the channel β-subunit altered the kinetics of inactivation but not the magnitude of slowing produced by PMA. Intracellular GDP-β-S reduced the effect of PMA suggesting a role for G proteins in modulating "slow" inactivation. We postulate that the kinetics of recovery from "slow" inactivation could provide a molecular memory of recent cellular activity and help control CaV2 channel availability, electrical excitability, and neurotransmission in the seconds-to-minutes timeframe.

  12. Differential effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and diacylglycerols on thromboxane A2-independent phospholipase A2 activation in collage-stimulated human platelets.

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    Reddy, S; Rao, G H; Murthy, M

    1994-04-01

    We investigated the priming effects of protein kinase C (PKC) activators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), 1,2-DiC8 and OAG, and 1,3-DiC8 (a poor activator of PKC) on thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation in human platelets using collagen and A23187 as agonists. We measured PLA2 activation in collagen-stimulated platelets in the presence of BW755C, which abolished TxA2 synthesis, rise in cytosolic Ca2+, and aggregation. In the presence of PMA (50 nM), the amount of arachidonic acid (AA) released in platelets stimulated with collagen and A23187 represented 300% (13.85 nmol versus 4.5 nmol) and 400% (28 nmol versus 7 nmol) of controls (without PMA), respectively, while 1,2-DiC8, OAG, and 1,3-DiC8 increased TxA2-independent AA release by 50% in A23187-stimulated platelets and had no effect on the release of AA in collagen-stimulated platelets. Interestingly, 1,3-DiC8, which is a poor activator of PKC, was as effective as the other two DAGs (OAG and 1,2-DiC8) in priming TxA2-independent PLA2 activation, but was less effective than PMA in platelets stimulated with A23187. These results suggest that the TXA2-dependent IP3-mediated rise in cytosolic Ca2+ may not be obligatory for priming PLA2 activation in the presence of PMA in collagen-stimulated platelets. In contrast, 1,2-DiC8, OAG, and 1,3-DiC8 likely enhanced PLA2 activation via intracellular Ca2+ as they selectively affect this enzyme only in A23187-stimulated platelets. We also observed a significant increase in both saturated (palmitic and stearic acids) and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids) in platelets stimulated by collagen or A23187 in the presence of PMA (50 nM), but not in the presence of DAGs. These findings imply that PMA may also affect the activation of DAG/MAG lipases, PLA1, or nonspecific PLA2. Since both 1,2-DiC8 and OAG exert no significant effect on the release of these fatty acids, the effects observed with PMA on DAG lipase/PLA1 may not

  13. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA Activated Monocytes

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    Ange Mouithys-Mickalad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD. The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  14. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and other selected tropical green vegetables investigated on lipoperoxidation and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated monocytes.

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    Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2011-09-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N'-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in "inflammation like" conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  15. Different effects of phorbol ester derivates on human immunodeficiency virus 1 replication in lymphocytic and monocytic human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvatchev, Z.; Walder, R.; Garzaro, D.

    1997-01-01

    The mode of action of the phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-l) replication in human lymphocytes and monocytes was studied. PDBu and PMA appear to have similar effects on the regulation of HIV-l replication in acutely infected cells. Here we show a significantly increased replication of HIV-l induced by PDBu and PMA in Molt-4 and Jurkat cells, but a reduced replication in THP-l and U-937 cells. Moreover, quantitatively different activity of the two derivatives in relation to HIV-l replication was observed. PDBu proved to be a stronger stimulator or suppressor of HIV-l replication as compared to PMA. Although the precise mechanism of the activation of HIV-l replication by phorbol ester derivatives is not clear, it can be assumed that the hydrophilicity of PDBu may cause its stronger effect. (authors)

  16. Phorbol ester induced phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor in intact MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knabbe, C.; Lippman, M.E.; Greene, G.L.; Dickson, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies with a variety of cellular receptors have shown that phorbol ester induced phosphorylation modulates ligand binding and function. In this study the authors present direct evidence that the estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation state can be enhanced specifically by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Cells were cultured to 6h in the presence of [ 32 P]-orthophosphate. Whole cell extracts were immunoprecipitated with a monoclonal antibody (D58) against the estrogen receptor and subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Autoradiography showed a specific band in the region of 60-62 kDa which was significantly increased in preparations from PMA treated cells. Phospho-amino acid analysis demonstrated specific phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues. Cholera toxin or forskolin did not change the phosphorylation state of this protein. In a parallel binding analysis PMA led to a rapid decrease of estrogen binding sites. The estrogen induction of both progesterone receptors and growth in semisolid medium was blocked by PMA, whereas the estrogen induction of the 8kDa protein corresponding to the ps2 gene product and of the 52 kDa protein was not affected. In conclusion, phorbol esters can induce phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor. This process may be associated with the inactivation of certain receptor functions

  17. Phorbol Esters Isolated from Jatropha Meal Induced Apoptosis-Mediated Inhibition in Proliferation of Chang and Vero Cell Lines

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    Syahida Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct feeding of Jatropha meal containing phorbol esters (PEs indicated mild to severe toxicity symptoms in various organs of different animals. However, limited information is available on cellular and molecular mechanism of toxicity caused by PEs present in Jatropha meal. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic and mode of action of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal using human hepatocyte (Chang and African green monkey kidney (Vero cell lines. The results showed that isolated PEs inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines with the CC50 of 125.9 and 110.3 μg/mL, respectively. These values were compatible to that of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA values as positive control i.e., 124.5 and 106.3 μg/mL respectively. Microscopic examination, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation results confirmed cell death due to apoptosis upon treatment with PEs and PMA at CC50 concentration for 24 h in both cell lines. The Western blot analysis revealed the overexpression of PKC-δ and activation of caspase-3 proteins which could be involved in the mechanism of action of PEs and PMA. Consequently, the PEs isolated form Jatropha meal caused toxicity and induced apoptosis-mediated proliferation inhibition toward Chang and Vero cell lines involving over-expression of PKC-δ and caspase-3 as their mode of actions.

  18. Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 gene transcription by aspirin and sodium salicylate

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Sansores-Garcia, Leticia; Chen, Xian-Ming; Matijevic-Aleksic, Nevenka; Du, Min; Wu, Kenneth K.

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacological action of salicylate cannot be explained by its inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. In this report, the effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate on COX-2 expressions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and foreskin fibroblasts were evaluated. Aspirin and sodium salicylate at therapeutic concentrations equipotently blocked COX-2 mRNA and protein levels induced by interleukin-1β and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The suppressing effect was more pronounced in...

  19. Contribution of nitric oxide synthase to luminol-dependent chemiluminescence generated by phorbol-ester-activated Kupffer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J F; Komarov, P; Sies, H; de Groot, H

    1991-01-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced luminol chemiluminescence in rat Kupffer cells was doubled by the addition of L-arginine and significantly (up to 70%) inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, competitive inhibitors of L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide (NO) formation. The release of superoxide anion (O2-) by NADPH oxidase was neither affected by L-arginine nor by the inhibitors. Only very slight luminol chemiluminescence was detectable in lipopolysaccharide-pretreated Kupffer cells, a condition in which significant amounts of NO were formed but no O2-. In a cell-free system, significant luminol chemiluminescence only occurred when both authentic NO and the O2-/H2O2- generating system xanthine/xanthine oxidase were present. The results indicate that luminol chemiluminescence in phorbol-ester-activated Kupffer cells largely depends on L-arginine metabolism by NO synthase, requiring the concurrent formation of NO and O2-/H2O2. PMID:1718262

  20. Ca2+ movement and apoptosis induced by deltamethrin in Madin–Darby canine kidney canine renal tubular cells

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    Fang-Jin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of deltamethrin, a pesticide, on free Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i, viability, and apoptosis in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK canine renal tubular cells. Deltamethrin at concentrations between 10μM and 40μM evoked [Ca2+]i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca2+ entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and SKF96365. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ in a Ca2+-free medium abolished deltamethrin-induced [Ca2+]i rise. Treatment with deltamethrin also abolished BHQ-induced [Ca2+]i rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC activity with U73122 abolished deltamethrin-evoked [Ca2+]i rise. Deltamethrin killed cells at 30–60μM in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of deltamethrin was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca2+ with the acetoxymethyl ester of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxyethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that 30–50μM deltamethrin induced apoptosis. Together, in MDCK renal tubular cells, deltamethrin induced [Ca2+]i rises that involved Ca2+ entry through protein kinase C-mediated store-operated Ca2+ channels, and PLC-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Deltamethrin also induced Ca2+-independent cell death that might involve apoptosis.

  1. Acute effects of tumor-promoting phorbol esters on hepatic intermediary metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Haas, C.G.M. de

    1985-01-01

    In hepatocytes isolated from meal-fed rats, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate as well as phorbol 12,13-didecanoate stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate inhibited ketogenesis from exogenous oleate, but slightly enhanced oleate

  2. Effect of protein kinase C modulation on gonadotrophin-induced granulosa cell steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H; Herington, A C; Roupas, P

    1995-01-01

    The effect of protein kinase C (PKC) modulation on gonadotrophin-induced ovarian granulosa cell differentiation was investigated by using an activator of PKC, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and inhibitors of PKC, sphingosine (SPH) and staurosporine (ST). The effects of PMA (at doses which activate PKC (10 ng mL-1), and down-regulate PKC (1000 ng mL-1)), sphingosine (25 microM) and staurosporine (10(-10)-10(-7) M) on gonadotrophin-induced granulosa cell differentiation were studied by the determination of steroidogenesis and cAMP accumulation in immature rat ovarian granulosa cells treated with or without pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (100 mU mL-1). PMA (10 ng mL-1) inhibited gonadotrophin-induced granulosa cell steroidogenesis and cAMP accumulation. PMA (1000 ng mL-1)-induced down-regulation of PKC did not affect gonadotrophin-induced steroidogenesis. The inhibitory effect of PMA (10 ng mL-1) on gonadotrophin-induced granulosa cell steroidogenesis was not present in PKC-down-regulated cells. These data indicate that PKC activation by PMA inhibits gonadotrophin-induced steroidogenesis. SPH also inhibited gonadotrophin-induced steroidogenesis and cAMP accumulation. This effect of SPH was not affected by PMA-induced PKC down-regulation, indicating that this action of SPH does not require PKC or is mediated via a phorbol ester-insensitive PKC isoform. ST induced steroidogenesis in the absence of gonadotrophin, but was not synergistic with gonadotrophin. PMA-induced down-regulation of PKC abolished the effect of ST, suggesting that the action of ST requires PKC. The data suggest that ST and PMA, which antagonize each other in gonadotrophin-induced steroidogenesis, act via a PKC-mediated mechanism whereas the cAMP-associated actions of gonadotrophins and SPH are not dependent on PKC.

  3. Agents that increase phosphatidic acid inhibit the LH-induced testosterone production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Nielsen, L.-L.A.; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    1994-01-01

    The results of the present study point to phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) as a possible intracellular messenger, which might be involved in local modulation of testicular testosterone production in vivo. Propranolol (27-266 µM) induced an increased level of [H]PtdOH in isolated rat Leydig cells......, prelabeled with [H]myristate, and at the same time a strong dose-dependent inhibition of the acute testosterone production stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). The inhibition was not bypassed by the addition of dibutyryl-cAMP but was overcome, when 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol was added as a direct substrate...... for cytochrome P-450 side chain cleavage enzyme. Thus, the inhibition appears to be exerted at a point distal to cAMP-generation but before the first enzyme in the testosterone synthetic pathway. Treatment with other agents (4ß-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), A23187, and sphingosine) giving rise...

  4. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester promotes anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB signaling in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi Suk; Park, Won Sun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Dae-Sung; Choi, Jung-Sik; Lee, Da-Young; Park, Sae-Gwang; Seo, Su-Kil; Kim, Hak-Ju; Won, Jun Yeon; Yu, Byeng Chul; Choi, Il-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other beneficial medicinal properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-allergic effects in mast cells are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether CAPE modulates the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated local allergic reaction in animals, as well as to elucidate the effects of CAPE on mast cells in vitro. To investigate the bioactive potential of CAPE (10 or 20 µM), HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI) for 24 h in the presence or absence of CAPE. To study the pharmacological effects of CAPE, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), and fluorescence assays were used. CAPE (10 mg/kg) inhibited local IgE-mediated allergic reactions (0.164 versus 0.065 O.D.) in a mouse model. Additionally, CAPE (20 µM) attenuated PMACI-stimulated histamine release (3146.42 versus 2564.83 pg/ml) and the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β (4.775 versus 0.713 pg/ml, IC50 = 6.67 µM), IL-6 (4771.5 versus 449.1 pg/ml, IC50 = 5.25 µM), and IL-8 (5991.7 versus 2213.1 pg/ml, IC50 = 9.95 µM) in HMC-1 cells. In activated HMC-1 cells, pretreatment with CAPE decreased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, CAPE inhibited PMACI-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and its degradation. Our results indicated that CAPE can modulate mast cell-mediated allergic disease.

  5. Inhibitory effects of the transgenic Panax ginsengs on phorbol ester plus A23187-induced IL-6 production and cyclooxygenase-2 via suppression of NF-κB and MAPKs in HMC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Young; Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hye-Lin; Shin, Hyun-Ji; Kang, Tae-Hee; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Shim, Ju-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hwan; Yang, Deok-Chun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2011-03-01

    Our previous studies have that demonstrated the overexpression of the squalene synthase gene enhances the biosynthesis of triterpene and phytosterol in Panax ginseng. The total ginsenoside contents in adventitious roots of transgenic P. ginseng were about 1.6-3-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In the present work, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of two types of transgenic P. ginseng (BS and SS) and the wild-type P. ginseng (GS) in a stimulated human mast cell line 1 (HMC-1). GS, BS, and SS inhibited not only the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), but also the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated HMC-1. Additionally, GS, BS, and SS suppressed the expression of the nuclear transcription factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases induced by PMACI. The anti-inflammatory effects of BS and SS were higher than that of GS. These results provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of transgenic P. ginseng as a potential molecule for use in therapy in mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  6. Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphoinositide turnover in an enriched rat Leydig cell preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol...... in labelled inositol phosphates. The response was inhibited when the cells were preincubated with the phorbol ester, 4ß-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (0.16 µM) for 10 min. These results provide evidence for an AVP-induced phospholipase C stimulation in rat Leydig cells and suggest a protein kinase C...

  7. Insulin and phorbol ester stimulate conductive Na+ transport through a common pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civan, M.M.; Peterson-Yantorno, K.; O'Brien, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    Insulin stimulates Na + transport across frog skin, toad urinary bladder, and the distal renal nephron. This stimulation reflects an increase in apical membrane Na + permeability and a stimulation of the basolateral membrane Na,K-exchange pump. Considerable indirect evidence has suggested that the apical natriferic effect of insulin is mediated by activation of protein kinase C. However, no direct information has been available documenting that insulin and protein kinase C indeed share a common pathway in stimulating Na + transport across frog skin. In the present work, the authors have studied the interaction of insulin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a documented activator of protein kinase C. Preincubation of skins with 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, another activator of protein kinase C, increases baseline Na + transport and reduces the subsequent natriferic response to PMA. Preincubation with PMA markedly reduces the subsequent natriferic action of insulin. This effect does not appear to primarily reflect PMA-induced internalization of insulin receptors. The insulin receptors are localized on the basolateral surface of frog skin, but the application of PMA to this surface is much less effective than mucosal treatment in reducing the response to insulin. The current results provide documentation that insulin and protein kinase C share a common pathway in stimulating Na + transport across frog skin. The data are consistent with the concept that the natriferic effect of insulin on frog skin is, at least in part, mediated by activation of protein kinase C

  8. Phorbol ester up-regulates capacities for nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of 5-lipoxygenase in Mono Mac 6 cells and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, O; Klemm, J; Samuelsson, B; Rådmark, O

    2001-04-15

    The leukotrienes are inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid. It was demonstrated that the priming of leukocytes with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) leads to the increased formation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products in parallel with the increased association of 5-LO with the nucleus and the activation of kinases that can phosphorylate 5-LO in vitro. Stimulation of the monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 with calcium ionophore gave low 5-LO product formation and no detectable redistribution of 5-LO. However, after priming of Mono Mac 6 cells with phorbol esters, ionophore led to the association of 45% to 75% of cellular 5-LO with the nuclear membrane, to 5-LO kinase activation, to enhanced release of arachidonate, and to substantial leukotriene synthesis. Similar results were obtained for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated with low-dose ionophore. In addition, for each cell type, PMA priming up-regulated leukotriene biosynthesis in the presence of exogenous arachidonic acid. A protein kinase inhibitor, calphostin C, reduced the association of 5-LO with the nucleus and 5-LO kinase activity, and the formation of 5-LO products was inhibited. These results suggest that PMA up-regulates leukotriene biosynthesis not only by increasing the release of endogenous arachidonate, but also by increasing the capacity for 5-LO phosphorylation and for the translocation of 5-LO to the nucleus in leukocytes.

  9. Nicotine drives neutrophil extracellular traps formation and accelerates collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejoon; Luria, Ayala; Rhodes, Christopher; Raghu, Harini; Lingampalli, Nithya; Sharpe, Orr; Rada, Balazs; Sohn, Dong Hyun; Robinson, William H; Sokolove, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of nicotine on neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation in current and non-smokers and on a murine model of RA. We compared spontaneous and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced NETosis between current and non-smokers by DNA release binding. Nicotine-induced NETosis from non-smokers was assessed by DNA release binding, NET-specific (myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complex) ELISA and real-time fluorescence microscopy. We also used immunofluorescent staining to detect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on neutrophils and performed a functional analysis to assess the role of nAChRs in nicotine-induced NETosis. Finally, we investigated the effects of systemic nicotine exposure on arthritis severity and NETosis in the CIA mouse model. Neutrophils derived from current smokers displayed elevated levels of spontaneous and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced NETosis. Nicotine induced dose-dependent NETosis in ex vivo neutrophils from healthy non-smokers, and co-incubation with ACPA-immune complexes or TNF-α facilitated a synergistic effect on NETosis. Real-time fluorescence microscopy revealed robust formation of NET-like structures in nicotine-exposed neutrophils. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated the presence of the α7 subunit of the nAChR on neutrophils. Stimulation of neutrophils with an α7-specific nAChR agonist induced NETosis, whereas pretreatment with an nAChR antagonist attenuated nicotine-induced NETosis. Nicotine administration to mice with CIA exacerbated inflammatory arthritis, with higher plasma levels of NET-associated MPO-DNA complex. We demonstrate that nicotine is a potent inducer of NETosis, which may play an important role in accelerating arthritis in the CIA model. This study generates awareness of and the mechanisms by which nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, may have deleterious effects on patients with RA. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written

  10. Coordinate viral induction of tumor necrosis factor α and interferon β in human B cells and monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfeld, A.E.; Maniatis, T.

    1989-01-01

    Human tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) gene expression can be induced primarily in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage by a variety of inducers, including lipopolysaccharide, phorbol esters such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and virus or synthetic double-stranded RNA [poly(I)·poly(C)]. In this paper the authors show that the TNF-α gene also responds to virus and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in B lymphocytes and that virus is the most potent inducer of TNF-α mRNA in both monocyte and B-cell lines. In addition, they show that viral infection coinduces the expression of TNF-α and interferon β mRNA and that viral induction of both genes is blocked by the kinase inhibitor 2-aminopurine. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide had no effect on mRNA expression of the genes in one of three cell lines tested (U937) but blocked the viral induction of both genes in another (Namalwa). Thus, the regulatory factors required for mRNA induction of both genes are present prior to the addition of virus in U937 but not in Namalwa cells. However, in a third cell line (JY), cycloheximide blocked viral induction of the interferon β gene but not the TNF-α gene. Taken together, these observations suggest that viral induction of TNF-α and interferon β gene expression may involve overlapping pathways with both common and distinct regulatory factors

  11. N-terminal truncation of the dopamine transporter abolishes phorbol ester- and substance P receptor-stimulated phosphorylation without impairing transporter internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Charlotta; Ferrer, Jasmine; Loland, Claus Juul

    2003-01-01

    The structural basis of phosphorylation and its putative role in internalization were investigated in the human dopamine transporter (hDAT). Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) was achieved either directly by treatment with 4-alpha-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or by activating the Galpha...

  12. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  13. Dissociation of bradykinin-induced prostaglandin formation from phosphatidylinositol turnover in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts: evidence for G protein regulation of phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, R.M.; Axelrod, J.

    1987-01-01

    In Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts bradykinin stimulated inositol phosphate (InsP) formation and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) synthesis. The EC 50 values for stimulation of PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation by bradykinin were similar, 200 pM and 275 pM, respectively. Guanosine-5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate stimulated PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation, and guanosine-5'-[β-thio]diphosphate inhibited both PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation stimulated by bradykinin. Neither bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis nor InsP formation was sensitive to pertussis toxin. Phorbol ester, dexamethasone, and cycloheximide distinguished between bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate enhanced bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis but inhibited bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. Pretreatment of cells with dexamethasone for 24 hr inhibited bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis but was without effect on bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. Cycloheximide inhibited on bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. When bradykinin was added to cells prelabeled with [ 3 H] choline, the phospholipase A 2 products lysophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphocholine were generated. The data suggest that bradykinin receptors are coupled by GTP-binding proteins to both phospholipase C and phospholipase A 2 and that phospholipase A 2 is the enzyme that catalyzes release of arachidonate for prostaglandin synthesis

  14. Increased expression of interleukin-1β in triglyceride-induced macrophage cell death is mediated by p38 MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ho Joong; Son, Sin Jee; Yang, Seung-ju; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Yoon Suk

    2012-07-01

    Triglycerides (TG) are implicated in the development of atherosclerosis through formation of foam cells and induction of macrophage cell death. In this study, we report that addition of exogenous TG induced cell death in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated THP-1 human macrophages. TG treatment induced a dramatic decrease in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule remained unchanged. To identify signaling pathways involved in TG-induced downregulation of IL-1β, we added p38 MAPK, protein kinase C (PKC) or c-Raf1 specific inhibitors. We found that inhibition of p38 MAPK alleviated the TG-induced downregulation of IL-1β, whereas inhibition of PKC and c-Raf1 had no effect. This is the first report showing decreased IL-1β expression during TG-induced cell death in a human macrophage line. Our results suggest that downregulation of IL-1β expression by TG-treated macrophages may play a role during atherogenesis.

  15. Down-regulation of protein kinase C protects cerebellar granule neurons in primary culture from glutamate-induced neuronal death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaron, M.; Manev, H.; Bertolino, M.; Szekely, A.M.; DeErausquin, G.; Guidotti, A.; Costa, E.; Siman, R.

    1990-01-01

    Exposing primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons to 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 24 hr decreases the Ca 2+ /phosphatidylserine/diolein-dependent protein kinase C. Immunoblot analysis of the homogenates with polyclonal antibodies raised against either the β-type PKC peptide or total rat brain PKC reveals a virtual loss of 78-kDa PKC immunoreactivity in the supernatant and marked decrease of PKC immunoreactivity in the pellet. Exposure of the cultures to 50 μM glutamate for 15 min (no Mg 2+ ) induces the translocation of supernatant PKC immunoreactivity to the pellet. PMA-induced down-regulation of PKC decreases glutamate-elicited neurotoxicity. Yet, the culture exposure to 100 nM PMA fails to decrease the high-affinity binding of [ 3 H]glutamate to neuronal membranes and does not reduce glutamate-induced activation of ionotropic or metabolotropic receptors (assayed as total membrane current measured in whole-cell voltage-clamped neurons, 45 Ca 2+ uptake in intact monolayers, inositolphospholipid hydrolysis, and transcriptional activation and translation of c-fos mRNA). On the other hand, PMA-induced PKC down-regulation reduces any increase in 45 Ca 2+ uptake or Ca 2+ -dependent proteolysis after glutamate withdrawal. These results support the view that PKC translocation is operative in glutamate-induced destabilization of cytosolic ionized Ca 2+ homeostasis and neuronal death

  16. PMA Induces Vaccine Adjuvant Activity by the Modulation of TLR Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dool-Ri Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands are being developed for use as vaccine adjuvants and as immunomodulators because of their ability to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Flagellin, a TLR5 ligand, was reported to show potent mucosal vaccine adjuvant activity. To identify ligands that potentiate the adjuvant activity of flagellin, we screened a plant library using HEK293T cells transiently cotransfected with phTLR5 and pNF-κB-SEAP plasmids. The 90% EtOH extract from Croton tiglium showed significant NF-κB transactivation in a TLR5-independent manner along with the increase of a flagellin activity. We have studied to characterize an active component from Croton tiglium and to elucidate the action mechanisms. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA was isolated as an active component of Croton tiglium by activity-guided fractionation, column chromatography, HPLC, NMR, and MS. PMA at a range of nM induced PKC-dependent NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in both TLR5− and TLR5+ assay systems. In in vivo mouse vaccination model, PMA induced antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses and increased IL-12 production corresponding to T cell responses in spleen lymphocytes. These results suggest that PMA would serve as an efficacious mucosal vaccine adjuvant.

  17. Protein phosphorylation in pancreatic islets induced by 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pek, S.B.; Usami, Masaru; Bilir, N.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, Tetsufumi

    1990-01-01

    The authors have shown previously that 3-phosphoglycerate, which is a glycolytic metabolite of glucose, induces protein phosphorylation in bovine and rat brain and in rat heart, kidney, liver, lung, and whole pancreas. Since glycolytic metabolism of glucose is of paramount importance in insulin release, they considered the possibility that 3-phosphoglycerate may act as a coupling factor, and they searched for evidence for the existence of 3-phosphoglycerate-dependent protein phosphorylation systems in freshly isolated normal rat pancreatic islets. Membrane and cytosol fractions were incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP and appropriate test substances and were subjected to NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and autoradiography. As little as 0.005 mM 3-phosphoglycerate or 2-phosphoglycerate stimulated the phosphorylation of 65-kDa cytosol protein by as early as 0.25 min. The phosphate bond of the 65-kDa phosphoprotein was sufficiently stable to withstand dialysis; the radioactivity could not be chased out by subsequent exposure to ATP, ADP, 3-phosphoglycerate, or 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Moreover, cAMP, cGMP, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or calcium failed to stimulate the phosphorylation of the 65-kDa protein. Phosphoglycerate-dependent protein phosphorylation in islets may have relevance to stimulation of insulin secretion

  18. Tetrandrine suppresses pro-inflammatory mediators in PMA plus A23187-induced HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; An, Hyeon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Su-Hyun; Seo, Yun-Soo; Joung, Dae-Ki; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shin, Dong-Won; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2014-05-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from the root of Stephania tetrandra, is known to possess antitumor activity in various malignant neoplasms. However, the precise mechanism of TET-mediated immune modulation remains to be clarified. One of the possible mechanisms for its protective properties is by downregulation of the inflammatory responses. In the present study, the human mast cell line (HMC-1) was used to investigate this effect. TET significantly inhibited the induction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Moreover, TET attenuated expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. In activated HMC-1 cells, the phosphorylation of extra-signal response kinase (ERK1/2) and c-jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK1/2), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, was decreased by treatment of the cells with TET. TET inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, IκB degradation and phosphorylation. Furthermore, TET suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6 and COX-2 through suppression of the ERK1/2, JNK1/2, IκBα degradation and phosphorylation, and NF-κB activation. These results indicated that TET exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  19. Wnt1 Participates in Inflammation Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Through Upregulating Scavenger Receptor A and NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenting; Sun, Zewei; Wang, Shuai; Li, Zhenwei; Zheng, Liangrong

    2015-08-01

    The study investigated the role of wnt1 in the inflammatory response initiated by lipolysaccharide (LPS), and analyzed the association between wnt1, NF-KB, and inflammatory factors. THP-1 cells were activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and treated with LPS to induce inflammation. THP-1 cells were transfected with wnt1siRNA and overexpression plasmid to explore the relationship among wnt1, SRA, and NF-KB. Inhibitor of β-catenin and siRNA of FZD1were used to investigate the signaling events involved in SRA activation induced by wnt1. Levels of NF-kB protein and inflammatory cytokines were assessed followingwnt1 siRNA and LPS treatment. PMA activation and LPS treatment of THP-1 cells increased wnt1 protein levels. Wnt1 promoted SRA expression through activation of canonical wnt pathway. Wnt1 increased NF-kB protein levels and enhanced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS through binding to SRA. These findings suggest that wnt1 increased SRA and NF-kB protein levels and participated in the inflammatory response.

  20. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Chou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements.

  1. Veronicastrum axillare Alleviates Ethanol-Induced Injury on Gastric Epithelial Cells via Downregulation of the NF-kB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-chun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We used human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 line in an ethanol-induced cell damage model to study the protective effect of Veronicastrum axillare and its modulation to NF-κB signal pathway. The goal was to probe the molecular mechanism of V. axillare decoction in the prevention of gastric ulcer and therefore provide guidance in the clinical application of V. axillare on treating injuries from chronic nephritis, pleural effusion, gastric ulcer, and other ailments. The effects of V. axillare-loaded serums on cell viability were detected by MTT assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Real-Time PCR methods were used to analyze the protein and mRNA expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, IκBα, and IKKβ. The results showed that V. axillare-loaded serum partially reversed the damaging effects of ethanol and NF-κB activator (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate: PMA and increased cell viability. The protein and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, NF-κB, IκBα, and IKKβ were significantly upregulated by ethanol and PMA while they were downregulated by V. axillare-loaded serum. In summary, V. axillare-loaded serum has significantly protective effect on GES-1 against ethanol-induced injury. The protective effect was likely linked to downregulation of TNF-α based NF-κB signal pathway.

  2. Presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous acetylcholine release induced by adenosine at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Silvana; Veggetti, Mariela; Muchnik, Salomón; Losavio, Adriana

    2004-05-01

    1. At the mouse neuromuscular junction, adenosine (AD) and the A(1) agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyl-adenosine (CCPA) induce presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous acetylcholine (ACh) release by activation of A(1) AD receptors through a mechanism that is still unknown. To evaluate whether the inhibition is mediated by modulation of the voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) associated with tonic secretion (L- and N-type VDCCs), we measured the miniature end-plate potential (mepp) frequency in mouse diaphragm muscles. 2. Blockade of VDCCs by Cd(2+) prevented the effect of the CCPA. Nitrendipine (an L-type VDCC antagonist) but not omega-conotoxin GVIA (an N-type VDCC antagonist) blocked the action of CCPA, suggesting that the decrease in spontaneous mepp frequency by CCPA is associated with an action on L-type VDCCs only. 3. As A(1) receptors are coupled to a G(i/o) protein, we investigated whether the inhibition of PKA or the activation of PKC is involved in the presynaptic inhibition mechanism. Neither N-(2[p-bromocinnamylamino]-ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89, a PKA inhibitor), nor 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methyl-piperazine (H-7, a PKC antagonist), nor phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PHA, a PKC activator) modified CCPA-induced presynaptic inhibition, suggesting that these second messenger pathways are not involved. 4. The effect of CCPA was eliminated by the calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexil)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W-7) and by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester epsilon6TDelta-BM, which suggests that the action of CCPA to modulate L-type VDCCs may involve Ca(2+)-calmodulin. 5. To investigate the action of CCPA on diverse degrees of nerve terminal depolarization, we studied its effect at different external K(+) concentrations. The effect of CCPA on ACh secretion evoked by 10 mm K(+) was prevented by the P/Q-type VDCC antagonist omega-agatoxin IVA. 6. CCPA failed to

  3. Protein Kinase C is a Mediator of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Vascular Suppression in the Rat Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    vascular suppression. INTRODUCTION activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. or exposure to 20c% Cardiovascular tissue from septic animals shows...15 nun at ll’C). The supernatanut tra~s recovered and (Escltsric/tiui ictu LPS serouvpe 1155:B5i) wNas obtained fromt Difeo.Dto.Ml estr ~ieted threLe

  4. Inhibition of protein kinase CbetaII increases glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through elevated expression of glucose transporter 1 at the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Remko R.; Bazuine, Merlijn; Wake, Michelle M.; Span, Paul N.; Olthaar, André J.; Schürmann, Annette; Maassen, J. Antonie; Hermus, Ad R. M. M.; Willems, Peter H. G. M.; Sweep, C. G. J.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism via which diacylglycerol-sensitive protein kinase Cs (PKCs) stimulate glucose transport in insulin-sensitive tissues is poorly defined. Phorbol esters, such as phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), are potent activators of conventional and novel PKCs. Addition of PMA increases the

  5. Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%–99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%–92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%–96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs. PMID:24504029

  6. A combination of proteomics, principal component analysis and transcriptomics is a powerful tool for the identification of biomarkers for macrophage maturation in the U937 cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Bijlsma, S.; Groene, E.M. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Greef, J. van der; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    The monocyte-like human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 can be induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to undergo differentiation into a macrophage-like phenotype. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), oligonucleotide microarrays and principal component analysis (PCA)

  7. Coordinate regulation of stromelysin and collagenase genes determined with cDNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, S.M.; Clark, E.J.; Werb, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Secreted proteinases are required for tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling during wound healing and embryonic growth. Thus, the regulation of the genes of secreted proteinases may serve as an interesting model for growth-controlled genes in general. The authors studied the genes of the secreted proteinases stromelysin and collagenase by using molecularly cloned cDNAs from each proteinase. Stromelysin cDNA was cloned by differential screening of a total cDNA library from rabbit synovial cells treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which yielded a clone of 1.2 kilobase pairs; collagenase cDNA was obtained by cloning reverse transcripts of anti-collagenase-immunoadsorbed polysomal mRNA, which yielded a clone of 0.8 kilobase pairs. Stromelysin and collagenase mRNA species of 2.2 and 2.4 kilobases, respectively, were detected on hybridization blots of RNA from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated but not untreated rabbit synovial cells. Expression of stromelysin mRNA was also induced in rabbit alveolar macrophages and rabbit brain capillary endothelial cells treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Stromelysin and collagenase mRNA were both induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and cytochalasin B at a constant ratio of the two gene products; this suggest coordinate regulation. The fact that induction was blocked after inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide implicates an indirect signal transduction pathway that requires new protein synthesis

  8. Signals involved in T cell activation. I. Phorbol esters enhance responsiveness but cannot replace intact accessory cells in the induction of mitogen-stimulated T cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The role of accessory cells (AC) in the initiation of mitogen-induced T cell proliferation was examined by comparing the effect of intact macrophages (M phi) with that of 4-β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In high-density cultures, purified guinea pig T cells failed to proliferate in response to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), or PMA alone. The addition of M phi to PHA or Con A but not PMA-stimulated cultures restored T cell proliferation. The addition of PMA to high-density T cell cultures stimulated with PHA or Con A also permitted [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, but was less effective than intact M phi in this regard. This action of PMA was dependent on the small number of Ac contaminating the T cell cultures as evidenced by the finding that PMA could not support mitogen responsiveness of T cells that had been depleted of Ia-bearing cells by panning, even when these cells were cultured at high density. A low-density culture system was used to examine in greater detail the possibility that PMA could completely substitute for M phi in promoting T cells activation. In low-density cultures, mitogen-induced T cell proliferation required intact M phi. These results support a model of T cell activation in which AC play at least two distinct roles. The initiation of the response requires a signal conveyed by an intact M phi, which cannot be provided by either a M phi supernatant factor or PMA. The response can be amplified by additional M phi or M phi supernatant factors. PMA can substitute for M phi in this regard and can provide the signal necessary for amplification of T cell proliferation supported by small numbers of intact AC

  9. Regulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in insulinoma cells: Activation by somatostatin and protein kinase C and the role of cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Weille, J.R.; Schmid-Antomarchi, H.; Fosset, M.; Lazdunski, M.

    1989-01-01

    The actions of somatostatin and of the phorbol ester 4β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were studied in rat insulinoma (RINm5F) cells by electrophysiological and 86 Rb + flux techniques. Both PMA and somatostatin hyperpolarize insulinoma cells by activating ATP-sensitive K + channels. The presence of intracellular GTP is required for the somatostatin effects. PMA- and somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization and channel activity are inhibited by the sulfonylurea glibenclamide. Glibenclamide-sensitive 86 Rb + efflux from insulinoma cells is stimulated by somatostatin in a dose-dependent manner (half maximal effect at 0.7 nM) and abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. Mutual roles of a GTP-binding protein, of protein kinase C, and of cAMP in the regulation of ATP-sensitive K + channels are discussed

  10. Basal and inducible anti-inflammatory epoxygenase activity in endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, Ara A. [Barts and the London, Queen Mary University, London (United Kingdom); Thomson, Scott [Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, London (United Kingdom); Edin, Matthew L.; Lih, Fred B.; Zeldin, Darryl C. [Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bishop-Bailey, David, E-mail: dbishopbailey@rvc.ac.uk [Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • We examined epoxygenase product formation and regulation in endothelial cells. • The epoxygenase CYP2J2 is an LPS (TLR-4) inducible enzyme in endothelial cells. • The endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 synthesises epoxygenase products. • Inhibition of endothelial epoxygenases increases TNFα secretion. • Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors reduce inflammation-induced TNFα and NFκB. - Abstract: The roles of CYP lipid-metabolizing pathways in endothelial cells are poorly understood. Human endothelial cells expressed CYP2J2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) mRNA and protein. The TLR-4 agonist LPS (1 μg/ml; 24 h) induced CYP2J2 but not sEH mRNA and protein. LC–MS/MS analysis of the stable commonly used human endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 showed active epoxygenase and epoxide hydrolase activity: with arachidonic acid (stable epoxide products 5,6-DHET, and 14,15-DHET), linoleic acid (9,10-EPOME and 12,13-EPOME and their stable epoxide hydrolase products 9,10-DHOME and 12,13-DHOME), docosahexaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 19,20-DiHDPA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 17,18-DHET) being formed. Inhibition of epoxygenases using either SKF525A or MS-PPOH induced TNFα release, but did not affect LPS, IL-1β, or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced TNFα release. In contrast, inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by AUDA or TPPU inhibited basal, LPS, IL-1β and PMA induced TNFα release, and LPS-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, human endothelial cells contain a TLR-4 regulated epoxygenase CYP2J2 and metabolize linoleic acid > eicosapentaenoic acid > arachidonic acid > docosahexaenoic acid to products with anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. PMA synergistically enhances apicularen A-induced cytotoxicity by disrupting microtubule networks in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kang-Sik; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Kim, Jong-Seok; Park, Ji-Hoon; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Yun, Eun-Jin; Park, Jong-Il; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Yoon, Wan-Hee; Lim, Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Combination therapy is key to improving cancer treatment efficacy. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a well-known PKC activator, increases the cytotoxicity of several anticancer drugs. Apicularen A induces cytotoxicity in tumor cells through disrupting microtubule networks by tubulin down-regulation. In this study, we examined whether PMA increases apicularen A-induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. Cell viability was examined by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium (MTT) assays. To investigate apoptotic potential of apicularen A, DNA fragmentation assays were performed followed by extracting genomic DNA, and caspase-3 activity assays were performed by fluorescence assays using fluorogenic substrate. The cell cycle distribution induced by combination with PMA and apicularen A was examined by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide (PI). The expression levels of target proteins were measured by Western blotting analysis using specific antibodies, and α-tubulin mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To examine the effect of combination of PMA and apicularen A on the microtubule architecture, α-tubulin protein and nuclei were visualized by immunofluorescence staining using an anti-α-tubulin antibody and PI, respectively. We found that apicularen A induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HeLa cells. PMA synergistically increased cytotoxicity and apoptotic sub-G 1 population induced by apicularen A. These effects were completely blocked by the PKC inhibitors Ro31-8220 and Go6983, while caspase inhibition by Z-VAD-fmk did not prevent cytotoxicity. RNA interference using siRNA against PKCα, but not PKCβ and PKCγ, inhibited cytotoxicity induced by combination PMA and apicularen A. PMA increased the apicularen A-induced disruption of microtubule networks by further decreasing α- and β-tubulin protein levels in a PKC-dependent manner. These results suggest that the synergy between PMA and apicularen A is involved by

  12. The investigation of minoxidil-induced [Ca2+]irises and non-Ca2+-triggered cell death in PC3 human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Shu; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Chen, Fu-An; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2017-02-01

    Minoxidil is clinically used to prevent hair loss. However, its effect on Ca 2+ homeostasis in prostate cancer cells is unclear. This study explored the effect of minoxidil on cytosolic-free Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and cell viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Minoxidil at concentrations between 200 and 800 μM evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. This Ca 2+ signal was inhibited by 60% by removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ influx was confirmed by Mn 2+ -induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Pre-treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X, PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), nifedipine and SKF96365 inhibited minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ signal in Ca 2+ containing medium by 60%. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pump inhibitor 2,5-ditert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) in Ca 2+ -free medium abolished minoxidil-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Conversely, treatment with minoxidil abolished BHQ-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished minoxidil-evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Overnight treatment with minoxidil killed cells at concentrations of 200-600 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca 2+ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent minoxidil's cytotoxicity. Together, in PC3 cells, minoxidil induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises that involved Ca 2+ entry through PKC-regulated store-operated Ca 2+ channels and PLC-dependent Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Minoxidil-induced cytotoxicity in a Ca 2+ -independent manner.

  13. Human chorionic gonadotropin induces human macrophages to form intracytoplasmic vacuoles mimicking Hofbauer cells in human chorionic villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Munekage; Ohba, Takashi; Tashiro, Hironori; Yamada, Gen; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2013-01-01

    The most characteristic morphological feature of macrophages in the stroma of placental villi, known as Hofbauer cells, is their highly vacuolated appearance. They also show positive immunostaining for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and express messenger ribonucleic acid of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor with a deletion of exon 9 (LH/CG-R Δ9). Maternal hCG enters fetal plasma through the mesenchyme of the placental villi and promotes male sexual differentiation in early pregnancy; therefore, excess hCG may induce aberrant genital differentiation and hCG must be adjusted at the fetomaternal interface. We hypothesized that hCG is regulated by Hofbauer cells and that their peculiar vacuoles are involved in a cell-specific function. To assess the morphological modification and expression of LH/CG-R Δ9 in human macrophages after hCG exposure, the present study examined phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cells, a human monocyte-macrophage cell line. hCG induced transient vacuole formation in PMA-treated THP-1 cells, morphologically mimicking Hofbauer cells. Immunocytochemistry showed that PMA-treated THP-1 cells incorporated hCG but not luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone. Western blotting analyses demonstrated that PMA-treated THP-1 cells expressed an immunoreactive 60-kDa protein, designated as endogenous LH/CG-R Δ9. hCG induced a transient reduction in the LH/CG-R Δ9, which was synchronous with the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles. In conclusion, human macrophages regulating hCG via cytoplasmic LH/CG-R Δ9 mimic the morphological characteristics of Hofbauer cells. Their vacuoles may be associated with their cell-specific function to protect the fetus from exposure to excess maternal hCG during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Alterations in polyamine levels induced by phorbol diesters and other agents that promote differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, E.; Weeks, C.; Herrmann, A.; Callaham, M.; Slaga, T.

    1981-02-01

    Polyamine levels were evaluated in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells after treatment with inducers of terminal differentiation. Differentiation in these cells was determined by increases in the percentage of morphologically mature cells and in lysozyme activity. Treatment of the HL-60 cells with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate or other inducers of terminal differentiation such as dimethylsulfoxide and retinoic acid resulted in increased levels of putrescine. However, no increase in putrescine could be detected after PMA treatment of a HL-60 cell variant that exhibited a decreased susceptibility to PMA-induced terminal differentiation. Similarly, no increase in putrescine was observed with two nontumor-promoters (phorbol 12,13-diacetate and 4-O-methyl-PMA) or with anthralin, a non-phorbol tumor promoter. In addition to enhancing putrescine levels, PMA also increased the amount of spermidine and decreased the amount of spermine. The increase in putrescine and spermidine preceded the expression of the various differentiation markers. Unlike the changes observed in the polyamine levels after PMA treatment, the activities of ornithine and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases, which are polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, did not significantly change. ..cap alpha..-Methylornithine and ..cap alpha..-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), which are inhibitors of the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, did not affect differentiation in control or PMA-treated cells. Because of these observations, we suggest that the change in polyamine levels involve biochemical pathways other than the known biosynthetic ones. By-products of these pathways may perhaps be the controlling factors involved in the induction of terminal differentiation in the HL-60 and other cell types as well.

  15. Effects of maturation-inducing hormone on heterologous gap junctional coupling in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, G.; Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Bolamba, D.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2001-01-01

    A previous ultrastructural study of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) gap junction (GJ) contacts in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker suggested that these contacts disappear late during the process of resumption of oocyte meiosis. This observation suggested that, unlike scenarios proposed for a number of other species, uncoupling of GJ is not necessary for the onset of meiotic resumption in croaker follicles. However, the functionality of heterologous GJ contacts and the temporal association between maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-induced changes in heterologous coupling and resumption of oocyte meiosis have not been examined in Atlantic croaker. These questions were addressed with a cell-cell coupling assay that is based on the transfer of a GJ marker, Lucifer Yellow, from oocytes to granulosa cells. Follicle-enclosed oocytes injected with Lucifer Yellow allowed transfer of the dye into the follicle cell layer, thus confirming that there is functional heterologous coupling between the oocyte and the granulosa cells. Dye transfer was observed in vitellogenic, full-grown/maturation-incompetent, and full-grown /maturation-competent follicles. Treatment of maturation-competent follicles with MIH caused a time-dependent decline in the number of follicles transferring dye. However, although GJ uncoupling in some of the follicles was observed before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD, index of meiotic resumption), about 50% of the follicles maintained the ability to transfer dye even after GVBD had occurred. Further, a known GJ inhibitor (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) blocked heterologous GJ within a time frame similar to that seen with MIH but without inducing any of the morphological changes (including GVBD) associated with follicular maturation. In conclusion, uncoupling of heterologous GJ seems insufficient and unnecessary for the onset of meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science.

  16. Resveratrol Targeting of Carcinogen-Induced Brain Endothelial Cell Inflammation Biomarkers MMP-9 and COX-2 is Sirt1-Independent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhane Annabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a functional relationship between the release of metalloproteinases (MMPs and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2, two inducible pro-inflammatory biomarkers with important pro-angiogenic effects, has recently been inferred. While brain endothelial cells play an essential role as structural and functional components of the blood-brain barrier (BBB, increased BBB breakdown is thought to be linked to neuroinflammation. Chemopreventive mechanisms targeting both MMPs and COX-2 however remain poorly investigated. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacological targeting of Sirt1 by the diet-derived and antiinflammatory polyphenol resveratrol. Total RNA, cell lysates, and conditioned culture media from human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC were analyzed using qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, and zymography respectively. Tissue scan microarray analysis of grade I–IV brain tumours cDNA revealed increased gene expression of Sirt-1 from grade I–III but surprisingly not in grade IV brain tumours. HBMEC were treated with a combination of resveratrol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a carcinogen known to increase MMP-9 and COX-2 through NF-κB. We found that resveratrol efficiently reversed the PMA-induced MMP-9 secretion and COX-2 expression. Gene silencing of Sirt1, a critical modulator of angiogenesis and putative target of resveratrol, did not lead to significant reversal of MMP-9 and COX-2 inhibition. Decreased resveratrol inhibitory potential of carcinogen-induced IκB phosphorylation in siSirt1-transfected HBMEC was however observed. Our results suggest that resveratrol may prevent BBB disruption during neuroinflammation by inhibiting MMP-9 and COX-2 and act as a pharmacological NF-κB signal transduction inhibitor independent of Sirt1.

  17. Curcumin-induced inhibition of cellular reactive oxygen species generation: novel therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanyam, M; Koteswari, A Adaikala; Kumar, R Sampath; Monickaraj, S Finny; Maheswari, J Uma; Mohan, V

    2003-12-01

    There is evidence for increased levels of circulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetics, as indirectly inferred by the findings of increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant status. Direct measurements of intracellular generation of ROS using fluorescent dyes also demonstrate an association of oxidative stress with diabetes. Although phenolic compounds attenuate oxidative stress-related tissue damage, there are concerns over toxicity of synthetic phenolic antioxidants and this has considerably stimulated interest in investigating the role of natural phenolics in medicinal applications. Curcumin (the primary active principle in turmeric, Curcuma longa Linn.) has been claimed to represent a potential antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent with phytonutrient and bioprotective properties. However there are lack of molecular studies to demonstrate its cellular action and potential molecular targets. In this study the antioxidant effect of curcumin as a function of changes in cellular ROS generation was tested. Our results clearly demonstrate that curcumin abolished both phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA) and thapsigargin-induced ROS generation in cells from control and diabetic subjects. The pattern of these ROS inhibitory effects as a function of dose-dependency suggests that curcumin mechanistically interferes with protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium regulation. Simultaneous measurements of ROS and Ca2+ influx suggest that a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ may be a trigger for increased ROS generation. We suggest that the antioxidant and antiangeogenic actions of curcumin, as a mechanism of inhibition of Ca2+ entry and PKC activity, should be further exploited to develop suitable and novel drugs for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic complications.

  18. 9,10-phenanthrenequinone induces monocytic differentiation of U937 cells through regulating expression of aldo-keto reductase 1C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Hosogai, Mika; Arakaki, Marina; Endo, Satoshi; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Persistent inhalation of diesel exhaust particles results in damaged lung cells through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the details of the toxicity mechanism against monocytes are poorly understood. In this study, we used human promyelomonocytic U937 cells as surrogates of monocytes and investigated the toxicity mechanism initiated by exposure to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone component in diesel exhaust particles. A 24-h incubation with 9,10-PQ provoked apoptotic cell death, which was due to signaling through the enhanced ROS generation and concomitant caspase activation. Flow cytometric analyses of U937 cells after long-term exposure to 9,10-PQ revealed induction of differentiation that was evidenced by increasing expression of CD11b/CD18, a cell-surface marker for monocytic differentiation into macrophages. The 9,10-PQ-induced differentiation was significantly abolished by ROS inhibitors, suggesting that ROS generation contributes to cell differentiation. The 9,10-PQ treatment increased the expression of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3, which reached a peak at 1 to 2 d post-treatment and then declined. The bell-shaped curve of the AKR1C3 expression by 9,10-PQ resembled that caused by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a differentiation inducer. Additionally, the concomitant treatment with tolfenamic acid, a selective AKR1C3 inhibitor, sensitized the differentiation induced by 9,10-PQ. These results suggest that ROS formation during 9,10-PQ treatment acutely leads to apoptosis of U937 cells and the initiation of monocytic differentiation, which proceeds after the provisional overexpression of AKR1C3.

  19. Activation of p44/42 MAPK plays a role in the TBT-induced loss of human natural killer (NK) cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudimah, Fred D; Griffey, Denisha; Wang, Xiaofei; Whalen, Margaret M

    2010-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells destroy (lyse) tumor cells, virally infected cells, and antibody-coated cells. Previous studies indicated that exposure to the environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT) decreases the lytic function of NK cells and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), including p44/42 (Aluoch and Whalen Toxicology 209:263-277, 2005). If activation of p44/42 is required for TBT-induced decreases of lytic function, then activation of p44/42 to similar extents by pharmacological agents such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) should mimic to some extent changes induced in NK cells with TBT exposures. NK cells were exposed to PMA concentrations between 0.25 and 10 nM for 10 min, 1 h, and 6 h before determining the lytic function ((51)Cr release assay) and phosphorylation state of MAPKs (Western blot). A 1-h exposure of NK cells to 5 nM PMA resulted in a loss of lytic function of 47%. Western blot analysis showed that a 1-h exposure to 5 nM PMA caused a sixfold increase in phospho-p44/42 levels. Previous studies showed a fivefold increase in phospho-p44/42 in response to a 1-h exposure to 300 nM TBT. Exposure to 300 nM TBT caused about a 40% decrease in lytic function. This study supports the hypothesis that p44/42 activation (as seen with TBT exposures) can cause a loss of NK-cell lytic function.

  20. Doxycycline ameliorates 2K-1C hypertension-induced vascular dysfunction in rats by attenuating oxidative stress and improving nitric oxide bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Michele M; Rizzi, Elen; Ceron, Carla S; Guimaraes, Danielle A; Rodrigues, Gerson J; Bendhack, Lusiane M; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose Eduardo

    2012-03-31

    Vascular dysfunction associated with two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertension may result from both altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Doxycycline is considering the most potent MMP inhibitor of tetracyclines and attenuates 2K-1C hypertension-induced high blood pressure and chronic vascular remodeling. Doxycycline might also act as a ROS scavenger and this may contribute to the amelioration of some cardiovascular diseases associated with increased concentrations of ROS. We hypothesized that in addition to its MMP inhibitory effect, doxycycline attenuates oxidative stress and improves nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in 2K-1C hypertension, thus improving hypertension-induced arterial endothelial dysfunction. Sham operated or 2K-1C hypertensive rats were treated with doxycycline 30 mg/kg/day (or vehicle). After 8 weeks of treatment, aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium dependent vasorelaxation to A23187. Arterial and systemic levels of ROS were respectively measured using dihydroethidine (DHE) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Neutrophils-derived ROS were tested in vitro using the fluoroprobe Carboxy-H(2)DCFDA and human neutrophils stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). NO levels were assessed in rat aortic endothelial cells by confocal microscopy. Aortic MMP activity was determined by in situ zymography. Doxycycline attenuated 2K-1C hypertension (169 ± 17.3 versus 209 ± 10.9mm Hg in hypertensive controls, poxidative stress (poxidative stress generation and improving NO bioavailability, in addition to its inhibitory effects on MMP activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alterations in macrophage cellular proteome induced by calcium oxalate crystals: the association of HSP90 and F-actin is important for phagosome formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhto, Nilubon; Sintiprungrat, Kitisak; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2013-08-02

    The presence of macrophages in renal interstitium is the key feature of progressive renal inflammation in kidney stone disease. However, response of macrophages to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stone, remained unclear. This study aimed to investigate alterations in the cellular proteome of macrophages induced by COM crystals using a proteomics approach. U937-derived macrophages (by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate activation) were incubated without or with 100 μg/mL COM crystals for 24 h. Their cellular proteins were resolved by 2-DE (n = 10 gels; 5 were derived from 5 independent cultures in each group) and visualized with Deep Purple fluorescent dye. Spot matching, quantitative intensity analysis, and statistics revealed 18 differentially expressed protein spots, which were successfully identified by Q-TOF MS and MS/MS analyses. The altered levels of α-tubulin, β-actin and ezrin were validated by Western blot analysis. Protein interaction network analysis using STRING software showed that 90 kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) was associated with β-actin and α-tubulin (all these three proteins were increased in the COM-treated macrophages). Multiple immunofluorescence stainings confirmed the associations of HSP90 with filamentous form of actin (F-actin) and α-tubulin. However, only the association between HSP90 and F-actin was found on the phagosome membrane surrounding COM crystal, indicating that the association of HSP90 with F-actin, but not with α-tubulin, is important for phagosome formation. Silencing of HSP90 (siHSP90) reduced expression of cytoskeletal proteins and phagosome marker (Rab5) and successfully diminished COM crystal-induced phagocytosis and migration of macrophages. Our findings enlightened the significant role of these altered proteins, especially HSP90, in enhanced phagocytic activity of the COM-exposed macrophages.

  2. Flavonoids targeting of IκB phosphorylation abrogates carcinogen-induced MMP-9 and COX-2 expression in human brain endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahanian E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Tahanian¹, Luis Arguello Sanchez¹, Tze Chieh Shiao², René Roy², Borhane Annabi¹¹Centre de Recherche BioMED, ²Centre de Recherche PharmaQAM, Département de chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Brain endothelial cells play an essential role as structural and functional components of the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Increased BBB breakdown and brain injury are associated with neuroinflammation and are thought to trigger mechanisms involving matrix metalloproteinase upregulation. Emerging evidence also indicates that cyclooxygenase (COX inhibition limits BBB disruption, but the mechanisms linking metalloproteinase to COX remain unknown. In this study, we sought to investigate the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway, a common pathway in both the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and COX-2 expression, and the inhibitory properties of several chemopreventive flavonoids. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells were treated with a combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a carcinogen documented to increase MMP-9 and COX-2 through NF-κB, and several naturally occurring flavonoids. Among the molecules tested, we found that fisetin, apigenin, and luteolin specifically and dose-dependently antagonized PMA-induced COX-2 and MMP-9 gene and protein expressions as assessed by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, and zymography respectively. We further demonstrate that flavonoids impact on IκK-mediated phosphorylation activity as demonstrated by the inhibition of PMA-induced IκB phosphorylation levels. Our results suggest that BBB disruption during neuroinflammation could be pharmacologically reduced by a specific class of flavonoids acting as NF-κB signal transduction inhibitors.Keywords: blood–brain barrier, flavonoids, neuroinflammation, NF-κB signal transduction inhibitors

  3. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Pittosporum mannii Hook on CFA-induced persistent inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandji, Bibiane Aimée; Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît

    2018-02-01

    Previous study showed that aqueous (AEPM) and methanol (MEPM) extracts from the leaves of Pittosporum mannii have analgesic effects in acute pain models. The present study evaluates the acute and chronic anti-hypernociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of AEPM and MEPM in a model of persistent inflammatory pain. The third day after induction of inflammatory pain by subplantar injection of 100 µL of CFA in Wistar rats, AEPM and MEPM were administered orally (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/day) and their anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were follow in acute (1-24 h) and chronic (for 14 days) treatments. At the end of the chronic treatment, oxidative stress and liver parameters were assessed. Effects of plant extracts were also evaluated on nociception induced by Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) and 8-bromo 3',5'-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) in mice. AEPM and MEPM significantly reversed the mechanical hyperalgesia caused by CFA in acute and chronic treatment. Moreover, AEPM and MEPM also significantly reduced the nociception caused by PMA (60%) and 8-Br-cAMP (87%). Nevertheless, AEPM and MEPM failed to inhibit the paw edema caused by CFA. Plant extracts significantly reduced the nitric oxide content in the spinal cord and the plasmatic concentration of alanine aminotransferase. MEPM also significantly increased the glutathione content in the spinal cord. AEPM and MEPM given orally are effective in inhibiting mechanical hyperalgesia in persistent inflammatory pain caused by CFA. Their mechanisms of action seem to involve an interaction with PKC, PKA and nitric oxide pathways. These extracts might be devoid of hepatotoxic effects.

  4. Chrysin inhibits tumor promoter-induced MMP-9 expression by blocking AP-1 via suppression of ERK and JNK pathways in gastric cancer cells.

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    Yong Xia

    Full Text Available Cell invasion is a crucial mechanism of cancer metastasis and malignancy. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is an important proteolytic enzyme involved in the cancer cell invasion process. High expression levels of MMP-9 in gastric cancer positively correlate with tumor aggressiveness and have a significant negative correlation with patients' survival times. Recently, mechanisms suppressing MMP-9 by phytochemicals have become increasingly investigated. Chrysin, a naturally occurring chemical in plants, has been reported to suppress tumor metastasis. However, the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer have not been well studied. In the present study, we tested the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer cells, and determined its underlying mechanism. We examined the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression and activity via RT-PCR, zymography, promoter study, and western blotting in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Chrysin inhibited phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-induced MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Using AP-1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides, we confirmed that AP-1 was the crucial transcriptional factor for MMP-9 expression. Chrysin blocked AP-1 via suppression of the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos through blocking the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathways. Furthermore, AGS cells pretreated with PMA showed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by chrysin and MMP-9 antibody. Our results suggest that chrysin may exert at least part of its anticancer effect by controlling MMP-9 expression through suppression of AP-1 activity via a block of the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in gastric cancer AGS cells.

  5. Inducible CYP2J2 and its product 11,12-EET promotes bacterial phagocytosis: a role for CYP2J2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Jonas; Thomson, Scott J; Johansson, Jörgen; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Gilroy, Derek W; Smith, Andrew M; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2013-01-01

    The epoxygenase CYP2J2 has an emerging role in inflammation and vascular biology. The role of CYP2J2 in phagocytosis is not known and its regulation in human inflammatory diseases is poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of CYP2J2 in bacterial phagocytosis and its expression in monocytes from healthy controls and Crohns disease patients. CYP2J2 is anti-inflammatory in human peripheral blood monocytes. Bacterial LPS induced CYP2J2 mRNA and protein. The CYP2J2 arachidonic acid products 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET inhibited LPS induced TNFα release. THP-1 monocytes were transformed into macrophages by 48h incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Epoxygenase inhibition using a non-selective inhibitor SKF525A or a selective CYP2J2 inhibitor Compound 4, inhibited E. coli particle phagocytosis, which could be specifically reversed by 11,12-EET. Moreover, epoxygenase inhibition reduced the expression of phagocytosis receptors CD11b and CD68. CD11b also mediates L. monocytogenes phagocytosis. Similar, to E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis, epoxygenase inhibition also reduced intracellular levels of L. monocytogenes, which could be reversed by co-incubation with 11,12-EET. Disrupted bacterial clearance is a hallmark of Crohn's disease. Unlike macrophages from control donors, macrophages from Crohn's disease patients showed no induction of CYP2J2 in response to E. coli. These results demonstrate that CYP2J2 mediates bacterial phagocytosis in macrophages, and implicates a defect in the CYP2J2 pathway may regulate bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease.

  6. Inducible CYP2J2 and Its Product 11,12-EET Promotes Bacterial Phagocytosis: A Role for CYP2J2 Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Crohn’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Jonas; Thomson, Scott J.; Johansson, Jörgen; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Gilroy, Derek W.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2013-01-01

    The epoxygenase CYP2J2 has an emerging role in inflammation and vascular biology. The role of CYP2J2 in phagocytosis is not known and its regulation in human inflammatory diseases is poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of CYP2J2 in bacterial phagocytosis and its expression in monocytes from healthy controls and Crohns disease patients. CYP2J2 is anti-inflammatory in human peripheral blood monocytes. Bacterial LPS induced CYP2J2 mRNA and protein. The CYP2J2 arachidonic acid products 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET inhibited LPS induced TNFα release. THP-1 monocytes were transformed into macrophages by 48h incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Epoxygenase inhibition using a non-selective inhibitor SKF525A or a selective CYP2J2 inhibitor Compound 4, inhibited E. coli particle phagocytosis, which could be specifically reversed by 11,12-EET. Moreover, epoxygenase inhibition reduced the expression of phagocytosis receptors CD11b and CD68. CD11b also mediates L. monocytogenes phagocytosis. Similar, to E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis, epoxygenase inhibition also reduced intracellular levels of L. monocytogenes, which could be reversed by co-incubation with 11,12-EET. Disrupted bacterial clearance is a hallmark of Crohn’s disease. Unlike macrophages from control donors, macrophages from Crohn’s disease patients showed no induction of CYP2J2 in response to E. coli. These results demonstrate that CYP2J2 mediates bacterial phagocytosis in macrophages, and implicates a defect in the CYP2J2 pathway may regulate bacterial clearance in Crohn’s disease. PMID:24058654

  7. Phorbol ester and vasopressin activate phospholipase D in Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1991-01-01

    In the present study evidence is provided for the existence of phospholipase D (PLD) activity in rat Leydig cells. Leydig cells were cultured and labelled with [H]myristic acid. In the presence of ethanol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated the formation of [H]phosphatidylethanol ([H......]PEt) in a dose-dependent manner at the expense of [H]phosphatidic acid ([H]PA). In cells prelabelled with [H]choline, PMA caused a rapid increase in intracellular free [H]choline. The time course of [H]PEt formation was similar to the time course of intracellular [H]choline formation. The data taken together...

  8. Myosin IIB isoform plays an essential role in the formation of two distinct types of macropinosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jun; Kolpak, Adrianne L.; Bao, Zheng-Zheng

    2010-01-01

    The function and mechanism of macropinocytosis in cells outside of the immune system remain poorly understood. We used a neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2a, to study macropinocytosis in neuronal cells. We found phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) induced two dinstinct types of macropinocytosis in the Neuro-2a cells. IGF-1-induced macropinocytosis occurs mostly around the cell bodies and requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), while PMA-induced macr...

  9. Effects of phorbol ester and staurosporine on the actions of insulin-like growth factor-I on rat ovarian granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H; Herington, A C; Roupas, P

    1995-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is able to stimulate ovarian granulosa cell steroidogenesis induced by gonadotopins. This gonadotropin-induced potentiation of IGF-I action appears to be due, at least in part, to a gonadotropin-induced increase in membrane-bound IGF-I receptor number and/or decrease in extracellular IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Protein kinase C (PKC) has recently been reported to inhibit gonadotropin-induced steroidogenesis in rat ovarian granulosa cells. The role of PKC in the effects of IGF-I on gonadotropin action, however, is unknown. In this study, the effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a PKC activator) and staurosporine (ST, a PKC inhibitor) on IGF-I action were studied using immature rat ovarian granulosa cells. Activation of PKC by PMA did not affect steroidogenesis or cAMP secretion in cells treated with or without IGF-I. On the other hand, inhibition of PKC by ST alone (10(-9)-10(-7)m) led to an increase in progesterone production in a dose- and time-dependent manner without affecting cAMP secretion. In the presence, but not absence, of ST, IGF-I was able to stimulate progesterone production in the absence of any gonadotropin. PMA decreased ST-induced steroidogenesis and essentially abolished ST-potentiated IGF-I stimulation of steroidogenesis, suggesting the effects of ST on IGF-I action involved a PKC-dependent mechanism. Unlike gonadotropin, ST did not change IGF-I receptor binding. However, ST significantly decreased a major IGF binding protein (IGFBP, ∼30kDa) which is likely to be IGFBP-5, whereas it increased a minor IGFBP (∼24kDa) which is likely to be IGFBP-4. Both effects of ST were dose- and time-dependent. Furthermore, ST inhibited the expression of mRNA for IGFBP-5 suggesting that ST decreased IGFBP-5 levels by inhibiting its transcription and/or decreasing the stability of its mRNA. Interestingly, ST also decreased mRNA levels of IGFBP-4 despite a significant increase in secreted IGFBP-4 levels. The

  10. Atractylodin Inhibits Interleukin-6 by Blocking NPM-ALK Activation and MAPKs in HMC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Hee-Sung; Kim, Young-Mi; Chin, Young-Won

    2016-09-02

    Atractylodin is one of the major constituents of the rhizome of Atractylodes lancea, which is widely used in Korean traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcers. Despite of a major constituent of widely used botanical to treat inflammatory responses little is known about anti-inflammatory effect of atractylodin in the human mast cell (HMC-1). Hence, we evaluated the effect of atractylodin on the release of IL-6, the involvement of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and A23187-induced HMC-1. In addition, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phospholipase C (PLC) gamma 1, and AKT phosphorylation relevant to NPM-ALK signal pathway were assessed. IL-6 levels in the HMC-1 stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and A23187 were apparently decreased by the treatment of atractylodin. Concurrently, atractylodin not only inhibited the phosphorylation of NPM-ALK, but also suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, PLC gamma 1, and AKT. Furthermore, the activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and A23187 were inhibited by atractylodin. These results suggested that atractylodin might have a potential regulatory effect on inflammatory mediator expression through blockade of both the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the NPM-ALK signaling pathway.

  11. Cadmium-induced calcium release and prostaglandin E[sub 2] production in neonatal mouse calvaria are dependent on cox-2 induction and protein kinase C activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romare, A. (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Univ. of Linkoeping (Sweden)); Lundholm, C.E. (Department of Pharmacology, Univ. of Linkoeping (Sweden) Astra Haessle AB, Regulatory Affairs, Moendal (Sweden))

    The mechanisms by which cadmium (Cd) causes skeletal impairment have not been fully clarified. Release of calcium from neonatal mouse calvaria in organ culture is stimulated by submicromolar concentrations of Cd, an effect that is associated with increased production of prostaglandin E[sub 2] (PGE[sub 2]). The prostaglandin-synthesising enzyme cyclooxygenase (cox) exists in two forms, one constitutive (cox-1) and the other inducible (cox-2). Cox-2 can be induced by mitogenic stimuli and inflammatory cytokines, such as parathyroid hormone (PTH), interleukin-1[alpha] and tumour necrosis factor-[alpha]. Cd potently activates protein kinase C (PKC), which in turn induces cox-2 production in several cell types. Our aim was to determine whether Cd-induced Ca release and PGE[sub 2] production in neonatal mouse calvaria involve induction of cox-2 and, if so, to ascertain whether that effect is mediated by activation of PKC. Cd dose-dependently stimulated Ca release from cultured neonatal mouse calvaria, with a maximal effect at 0.4-0.8 [mu]M. Different sensitivity was observed to Cd-induced Ca release between two breeds of mice suggesting that the susceptibility to Cd may be genetically determined. Dexamethasone (10 [mu]M) added to the culture medium abolished the Ca releasing effect of Cd, an effect not overcome by addition of arachidonic acid (10 [mu]M). The cox-2-selective inhibitors NS-398 and DFU and the less selective inhibitor meloxicam, potently impeded Cd-induced Ca release (IC[sub 50] of 1 nM, 41 nM and 7 nM, respectively) and calvarial production of PGE[sub 2]. Cd-induced and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 20 nM)-induced Ca release was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor calphostin C (0.5 [mu]M) and by NS-398. The effects of PMA and Cd on Ca release were not additive, suggesting that both operated via the PKC pathway. We suggest that Cd-induced Ca release from neonatal mouse calvaria in culture depends on induction of cox-2 that occurs via the PKC signalling

  12. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody attenuates subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced apoptosis in the hypothalamus by inhibiting the activation of Erk

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    Ma L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ling Ma,1 Yong Jiang,2 Yanan Dong,2 Jun Gao,2 Bin Du,2 Dianwei Liu2 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH can induce apoptosis in many regions of the brain including the cortex and hippocampus. However, few studies have focused on apoptosis in the hypothalamus after SAH. Although some antiapoptotic strategies have been developed for SAH, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α antibody, the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether SAH could induce apoptosis in the hypothalamus and identify the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of anti-TNF-α antibody, as a therapeutic regimen, upon apoptosis. Materials and methods: SAH was induced in a rat model. Thirty minutes prior to SAH, anti-TNF-α antibody or U0126, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk inhibitor, was microinjected into the left lateral cerebral ventricle. In addition, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate was injected intraperitoneally immediately after the anti-TNF-α antibody microinjection. Then, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of caspase-3, bax, bcl-2, phosphorylated Erk (p-Erk and Erk. Finally, anxiety-like behavior was identified by using open field. Results: Levels of caspase-3, bax and bcl-2, all showed a temporary rise after SAH in the hypothalamus, indicating the induction of apoptosis in this brain region. Interestingly, we found that the microinjection of anti-TNF-α antibody could selectively block the elevated levels of bax, suggesting the potential role of anti-TNF-α antibody in the inhibition of SAH-induced

  13. Curcumin Represses NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R Signaling in PMA-Induced Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanqi; Ye, Bozhi; Cao, Jiatian; Cai, Xueli; Lin, Lu; Huang, Shanjun; Huang, Weijian; Huang, Zhouqing

    2016-01-01

    Aims: In the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, the pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on NLRP3 inflammasome in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism. Methods: Human monocytic THP-1 cells were pretreated with curcumin for 1 h and subsequently induced with PMA for 48 h. Total protein was collected for Western blot analysis. Cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β release and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation were detected by ELISA assay and cellular NF-κB translocation kit, respectively. Results: Curcumin significantly reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion in PMA-induced macrophages. Moreover, Bay (a NF-κB inhibitor) treatment considerably suppressed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in PMA-induced THP-1 cells. Curcumin also markedly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκB-α, and activation of NF-κB in PMA-induced macrophages. In addition, purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) siRNA was administered, and it significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome expression in PMA-induced macrophages. Furthermore, curcumin reversed PMA-stimulated P2X7R activation, which further reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion. Silencing of P2X7R using siRNA also suppressed the activation of NF-κB pathway in PMA-induced macrophages, but P2X7R-silenced cells did not significantly decrease the expression of TLR4 and MyD88. Conclusion: Curcumin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome through suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R pathways in PMA-induced macrophages.

  14. Curcumin represses NLRP3 inflammasome activation via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R signaling in PMA-induced macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanqi Kong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAims: In the NOD-like receptor (NLR family, the pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome is closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on NLRP3 inflammasome in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-induced macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism.Methods: Human monocytic THP-1 cells were pretreated with curcumin for 1 h and subsequently induced with PMA for 48 h. Total protein was collected for Western blot analysis. Cytokine interleukin (IL-1β release and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65 translocation were detected by ELISA assay and cellular NF-κB translocation kit, respectively.Results: Curcumin significantly reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion in PMA-induced macrophages. Moreover, Bay (a NF-κB inhibitor treatment considerably suppressed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in PMA-induced THP-1 cells. Curcumin also markedly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, phosphorylation level of IκB-α, and activation of NF-κB in PMA-induced macrophages. In addition, purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R siRNA was administered, and it significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome expression in PMA-induced macrophages. Furthermore, curcumin reversed PMA-stimulated P2X7R activation, which further reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion. Silencing of P2X7R using siRNA also suppressed the activation of NF-κB pathway in PMA-induced macrophages, but P2X7R-silenced cells did not significantly decrease the expression of TLR4 and MyD88.Conclusions: Curcumin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome through suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R pathways in PMA-induced macrophages.

  15. A self-inactivating retrovector incorporating the IL-2 promoter for activation-induced transgene expression in genetically engineered T-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejeune Laurence

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T-cell activation leads to signaling pathways that ultimately result in induction of gene transcription from the interleukin-2 (IL-2 promoter. We hypothesized that the IL-2 promoter or its synthetic derivatives can lead to T-cell specific, activation-induced transgene expression. Our objective was to develop a retroviral vector for stable and activation-induced transgene expression in T-lymphocytes. Results First, we compared the transcriptional potency of the full-length IL-2 promoter with that of a synthetic promoter composed of 3 repeats of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells (NFAT element following activation of transfected Jurkat T-cells expressing the large SV40 T antigen (Jurkat TAg. Although the NFAT3 promoter resulted in a stronger induction of luciferase reporter expression post stimulation, the basal levels of the IL-2 promoter-driven reporter expression were much lower indicating that the IL-2 promoter can serve as a more stringent activation-dependent promoter in T-cells. Based on this data, we generated a self-inactivating retroviral vector with the full-length human IL-2 promoter, namely SINIL-2pr that incorporated the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP fused to herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase as a reporter/suicide "bifunctional" gene. Subsequently, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-G Protein pseudotyped retroparticles were generated for SINIL-2pr and used to transduce the Jurkat T-cell line and the ZAP-70-deficient P116 cell line. Flow cytometry analysis showed that EGFP expression was markedly enhanced post co-stimulation of the gene-modified cells with 1 μM ionomycin and 10 ng/ml phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. This activation-induced expression was abrogated when the cells were pretreated with 300 nM cyclosporin A. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the SINIL-2pr retrovector leads to activation-inducible transgene expression in Jurkat T-cell lines. We propose that this design can be

  16. Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase is synergistic with glial iNOS expression in inducing neuronal death: a dual-key mechanism of inflammatory neurodegeneration

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    Brown Guy C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation-activated glia are seen in many CNS pathologies and may kill neurons through the release of cytotoxic mediators, such as nitric oxide from inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and possibly superoxide from NADPH oxidase (NOX. We set out to determine the relative role of these species in inducing neuronal death, and to test the dual-key hypothesis that the production of both species simultaneously is required for significant neuronal death. Methods Primary co-cultures of cerebellar granule neurons and glia from rats were used to investigate the effect of NO (from iNOS, following lipopolysaccharide (LPS and/or cytokine addition or superoxide/hydrogen peroxide (from NOX, following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, ATP analogue (BzATP, interleukin-1β (IL-1β or arachidonic acid (AA addition on neuronal survival. Results Induction of glial iNOS caused little neuronal death. Similarly, activation of NOX alone resulted in little or no neuronal death. However, if NOX was activated (by PMA or BzATP in the presence of iNOS (induced by LPS and interferon-γ then substantial delayed neuronal death occurred over 48 hours, which was prevented by inhibitors of iNOS (1400W, NOX (apocynin or a peroxynitrite decomposer (FeTPPS. Neurons and glia were also found to stain positive for nitrotyrosine (a putative marker of peroxynitrite only when both iNOS and NOX were simultaneously active. If NOX was activated by weak stimulators (IL-1β, AA or the fibrillogenic prion peptide PrP106-126 in the presence of iNOS, it caused microglial proliferation and delayed neurodegeneration over 6 days, which was prevented by iNOS or NOX inhibitors, a peroxynitrite decomposer or a NMDA-receptor antagonist (MK-801. Conclusion These results suggest a dual-key mechanism, whereby glial iNOS or microglial NOX activation alone is relatively benign, but if activated simultaneously are synergistic in killing neurons, through generating peroxynitrite. This

  17. High Uric Acid Activates the ROS-AMPK Pathway, Impairs CD68 Expression and Inhibits OxLDL-Induced Foam-Cell Formation in a Human Monocytic Cell Line, THP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohuan Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia is part of the metabolic-syndrome cluster of abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Monocytes/macrophages are critical in the development of metabolic syndrome, including gout, obesity and atherosclerosis. However, how high uric acid (HUA exposure affects monocyte/macrophage function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of HUA exposure in monocytes/macrophages and its impact on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-induced foam-cell formation in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1. Methods: We primed THP-1 cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA for differentiation, then exposed cells to HUA and detected the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and analyzed the level of phospho-AMPKα. THP-1 cells were pre-incubated with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger, or HUA before PMA, to assess CD68 expression and phospho-AMPKα level. PMA-primed THP-1 cells were pre-treated with oxLDL before Compound C and HUA treatment. Western blot analysis was used to examine the levels of phospho-AMPKα, CD68, ABCG1, ABCA1, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and NF-κB (p65. Flow cytometry was used to assess ROS production and CD68 expression in live cells. Oil-red O staining was used to observe oxLDL uptake in cells. Results: HUA treatment increased ROS production in PMA-primed THP-1 cells; NAC blocked HUA-induced oxidative stress. HUA treatment time-dependently increased phospho-AMPKα level in PMA-primed THP-1 cells. The HUA-induced oxidative stress increased phospho-AMPKα levels, which was blocked by NAC. HUA treatment impaired CD68 expression during cell differentiation by activating the AMPK pathway, which was reversed by Compound C treatment. Finally, HUA treatment inhibited oxLDL uptake in the formation of foam cells in THP-1 cells, which was blocked by Compound C treatment. HUA treatment

  18. Inhibition of epithelial Na+ transport by atriopeptin, protein kinase c, and pertussis toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrmann, M.; Cantiello, H.F.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have recently shown the selective inhibition of an amiloride-sensitive, conductive pathway for Na + by atrial natriuretic peptide and 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) in the renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK i . Using 22 Na + fluxes, they further investigated the modulation of Na + transport by atrial natriuretic peptide and by agents that increase cGMP production, activate protein kinase c, or modulate guanine nucleotide regulatory protein function. Sodium nitroprusside increases intracellular cGMP concentrations without affecting cAMP concentrations and completely inhibits amiloride-sensitive Na + uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Oleoyl 2-acetylglycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, activators of protein kinase c, inhibit Na + uptake by 93 ± 13 and 51 ± 10%, respectively. Prolonged incubation with phorbol ester results in the downregulation of protein kinase c activity and reduces the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide, suggesting that the action of this peptide involves stimulation of protein kinase c. Pertussis toxin, which induces the ADP-ribosylation of a 41-kDa guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in LLC-PK i cells, inhibits 22 Na + influx to the same extent as amiloride. Thus, increasing cGMP, activating protein kinase c, and ADP-ribosylating a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein all inhibit Na + uptake. These events may be sequentially involved in the action of atrial natriuretic peptide

  19. Phorbol ester and vasopressin activate phospholipase D in Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1991-01-01

    support the notion that PMA stimulates phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis by a mechanism, which principally involves PLD. Activation of PLD by PMA was inhibited by long-term pretreatment of cells with PMA to downregulate protein kinase C (PKC) and by pretreatment with staurosporine. These data support......In the present study evidence is provided for the existence of phospholipase D (PLD) activity in rat Leydig cells. Leydig cells were cultured and labelled with [H]myristic acid. In the presence of ethanol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated the formation of [H]phosphatidylethanol ([H...... the notion that activation of PLD by PMA is dependent on PKC. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) caused a rapid stimulation of PLD activity in the cells. This activation was inhibited after downregulation of PKC, indicating that the agonist acts by a mechanism similar to that of PMA....

  20. The anti-angiogenic herbal extract from Melissa officinalis inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2016-02-03

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has been used traditionally and contemporarily as an anti-stress herb. Current hypotheses suggest that not only chronic stress promotes angiogenesis, but angiogenesis also modulates adipogenesis and obesity. Because the herbal extract ALS-L1023 from M. officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has an anti-angiogenic activity, we hypothesized that ALS-L1023 could inhibit adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy. ALS-L1023 was prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from M. officinalis. The effects of ALS-L1023 on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice were measured using in vivo and in vitro approaches. ALS-L1023 inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner in the HUVEC tube formation assay in vitro. Treatment of cells with ALS-L1023 inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or MDI differentiation mix. ALS-L1023 reduced mRNA expression of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in differentiated cells. In contrast, mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) increased. Protease activity, as measured by zymography, showed that activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased in ALS-L1023-treated cells. ALS-L1023 also inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 reporter gene expression in the presence of the MMP inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. An in vivo study showed that ALS-L1023 not only decreased adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size, but also reduced mRNA levels of adipose tissue angiogenic factors and MMPs in HFD-fed obese mice. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 suppresses adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy, and this effect may be mediated by inhibiting angiogenesis and MMP activities. Thus, by curbing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic ALS-L1023 yields a possible therapeutic choice for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and

  1. Differential phospholipid-labeling suggests two subtypes of phospholipase D in rat Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    Cho). The [H] phosphatidylethanol formation in response to 4ß-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), sphingosine, or Ca-ionophore A23187, was lower when Leydig cells were labeled with 1-O-[H]alkyl lysoPtdCho compared with the responses when [H]myristic acid was employed. In contrast, the results...... for the receptor agonists (vasopressin, bradykinin, and lysophosphatidic acid), using the two labels, showed mole consistency. Thus, the PLD-activity induced by PMA, sphingosine, or A23187 has a more selective substrate range (i.e. mainly acyl-linked PtdCho) than the PLD-activity stimulated via a receptor. Our...

  2. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2000-01-01

    , inhibitors of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn), PLC, PKC and MEK and an activator of PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). MEK2 transfection rescued cells treated with all inhibitors. The same was found for PMA treatment, except when cells concomitantly were treated with the MEK inhibitor....... Arachidonic acid rescued cells treated with antibodies to the FGF receptor or the PLC inhibitor, but not cells in which the activity of PKC, p59(fyn), FAK, Ras, or MEK was inhibited. Interaction of NCAM with a synthetic NCAM peptide ligand, known to induce neurite outgrowth, was shown to stimulate...

  3. Diminished macrophage apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation after phorbol ester stimulation in Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D Palmer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's Disease (CD is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Although its pathogenesis is complex, we have recently shown that CD patients have a systemic defect in macrophage function, which results in the defective clearance of bacteria from inflammatory sites.Here we have identified a number of additional macrophage defects in CD following diacylglycerol (DAG homolog phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA activation. We provide evidence for decreased DNA fragmentation, reduced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, impaired reactive oxygen species production, diminished cytochrome c release and increased IL-6 production compared to healthy subjects after PMA exposure. The observed macrophage defects in CD were stimulus-specific, as normal responses were observed following p53 activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress.These findings add to a growing body of evidence highlighting disordered macrophage function in CD and, given their pivotal role in orchestrating inflammatory responses, defective apoptosis could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of CD.

  4. Involvement of protein kinase C in prostaglandin D(2) synthesis by cultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Seregi, A; Schobert, A; Hertting, G

    1988-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium in the stimulation of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) synthesis was investigated in primary rat astroglial cultures using the phorbol esters phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) and the calcium ionophore A(23187). Both phorbol esters and the ionophore were able to stimulate PGD(2) synthesis in a concentration dependent manner. The inactive stereoisomers of PMA and PDB had no significant effect. Combinations of subthreshold concentrations of phorbol esters (10 nM PMA or 10 nM PBD) potentiated PG formation induced by 100 nM A(23187). An even more pronounced effect was observed when phorbol ester concentrations were increased to 100nM. The contribution of extra- and intracellular calcium in phorbol ester or A(23187) stimulated PGD(2) synthesis was evaluated by carrying out experiments with calcium-free media plus EGTA or with the intracellular calcium-chelating agent TMB-8. Ionophore stimulated PGD(2) release was shut down to basal values upon removal of extracellular calcium, whereas phorbol ester stimulated PGD(2) formation persisted at a reduced level. It was unabated also upon further addition of EGTA. In the presence of TMB-8, however, phorbol ester stimulated PGD(2) synthesis was completely suppressed. These data strongly suggest that PKC has an additional effect on the activation of phospholipase A(2) and subsequent prostanoid synthesis, which is independent from extracellular calcium and, thus, support the concept of more than one metabolic pathway in astrocytes that synergistically regulate phospholipase A(2) activity.

  5. Drastically increased expression of MYC and FOS protooncogenes during in vitro differentiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.G.; Gray, H.E.; Toetterman, T.; Pettersson, U.; Nilsson, K.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, representing a clonal population of resting B lymphocytes, were induced to differentiate into immunoglobulin-secreting lymphoblasts and plasmablasts by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The induction resulted in a rapid increase in the molar ratio of secreted/membrane-bound μ-chain mRNA. Immunoglobulin secretion was preceded by a transition of the cells from the G 0 to G 1 phase of the cell cycle, as indicated by an increase in RNA and protein synthesis, and an overall increase in cellular RNA. The cells, however, became blocked in G 1 and did not enter S phase. The expression of MYC and FOS was rapidly induced by the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment. MYC expression remained at a relatively high level during the whole differentiation process. It is thus concluded that a decline of MYC expression is not a prerequisite for differentiation of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. This suggests that MYC expression may play a different role during differentiation of nonproliferating B cells than in the myelomonocytic cell lines HL-60 and U-937, where MYC expression has been reported to decrease during induced differentiation. The results also show that the expression of the MYC and FOS genes does not result in the transition of these cells into the S phase of the cell cycle

  6. Effect of phorbol derivatives and staurosporine on gravitropic response of primary root of maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulkey, T.J.; Kim, S.Y. (Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute (United States)); Lee, J.S. (Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea))

    1991-05-01

    Time-lapse videography and computer-based, video image digitization were used to examine the effects of phorbol derivatives (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, TPA; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate 4-O-methyl ether, mTPA) and staurosporine on the kinetics of gravicurvature of primary roots of maize (Zea mays L., Pioneer 3343 and Golden Cross Bantam). Pretreatment of roots with TPA (3 hr, 1 {mu}M) decreases the time lag prior to induction of positive gravicurvature in horizontally-oriented roots by > 60%. The rate of curvature is not significantly different than the rate observed in control roots. Wrongway curvature which is observed in 30-40% of control roots is not observed in TPA-pretreated roots. Oscillatory movements observed in control roots after completion of gravitropic reorientation is completely dampened in TPA-pretreated roots. Pretreatment of roots with mTPA(3hr,1{mu}M), the inactive analog of TPA, does not significantly alter the kinetics of gravicurvature of primary roots of maize. Staurosporine (10{sup {minus}8}M), a microbial alkaloid which has been reported to have antifungal activity and to inhibit phospholipid/Ca{sup ++} dependent protein kinase, completely inhibits TPA-induced alteration of the kinetics of gravitropism. DAG (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol), a synthetic diglyceride activator of protein kinase C, exhibits similar activity to TPA. TPA-induced alterations in tissue response to auxin are presented.

  7. Do β-Cells Generate Peroxynitrite in Response to Cytokine Treatment?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniowska, Katarzyna A.; Mathews, Clayton E.; Corbett, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reactive species that is responsible for cytokine-mediated β-cell death. Inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase prevent this death, and addition of exogenous nitric oxide using donors induces β-cell death. The reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide results in the generation of peroxynitrite, and this powerful oxidant has been suggested to be the mediator of β-cell death in response to cytokine treatment. Recently, coumarin-7-boronate has been developed as a probe for the selective detection of peroxynitrite. Using this reagent, we show that addition of the NADPH oxidase activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to nitric oxide-producing macrophages results in peroxynitrite generation. Using a similar approach, we demonstrate that cytokines fail to stimulate peroxynitrite generation by rat islets and insulinoma cells, either with or without phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment. When forced to produce superoxide using redox cyclers, this generation is associated with protection from nitric oxide toxicity. These findings indicate that: (i) nitric oxide is the likely mediator of the toxic effects of cytokines, (ii) β-cells do not produce peroxynitrite in response to cytokines, and (iii) when forced to produce superoxide, the scavenging of nitric oxide by superoxide is associated with protection of β-cells from nitric oxide-mediated toxicity. PMID:24194521

  8. Induced macrophage activation in live excised atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, Hannah; Cross, Sean; Marks, Edward; Healy, Joe; Searle, Emily; Aamir, Raja; Butler, Anthony; Roake, Justin; Hock, Barry; Anderson, Nigel; Gieseg, Steven P

    2018-03-23

    Atherosclerotic plaques are complex tissues containing many different cell types. Macrophages contribute to inflammation, formation of the necrotic core, and plaque rupture. We examined whether macrophages in plaque can be activated and compared this to monolayer cells. The volume of calcium in the plaque was compared to the level of macrophage activation measured by total neopterin output. Carotid plaque samples were cut into 3 mm sections and cultured for up to 96 h. Live sections were stimulated with interferon-γ, phytohaemagglutinin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Macrophage activation and oxidative stress were monitored by total neopterin (oxidized and non-oxidized 7,8-dihydroneopterin) and neopterin levels every 24 h for up to 4 d. The calcium content of two plaques was investigated by spectral imaging. Direct stimulation of macrophages in plaque sections with interferon-γ caused a sustained increase in neopterin (p = .037) and total neopterin (p = .003). The addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to plaque had no significant effect on total neopterin production (p = .073) but increased neopterin (p = .037) whereas phytohaemagglutinin caused a significant increase in both neopterin and total neopterin (p = .0279 and .0168). There was an inverse association (R 2  = 0.91) between the volume of calcium and macrophage activation as measured by total neopterin production in stimulated plaque tissue. Resident macrophages within excised carotid plaque activated either directly or indirectly generate the biomarkers 7,8-dihydroneopterin and neopterin. Macrophage activation rather than the oxidative environment is associated with plaque calcification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Heterologous activation of protein kinase C stimulates phosphorylation of delta-opioid receptor at serine 344, resulting in beta-arrestin- and clathrin-mediated receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, B; Yu, G H; Guo, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of opioid-independent, heterologous activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on the responsiveness of opioid receptor and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our result showed that removing the C terminus of delta opioid receptor (DOR......) containing six Ser/Thr residues abolished both DPDPE- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced DOR phosphorylation. The phosphorylation levels of DOR mutants T352A, T353A, and T358A/T361A/S363S were comparable to that of the wild-type DOR, whereas S344G substitution blocked PMA-induced receptor......, and ionomycin resulted in DOR internalization that required phosphorylation of Ser-344. Expression of dominant negative beta-arrestin and hypertonic sucrose treatment blocked PMA-induced DOR internalization, suggesting that PKC mediates DOR internalization via a beta-arrestin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism...

  10. Quercetin inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokines through attenuation of NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK in HMC-1 human mast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y-D; Choi, C-H; Bark, H; Son, H-Y; Park, H-H; Lee, S; Park, J-W; Park, E-K; Shin, H-I; Kim, S-H

    2007-05-01

    Mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation is involved in many diseases such as asthma, sinusitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Mast cells induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines with immune regulatory properties. We investigated the effect of quercetin on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human mast cell line, HMC-1. HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). Quercetin decreased the gene expression and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Quercetin attenuated PMACI-induced activation of NF-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our study provides evidence that quercetin may suitable for the treatment of mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases.

  11. Contractions activate hormone-sensitive lipase in rat muscle by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline...... and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction...... of the inhibitors reduced adrenaline-induced HSL activation in soleus muscle. Both phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which activates PKC and, in turn, ERK, and caffeine, which increases intracellular Ca2+ without eliciting contraction, increased HSL activity. Activated ERK increased HSL activity in supernatant...

  12. Reduced response of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation in the prion protein (PrP) gene-deficient mouse: PrPLP/Doppel production and cerebral degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi-Kyeong; Hirose, Yuko; Sakudo, Akikazu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kang, Chung-Boo; Taniuchi, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Onodera, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Splenocytes of wild-type (Prnp +/+ ) and prion protein gene-deficient (Prnp -/- ) mice were treated with various activation stimuli such as T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) + ionomycin (Io), or B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) expression was enhanced following ConA stimulation, but not PMA + Io or LPS in Prnp +/+ splenocytes. Rikn Prnp -/- splenocytes elicited lower cell proliferations than Prnp +/+ or Zrch I Prnp -/- splenocytes after LPS stimulation and showed sporadic nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and deeper structure. Around the degenerated nerve cells, mild vacuolation in the neuropil was observed. This neural alteration correlated well to the suppressed response of B cells in the spleen. The finding that discrete lesions within the central nervous systems induced marked modulation of immune function probably indicates the existence of a delicately balanced neural-endocrine network by PrP C and PrPLP/Doppel

  13. Cholinoreceptors of early (preneural) sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buznikov, G A; Rakich, L

    2000-01-01

    Agonists of nicotinic cholinoreceptors (n-AChR) and 1-acetyl-4-methylpiperazine (100 microM) had no effect on early embryogenesis in sea urchins, while in the presence of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and various other protein kinase C activators, these agents induced rapid lysis of oocytes or early embryos, as a result of calcium shock. Many n-AChR ligands which do not penetrate into the cytoplasm (not being antagonists of muscarinic cholinoreceptors) protected against this cytotoxic effect. In the presence of PMA, acetylcholine and carbachol had actions which were much weaker than those of nicotine, while muscarine was completely inactive in these conditions. Thus, the surfaces of sea urchin oocytes and early embryos bear receptor structures, presumably n-AChR, which are functionally linked with second messengers which are endogenous protein kinase C activators.

  14. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  15. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2000-01-01

    transfected with expression plasmids encoding constitutively active forms of Ras, Raf, MAP kinase kinases MEK1 and 2, dominant negative forms of Ras and Raf, and the FAK-related nonkinase. Alternatively, PC12-E2 cells were submitted to treatment with antibodies to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor......, inhibitors of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn), PLC, PKC and MEK and an activator of PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). MEK2 transfection rescued cells treated with all inhibitors. The same was found for PMA treatment, except when cells concomitantly were treated with the MEK inhibitor....... Arachidonic acid rescued cells treated with antibodies to the FGF receptor or the PLC inhibitor, but not cells in which the activity of PKC, p59(fyn), FAK, Ras, or MEK was inhibited. Interaction of NCAM with a synthetic NCAM peptide ligand, known to induce neurite outgrowth, was shown to stimulate...

  16. Immune-suppressive activity of punicalagin via inhibition of NFAT activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Ik; Kim, Byoung-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Shin; Lee, Samkeun; Shin, Kwang-Soo; Lim, Jong-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Since T cell activation is central to the development of autoimmune diseases, we screened a natural product library comprising 1400 samples of medicinal herbal extracts, to identify compounds that suppress T cell activity. Punicalagin (PCG) isolated from the fruit of Punica granatum was identified as a potent immune suppressant, based on its inhibitory action on the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). PCG downregulated the mRNA and soluble protein expression of interleukin-2 from anti-CD3/anti-CD28-stimulated murine splenic CD4+ T cells and suppressed mixed leukocytes reaction (MLR) without exhibiting cytotoxicity to the cells. In vivo, the PCG treatment inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced chronic ear edema in mice and decreased CD3+ T cell infiltration of the inflamed tissue. These results suggest that PCG could be a potential candidate for the therapeutics of various immune pathologies

  17. Organophosphorus ester-induced chronic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Donia, Mohamed B

    2003-08-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are potent neurotoxic chemicals that are widely used in medicine, industry, and agriculture. The neurotoxicity of these chemicals has been documented in accidental human poisoning, epidemiological studies, and animal models. Organophosphorus compounds have 3 distinct neurotoxic actions. The primary action is the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in the accumulation of acetylcholine and subsequent overstimulation of the nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, resulting in cholinergic effects. Another action of some of these compounds, arising from single or repeated exposure, is a delayed onset of ataxia, accompanied by a Wallerian-type degeneration of the axon and myelin in the most distal portion of the longest tracts in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, and is known as organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN). In addition, since the introduction and extensive use of synthetic organophosphorus compounds in agriculture and industry half a century ago, many studies have reported long-term, persistent, chronic neurotoxicity symptoms in individuals as a result of acute exposure to high doses that cause acute cholinergic toxicity, or from long-term, low-level, subclinical doses of these chemicals. The author attempts to define the neuronal disorder that results from organophosphorus ester-induced chronic neurotoxicity (OPICN), which leads to long-term neurological and neurobehavioral deficits. Although the mechanisms of this neurodegenerative disorder have yet to be established, the sparse available data suggest that large toxic doses of organophosphorus compounds cause acute necrotic neuronal cell death in the brain, whereas sublethal or subclinical doses produce apoptotic neuronal cell death and involve oxidative stress.

  18. FEL induced molecular operation on cultured fibroblast and cholesterol ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awazu, Kunio; Ogino, Seiji; Nishimura, Eiichi; Tomimasu, Takio; Yasumoto, Masato.

    1997-01-01

    Free Electron Lasers can be used to molecular operation such as the delivery of a number of molecules into cells or the separation of cholesterol ester. First, cultured NIH3T3 cells are exposed to high-intensity short pulse Free Electron Laser (FEL). The FEL is tuned to an absorption maximum wavelength, 6.1 μm, which was measured by microscopic FTIR. A fluorescence dye in the cell suspension is more absorbed into the cell with the FEL exposure due to the FEL-induced mechanical stress to the cell membrane. A quantitative fluorescence microscopy is used to determine the efficiency of delivery. Second, as a compound in a lipid cell, cholesterol ester was exposed to 5.75 μm FEL. FTIR measurement was done to evaluate the modification of the cholesterol ester. The result showed that the fluorescence intensity of sample cells were higher than that of control cells, and there was significant difference between the control and the sample group. Blebbing and the colony formation of the cells were observed for cells with mechanical stress. As for the cholesterol ester, it can be modified by the FEL irradiation. These results showed that FEL can be used as a molecular operational tool by photo-chemical and photo-mechanical interaction. (author)

  19. Reduced PKC α Activity Induces Senescent Phenotype in Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmini B. Govekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism mediating expression of senescent cell antigen-aggregated or cleaved band 3 and externalized phosphatidylserine (PS on the surface of aged erythrocytes and their premature expression in certain anemias is not completely elucidated. The erythrocytes with these surface modifications undergo macrophage-mediated phagocytosis. In this study, the role of protein kinase C (PKC isoforms in the expression of these surface modifications was investigated. Inhibition of PKC α by 30 μM rottlerin (R30 and 2.3 nM Gö 6976 caused expression of both the senescent cell marker-externalized PS measured by FACS analysis and aggregated band 3 detected by western blotting. In contrast to this observation, but in keeping with literature, PKC activation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA also led to the expression of senescence markers. We explain this antithesis by demonstrating that PMA-treated cells show reduction in the activity of PKC α, thereby simulating inhibition. The reduction in PKC α activity may be attributed to the known downregulation of PMA-activated PKC α, caused by its membrane translocation and proteolysis. We demonstrate membrane translocation of PKC α in PMA-treated cells to substantiate this inference. Thus loss of PKC α activity either by inhibition or downregulation can cause surface modifications which can trigger erythrophagocytosis.

  20. Subchronic organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity in mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Murray, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen-week-old mallard hens received 0, 10, 30, 90, or 270 ppm technical grade EPN (phenylphosphonothioic acid O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl ester) in the diet for 90 days. Ataxia was first observed in the 270-ppm group after 16 days, in the 90-ppm group after 20 days, in the 30-ppm group after 38 days; 10 ppm failed to produce ataxia. By the end of 90 days all 6 birds in the 270-ppm group exhibited ataxia or paralysis whereas 5 of 6 birds in the 90-ppm group and 2 of 6 birds in the 30-ppm group were visibly affected. Treatment with 30 ppm or more resulted in a significant reduction in body weight. Brain neurotoxic esterase activity was inhibited by averages of 16, 69, 73, and 74% in the 10-, 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups, respectively. Brain acetylcholinesterase, plasma cholinesterase, and plasma alkaline phosphatase were significantly inhibited as well. Distinct histopathological effects were seen in the 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups which included demyelination and degeneration of axons of the spinal cord. Additional ducks were exposed in a similar manner to 60-, 270-, or 540-ppm leptophos (phosphonothioic acid O-4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl-O-methylphenyl ester) which resulted in similar behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations. These findings indicate that adult mallards are probably somewhat less sensitive than chickens to subchronic dietary exposure to organophosphorus insecticides that induce delayed neurotoxicity.

  1. Serotonin stimulates phospholipase A2 and the release of arachidonic acid in hippocampal neurons by a type 2 serotonin receptor that is independent of inositolphospholipid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, C.C.; Ma, A.L.; Axelrod, J.; Kanterman, R.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) stimulated the release of arachidonic acid in hippocampal neurons cocultured with glial cells but not in glial cultures alone. Similar results were observed for the 5-HT-stimulated release of inositol phosphates. These results suggest a neural but not glial origin of both responses. Pharmacological studies suggested that release of arachidonic acid and inositol phosphates was mediated by a type 2 5-HTT (5-HT 2 ) receptor. 5-HT-stimulated release of arachidonic acid was also detected in cortical neurons, which contain high levels of 5-HT 2 receptors, but not striatum, spinal cord, or cerebellar granule cells, which have very low levels or are devoid of 5-HT 2 receptors. The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate augmented the 5-HT-stimulated release of arachidonic acid but inhibited the 5-HT-stimulated release of inositol phosphates. 5-HT-stimulated release of arachidonic acid, but not inositol phosphates, was dependent on extracellular calcium. 5-HT stimulated the release of [ 3 H]lysophosphatidylcholine from [ 3 H]choline-labeled cells with no increase in the release of [ 3 H]choline or phospho[ 3 H]choline. These data suggest that 5-HT stimulated the release of arachidonic acid in hippocampal neurons through the activation of phospholipase A 2 , independent of the activation of phospholipase C

  2. Differential regulation by agonist and phorbol ester of cloned m1 and m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in mouse Y1 adrenal cells and in Y1 cells deficient in cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, N.M.; Nathanson, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    Cloned muscarinic acetylcholine m1 and m2 receptors were expressed in stably transfected mouse Y1 adrenal cells and in a variant Y1 line, Kin-8, which is deficient in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity (PKA - ). m1 and m2 receptors were rapidly internalized following exposure of transfected PKA + or PKA - cells to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Thus, agonist-dependent internalization of m1 and m2 did not require PKA activity. A differential effect of PKA on regulation by agonist of the m2 receptor, but not the m1 receptor, was unmasked in PKA - cells. These data indicate that the basal activity of PKA may modulate the agonist-dependent internalization of the m2 receptor, but not the m1 receptor. The internalization of the m1 and m2 receptors in both PKA + and PKA - cells was accompanied by desensitization of functional responses. Exposure of PKA + cells to 10 -7 M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C, resulted in a 30 ± 9% decrease in the number of m1 receptors on the cell surface. The m2 receptor was not internalized following treatment of either PKA + or PKA - cells with PMA. Thus, the m1 and m2 receptors show differential sensitivity to internalization by PMA. Agonist-dependent internalization of the m1 receptor appeared to be independent of activation of PKC because (1) agonist-dependent internalization of m1 was not attenuated in PKA - cells, (2) the rate and extent of internalization of m1 in cells exposed to PMA were less than those in cells exposed to agonist, and (3) treatment of cells with concanavalin A selectivity blocked internalization of m1 in cells exposed to PMA, but not to agonist. The effects of agonist and PMA on receptor internalization were not additive. Exposure of PKA + or PKA - cells to PMA reduced the magnitude of pilocarpine-stimulated PI hydrolysis by about 25%

  3. The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene inhibits neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

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    Roxana Flores

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator typically prescribed for the prevention/treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although raloxifene is known to have anti-inflammatory properties, its effect on human neutrophils, the primary phagocytic leukocytes of the immune system, remain poorly understood. Here, through a screen of pharmacologically active small molecules, we find that raloxifene prevents neutrophil cell death in response to the classical activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a compound known to induce formation of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. Inhibition of PMA-induced NET production by raloxifene was confirmed using quantitative and imaging-based assays. Human neutrophils from both male and female donors express the nuclear estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, known targets of raloxifene. Like raloxifene, selective antagonists of these receptors inhibit PMA-induced NET production. Furthermore, raloxifene inhibited PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation but not reactive oxygen species (ROS production, pathways known to be key modulators of NET production. Finally, we found that raloxifene inhibited PMA-induced, NET-based killing of the leading human bacterial pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Our results reveal that raloxifene is a potent modulator of neutrophil function and NET production.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiping; Lu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Shuhai; Lu, Meijun; Liu, Hongmei

    2008-06-01

    Pholiota nameko polysaccharide (PNPS-1) has been isolated and purified by enzymatic hydrolysis, hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The anti-inflammatory activity of PNPS-1 was evaluated in rodents using xylene-induced ear edema, egg albumin-, carrageenin-, and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma test, adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes in vitro, and ulcerogenic activity. The results showed that PNPS-1 (5 mg/ear) inhibited topical edema in the mouse ear and at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) it significantly suppressed the development of egg albumin-, carrageenin-, and formaldehyde-induced paw edema in the animals. PNPS-1 (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, per oral) significantly inhibited the growth of granuloma tissues induced by subcutaneously implanted cotton pellets in rats by 10.96, 18.07, and 43.75%, respectively. PNPS-1 also inhibited spontaneous and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-activated adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes in vitro. Further, both acute as well as chronic administration of PNPS-1 (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, per oral) did not produce any gastric lesion in rats. In conclusion, these data indicated that PNPS-1 possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity suggesting its potential as an anti-inflammatory agent for use in the treatment of various inflammatory-related diseases.

  5. The Ameliorative Effect of Sophoricoside on Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation in Vivo and in Vitro

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    Jae-Young Um

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sophoricoside exhibits numerous pharmacological effects, including anti- inflammatory and anti-cancer actions, yet the exact mechanism that accounts for the anti-allergic effects of sophoricoside is not completely understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether and how sophoricoside modulates the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the pharmacological effects of sophoricoside on both compound 48/80 or histamine-induced scratching behaviors and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis in mice. Additionally, to find a possible explanation for the anti-inflammatory effects of sophoricoside, we evaluated the effects of sophoricoside on the production of histamine and inflammatory cytokines and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and caspase-1 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI-stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1. The finding of this study demonstrated that sophoricoside reduced compound 48/80 or histamine-induced scratching behaviors and DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis in mice. Additionally, sophoricoside inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines as well as the activation of NF-κB and caspase-1 in stimulated HMC-1. Collectively, the findings of this study provide us with novel insights into the pharmacological actions of sophoricoside as a potential molecule for use in the treatment of allergic inflammation diseases.

  6. Extracellular ultrathin fibers sensitive to intracellular reactive oxygen species: Formation of intercellular membrane bridges

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    Jung, Se-Hui; Park, Jin-Young; Joo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo, E-mail: ksha@kangwon.ac.kr

    2011-07-15

    Membrane bridges are key cellular structures involved in intercellular communication; however, dynamics for their formation are not well understood. We demonstrated the formation and regulation of novel extracellular ultrathin fibers in NIH3T3 cells using confocal and atomic force microscopy. At adjacent regions of neighboring cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and glucose oxidase induced ultrathin fiber formation, which was prevented by Trolox, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. The height of ROS-sensitive ultrathin fibers ranged from 2 to 4 nm. PMA-induced formation of ultrathin fibers was inhibited by cytochalasin D, but not by Taxol or colchicine, indicating that ultrathin fibers mainly comprise microfilaments. PMA-induced ultrathin fibers underwent dynamic structural changes, resulting in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Thus, these fibers are formed by a mechanism(s) involving ROS and involved in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Furthermore, ultrastructural imaging of ultrathin fibers may contribute to understanding the diverse mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication and the intercellular transfer of biomolecules, including proteins and cell organelles.

  7. A natural xanthone increases catalase activity but decreases NF-kappa B and lipid peroxidation in U-937 and HepG2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Binay K; Zaidi, Adeel H; Gupta, Pankaj; Mokhamatam, Raveendra B; Raviprakash, Nune; Mahali, Sidhartha K; Manna, Sunil K

    2015-10-05

    Mangiferin, a C-glycosyl xanthone, has shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic activities. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism for the antioxidant property of mangiferin. Considering the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) in inflammation and tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that modulating its activity will be a viable therapeutic target in regulating the redox-sensitive ailments. Our results show that mangiferin blocks several inducers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lypopolysaccharide (LPS), phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) mediated NF-κB activation via inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. In silico docking studies predicted strong binding energy of mangiferin to the active site of catalase (-9.13 kcal/mol), but not with other oxidases such as myeloperoxidase, glutathione peroxidase, or inducible nitric oxide synthase. Mangiferin increased activity of catalase by 44%, but had no effect on myeloperoxidase activity in vitro. Fluorescence spectroscopy further revealed the binding of mangiferin to catalase at the single site with binding constant and binding affinity of 3.1×10(-7) M(-1) and 1.046 respectively. Mangiferin also inhibits TNF-induced lipid peroxidation and thereby protects apoptosis. Hence, mangiferin with its ability to inhibit NF-κB and increase the catalase activity may prove to be a potent therapeutic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor α functions in an autocrine manner in the induction of human immunodeficiency virus expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, G.; Kinter, A.; Justement, J.S.; Kehrl, J.H.; Bressler, P.; Stanley, S.; Fauci, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is an immunoregulatory cytokine capable of inducing viral expression in cells chronically infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), such as the promonocytic line U1 and the T-lymphocytic line ACH-2. In the present study, the authors demonstrate an autocrine mechanism of TNF-α-mediated HIV induction. Stimulation of U1 and ACH-2 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) resulted in the induction of TNF-α mRNA and the secretion of TNF-α. Of note is the fact that anti-TNF-α antibodies significantly suppressed the expression of HIV in PMA-stimulated U1 and ACH-2 cells. Furthermore, anti-TNF-α antibodies also suppressed both the constitutive and inducible levels of viral expression in the chronically infected promonocytic clone U33.3. This study illustrates the interrelationship between the regulation of HIV expression and normal immunoregulatory mechanisms in that virus expression, both constitutive and induced, can be modulated by an autocrine pathway involving TNF-α, a cytokine involved in the complex network of regulation of the normal human immune response

  9. Inhibitory effects of lysozyme on endothelial protein C receptor shedding in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Yoon, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Han, Min-Su; Lee, Taeho; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-11-01

    Lysozyme protects us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection and binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with high affinity. Beyond its role in the activation of protein C, the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) plays an important role in the cytoprotective pathway. EPCR can be shed from the cell surface, which is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). However, little is known about the effects of lysozyme on EPCR shedding. We investigated this issue by monitoring the effects of lysozyme on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-, interleukin (IL)-1β-, and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding and underlying mechanism. Data demonstrate that lysozyme induced potent inhibition of PMA-, TNF-α-, IL-1β-, and CLP-induced EPCR shedding. Lysozyme also inhibited the expression and activity of PMA-induced TACE in endothelial cells. These results demonstrate the potential of lysozyme as an anti-EPCR shedding reagent against PMA-mediated and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding.

  10. The AP-1 binding sites located in the pol gene intragenic regulatory region of HIV-1 are important for viral replication.

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    Laurence Colin

    Full Text Available Our laboratory has previously identified an important intragenic region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genome, whose complete functional unit is composed of the 5103 fragment, the DNaseI-hypersensitive site HS7 and the 5105 fragment. These fragments (5103 and 5105 both exhibit a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-inducible enhancer activity on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. Here, we characterized the three previously identified AP-1 binding sites of fragment 5103 by showing the PMA-inducible in vitro binding and in vivo recruitment of c-Fos, JunB and JunD to this fragment located at the end of the pol gene. Functional analyses demonstrated that the intragenic AP-1 binding sites are fully responsible for the PMA-dependent enhancer activity of fragment 5103. Moreover, infection of T-lymphoid Jurkat and promonocytic U937 cells with wild-type and mutant viruses demonstrated that mutations of the intragenic AP-1 sites individually or in combination altered HIV-1 replication. Importantly, mutations of the three intragenic AP-1 sites led to a decreased in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the viral promoter, strongly supporting that the deleterious effect of these mutations on viral replication occurs, at least partly, at the transcriptional level. Single-round infections of monocyte-derived macrophages confirmed the importance of intragenic AP-1 sites for HIV-1 infectivity.

  11. Antiproliferative and Pro-apoptotic Activities of a Novel Resveratrol Prodrug Against Jurkat CD4+ T-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhahn, Katrin; Handler, Norbert; Loebsch, Silvia; Schmetterer, Klaus; Steiner, Guenter; Kloesch, Burkhard; Erker, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, possesses many beneficial health properties but its therapeutic application is limited due to its low water solubility and instability against oxidative processes. To improve the stability and lipophilicity of the natural compound, we synthesized a resveratrol prodrug, termed FEHH4-1. In the present study, we compared the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of resveratrol with FEHH4-1 on Jurkat T-cells. Cell proliferation and viability were monitored by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assay, annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin D staining and western blot. To induce interleukin-2 (IL2) expression, cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/phytohemagglutinin. IL2 production was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL2 promoter activity was studied by a Jurkat T-cell line containing an IL2 promoter luciferase reporter construct. Both polyphenols inhibited proliferation, induced apoptotic cell death and blocked IL2 synthesis in Jurkat T-cells. Most importantly, FEHH4-1 was three-to four-times more potent than resveratrol. FEHH4-1 had improved antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential against Jurkat T-cells compared to resveratrol. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Capacity of ceruloplasmin to scavenge products of the respiratory burst of neutrophils is not altered by the products of reactions catalyzed by myeloperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexey; Kostevich, Valeria A; Varfolomeeva, Elena Yu; Grigorieva, Daria V; Gorudko, Irina V; Kozlov, Stanislav O; Kudryavtsev, Igor V; Mikhalchik, Elena V; Filatov, Michael V; Cherenkevich, Sergey N; Panasenko, Oleg M; Arnhold, Juergen; Vasilyev, Vadim B

    2018-01-25

    Ceruloplasmin (CP) is a copper-containing ferroxidase of blood plasma, acting as an acute phase reactant during inflammation. The effect of oxidative modification of CP induced by oxidants produced by myeloperoxidase, such as HOCl, HOBr and HOSCN, on its spectral, enzymatic and anti-inflammatory properties was studied. We monitored chemiluminescence of lucigenin and luminal along with fluorescence of hydroethidine and scopoletin to assay the inhibition by CP of the neutrophilic respiratory burst induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Superoxide dismutase activity of CP and its capacity to reduce the production of oxidants in respiratory burst of neutrophils remained virtually unchanged upon modifications caused by HOCl, HOBr and HOSCN. Meanwhile, the absorption of type I copper ions at 610 nm became reduced along with a drop of the ferroxidase and amino oxidase activities of CP. Likewise its inhibitory effect on halogenating activity of myeloperoxidase was diminished. Sera of either healthy donors or patients with Wilson disease were co-incubated with neutrophils from healthy volunteers. In these experiments, we observed a reverse correlation between the content of CP in sera and the rate of hydrogen peroxide production by activated neutrophils. In conclusion, CP is likely to play a role of an anti-inflammatory factor tempering the neutrophil respiratory burst in the bloodstream despite the MPO-mediated oxidative modifications.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect of lemon mucilage: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Enza Maria; Cavallaro, Antonia; Ainis, Tommaso; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Contartese, Giuseppe; Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Fimiani, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The mucilage extracted from a lemon juice centrifugation pulp was studied for its anti-inflammatory effect in rat. In vivo the lemon mucilage significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw from 59% to 73.5% showing the highest effect at the third hour. In vitro, at the doses of 10(-8), 10(-6), 10(-4) or 10(-2) mg/mL the lemon mucilage stimulated the superoxide anion production in rat testing neutrophils in whole blood but inhibited it in FMLP stimulated cells at the dose of 10(-2) mg/mL. The neutrophils of rats receiving p.o. the lemon mucilage for 21 days showed a significant decrease of 45.5% in O2- generation after FMLP stimulation, and a not-significant increase after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or zymosan stimulation. Since the activity on zymosan- and PMA-induced O2- production was not significant, the inhibition exerted by FMLP in rat neutrophils occurred mainly through the blockade of phospholipase D.

  14. The Marine-Derived Kinase Inhibitor Fascaplysin Exerts Anti-Thrombotic Activity

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    Emmanuel Ampofo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The marine-derived kinase inhibitor fascaplysin down-regulates the PI3K pathway in cancer cells. Since this pathway also plays an essential role in platelet signaling, we herein investigated the effect of fascaplysin on thrombosis. Methods: Fascaplysin effects on platelet activation, platelet aggregation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA formation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mouse dorsal skinfold chambers were used to determine in vivo the effect of fascaplysin on photochemically induced thrombus formation and tail-vein bleeding time. Results: Pre-treatment of platelets with fascaplysin reduced the activation of glycoprotein (GPIIb/IIIa after protease-activated receptor-1-activating peptide (PAR-1-AP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA stimulation, but did not markedly affect the expression of P-selectin. This was associated with a decreased platelet aggregation. Fascaplysin also decreased PLA formation after PMA but not PAR-1-AP and ADP stimulation. This may be explained by an increased expression of CD11b on leukocytes in PAR-1-AP- and ADP-treated whole blood. In the dorsal skinfold chamber model of photochemically induced thrombus formation, fascaplysin-treated mice revealed a significantly extended complete vessel occlusion time when compared to controls. Furthermore, fascaplysin increased the tail-vein bleeding time. Conclusion: Fascaplysin exerts anti-thrombotic activity, which represents a novel mode of action in the pleiotropic activity spectrum of this compound.

  15. The Marine-Derived Kinase Inhibitor Fascaplysin Exerts Anti-Thrombotic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Emmanuel; Später, Thomas; Müller, Isabelle; Eichler, Hermann; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2015-11-09

    The marine-derived kinase inhibitor fascaplysin down-regulates the PI3K pathway in cancer cells. Since this pathway also plays an essential role in platelet signaling, we herein investigated the effect of fascaplysin on thrombosis. Fascaplysin effects on platelet activation, platelet aggregation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA) formation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mouse dorsal skinfold chambers were used to determine in vivo the effect of fascaplysin on photochemically induced thrombus formation and tail-vein bleeding time. Pre-treatment of platelets with fascaplysin reduced the activation of glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa after protease-activated receptor-1-activating peptide (PAR-1-AP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, but did not markedly affect the expression of P-selectin. This was associated with a decreased platelet aggregation. Fascaplysin also decreased PLA formation after PMA but not PAR-1-AP and ADP stimulation. This may be explained by an increased expression of CD11b on leukocytes in PAR-1-AP- and ADP-treated whole blood. In the dorsal skinfold chamber model of photochemically induced thrombus formation, fascaplysin-treated mice revealed a significantly extended complete vessel occlusion time when compared to controls. Furthermore, fascaplysin increased the tail-vein bleeding time. Fascaplysin exerts anti-thrombotic activity, which represents a novel mode of action in the pleiotropic activity spectrum of this compound.

  16. Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.

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    Yih Yih Kok

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii was tested for the in vitro anti-tumour promoting and antioxidant activities. Anti-tumour promoting activity was determined by assaying the capability of this compound to inhibit the expression of early antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EA-EBV in Raji cells that was induced by the tumour promoter, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The concentration of this compound that gave an inhibition rate at fifty percent was 6.0 µg/mL and was not cytotoxic to the cells. Immunoblotting analysis of the expression of EA-EBV showed that girinimbine was able to suppress restricted early antigen (EA-R. However, diffused early antigen (EA-D was partially suppressed when used at 32.0 µg/mL. Girinimbine exhibited a very strong antioxidant activity as compared to a-tocopherol and was able to inhibit superoxide generation in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced differentiated premyelocytic HL-60 cells more than 95%, when treated with the compound at 5.3 and 26.3 µg/mL, respectively. However girinimbine failed to scavenge the stable diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH-free radical.

  17. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of oxygen consumption and hydrogen peroxide production in cells using our newly developed chip-type biosensor device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush ePrasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All living organisms bear its defense mechanism. Immune cells during invasion by foreign body undergoes phagocytosis during which monocyte and neutrophil produces reactive oxygen species (ROS. The ROS generated in animal cells are known to be involved in several diseases and ailments, when generated in excess. Therefore, if the ROS generated in cells can be measured and analyzed precisely, it can be employed in immune function evaluation and disease detection. The aim of the current study is to introduce our newly developed chip-type biosensor device with high specificity and sensitivity. It comprises of counter electrode and working electrodes I and II. The counter electrode is a platinum plate while the working electrodes I and II are platinum microelectrode and osmium-horseradish peroxidase modified gold electrode, respectively which acts as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection sensors. Simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and H2O2 generation were measured in animal cells under the effect of exogenous addition of differentiation inducer, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The results obtained showed considerable changes in reduction currents in the absence and presence of inducer. Our newly developed chip-type biosensor device is claimed to be a useful tool for real-time monitoring of the respiratory activity and precise detection of H2O2 in cells. It can thus be widely applied in biomedical research and in clinical trials being an advancement over other H2O2 detection techniques.

  18. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of Calcium and PKC in Salivary Mucous Cell Exocrine Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, D.J.; Zhang, Z.; Evans, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid and exocrine secretion of mucins by salivary mucous glands is regulated predominantly by parasympathetic activation of muscarinic receptors. A direct role for subsequent putative signaling steps, phospholipase C (PLC), increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), and isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) in mediating muscarinic exocrine secretion has not been elucidated, and these are potential therapeutic targets to enhance mucin secretion in hyposalivary patients. We found that muscarinic-induced mucin secretion by rat sublingual tubulo-acini was dependent upon PLC activation and the subsequent increase in [Ca2+]i, and further identified a transient PKC-independent component of secretion dependent upon Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, whereas sustained secretion required entry of extracellular Ca2+. Interactions among carbachol, PKC inhibitors, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and thapsigargin to modulate [Ca2+]i implicated conventional PKC isoforms in mediating sustained secretion. With increasing times during carbachol perfusion of glands, in situ, PKC-α redistributed across glandular membrane compartments and underwent a rapid and persistent accumulation near the luminal borders of mucous cells. PKC-β1 displayed transient localization near luminal borders, whereas the novel PKCs, PKC-δ or PKC-ϵ, displayed little or no redistribution in mucous cells. Collective results implicate synergistic interactions between diacylglycerol (DAG) and increasing [Ca2+]i levels to activate cPKCs in mediating sustained muscarinic-induced secretion. PMID:21933938

  20. The herbal medicine compound falcarindiol from Notopterygii Rhizoma suppresses dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Seika; Torii, Kan; Fukui, Hajime; Tsujimura, Kunio; Maeda, Akira; Nose, Mitsuhiko; Nagatsu, Akito; Mizukami, Hajime; Morita, Akimichi

    2010-06-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important for regulating the immune response. We report an herbal medicine compound called falcarindiol that affects DC function. Ethanol extracts of 99 crude drugs that are the main components of 210 traditional Japanese medicines (Kampo medicine) approved by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan were prepared and screened using the murine epidermal-derived Langerhans cell line XS106. Notopterygii Rhizoma strongly suppressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in XS106 cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of falcarindiol as a principal active compound in Notopterygii Rhizoma. Falcarindiol (1-5 microM) dose-dependently suppressed MHC II expression in XS106 cells. Fresh-isolated bone marrow-derived DCs were examined for the production of MHC II, CD80, CD86, interleukin (IL)-12p70, and IL-10. Treatment of bone marrow-derived DCs with 5 muM falcarindiol significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced phenotype activation and cytokine secretion and inhibited MHC II expression by CD40 ligation, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate + ionomycin or IL-12. Falcarindiol inhibited DC maturation by blocking the canonical pathway of nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphorylated p38. Topical application of 0.002 and 0.01% falcarindiol before sensitization dose-dependently suppressed delayed-type hypersensitivity to ovalbumin (p Falcarindiol induces immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo and might be a novel therapy for autoimmune or allergic diseases.

  1. Genetic variants of NOXA and MCL1 modify the risk of HPV16-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ziyuan; Sturgis, Erich M; Liu, Zhensheng; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Li, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    The cooperation between phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced protein 1 (NOXA) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1) is critical in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), by inducing p53 and pRb-E2F degradation, may play an essential role in development of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) through NOXA-MCL1 axis-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, genetic variants of NOXA and MCL1 may modify the SCCHN risk associated with HPV16 seropositivity. HPV16 serology was obtained by immunoadsorption assay. Four functional SNPs in the promoter of NOXA (rs9957673, rs4558496) and MCL1 (rs9803935, rs3738485) were genotyped for 380 cases and 335 frequency-matched cancer-free controls of non-Hispanic whites. Associations between the four polymorphisms and SCCHN risk were not significant, while we observed a significantly joint effect on SCCHN risk between the polymorphisms and HPV16 seropositivity. Notably, this effect modification was particularly pronounced for oropharyngeal cancer in subgroups including never smokers, never drinkers and younger subjects. Our results suggested that polymorphisms of NOXA and MCL1 may modify the risk of HPV16-associated oropharyngeal cancer. The further identification of population subgroups at higher risk provides evidence that HPV-targeting treatment may help benefit SCCHN. However, larger studies are needed to validate our findings

  2. The AP-1 Binding Sites Located in the pol Gene Intragenic Regulatory Region of HIV-1 Are Important for Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Laurence; Vandenhoudt, Nathalie; de Walque, Stéphane; Van Driessche, Benoît; Bergamaschi, Anna; Martinelli, Valérie; Cherrier, Thomas; Vanhulle, Caroline; Guiguen, Allan; David, Annie; Burny, Arsène; Herbein, Georges; Pancino, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously identified an important intragenic region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome, whose complete functional unit is composed of the 5103 fragment, the DNaseI-hypersensitive site HS7 and the 5105 fragment. These fragments (5103 and 5105) both exhibit a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-inducible enhancer activity on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. Here, we characterized the three previously identified AP-1 binding sites of fragment 5103 by showing the PMA-inducible in vitro binding and in vivo recruitment of c-Fos, JunB and JunD to this fragment located at the end of the pol gene. Functional analyses demonstrated that the intragenic AP-1 binding sites are fully responsible for the PMA-dependent enhancer activity of fragment 5103. Moreover, infection of T-lymphoid Jurkat and promonocytic U937 cells with wild-type and mutant viruses demonstrated that mutations of the intragenic AP-1 sites individually or in combination altered HIV-1 replication. Importantly, mutations of the three intragenic AP-1 sites led to a decreased in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the viral promoter, strongly supporting that the deleterious effect of these mutations on viral replication occurs, at least partly, at the transcriptional level. Single-round infections of monocyte-derived macrophages confirmed the importance of intragenic AP-1 sites for HIV-1 infectivity. PMID:21526160

  3. Anti-inflammatory properties of clovamide and Theobroma cacao phenolic extracts in human monocytes: evaluation of respiratory burst, cytokine release, NF-κB activation, and PPARγ modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawu; Locatelli, Monica; Bardelli, Claudio; Amoruso, Angela; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Arlorio, Marco; Brunelleschi, Sandra

    2011-05-25

    There is a great interest in the potential health benefits of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and dark chocolate. We investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of clovamide (a N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amide present in cocoa beans) and two phenolic extracts from unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, by evaluating superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production, cytokine release, and NF-κB activation in human monocytes stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The effects of rosmarinic acid are shown for comparison. Clovamide and rosmarinic acid inhibited PMA-induced O(2)(-) production and cytokine release (with a bell-shaped curve and maximal inhibition at 10-100 nM), as well as PMA-induced NF-κB activation; the two cocoa extracts were less effective. In all tests, clovamide was the most potent compound and also enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activity, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects. These findings indicate clovamide as a possible bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory activity in human cells.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8 through the attenuation of ERK and NF-kappaB in HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Young; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Sang-Yong; Shin, Tae-Yong; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2007-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major form of tea catechin and has a variety of biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EGCG on the secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8, as well as its possible mechanism of action by using the human mast cell line (HMC-1). EGCG was treated before the activation of HMC-1 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore (A23187). To investigate the effect of EGCG on PMA+A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, ELISA, Western blot analysis, electrophorectic mobility shift assay and luciferase assay were used in this study. EGCG (100 microM) inhibited PMA+A23187-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8 expression and production. EGCG inhibited the intracellular Ca(2+) level. EGCG attenuated PMA+A23187-induced NF-kappaB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation, but not that of c-Jun N-terminal kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. EGCG inhibited the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8 through the inhibition of the intracellular Ca(2+) level, and of ERK1/2 and NF-kappaB activation. These results indicate that EGCG may be helpful in regulating mast-cell-mediated allergic inflammatory response.

  5. Luteolin isolated from the flowers of Lonicera japonica suppresses inflammatory mediator release by blocking NF-kappaB and MAPKs activation pathways in HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Lee, John-Hwa; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2010-01-18

    Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxylflavone) is a plant flavonoid and pharmacologically active agent that has been isolated from several plant species. In the present study, the effect of luteolin from the flowers of Lonicera japonica on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-induced mast cell activation was examined. Luteolin significantly inhibited the induction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by PMA plus A23187. Moreover, luteolin attenuated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and intracellular Ca2+ levels. In activated HMC-1 cells, the phosphorylation of extra-signal response kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK 1/2), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were decreased by treatment of the cells with luteolin. Luteolin inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, IkappaB degradation, and luciferase activity. Furthermore, luteolin suppressed the expression of TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-6, GM-CSF, and COX-2 through a decrease in the intracellular Ca2+ levels, and also showed a suppression of the ERK 1/2, JNK 1/2, and NF-kappaB activation. These results indicated that luteolin from the flowers of Lonicera japonica exerted a regulatory effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as RA, allergy disease and IBD.

  6. Differences in radiosensitivity of the respiratory burst generated in HL-60 cells via different signal transduction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaffenberger, W.; Beuningen, D. van

    1994-01-01

    Induced differentiation of the promyelocytic leukaemia cell line, HL-60, is associated with the acquisition of functional properties, like the expression of specific receptors and the competence to exert the respiratory burst (RB). In this system we evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the signal transduction processes involved in the activation of the respiratory burst/NADPH oxidase. HL-60 cells were X-irradiated with up to 1 Gy and induced towards granulocytic differentiation by treatment with 1.25% DMSO on day 0. The expression of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR), the development of responsiveness of the cells to its ligand (f-MLP) and to 4 β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were measured up to day 7 postinduction/irradiation. Using flow cytometry, fluorescinated formyl-hexapeptide or unlabelled f-MLP as ligands and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) as an indicator of RB activity, respectively, the acquisition of functional responsiveness to both stimuli was determined. (author)

  7. Activation and regulation of arachidonic acid release in rabbit peritoneal neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, W.

    1988-01-01

    Arachidonic acid release in rabbit neutrophils can be enhanced by the addition of chemotactic fMet-Leu-Phe, platelet-activating factor, PAF, or the calcium ionophore A23187. Over 80% of the release [ 3 H]arachidonic acid comes from phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. The release is dose-dependent and increases with increasing concentration of the stimulus. The A23187-induced release increases with increasing time of the stimulation. [ 3 H]arachidonic acid release, but not the rise in the concentration of intracellular calcium, is inhibited in pertussis toxin-treated neutrophils stimulated with PAF. The [ 3 H]arachidonic acid released by A23187 is potentiated while that release by fMET-Leu-Phe or PAF is inhibited in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA, treated rabbit neutrophils. The protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine, H-7, has no effect on the potentiation by PMA of the A23187-induced release, it prevents the inhibition by PMA of the release produced by PAF or fMet-Leu-Phe. In addition, PMA increases arachidonic acid release in H-7-treated cells stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022 increases the level of diacylglycerol in neutrophils stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe. Furthermore, R59022 potentiates [ 3 H] arachidonic acid release produced by fMet-Leu-Phe. This potentiation is not inhibited by H-7, in fact, it is increased in H-7-treated neutrophils

  8. Dual Stimulus-Dependent Effect of Oenothera paradoxa Extract on the Respiratory Burst in Human Leukocytes: Suppressing for Escherichia coli and Phorbol Myristate Acetate and Stimulating for Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Burzynska-Pedziwiatr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a growing body of evidence suggests that plant polyphenols can modulate human immune responses, their simultaneous action on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst is currently poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that various polyphenols contained in plant extracts might affect the oxidative burst of phagocytes, we evaluated the effects of ethanolic O. paradoxa extract polyphenols on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst in vitro activated by different stimuli, including opsonized bacteria E. coli, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP. Samples were analyzed by the dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry assay. Our results showed that the extract repressed significantly and dose-dependently reactive oxygen species production in both cell types stimulated with E. coli and PMA (P < 0.05 and its inhibitory efficiency was stimulus- and cell-type-dependent. Interestingly, there was significant stimulatory effect of the extract on bursting phagocytes induced by fMLP (P < 0.05. Additionally, several flavonoids and phenolic compounds as well as penta-galloyl-β-(D-glucose (PGG, the representative of hydrolyzable tannins, were identified in the 60% extract by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. In summary, the ethanolic O. paradoxa extract, rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibits dual stimulus-dependent effect on the respiratory burst in human leukocytes; hence, it might affect immune responses in humans.

  9. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin potentially attenuates the gene expression of pituitary gonadotropin β-subunits in a fetal age-specific fashion: a comparative study using cultured pituitaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tomoki; Yamamoto, Midori; Himeno, Masaru; Takechi, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Tadatoshi; Ishida, Takumi; Ishii, Yuji; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2011-04-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes a reduction in gonadotropin biosynthesis in the fetal pituitary, resulting in the attenuated expression of steroidogenic proteins in the fetal gonads and the impairment of sexual behaviors in adulthood. However, the mechanism of the attenuation remains unknown. To address this issue, we investigated whether TCDD affects the pituitary production of gonadotropins, using cultured pituitary. In the absence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a regulator of gonadotropin biosynthesis, TCDD did not affect the expression of gonadotropin mRNAs both in fetal and postnatal pituitaries. On the other hand, in the presence of GnRH, TCDD interfered with the synthesis of gonadotropin β-subunit mRNAs only in the fetal pituitary. A protein kinase C (PKC) activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and a PKA activator (8-bromoadenosine-3' 5'-cyclic monophosphate) induced the expression of gonadotropin mRNAs in the fetal pituitary. Among the subunits, only the induction of β-subunit was reduced by TCDD treatment. These results suggest that TCDD reduces gonadotropin biosynthesis via damage to GnRH-stimulated PKC and PKA signaling in a β-subunit- and fetal age-specific manner.

  10. Regulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Ectodomain Shedding and Its Role in Cell Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, Alex; Kwak, Taekyoung; Jules, Joel; Harja, Evis; Landgraf, Ralf; Hudson, Barry I.

    2016-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand transmembrane receptor that can undergo proteolysis at the cell surface to release a soluble ectodomain. Here we observed that ectodomain shedding of RAGE is critical for its role in regulating signaling and cellular function. Ectodomain shedding of both human and mouse RAGE was dependent on ADAM10 activity and induced with chemical activators of shedding (ionomycin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate) and endogenous stimuli (serum and RAGE ligands). Ectopic expression of the splice variant of RAGE (RAGE splice variant 4), which is resistant to ectodomain shedding, inhibited RAGE ligand dependent cell signaling, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell spreading, and cell migration. We found that blockade of RAGE ligand signaling with soluble RAGE or inhibitors of MAPK or PI3K blocked RAGE-dependent cell migration but did not affect RAGE splice variant 4 cell migration. We finally demonstrated that RAGE function is dependent on secretase activity as ADAM10 and γ-secretase inhibitors blocked RAGE ligand-mediated cell migration. Together, our data suggest that proteolysis of RAGE is critical to mediate signaling and cell function and may therefore emerge as a novel therapeutic target for RAGE-dependent disease states. PMID:27022018

  11. Regulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Ectodomain Shedding and Its Role in Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, Alex; Kwak, Taekyoung; Jules, Joel; Harja, Evis; Landgraf, Ralf; Hudson, Barry I

    2016-06-03

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand transmembrane receptor that can undergo proteolysis at the cell surface to release a soluble ectodomain. Here we observed that ectodomain shedding of RAGE is critical for its role in regulating signaling and cellular function. Ectodomain shedding of both human and mouse RAGE was dependent on ADAM10 activity and induced with chemical activators of shedding (ionomycin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate) and endogenous stimuli (serum and RAGE ligands). Ectopic expression of the splice variant of RAGE (RAGE splice variant 4), which is resistant to ectodomain shedding, inhibited RAGE ligand dependent cell signaling, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell spreading, and cell migration. We found that blockade of RAGE ligand signaling with soluble RAGE or inhibitors of MAPK or PI3K blocked RAGE-dependent cell migration but did not affect RAGE splice variant 4 cell migration. We finally demonstrated that RAGE function is dependent on secretase activity as ADAM10 and γ-secretase inhibitors blocked RAGE ligand-mediated cell migration. Together, our data suggest that proteolysis of RAGE is critical to mediate signaling and cell function and may therefore emerge as a novel therapeutic target for RAGE-dependent disease states. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Haskap Cultivars is Polyphenols-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L. berries have long been used for their health promoting properties against chronic conditions. The current study investigated the effect of Canadian haskap berry extracts on pro-inflammatory cytokines using a human monocytic cell line THP-1 derived macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. Methanol extracts of haskap from different growing locations in Canada were prepared and characterized for their total phenolic profile using colorimetric assays and liquid chromatography—Mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. Human THP-1 monocytes were seeded in 24-well plates (5 × 105/well and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.1 μg/mL for 48 h to induce macrophage differentiation. After 48 h, the differentiated macrophages were washed with Hank’s buffer and treated with various concentrations of test compounds for 4 h, followed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulation (18 h. Borealis cultivar showed the highest phenolic content, flavonoid content and anthocyanin content (p < 0.05. A negative correlation existed between the polyphenol concentration of the extracts and pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, prostaglandin (PGE2, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme. Borealis exhibited comparable anti-inflammatory effects to COX inhibitory drug, diclofenac. The results showed that haskap berry polyphenols has the potential to act as an effective inflammation inhibitor.

  13. Hemocyte-specific responses to the peroxidizing herbicide fomesafen in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Jacqueline [UMR 6553 Ecobio CNRS Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France); Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz [UMR 985 INRA-Agrocampus Ecobiologie et Qualite des Hydrosystemes Continentaux, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc CS 84215, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France); Lagadic, Laurent [UMR 985 INRA-Agrocampus Ecobiologie et Qualite des Hydrosystemes Continentaux, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc CS 84215, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France)]. E-mail: laurent.lagadic@rennes.inra.fr

    2007-03-15

    Responses of circulating hemocytes were studied in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to 10, 30, 90, and 270 {mu}g/L fomesafen for 24 and 504 h. Flow cytometry was used to quantify fomesafen-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagocytic activity on Escherichia coli, and oxidative burst when hemocytes were challenged by E. coli or phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Lysosomal membrane damage was assessed, using the neutral-red retention time (NRRT) assay. Exposure to fomesafen for 24 h resulted in increase in ROS levels and decreases in phagocytosis and the oxidative burst in PMA-stimulated hemocytes. After 504 h, intracellular levels of ROS returned to normal, but phagocytosis of E. coli was still inhibited and the associated oxidative burst significantly reduced. After both durations of exposure, decreases of NRRT indicated that lysosome membrane fragility increased with fomesafen concentration. Potential implications for the health and survival of the snails and consequences on populations are discussed. - Fomesafen inhibited phagocytosis and the associated oxidative burst, and increased lysosome fragility in L. stagnalis hemocytes.

  14. Inhibitory effects of kaempferol on the invasion of human breast carcinoma cells by downregulating the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenglin; Zhao, Yuanwei; Yang, Dan; Yu, Yanyan; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Ziming; Zhang, Bei; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2015-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been regarded as major critical molecules assisting tumor cells during metastasis, for excessive ECM (ECM) degradation, and cancer cell invasion. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo assays were employed to examine the inhibitory effects of kaempferol, a natural polyphenol of flavonoid family, on tumor metastasis. Data showed that kaempferol could inhibit adhesion, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, kaempferol led to the reduced activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which were detected by gelatin zymography, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis, respectively. Further elucidation of the mechanism revealed that kaempferol treatment inhibited the activation of transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) and MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, kaempferol repressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-9 expression and activity through suppressing the translocation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) and MAPK signaling pathway. Our results also indicated that kaempferol could block the lung metastasis of B16F10 murine melanoma cells as well as the expression of MMP-9 in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrated that kaempferol could inhibit cancer cell invasion through blocking the PKCδ/MAPK/AP-1 cascade and subsequent MMP-9 expression and its activity. Therefore, kaempferol might act as a therapeutic potential candidate for cancer metastasis.

  15. Macrophage Immune Response Suppression by Recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens, the ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatoleslam, Atefeh; Hemmati, Mina; Ebadat, Saeedeh; Movahedi, Bahram; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Macrophage immune responses are affected by the secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This study aimed to examine the immune responses of macrophages to Mtb secretory antigens, namely ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10. Methods: THP-1 cells (a human monocytic cell line) were cultured and differentiated to macrophages by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The cytotoxicity of the recombinant Mtb proteins was assessed using the MTT assay. Two important immune responses of macrophages, namely NO and ROS production, were measured in response to the ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with SPSS, version 16, and considered significant at Pproteins markedly reduced macrophage immune response. The treatment of the THP-1-differentiated cells with ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 reduced NO and ROS production. The treated THP-1-differentiated cells exhibited less inducible NO synthase activity than did the untreated cells. No toxic effect on macrophage viability was observed for the applied proteins at the different concentrations. Conclusion: It seems that the decline in macrophage immune response is due to the suppression of NO and ROS production pathways without any effect on cell viability. PMID:27365551

  16. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  17. Proteomic Profiling of a Primary CD4+ T Cell Model of HIV-1 Latency Identifies Proteins Whose Differential Expression Correlates with Reactivation of Latent HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jamaluddin Md; Liu, Hongbing; Hu, Pei-Wen; Nikolai, Bryan C; Wu, Hulin; Miao, Hongyu; Rice, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    The latent HIV-1 reservoir of memory CD4 + T cells that persists during combination antiviral therapy prevents a cure of infection. Insight into mechanisms of latency and viral reactivation are essential for the rational design of strategies to reduce the latent reservoir. In this study, we quantified the levels of >2,600 proteins in the CCL19 primary CD4 + T cell model of HIV-1 latency. We profiled proteins under conditions that promote latent infection and after cells were treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) + ionomycin, which is known to efficiently induce reactivation of latent HIV-1. In an analysis of cells from two healthy blood donors, we identified 61 proteins that were upregulated ≥2-fold, and 36 proteins that were downregulated ≥2-fold under conditions in which latent viruses were reactivated. These differentially expressed proteins are, therefore, candidates for cellular factors that regulate latency or viral reactivation. Two unexpected findings were obtained from the proteomic data: (1) the interactions among the majority of upregulated proteins are largely undetermined in published protein-protein interaction networks and (2) downregulated proteins are strongly associated with Gene Ontology terms related to mitochondrial protein synthesis. This proteomic data set provides a useful resource for future mechanistic studies of HIV-1 latency.

  18. Relation between radio-adaptive response and cell to cell communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiichiro Ishii

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been considered to cause severe damages to DNA and do harm to cells in proportion to the dose, however low it might be. In 1984, Wolff et al. showed that human peripheral lymphocytes adapted to the low-dose radiation from 3 H-TdR added in culture medium and became resistant to the subsequent irradiation with high-doses of X-rays. This response, which is called radio-adaptive response, is also induced by X-rays and gamma-rays in human lymphocytes and Chinese hamster V79 cells. However, the mechanisms of and conditions for adaptive responses to radiation have not been clarified. With an objective of clarifying the conditions for adaptive responses of cells to radiation, we examined how the cell to cell communication is involved in the adaptive responses. We irradiated normal human embryo-derived (HE) cells and cancer cells (HeLa) in culture at high density with low-dose X-ray and examined their radio-adaptive responses by measuring the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-ray irradiation using the Trypan Blue dye-exclusion test method. We also conducted experiments to examine the effects of Ca 2+ ions and Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (TPA) which are supposed to be involved in cell to cell communication. (author)

  19. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  20. Lundep, a sand fly salivary endonuclease increases Leishmania parasite survival in neutrophils and inhibits XIIa contact activation in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza C Chagas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the host's first line of defense against infections, and their extracellular traps (NET were recently shown to kill Leishmania parasites. Here we report a NET-destroying molecule (Lundep from the salivary glands of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome of Lu. longipalpis showed the potential presence of an endonuclease. Indeed, not only was the cloned cDNA (Lundep shown to encode a highly active ss- and dsDNAse, but also the same activity was demonstrated to be secreted by salivary glands of female Lu. longipalpis. Lundep hydrolyzes both ss- and dsDNA with little sequence specificity with a calculated DNase activity of 300000 Kunitz units per mg of protein. Disruption of PMA (phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate- or parasite-induced NETs by treatment with recombinant Lundep or salivary gland homogenates increases parasite survival in neutrophils. Furthermore, co-injection of recombinant Lundep with metacyclic promastigotes significantly exacerbates Leishmania infection in mice when compared with PBS alone or inactive (mutagenized Lundep. We hypothesize that Lundep helps the parasite to establish an infection by allowing it to escape from the leishmanicidal activity of NETs early after inoculation. Lundep may also assist blood meal intake by lowering the local viscosity caused by the release of host DNA and as an anticoagulant by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.

  1. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of resveratrol in activated HMC-1 cells: pivotal roles of NF-kappaB and MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; Jang, Hye-Jin; Chae, Hee-Sung; Oh, You-Chang; Choi, Jang-Gi; Lee, Young-Seob; Kim, Jong-Hak; Kim, Youn Chul; Sohn, Dong Hwan; Park, Hyun; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2009-05-01

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries, and peanuts. Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of resveratrol including cardiovascular and cancer-chemopreventive properties. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of resveratrol on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as to elucidate its mechanism of action in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). Cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187 in the presence or absence of resveratrol. To study the possible effects of resveratrol, ELISA, RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, fluorescence, and luciferase activity assays were used in this study. Resveratrol significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Moreover, resveratrol attenuated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and intracellular Ca2+ levels. In activated HMC-1 cells, phosphorylation of extra-signal response kinase (ERK) 1/2 decreased after treatment with resveratrol. Resveratrol inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, IkappaB degradation, and luciferase activity. Resveratrol suppressed the expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8 and COX-2 through a decrease in the intracellular levels of Ca2+ and ERK 1/2, as well as activation of NF-kappaB. These results indicated that resveratrol exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  2. Sophora flavescens Aiton inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of the NF kappaB/IkappaB signal pathway in human mast cell line (HMC-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Myung Hee; Lee, Ji Young; Jung, Hee; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Go, Ho Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2009-03-01

    The dried roots of Sophora flavescens Aiton (SFA) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea, and asthma. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SFA on the inflammatory allergic reaction using human mast cell-1 (HMC-1). SFA (200mg/kg) inhibited the mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in vivo and the release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells by compound 48/80. In addition, the expression levels of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 were also decreased by SFA treatment. In molecular mechanism level, this study showed that SFA inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF) kappaB through inhibition of the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB-alpha, which is an inhibitor of NF kappaB. Moreover, SFA suppressed PMA plus A23187-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase. The inhibited induction of NF kappaB promoter by SFA was determined using luciferase activity. These results suggest that SFA could be used as a treatment for mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases.

  3. C-kit mutations and PKC crosstalks: PKC translocates to nucleous only in cells HMC⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobío, Araceli; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M

    2011-09-01

    The human mast cell lines HMC-1(560) and HMC-1(560,816) were used to study histamine release, Ca(2+) signaling and protein kinase C (PKC) localization and expression, with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Both sublines carry activating mutations in the proto-oncogene of c-kit that cause autophosphorylation and permanent c-kit tyrosine kinase activation. Both have the Gly-560 → Val mutation but only the second carries the Asp-816 → Val mutation. In this study, it was observed that the stimulation of PKC has different effects in HMC-1(560) and HMC-1(560,816) and this would be related to the difference in activating mutations in both mast cell lines. PKC activation increases ionomycin-induced histamine release in HMC-1(560) . This article demonstrates an opposite histamine response in HMC-1(560,816) cells, even though classical PKCs are the family of isozymes responsible for this effect in both cellular lines. Furthermore, it can be observed that upon cell stimulation with PMA, primarily cytosolic PKC translocates to the nucleous in HMC-1(560,816) cells, but not in HMC-1(560) cell line. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Apigenin inhibits release of inflammatory mediators by blocking the NF-κB activation pathways in the HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; Lee, John-Hwa; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2011-09-01

    Apigenin is a plant flavonoid and a pharmacologically active agent that has been isolated from several plant species. However, the molecular mechanism of apigenin-mediated immune modulation has not been fully understood. One of the possible mechanisms of its protective effects is the down-regulation of inflammatory responses. In this study, we used cells from the human mast cell line (HMC-1) to investigate this effect. Apigenin significantly inhibits the inductive effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187 on the production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Moreover, apigenin attenuated the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and intracellular Ca(2+) level. In activated HMC-1 cells, apigenin inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, IκB degradation, and luciferase activity. Furthermore, apigenin suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, GM-CSF, and COX-2 by decreasing the intracellular Ca(2+) level and inhibiting NF-κB activation. These results indicate that apigenin has a potential regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions that are mediated by mast cells.

  5. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  6. Di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), an anticancer agent, exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in activated human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Han, Na-Ra; Yoon, Kyoung Wan; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-10-01

    Inflammation has been closely associated with the development and progression of cancer. Previously, we reported that mast cells play a critical role in tumor growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an anticancer agent, di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), on an activated human mast cell line, in this case HMC-1 cells. We evaluated the effect and specific molecular mechanism of Dp44mT on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI) using HMC-1 cells. Here, we demonstrated that Dp44mT significantly decreased the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor without exposing activated HMC-1 cells to any cytotoxicity. In activated mast cells, Dp44mT mitigated the strong production and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, in this case, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, through a blockade of caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB activities. Furthermore, phosphorylations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family included in inflammatory signaling cascades were significantly inhibited by a Dp44mT treatment. Overall, our results indicate that the anticancer agent Dp44mT has an anti-inflammatory effect and may be of therapeutic importance for the treatment of mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  7. The anti-invasive effect of lucidenic acids isolated from a new Ganoderma lucidum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chia-Jui; Chau, Chi-Fai; Chen, Kuang-Dee; Chen, Deng-Hai; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2007-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known mushroom with various pharmacological effects that has been used for health and longevity purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-invasive effect of lucidenic acids isolated from a new G. lucidum strain (YK-02) against human hepatoma carcinoma (HepG(2)) cells. Triterpenoid components in the ethanol extract of G. lucidum (YK-02) were separated by means of a semi-preparative RP HPLC. Four major peaks were separated and crystallized from triterpenoids fraction, and were identified as lucidenic acids A, B, C, and N according to their spectroscopic values of (1)H NMR and MS. Treatment of the lucidenic acids (50 microM) in the presence of 200 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) after 24 h of incubation all resulted in significant inhibitory effects on PMA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasion of HepG(2 )cells. The results indicate that the lucidenic acids isolated from G. lucidum (YK-02) are anti-invasive bioactive components on hepatoma cells.

  8. An in vitro investigation of the anti inflammatory properties of potassium humate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joone, G.K.; van Rensburg, C.E.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Faculty of Health Science, Dept. of Pharmacology

    2004-06-01

    In this study the anti-inflammatory potential of potassium humate, derived from bituminous coal, has been investigated in vitro. Exposure of resting and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulated human neutrophils to potassium humate resulted in a decreased expression of CR3 by activated, but not resting cells, in a dose-related way. Humate also inhibited the adhesion of PMA-stimulated neutrophils to a baby hamster kidney cell line expressing ICAM1 (the CR3 ligand) (BHK331-7). Similar results were obtained using normal BHK cells indicating that this inhibition does not only target specific adhesion molecules on the neutrophil and eosinophil membrane by activated phagocytes, but also affects other mechanisms involved in cell adhesion. Opsonised Sephadex or FMLP/Cyto B-induced degranulation of neutrophils and eosinophils were also decreased by humate treatment. Inhibition of the adhesion of activated phagocytes, as well as inhibition of the release of granule polypeptides, both of which are responsible for tissue damage during inflammatory processes, are attractive targets for anti-inflammatory drugs. Because humate is well tolerated with an excellent safety profile it merits further evaluation in patients suffering from inflammatory conditions.

  9. Nonrandom duplication of the chromosome bearing a mutated Ha-ras-1 allele in mouse skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.B.; Aldaz, C.M.; Conti, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors analyzed the normal/mutated allelic ratio of the Ha-ras-1 gene in mouse skin squamous cell carcinomas induced by initation with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and promotion with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. DNA for these studies was obtained from short-term tumor cultures (24-72 hr) to eliminate the contribution of stromal and inflammatory cells to the sample. The alelotypic analysis was performed in 25 squamous cell carcinomas by quantitative radio-analysis of the Xba I restriction fragment length polymorphism as detected by BS9, a v-Ha-ras probe, and rehybridization of the Southern blots with probes for chromosomes 7 and 9. Approximately 85% of the tumors presented overrepresentation of the mutated allele in the form of 1 normal/2 mutated (12 tumors), 0 normal/3 mutated (4 tumors), 0 normal/2 mutated (3 tumors), and gene amplification (3 tumors). No tumor was found with a 2 normal/1 mutated allelic ratio. These results support their previous cytogenetic studies, indicating that trisomy of chromosome 7 is present in themajority of these tumors show that nonrandom duplication of the chromosome carrying the mutated Ha-ras-1 allel appears to be a major mechanism by which the mutated gene is overrepresented

  10. Stunned Silence: Gene Expression Programs in Human Cells Infected with Monkeypox or Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubins, Kathleen H.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Relman, David A.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2011-01-01

    Poxviruses use an arsenal of molecular weapons to evade detection and disarm host immune responses. We used DNA microarrays to investigate the gene expression responses to infection by monkeypox virus (MPV), an emerging human pathogen, and Vaccinia virus (VAC), a widely used model and vaccine organism, in primary human macrophages, primary human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Even as the overwhelmingly infected cells approached their demise, with extensive cytopathic changes, their gene expression programs appeared almost oblivious to poxvirus infection. Although killed (gamma-irradiated) MPV potently induced a transcriptional program characteristic of the interferon response, no such response was observed during infection with either live MPV or VAC. Moreover, while the gene expression response of infected cells to stimulation with ionomycin plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), or poly (I-C) was largely unimpaired by infection with MPV, a cluster of pro-inflammatory genes were a notable exception. Poly(I-C) induction of genes involved in alerting the innate immune system to the infectious threat, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and beta, CCL5 and IL-6, were suppressed by infection with live MPV. Thus, MPV selectively inhibits expression of genes with critical roles in cell-signaling pathways that activate innate immune responses, as part of its strategy for stealthy infection. PMID:21267444

  11. Stunned silence: gene expression programs in human cells infected with monkeypox or vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen H Rubins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses use an arsenal of molecular weapons to evade detection and disarm host immune responses. We used DNA microarrays to investigate the gene expression responses to infection by monkeypox virus (MPV, an emerging human pathogen, and Vaccinia virus (VAC, a widely used model and vaccine organism, in primary human macrophages, primary human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Even as the overwhelmingly infected cells approached their demise, with extensive cytopathic changes, their gene expression programs appeared almost oblivious to poxvirus infection. Although killed (gamma-irradiated MPV potently induced a transcriptional program characteristic of the interferon response, no such response was observed during infection with either live MPV or VAC. Moreover, while the gene expression response of infected cells to stimulation with ionomycin plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, or poly (I-C was largely unimpaired by infection with MPV, a cluster of pro-inflammatory genes were a notable exception. Poly(I-C induction of genes involved in alerting the innate immune system to the infectious threat, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and beta, CCL5 and IL-6, were suppressed by infection with live MPV. Thus, MPV selectively inhibits expression of genes with critical roles in cell-signaling pathways that activate innate immune responses, as part of its strategy for stealthy infection.

  12. Effect of Cadmium on Macrophage U937 Cell Proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Later, U937 cells were also pre-treated with phorbol 12- myristate, 13-acetate to transform the cells from the monocyte-like morphology to the macrophage form. The macrophage U937 cells were then incubated with different concentrations of cadmium and the supernatants of the cell cultures were analyzed for the ...

  13. Interferon-gamma up-regulates a unique set of proteins in human keratinocytes. Molecular cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding the RGD-sequence-containing protein IGUP I-5111

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Leffers, H; Madsen, Peder

    1993-01-01

    AMP (Bt2cAMP), dibutyryl cGMP (Bt2cGMP)] and compounds known to affect keratinocytes [4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), retinoic acid, Ca2+, dexamethasone, lipopolysaccharides, foetal calf serum]. Protein IGUP I-5111 was selected for further studies as its level is affected by simian-virus-40...

  14. Cell-type specific DNA-protein interactions at the tissue-type plasminogen activator promoter in human endothelial and HeLa cells in vivo and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.; Herr, I.; Lansink, M.; Angel, P.; Kooistra, T.

    1997-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene expression in human endothelial cells and HeLa cells is stimulated by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at the level of transcription. To study the mechanism of transcriptional regulation, we have characterized a

  15. Adverse effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester to the zebra mussel: A comparison with the benzoylecgonine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parolini, Marco; Binelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine and its metabolites are the prevalent psychotropic substances in aquatic environment. However, to date the knowledge on their adverse effects to non-target organisms is inadequate. The aims of this study were to investigate sub-lethal effects induced by the ecgonine methyl ester (EME) to the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha and to compare its toxicity to that by benzoylecgonine (BE), the other main cocaine metabolite. EME sub-lethal effects were investigated by 14 days in-vivo exposures and a multi-biomarker approach. Slight variations in biomarker responses were found at 0.15 μg/L treatment. 0.5 μg/L EME treatment induced destabilization of lysosome membranes, an overall inactivation of defense enzymes, increases in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA fragmentation, but no variations in fixed genetic damage. The use of a biomarker response index (BRI) showed that at 0.5 μg/L both cocaine metabolites had the same toxicity to zebra mussels specimens. -- Highlights: •Sub-lethal effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester (EME) to D. polymorpha were investigated. •Realistic EME concentrations caused notable adverse effects in treated bivalves. •EME induced oxidative injuries to treated-mussel lipids, protein and DNA. •EME toxicity was comparable to the benzoylecgonine one. -- Environmentally relevant ecgonine methyl ester concentrations induced adverse effects to zebra mussels

  16. Low- and high-affinity phorbol ester and diglyceride interactions with protein kinase C: 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol enhances phorbol ester- and diacylglycerol-induced activity but alone does not induce activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S J; Seiz, J L; Stagliano, B A; Cook, A C; Milano, S K; Ho, C; Stubbs, C D

    2001-05-22

    Phorbol ester-induced conventional protein kinase C (PKCalpha, -betaIota/IotaIota, and -gamma) isozyme activities are potentiated by 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol. This has been attributed to a "cooperative" interaction of the two activators with two discrete sites termed the low- and high-affinity phorbol ester binding sites, respectively [Slater, S. J., Milano, S. K., Stagliano, B. A., Gergich, K. J., Ho, C., Mazurek, A., Taddeo, F. J., Kelly, M. B., Yeager, M. D., and Stubbs, C. D. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 3804-3815]. Here, we report that the 1-O-alkyl ether diglyceride, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (HAG), like its 1,2-diacyl counterpart, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), also potentiated PKCalpha, -betaI/II, and -gamma activities induced by the phorbol ester 4beta-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Similar to OAG, HAG was found to bind to the low-affinity phorbol ester binding site and to enhance high-affinity phorbol ester binding, and to decrease the level of Ca(2+) required for phorbol ester-induced activity, while being without effect on the Ca(2+) dependence of membrane association. Thus, similar to OAG, HAG may also potentiate phorbol ester-induced activity by interacting with the low-affinity phorbol ester binding site, leading to a reduced level of Ca(2+) required for the activating conformational change. However, HAG was found not to behave like a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol in that alone it did not induce PKC activity, and also in that it enhanced OAG-induced activity. The results reveal HAG to be a member of a new class of "nonactivating" compounds that modulate PKC activity by interacting with the low-affinity phorbol ester binding site.

  17. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits synthesis and release of decidual prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, I.; Costello, A.; Ganong, B.; Bell, R.M.; Handwerger, S.

    1986-01-01

    Activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C by diacylglycerol and phorbol esters has been shown to mediate release of hormones in many systems. To determine whether protein kinase C activation is also involved in the regulation of prolactin release from human decidual, the authors have examined the effects of various acylglycerols and phorbol esters on the synthesis and release of prolactin from cultured human decidual cells. sn-1,2-Dioctanolyglycerol (diC 8 ), which is known to stimulate protein kinase C in other systems, inhibited prolactin release in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 53.1% at 100 μM. Diolein (100 μM), which also stimulates protein kinase C activity in some systems, inhibited prolactin release by 21.3%. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, and 4β-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which activate protein kinase C in other systems, also inhibited the release of prolactin, which the protein kinase C inactivate 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate was without effect. The inhibition of prolactin release was secondary to a decrease in prolactin synthesis. Although diC 8 and PMA inhibited the synthesis and release of prolactin, these agents had no effect on the synthesis or release of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable [ 35 S]methionine-labeled decidual proteins and did not cause the release of the cytosolic enzymes lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. DiC 8 and PMA stimulates the specific activity of protein kinase C in decidual tissue by 14.6 and 14.0-fold, respectively. The inhibition of the synthesis and release of prolactin by diC 8 and phorbol esters strongly implicates protein kinase C in the regulation of the production and release of prolactin from the decidua

  18. Dioctanoylglycerol stimulates accumulation of [methyl-14C]choline and its incorporation into acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine in a human cholinergic neuroblastoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, B. E.; Richardson, U. I.; Nitsch, R. M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dioctanoylglycerol, a synthetic diacylglycerol, stimulated [14C]choline uptake in cultured human neuroblastoma (LA-N-2) cells. As this effect has not, to our knowledge, been reported before, it was of interest to characterize it in more detail. In the presence of 500 microM dioctanoylglycerol the levels of [14C]choline attained during a 2 hour labeling period were elevated by 78 +/- 12%, while [14C]acetylcholine and long fatty acyl chain [14C]phosphatidylcholine levels increased by 26 +/- 2% and 19 +/- 5%, respectively (mean +/- S.E.M.). Total (long chain plus dioctanoyl-) [14C]phosphatidylcholine was increased by 198 +/- 33%. Kinetic analysis showed that dioctanoylglycerol reduced the apparent Km for choline uptake to 56 +/- 9% of control (n = 4). The Vmax was not significantly altered. The stimulation of [14C]choline accumulation by dioctanoylglycerol was not dependent on protein kinase C activation; the effect was not mimicked by phorbol ester or by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol, and was not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors H-7 or staurosporine, or by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The effect of dioctanoylglycerol was slightly (but not significantly) reduced by EGTA and strongly inhibited by the cell-permeant calcium chelator bis(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester. Although these results implicate elevated intracellular calcium in the response, dioctanoylglycerol did not increase phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in LA-N-2 cells, and its effect was not inhibited by the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022 (which blocks the conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid, a known stimulator of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Towards meso -Ester BODIPYs with Aggregation-Induced Emission Properties: The Effect of Substitution Positions

    KAUST Repository

    Chua, Ming Hui

    2015-06-17

    Three meso-ester boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes have been synthesized and functionalized with aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active tetraphenylethene or triphenylethene moieties. It was found that functionalizing at the different positions of the BODIPY core resulted in the final dye having different emission properties in response to aggregation: from aggregation-induced quenching (ACQ) to being AIE active. X-ray crystallographic analysis was thus performed to provide an explanation for these differences. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 is expressed on human megakaryocytes and negatively regulates the maturation of primary megakaryocytic progenitors and cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jiangnan, E-mail: xuejinagnan@263.net [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai 264003 (China); Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Haiya; Fu, Qiang; Cao, Yanning; Wang, Yuesi; Feng, Xiaoying; Fu, Aili [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai 264003 (China)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} LAIR-1 is expressed on human megakaryocytes from an early stage. {yields} Up-regulation of LAIR-1 negatively regulates megakaryocytic differentiation of cell line. {yields} LAIR-1 negatively regulates the differentiation of primary megakaryocytic progenitors. -- Abstract: Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is an inhibitory collagen receptor which belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Although the inhibitory function of LAIR-1 has been extensively described in multiple leukocytes, its role in megakaryocyte (MK) has not been explored so far. Here, we show that LAIR-1 is expressed on human bone marrow CD34{sup +}CD41a{sup +} and CD41a{sup +}CD42b{sup +} cells. LAIR-1 is also detectable in a fraction of human cord blood CD34{sup +} cell-derived MK that has morphological characteristics of immature MK. In megakaryoblastic cell line Dami, the membrane protein expression of LAIR-1 is up-regulated significantly when cells are treated with phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Furthermore, cross-linking of LAIR-1 in Dami cells with its natural ligand or anti-LAIR-1 antibody leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and PMA-promoted differentiation when examined by the MK lineage-specific markers (CD41a and CD42b) and polyploidization. In addition, we also observed that cross-linking of LAIR-1 results in decreased MK generation from primary human CD34{sup +} cells cultured in a cytokines cocktail that contains TPO. These results suggest that LAIR-1 is a likely candidate for an early marker of MK differentiation, and provide initial evidence indicating that LAIR-1 serves as a negative regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis.

  1. Macropinocytosis is responsible for the uptake of pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria by B lymphocytes (Raji cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Pérez Blanca Estela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical roles of B cells include the production of antibodies and cytokines and the generation of immunological memory, these being key factors in the adaptive immune response. However, their role in innate immunity is currently being recognised. Traditionally, B cells have been considered non-phagocytic cells; therefore, the uptake of bacteria by B cells is not extensively documented. In this study, we analysed some of the features of non-specific bacterial uptake by B lymphocytes from the Raji cell line. In our model, B cells were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSM, and Salmonella typhimurium (ST. Results Our observations revealed that the Raji B cells were readily infected by the three bacteria that were studied. All of the infections induced changes in the cellular membrane during bacterial internalisation. M. smegmatis and S. typhimurium were able to induce important membrane changes that were characterised by abundant filopodia and lamellipodia formation. These membrane changes were driven by actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. The intracellular growth of these bacteria was also controlled by B cells. M. tuberculosis infection also induced actin rearrangement-driven membrane changes; however, the B cells were not able to control this infection. The phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA treatment of B cells induced filopodia and lamellipodia formation, the production of spacious vacuoles (macropinosomes, and the fluid-phase uptake that is characteristic of macropinocytosis. S. typhimurium infection induced the highest fluid-phase uptake, although both mycobacteria also induced fluid uptake. A macropinocytosis inhibitor such as amiloride was used and abolished the bacterial uptake and the fluid-phase uptake that is triggered during the bacterial infection. Conclusions Raji B cells can internalise S. typhimurium and mycobacteria through an active process, such as

  2. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Y; Packialakshmi, B; Makkar, S K; Dridi, S; Rath, N C

    2014-11-15

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA), produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation, that has beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on avian macrophage, we treated a naturally transformed line of chicken macrophage cells named HTC with Na-butyrate in the absence or presence of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a metabolic activator, evaluating its various functional parameters. The results demonstrate that, butyrate by itself had no significant effect on variables such as nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of genes associated with various inflammatory cytokines but it inhibited NO production, and reduced the expression of cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 in LPS-stimulated cells. Butyrate decreased the expression of TGF-β3 in the presence or absence of LPS, while it had no effect on IL-4, Tβ4, and MMP2 gene expression. In addition, butyrate augmented PMA induced oxidative burst indicated by DCF-DA oxidation and restored LPS induced attenuation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Although butyrate had no significant effect on phagocytosis or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities of resting macrophages, it significantly suppressed the effects induced by their respective stimulants such as LPS induced phagocytosis and PMA induced MMP expression. These results suggest that butyrate has immunomodulatory property in the presence of agents that incite the cells thus, has potential to control inflammation and restore immune homeostasis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  4. Quercetin inhibits transcriptional up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor via suppressing protein kinase C-δ/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 signaling pathway in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Baba, Yuko; Ono, Shohei; Nakano, Tomohiro; Zhang, Qian; Sasaki, Yohei; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    It has been reported that the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is up-regulated in patients with allergic rhinitis and H1R expression level strongly correlates with the severity of allergy symptoms. Accordingly compounds that suppress the H1R gene expression are promising as useful anti-allergic medications. Recently, we demonstrated that histamine or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation induced the up-regulation of H1R gene expression through the protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 signaling pathway in HeLa cells expressing H1R endogenously. Quercetin is one of the well-characterized flavonoids and it possesses many biological activities including anti-allergic activity. However, effect of quercetin on H1R signaling is remained unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of quercetin on histamine- and PMA-induced up-regulation of H1R gene expression in HeLa cells. We also investigated its in vivo effects on the toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-sensitized allergy model rats. Quercetin suppressed histamine- and PMA-induced up-regulation of H1R gene expression. Quercetin also inhibited histamine- or PMA-induced phosphorylation of Tyr(311) of PKCδ and translocation of PKCδ to the Golgi. Pre-treatment with quercetin for 3weeks suppressed TDI-induced nasal allergy-like symptoms and elevation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of TDI-sensitized rats. These data suggest that quercetin suppresses H1R gene expression by the suppression of PKCδ activation through the inhibition of its translocation to the Golgi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA fragmentation and cell death mediated by T cell antigen receptor/CD3 complex on a leukemia T cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Maecker, H T; Levy, R

    1989-10-01

    An anti-T cell receptor (TcR) monoclonal antibody (mAb), LC4, directed against a human leukemic T cell line, SUP-T13, caused DNA fragmentation ("apoptosis") and cell death upon binding to this cell line. Cross-linking of receptor molecules was necessary for this effect since F(ab')2, but not Fab', fragments of LC4 could induce cell death. Five anti-CD3 mAb tested also caused apoptosis, but only when they were presented on a solid phase. Interestingly, soluble anti-CD3 mAb induced calcium flux and had an additive effect on the calcium flux and interleukin 2 receptor expression induced by LC4, but these anti-CD3 mAb reversed the growth inhibition and apoptosis caused by LC4. The calcium ionophore A23187, but not the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), also induced apoptosis, suggesting that protein kinase C activation alone does not cause apoptosis, although PMA is growth inhibitory. These results suggest that two distinct biological phenomena can accompany stimulation of the TcR/CD3 complex. In both cases, calcium flux and interleukin 2 receptor expression is induced, but only in one case is apoptosis and cell death seen. The signal initiating apoptosis can be selectively prevented by binding CD3 portion of the receptor in this cell line. This difference in signals mediated by the TcR/CD3 complex may be important in explaining the process of thymic selection, as well as in choosing anti-TcR mAb for therapeutic use.

  6. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-01-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased [Ca2+] significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of [Ca2+]i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased 45 Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells

  7. Effects of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methyl paraben) on Ca2+ concentration and histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukugasako, Sanae; Ito, Shinichi; Ikemoto, Yoshimi

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methyl paraben) action in allergic reactions were investigated by measuring the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). In the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+, methyl paraben (0.1–10 mM) increased [Ca2+]i, in a concentration-dependent manner. Under both the conditions, methyl paraben alone did not evoke histamine release. In RPMCs pretreated with a protein kinase C (PKC) activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) 3 and 10 nM), methyl paraben (0.3–3 mM) induced histamine release. However, a high concentration (10 mM) of the agent did not increase the histamine release. U73122 (0.1 and 0.5 μM), an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC), significantly inhibited the methyl paraben-induced histamine release in PMA-pretreated RPMCs. U73343 (0.5 μM), an inactive analogue of U73122, did not inhibit the histamine release caused by methyl paraben. In Ca2+-free solution, PLC inhibitors (U73122 0.1 and 0.5 μM, D609 1–10 μM) inhibited the methyl paraben-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, whereas U73343 (0.5 μM) did not. Xestospongin C (2–20 μM) and 2 aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (30 and 100 μM), blockers of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, inhibited the methyl paraben-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in Ca2+-free solution. In conclusion, methyl paraben causes an increase in [Ca2+]i, which may be due to release of Ca2+ from storage sites by IP3 via activation of PLC in RPMCs. In addition, methyl paraben possibly has some inhibitory effects on histamine release via unknown mechanisms. PMID:12770943

  8. The mTORC2/PKC pathway sustains compensatory insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells in response to metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Cui, Canqi; Nie, Aifang; Wang, Yan; Ni, Qicheng; Liu, Yun; Yin, Qinglei; Zhang, Hongli; Li, Yong; Wang, Qidi; Gu, Yanyun; Ning, Guang

    2017-08-01

    Compensation of the pancreatic β cell functional mass in response to metabolic stress is key to the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes. The mTORC2 pathway governs fuel metabolism and β cell functional mass. It is unknown whether mTORC2 is required for regulating metabolic stress-induced β cell compensation. We challenged four-week-old β-cell-specific Rictor (a key component of mTORC2)-knockout mice with a high fat diet (HFD) for 4weeks and measured metabolic and pancreatic morphological parameters. We performed ex vivo experiments to analyse β cell insulin secretion and electrophysiology characteristics. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression and lentiviral-ShRNA-mediated knocking down proteins were applied in Min6 cells and cultured primary mouse islets. βRicKO mice showed a significant glucose intolerance and a reduced plasma insulin level and an unchanged level β cell mass versus the control mice under HFD. A HFD or palmitate treatment enhanced both glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and the PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-induced insulin secretion in the control islets but not in the βRicKO islets. The KO β cells showed similar glucose-induced Ca 2+ influx but lower membrane capacitance increments versus the control cells. The enhanced mTORC2/PKC proteins levels in the control HFD group were ablated by Rictor deletion. Replenishing PKCα by overexpression of PKCα-T638D restored the defective GIIS in βRicKO islets. The mTORC2/Rictor pathway modulates β cell compensatory GIIS under nutrient overload mediated by its phosphorylation of PKCα. This study suggests that the mTORC2/PKC pathway in β cells is involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiplatelet action of indirubin-3'-monoxime through suppression of glycoprotein VI-mediated signal transduction: a possible role for ERK signaling in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Han, Joo-Hui; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, In-Su; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Huong, Tran Thu; Khanh, Pham Ngoc; Kim, Young Ho; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Ma, Jin Yeul; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the antiplatelet activity of indirubin-3'-monoxime (I3O) and the underlying mechanisms. In a rat carotid artery injury model, oral administration (20 mg/kg/day) of I3O for 3 days significantly prolonged occlusion time, and ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In washed platelets in vitro, I3O potently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation by suppressing phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) phosphorylation, subsequently blocking diacylglycerol and arachidonic acid (AA) formation, P-selectin secretion and the production of thromboxane B2. Platelet aggregation induced by phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, was inhibited by I3O. Both I3O and U0126, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor, markedly reduced collagen-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p47, resulting in the blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated AA metabolite production in AA-treated platelets. I3O suppressed phosphorylation of JNK, p38, GSK-3β, and AKT. I3O inhibited glycoprotein VI (GPVI), as a collagen receptor, by suppressing the phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase Syk of GPVI and the phosphorylation of PLCγ2 and ERK1/2 stimulated by convulxin, as a specific stimulator. Our results indicate that an antiplatelet effect of I3O is due to the suppression of GPVI-mediated signaling pathways. In collagen-stimulated platelets, ERK1/2 phosphorylation is adenylyl cyclase-dependent and leads to the modulation of PKC-p47 signaling and COX-1-mediated AA-metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential stimulation of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and arachidonic acid metabolism in rat peritoneal neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Cullinan, C.A.; Berkenkopf, J.W.; Weichman, B.M.

    1986-03-05

    Phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA) induced the production of radical oxygen species (ROS) from rat peritoneal neutrophils as assessed by CL. ROS generation occurred in a time- (maximum at 13.5 min) and dose- (concentration range of 1.7-498 nM) related fashion. However, 166 nM PMA did not induce either cyclooxygenase (CO) or lipoxygenase (LPO) product formation by 20 min post-stimulation. Conversely, A23187, at concentrations between 0.1 and 10 ..mu..M, stimulated both pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, but had little or no effect upon ROS production. When suboptimal concentrations of PMA (5.5 nM) and A23187 (0.1-1 ..mu..M) were coincubated with the neutrophils, a synergistic ROS response was elicited. However, arachidonic acid metabolism in the presence of PMA was unchanged relative to A12187 alone. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited both PMA-induced CL (IC/sub 50/ = 0.9 ..mu..M) and A23187-induced arachidonic acid metabolism (IC/sub 50/ = 1.7 ..mu..M and 6.0 ..mu..M for LPO and CO, respectively). The mixed LPO-CO inhibitor, BW755C, behaved in a qualitatively similar manner to NDGA, whereas the CO inhibitors, indomethacin, piroxicam and naproxen had no inhibitory effect on ROS generation at concentrations as high as 100 ..mu..M. These results suggest that NDGA and BW755C may inhibit CL and arachidonic acid metabolism by distinct mechanisms in rat neutrophils.

  11. A novel macrolide solithromycin exerts superior anti-inflammatory effect via NF-κB inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Wada, Hiroo; Rossios, Christos; Takagi, Dai; Higaki, Manabu; Mikura, Shin'ichiro; Goto, Hajime; Barnes, Peter J; Ito, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Macrolides are reported to reduce exacerbation of chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and also show anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. However the anti-inflammatory efficacies of current macrolides are relatively weak. Here we found that a novel macrolide/fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) showed superior anti-inflammatory effects to macrolides in current clinical use. The effects of solithromycin (SOL) on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α) and/or CXCL8 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8; interleukin-8) release, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) activity and NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) activity under conditions of oxidative stress have been evaluated and compared with the effects of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin in macrophage-like PMA-differentiated U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from COPD patients. We also examined effect of SOL on cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in mice. SOL exerted superior inhibitory effects on TNFα/CXCL8 production and MMP9 activity in monocytic U937 cells. In addition, SOL suppressed TNFα release and MMP9 activity in PBMC from COPD patients at 10 µM, which is 10 times more potent than the other macrolides tested. Activated NF-κB by oxidative stress was completely reversed by SOL. SOL also inhibited cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia and pro-MMP9 production in vivo, although erythromycin did not inhibit them. Thus, SOL showed better anti-inflammatory profiles compared with macrolides currently used in the clinic and may be a promising anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial macrolide for the treatment of COPD in future.

  12. Autocrine activation of human monocyte/macrophages by monocyte-derived microparticles and modulation by PPARγ ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, C; Amoruso, A; Federici Canova, D; Fresu, Lg; Balbo, P; Neri, T; Celi, A; Brunelleschi, S

    2012-02-01

    Microparticles (MPs), small membrane-bound particles originating from different cell types during activation or apoptosis, mediate intercellular communication, exert pro-coagulant activity and affect inflammation and other pathophysiological conditions. Monocyte-derived MPs have undergone little investigation and, to our knowledge, have never been evaluated for their possible autocrine effects. Therefore, we assessed the ability of monocyte-derived MPs to stimulate human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). MPs were generated from supernatants of human monocytes stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187 (12 µM), and then characterized. Human monocytes and MDM of healthy donors were isolated by standard procedures. Cells were challenged by MPs or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, used as standard stimulus), in the absence or presence of PPARγ agonists and antagonists. Superoxide anion production (measured spectrophotometrically), cytokine release (elisa), PPARγ protein expression (immunoblotting) and NF-κB activation (EMSA assay) were evaluated. Monocyte-derived MPs induced, in a concentration-dependent manner, oxygen radical production, cytokine release and NF-κB activation in human monocytes and macrophages, with lower effects than PMA. In both cell types, the PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) -prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2) ) inhibited MPs-induced stimulation and this inhibition was reversed by a PPARγ antagonist. In human monocyte/macrophages, MPs as well as rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ(2) induced PPARγ protein expression. In human monocyte/macrophages, monocyte-derived MPs exert an autocrine activation that was modulated by PPARγ ligands, inducing both pro-inflammatory (superoxide anion production, cytokine release and NF-κB activation) and anti-inflammatory (PPARγ expression) effects. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Autocrine activation of human monocyte/macrophages by monocyte-derived microparticles and modulation by PPARγ ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, C; Amoruso, A; Federici Canova, D; Fresu, LG; Balbo, P; Neri, T; Celi, A; Brunelleschi, S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Microparticles (MPs), small membrane-bound particles originating from different cell types during activation or apoptosis, mediate intercellular communication, exert pro-coagulant activity and affect inflammation and other pathophysiological conditions. Monocyte-derived MPs have undergone little investigation and, to our knowledge, have never been evaluated for their possible autocrine effects. Therefore, we assessed the ability of monocyte-derived MPs to stimulate human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH MPs were generated from supernatants of human monocytes stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187 (12 µM), and then characterized. Human monocytes and MDM of healthy donors were isolated by standard procedures. Cells were challenged by MPs or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, used as standard stimulus), in the absence or presence of PPARγ agonists and antagonists. Superoxide anion production (measured spectrophotometrically), cytokine release (elisa), PPARγ protein expression (immunoblotting) and NF-κB activation (EMSA assay) were evaluated. KEY RESULTS Monocyte-derived MPs induced, in a concentration-dependent manner, oxygen radical production, cytokine release and NF-κB activation in human monocytes and macrophages, with lower effects than PMA. In both cell types, the PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) inhibited MPs-induced stimulation and this inhibition was reversed by a PPARγ antagonist. In human monocyte/macrophages, MPs as well as rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2 induced PPARγ protein expression. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS In human monocyte/macrophages, monocyte-derived MPs exert an autocrine activation that was modulated by PPARγ ligands, inducing both pro-inflammatory (superoxide anion production, cytokine release and NF-κB activation) and anti-inflammatory (PPARγ expression) effects. PMID:21745193

  14. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-09-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ((Ca2+)i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased (Ca2+) significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of (Ca2+)i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased /sup 45/Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells.

  15. A novel macrolide/fluoroketolide, solithromycin (CEM-101), reverses corticosteroid insensitivity via phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Wada, H; Rossios, C; Takagi, D; Charron, C; Barnes, P J; Ito, K

    2013-07-01

    Corticosteroid insensitivity is a major therapeutic problem for some inflammatory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it is known to be induced by reduced histone deacetylase (HDAC)-2 activities via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of a novel macrolide/fluoroketolide, solithromycin (SOL, CEM-101), on corticosteroid sensitivity induced by oxidative stress. Corticosteroid sensitivity was determined by IC50/EC50 of dexamethasone (Dex) on TNF-α-induced CXCL8 production in U937 monocytic cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from COPD patients. Activities of HDAC and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) were measured by fluorescence-based assay in cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We also investigated steroid insensitive airway neutrophilia in cigarette smoke exposed mice in vivo. SOL (10 μM) restored Dex sensitivity in PBMC from COPD patients, H2O2-treated U937 cells and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated U937 cells. In addition, SOL restored HDAC activity with concomitant inhibition of Akt phosphorylation as surrogate marker of PI3K activation. The inhibition of Akt phosphorylation by SOL was due to increased PP2A phosphatase activity, which was reduced in COPD and oxidative stress model. Other known macrolides, such as eryhthromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, were significantly less effective in these responses. In cigarette smoke-exposed mice, SOL (100 mg kg(-1), po) showed significant but weak inhibition of neutrophilia, whereas Dex (10 mg kg(-1), p.o.) showed no such effect. However, a combination of SOL and Dex inhibited neutrophilia by over 50%. SOL has potential as novel therapy for corticosteroid-insensitive diseases such as COPD. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. The (2'S,7'S)-O-(2-methylbutanoyl)-columbianetin as a novel allergic rhinitis-control agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Min-Ho; Seo, Youngwan; Choi, Youngjin; Jang, Jae-Bum; Kang, In-Cheol; Kim, Myong-Jo; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-03-11

    The (2'S,7'S)-O-(2-methylbutanoyl)-columbianetin (OMC) is a novel secondary metabolite extracted from Corydalis heterocarpa, which has long been used as a folk medicine for various inflammatory diseases in Korea. We examined the effect of OMC on allergic rhinitis (AR). We assessed the therapeutic effects and regulatory mechanisms of OMC on the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus A23187-stimulated mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR models. OMC significantly decreased the releases of histamine and tryptase from stimulated HMC-1 cells. The degranulation process, characterized by morphological extension of the filopodia on the surface and membrane ruffling, was strongly induced in the stimulated-HMC-1 cell, however OMC suppressed the morphological changes in stimulated-HMC-1 cells. OMC reduced the production and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines. These inhibitory actions by OMC were dependent on the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and caspapase-1 signaling pathways. In the AR animal model, the increased rub scores and AR biomarkers (histamine and IgE) in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were significantly reduced by the administration of OMC. Furthermore, eosinophils and mast cell infiltrations in nasal mucosa tissue were also blocked through the regulation of macrophage-inflammatory protein and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels. OMC showed the possibility to regulate AR in activated mast cells and OVA-induced AR models. Hence, we suggest that OMC is a powerful and feasible new agent to suppress AR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. E-Cigarette Use Causes a Unique Innate Immune Response in the Lung, Involving Increased Neutrophilic Activation and Altered Mucin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidel, Boris; Radicioni, Giorgia; Clapp, Phillip W; Ford, Amina A; Abdelwahab, Sabri; Rebuli, Meghan E; Haridass, Prashamsha; Alexis, Neil E; Jaspers, Ilona; Kesimer, Mehmet

    2018-02-15

    E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular and little is known about their potential adverse health effects. To determine the effects of e-cigarette use on the airways. Induced sputum samples from cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and nonsmokers were analyzed by quantitative proteomics, and the total and individual concentrations of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B were determined by light scattering/refractometry and labeled mass spectrometry, respectively. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation rates were also determined for the same groups. E-cigarette users exhibited significant increases in aldehyde-detoxification and oxidative stress-related proteins associated with cigarette smoke compared with nonsmokers. The levels of innate defense proteins associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, such as elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-9, were significantly elevated in e-cigarette users as well. E-cigarette users' sputum also uniquely exhibited significant increases in neutrophil granulocyte-related and NET-related proteins, such as myeloperoxidase, azurocidin, and protein-arginine deiminase 4, despite no significant elevation in neutrophil cell counts. Peripheral neutrophils from e-cigarette users showed increased susceptibility to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced NETosis. Finally, a compositional change in the gel-forming building blocks of airway mucus (i.e., an elevated concentration of mucin MUC5AC) was observed in both cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users. Together, our results indicate that e-cigarette use alters the profile of innate defense proteins in airway secretions, inducing similar and unique changes relative to cigarette smoking. These data challenge the concept that e-cigarettes are a healthier alternative to cigarettes.

  18. The Octyl Ester of Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization via Bax Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rh2 is a potential pharmacologically active metabolite of ginseng. Previously, we have reported that an octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O, has been confirmed to possess higher bioavailability and anticancer effect than Rh2 in vitro. In order to better assess the possibility that Rh2-O could be used as an anticancer compound, the underlying mechanism was investigated in this study. The present results revealed that lysosomal destabilization was involved in the early stage of cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by Rh2-O. Rh2-O could induce an early lysosomal membrane permeabilization with the release of lysosomal protease cathepsins to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. The Cat B inhibitor (leu and Cat D inhibitor (pepA inhibited Rh2-O-induced HepG2 apoptosis as well as tBid production and Δφm depolarization, indicating that lysosomal permeabilization occurred upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, Rh2-O induced a significant increase in the protein levels of DRAM1 and Bax (p < 0.05 in lysosomes of HepG2 cells. Knockdown of Bax partially inhibited Rh2-O-induced Cat D release from lysosomes. Thus it was concluded that Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through activation of the lysosomal-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involving the translocation of Bax to the lysosome.

  19. Topical application of an ethanol extract prepared from Illicium verum suppresses atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yang, Won-Kyung; Lee, A Yeong; Kim, Dong-Seon; Nho, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Young Sang; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-10-31

    Illicium verum is a traditional herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory properties used in Asia. However, its usefulness in the treatment of allergic diseases remains unclear. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects of I. verum extract (IVE) in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. We investigated the effects of IVE on compound 48/80-induced histamine release, and phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated cytokines secretion in MC/9 mast cells. Atopic dermatitis was induced in NC/Nga mice by exposure to extract of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae). After a topical application of IVE on ear and skin lesions, we evaluated the severity of skin symptoms, ear thickness, inflammatory cell infiltration, and serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, interleukin (IL)-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. In addition, we determined the expression of IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in ear tissues. IVE inhibited secretion of histamine, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-α from mast cells in a dose-dependent manner. Topical application of IVE significantly reduced dermatitis scores, ear thickness, and serum levels of IgE, histamine, IL-6, and ICAM-1. Histopathological analysis demonstrated decreased epidermal thickening and dermal infiltration by inflammatory cells. In the ear lesions, IVE treatment reduced expression of IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, TARC, RANTES, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, but not IFN-γ. These results indicate that IVE inhibits atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by suppressing the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. These results suggest that IVE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cornuside inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic response by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liangchang [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China); Jin, Guangyu [Yanbian University Hospital, Medicine College, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133000 (China); Jiang, Jingzhi [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China); Zheng, Mingyu; Jin, Yan [College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China); Lin, Zhenhua [Department of Pathology & Cancer Research Center, Yanbian University Medical College, Yanji, 133002 (China); Li, Guangzhao [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China); Choi, Yunho, E-mail: why76@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yan, Guanghai, E-mail: ghyan2015@sina.com [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Aims: The present study is to investigate the effect of cornuside on mast cell-mediated allergic response, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. Methods: To test the anti-allergic effects of cornuside in vivo, local extravasation was induced by local injection of anti-dinitrophenyl immunoglobulin E (IgE) followed by intravenous antigenic challenge in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model rats. Mast cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Histamine content from rat peritoneal mast cells was measured by the radioenzymatic method. To investigate the mechanisms by which cornuside affects the reduction of histamine release, the levels of calcium uptake were measured. To examine whether cornuside affects the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Western blotting and ELISA were carried out. Results: Oral administration of cornuside inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats. Presence of cornuside attenuated IgE-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. The inhibitory effect of cornuside on histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, cornuside decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of cornuside on pro-inflammatory cytokines was dependent on nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that cornuside inhibits mast cell-derived inflammatory allergic reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic effects of cornuside suggest a possible therapeutic application of this agent in inflammatory allergic diseases.

  1. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Miszti-Blasius, Kornél [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona [Department of Pathology, Kenézy Hospital LTD, Debrecen (Hungary); Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István [Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre of Arts, Humanities and Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő [Proteomics Core Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László [Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csernoch, László [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szentesi, Péter, E-mail: szentesi.peter@med.unideb.hu [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg{sup −1} daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation.

  2. Deficiency of caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11), causes profound combined immunodeficiency in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepensky, Polina; Keller, Baerbel; Buchta, Mary; Kienzler, Anne-Kathrin; Elpeleg, Orly; Somech, Raz; Cohen, Sivan; Shachar, Idit; Miosge, Lisa A; Schlesier, Michael; Fuchs, Ilka; Enders, Anselm; Eibel, Hermann; Grimbacher, Bodo; Warnatz, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    Profound combined immunodeficiency can present with normal numbers of T and B cells, and therefore the functional defect of the cellular and humoral immune response is often not recognized until the first severe clinical manifestation. Here we report a patient of consanguineous descent presenting at 13 months of age with hypogammaglobulinemia, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and a suggestive family history. We sought to identify the genetic alteration in a patient with combined immunodeficiency and characterize human caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11), deficiency. Molecular, immunologic, and functional assays were performed. The immunologic characterization revealed only subtle changes in the T-cell and natural killer cell compartment, whereas B-cell differentiation, although normal in number, was distinctively blocked at the transitional stage. Genetic evaluation revealed a homozygous deletion of exon 21 in CARD11 as the underlying defect. This deletion abrogated protein expression and activation of the canonical nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in lymphocytes after antigen receptor or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation, whereas CD40 signaling in B cells was preserved. The abrogated activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway was associated with severely impaired upregulation of inducible T-cell costimulator, OX40, cytokine production, proliferation of T cells, and B cell-activating factor receptor expression on B cells. Thus in patients with CARD11 deficiency, the combination of impaired activation and especially upregulation of inducible T-cell costimulator on T cells, together with severely disturbed peripheral B-cell differentiation, apparently leads to a defective T-cell/B-cell cooperation and probably germinal center formation and clinically results in severe immunodeficiency. This report discloses the crucial and nonredundant role of canonical NF-κB activation and specifically CARD11 in the antigen-specific immune response

  3. Integration of intracellular telomerase monitoring by electrochemiluminescence technology and targeted cancer therapy by reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huairong; Li, Binxiao; Sun, Zhaomei; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-12-01

    Cancer therapies based on reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as promising clinical treatments. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology has also attracted considerable attention in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, studies about the integration of ECL diagnosis and ROS cancer therapy are very rare. Here we introduce a novel strategy that employs ECL technology and ROS to fill the above vacancy. Briefly, an ITO electrode was electrodeposited with polyluminol-Pt NPs composite films and modified with aptamer DNA to capture HL-60 cancer cells with high specificity. After that, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) filled with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were closed by the telomerase primer DNA (T-primer DNA) and aptamer. After aptamer on MSN@PMA recognized and combined with the HL-60 cancer cells with high specificity, T-primer DNA on MSN@PMA could be moved away from the MSN@PMA surface after extension by telomerase in the HL-60 cancer cells and PMA was released to induce the production of ROS by the HL-60 cancer cells. After that, the polyluminol-Pt NPs composite films could react with hydrogen peroxide (a major ROS) and generate an ECL signal. Thus the intracellular telomerase activity of the HL-60 cancer cells could be detected in situ . Besides, ROS could induce apoptosis in the HL-60 cancer cells with high efficacy by causing oxidative damage to the lipids, protein, and DNA. Above all, the designed platform could not only detect intracellular telomerase activity instead of that of extracted telomerase, but could also kill targeted tumors by ECL technology and ROS.

  4. Immunosuppressive effect of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through the inhibition of T-lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Cheol-Heui; Son, Chang Gue; Jung, Uhee; Han, Seung Hyun

    2006-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is the predominant heterocyclic amine formed in cooked meat and fish and causes cancers in the colon, the mammary glands, and the lymphoid organs. In the present study, we investigated the immunological impact of PhIP using thymocytes isolated from Balb/c mice and a murine thymocyte-derived cell line, EL4. Treatment of the thymocytes with PhIP moderately inhibited T-cell mitogen-induced cell proliferation and interleukin (IL)-2 secretion. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that PhIP attenuated IL-2 mRNA expression in the thymocytes and EL4 cells stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In vitro transient transfection assay using a reporter gene construct containing IL-2 promoter showed that the decrease in the steady-state IL-2 mRNA level by PhIP is partially due to the attenuation of IL-2 mRNA synthesis at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that PhIP inhibited DNA binding activity of nuclear factor for immunoglobulin κ chain in B cells (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT), which are known to be responsible for IL-2 transcriptional activation. Concomitantly, PhIP inhibited the PMA/PHA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in activation of the transcription factors. These results suggest that PhIP has potential immunosuppressive effects by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and IL-2 expression through down regulation of ROS generation and thereby inhibiting NF-κB, AP-1 and NF-AT activation

  5. Protein Kinase C γ Contributes to Central Sensitization in a Rat Model of Chronic Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baixue; Wang, Sha; Qin, Guangcheng; Xie, Jingmei; Tan, Ge; Zhou, Jiying; Chen, Lixue

    2017-10-01

    Protein kinase C γ (PKCγ) is a critical regulator of central sensitization and is widely recognized to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic migraine (CM). However, the function of PKCγ in CM remains unknown. This study investigated the role of PKCγ on pathogenesis of CM. We repeated infusions of inflammatory soup (IS) on the intact dura of conscious rats to model recurrent trigeminovascular or dural nociceptor activation assumed to occur in patients with CM. The von Frey test was then used to detect changes in pain threshold. QT-PCR, western blotting, and double immunofluorescence staining were performed to detect the expression and location of PKCγ in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) and the expressions of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), c-Fos, and phosphorylation level of GluR1 subunit at serine 831. Chelerythrine chloride (CHE) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were administrated to investigate the role of PKCγ in central sensitization. We found that repeated infusions of IS induced mechanical allodynia. PKCγ was significantly increased in TNC after CM. Furthermore, inhibition of PKCγ by CHE relieved allodynia and reduced the expression of CGRP and c-Fos. Activation of PKCγ by PMA aggravated allodynia and increased the expression of CGRP and c-Fos. In addition, inhibition of PKCγ reduced the phosphorylation level of GluR1; in contrast, activation of PKCγ increased the phosphorylation level of GluR1. These results suggest PKCγ-induced GluR1 phosphorylation might participate in central sensitization in a rat model of CM. We suggest that PKCγ is a potential therapeutic target for CM.

  6. Development and validation of a novel reporter assay for human papillomavirus type 16 late gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrù, Beatrice; Cunniffe, Ciaran; Ryan, Fergus; Schwartz, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    To facilitate the investigations of HPV-16 late gene expression HPV-16 reporter plasmids were generated using previously described sub-genomic HPV-16 plasmids, named pBEL and pBELM, that, similar to the full viral genome, produce primarily HPV-16 early mRNAs and very little, if any, late mRNAs in cervical cancer cells. The HPV-16 late L1 gene was replaced by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene, or green fluorescent protein (GFP), preceded by the poliovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Results show that the reporter genes mimic the expression of L1 from these plasmids. For example, overexpression of adenovirus E4orf4 protein (E4orf4), polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), arginine/serine-rich SRp30c protein (SRp30c) or alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2) induced an increased expression of CAT or GFP. Stable cell lines with reporter plasmids pBELCAT and pBELMCAT were also generated. An induction of CAT was observed in HPV-16 reporter cell lines in the presence of the small molecule phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA). Further experiments identified the TPA-inducible, hnRNP A2/B1 protein as a regulator of HPV-16 late gene expression. In conclusion, the HPV-16 reporter plasmids and reporter cell lines described herein can be used to identify small molecules and cellular factors that regulate HPV-16 gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathogenic Bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii Inhibits the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Suppressing Neutrophil Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Kamoshida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii have become problematic because of high rates of drug resistance. A. baumannii is usually harmless, but it may cause infectious diseases in an immunocompromised host. Although neutrophils are the key players of the initial immune response against bacterial infection, their interactions with A. baumannii remain largely unknown. A new biological defense mechanism, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, has been attracting attention. NETs play a critical role in bacterial killing by bacterial trapping and inactivation. Many pathogenic bacteria have been reported to induce NET formation, while an inhibitory effect on NET formation is rarely reported. In the present study, to assess the inhibition of NET formation by A. baumannii, bacteria and human neutrophils were cocultured in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and NET formation was evaluated. NETs were rarely observed during the coculture despite neutrophil PMA stimulation. Furthermore, A. baumannii prolonged the lifespan of neutrophils by inhibiting NET formation. The inhibition of NET formation by other bacteria was also investigated. The inhibitory effect was only apparent with live A. baumannii cells. Finally, to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition, neutrophil adhesion was examined. A. baumannii suppressed the adhesion ability of neutrophils, thereby inhibiting PMA-induced NET formation. This suppression of cell adhesion was partly due to suppression of the surface expression of CD11a in neutrophils. The current study constitutes the first report on the inhibition of NET formation by a pathogenic bacterium, A. baumannii, and prolonging the neutrophil lifespan. This novel pathogenicity to inhibit NET formation, thereby escaping host immune responses might contribute to a development of new treatment strategies for A. baumannii infections.

  8. Pathogenic Bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii Inhibits the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Suppressing Neutrophil Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoshida, Go; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Nishida, Satoshi; Tansho-Nagakawa, Shigeru; Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Ono, Yasuo

    2018-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii have become problematic because of high rates of drug resistance. A. baumannii is usually harmless, but it may cause infectious diseases in an immunocompromised host. Although neutrophils are the key players of the initial immune response against bacterial infection, their interactions with A. baumannii remain largely unknown. A new biological defense mechanism, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), has been attracting attention. NETs play a critical role in bacterial killing by bacterial trapping and inactivation. Many pathogenic bacteria have been reported to induce NET formation, while an inhibitory effect on NET formation is rarely reported. In the present study, to assess the inhibition of NET formation by A. baumannii, bacteria and human neutrophils were cocultured in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and NET formation was evaluated. NETs were rarely observed during the coculture despite neutrophil PMA stimulation. Furthermore, A. baumannii prolonged the lifespan of neutrophils by inhibiting NET formation. The inhibition of NET formation by other bacteria was also investigated. The inhibitory effect was only apparent with live A. baumannii cells. Finally, to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition, neutrophil adhesion was examined. A. baumannii suppressed the adhesion ability of neutrophils, thereby inhibiting PMA-induced NET formation. This suppression of cell adhesion was partly due to suppression of the surface expression of CD11a in neutrophils. The current study constitutes the first report on the inhibition of NET formation by a pathogenic bacterium, A. baumannii, and prolonging the neutrophil lifespan. This novel pathogenicity to inhibit NET formation, thereby escaping host immune responses might contribute to a development of new treatment strategies for A. baumannii infections. PMID:29467765

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Serotonin Antagonist on Leukocyte-Endothelial Interactions In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kataoka

    Full Text Available Although 5-HT2A serotonergic antagonists have been used to treat vascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus or obesity, their effects on leukocyte-endothelial interactions have not been fully investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of sarpogrelate hydrochloride (SRPO, a 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist, on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in obesity both in vivo and in vitro.In the in vivo experiment, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD, comprising 20% fat and 30% fructose, with or without intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg/day SRPO for 4 weeks. The body weight, visceral fat weight, and serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the mice increased significantly with the HFFD, but these effects were prevented by chronic injections of SRPO. Intravital microscopy of the femoral artery detected significant leukocyte-endothelial interactions after treatment with HFFD, but these leukocyte-endothelial interactions were reduced in the mice injected with SRPO. In the in vitro experiment, pre-incubation of activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with platelet-rich plasma (PRP induced THP-1 cell adhesion under physiological flow conditions, but the adhesion was reduced by pretreatment of PRP with SRPO. A fluorescent immunobinding assay showed that PRP induced significant upregulation of E-selectin in HUVECs, but this upregulation was reduced by pretreatment of PRP with SRPO. In other in vitro conditions, pre-incubation of THP-1 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to activated HUVECs under rotational conditions, but this adhesion was reduced by pretreatment with SRPO. Western blotting analysis showed that protein kinase C α activation in THP-1 cells was inhibited by SRPO.Our findings indicated that SRPO inhibits vascular inflammation in obesity via inactivation of platelets and leukocytes, and improvement of obese.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effect of chrysophanol, an active component of AST2017-01 on atopic dermatitis in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hee-Yun; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2018-01-01

    AST2017-01 mainly consists of Rumex crispus and -Cordyceps militaris and has been widely consumed as an herbal medicine or functional food in Korea. Here we investigated the influences of AST2017-01 and its active component, chrysophanol on human mast cell (HMC-1 cell) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT cell)-mediated inflammatory reactions. Pretreatment with AST2017-01 or chrysophanol suppressed intracellular calcium levels and histamine release in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-treated HMC-1 cells. Levels of phosphorylated-mitogen-activated protein kinase increased by PMACI stimulation were reduced by AST2017-01 or chrysophanol pretreatment. Protein levels of IκB kinaseβ and receptor-interacting protein 2 in PMACI-treated HMC-1 cells were decreased by AST2017-01 or chrysophanol pretreatment. Pretreatment with AST2017-01 or chrysophanol significantly blocked PMACI-induced activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB. In addition, pretreatment with AST2017-01 or chrysophanol significantly decreased the PMACI-induced levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on HMC-1 cells. In activated HaCaT cells, pretreatment with AST2017-01 or chrysophanol significantly reduced production of TSLP and activation of caspase-1. In conclusion, these findings indicate that chrysophanol is an active component of AST2017-01 and AST2017-01 acts as a novel potent anti-inflammatory herbal medicine or functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Platelet-activating factor stimulation of tyrosine kinase and its relationship to phospholipase C in rabbit platelets: Studies with genistein and monoclonal antibody to phosphotyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, A.; Paul, A.K.; Shukla, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a proinflammatory lipid that has platelet-stimulating property. PAF receptor-coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphorylation of several proteins has already been established in our laboratory. To investigate further the molecular mechanism and relationship between activation of PLC and protein phosphorylation, we have used Genistein (a putative inhibitor of tyrosine-specific protein kinases), phosphotyrosine antibody, and phosphoamino acid analysis to probe the involvement of tyrosine kinase in this process. Washed rabbit platelets were loaded with myo-[2-3H]inositol and challenged with PAF (100 nM) after pretreatment with Genistein. PLC-mediated production of radioactive inositol monophosphate, inositol diphosphate, and inositol triphosphate was monitored. PAF alone caused stimulation of PLC activity [( 3H]inositol triphosphate production), whereas pretreatment with Genistein (0.5 mM) diminished PAF-stimulated PLC activity to basal level. Genistein also blocked PAF-stimulated platelet aggregation at this dose. In contrast to Genistein, staurosporine which inhibits protein kinase C, potentiated PAF-stimulated [3H]inositol triphosphate production. Genistein substantially inhibited the combined effects of staurosporine and PAF on inositol triphosphate production. Genistein also reduced PAF-induced phosphorylation of Mr 20,000 and 50,000 proteins. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced Mr 40,000 protein phosphorylation was also affected by Genistein. The above results suggested that Genistein inhibited tyrosine kinase at an early stage of signal transduction by inhibiting PLC. This, in turn, decreased the activation of protein kinase C and, therefore, caused a reduction in Mr 40,000 protein phosphorylation

  12. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Agnes; Gáll, Tamás; Miszti-Blasius, Kornél; Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona; Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz; Leiter, Eva; Pócsi, István; Csősz, Eva; Kalló, Gergő; Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László; Csernoch, László; Szentesi, Péter

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg⁻¹ daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration--a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytotoxicity of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract and its major component, casticin, correlates with differentiation status in leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hidetomo; Yuan, Bo; Nishimura, Yoshio; Imai, Masahiko; Furutani, Ryota; Kamoi, Saki; Seno, Misako; Fukushima, Shin; Hazama, Shingo; Hirobe, Chieko; Ohyama, Kunio; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Takagi, Norio; Hirano, Toshihiko; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2013-12-01

    We have demonstrated that an extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) exhibits cytotoxic activities against various types of solid tumor cells, whereas its effects on leukemia cells has not been evaluated to date. In this study, the effects of Vitex and its major component, casticin, on leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and U-937, were investigated by focusing on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Identification and quantitation by NMR spectroscopy showed that casticin accounted for approximate 1% weight of Vitex. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of Vitex and casticin was observed in both cell lines, and HL-60 cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin compared to U-937 cells. Furthermore, compared to unstimulated HL-60 cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (VD₃)-differentiated HL-60 cells acquired resistance to Vitex/casticin based on the results from cell viability and apoptosis induction analysis. Since the HL-60 cell line is more immature than the U-937 cell line, these results suggested that the levels of cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin were largely attributed to the degree of differentiation of leukemia cells; that is, cell lines with less differentiated phenotype were more susceptible than the differentiated ones. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PMA upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HL-60 cells, and that anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody not only abrogated PMA-induced aggregation and adhesion of the cells but also restored its sensitivity to Vitex. These results suggested that ICAM-1 plays a crucial role in the acquired resistance in PMA-differentiated HL-60 cells by contributing to cell adhesion. These findings provide fundamental insights into the clinical application of Vitex/casticin for hematopoietic malignancy.

  14. [Effect of WS070117M1 on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in mice and the underling mechanisms of anti-inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shu-hua; Xuan, Ling-ling; Wang, Dong-mei; Xie, Jian-lin; Jiang, Ren-tao; Bai, Jin-ye; Wu, Song; Hou, Qi

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the adenosine derivative N6-(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (WS070117M1) on cigarette smoke plus LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in mice and its mechanism. COPD model was established by exposing male BALB/c mice to cigarette smoke and challenged with LPS inhalation. Supernatants of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were harvested and IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β1 levels were measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay). The number of total white blood cells and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was counted separately. Lung tissue was stained with Mayer 's hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic examination. pAMPKa protein expression and distribution of lung tissue were analyzed by immunohistochemistry method. In vitro, levels of AMPKα phosphorylation in phorbol-12- myristate-13-acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 cells was detected by immunohistochemistry, IL-8 level in supernatants of cigarette smoke condensate stimulating PMA differentiated THP-1 cells was measured by ELISA. The results showed that WS070117M1 treatment significantly activated AMPKa in the lung tissue. It also resulted in down regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and IL-8 level in cigarette smoke condensate stimulating PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. In addition, WS070117M1 could inhibit the recruitment of total white blood cells and neutrophils. These results suggest that WS070117M1 may alleviate the airway inflammation by activating AMPK in the lung tissue.

  15. Direct inhibition of T-cell responses by the Cryptococcus capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Yauch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The major virulence factor of the pathogenic fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii is the capsule. Glucuronoxylomannan (GXM, the major component of the capsule, is a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide that is shed during cryptococcosis and can persist in patients after successful antifungal therapy. Due to the importance of T cells in the anticryptococcal response, we studied the effect of GXM on the ability of dendritic cells (DCs to initiate a T-cell response. GXM inhibited the activation of cryptococcal mannoprotein-specific hybridoma T cells and the proliferation of OVA-specific OT-II T cells when murine bone marrow-derived DCs were used as antigen-presenting cells. Inhibition of OT-II T-cell proliferation was observed when either OVA protein or OVA323-339 peptide was used as antigen, indicating GXM did not merely prevent antigen uptake or processing. We found that DCs internalize GXM progressively over time; however, the suppressive effect did not require DCs, as GXM directly inhibited T-cell proliferation induced by anti-CD3 antibody, concanavalin A, or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate/ionomycin. Analysis of T-cell viability revealed that the reduced proliferation in the presence of GXM was not the result of increased cell death. GXM isolated from each of the four major cryptococcal serotypes inhibited the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with tetanus toxoid. Thus, we have defined a new mechanism by which GXM can impart virulence: direct inhibition of T-cell proliferation. In patients with cryptococcosis, this could impair optimal cell-mediated immune responses, thereby contributing to the persistence of cryptococcal infections.

  16. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on catalase, cytochrome P450 and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, Antonia; Tabrez, Shams; Pesce, Mirko; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad A; Reale, Marcella

    2015-01-15

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are widely employed in electrical appliances and different equipment such as television sets, mobile phones, computers and microwaves. The molecular mechanism through which ELF-EMFs can influence cellular behavior is still unclear. A hypothesis is that ELF-EMFs could interfere with chemical reactions involving free radical production. Under physiologic conditions, cells maintain redox balance through production of ROS/RNS and antioxidant molecules. The altered balance between ROS generation and elimination plays a critical role in a variety of pathologic conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, aging and cancer. Actually, there is a disagreement as to whether there is a causal or coincidental relationship between ELF-EMF exposure and leukemia development. Increased ROS levels have been observed in several hematopoietic malignancies including acute and chronic myeloid leukemias. In our study, the effect of ELF-EMF exposure on catalase, cytochrome P450 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and their expression by Western blot analysis in myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 was evaluated. A significant modulation of iNOS, CAT and Cyt P450 protein expression was recorded as a result of ELF-EMF exposure in both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and non-stimulated cell lines. Modulation in kinetic parameters of CAT, CYP-450 and iNOS enzymes in response to ELF-EMF indicates an interaction between the ELF-EMF and the enzymological system. These new insights might be important in establishing a mechanistic framework at the molecular level within which the possible effects of ELF-EMF on health can be understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide inhibits endothelin-1 in endothelial cell by repressing nuclear factor-kappa B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yao; Mehta, Jawahar L; Chen, Mingwei

    2013-10-01

    The increase in endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) both induce vasoconstriction and lead to molecular changes associated with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) activation stimulates insulin secretion and may prevent atherosclerosis by increasing eNOS synthesis. However, there is paucity of information on the effect of GLP-1 activation on ET-1 expression. This study was conducted to address this issue. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with different concentrations of liraglutide, a GLP-1 agonist, and the expression of ET-1 and eNOS and activity of NF-κB were measured. Liraglutide, in a concentration-dependent manner, was observed to promote eNOS expression and to inhibit ET-1 expression both at mRNA and protein levels. Liraglutide also inhibited NF-κB phosphorylation and its translocation from cytoplasm to the nucleus. To ascertain the role of NF-κB activation in the altered expression of ET-1 and eNOS, we treated HUVECs with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). PMA activated NF-κB and reversed the effects of liraglutide on eNOS and ET-1 expression. The effects of PMA on eNOS and ET-1 expression were reproduced in experiments wherein cells were treated with TNF-α. Further, we measured the generation of IL-6, apowerful pro-inflammatory molecule released by endothelial cells, as a measure of cellular function. PMA increased IL-6 generation, and this effect was blocked by liraglutide. Our observations suggest liraglutide suppresses ET-1 expression by inhibiting the phosphorylation of NF-κB. This mechanism may underlie the potential anti-atherosclerotic effects of GLP-1 agonists. Of note, these effects of liraglutide were seen in an in vitro setting wherein cellular glucose concentrations were elevated.

  18. Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Dendropanax morbifera Leaves Increases T Cell Growth by Upregulating NF-AT-Mediated IL-2 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Up; Kang, Bok Yun; Kim, Young Ran

    2018-01-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is an endemic species that grows in Southwestern Korea and has been used as a folk medicine. Several studies reported that D. morbifera leaves have diverse therapeutic potentials. We found that the water extract of D. morbifera leaves increased the growth of EL-4 T cells. The water extract was divided into five fractions: [Formula: see text]-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, [Formula: see text]-butanol, and water layers. The ethyl acetate (W-EA) fraction showed a more significant effect than the other fractions on the growth of EL-4 T cells, splenocytes, and isolated murine CD4[Formula: see text] T cells. We evaluated the W-EA fraction for its immunomodulatory effects focusing on T cell functions. First, we tested the effect of the W-EA fraction on the regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a potent T cell growth factor. The W-EA fraction significantly increased IL-2 secretion in EL-4 T cells activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Io). In addition, the W-EA fraction increased interferon-gamma (IFN-[Formula: see text] production in isolated murine splenocytes activated with Concanavalin A (ConA). Next, we examined the effect of the W-EA fraction on the regulation of transcriptional factors related to IL-2 production in T cells. The W-EA fraction significantly increased PMA/Io-induced promoter activity of a nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) in EL-4 T cells, but did not show any significant effects on the promoters of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-[Formula: see text]B). These results indicate that the W-EA fraction from water extract of D. morbifera leaves enhances IL-2 production at the transcriptional levels via the up-regulation of NF-AT in PMA/Io-activated EL-4 T cells.

  19. Nicotinic stimulation of catecholamine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in cervine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, P J; Douglas, S A; Bunn, S J

    2011-03-01

    The synthesis and secretion of catecholamines by the adrenal medulla is of major importance in the stress response. Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis, has been extensively studied in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells from a number of species. Cervine chromaffin cells are of interest because the deer is known to be a relatively stress-prone reactive species. We report the first characterisation of tyrosine hydroxylase regulation in cervine chromaffin cells. Nicotinic receptor activation resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent increase in catecholamine synthesis, which was significantly reduced by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signalling pathway inhibitor PD98059 and the calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II inhibitor KN-93, but not by H89 or bisindolylmaleimide I, inhibitors of protein kinase A and C, respectively. Nicotinic stimulation also increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and tyrosine hydroxylase. This latter response occurred on serine residues 19, 31 and 40 of the enzyme. The nicotinic-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and serine 31 of tyrosine hydroxylase was suppressed by PD98059 but not bisindolylmaleimide I. These data indicate that nicotinic stimulation of tyrosine hydroxylase involves the phosphorylation of serine 31 via an ERK1/2-dependent, protein kinase C-independent pathway. Protein kinase C activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also caused an ERK1/2-dependent increase in the serine 31 phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase but, in contrast to the nicotinic response, was not accompanied by an increase in enzyme activity. Thus, ERK1/2-mediated serine 31 phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase appears necessary but not sufficient for nicotinic activation of catecholamine synthesis in cervine chromaffin cells. These data present potentially important similarities and differences between the regulation of catecholamine synthesis in cervine and the more widely studied

  20. Sirt3 deficiency does not affect venous thrombosis or NETosis despite mild elevation of intracellular ROS in platelets and neutrophils in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a common denominator in chronic diseases of aging. Yet, how inflammation fuels these diseases remains unknown. Neutrophils are the primary leukocytes involved in the early phase of innate immunity and inflammation. As part of their anti-microbial defense, neutrophils form extracellular traps (NETs by releasing decondensed chromatin lined with cytotoxic proteins. NETs have been shown to induce tissue injury and thrombosis. Here, we demonstrated that Sirt3, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, an enzyme linked to human longevity, was expressed in mouse neutrophils and platelets. Using Sirt3-/- mice as a model of accelerated aging, we investigated the effects of Sirt3 deficiency on NETosis and platelet function, aiming to detect enhancement of thrombosis. More mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS were generated in neutrophils and platelets of Sirt3-/- mice compared to WT, when stimulated with a low concentration of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and a high concentration of thrombin, respectively. There were no differences in in vitro NETosis, with or without stimulation. Platelet aggregation was mildly augmented in Sirt3-/- mice compared to WT mice, when stimulated with a low concentration of collagen. The effect of Sirt3 deficiency on platelet and neutrophil activation in vivo was examined by the venous thrombosis model of inferior vena cava stenosis. Elevation of plasma DNA concentration was observed after stenosis in both genotypes, but no difference was shown between the two genotypes. The systemic response to thrombosis was enhanced in Sirt3-/- mice with significantly elevated neutrophil count and reduced platelet count. However, no differences were observed in incidence of thrombus formation, thrombus weight and thrombin-antithrombin complex generation between WT and Sirt3-/- mice. We conclude that Sirt3 does not considerably impact NET formation, platelet function, or venous

  1. Peripheral blood CD161+ T cells from asthmatic patients are activated during asthma attack and predominantly produce IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hernández, Y; Pedraza-Sánchez, S; Blandón-Vijil, V; del Río-Navarro, B E; Vaughan, G; Moreno-Lafont, M; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A

    2007-04-01

    In humans, T cells expressing the CD161 molecule NKR-P1A constitute around 20% of the circulating CD3(+) cells and are potentially immunoregulatory in several diseases. Their role in asthma is not well known, but they could participate in asthma attacks. To determinate whether activation of CD161(+) T cells and their cytokine production correlate with clinical status of asthma, we analysed blood samples from asthma attack patients (AAP) and stable asthma patients (SAP) in comparison with healthy non-atopic controls (HC). There was a significant higher baseline expression of CD69 on T cells from AAP and the difference was more notorious on CD161(+) T cells; upregulation of CD69 was observed on both CD161(-) and CD161(+) T cells driven by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus crude extract, whereas polyclonal stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin predominantly induced IFN-gamma but no IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by CD161(+) T cells in all groups; upon polyclonal stimulation, there were more CD161(+) T cells producing IFN-gamma and less CD161(-) T cells producing this cytokine, contrasting with the opposite results observed in SAP and HC groups. Our results indicate that, during asthma attack, CD161(+) T cells are activated and are able to produce predominantly IFN-gamma but no Th2 cytokines. We hypothesize that during an asthma attack, IFN-gamma produced by CD161(+) T cells could help to reestablish the Th1/Th2 equilibrium. These observations may contribute to the understanding of the immune mechanisms involved in asthma attacks.

  2. Evaluation of genome-wide expression profiles of blood and sputum neutrophils in cystic fibrosis patients before and after antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conese, Massimo; Castellani, Stefano; Lepore, Silvia; Palumbo, Orazio; Manca, Antonio; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela Maria; Copetti, Massimiliano; Di Gioia, Sante; Casavola, Valeria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Diana, Anna; Montemurro, Pasqualina; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Gallo, Crescenzio; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Carella, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In seeking more specific biomarkers of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung inflammatory disease that would be sensitive to antibiotic therapy, we sought to evaluate the gene expression profiles of neutrophils in CF patients before treatment in comparison with non-CF healthy individuals and after antibiotic treatment. Genes involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation, i.e. chemotaxis, respiratory burst, apoptosis, and granule exocytosis, were the targets of this study. Microarray analysis was carried out in blood and airway neutrophils from CF patients and in control subjects. A fold change (log) threshold of 1.4 and a cut-off of ppre- and post-therapy patients. Control subjects and CF patients before therapy were readily separated, whereas a clear distinction between patients before and after antibiotic therapy was not possible. Blood neutrophils before therapy presented 269 genes down-regulated and 56 up-regulated as compared with control subjects. Comparison between the same patients before and after therapy showed instead 44 genes down-regulated and 72 up-regulated. Three genes appeared to be sensitive to therapy and returned to "healthy" condition: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1), hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1), and β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1). The up-regulation of these genes after therapy were confirmed by real time PCR. In airway neutrophils, 1029 genes were differentially expressed post- vs pre-therapy. Of these, 30 genes were up-regulated and 75 down-regulated following antibiotic treatment. However, biological plausibility determined that only down-regulated genes belonged to the gene classes studied for blood neutrophils. Finally, it was observed that commonly expressed genes showed a greater variability in airway neutrophils than that found in blood neutrophils, both before and after therapy. These results indicate more specific targets for future interventions in CF patients involving respiratory burst, apoptosis, and granule

  3. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Roomi, M. Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath W.; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra, E-mail: a.niedz@drrath.com; Rath, Matthias [Dr. Rath Research Institute, 1260 Memorex Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95050 (United States)

    2012-03-23

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM) synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay), MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography), cell invasion (through Matrigel) and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase). In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography) and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography) in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and progression

  4. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay, MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography, cell invasion (through Matrigel and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase. In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and

  5. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roomi, M. Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath W.; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM) synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay), MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography), cell invasion (through Matrigel) and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase). In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography) and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography) in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and progression

  6. [6]-Shogaol inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines via regulation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of JNK in HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Youngjoo; Han, Na-Young; Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Hyuk-Sang

    2013-08-01

    [6]-Shogaol is a major bioactive component of Zingiber officinale. Although [6]-shogaol has a number of pharmacological activities including antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive and anti-inflammatory effects, the specific mechanisms of its anti-allergic effects have not been studied. In this study, we present the effects of [6]-shogaol on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions in vivo and in vitro. Sprague-Dawley rats received intradermal injections of anti-DNP IgE was injected into dorsal skin sites. After 48 h, [6]-shogaol was administered orally 1 h prior to challenge with DNP-HSA in saline containing 4% Evans blue through the dorsal vein of the penis. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) were cultured and purified to investigate histamine release. In vitro, we evaluated the regulatory effects of [6]-shogaol on the level of inflammatory mediators in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionomycin A23187-stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). [6]-Shogaol reduced the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction compared to the control group, and histamine release decreased significantly following the treatment of RPMCs with [6]-shogaol. In HMC-1 cells, [6]-shogaol inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylation of JNK in compound 48/80-induced HMC-1 cells. [6]-shogaol inhibited mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by inhibiting the release of histamine and the production of proinflammatory cytokines with the involvement of regulation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of JNK.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of sinomenine by inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators in PMA plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Y C; Kang, O H; Kim, S B; Mun, S H; Park, C B; Kim, Y G; Kim, Y I; Lee, Y S; Han, S H; Keum, J H; Shin, D W; Ma, J Y; Kwon, D Y

    2012-09-01

    Sinomenine is an alkaloid compound and a prominent anti-inflammatory agent found in the root of the climbing plant Sinomenium acutum. However, its effects on the mechanism of human mast cell line (HMC)-1-mediated inflammation remained unknown. To provide insight into the biological effects of sinomenine, we examined its influence on the pro-inflammatory cytokine production in HMC-1 cells stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187 by evaluating the stimulated cells in the presence or absence of sinomenine. In the present study, the pro-inflammatory cytokine production was measured using ELISA, Reverse Transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway activation, as determined by Western blot analysis. Also, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was measured through Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. Sinomenine inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine production induced by PMA plus A23187 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, sinomenine inhibited the phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPKs as well as the translocation of NF-kappaB p65 through reduced IkappaBalpha degradation. In addition, sinomenine suppressed COX-2 protein and mRNA expression dose-dependently. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of sinomenine may occur via the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine and COX-2 production through the inhibition of MAPKs and NF-kappaB pathway activation by PMA plus A23187 stimulation in HMC-1 cells.

  8. Angiotensin II stimulates renin in inner medullary collecting duct cells via protein kinase C and independent of epithelial sodium channel and mineralocorticoid receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alexis A; Liu, Liu; Lara, Lucienne S; Seth, Dale M; Navar, L Gabriel; Prieto, Minolfa C

    2011-03-01

    Collecting duct (CD) renin is stimulated by angiotensin (Ang) II, providing a pathway for Ang I generation and further conversion to Ang II. Ang II stimulates the epithelial sodium channel via the Ang II type 1 receptor and increases mineralocorticoid receptor activity attributed to increased aldosterone release. Our objective was to determine whether CD renin augmentation is mediated directly by Ang II type 1 receptor or via the epithelial sodium channel and mineralocorticoid receptor. In vivo studies examined the effects of epithelial sodium channel blockade (amiloride; 5 mg/kg per day) on CD renin expression and urinary renin content in Ang II-infused rats (80 ng/min, 2 weeks). Ang II infusion increased systolic blood pressure, medullary renin mRNA, urinary renin content, and intrarenal Ang II levels. Amiloride cotreatment did not alter these responses despite a reduction in the rate of progression of systolic blood pressure. In primary cultures of inner medullary CD cells, renin mRNA and (pro)renin protein levels increased with Ang II (100 nmol/L), and candesartan (Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist) prevented this effect. Aldosterone (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L) with or without amiloride did not modify the upregulation of renin mRNA in Ang II-treated cells. However, inhibition of protein kinase C with calphostin C prevented the Ang II-mediated increases in renin mRNA and (pro)renin protein levels. Furthermore, protein kinase C activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased renin expression to the same extent as Ang II. These data indicate that an Ang II type 1 receptor-mediated increase in CD renin is induced directly by Ang II via the protein kinase C pathway and that this regulation is independent of mineralocorticoid receptor activation or epithelial sodium channel activity.

  9. Establishment of a common acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (LC4-1) and effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on the surface antigen expression of the cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, T; Mayumi, M; Yorifuji, T; Kim, K M; Heike, T; Miyanomae, T; Shinomiya, K; Mikawa, H

    1987-09-01

    A common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line, designated LC4-1, was established from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a patient with acute non-T-cell ALL. LC4-1 cells were characteristically positive for Ia, B4, and common ALL antigens (CALLA), but negative for B2, Tac, T3, T4, T8, T11, and M1 antigens and E-rosette formation. Approximately 30% of LC4-1 cells expressed detectable amounts of B1 antigens. LC4-1 cells expressed neither Epstein-Barr-virus-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA), cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (cIg) nor surface immunoglobulins (sIg). Gene rearrangements had already occurred in LC4-1 in the D-J region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes, but not in T-cell receptor (beta-chain) genes, suggesting that LC4-1 is a progenitor cell line of B-cell lineage earlier than pre-B-cells. The expression of cell surface antigens of LC4-1 was changed by treatment with 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (0.1 ng/ml) for 2 days. Before treatment with PMA, about 98% of LC4-1 cells were positive for B4, CALLA, and Ia. However, following treatment they lost CALLA expression without any change in expression of Ia and B4. There was no change in B1-positive population. The change in surface antigens on LC4-1 cells seems to be due to differentiation induced in the cells by PMA. These results support the hypothesis that CALLA is a differentiation antigen and suggest one possible differentiation pathway for pre-B-cells.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, a novel candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ho; Seo, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-09-05

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace metal for eukaryotes. The roles of Zn in the numerous physiological functions have been elucidated. Bamboo salt contains Zn that was shown to have anti-inflammatory effect and other health benefits. Nanoparticles of various types have found application in the biology, medicine, and physics. Here we synthesized tetrapod-like, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZO-NP; diameter 200 nm, source of Zn) using a radio frequency thermal plasma system and investigated its effects on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reactions. ZO-NP was found to inhibit the productions and mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α on the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. In these stimulated cells, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB activations were abolished by ZO-NP, and the expressions of receptor interacting protein2 (RIP2) and IκB kinaseβ (IKKβ) induced by PAMCI were reduced. On the other hand, ZO-NP alone increased the expressions of RIP2 and IKKβ in normal condition. ZO-NP inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in the PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, ZO-NP significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. These findings indicate that ZO-NP effectively ameliorates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction, and suggest that ZO-NP be considered a potential therapeutic for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of phytosterol esters against high cholesterol-induced cognitive deficits in aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xu; Wenfang, Li; Jing, Cheng; Meng, Chen; Chengcheng, Ding; Jiqu, Xu; Shuang, Rong

    2017-03-22

    Accumulating epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that a high-cholesterol diet is detrimental to cognitive performance in animal models. Phytosterols, a class of naturally occurring structural components in plant foods, have been demonstrated to possess cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. Phytosterol esters (PSE) are esters of phytosterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PSE on cognitive deficit induced by a cholesterol-enriched diet in aged rats, and to explore their underlying mechanisms for these effects. Based on their Morris water maze performance, the latencies differed by <1.5 standard deviations (SDs) on days 3-5 of testing, 60 rats were chosen from 12-month-old female Sprague Dawley aged rats and were randomized into three groups, which were fed either a control diet, a high cholesterol diet (HCD) or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with 2% PSE (HCD + PSE) for 6 months. In our study, we found that PSE treatment maintained the body weight balance, reduced the serum lipid levels, and improved the cognitive performance of aged rats in the Morris water maze test, as evaluated by shortened escape latencies. Importantly, histological and immunohistochemical results in the brain showed that PSE supplementation may have a neuroprotective effect that alleviates neuroinflammation in aged rats. This neuroprotective effect significantly inhibited degeneration, resulting in a significant increase in the number of pyramidal cells and an apparent decrease in the number of astrocytes compared to rats that were fed only a HCD. Furthermore, PSE improved cholinergic activities by restoring the acetylcholine (ACh) content and decreasing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, as well as by elevating choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that PSE can play a useful role in alleviating cognitive deficit induced by a

  12. Cell-surface acceleration of urokinase-catalyzed receptor cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Ploug, M; Behrendt, N

    1997-01-01

    relative to the reaction in solution. The time course of uPA-catalyzed cleavage of cell-bound uPAR was studied using U937 cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Only 30 min was required for 10 nM uPA to cleave 50% of the cell-bound uPAR. This uPA-catalyzed cleavage reaction was inhibited...

  13. Early Treatment of radiation-Induced Heart Damage in Rats by Caffeic acid phenethyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Mansour, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    The study designed to determine the therapeutic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in minimising radiation-induced injuries in rats. Rats were exposed to 7 Gy γ-rays, 30 minutes later; rats were injected with CAPE (10μmol/ kg body, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed at 8 and 15 days after starting the experiment. Gamma-irradiation induced significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) level and xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, and significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrate (NO (x)) level and glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)and catalase (CAT) activities in heart tissue and augmented activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. Irradiated rats early treated with CAPE showed significant decrease in MDA, XO and ADA and significant increase in group. Cardiac enzymes were restored. Conclusion, CAPE could exhibits curable effect on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac-oxidative impairment in rats. (Author)

  14. Indoleacetic acid falcarindiol ester induces granulocytic differentiation of the human leukemia cell line HL-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolmon, Soninkhishig; Kurita, Yui; Yamada, Parida; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Isoda, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid falcarindiol ester (compound 1) has previously been isolated and purified using an SiO2 column and ODS HPLC from an acetone extract of Japanese ivy (Hedera rhombea). Here we investigate the differentiation-inducing activity of compound 1 using the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell line. The effect of compound 1 on HL-60 cell viability and proliferation was determined at different treatment times using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diohenyl-2 H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry analysis. Also cell cycle kinetics were examined using propidium iodide staining of DNA. Cell differentiation was assessed by specific and non-specific esterase double staining assays, and by detection of the cell surface differentiation markers CD11b and CD14 using flow cytometry. The results showed HL-60 cell growth inhibition at 0.1 and 1.0 microg/mL compound 1, whereas 10 microg/mL was cytotoxic. The growth suppression induced by compound 1 was accompanied by G0/G1 phase arrest in the cell cycle at 1.0 microg/mL. Moreover, staining and immunochemical analysis indicated that compound 1 induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60 cells. This is the first report describing granulocytic differentiation activity of a falcarindiol derived polyacetylenic compound on leukemia cells.

  15. An AP-2 element acts synergistically with the cyclic AMP- and Phorbol ester-inducible enhancer of the human proenkephalin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, S.E.; Comb, M.; Pearlberg, J.; Goodman, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    An enhancer with two DNA elements, one containing the sequence CGTCA, is required for cyclic AMP-and phorbol ester-inducible transcription of the human proenkephalin gene. The authors report that an AP-2 element located adjacent to the enhancer acts synergistically with it to confer maximal response to cyclic AMP and phorbol esters.

  16. Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic and methacrylic esters of N-hydroxysuccinimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Yu, Gao; Yoshida, Masaru; Asano, Masaharu; Fukuzaki, Hironobu; Kaetsu, Isao

    1988-01-01

    The radiation-induced solid state polymerizations of acrylic and methacrylic esters of N-hydroxysuccinimide (N-acryloxysuccinimide (ASu) and N-methacryloxysuccinimide (MASu)) have been investigated in both the post-reaction and the in-source reaction, using γ-rays from 60 Co source. When ASu monomer is polymerized for 4 hr by post-reaction after pre-irradiation up to 10 kGy at -78 o in vacuo, the polymerization rate rises with increase in polymerization temperature and a maximal yield of 100% is reached at 59 o , which is close to the melting point of monomer (62 o ). From the relationship between the polymer yield and the specific viscosity (in dimethyl sulphoxide), it is presumed that the mutual termination of growing chain radicals is difficult in a post-reaction system because of the long-lived polymer chain. On the contrary, in an in-source reaction system, the specific viscosity of poly(ASu) could not be measured for doses from 10 kGy (4% yield) to 100 kGy (100% yield), because of insolubility in dimethylsulphoxide. This means that cross linking occurs. These tendencies are also observed in the solid state polymerization of MASu which has a melting point of 100 o . (author)

  17. Ester alkaloids from Cephalotaxus interfere with the 2'3'-cGAMP-induced type I interferon pathway in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayoung Park

    Full Text Available Dysregulated activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING pathway by self-DNA contributes to interferonopathy and promotes autoimmune diseases. To identify potential suppressors of STING-induced type I interferon (IFN induction, ethanol extracts of medicinal plants were screened for inhibitory activity against IFN-ß promoter activation. Notably, 70% ethanol extract of Cephalotaxus koreana specifically down-regulated STING-induced, but not TBK1- or IRF3-induced, IFN-ß promoter activity. The compounds exerting inhibitory activity specifically against STING-mediated IFN-ß promoter activation were identified as ester alkaloids isolated from the genus, Cephalotaxus, homoharringtonine and harringtonine. Furthermore, these two compounds inhibited 2'3'-cGAMP-induced IFN-stimulated gene expression and interaction between STING and TBK1. These suppressive effects were not observed with cephalotaxine devoid of the ester side-chain. Our data support the potential utility of homoharringtonine and harringtonine to treat STING-associated interferonopathy and autoimmune diseases.

  18. Simultaneous Quantification of Free Cholesterol, Cholesteryl Esters, and Triglycerides without Ester Hydrolysis by UHPLC Separation and In-Source Collision Induced Dissociation Coupled MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael S.; McWilliams, Lisa G.; Jones, Jeffrey I.; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the application of in-source nitrogen collision-induced dissociation (CID) that eliminates the need for ester hydrolysis before simultaneous analysis of esterified cholesterol (EC) and triglycerides (TG) along with free cholesterol (FC) from human serum, using normal phase liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analysis requires only 50 μL of 1:100 dilute serum with a high-throughput, precipitation/evaporation/extraction protocol in one pot. Known representative mixtures of EC and TG species were used as calibrators with stable isotope labeled analogs as internal standards. The APCI MS source was operated with nitrogen source gas. Reproducible in-source CID was achieved with the use of optimal cone voltage (declustering potential), generating FC, EC, and TG lipid class-specific precursor fragment ions for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Using a representative mixture of purified FC, CE, and TG species as calibrators, the method accuracy was assessed with analysis of five inter-laboratory standardization materials, showing -10% bias for Total-C and -3% for Total-TG. Repeated duplicate analysis of a quality control pool showed intra-day and inter-day variation of 5% and 5.8% for FC, 5.2% and 8.5% for Total-C, and 4.1% and 7.7% for Total-TG. The applicability of the method was demonstrated on 32 serum samples and corresponding lipoprotein sub-fractions collected from normolipidemic, hypercholesterolemic, hypertriglyceridemic, and hyperlipidemic donors. The results show that in-source CID coupled with isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS is a viable high precision approach for translational research studies where samples are substantially diluted or the amounts of archived samples are limited. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Regulation of Ca2+ influx by a protein kinase C activator in chromaffin cells: differential role of P/Q- and L-type Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, C M; Santos, R M; Boarder, M R; Rosário, L M

    1999-02-05

    Phorbol esters reduce depolarization-evoked Ca2+ influx in adrenal chromaffin cells, suggesting that voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels (VSCCs) are inhibited by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation. We now address the possibility that L- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channel subtypes might be differentially involved in phorbol ester action. In bovine chromaffin cells, short-term (10 min) incubations with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) inhibited early high K+-evoked rises in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the early component of the depolarization-evoked Mn2+ quenching of fura-2 fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 18 and 7 nM; maximal inhibitions: 45 and 48%, respectively). The protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (100 nM) reverted the inhibitory action of PMA. PMA (0.1-1 microM) inhibited the early and late phases of the ionomycin (2 microM)-evoked [Ca2+]i transients by 14-23%. Omega-agatoxin IVA, a blocker of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, inhibited high K+-evoked [Ca2+]i rises in a dose-dependent fashion (IC50 = 50 nM). In contrast, 0.1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA, a blocker of N-type channels, was without effect. A sizeable (< 45%) component of early Ca2+ influx persisted in the combined presence of omega-agatoxin IVA (100 nM) and nitrendipine (1 microM). Simultaneous exposure to omega-agatoxin IVA and PMA inhibited both the early [Ca2+]i transients and Mn2+ quenching to a much greater extent than each drug separately. Inhibition of the [Ca2+]i transients by nitrendipine and PMA did not significantly exceed that produced by PMA alone. It is concluded that phorbol ester-mediated activation of protein kinase C inhibits preferentially L-type VSCCs over P/Q type channels in adrenal chromaffin cells. However, the possibility cannot be ruled out that dihydropyridine-resistant, non-P/Q type channels might also be negatively regulated by protein kinase C. This may represent an important pathway for the specific control of VSCCs by protein kinase C

  20. Apoptosis and autophagy induced by pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiu; Ou, Yun-Sheng; Tao, Yong; Yin, Hang; Tu, Ping-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester (MPPa) was a second-generation photosensitizer with many potential applications. Here, we explored the impact of MPPa-mediated photodynamic therapy (MPPa-PDT) on the apoptosis and autophagy of human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells as well as the relationships between apoptosis and autophagy of the cells, and investigated the related molecular mechanisms. We found that MPPa-PDT demonstrated the ability to inhibit MG-63 cell viability in an MPPa concentration- and light dose-dependent manner, and to induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Additionally, MPPa-PDT could also induce autophagy of MG-63 cell. Meanwhile, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and the Jnk inhibitor SP600125 were found to inhibit the MPPa-PDT-induced autophagy, and NAC could also inhibit Jnk phosphorylation. Furthermore, pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or chloroquine showed the potential in reducing the apoptosis rate induced by MPPa-PDT in MG-63 cells. Our results indicated that the mitochondrial pathway was involved in MPPa-PDT-induced apoptosis of MG-63 cells. Meanwhile the ROS-Jnk signaling pathway was involved in MPPa-PDT-induced autophagy, which further promoted the apoptosis in MG-63 cells.

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Hee [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ji Hye; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Sun Woo [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression.

  2. Endothelial-derived superoxide anions in pig coronary arteries: evidence from lucigenin chemiluminescence and histochemical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, R P; Barton, M; Philippens, K M; Schweitzer, G; Mügge, A

    1997-01-01

    1. The generation of superoxide anions (O2-) by intact pig coronary artery rings was measured using a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence technique and a histochemical technique with Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT) staining. 2. Isolated arteries with intact endothelium generated O2- at a rate of 9.0 +/- 0.8 pmol min-1 (mg dry weight)-1; this rate was diminished by about 24% when the endothelium was removed. The NBT staining of arterial ring preparations showed formazan precipitation mainly in the intima. Arterial rings were pretreated with diethylthiocarbamate in order to inhibit Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity which increased the O2- generation by 184 +/- 55% (n = 10; P < 0.01). Stimulation of protein kinase C with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (5 microM) enhanced endothelium-dependent O2- generation by 136 +/- 20% (n = 19; P < 0.01). Neither stimulation with bradykinin or substance P, nor inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester of endothelial nitric oxide synthase had a significant effect on O2- generation. In contrast, the inhibition of flavoproteins with diphenyliodonium decreased concentration-dependent O2- generation (IC50, 1.85 +/- 5.33 microM). Inhibition of tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis with 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine resulted in a reduced generation of O2- by about 55%. 3. The addition of 100 microM NADH and 100 microM NADPH resulted in an excessive generation of O2- at a rate of 0.68 +/- 0.03 and 0.26 +/- 0.01 nmol O2- min-1 (mg protein)-1, respectively, in the membrane fraction, but not in the cytosolic fraction, of homogenates obtained from arteries. 4. The results suggest that intact coronary arteries do generate O2- under basal conditions and that the endothelial layer significantly contributes to this phenomenon. This generation of O2- is greatly influenced by intrinsic SOD activity. It is suggested that basal vascular O2- generation is mainly due to membrane-bound NAD(P)H oxidase activity and/or tetrahydrobiopterin

  3. Radiation-induced copolymerizations of perfluorovinyl acetic acid and its methyl ester with α-olefin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, M.; Watanabe, T.; Matsuda, O.; Tabata, Y.; Machi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Homopolymerizations and copolymerizations of perfluorovinyl acetic acid (FVA) and its methyl ester (MFVA) were carried out by γ radiation at a temperature of 25 0 C, a dose rate of 1 x 10 6 rad/hr, and FVA/α-olefin and MFVA/α-olefin ratios of 10/90-90/10 in the monomer mixture. FVA and MFVA gave small quantities of brown and greasy low-molecular-weight homopolymers. The polymerization rates of both FVA and MFVA were extremely small, as shown by the maximum G value of monomer consumption of 12. FVA and MFVA reacted with α-olefin to form waxlike copolymers. The copolymerization rates of both FVA and MFVA with α-olefin were remarkably larger than those of the homopolymerizations, particularly with ethylene. The polymer compositions of FVA/ethylene or MFVA/ethylene were nearly 1/2 over a wide range of the monomer compositions. The Mayo-Lewis method gave negative r 1 (FVA) and r 1 (MFVA). The polymer composition curves could be well interpreted by introducing the penultimate model

  4. Homologous desensitization of histamine-mediated signal transduction system in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Lu; Wei, Jiann-Wu

    2013-04-30

    Molecular events involved in the homologous desensitization of histamine-mediated signal transduction system in glioma cells are not well understood. The aim of this study was designed to gain further insight into possible events in the process using the C6 glioma cells. Incubation of histamine caused increases in inositol phosphate (IP1) formation and intracellular free-calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in C6 glioma cells via the activation of a G-protein-coupled phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Histamine also caused an increase in extracellular release of arachidonic acid (AA) and formation of glycerophosphoinositol (GPI). These effects are likely to be mediated through the activation of receptor-coupled phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Pretreatment of C6 cells with histamine, from 0.1 microM to 1 mM concentrations, for 10 to 60 min significantly reduced the histamine-induced IP1 production, [Ca2+]i accumulation, AA release and GPI formation, despite repeated wash of the cells with buffer solution. Staurosporine (10 nM), a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, reversed almost completely IP1 production, or partially for [Ca2+]i, GPI formation and AA release of this homologous desensitization effect of histamine. Pretreatment of C6 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, at 0.1 nM to 0.1 microM for 2 to 15 min caused a reduction of histamine-induced IP1 formation and [Ca2+] accumulation, but enhanced histamine-induced AA release and GPI formation. Ten nM staurosporine completely reversed the effect of PMA on histamine-induced IP1 formation and partially on [Ca2+]i accumulation. However, staurosporine potentiated the effect of PMA on histamine-induced AA release and GPI formation, but the effect could be blocked by H7, a calcium-dependent PKC inhibitor. Our results indicate that activation of PKC by histamine in the signal transduction system is involved in the histamine-induced homologous desensitization event. Since PMA pretreatment could not mimic histamine-induced

  5. Rac1 GTPase regulates 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and fibrotic remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavall, Daniel; Schuster, Pia; Jacobs, Nadine; Kazakov, Andrey; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-05

    The aim of the study was to characterize the role of Rac1 GTPase for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-mediated pro-fibrotic remodeling. Transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (RacET) develop an age-dependent phenotype with atrial dilatation, fibrosis, and atrial fibrillation. Expression of MR was similar in RacET and WT mice. The expression of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) was age-dependently up-regulated in the atria and the left ventricles of RacET mice on mRNA and protein levels. Statin treatment inhibiting Rac1 geranylgeranylation reduced 11β-HSD2 up-regulation. Samples of human left atrial myocardium showed a positive correlation between Rac1 activity and 11β-HSD2 expression ( r = 0.7169). Immunoprecipitation showed enhanced Rac1-bound 11β-HSD2 relative to Rac1 expression in RacET mice that was diminished with statin treatment. Both basal and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced NADPH oxidase activity were increased in RacET and correlated positively with 11β-HSD2 expression ( r = 0.788 and r = 0.843, respectively). In cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes, Rac1 activation with l-buthionine sulfoximine increased; Rac1 inhibition with NSC23766 decreased 11β-HSD2 mRNA and protein expression. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) up-regulation induced by aldosterone was prevented with NSC23766. Cardiomyocyte transfection with 11β-HSD2 siRNA abolished the aldosterone-induced CTGF up-regulation. Aldosterone-stimulated MR nuclear translocation was blocked by the 11β-HSD2 inhibitor carbenoxolone. In cardiac fibroblasts, nuclear MR translocation induced by aldosterone was inhibited with NSC23766 and spironolactone. NSC23766 prevented the aldosterone-induced proliferation and migration of cardiac fibroblasts and the up-regulation of CTGF and fibronectin. In conclusion, Rac1 GTPase regulates 11β-HSD2 expression, MR activation, and MR-mediated pro-fibrotic signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for

  6. Arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhito Yamashita

    Full Text Available Arctigenin, a lignan-derived compound, is a constituent of the seeds of Arctium lappa. Arctigenin was previously shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis; however, this inhibitory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we showed that arctigenin inhibited the action of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors was activated through two distinct pathways: the calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent pathways. Among the several lignan-derived compounds examined, arctigenin most strongly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM cultures, in which the calcineurin-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. Arctigenin suppressed neither the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases nor the up-regulation of c-Fos expression in BMMs treated with RANKL. However, arctigenin suppressed RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. Interestingly, the treatment of osteoclast-like cells with arctigenin converted NFATc1 into a lower molecular weight species, which was translocated into the nucleus even in the absence of RANKL. Nevertheless, arctigenin as well as cyclosporin A (CsA, a calcineurin inhibitor, suppressed the NFAT-luciferase reporter activity induced by ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in BMMs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that arctigenin inhibited the recruitment of NFATc1 to the promoter region of the NFATc1 target gene. Arctigenin, but not CsA suppressed osteoclast-like cell formation in co-cultures of osteoblastic cells and bone marrow cells, in which the osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. The forced expression of constitutively active NFATc1 rescued osteoclastogenesis in BMM cultures treated with CsA, but not that treated with arctigenin. Arctigenin also suppressed the

  7. Arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Li, Feng; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan-derived compound, is a constituent of the seeds of Arctium lappa. Arctigenin was previously shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis; however, this inhibitory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we showed that arctigenin inhibited the action of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors was activated through two distinct pathways: the calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent pathways. Among the several lignan-derived compounds examined, arctigenin most strongly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM) cultures, in which the calcineurin-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. Arctigenin suppressed neither the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases nor the up-regulation of c-Fos expression in BMMs treated with RANKL. However, arctigenin suppressed RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. Interestingly, the treatment of osteoclast-like cells with arctigenin converted NFATc1 into a lower molecular weight species, which was translocated into the nucleus even in the absence of RANKL. Nevertheless, arctigenin as well as cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor, suppressed the NFAT-luciferase reporter activity induced by ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in BMMs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that arctigenin inhibited the recruitment of NFATc1 to the promoter region of the NFATc1 target gene. Arctigenin, but not CsA suppressed osteoclast-like cell formation in co-cultures of osteoblastic cells and bone marrow cells, in which the osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. The forced expression of constitutively active NFATc1 rescued osteoclastogenesis in BMM cultures treated with CsA, but not that treated with arctigenin. Arctigenin also suppressed the pit

  8. Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E-Y; Choe, S-H; Hyeon, J-Y; Choi, J-I; Choi, I S; Kim, S-J

    2015-12-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has numerous potentially beneficial properties, including antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of CAPE on periodontal disease has not been studied before. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of CAPE in ameliorating the production of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in periodontal disease. LPS from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was isolated by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were assayed for nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify inducible NO synthase, IL-1β, IL-6, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 mRNA expression. HO-1 protein expression and levels of signaling proteins were assessed by immunoblot analysis. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were analyzed by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based kits. CAPE exerted significant inhibitory effects on P. intermedia LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. CAPE-induced HO-1 expression in cells activated with P. intermedia LPS, and selective inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX attenuated the inhibitory effect of CAPE on LPS-induced NO production. CAPE did not interfere with IκB-α degradation induced by P. intermedia LPS. Instead, CAPE decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits induced with LPS, and lessened LPS-induced p50 binding activity. Further, CAPE showed strong inhibitory effects on LPS-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3 phosphorylation. Besides, CAPE significantly elevated SOCS1 mRNA expression in P. intermedia LPS-stimulated cells. Modulation of host response by CAPE may represent an attractive strategy towards the treatment of periodontal disease

  9. Detection of reactive oxygen species in isolated, perfused lungs by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schudt Christian

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sources and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in intact organs are largely unresolved. This may be related to methodological problems associated with the techniques currently employed for ROS detection. Electron spin resonance (ESR with spin trapping is a specific method for ROS detection, and may address some these technical problems. Methods We have established a protocol for the measurement of intravascular ROS release from isolated buffer-perfused and ventilated rabbit and mouse lungs, combining lung perfusion with the spin probe l-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CPH and ESR spectroscopy. We then employed this technique to characterize hypoxia-dependent ROS release, with specific attention paid to NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide formation as a possible vasoconstrictor pathway. Results While perfusing lungs with CPH over a range of inspired oxygen concentrations (1–21 %, the rate of CP• formation exhibited an oxygen-dependence, with a minimum at 2.5 % O2. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD to the buffer fluid illustrated that a minor proportion of this intravascular ROS leak was attributable to superoxide. Stimulation of the lungs by injection of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA into the pulmonary artery caused a rapid increase in CP• formation, concomitant with pulmonary vasoconstriction. Both the PMA-induced CPH oxidation and the vasoconstrictor response were largely suppressed by SOD. When the PMA challenge was performed at different oxygen concentrations, maximum superoxide liberation and pulmonary vasoconstriction occurred at 5 % O2. Using a NADPH oxidase inhibitor and NADPH-oxidase deficient mice, we illustrated that the PMA-induced superoxide release was attributable to the stimulation of NADPH oxidases. Conclusion The perfusion of isolated lungs with CPH is suitable for detection of intravascular ROS release by ESR spectroscopy. We employed this technique to

  10. Phorbol ester tumor promoter induced the synthesis of two major cytoplasmic proteins: identity with two proteins induced under heat-shocked and glucose-starved conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chen, K.Y.; Liu, A.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    The regulation of specific protein synthesis by the phorbol ester tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), was evaluated using the L-8 and C-2 myoblast and the 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell cultures. TPA increased, by 2-4 fold, the synthesis rates of two cytoplasmic proteins with apparent molecular weights of 89,000 and 74,000 as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The concentration of TPA and the time of incubation needed to elicit this induction was determined to be 10 μg/ml and 20 hrs, respectively. Increasing the concentration of TPA to 100, 200, and 500 ng/ml did not result in a greater magnitude of induction. The possibility that these two TPA-induced proteins may be identical to proteins with similar molecular weights induced under heat-shocked or glucose-starved conditions was evaluated by 1-D and 2-D gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Results provided evidence that the TPA-induced 89,000- and 74,000-dalton proteins were identical to hsp 89 and hsp 74, 2 out of a set of 8-9 proteins induced under heat shocked conditions. Furthermore, they are identical to two of the set of glucose-regulated proteins induced under a glucose-starved condition

  11. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta inhibits proliferation in monocytic cells by affecting the retinoblastoma protein/E2F/cyclin E pathway but is not directly required for macrophage morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsch, Romina; Kandemir, Judith D; Pietsch, Daniel; Cappello, Christian; Meyer, Johann; Simanowski, Kathrin; Huber, René; Brand, Korbinian

    2011-07-01

    Monocytic differentiation is orchestrated by complex networks that are not fully understood. This study further elucidates the involvement of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). Initially, we demonstrated a marked increase in nuclear C/EBPβ-liver-enriched activating protein* (LAP*)/liver-enriched activating protein (LAP) levels and LAP/liver-enriched inhibiting protein (LIP) ratios in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated differentiating THP-1 premonocytic cells accompanied by reduced proliferation. To directly study C/EBPβ effects on monocytic cells, we generated novel THP-1-derived (low endogenous C/EBPβ) cell lines stably overexpressing C/EBPβ isoforms. Most importantly, cells predominantly overexpressing LAP* (C/EBPβ-long), but not those overexpressing LIP (C/EBPβ-short), exhibited a reduced proliferation, with no effect on morphology. PMA-induced inhibition of proliferation was attenuated in C/EBPβ-short cells. In C/EBPβ(WT) macrophage-like cells (high endogenous C/EBPβ), we measured a reduced proliferation/cycling index compared with C/EBPβ(KO). The typical macrophage morphology was only observed in C/EBPβ(WT), whereas C/EBPβ(KO) stayed round. C/EBPα did not compensate for C/EBPβ effects on proliferation/morphology. Serum reduction, an independent approach known to inhibit proliferation, induced macrophage morphology in C/EBPβ(KO) macrophage-like cells but not THP-1. In PMA-treated THP-1 and C/EBPβ-long cells, a reduced phosphorylation of cell cycle repressor retinoblastoma was found. In addition, C/EBPβ-long cells showed reduced c-Myc expression accompanied by increased CDK inhibitor p27 and reduced cyclin D1 levels. Finally, C/EBPβ-long and C/EBPβ(WT) cells exhibited low E2F1 and cyclin E levels, and C/EBPβ overexpression was found to inhibit cyclin E1 promoter-dependent transcription. Our results suggest that C/EBPβ reduces monocytic proliferation by affecting the retinoblastoma/E2F/cyclin E

  12. Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps under low oxygen level

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    Katja Branitzki-Heinemann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs have been characterized as a fundamental host innate immune defense mechanism. Conversely, excessive NET release may have a variety of detrimental consequences for the host. A fine balance between NET formation and elimination is necessary to sustain a protective effect during an infectious challenge. Our own recently published data revealed that stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α by the iron chelating HIF-1α-agonist desferoxamine or AKB-4924 enhanced the release of phagocyte extracellular traps. Since HIF-1α is a global regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen, we hypothesized that NET formation may be similarly increased under low oxygen conditions. Hypoxia occurs in tissues during infection or inflammation, mostly due to overconsumption of oxygen by pathogens and recruited immune cells. Therefore, experiments were performed to characterize the formation of NETs under hypoxic oxygen conditions compared to normoxia. Human blood-derived neutrophils were isolated and incubated under normoxic (21% oxygen level and compared to hypoxic (1% conditions. Dissolved oxygen levels were monitored in the primary cell culture using a Fibox4-PSt3 measurement system. The formation of NETs was quantified by fluorescence microscopy in response to the known NET-inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA or S. aureus wildtype and a nuclease-deficient mutant. In contrast to our hypothesis, spontaneous NET formation of neutrophils incubated under hypoxia was distinctly reduced compared to control neutrophils incubated under normoxia. Furthermore, neutrophils incubated under hypoxia showed significantly reduced formation of NETs in response to PMA. Gene expression analysis revealed that mRNA level of hif-1α as well as hif-1α target genes was not altered. However, in good correlation to the decreased NET formation under hypoxia, the cholesterol content of the neutrophils was

  13. T-cell activation and early gene response in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortlock, Sally-Anne; Wei, Jerry; Williamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    T-cells play a crucial role in canine immunoregulation and defence against invading pathogens. Proliferation is fundamental to T-cell differentiation, homeostasis and immune response. Initiation of proliferation following receptor mediated stimuli requires a temporally programmed gene response that can be identified as immediate-early, mid- and late phases. The immediate-early response genes in T-cell activation engage the cell cycle machinery and promote subsequent gene activation events. Genes involved in this immediate-early response in dogs are yet to be identified. The present study was undertaken to characterise the early T-cell gene response in dogs to improve understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating immune function. Gene expression profiles were characterised using canine gene expression microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), and paired samples from eleven dogs. Significant functional annotation clusters were identified following stimulation with phytohemagluttinin (PHA) (5μg/ml), including the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and phosphorylation pathways. Using strict statistical criteria, 13 individual genes were found to be differentially expressed, nine of which have ontologies that relate to proliferation and cell cycle control. These included, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2/COX2), early growth response 1 (EGR1), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene (GADD45B), phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1), V-FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), early growth response 2 (EGR2), hemogen (HEMGN), polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) and polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3). Differential gene expression was re-examined using qRT-PCR, which confirmed that EGR1, EGR2, PMAIP1, PTGS2, FOS and GADD45B were significantly upregulated in stimulated cells and ALAS2 downregulated. PTGS2 and EGR1 showed the highest levels of response in these dogs. Both of these genes are involved in cell cycle

  14. T-cell activation and early gene response in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally-Anne Mortlock

    Full Text Available T-cells play a crucial role in canine immunoregulation and defence against invading pathogens. Proliferation is fundamental to T-cell differentiation, homeostasis and immune response. Initiation of proliferation following receptor mediated stimuli requires a temporally programmed gene response that can be identified as immediate-early, mid- and late phases. The immediate-early response genes in T-cell activation engage the cell cycle machinery and promote subsequent gene activation events. Genes involved in this immediate-early response in dogs are yet to be identified. The present study was undertaken to characterise the early T-cell gene response in dogs to improve understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating immune function. Gene expression profiles were characterised using canine gene expression microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR, and paired samples from eleven dogs. Significant functional annotation clusters were identified following stimulation with phytohemagluttinin (PHA (5μg/ml, including the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and phosphorylation pathways. Using strict statistical criteria, 13 individual genes were found to be differentially expressed, nine of which have ontologies that relate to proliferation and cell cycle control. These included, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2/COX2, early growth response 1 (EGR1, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene (GADD45B, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, V-FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS, early growth response 2 (EGR2, hemogen (HEMGN, polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2 and polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3. Differential gene expression was re-examined using qRT-PCR, which confirmed that EGR1, EGR2, PMAIP1, PTGS2, FOS and GADD45B were significantly upregulated in stimulated cells and ALAS2 downregulated. PTGS2 and EGR1 showed the highest levels of response in these dogs. Both of these genes are involved in

  15. The MEK1/2-ERK Pathway Inhibits Type I IFN Production in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

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    Vaclav Janovec

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the crosslinking of regulatory receptors (RRs, such as blood dendritic cell antigen 2 (BDCA-2 (CD303 or ILT7 (CD85g, of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs efficiently suppresses the production of type I interferons (IFN-I, α/β/ω and other cytokines in response to toll-like receptor 7 and 9 (TLR7/9 ligands. The exact mechanism of how this B cell receptor (BCR-like signaling blocks TLR7/9-mediated IFN-I production is unknown. Here, we stimulated BCR-like signaling by ligation of RRs with BDCA-2 and ILT7 mAbs, hepatitis C virus particles, or BST2 expressing cells. We compared BCR-like signaling in proliferating pDC cell line GEN2.2 and in primary pDCs from healthy donors, and addressed the question of whether pharmacological targeting of BCR-like signaling can antagonize RR-induced pDC inhibition. To this end, we tested the TLR9-mediated production of IFN-I and proinflammatory cytokines in pDCs exposed to a panel of inhibitors of signaling molecules involved in BCR-like, MAPK, NF-ĸB, and calcium signaling pathways. We found that MEK1/2 inhibitors, PD0325901 and U0126 potentiated TLR9-mediated production of IFN-I in GEN2.2 cells. More importantly, MEK1/2 inhibitors significantly increased the TLR9-mediated IFN-I production blocked in both GEN2.2 cells and primary pDCs upon stimulation of BCR-like or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced protein kinase C (PKC signaling. Triggering of BCR-like and PKC signaling in pDCs resulted in an upregulation of the expression and phoshorylation of c-FOS, a downstream gene product of the MEK1/2-ERK pathway. We found that the total level of c-FOS was higher in proliferating GEN2.2 cells than in the resting primary pDCs. The PD0325901-facilitated restoration of the TLR9-mediated IFN-I production correlated with the abrogation of MEK1/2-ERK-c-FOS signaling. These results indicate that the MEK1/2-ERK pathway inhibits TLR9-mediated type I IFN production in pDCs and that

  16. Four CISH paralogues are present in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: differential expression and modulation during immune responses and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehr, Tanja; Vecino, Jose L González; Wadsworth, Simon; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) family members are crucial in the control and attenuation of cytokine induced responses via activation of the JAK/STAT, TLR and NF-kB signalling pathways. SOCS proteins orchestrate the termination of many types of immune responses and are often the targets of microbial pathogens exploiting SOCS mechanisms to evade the host's immune response. Through whole and lineage specific genome duplication events, the teleost cytokine/SOCS network is complex. Not only are the orthologues of all mammalian SOCS members present, namely cytokine inducible Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing protein (CISH) and SOCS-1 to -7, but multiple gene copies exist that may potentially become functionally divergent. In this paper we focus on the CISH genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and have cloned two further paralogues, CISHa2 and CISHb2, additional to the known CISHa1 and CISHb1 genes. We present for the first time a comparative expression analysis of these four paralogues, to establish whether subfunctionalisation is apparent. In vivo examination of gene expression revealed a higher constitutive expression level of CISHa paralogues compared to CISHb expression in adult trout tissues. All CISHs were relatively highly abundant in immune tissues but CISHa2 and CISHb2 had highest expression in the heart and muscle. An inverse picture of CISH abundance during trout ontogeny was seen, and further hints at differential roles of the four genes in immune regulation and development. Stimulation of head kidney (HK) leukocytes with trout recombinant interleukin (rIL)-15 and rIL-21 had a major effect on CISHa2 and to a lesser extent CISHa1 expression. In HK macrophages rIL-1β, phytohemagglutinin, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also had a strong impact on CISHa2 expression. Yersinia ruckeri infection caused a temporally and spatially differential onset of CISH expression that may be viewed in the context of pathogen evasion strategies. These data

  17. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

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    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na. AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg, eugenol (18 mg/kg and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1 was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, hematocrit (HCT and platelet (PLT. The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  18. The Protective Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Acetylsalicylic Acid-induced Lung Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Mahşuk; Kaya, Halide; Demir, Melike; Evliyaoğlu, Osman; Sen, Hadice Selimoglu; Fırat, Ugur; Keles, Aysenur; Yilmaz, Sureyya; Sezgi, Cengizhan

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced lung damage in rats in the present study. A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into five groups, with eight rats in each group-group 1: control, not receiving any medication; group 2: ASA (50 mg/kg/day); group 3: ASA (50 mg/kg/day) plus CAPE (20 μg/kg/day); group 4: ASA (100 mg/kg/day); and group 5: ASA (100 mg/kg/day) plus CAPE (20 μg/kg/day). ASA and CAPE were given via orogastric gavage for 5 days. The total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidant stress index (OSI), and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity of the blood samples and lung tissues were determined. Histopathological examinations of the lung tissues were performed by using light microscopic methods. CAPE treatment significantly increased antioxidant PON-1 level both in the lung tissue and plasma (p < .05). Plasma antioxidant marker (TAC, PON-1) levels significantly increased and oxidant marker (TOS, OSI) levels significantly decreased in CAPE-treated rats (groups 3,5) compared to ASA given no-CAPE groups (group 2,4) (p < .05). Treatment with CAPE improved pulmonary interstitial inflammation and eosinophil accumulation due to ASA histopathologically. Eosinophil-rich inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in ASA-induced lung toxicity, and CAPE may protect against ASA-induced lung toxicity by reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation in rats.

  19. CLL2-1, a chemical derivative of orchid 1,4-phenanthrenequinones, inhibits human platelet aggregation through thiol modification of calcium-diacylglycerol guanine nucleotide exchange factor-I (CalDAG-GEFI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Chia-Lin; Wang, Hui-Chun; Liang, Shih-Shin; Kung, Po-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    CalDAG-GEFI is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, which actives small GTPase Rap1 and plays an important role in platelet aggregation. Our previous study has shown that CalDAG-GEFI contains redox-sensitive thiols, and its function can be inhibited by thiol modification. In the present study, the effect of CLL2-1, a 1,4-phenanthrenequinone, on CalDAG-GEFI and platelet functions was investigated. In human platelets, CLL2-1 prevented platelet aggregation caused by various stimulators. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that CLL2-1 inhibited GPIIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin secretion. Moreover, CLL2-1 prevented Rap1 activation caused by thrombin, the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187, and the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, while only slightly inhibited thrombin-induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i and did not inhibit protein kinase C activation. Western blots after reducing SDS-PAGE showed that treatment of either platelets or platelet lysates with CLL2-1 led to a decrease of monomeric CalDAG-GEFI and appearance of cross-linked oligomers of CalDAG-GEFI, and these effects were inhibited by pretreatment of platelets or lysates with thiol reducing agents prior to the addition of CLL2-1, indicating thiol modification of CalDAG-GEFI by CLL2-1. Furthermore, the thiol reducing agents also prevented the inhibitory effect of CLL2-1 on Rap1 activation, GPIIb/IIIa activation, and platelet aggregation. In CalDAG-GEFI-overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293T cells, CLL2-1 also inhibited CalDAG-GEFI-mediated Rap1 activation. Taken together, our results suggest that the antiplatelet effect of CLL2-1 is due to, at least in part, inhibition of CalDAG-GEFI-mediated Rap1 activation, and provide the basis for development of novel antiplatelet drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of 60-Hz fields, estradiol and xenoestrogens on human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Travis, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Garrett, S. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henley, D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    1996-10-01

    If exposure to xenoestrogens or electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as 60 Hz contributes to the etiology of breast cancer, it is likely that they must stimulate the growth of breast cells, damage genetic material or enhance the effects of other mitogenic or mutagenic agents (co-promotion). Therefore, the ability of xenoestrogens or exposure to 60-Hz fields to stimulate the entry of growth-arrested human breast cancer cells into the cell cycle was determined using cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, synthesis of cyclin D1 and cdc2 activity. Exposure of estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 or T-47D cells to estrogen and xenoestrogens (DDT and Red No.3) increased Cdk2 and cyclin B1-cdc2 activity and cyclin D1 synthesis. Exposure of breast cancer cells to 12 mG or 1 or 9 G electromagnetic fields at 60 Hz failed to stimulate Cdk2 or cyclin B1-cdc2 activity or cyclin D1 synthesis. Simultaneous co-exposure of cells to 60-Hz fields and chemical promoters did not enhance Cdk2 activation above the levels produced by the chemical promoter alone. Estrogen and xenoestrogens also stimulated binding of the estrogen receptor to the estrogen receptor element but the EMF did not. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced phosphorylation of p53 and pRb105 in MCF-7 cells, but EMF exposure had no effect. DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents and Red Dye No. 3 were found to increase p53 site-specific DNA binding in breast cancer cells, but EMF exposure did not. These studies suggest that estrogen and xenoestrogens stimulate growth-arrested breast cancer cells to enter the growth cycle, but EMF exposure does not. Site-specific p53-DNA binding was increased in MCF-7 cells treated with DNA-damaging agents, but not by EMF exposure. EMF exposure does not appear to act as a promoter or DNA-damaging agent for human breast cancer cells in vitro. 34 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils -

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    Bahareh Abd Nikfarjam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO and myeloperoxidase (MPO. These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin (25 μM for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Then, the TNF-α, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT, and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin (1 - 100 μM, after which MTT was appended and incubated at 37ºC for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to 100 μM did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and TNF-α productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001. Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect

  2. Neutrophil elastase-deficient mice form neutrophil extracellular traps in an experimental model of deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinod, K; Witsch, T; Farley, K; Gallant, M; Remold-O'Donnell, E; Wagner, D D

    2016-03-01

    ESSENTIALS: Neutrophil elastase (NE) plays a role in extracellular trap formation (NETosis) triggered by microbes. The contribution of NE was evaluated in mouse NETosis models of sterile inflammation and thrombosis. NE is not required for mouse neutrophil NET production in vitro with non-infectious stimuli. NE deficiency had no significant effect on thrombosis in the inferior vena cava stenosis model. Neutrophil serine proteases have been implicated in coagulation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. In human neutrophils, neutrophil elastase (NE) translocates to the nucleus during NETosis and cleaves histones, thus aiding in chromatin decondensation. NE(-/-) mice were shown not to release NETs in response to microbes. However, mouse studies evaluating the role of NE in NET formation in sterile inflammation and thrombosis are lacking. We wished to establish if neutrophils from NE(-/-) mice have a defect in NETosis, similar to peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4(-/-)) mice, and how this might have an impact on venous thrombosis, a model where NETs are produced and are crucial to thrombus development. We performed in vitro NET assays using neutrophils from wild-type (WT), NE(-/-), SerpinB1 (SB1)(-/-) and NE(-/-) SB1(-/-) mice. We compared WT and NE(-/-) animals using the inferior vena cava stenosis model of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Neutrophil elastase deficiency resulted in a small reduction in ionomycin-induced NET formation in vitro without affecting histone citrullination. However, NET production in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or platelet activating factor was normal in neutrophils from two independent NE-deficient mouse lines, and in NE(-/-) SB1(-/-) as compared with SB1(-/-) neutrophils. NE deficiency or inhibition did not prevent NETosis in vivo or DVT outcome. Neutrophil elastase is not required for NET formation in mice. NE(-/-) mice, which form pathological venous thrombi containing NETs, do not phenocopy PAD4(-/-) mice in in

  3. Quantitative kinetic study of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin and of its impact on actin turn-over.

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    Ziad Al Tanoury

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Initially detected in leukocytes and cancer cells derived from solid tissues, L-plastin/fimbrin belongs to a large family of actin crosslinkers and is considered as a marker for many cancers. Phosphorylation of L-plastin on residue Ser5 increases its F-actin binding activity and is required for L-plastin-mediated cell invasion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the kinetics of L-plastin and the impact of L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation on L-plastin dynamics and actin turn-over in live cells, simian Vero cells were transfected with GFP-coupled WT-L-plastin, Ser5 substitution variants (S5/A, S5/E or actin and analyzed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP. FRAP data were explored by mathematical modeling to estimate steady-state reaction parameters. We demonstrate that in Vero cell focal adhesions L-plastin undergoes rapid cycles of association/dissociation following a two-binding-state model. Phosphorylation of L-plastin increased its association rates by two-fold, whereas dissociation rates were unaffected. Importantly, L-plastin affected actin turn-over by decreasing the actin dissociation rate by four-fold, increasing thereby the amount of F-actin in the focal adhesions, all these effects being promoted by Ser5 phosphorylation. In MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA treatment induced L-plastin translocation to de novo actin polymerization sites in ruffling membranes and spike-like structures and highly increased its Ser5 phosphorylation. Both inhibition studies and siRNA knock-down of PKC isozymes pointed to the involvement of the novel PKC-delta isozyme in the PMA-elicited signaling pathway leading to L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the L-plastin contribution to actin dynamics regulation was substantiated by its association with a protein complex comprising cortactin, which is known to be involved in this process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether these findings

  4. Novel Insights in the Regulation of Phosphatidylserine Exposure in Human Red Blood Cells

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    Mauro C. Wesseling

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In previous publications we were able to demonstrate the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS in the outer membrane leaflet after activation of red blood cells (RBCs by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, phorbol-12 myristate-13acetate (PMA, or 4-bromo-A23187 (A23187. It has been concluded that three different mechanisms are responsible for the PS exposure in human RBCs: (i Ca2+-stimulated scramblase activation (and flippase inhibition by A23187, LPA, and PMA; (ii PKCα activation by LPA and PMA; and (iii enhanced lipid flip flop caused by LPA. Further studies aimed to elucidate interconnections between the increased Ca2+ content, scramblase- and PKCα-activation. In addition, the role of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel (Gardos channel activity in the process of PS exposure needs to be investigated. Methods: The intracellular Ca2+ content and the PS exposure of RBCs have been investigated after treatment with LPA (2.5 µM, PMA (6 µM, or A23187 (2 µM. Fluo-4 and annexin V-FITC has been used to detect intracellular Ca2+ content and PS exposure, respectively. Both parameters (Ca2+ content, PS exposure were studied using flow cytometry. Inhibitors of the scramblase, the PKCα, and the Gardos channel have been applied. Results: The percentage of RBCs showing PS exposure after activation with LPA, PMA, or A23187 is significantly reduced after inhibition of the scramblase using the specific inhibitor R5421 as well as after the inhibition of the PKCα using chelerythrine chloride or calphostin C. The inhibitory effect is more pronounced when the scramblase and the PKCα are inhibited simultaneously. Additionally, the inhibition of the Gardos channel using charybdotoxin resulted in a significant reduction of the percentage of RBCs showing PS exposure under all conditions measured. Similar results were obtained when the Gardos channel activity was suppressed by increased extracellular K+ content. Conclusion: PS exposure is mediated by the Ca2

  5. Protein kinase C epsilon mediates the inhibition of angiotensin II on the slowly activating delayed-rectifier potassium current through channel phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xiangbo; Wang, Wenying; Zou, Sihao; Qi, Yajuan; Xu, Yanfang

    2018-03-01

    The slowly activating delayed rectifier K + current (I Ks ) is one of the main repolarizing currents in the human heart. Evidence has shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates I Ks through the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, but the related results are controversial. This study was designed to identify PKC isoenzymes involved in the regulation of I Ks by Ang II and the underlying molecular mechanism. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record I Ks in isolated guinea pig ventricular cardiomyocytes and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells co-transfected with human KCNQ1/KCNE1 genes and Ang II type 1 receptor genes. Ang II inhibited I Ks in a concentration-dependent manner in native cardiomyocytes. A broad PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (not inhibiting PKCε) and a selective cPKC inhibitor Gö6976 did not affect the inhibitory action of Ang II. In contrast, the inhibition was significantly attenuated by PKCε-selective peptide inhibitor εV1-2. However, direct activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased the cloned human I Ks in HEK293 cells. Similarly, the cPKC peptide activator significantly enhanced the current. In contrast, the PKCε peptide activator inhibited the current. Further evidence showed that PKCε knockdown by siRNA antagonized the Ang II-induced inhibition on KCNQ1/KCNE1 current, whereas knockdown of cPKCs (PKCα and PKCβ) attenuated the potentiation of the current by PMA. Moreover, deletion of four putative phosphorylation sites in the C-terminus of KCNQ1 abolished the action of PMA. Mutation of two putative phosphorylation sites in the N-terminus of KCNQ1 and one site in KCNE1 (S102) blocked the inhibition of Ang II. Our results demonstrate that PKCε isoenzyme mediates the inhibitory action of Ang II on I Ks and by phosphorylating distinct sites in KCNQ1/KCNE1, cPKC and PKCε isoenzymes produce the contrary regulatory effects on the channel. These findings have provided new insight into the molecular mechanism

  6. Orexin-A potentiates L-type calcium/barium currents in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Weng, S-J; Yang, X-L; Zhong, Y-M

    2015-10-01

    Two neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B (also called hypocretin-1 and -2), have been implicated in sleep/wake regulation, feeding behaviors via the activation of two subtypes of G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R). While the expression of orexins and orexin receptors is immunohistochemically revealed in retinal neurons, the function of these peptides in the retina is largely unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in rat retinal slices, we demonstrated that orexin-A increased L-type-like barium currents (IBa,L) in ganglion cells (GCs), and the effect was blocked by the selective OX1R antagonist SB334867, but not by the OX2R antagonist TCS OX2 29. The orexin-A effect was abolished by intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S/GPAnt-2A, a Gq protein inhibitor, suggesting the mediation of Gq. Additionally, during internal dialysis of the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, orexin-A did not change the IBa,L of GCs, whereas the orexin-A effect persisted in the presence of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-PLC inhibitor D609. The orexin-A-induced potentiation was not seen with internal infusion of Ca(2+)-free solution or when inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was blocked by heparin/xestospongins-C. Moreover, the orexin-A effect was mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but was eliminated when PKC was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide IV (Bis-IV)/Gö6976. Neither adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) nor guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway was likely involved, as orexin-A persisted to potentiate the IBa,L of GCs no matter these two pathways were activated or inhibited. These results suggest that, by activating OX1R, orexin-A potentiates the IBa,L of rat GCs through a distinct Gq/PI-PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/PKC signaling pathway. Copyright

  7. Quantitative Kinetic Study of the Actin-Bundling Protein L-Plastin and of Its Impact on Actin Turn-Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tanoury, Ziad; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth; Halavatyi, Aliaksandr; Hoffmann, Céline; Moes, Michèle; Hadzic, Ermin; Catillon, Marie; Yatskou, Mikalai; Friederich, Evelyne

    2010-01-01

    Background Initially detected in leukocytes and cancer cells derived from solid tissues, L-plastin/fimbrin belongs to a large family of actin crosslinkers and is considered as a marker for many cancers. Phosphorylation of L-plastin on residue Ser5 increases its F-actin binding activity and is required for L-plastin-mediated cell invasion. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the kinetics of L-plastin and the impact of L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation on L-plastin dynamics and actin turn-over in live cells, simian Vero cells were transfected with GFP-coupled WT-L-plastin, Ser5 substitution variants (S5/A, S5/E) or actin and analyzed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). FRAP data were explored by mathematical modeling to estimate steady-state reaction parameters. We demonstrate that in Vero cell focal adhesions L-plastin undergoes rapid cycles of association/dissociation following a two-binding-state model. Phosphorylation of L-plastin increased its association rates by two-fold, whereas dissociation rates were unaffected. Importantly, L-plastin affected actin turn-over by decreasing the actin dissociation rate by four-fold, increasing thereby the amount of F-actin in the focal adhesions, all these effects being promoted by Ser5 phosphorylation. In MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment induced L-plastin translocation to de novo actin polymerization sites in ruffling membranes and spike-like structures and highly increased its Ser5 phosphorylation. Both inhibition studies and siRNA knock-down of PKC isozymes pointed to the involvement of the novel PKC-δ isozyme in the PMA-elicited signaling pathway leading to L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the L-plastin contribution to actin dynamics regulation was substantiated by its association with a protein complex comprising cortactin, which is known to be involved in this process. Conclusions/Significance Altogether these findings quantitatively

  8. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Rocco-Machado

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite.

  9. Evaluating the potential of poly(beta-amino ester) nanoparticles for reprogramming human fibroblasts to become induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Nupura S; Wahlin, Karl J; Zack, Donald J; Green, Jordan J

    2013-01-01

    Gene delivery can potentially be used as a therapeutic for treating genetic diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, as well as an enabling technology for regenerative medicine. A central challenge in many gene delivery applications is having a safe and effective delivery method. We evaluated the use of a biodegradable poly(beta-amino ester) nanoparticle-based nonviral protocol and compared this with an electroporation-based approach to deliver episomal plasmids encoding reprogramming factors for generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from human fibroblasts. A polymer library was screened to identify the polymers most promising for gene delivery to human fibroblasts. Feeder-independent culturing protocols were developed for nanoparticle-based and electroporation-based reprogramming. The cells reprogrammed by both polymeric nanoparticle-based and electroporation-based nonviral methods were characterized by analysis of pluripotency markers and karyotypic stability. The hiPSC-like cells were further differentiated toward the neural lineage to test their potential for neurodegenerative retinal disease modeling. 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end-terminated poly(1,4-butanediol diacry-late-co-4-amino-1-butanol) polymer (B4S4E7) self-assembled with plasmid DNA to form nanoparticles that were more effective than leading commercially available reagents, including Lipofectamine® 2000, FuGENE® HD, and 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine, for nonviral gene transfer. B4S4E7 nanoparticles showed effective gene delivery to IMR-90 human primary fibroblasts and to dermal fibroblasts derived from a patient with retinitis pigmentosa, and enabled coexpression of exogenously delivered genes, as is needed for reprogramming. The karyotypically normal hiPSC-like cells generated by conventional electroporation, but not by poly(beta-amino ester) reprogramming, could be differentiated toward the neuronal lineage, specifically pseudostratified optic cups. This

  10. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar [College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan [Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Surh, Young-Joon, E-mail: surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin.

  11. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin

  12. Phosphorylation of JAK2 at serine 523: a negative regulator of JAK2 that is stimulated by growth hormone and epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurkiewicz-Munoz, Anna M.; Argetsinger, Lawrence S.; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K.

    2006-01-01

    spectrometry identified serine 523 (Ser523) in JAK2 as a site of phosphorylation. A phosphoserine 523 antibody revealed that Ser523 is rapidly but transiently phosphorylated in response to growth hormone (GH). MEK1 inhibitor UO126 suppresses GH-dependent phosphorylation of Ser523, suggesting that extracellular...... signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and/or 2 or another kinase downstream of MEK1 phosphorylate Ser523 in response to GH. Other ERK activators, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and epidermal growth factor, also stimulate phosphorylation of Ser523. When Ser523 in JAK2 was mutated, JAK2 kinase activity...

  13. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, L P; Keshav, S; Gordon, S

    1988-01-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has an 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike t...

  14. Chronic administration of modafinil induces hyperalgesia in mice: reversal by L-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester and 7-nitroindazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rachna; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Bhattacharya, Swapan K

    2014-08-05

    Modafinil [2-((diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl) acetamide] is a central nervous system stimulant. It has received considerable attention as a potential psychotropic agent in several psychiatric disorders. The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of modafinil after acute administration on animal models of pain in mice. Also, this study evaluated the effect of L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) and naloxone following chronic administration of modafinil. Modafinil was administered in the doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg once in acute study and it showed significantly increased tail-flick latency (tfl) and paw-licking latency. In formalin test modafinil (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced licking/biting time in both early and late phases in comparison to control. In chronic study, modafinil 100 mg/kg administered for 10 days, produced a progressive decrease in the reaction time (i.e., tfl/paw-licking latency) in comparison to day 1 values which started building up from day 4 and fully established at day 6, indicating hyperalgesic response. Prior administration of 7-NI (on day 7) and L-NAME (on day 10) prevented the hyperalgesic response while naloxone on day 10 did not have a significant effect on modafinil-induced hyperalgesia. These results demonstrate that modafinil has a potential role in pain as it exhibited antinociceptive effect after acute administration in a dose-dependent manner and on chronic administration it caused hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is reversed by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, suggesting the possibility of involvement of nitric oxide pathway. Further studies are required to evaluate the role of modafinil in clinical pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. L-dopa methyl ester attenuates amblyopia-induced neuronal injury in visual cortex of amblyopic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Liang, Tao; Chen, Zhaoni; Zhang, Shijun; Lin, Xing; Huang, Renbin

    2013-09-15

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential anti-amblyopic effects of L-dopa methyl ester (LDME) on visual cortex area 17 in an amblyopic feline model induced by monocular vision deprivation. After LDME administration, pathophysiologic and ultrastructural observations were utilized to examine the morphological changes of nerve cells in visual cortex area 17. Dopamine (DA) and its metabolite contents in visual cortex area 17 were investigated through HPLC analysis. Apoptotic cells in visual cortex area 17 were evaluated by TUNEL assay. Additionally, the c-fos expression both at gene and protein levels was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses, respectively. The contents of DA and its metabolites were elevated in visual cortex area 17. Neuronal rejuvenation which occurred in visual cortex area 17 was observed through anatomical and physiological assessments. Similarly, TUNEL results showed that neuronal apoptosis was inhibited in the visual cortex of amblyopic cats by both L-dopa and LDME therapies. Meanwhile, the c-fos expression was notably up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels by the treatments. These findings suggested that LDME treatment could effectively increase DA and its metabolite contents, and restrain the apoptotic process, as well as elevate the c-fos expression in nerve cells of visual cortex area 17. Taken together, LDME might ameliorate the functional cytoarchitecture in visual cortex area 17 through mechanisms that elevate DA content and increase endogenous c-fos expression, as well as inhibit neuronal lesion in visual cortex tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fecundação e clivagem após a ativação da proteína quinase C durante a maturação de oócitos bovinos Fertilization and cleavage after protein kinase C activation during bovine oocyte maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gianella Mondadori

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A formação de pró-núcleos, clivagem e perfil protéico foram avaliados após a ativação da proteína quinase C (PQ-C durante a maturação de complexos cumulus-oócito (CCOs bovinos. Visando a determinar estes efeitos da PQ-C, 1936 CCOs foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 4 tratamentos, sendo maturados na presença de PMA (100nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ativador da PQ-C, de 4alfa-PDD (100nM de 4alfa-phorbol 12,13-didecanoetate, forbol éster que não ativa a PQ-C; controle forbol éster, de SVE (10% de soro de vaca em estro, controle positivo e de um controle negativo constituído pelo meio de maturação básico para os demais tratamentos, com exceção do SVE, onde não foi adicionado o álcool polivinílico (PVA. Os CCOs foram mantidos na presença de PMA por 1, 4 e 7 horas, sendo após, transferidos para o meio básico de maturação até que se completassem 24 horas de cultivo. A estimulação da PQ-C, por esses períodos, não alterou a formação de pró-núcleos, porém, diminuiu a percentagem de clivagem dos zigotos. Os resultados do grupo 4alfa-PDD comprovam que as alterações ocorridas no grupo PMA são devido à ativação da PQ-C e não ação direta do forbol éster na célula. A análise da composição protéica demonstrou uma banda de proteína adicional no grupo SVE ao redor de 74 kilo Daltons (kDa. Os resultados desse estudo, quando associados aos dados preliminares de Western blot, indicam a importância da PQ-C na regulação da maturação, fecundação e clivagem de embriões bovinos.In the present study the pronucleus formation, cleavage and protein profile after protein kinase C (PK-C activation were evaluated during bovine oocyte maturation. A total number of 1936 bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were randomly distributed in 4 treatments, and matured with PMA (100nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PK-C activator, 4alpha-PDD (100nM de 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoetate, phobol ester that do not

  17. Controlled-release levodopa methyl ester/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles ameliorate levodopa-induced dyskinesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Xinxin Yang1*, Ruiyuan Zheng2*, Yunpeng Cai2, Meiling Liao2, Weien Yuan1,2, Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital (affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*Xinxin Yang and Ruiyuan Zheng contributed equally to this workBackground: Levodopa remains the most effective drug in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, long-term administration of levodopa induces motor complications, such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia are not fully understood.Methods: In this study, we prepared levodopa methyl ester (LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles, which can release LDME and benserazide in a sustained manner. Dyskinesia was induced in rats by repeated administration of levodopa then treated with LDME plus benserazide or the same dose of LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles. Apomorphine-induced rotations and abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs were measured on treatment days 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and ΔfosB were determined by Western blot. Tau levels were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Dynorphin levels in the striatum and cortex of rats were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Over the course of levodopa treatment, the rats developed abnormal AIMs, classified as locomotive, axial, orolingual, and forelimb dyskinesia. The degree of reduction of apomorphine-induced rotations was comparable in dyskinetic rats treated with LDME plus benserazide or LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles. The axial, limb, and orolingual (ALO AIMs of dyskinetic rats treated with LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles were 14 ± 2.5, 9 ± 2.0, and 10 ± 2.1 on treatment days 10, 15, and 20

  18. Changes of lipid and fatty acid absorption induced by high dose of citric acid ester and lecithin emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadouki, Mohamed; Bouchoucha, Michel

    2014-09-01

    To describe the effect of two food emulsifiers, lecithin (E322) and citric acid esters of mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472c), on the intestinal absorption of lipids. The experiment was conducted on 24 male Wistar rats randomly assigned in three groups. For two groups of six rats, 30% of the lipid intake was replaced with lecithin (L) or citric acid ester of mono and diglycerides, (E); the remaining 12 rats were the control group (C). Diet and fecal fat analysis was used to determine the apparent lipid absorption (ALA) and fatty acids. ALA was significantly lower in the group E than in the groups C and L (p acids decreased while the length of the carbon chains increased, and this decrease was higher in the group E. E472c emulsifier decreased the intestinal absorption of lipids.

  19. Arylboronate ester based diazeniumdiolates (BORO/NO), a class of hydrogen peroxide inducible nitric oxide (NO) donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Ravikumar, Govindan; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2014-05-16

    Here, we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of arylboronate ester based diazeniumdiolates (BORO/NO), a class of nitric oxide (NO) donors activated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species (ROS), to generate NO. We provide evidence for the NO donors' ability to permeate bacteria to produce NO when exposed to H2O2 supporting possible applications for BORO/NO to study molecular mechanisms of NO generation in response to elevated ROS.

  20. Obtusifolin suppresses phthalate esters-induced breast cancer bone metastasis by targeting parathyroid hormone-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2014-12-10

    This study is the first to demonstrate that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), produced by human breast cancer cells after exposure to phthalate esters, contributes to bone metastasis by increasing osteoclastogenesis. This is also the first to reveal that obtusifolin reverses phthalate esters-mediated bone resorption. Human breast cancer cells were treated with dibutyl phthalate (DBP), harvested in conditioned medium, and cultured to osteoblasts or osteoclasts. Cultures of osteoblasts with DBP-MDA-MB-231-CM increased the osteoclastogenesis activator RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand) and M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor). PTHrP was secreted in MDA-MB-231 cells. DBP-MDA-MB-231-CM reduced osteoblasts to produce osteoprotegerin, an osteoclastogenesis inhibitor, while DBP mediated PTHrP up-regulation, increasing IL-8 secretion in MDA-MB-231 and contributing to breast cancer-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Obtusifolin, a major bioactive compound present in Cassia tora L., suppressed phthalate esters-mediated bone resorption. Therefore, obtusifolin may be a novel anti-breast-cancer bone metastasis agent.

  1. Propagation and titration of infectious bursal disease virus, including non-cell-culture-adapted strains, using ex vivo-stimulated chicken bursal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubies, Sébastien Mathieu; Courtillon, Céline; Abed, Mouna; Amelot, Michel; Keita, Alassane; Broadbent, Andrew; Härtle, Sonja; Kaspers, Bernd; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a Birnaviridae family member of economic importance for poultry. This virus infects and destroys developing B lymphocytes in the cloacal bursa, resulting in a potentially fatal or immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Naturally occurring viruses and many vaccine strains are not able to grow in in vitro systems without prior adaptation, which often affects viral properties such as virulence. Primary bursal cells, which are the main target cells of lymphotropic IBDV in vivo, may represent an attractive system for the study of IBDV. Unfortunately, bursal cells isolated from bursal follicles undergo apoptosis within hours following their isolation. Here, we demonstrate that ex vivo stimulation of bursal cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate maintains their viability long enough to allow IBDV replication to high titres. A wide range of field-derived or vaccine serotype 1 IBDV strains could be titrated in these phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate -stimulated bursal cells and furthermore were permissive for replication of non-cell-culture-adapted viruses. These cells also supported multistep replication experiments and flow cytometry analysis of infection. Ex vivo-stimulated bursal cells therefore offer a promising tool in the study of IBDV.

  2. Augmented pulmonary vascular and venous constrictions to N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Susan W S; Cheng, Xing; Lim, Su Lin; Pang, Catherine C Y

    2003-11-01

    The hemodynamic effects of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase) were examined in thiobutabarbital-anesthetized control-rats and rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. L-NAME (1-16 mg/kg i.v.) increased mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, venous resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac output in both the control and pulmonary hypertensive rats. Relative to the controls, L-NAME (16 mg/kg) caused a smaller increase (approximately 50% of control) in mean arterial pressure in the pulmonary hypertensive rats, but greater increases in venous (approximately 200%) as well as pulmonary vascular (approximately 400%) resistances and a greater decrease in cardiac output (approximately 140%). The results show that NO is an important dilator within the arterial, venous and pulmonary circulation; its pulmonary and venous dilator roles are augmented in pulmonary hypertension. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Synergistic activation of protein kinase Calpha, -betaI, and -gamma isoforms induced by diacylglycerol and phorbol ester: roles of membrane association and activating conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S J; Milano, S K; Stagliano, B A; Gergich, K J; Ho, C; Mazurek, A; Taddeo, F J; Kelly, M B; Yeager, M D; Stubbs, C D

    1999-03-23

    Protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) has been shown to contain two discrete activator sites with differing binding affinities for phorbol esters and diacylglycerols. The interaction of diacylglycerol with a low-affinity phorbol ester binding site leads to enhanced high-affinity phorbol ester binding and to a potentiated level of activity [Slater, S. J., Ho, C., Kelly, M. B., Larkin, J. D. , Taddeo, F. J., Yeager, M. D., and Stubbs, C. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 4627-4631]. In this study, the mechanism of this enhancement of activity was examined with respect to the Ca2+ dependences of membrane association and accompanying conformational changes that lead to activation. The association of PKCalpha with membranes containing 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) or 1, 2-dioleoylglycerol (DAG), determined from tryptophan to dansyl-PE resonance energy transfer (RET) measurements, was found to occur at relatively low Ca2+ levels (induced activating conformational change, as verified by an accompanying increase in the PKCalpha tryptophan fluorescence anisotropy. Coaddition of DAG and TPA resulted in a reduction in the Ca2+ levels required for both the conformational change and enzyme activation. Also, it was found that incubation of the enzyme with TPA alone resulted in a time-dependent increase in the Ca2+-independent PKCalpha activity, the rate and extent of which was further enhanced upon coaddition with DAG. Tauhe results suggest that the enhanced level of activity induced by coaddition of DAG and TPA involves both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent activating conformational changes which result in active conformers of PKCalpha distinct

  4. Molecular view of the structural reorganization of water in DPPC multilamellar membranes induced by L-cysteine methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Juan Marcelo; Tuttolomondo, María Eugenia; Díaz, Sonia Beatriz; Altabef, Aida Ben

    2018-03-01

    In order to study the interaction between L-cysteine methyl ester (CM) and multilamellar vesicles (MLV's) of DPPC, an extensive study was made by various techniques such as Infrared and Raman spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Our results revealed by the different techniques used that CM interacts with the DPPC in the region of the polar head, specifying with the phosphate groups, replacing water molecules of hydration by modifying the hydration of the polar head. By Infrared spectroscopy and DSC we observed an increase in the main transition temperature (Tm) and a gradual loss of the pre-transition (Tp) with the increase of the molar ratio CM:DPPC. Of the analyzed, we can conclude that the interaction of CM with DPPC alters the degree of hydration of the membrane altering properties of the same as the transition temperature. Moreover, the results of the thiol site behavior in CM interacting in the CM/DPPC complex will be reveal the possibility of unknown functional roles of the lipidic components of the membrane.

  5. Naturally-occurring estradiol-17β-fatty acid esters, but not estradiol-17β, preferentially induce mammary tumorigenesis in female rats: Implications for an important role in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Laura H.; Yu Jina; Xu Xiaomeng; Lee, Anthony J.; Zhu Baoting

    2008-01-01

    Because mammary glands are surrounded by adipose tissues, we hypothesize that the ultra-lipophilic endogenous estrogen-17β-fatty acid esters may have preferential hormonal and carcinogenic effects in mammary tissues compared to other target organs (such as the uterus and pituitary). This hypothesis is tested in the present study. We found that all 46 rats implanted with an estradiol-17β pellet developed large pituitary tumors (average weight = 251 ±103 mg) and had to be terminated early, but only 48% of them developed mammary tumors. In addition, approximately one-fourth of them developed a huge uterus. In the 26 animals implanted with a mixture containing estradiol-17β-stearate and estradiol-17β-palmitate (two representative estradiol-17β-fatty acid esters) or in the 29 animals implanted with estradiol-17β-stearate alone (in the same molar dose as estradiol-17β), 73% and 79%, respectively, of them developed mammary tumors, whereas only 3 or 2 animals, respectively, had to be terminated early due to the presence of a large pituitary tumor. Both tumorous and normal mammary tissues contained much higher levels of estrogen esterase than other tissues, which catalyzes the releases of bioactive estrogens from their fatty acid esters. In conclusion, while estradiol-17β is much stronger in inducing pituitary tumor (100% incidence) than mammary tumor, estradiol-17β-fatty acid esters have a higher efficacy than estradiol-17β in inducing mammary tumor and yet it only has little ability to induce uterine out-growth and pituitary tumorigenesis. This study establishes the endogenous estrogen-17β-fatty acid esters as preferential inducers of mammary tumorigenesis

  6. Co-ordinate expression of activin A and its type I receptor mRNAs during phorbol ester-induced differentiation of human K562 erythroleukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildén, K; Tuuri, T; Erämaa, M; Ritvos, O

    1999-07-20

    Activins were originally isolated based on their ability to stimulate follicle-stimulating hormone secretion but later they have been shown to regulate a number of different cellular functions such as nerve cell survival, mesoderm induction during early embryogenesis as well as hematopoiesis. We studied the regulation of activin A, a homodimer of betaA-subunits, mRNA and protein in K562 erythroleukemia cells, which are known to be induced toward the erythroid lineage in response to activin or TGF-beta or toward the megakaryocytic lineage by the phorbol ester protein kinase C activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Here we show by Northern blot analysis as well as by Western and ligand blotting that TPA strongly promotes activin betaA-subunit mRNA and activin A protein expression in K562 cells in time- and concentration dependent manner. In contrast, neither activin A nor TGF-beta induced betaA-subunit mRNA expression during erythroid differentiation in K562 cells. Interestingly, whereas activin type II receptors are not regulated during K562 cell differentiation (Hilden et al. (1994) Blood 83, 2163-2170), we now show that the activin type I and IB receptor mRNAs are clearly induced by TPA but not by activin or TGF-beta. We also show that the inducing effect of TPA on expression of activin betaA-subunit mRNA is potentiated by the protein kinase A activator 8-bromo-cAMP. We conclude that activin A and its type I receptors appear to be co-ordinately up-regulated during megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells.

  7. Distinct cytoplasmic domains of the growth hormone receptor are required for glucocorticoid- and phorbol ester-induced decreases in growth hormone (GH) binding. These domains are different from that reported for GH-induced receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, A P; Tseng, M J; Logsdon, C D

    1996-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit growth in children and antagonize the growth-promoting action of GH in peripheral tissues. Recently, they have been shown to decrease GH binding. In this study we examine the molecular mechanisms by which the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) and the phorbol ester phorbol...... myristate acetate (PMA) decrease cellular GH binding. In 3T3-F442A fibroblasts, DEX and PMA decrease the number of GH receptors (GHRs) capable of binding GH by 50% (t1/2 = 6 h) and 70% (t1/2 = 15 min), respectively. Neither appear to decrease the total number of cellular GHR. Rather, they appear...... to redistribute GHRs away from the plasma membrane or inactivate GHRs on the membrane such that they cannot bind GH. DEX and PMA also decrease GH-induced tyrosyl phosphorylation of GHR and JAK2 with a magnitude and time course correlating with that of inhibition of GH binding. DEX- and PMA-induced reductions...

  8. Effect of ivabradine, captopril and melatonin on the behaviour of rats in L-nitro-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziriova, S; Repova, K; Krajcirovicova, K; Baka, T; Zorad, S; Mojto, V; Slavkovsky, P; Hodosy, J; Adamcova, M; Paulis, L; Simko, F

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases including hypertension are often associated with behavioural alterations. The aim of this study was to show, whether ivabradine, the blocker of If-channel in sinoatrial node, is able to modify the behaviour of rats in L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension and to compare the effect of ivabradine with captopril and melatonin. 12-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: controls, ivabradine (10 mg/kg/24 h), L-NAME (40 mg/kg/24 h), L-NAME + ivabradine, L-NAME + captopril (100 mg/kg/24 h), L-NAME + melatonin (10 mg/kg/24 h). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by tail-cuff method once a week. The behaviour of rats was investigated during 23-hours in the phenotyper after four weeks of the treatment. Chronic administration of L-NAME induced hypertension without a change in HR. All tested substances partly prevented the increase of SBP, while ivabradine and melatonin also reduced HR. Ivabradine, captopril and melatonin reduced daily food intake, slightly decreased daily water intake and attenuated body weight gain. In L-NAME group, locomotor activity was enhanced by ivabradine, whereas exploratory behaviour was increased by melatonin and captopril. In conclusion, ivabradine, besides its potentially protective hemodynamic actions, does not seem to exert any disturbing effects on behaviour in L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats, while some of its effects were similar to captopril or melatonin. It is suggested that ivabradine used in cardiovascular indications is harmless regarding the effect on behaviour.

  9. Butyrate Produced by Commensal Bacteria Potentiates Phorbol Esters Induced AP-1 Response in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

  10. Ester Tuiksoo / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Juhan Partsi valitsuse (05.04.2004-13.04.2005) ja Andrus Ansipi valitsuse (13.04.2005-) põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo oma lapsepõlvest ja elukutsevalikust, poliitilise karjääri algusest ja erakonna valikust, ministritöö kogemustest, naistest poliitikas

  11. Ameliorating Role of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE Against Methotrexate-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Sciatic Nerve, Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Tissues of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Uzar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate (MTX-associated neurotoxicity is an important clinical problem in cancer patients, but the mechanisms of MTX-induced neurotoxicity are not yet known exactly. The aims of this study were (1 to investigate the possible role of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT in the pathogenesis of MTX-induced neurotoxicity and (2 to determine whether there is a putative protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE on MTX-induced neurotoxicity in the spinal cord, brainstem and sciatic nerve of rats. METHODS: A total of 19 adult Wistar male rats were divided into three experimental groups. Group I, control group; Group II, MTX-treated group; and Group III, MTX + CAPE-treated group. MTX was administered to the MTX and MTX + CAPE groups intraperitoneally (IP with a single dose of 20 mg/kg on the second day of the experiment. CAPE was administered to the MTX + CAPE group IP with a dose of 10 μmol/kg for 7 days. RESULTS: In the sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissue, CAT and GSH-Px activities were increased in the MTX group in comparison with the control group. CAPE treatment with MTX significantly decreased CAT and GSH-Px activities in the neuronal tissues of rats in comparison with the MTX group. In the spinal cord and brainstem tissues, SOD activity in the MTX group was decreased in comparison with the control group, but in the sciatic nerve, there was no significant difference. In the spinal cord and brainstem of rats, SOD activity was increased in the CAPE + MTX group when compared with the MTX group. The level of MDA was higher in the MTX group than in the control group. CAPE administration with MTX injection caused a significant decrease in MDA level when compared with the MTX group. CONCLUSION: These results reveal that MTX increases oxidative stress in the sciatic nerve, spinal cord and brainstem of rats and that CAPE has a preventive effect on the

  12. Effect of aliskiren, telmisartan and torsemide on cardiac dysfunction in l-nitro arginine methyl ester (l-NAME induced hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan A. Sadek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of cardio protective effect of aliskiren, telmisartan, and torsemide was carried out on l-nitro arginine methyl ester (l-NAME induced hypertension in rats. The three drugs were given daily for 8 weeks simultaneously with l-NAME, with a control group for each drug and l-NAME. The degree of protection was assessed by measurement of systolic blood pressure and heart rate of animals every two weeks. At the end of the experimental period blood sampling was carried out for estimation of the level of NO2−/NO3−. After which animals were sacrificed for heart dissection to detect collagen types I and III gene expression. Histopathological study was done to evaluate the extension of collagen deposits. The study revealed that the three drugs decreased blood pressure significantly compared to l-NAME. There was no significant difference between aliskiren and telmisartan in all measurements, but there was significant decrease in measurements of both aliskiren and telmisartan treated groups compared to torsemide starting from 4th week. There were insignificant changes in pulse rate values between the three l-NAME treated groups through the experiment. The three drugs significantly increased NO compared to l-NAME. Collagen I and III gene expression was significantly decreased by the three drugs but the highest percentage of inhibition was with telmisartan compared to l-NAME. Comparing the percentage inhibition of cardiac fibrosis, there was insignificant difference between telmisartan and torsemide treated groups while both were superior to aliskiren. In conclusion, further experimental studies are required to elucidate the potential cardioprotective mechanisms of aliskiren, telmisartan and torsemide, and assess their efficacy in treatment of heart failure.

  13. Transdermal delivery of atorvastatin calcium from novel nanovesicular systems using polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters: Ameliorated effect without liver toxicity in poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed O; Aboud, Heba M; Hassan, Amira H; Ali, Adel A; Johnston, Thomas P

    2017-05-28

    Atorvastatin calcium (ATV), a cholesterol-lowering agent, suffers from poor systemic availability (14%) after oral administration in addition to other side effects on the gastrointestinal tract, liver and muscle. The goal of the present investigation was to improve ATV bioavailability and overcome complications attendant with peroral administration by developing a new nanovesicular system encapsulating ATV for its delivery via the transdermal route. The vesicular systems were prepared by incorporating different polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters such as Labrasol, Cremophor EL, Gelucire 44/14 and Tween 80 as edge activators (EAs) in the lipid bilayer. The effect of the phosphatidylcholine (PC):EA molar ratio on the physicochemical properties of the vesicles was investigated. The pharmacokinetic studies of the optimized formulation were evaluated in rats. The optimized formulation was tested in poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The plasma lipid profile, activity of liver enzymes, and oxidative stress parameters were measured using commercially available kits. The results revealed high ATV entrapment efficiency (EE%) ranging from 55.62 to 83.91%. The formulations that contained Labrasol showed the highest EE%. The mean diameter of the vesicles was in the range of 186-583nm. T8 containing Gelucire 44/14 as an EA in the molar ratio of 15:1 (PC:EA) gave the smallest size and exhibited the best permeation parameters across the skin. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed that about three times statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement in bioavailability, after transdermal administration of nanotransfersomal ATV gel compared to oral ATV suspension. The transdermal vesicular system exhibited a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol comparable to oral ATV. Additionally, it lowered the malondialdehyde levels in plasma and abolished the increase in liver enzyme activity. The results obtained suggest that the proposed

  14. LRD-22, a novel dual dithiocarbamatic acid ester, inhibits Aurora-A kinase and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiling; Li, Ridong [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Li [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Ge, Zemei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhou, Rouli, E-mail: rlzhou@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Runtao, E-mail: lirt@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-27

    In this study we investigated the antitumor activity of the novel dual dithiocarbamatic acid ester LRD-22 in vitro and in vivo. Several cancer cell lines were employed to determine the effect of LRD-22 on cell growth, and the MTT assay showed there was a significant decrease in viable tumor cell numbers in the presence of LRD-22, especially in the HepG2 cell line. Colony formation assay also showed LRD-22 strongly inhibits HepG2 cell growth. Evaluation of the mechanism involved showed that inhibitory effects of LRD-22 on cell growth are due to induction of apoptosis and G2/M arrest. LRD-22 inhibited Aurora-A phosphorylation at Thr{sub 288} and subsequently impaired p53 phosphorylation at Ser{sub 315} which was associated with the proteasome degradation pathway. Tumor suppressor protein p53 is stabilized by this mechanism and accumulates through inhibition of Aurora-A kinase activity via treatment with LRD-22. In vivo study of HepG2 xenograft in nude mice also shows LRD-22 suppresses tumor growth at a concentration of 5 mg/kg without animals suffering loss of body weight. In conclusion, our results demonstrate LRD-22 acts as an Aurora-A kinase inhibitor to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in HepG2 cells, and should be considered as a promising targeting agent for HCC therapy. - Highlights: • LRD-22 significantly inhibits cancer cell growth, especially in the HepG2 cell line. • The inhibitory effect of LRD-22 is due to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. • LRD-22 inhibits Aurora-A phosphorylation which results in subsequent impairment of the p53 pathway. • LRD-22 suppresses tumor growth in xenograft mice without body weight loss.

  15. Proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced in HL-60 HL-60HL-60 HL-60 cells by a natural diterpene ester from Daphne mucronata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yazdanparast

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Gnidilatimonoein (Gn, a new diterpene ester from Daphne mucronata, possesses strong anti-metastasis and anti-tumor activities. In this study, its apoptosis and differentiation capabilities were evaluated by using the leukemia HL-60 cell line. "nMaterial and methods: Cell prolifaration inhibition was estimated by MTT assay. The occurrence of apoptosis was evaluated by EtBr/AO double staining technique, cell cycle analyses and detection of apoptotic cells by Annexin V-FITC and propodium iodide (PI. Differentiation of the cells was determined by NBT reduction assay and the expression of specific cell surface markers such as CD14 and CD11b, were analyzed by flow cytometry.   "nResults: The drug decreased the growth of the cells dose- and time- dependently and the IC50 was found to be 1.3 µM. Our data suggested that Gn induced both monocytic differentiation  and apoptosis among HL-60 cells. In addition, cell cycle analyses showed an increase in G1 phase population by 24 hrs, which was gradually replaced by Sub-G1 cell population (apoptotic cells by 72 hrs. "nConclusion: Based on these data, the Gn-treated HL-60 cells displayed differentiation-dependent apoptosis. Thus, Gn might be a good candidate for differentiation therapy of leukemia, pending full biological evaluation of the compound among the wide array of leukemia cells. "nevaluation of the compound among the wide array of leukemia cells.

  16. Oocyte activation and latent HIV-1 reactivation: AMPK as a common mechanism of action linking the beginnings of life and the potential eradication of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2016-08-01

    In all mammalian species studied to date, the initiation of oocyte activation is orchestrated through alterations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. Upon sperm binding to the oocyte plasma membrane, a sperm-associated phospholipase C (PLC) isoform, PLC zeta (PLCζ), is released into the oocyte cytoplasm. PLCζ hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), which activates protein kinase C (PKC), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which induces the release of Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores. Subsequent Ca(2+) oscillations are generated that drive oocyte activation to completion. Ca(2+) ionophores such as ionomycin have been successfully used to induce artificial human oocyte activation, facilitating fertilization during intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures. Early studies have also demonstrated that the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) acts synergistically with Ca(2+) ionophores to induce parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocytes. Interestingly, the Ca(2+)-induced signaling cascade characterizing sperm or chemically-induced oocyte activation, i.e. the "shock and live" approach, bears a striking resemblance to the reactivation of latently infected HIV-1 viral reservoirs via the so called "shock and kill" approach, a method currently being pursued to eradicate HIV-1 from infected individuals. PMA and ionomycin combined, used as positive controls in HIV-1 latency reversal studies, have been shown to be extremely efficient in reactivating latent HIV-1 in CD4(+) memory T cells by inducing T cell activation. Similar to oocyte activation, T cell activation by PMA and ionomycin induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations and activation of DAG, PKC, and downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways necessary for proviral transcription. Interestingly, AMPK, a master regulator of cell metabolism that is activated thorough the induction of cellular

  17. Protective Effect of Combined Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Bevacizumab Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human RPE Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Erdem; Ayaz, Lokman; Kurt, Akif Hakan

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and combined CAPE-bevacizumab against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in human retinal pigment epithelium. ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with 5, 10, and 30 μM CAPE alone and in combination with bevacizumab for 3 h, then exposed to H 2 O 2 for 16 h. Cell viability was evaluated with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in the medium were measured using a human VEGF ELISA kit. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured in ARPE-19 cells using the test kit from Rel Assay. Expression levels of VEGF, Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (apaf-1), and caspase-3 were determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Pretreatment of ARPE-19 cells with 30 μM CAPE and combined CAPE-bevacizumab reduced H 2 O 2 mediated cell death. H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress increased TOS and VEGF production, which was significantly inhibited by CAPE and the CAPE-bevacizumab combination. VEGF, Bax, cytochrome c, apaf-1, and caspase-3 gene expressions were significantly decreased in cells pretreated with 5, 10, and 30 μM CAPE and combined CAPE-bevacizumab compared to the H 2 O 2 group. In addition, Bcl-2 expression was significantly increased in both the CAPE and CAPE-bevacizumab combination groups compared to the H 2 O 2 group. CAPE has a protective effect on ARPE-19 cells against oxidative stress, and VEGF protein level and expression can be decreased by incubation with different concentrations of CAPE. These results demonstrate that CAPE suppresses the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells under oxidative stress. In addition, the use of CAPE in combination with bevacizumab has an additive effect.

  18. Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts attenuate human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sudhansu S; Bashyam, Leena; Manthapuram, Nalini; Bitla, Prasanth; Kollipara, Padmasree; Tetali, Sarada D

    2014-05-28

    Ocimum sanctum (OS), commonly known as Holy basil/Tulsi, has been traditionally used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and manage general cardiac health. The present study is designed to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of O. sanctum and its phenolic compound and eugenol (EUG) in human monocytic (THP-1) cells and validate its traditional use for treating cardiovascular diseases. The phytochemical analysis of alcoholic and water extracts of OS-dry leaves (OSAE and OSWE) was done using LC-QTOF-MS. A phenolic compound, EUG was quantified in both OSAE and OSWE by an LC-MS technique using a mass hunter work station software quantitative analysis system. The effect of both OSAE, OSWE, pure compound EUG and positive control imatinib (IMT) was investigated in THP-1 cells by studying the following markers: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion by ELISA, gene expression of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1α and MCP-1) by real time PCR and translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by confocol microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts, EUG and IMT, was studied on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4. The LC-MS analysis of OSAE and OSWE revealed the presence of several bioactive compounds including eugenol. Quantitative analysis revealed that OSAE and OSWE had EUG of 12 ng/mgdwt and 19 ng/mgdwt respectively. OSAE, OSWE (1 mg dwt/mL) pure compound EUG (60 µg/mL) and positive control IMT (20 µg/mL) showed marked inhibition on LPS induced TNF-α secretion by THP-1 cells. At the selected concentration, the plant extracts, EUG and IMT inhibited gene expression of cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1) and translocation of NF-κB-p65 to the nuclei. In addition, they showed significant inhibition on PMA induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and the gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4

  19. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal programming of hypertension. Nitric oxide deficiency during pregnancy causes hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy can prevent N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult offspring. Next, we aimed to identify potential gatekeeper pathways that contribute to N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester -induced programmed hypertension using the next generation RNA sequencing technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester +melatonin, and N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester+N-acetylcysteine. Pregnant rats received N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester administration at 60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously during pregnancy alone, with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water, or with additional 1% N-acetylcysteine in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n=8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester exposure during pregnancy induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which was prevented by maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy. Protective effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine against N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes and hydrogen sulfide synthesis in the kidneys. Nitric oxide inhibition by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in pregnancy caused >2000 renal transcripts to be modified during nephrogenesis stage in 1-day-old offspring kidney. Among them, genes belong to the renin-angiotensin system, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways were potentially involved in the N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension. However, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine reprogrammed the renin-angiotensin system and arachidonic acid pathway

  20. HPLC analysis of human erythrocytic glutathione forms using OPA and N-acetyl-cysteine ethyl ester: evidence for nitrite-induced GSH oxidation to GSSG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Jan Thomas; Dehnert, Sabine; Giustarini, Daniela; Beckmann, Bibiana; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2009-10-15

    Glutathione exists in biological samples in the reduced form (GSH), as its disulfide (GSSG) and as a mixed disulfide (GSSR) with thiols (RSH). GSH is the most abundant low-molecular-mass thiol and plays important roles as a cofactor and as a main constituent of the intracellular redox status. Due to its own sulfhydryl (SH) group, GSH reacts readily with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) to form a highly stable and fluorescent isoindole derivative (GSH-OPA), which allows for sensitive and specific quantitative determination of GSH in biological systems by HPLC with fluorescence (FL) detection. In the present article we report on the utility of the novel, strongly disulfide bond-reducing thiol N-acetyl-cysteine ethyl ester (NACET) for the specific quantitative analysis of GSH and GSSG in the cytosol of red blood cells (RBC) as GSH-OPA derivative with FL (excitation/emission 338/458nm) or UV absorbance (338nm) detection. Unlike in aqueous solution, the derivatization of GSH in RBC cytosol yielded two closely related derivatives in the absence of NACET and only the GSH-OPA derivative in the presence of NACET. The HPLC method was optimized and validated for human RBC and applied to measure GSH and GSSG in RBC of healthy subjects. Basal GSH and GSSG concentrations were determined to be 2340+/-350microM and 11.4+/-3.2microM, respectively, in RBC of 12 healthy young volunteers (aged 23-38 years). The method was also applied to study the effects of nitrite on the glutathione status in intact and lysed human RBC. Nitrite at mM-concentrations caused instantaneous and considerable GSSG formation in lysed but much less pronounced in intact RBC. GSH externally added to lysed RBC inhibited nitrite-induced methemoglobin formation. Our findings suggest that nitric oxide/nitrite-related consumption rate of GSH, and presumably that of NADH and NADPH, could be of the order of 600micromol/day in RBC of healthy subjects.

  1. Vibrio vulnificus MO6-24/O Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Superoxide Anion, Thromboxane B2, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Cytokine and Chemokine Release by Rat Brain Microglia in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro M. S. Mayer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although human exposure to Gram-negative Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been reported to result in septic shock, its impact on the central nervous system’s innate immunity remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS might activate rat microglia in vitro and stimulate the release of superoxide anion (O2−, a reactive oxygen species known to cause oxidative stress and neuronal injury in vivo. Brain microglia were isolated from neonatal rats, and then treated with either V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS or Escherichia coli O26:B6 LPS for 17 hours in vitro. O2− was determined by cytochrome C reduction, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 by gelatinase zymography. Generation of cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1, chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α/chemokine (C-C motif ligand 3 (CCL3, MIP-2/chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2alpha/beta (CINC-2α/β/CXCL3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, were determined by specific immunoassays. Priming of rat microglia by V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS in vitro yielded a bell-shaped dose-response curve for PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated O2− generation: (1 0.1–1 ng/mL V. vulnificus LPS enhanced O2− generation significantly but with limited inflammatory mediator generation; (2 10–100 ng/mL V. vulnificus LPS maximized O2− generation with concomitant release of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and several cytokines and chemokines; (3 1000–100,000 ng/mL V. vulnificus LPS, with the exception of TXB2, yielded both attenuated O2− production, and a progressive decrease in MMP-9, cytokines and chemokines investigated. Thus concentration-dependent treatment of

  2. Segregação mitótica induzida pelo edulcorante L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121 Mitotic segregation induced by edulcorant l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialba Avezum Alves Castro Prado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho demonstra o efeito recombinagênico do edulcorante artificial L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame, amplamente utilizado em dietas hipocalóricas e de baixo consumo de glicose. Este efeito pode refletir respostas celulares a danos genéticos induzidos pelo edulcorante artificial, no período G2 do ciclo celular e demonstra sua capacidade de induzir homozigose de genes recessivos previamente presentes em heterozigoseThis study aims to verify the recombinogenic effect of artificial edulcorant l-aspartil-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame, widely used in hypocaloric and low-glucose diets. Such effect may reflect cell response to genetic damage, induced by artificial edulcorant in the cell cycle G2 period and shows its capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes, previously present in heterozygosis

  3. Effect of thapsigargin on cytoplasmic Ca2+ and proliferation of human lymphocytes in relation to AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, O; Foder, B; Thastrup, Ole

    1988-01-01

    the thapsigargin/PMA treatment could not restore the defective proliferation of AIDS lymphocytes in spite of the increased [Ca2+]i. Thapsigargin or PMA added separately had no stimulatory effects on cell proliferation. The thapsigargin/PMA treatment caused an increase in the interleukin-2 (IL-2) production...... response at 100 nM. The effect of thapsigargin on [Ca2+]i exceeded that of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) which raised [Ca2+]i to maximum 300 nM. In combination with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), thapsigargin stimulated the proliferation of normal lymphocytes to the same extent as did PHA, whereas...... on lymphocyte proliferation by increasing [Ca2+]i, and that the general defect of AIDS lymphocytes, rather than being ascribed to the initiating signal systems, is associated with later events related to DNA synthesis and proliferation....

  4. Adaptive regulation of taurine and beta-alanine uptake in a human kidney cell line from the proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    1. The underlying mechanisms involved in the adaptive regulation of beta-amino acid uptake in the human proximal tubule were examined by use of an immortalized human embryonic kidney epithelial cell line (IHKE). 2. The results indicated that the adaptive response to maintain whole-body taurine...... homeostasis occurs predominantly via changes in the activity of the high-affinity taurine transport system by alterations in the uptake capacity and with an unaffected half-saturation constant. An adaptive response was not observed for the structurally related beta-alanine. 3. Only colchicine, which...... interferes with microtubule organization, was capable of blocking the response to alterations of taurine in cell medium, whereas inhibition of protein and nucleic acid synthesis by cycloheximide and actinomycin D, respectively, did not change the adaptive pattern. 4. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA...

  5. Non-small cell lung cancer-derived soluble mediators enhance apoptosis in activated T lymphocytes through an I kappa B kinase-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Raj K; Lin, Ying; Sharma, Sherven; Dohadwala, Mariam; Luo, Jie; Pold, Mehis; Dubinett, Steven M

    2003-02-01

    T lymphocyte survival is critical for the development and maintenance of an effective host antitumor immune response; however, the tumor environment can negatively impact T-cell survival. Lymphocytes exposed to tumor supernatants (TSNs) were evaluated for apoptosis after mitogen stimulation. TSN was observed to significantly enhance phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin- and anti-CD3-stimulated lymphocyte apoptosis. Enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis was associated with an impairment of nuclear factor kappa B nuclear translocation and diminished I kappa B alpha degradation. In lymphocytes stimulated after exposure to TSNs, cytoplasmic I kappa B alpha persisted as a result of alterations in I kappa B kinase (IKK) activity. Accordingly, although there were no apparent differences in IKK component concentrations, lymphocytes preexposed to TSNs exhibited markedly reduced IKK activity. We conclude that non-small cell lung cancer-derived soluble factors promote apoptosis in activated lymphocytes by an IKK-dependent pathway.

  6. Inhibitory effects of chelidonic acid on IL-6 production by blocking NF-κB and caspase-1 in HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Sung-Soo; Um, Jae-Young

    2011-12-01

    Chelidonic acid (CA) is a γ-pyrone which is contained in the rhizome of Chelidonium majus L. It has multiple pharmacological effects including those of a mild analgesic, an antimicrobial, an oncostatic and a central nervous system sedative, but the anti-inflammatory effect of CA and its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of CA in mast cell-mediated inflammatory response by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187. The results indicate that CA inhibits the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the expression of IL-6 mRNA through the regulation of nuclear factor-κB. In addition, CA suppresses the activation and expression of caspase-1. These results provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of CA as a potential molecule for use in therapy in mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  7. Fecundação e clivagem após a ativação da proteína quinase C durante a maturação de oócitos bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Mondadori,Rafael Gianella; Gonçalves,Paulo Bayard Dias; Neves,Jairo Pereira; Costa,Luis Fabiano Santos da; Montagner,Marcelo Marcos; Carámbula,Silvia Ferreira; Bortolotto,Ederson Bisognin

    1999-01-01

    A formação de pró-núcleos, clivagem e perfil protéico foram avaliados após a ativação da proteína quinase C (PQ-C) durante a maturação de complexos cumulus-oócito (CCOs) bovinos. Visando a determinar estes efeitos da PQ-C, 1936 CCOs foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 4 tratamentos, sendo maturados na presença de PMA (100nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ativador da PQ-C), de 4alfa-PDD (100nM de 4alfa-phorbol 12,13-didecanoetate, forbol éster que não ativa a PQ-C; controle forbol éster), d...

  8. Effects of sodium saccharin and linoleic acid on mRNA levels of Her2/neu and p53 in a human breast epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogretmen, B; Ratajczak, H; Gendel, S M; Stark, B C

    1996-04-19

    The effects of two food-related chemicals (sodium saccharin and linoleic acid) on the levels of Her2/neu and p53 mRNA in a non-cancerous human breast epithelial cell line (HBL-100) were tested in comparison with the effects of the known tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA). Treatments were made both with and without prior treatment with two well-known tumor initiators, N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) or 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The effects in general were small, the greatest being increases of 46-67% in Her2/neu mRNA levels in response to treatments with TPA or sodium saccharin following NMU treatments. These results demonstrate that sodium saccharin following NMU treatments might be involved in transcriptional regulation of Her2/neu in HBL-100 cells and suggest that its effects may not be limited to urinary bladder.

  9. Extracellular superoxide dismutase is present in secretory vesicles of human neutrophils and released upon stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marie B; Gottfredsen, Randi H; Larsen, Ulrike G

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme present in the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it provides protection against oxidative degradation of matrix constituents including type I collagen and hyaluronan. The enzyme is known to associate with macrophages...... and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and increasing evidence supports a role for EC-SOD in the development of an inflammatory response. Here we show that human EC-SOD is present at the cell surface of isolated neutrophils as well as stored within secretory vesicles. Interestingly, we find that EC-SOD m......RNA is absent throughout neutrophil maturation indicating that the protein is synthesized by other cells and subsequently endocytosed by the neutrophil. When secretory vesicles were mobilized by neutrophil stimulation using formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA...

  10. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in centenarians are not associated with increased production in T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, Marie; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Kemp, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by increased inflammatory activity reflected by increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, concomitant with an altered cytokine profile of T lymphocytes. High plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are strongly associated with morbidity...... and mortality in elderly humans. However, the cellular source and mechanisms for the increased circulating TNF-alpha levels are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate if high plasma levels of TNF-alpha are associated with increased production of TNF-alpha by T lymphocytes in elderly...... humans. METHODS: TNF-alpha production by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin in 28 young controls, 14, 81-year-olds and 25 centenarians. RESULTS: Plasma levels of TNF-alpha increased with increasing age...

  11. The stimulation of EL-4 cells to produce interleukin-2 and its potential use in immunocytotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasek, W.; Steer, S.; Clothier, R.; Balls, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of EL-4 thymoma cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) following exposure to phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Concanavalin A (Con A) has been studied in vitro using medium containing either 10% or 1% fetal calf serum (FCS). The potent stimulatory effect of PMA on IL-2 production by EL-4 cells has been confirmed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation by the IL-2-dependent T cell line, CTLL-2, in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) from stimulated cultures. EL-4 cells produced several times more IL-2 when cultured in medium containing 10% FCS than when only 1% FCS was present. Added together, PMA and Con A acted synergistically in some EL-4 cell cultures. The ability of E:-4 cells to produce IL-2 was maintained after further incubation without stimulants. CM with IL-2 activity from stimulated EL-4 cells could prove useful in immunotoxicity testing

  12. Superoxide radical-scavenging effects from polymorphonuclear leukocytes and toxicity in human cell lines of newly synthesized organic selenium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru; Kato, Masahiko; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2007-12-01

    Synthetic organic selenium compounds such as 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one may show glutathione peroxidase-like antioxidant activity. Recently, we synthesized new organic selenium compounds that are thought to be effective antioxidants. To study their possible applications as antioxidants, we evaluated two selenoureas, N,N-dimethylselenourea and 1-selenocarbamoylpyrrolidine, and two tertiary selenoamides, N-(phenylselenocarbonyl)-piperidine and N,N-diethyl-4-chloroselenobenzamide, for their superoxide radical (O2-)-scavenging effects and toxicity. We measured (O2-)-scavenging effects in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with a specific, sensitive and real-time kinetic chemiluminescence method. Furthermore, the toxicity of these compounds was measured in some human cell lines and PMNs using the tetrazolium method. Hydrogen peroxide was measured by a scopoletin method. Finally, translocation of an NADPH oxidase component, p47 phagocyte oxidase, to the cell membrane was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. N,N-Dimethylselenourea and 1-selenocarbamoylpyrrolidine effectively scavenged (O2-) released from 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated PMNs, and the 50% inhibitory concentrations were 6.8 +/- 2.2 and 6.5 +/- 2.5 microm, respectively. N-(Phenylselenocarbonyl)-piperidine and N,N-diethyl-4-chloroselenobenzamide also effectively scavenged (O2-) from PMNs, and the 50% inhibitory concentrations were 11.3 +/- 4.8 and 20.3 +/- 6.4 microm, respectively. Selenoureas showed very low toxicity in human cell lines and PMNs, even at high concentrations, whereas tertiary selenoamides were cytotoxic. These compounds did not produce significant amounts of hydrogen peroxide from 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated PMNs. None of the compounds significantly affected the translocation of p47 phagocyte oxidase. Selenoureas acted as effective antioxidants and showed low toxicity in some human cells. Thus, these compounds might be new

  13. Genistein inhibits phorbol ester-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity and COX-2 expression by blocking the phosphorylation of p65/RelA in human mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Do-Hee [Research Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hye-Kyung [Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ha-Na [Research Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Haegeman, Guy [LEGEST, University of Gent (Belgium); Surh, Young-Joon, E-mail: surh@snu.ac.kr [Research Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Genistein, an isoflavone present in soy products, has chemopreventive effects on mammary carcinogenesis. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of genistein on phorbol ester-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) that plays an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. Pretreatment of cultured human breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells with genistein reduced COX-2 expression induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). There are multiple lines of evidence supporting that the induction of COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-κB. Genistein failed to inhibit TPA-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB as well as degradation of IκB. However, genistein abrogated the TPA-induced transcriptional activity of NF-κB as determined by the luciferase reporter gene assay. Genistein inhibited phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB and its interaction with cAMP regulatory element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and TATA-binding protein (TBP). TPA-induced NF-κB phosphorylation was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Likewise, pharmacologic inhibition or dominant negative mutation of ERK suppressed phosphorylation of p65. The above findings, taken together, suggest that genistein inhibits TPA-induced COX-2 expression in MCF10A cells by blocking ERK-mediated phosphorylation of p65 and its subsequent interaction with CBP and TBP.

  14. An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted against the type IIβ regulatory subunit mRNA of protein kinase inhibits cAMP-induced differentiation in HL-60 leukemia cells without affecting phorbol ester effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, G.; Clair, T.; Cho-Chung, Y.S.

    1990-01-01

    The type II β regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RII β ) has been hypothesized to play an important role in the growth inhibition and differentiation induced by site-selective cAMP analogs in human cancer cells, but direct proof of this function has been lacking. To address this tissue, HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells were exposed to RII β antisense synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide, and the effects on cAMP-induced growth regulation were examined. Exposure of these cells to RII β antisense oligodeoxynucleotide resulted in a decrease in cAMP analog-induced growth inhibition and differentiation without apparent effect on differentiation induced by phorbol esters. This loss in cAMP growth regulatory function correlated with a decrease in basal and induced levels of RII β protein. Exposure to RII β sense, RI α and RII α antisense, or irrelevant oligodeoxynucleotides had no such effect. These results show that the RII β regulatory subunit of protein kinase plays a critical role in the cAMP-induced growth regulation of HL-60 leukemia cells

  15. Lipophilic ester and amide derivatives of rosmarinic acid protect cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage and apoptosis: The potential role of intracellular accumulation and labile iron chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi S. Gerogianni

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids represent abundant components contained in human diet. However, the negative charge in their carboxylic group limits their capacity to diffuse through biological membranes, thus hindering their access to cell interior. In order to promote the diffusion of rosmarinic acid through biological membranes, we synthesized several lipophilic ester- and amide-derivatives of this compound and evaluated their capacity to prevent H2O2-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cultured human cells. Esterification of the carboxylic moiety with lipophilic groups strongly enhanced the capacity of rosmarinic acid to protect cells. On the other hand, the amide-derivatives were somewhat less effective but exerted less cytotoxicity at high concentrations. Cell uptake experiments, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS, illustrated different levels of intracellular accumulation among the ester- and amide-derivatives, with the first being more effectively accumulated, probably due to their extensive hydrolysis inside the cells. In conclusion, these results highlight the hitherto unrecognized fundamental importance of derivatization of diet-derived phenolic acids to unveil their biological potential.

  16. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  17. Method of making alkyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  18. Apomorphine and its esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Nrupa; Chen, Zhizhong; Saaby, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Oral delivery of apomorphine via prodrug principle may be a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport and stability of apomorphine and its esters across Caco-2 cell monolayer and their affinity towards chylomicrons. Apomorphine......, monolauroyl apomorphine (MLA) and dilauroyl apomorphine (DLA) were subjected to apical to basolateral (A-B) and basolateral to apical (B-A) transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer. The stability of these compounds was also assessed by incubation at intestinal pH and physiological pH with and without Caco-2...

  19. Esters with water esters 2-c to 6-c

    CERN Document Server

    Getzen, F W; Hefter, G T; Maczynski, Andrzej

    1992-01-01

    This volume is the first of two devoted to esters and water. It includes solubility data for binary systems containing an ester and water up to the end of 1988. The critical evaluations were all prepared by one author and an introductory section has been included to elaborate the philosophy and methodology followed in the evaluations.

  20. Dioscin and methylprotodioscin isolated from the root of Asparagus cochinchinensis suppressed the gene expression and production of airway MUC5AC mucin induced by phorbol ester and growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jae; Park, Jin Sung; Yoon, Yong Pill; Shin, Ye Jin; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Hong, Jang-Hee; Son, Kun Ho; Lee, Choong Jae

    2015-05-15

    The root of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. has been utilized as mucoregulators and expectorants for controlling the airway inflammatory diseases in folk medicine. We investigated whether dioscin and methylprotodioscin isolated from the root of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. suppress the gene expression and production of airway MUC5AC mucin induced by phorbol ester and growth factor. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with dioscin or methylprotodioscin for 30 min and then stimulated with EGF or PMA for 24 h. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Production of MUC5AC mucin protein was measured by ELISA. (1) Dioscin and methylprotodioscin suppressed the expression of MUC5AC mucin gene induced by EGF or PMA; (2) dioscin suppressed the production of MUC5AC mucin induced by either EGF at 10(-5) M (p Asparagus cochinchinensis suppress the gene expression and production of MUC5AC mucin, by directly acting on airway epithelial cells, and the results are consistent with the traditional use of Asparagus cochinchinensis as remedy for diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester induces cell cycle arrest by the inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin in HCT116 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Mi [Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ji Ho [Natural Products Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hwa [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Gyun [Natural Products Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kun Ho [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won, E-mail: cwnho@kist.re.kr [Natural Products Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeong Shik, E-mail: kims@snu.ac.kr [Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-17

    We demonstrate that chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (CME), a triterpenoid saponin from the root of Achyranthes japonica, has an anticancer activity. We investigate its molecular mechanism in depth in HCT116 cells. CME reduces the amount of β-catenin in nucleus and inhibits the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) in target gene promoters. Thus, CME appears to decrease the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Cyclin D1, as a representative target for β-catenin, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. As a result of the decrease of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, CME inhibits cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Therefore, we suggest that CME as a novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor can be a putative agent for the treatment of colorectal cancers. - Highlights: • CME inhibits cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. • CME increases cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. • CME attenuates cyclin D1 and regulates cell cycle regulatory proteins. • CME inhibits β-catenin translocation to nucleus.

  2. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Ethanol Extract of Propolis Induce the Complementary Cytotoxic Effect on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy of breast cancer could be improved by bioactive natural substances, which may potentially sensitize the carcinoma cells’ susceptibility to drugs. Numerous phytochemicals, including propolis, have been reported to interfere with the viability of carcinoma cells. We evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP and its derivative caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE towards two triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T, by implementation of the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. The morphological changes of breast carcinoma cells were observed following exposure to EEP and CAPE. The IC50 of EEP was 48.35 µg∙mL−1 for MDA-MB-23 cells and 33.68 µg∙mL−1 for Hs578T cells, whereas the CAPE IC50 was 14.08 µM and 8.01 µM for the MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cell line, respectively. Here, we report that propolis and CAPE inhibited the growth of the MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T lines in a dose-dependent and exposure time-dependent manner. EEP showed less cytotoxic activity against both types of TNBC cells. EEP and, particularly, CAPE may markedly affect the viability of breast cancer cells, suggesting the potential role of bioactive compounds in chemoprevention/chemotherapy by potentiating the action of standard anti-cancer drugs.

  3. Chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester induces cell cycle arrest by the inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin in HCT116 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Dong Hwa; Park, Young Gyun; Son, Kun Ho; Nho, Chu Won; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (CME), a triterpenoid saponin from the root of Achyranthes japonica, has an anticancer activity. We investigate its molecular mechanism in depth in HCT116 cells. CME reduces the amount of β-catenin in nucleus and inhibits the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) in target gene promoters. Thus, CME appears to decrease the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Cyclin D1, as a representative target for β-catenin, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. As a result of the decrease of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, CME inhibits cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Therefore, we suggest that CME as a novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor can be a putative agent for the treatment of colorectal cancers. - Highlights: • CME inhibits cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. • CME increases cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. • CME attenuates cyclin D1 and regulates cell cycle regulatory proteins. • CME inhibits β-catenin translocation to nucleus

  4. Carboxylic ester hydrolases from hyperthermophiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levisson, M.; Oost, van der J.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Carboxylic ester hydrolyzing enzymes constitute a large group of enzymes that are able to catalyze the hydrolysis, synthesis or transesterification of an ester bond. They can be found in all three domains of life, including the group of hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea. Esterases from the

  5. Lipoate ester multifunctional lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven lipoate esters were synthesized by esterification of lipoic acid with different structures of alcohols in the presence of a solid acid catalyst and without solvent. The esters were obtained in good yield, characterized using 1H NMR and GPC; and their physical properties investigated. Four of t...

  6. Effect of a novel insulinotropic agent, succinic acid monoethyl ester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    In the present study, the effect of succinic acid monoethyl ester (EMS) on the pattern of lipids and lipoproteins in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes was investigated. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 min after the i.p ...

  7. The effects of gamma-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester, a prodrug of glutathione, on ischemia-reperfusion-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Kurokawa, T; Kitahara, S; Nonami, T; Harada, A; Nakao, A; Sugiyama, S; Ozawa, T; Takagi, H

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to clarify the effects of changes in liver tissue glutathione (GSH) concentration on postischemic liver injury together with the effects of gamma-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester (GCE), a prodrug of GSH, and GSH. Rats were pretreated with GSH (50 mg/kg, i.v.), or GCE (50 mg/kg, i.v.), or untreated. In each rat, liver was isolated, and liver mitochondria were prepared after 2 h of ischemia or 1 h of reperfusion following 2 h of ischemia. Mitochondrial function was measured polarographically. Liver adenine nucleotide concentrations were also determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Liver tissue GSH, an oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) concentrations, and activities of GSH peroxidase and GSSG reductase were determined enzymatically. Liver hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC. Liver tissue concentration of lipid peroxide was measured. Leakages of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and adenine nucleotides into the hepatic vein after reperfusion were also measured. Administration of GCE improved the recovery of mitochondrial function and maintained tissue GSH concentration concomitantly. Increases in liver lipid peroxide concentration after reperfusion, and leakage of liver cell enzymes and adenine nucleotides were mitigated by administration of GCE. Administration of GSH itself failed to maintain tissue GSH concentration and had no protective effects. From these results, it is concluded that in the postischemic process, free radical formation might be enhanced, and the radical scavenging system deteriorated. To enhance the radical scavenging system is a possible maneuver to prevent radical-related cell damage associated with reperfusion, because pharmacological reduction of breakdown of ATP to hypoxanthine and xanthine seems to be difficult. GCE maintained liver GSH concentrations and mitigated postischemic liver injury, concomitantly. Clinical

  8. Depletion of the cellular levels of Bag-1 proteins attenuates phorbol ester-induced downregulation of IκBα and nuclear accumulation of NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Jana V.; Volz, Yvonne; Berger, Caroline; Schneider, Sandra; Cato, Andrew C.B.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: →Bag-1 depletion only marginally affects the action of the glucocorticoid receptor but strongly regulates the activity of NF-κB. →Bag-1 depletion attenuates phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and nuclear accumulation of NF-κB p65 and p50. →Bag-1 interacts with IκBα and partially restores IκBα and NF-κB activation in Bag-1 depleted cells. -- Abstract: Bag-1 consists in humans of four isoforms generated from the same RNA by alternative translation. Overexpression of single Bag-1 isoforms has identified Bag-1 as a negative regulator of action of many proteins including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Here we have analysed the ability of Bag-1 to regulate the transrepression function of the GR. Silencing Bag-1 expression only marginally affects the transrepression action of the GR but decreased the action of the transcription factor NF-κB. Furthermore phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor protein IκBα and nuclear accumulation of p65 and p50 NF-κB proteins in response to phorbol ester was attenuated following Bag-1 depletion in HeLa cells. Reconstitution of Bag-1 in depleted cells partially restored IκBα and NF-κB activation. Knock-down of Bag-1 expression also did not significantly alter GR-mediated transactivation but affected the basal transcription of some of the target genes. Thus Bag-1 proteins function as regulators of the action of selective transcription factors.

  9. Influence of the carbohydrate fragment position in the macrocycle of chlorine e6 trimethyl ester glycosylated derivatives on their in vitro photo- induced activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Yakubovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and photophysical properties, as well as photo-induced activity, of glycoconjugates based on chlorine е6 trimethyl ether with various positions of carbohydrate fragment in the macrocycle have been studied. The photo-induced activity was investigated in the human (HEp2, A549 and HT29 and animal (LLC cell lines. The tested compounds showed in vitro both high photo-induced activity and high stability in the dark. The photosensitizer with galactose in the A pirrole ring demonstrated the highest activity (the half maximal inhibitory concentration (ИК50 varied from 27±2 nM to 75±5 nM in tests on different cell lines. Dyes with sugar substitutes in the C pirrole ring were 5–10 times less active. 

  10. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces adrenoleukodystrophy (Abcd2) gene in human X-ALD fibroblasts and inhibits the proinflammatory response in Abcd1/2 silenced mouse primary astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-04-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. Accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) that have been attributed to reduced peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation activity are the hallmark of the disease. Overexpression of ABCD2 gene, the closest homolog of ABCD1, has been shown to compensate for ABCD1, thus correcting the VLCFA derangement. The accumulation of VLCFA leads to a neuroinflammatory disease process associated with demyelination of the cerebral white matter. The present study underlines the importance of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in inducing the expression of ABCD2 (ALDRP), and normalizing the peroxisomal β-oxidation as well as the levels of saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs in cultured human skin fibroblasts of X-ALD patients. The expression of ELOVL1, the single elongase catalyzing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and mono-unsaturated VLCFA (C26:1), was also reduced by CAPE treatment. Importantly, CAPE upregulated Abcd2 expression and peroxisomal β-oxidation and lowered the VLCFA levels in Abcd1-deficient U87 astrocytes and B12 oligodendrocytes. In addition, using Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes we examined the effects of CAPE in VLCFA-induced inflammatory response. CAPE treatment decreased the inflammatory response as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokine, and activation of NF-κB in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes was reduced. The observations indicate that CAPE corrects both the metabolic disease of VLCFA as well as secondary inflammatory disease; therefore, it may be a potential drug candidate to be tested for X-ALD therapy in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Induces Adrenoleukodystrophy (Abcd2) Gene in Human X-ALD Fibroblasts and Inhibits the Proinflammatory Response in Abcd1/2 Silenced Mouse Primary Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. Accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) that have been attributed to reduced peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation activity are the hallmark of the disease. Overexpression of ABCD2 gene, the closest homolog of ABCD1, has been shown to compensate for ABCD1, thus correcting the VLCFA derrangement. The accumulation of VLCFA leads to a neuroinflammatory disease process associated with demyelination of the cerebral white matter. The present study underlines the importance of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in inducing the expression of ABCD2 (ALDRP), and normalizing the peroxisomal β-oxidation as well as the levels of saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs in cultured human skin fibroblasts of X-ALD patients. The expression of ELOVL1, the single elongase catalyzing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and mono-unsaturated VLCFA (C26:1), was also reduced by CAPE treatment. Importantly, CAPE upregulated Abcd2 expression and peroxisomal β-oxidation and lowered the VLCFA levels in Abcd1-deficient U87 astrocytes and B12 oligodendrocytes. In addition, using Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes we examined the effects of CAPE in VLCFA-induced inflammatory response. CAPE treatment decreased the inflammatory response as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokine, and activation of NF-κB in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes was reduced. The observations indicate that CAPE corrects both the metabolic disease of VLCFA as well as secondary inflammatory disease; therefore, it may be a potential drug candidate to be tested for X-ALD therapy in humans. PMID:23318275

  12. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun

    2016-12-14

    A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.

  13. The opposing effects of calmodulin, adenosine 5 prime -triphosphate, and pertussis toxin on phorbol ester induced inhibition of atrial natriuretic factor stimulated guanylate cyclase in SK-NEP-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, M.; Frohlich, E.D.; Cole, F.E. (Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of calmodulin, adenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate (ATP) and pertussis toxin (PT) on phorbol ester (PMA) induced inhibition of ANF-stimulated cyclic GMP formation in cells from the human renal cell line, SK-NEP-1. PMA inhibited ANF-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity in particulate membranes by about 65%. Calmodulin reversed this inhibition in a dose dependent manner. ATP potentiated Mg++ but not Mn++ supported guanylate cyclase activity. In PMA treated membranes, ATP potentiating effects were abolished. PMA also inhibited ANF-stimulated cGMP accumulation, but pretreatment with PT prevented this PMA inhibition. PT did not affect basal or ANF-stimulated cGMP accumulation. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that PMA inhibited ANF stimulation of particulate guanylate cyclase in opposition to the activating effects of calmodulin or ATP in SK-NEP-1 cells. The protein kinase C inhibitory effects appeared to be mediated via a PT-sensitive G protein.

  14. OPTIMASI PRODUKSI METIL ESTER SULFONAT DARI METIL ESTER MINYAK JELANTAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hidayati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OPTIMATION OF METHYL ESTER SULFONATES PRODUCTION FROM WASTE COOKING METHYL ESTER. An experiment of sulfonation process of methyl ester to produce methyl ester sulfonates (MES was caried out using waste palm methyl ester and sulfuric acid as sulfonating agent with variation of H2SO4 concentration (60% (K1, 70% (K2, dan 80% (K3 and sulfonation time (60 minute (L1, 75 minute (L2 and 90 minute (L3 using factorial on Randomized Complete Design Block. The experiment result showed the best sulfonation condition present in 80% H2SO4 concentration and sulfonation time of 90 minutes.  The best characteristic of MES is produced showed surface tension of 27.35 dyne/cm, emulsion stability of 89.44%, acid value of 17.72 mg KOH/g and interfacial tension of 0.0361 dyne/cm at MES concentration of 2% in 10,000 ppm salinity water. Sebuah penelitian tentang proses produksi metil ester sulfonat menggunakan minyak bekas kelapa sawit dilakukan dengan menggunakan H2SO4 sebagai agen pensulfonasi dengan variasi konsentrasi H2SO4 (60% (K1, 70% (K2, dan 80% (K3 dan lama sulfonasi (60 menit (L1, 75 menit (L2 and 90 menit (L3 dengan menggunakan faktorial dalam Rancangan Kelompok Teracak Lengkap. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi proses sulfonasi terbaik terdapat pada konsentrasi H2SO4 80% dan lama reaksi 90 menit. Karakteristik Metil Ester Sulfonat (MES terbaik yang dihasilkan memperlihatkan nilai tegangan permukaan 27,35 dyne/cm, stabilitas emulsi 89,44%, nilai bilangan asam antara 17,72 mg KOH/g dan nilai tegangan antar muka pada konsentrasi MES 2% di dalam air dengan salinitas 10.000 ppm yaitu 0,0361 dyne/cm.

  15. Impact of thermooxidation of phytosteryl and phytostanyl fatty acid esters on cholesterol micellarization in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Birgit; Weiherer, Renate; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-09-01

    The effects of thermooxidation of a phytosteryl/-stanyl and a phytostanyl fatty acid ester mixture on cholesterol micellarization were investigated using an in vitro digestion model simulating enzymatic hydrolysis by cholesterol esterase and subsequent competition of the liberated phytosterols/-stanols with cholesterol for incorporation into mixed micelles. As a first step, relationships between different doses of the ester mixtures and the resulting micellarized cholesterol were established. Subsequent subjection of the thermooxidized ester mixtures to the in vitro digestion model resulted in three principal observations: (i) thermal treatment of the ester mixtures led to substantial decreases of the intact esters, (ii) in vitro digestion of cholesterol in the presence of the thermooxidized ester mixtures resulted in significant increases of cholesterol micellarization, and (iii) the extents of the observed effects on cholesterol micellarization were strongly associated to the remaining contents of intact esters. The loss of efficacy to inhibit cholesterol micellarization due to thermally induced losses of intact esters corresponded to a loss of efficacy that would have been induced by an actual removal of these amounts of esters prior to the in vitro digestion. The obtained results suggest that in particular oxidative modifications of the fatty acid moieties might be responsible for the observed increases of cholesterol micellarization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Ester-Linked 2-Phenylindole-3-Carboxaldehyde-Monosaccharide Conjugate as Potential Prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Shimoda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of ester-linked 2-phenylindole-3-carboxaldehyde-glucose conjugate (2-phenylindole-3-carboxyl-10″-O-β-D-glucosyl ester was achieved by using plant cell cultures as biocatalysts. The anticancer agent, 2-phenylindole-3-carboxaldehyde, induced apoptosis in cells, whereas 2-phenylindole-3-carboxyl-10″-O-β-D-glucosyl ester showed no cytotoxicity and induced no apoptosis.

  17. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Hofvander, Per; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua; Feussner, Ivo

    2013-07-06

    Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples like cuticular lipid extracts to

  18. Inhibitory effects of curcumin and capsaicin on phorbol ester-induced activation of eukaryotic transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Y J; Han, S S; Keum, Y S; Seo, H J; Lee, S S

    2000-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on identifying dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that can inhibit, retard or reverse the multi-stage carcinogenesis. Spices and herbs contain phenolic substances with potent antioxidative and chemopreventive properties. Curcumin, a yellow colouring agent from turmeric and capsaicin, a pungent principle of red pepper exhibit profound anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. Two well-defined eukaryotic transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) have been implicated in pathogenesis of many human diseases including cancer. These transcription factors are known to be activated by a wide array of external stimuli, such as tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), tumor necrosis factor, reactive oxygen species, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and ultraviolet. In the present study, we found that topical application of TPA onto dorsal skin of female ICR mice resulted in marked activation of epidermal NF-kappaB and AP-1. Curcumin and capsaicin, when topically applied prior to TPA, significantly attenuated TPA-induced activation of each transcription factor in mouse skin. Likewise, both compounds inhibited NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells stimulated with TPA. Based on these findings, it is likely that curcumin and capsaicin exert anti-tumor promotional effects through suppression of the tumor promoter-induced activation of transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1.

  19. System-wide analysis of the transcriptional network of human myelomonocytic leukemia cells predicts attractor structure and phorbol-ester-induced differentiation and dedifferentiation transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Katsumi; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Sato, Shinji; Nobori, Hiroya; Hayashi, Akiko; Ishii, Hideshi; Daub, Carsten O.; Kawai, Jun; Suzuki, Harukazu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2015-02-01

    We present a system-wide transcriptional network structure that controls cell types in the context of expression pattern transitions that correspond to cell type transitions. Co-expression based analyses uncovered a system-wide, ladder-like transcription factor cluster structure composed of nearly 1,600 transcription factors in a human transcriptional network. Computer simulations based on a transcriptional regulatory model deduced from the system-wide, ladder-like transcription factor cluster structure reproduced expression pattern transitions when human THP-1 myelomonocytic leukaemia cells cease proliferation and differentiate under phorbol myristate acetate stimulation. The behaviour of MYC, a reprogramming Yamanaka factor that was suggested to be essential for induced pluripotent stem cells during dedifferentiation, could be interpreted based on the transcriptional regulation predicted by the system-wide, ladder-like transcription factor cluster structure. This study introduces a novel system-wide structure to transcriptional networks that provides new insights into network topology.

  20. Ethanol extract of propolis and its constituent caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibit breast cancer cells proliferation in inflammatory microenvironment by inhibiting TLR4 signal pathway and inducing apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huasong; Wang, Yuehua; Yin, Xusheng; Liu, Xinying; Xuan, Hongzhuan

    2017-09-26

    Propolis and its major constituent - caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) have good abilities on antitumor and anti-inflammation. However, little is known about the actions of propolis and CAPE on tumor in inflammatory microenvironment, and inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development. To understand the effects and mechanisms of ethanol-extracted Chinese propolis (EECP) and its major constituent - CAPE in inflammation-stimulated tumor, we investigated their effects on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway which plays a crucial role in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line. 80% confluent breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were stimulated with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Then the cells were divided for treatment by CAPE (25 μg/mL) and EECP (25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), respectively. Cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) production and cell migration were measured by sulforhodamine B assay, chemical method and scratch assay. The levels of TLR4, MyD88, IRAK4, TRIF, caspase 3, PARP, LC3B and p62 were investigated through western blotting. The expression of TLR4, LC3B and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) were tested by immunofluorescence microscopy assay. Treatment of different concentrations of EECP (25, 50 and 100 μg/mL) and CAPE (25 μg/mL) significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated MDA-MB-231 cell line proliferation, migration and NO production. Furthermore, EECP and CAPE activated caspase3 and PARP to induce cell apoptosis, and also upregulated LC3-II and decreased p62 level to induce autophagy during the process. TLR4 signaling pathway molecules such as TLR4, MyD88, IRAK4, TRIF and NF-κB p65 were all down-regulated after EECP and CAPE treatment in LPS-stimulated MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings indicated that EECP and its major constituent - CAPE inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells proliferation in inflammatory microenvironment through activating apoptosis, autophagy and inhibiting TLR4 signaling pathway. EECP and

  1. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  2. Distinct cytoplasmic domains of the growth hormone receptor are required for glucocorticoid- and phorbol ester-induced decreases in growth hormone (GH) binding. These domains are different from that reported for GH-induced receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, A P; Tseng, M J; Logsdon, C D

    1996-01-01

    to be required for maximal DEX-induced inhibition of GH binding. DEX decreased GH binding to a GHR mutant F346A, which is reported to be deficient in ligand-induced internalization, suggesting that DEX decreases GH binding by a mechanism distinct from that of ligand-induced GHR internalization. PMA reduced GH...

  3. Synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, Morten; Hansen, Henriette M; Begtrup, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters is described via lithiation/in situ trapping of the corresponding methoxy-, trifluoromethyl-, fluoro-, chloro-, and bromobenzonitriles. The crude arylboronic esters were obtained in high yields and purities and with good regioselectivities....

  4. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, E.J.; Tijsma, E.J.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.; Vulic, I.

    1994-01-01

    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal

  5. Regioselective Synthesis of Cellulose Ester Homopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiqiang Xu; Kristen Voiges; Thomas Elder; Petra Mischnick; Kevin J. Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Regioselective synthesis of cellulose esters is extremely difficult due to the small reactivity differences between cellulose hydroxyl groups, small differences in steric demand between acyl moieties of interest, and the difficulty of attaching and detaching many protecting groups in the presence of cellulose ester moieties without removing the ester groups. Yet the...

  6. Catalytic Ester to Stannane Functional Group Interconversion via Decarbonylative Cross-Coupling of Methyl Esters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng

    2018-01-03

    An unprecedented conversion of methyl esters to stannanes was realized, providing access to a series of arylstannanes via nickel catalysis. Various common esters including ethyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl, and phenyl esters can undergo the newly developed decarbonylative stannylation reaction. The reaction shows broad substrate scope, can differentiate between different types of esters, and if applied in consecutive fashion, allows the transformation of methyl esters into aryl fluorides or biaryls via fluororination or arylation.

  7. Existe associação entre antiinflamatórios não-esteróides e nefropatia induzida por contraste? = Is there association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and contrast media-induced nephropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo, Luciano Passamani

    2008-01-01

    Conclusões: faltam evidências, na literatura médica indexada, que sustentem a afirmação de que os antiinflamatórios não esteróides seriam fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de nefropatia induzida por contraste

  8. Ketone ester effects on metabolism and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veech, Richard L

    2014-10-01

    Ketosis induced by starvation or feeding a ketogenic diet has widespread and often contradictory effects due to the simultaneous elevation of both ketone bodies and free fatty acids. The elevation of ketone bodies increases the energy of ATP hydrolysis by reducing the mitochondrial NAD couple and oxidizing the coenzyme Q couple, thus increasing the redox span between site I and site II. In contrast, metabolism of fatty acids leads to a reduction of both mitochondrial NAD and mitochondrial coenzyme Q causing a decrease in the ΔG of ATP hydrolysis. In contrast, feeding ketone body esters leads to pure ketosis, unaccompanied by elevation of free fatty acids, producing a physiological state not previously seen in nature. The effects of pure ketosis on transcription and upon certain neurodegenerative diseases make approach not only interesting, but of potential therapeutic value.

  9. Photodynamic therapy using a novel photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na): comparative effect with 5-aminolevulinic acid on squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC15, ultraviolet B-induced skin tumor, and phorbol ester-induced hyperproliferative skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Susumu; Sakata, Isao; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Iizuka, Hajime

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is available for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). Recently, we developed a new PDT photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na), and have shown that ATX-S10(Na) PDT is effective for the treatment of various human skin diseases, such as squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma, and psoriasis. In the present study, we compared the effects of ATX-S10(Na) PDT and ALA PDT on hyperproliferative skin induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), on the squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC15, in vitro, and on UVB-induced skin tumors in vivo. TPA treatment induced epidermal acanthosis, which was more markedly suppressed by ATX-S10(Na) PDT than by ALA PDT. ATX-S10(Na) PDT more effectively eliminated UVB-induced AK and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than ALA PDT. Furthermore, both ATX-S10(Na) PDT and ALA PDT induced the death of SCC15 cells, and the effect of ATX-S10(Na) PDT was greater than that of ALA PDT. Our results indicate that ATX-S10(Na) PDT might be more effective than ALA PDT for the treatment of various skin diseases.

  10. Ester Tuiksoo. Proua Suhkru kibedad päevad / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo, kellel peagi täitub ministri ametis aasta Euroopa Liidu suhkrutrahvist, maaettevõtlusest, põllumajandusest, Euroopa Liidu toetustest, ministri elu- ja teenistuskäigust. Lisa: Ester Tuiksoo

  11. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  12. Steroidal esters from Ferula sinkiangensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangzhi; Li, Xiaojin; Cao, Li; Shen, Liangang; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Junchi; Zhang, Lijing; Si, Jianyong

    2014-09-01

    Two new steroidal esters with an unusual framework, Sinkiangenorin A and B, a new organic acid glycoside, Sinkiangenorin C, and four known lignin compounds were isolated from the seeds of Ferula sinkiangensis. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of the isolated compounds were tested against Hela, K562 and AGS human cancer cell lines. Sinkiangenorin C showed cytotoxic activity against AGS cells with an IC50 of 36.9 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phorbol-ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C in mouse pancreatic islets. Potentiation of phase 1 and inhibition of phase 2 of glucose-induced insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, P; Capito, K; Hedeskov, C J

    1990-01-01

    (45-55 min) was increased from 12.9 +/- 1.5 (4)% in controls to 35.8 +/- 3.9 (4)% in TPA-treated islets (P less than 0.01), and the percentage released during phase 2 (65-85 min) was decreased from 63.2 +/- 3.9 (4)% to 35.3 +/- 1.4 (4)% (P less than 0.005). In contrast, TPA exposure in TCM 199 medium...... (5.5 mM-glucose, 1.26 mM-Ca2+) caused a total abolition of both phases 1 and 2 of glucose-induced secretion. However, inclusion of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonists adrenaline (10 microM) or clonidine (10 microM), or lowering of the Ca2+ concentration in TCM 199 during down-regulation, preserved...

  14. Plasma application for detoxification of Jatropha phorbol esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongmany, S.; Matsuura, H.; Furuta, M.; Okuda, S.; Imamura, K.; Maeda, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generated by helium gas at high voltage and input power of about 50 W was first applied to detoxification of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters (J. PEs) as well as standard phorbol ester (4β-12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in water and methanol. Plasma irradiation on the solution sample was conducted for 15 min. In aqueous solution, only 16% of TPA was degraded and complete degradation of J. PEs was observed. On the contrary, complete degradation of both TPA and J. PEs in methanol was achieved by the same plasma irradiation condition. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) generated by plasma irradiation of the solution is expected as the main radical inducing the degradation of PEs.

  15. Preparation of Spirocyclic β-Proline Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Kasper; Marigo, Mauro; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel N-Bn-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using [3+2] cycloaddition and subsequently converted into their corresponding aldehydes. In addition, two novel N-Cbz-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using intramolecular cyclization starting from sim...

  16. Enhanced Reactivity in Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Ion/Ion Reactions Using Triazole-Ester Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiexun; Peng, Zhou; Zhao, Feifei; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-07-01

    The acyl substitution reactions between 1-hydroxy-7-aza-benzotriazole (HOAt)/1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (HOBt) ester reagents and nucleophilic side chains on peptides have been demonstrated in the gas phase via ion/ion reactions. The HOAt/HOBt ester reagents were synthesized in solution and ionized via negative nano-electrospray ionization. The anionic reagents were then reacted with doubly protonated model peptides containing amines, guanidines, and imidazoles in the gas phase. The complexes formed in the reaction cell were further probed with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID) yielding either a covalently modified analyte ion or a proton transfer product ion. The covalent reaction yield of HOAt/HOBt ester reagents was demonstrated to be higher than the yield with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester reagents over a range of equivalent conditions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed with a primary amine model system for both triazole-ester and NHS-ester reactants, which indicated a lower transition state barrier for the former reagent, consistent with experiments. The work herein demonstrates that the triazole-ester reagents are more reactive, and therefore less selective, than the analogous NHS-ester reagent. As a consequence, the triazole-ester reagents are the first to show efficient reactivity with unprotonated histidine residues in the gas phase. For all nucleophilic sites and all reagents, covalent reactions are favored under long time, low amplitude activation conditions. This work presents a novel class of reagents capable of gas-phase conjugation to nucleophilic sites in analyte ions via ion/ion chemistry.

  17. Anticholinesterase activity of fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu.Ya.; Brel, V.K. Martynov, I.V.

    1984-11-01

    Results are presented from pharmacologic and biochemical experiments leading to the conclusion that fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters have anticholinesterase activity. Since the esters caused muscular weakness in mice, experiments were performed on isolated tissue preparation. The biochemical experiments consisted of finding the biomolecular constants of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by the esters, using acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes, as well as horse serum cholinesterase. The ethyl and n-propyl esters of halogen nitroacetic acid were used in all experiments. It was found that the propyl ester caused an increase in the force of individual contractions in the isolated muscle specimens, plus an inability of the muscle to retain tetanus. The substances were determined to have an anticholinesterase effect. The mechanism of cholinesterase inhibition is not yet known. It is probable that the substances acylate the serine hydroxyl of the esterase center of the cholinestersase. 7 references, 1 figure.

  18. Phorbol esters inhibit ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis in proximal tubular segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobanian, M.C.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1987-06-01

    To characterize the regulation of ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis in renal proximal tubule, ammonia and glucose productions were measured in suspension of canine proximal tubular segments incubated with 10 mM L-glutamine. Productions were linear functions of time for 120 min and were decreased as extracellular pH was increased from 7.0 to 7.5. To ascertain whether activation of protein kinase c affects either process, the authors incubated segments with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, or with the inactive phorbol ester 4..cap alpha..-phorbol. Ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis were inhibited by incubation with 10/sup /minus/6/M of the two former compounds but not the latter compound. Phorbol ester-induced inhibition was observed under conditions such that extracellular (Na/sup +/) was greater than intracellular (Na/sup +/), but not when extracellular (Na/sup +/) equaled intracellular (Na/sup +/), and was not observed in the presence of amiloride. These findings are consistent with a role for protein kinase c in the control of ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis in proximal tubule. Such control could be mediated via stimulation of Na/sup 1/-H/sup +/ exchange.

  19. Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperature and Molar Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeti Widyawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylolpropane esters were synthesized by transesterification of calophyllum methyl esters and trimethylolpropane using a calcium oxide as the catalyst. The results showed that the optimal reaction conditions (temperature: 130 0C, reaction time: 5 h, reactant molar ratio: 3.9:1, catalyst amount 3%w/w, and formed  trimethylolpropane ester of 79.0% were obtained. The basic physicochemical properties of the trimethylolpropane esters were the following : kinematic viscosities of 56.40 cSt and 8.8 cSt at 40 0C and 100 0C,  viscosity index 193, flash point 218 0C and pour point -3 0C. So Methyl esters of fatty acids of would callophylum  methyl ester is good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils.

  20. Cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to alcohols: unexpected reactivity trend indicates ester enolate intermediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Arup; Goldberg, Alexander F G; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    The atom-efficient and environmentally benign catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acid esters to alcohols has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts, with few exceptions. Presented here is the first cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to the corresponding alcohols. Unexpectedly, the evidence indicates the unprecedented involvement of ester enolate intermediates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Ketorolac Pentyl Ester, a Novel Ester Derivative of Ketorolac, in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann-Inn Tzeng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Ketorolac is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Recently, a novel ester of ketorolac, ketorolac pentyl ester, was synthesized. When prepared in injectable oil, the new agent demonstrated a long duration of action. Ketorolac pentyl ester was synthesized using a prodrug design by esterification of ketorolac, and appeared to be a prodrug of ketorolac in vivo, which needed to be confirmed. The aim of the present study was to establish the prodrug's pharmacokinetics in vivo, and to confirm whether or not ketorolac pentyl ester was a prodrug of ketorolac. Pharmacokinetic profiles of intravenous ketorolac and its pentyl ester on an equal-molar basis in six rabbits were evaluated. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was used to determine the plasma concentrations of ketorolac and its pentyl ester. We found that the plasma concentrations of ketorolac pentyl ester declined rapidly after injection and so did the conversion of ketorolac pentyl ester to ketorolac. Also, the conversion of ketorolac was proved complete when compared with intravenous ketorolac under an equi-molar basis. In conclusion, this in vivo pharmacokinetic study confirmed that keterolac pentyl ester was a prodrug of keterolac.

  3. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...... production into a suitable levulinic acid ester in the presence of a zeolite or zeotype catalyst and a suitable alcohol, and the ester may be further converted into levulinic acid if desired....

  4. Diastereoselective Ugi reaction for the synthesis of unnatural amino esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliveira Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multicomponent Reactions (MCR are useful reactions to obtain complex products by the simple mixture of 3 or more reactants. The classic Ugi reaction (4-UCR involves a mixture of an amine, aldehyde, isocyanide and a carboxylic acid, giving peptoides as products. Some modifications of this reaction have been reported, among which the use of amino acids and Lewis acids, such as titanium (IV chloride, to induce stereoselectivity in good ratio. In this work we demonstrate the efficiency of different Lewis acids in the modified Ugi reaction and good levels of diastereoselectivity and yields in the synthesis of unnatural secondary amino esters.

  5. Allied, MGC link on cyanate esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the latest of a line of joint ventures in its plastics business, Allied Signal has reached agreement with Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC) to jointly develop thermoset cyanate ester resins and blends. The deal will involve further development of Allied Signal's Primaset phenol-formaldehyde cyanate ester resins, a new entrant in the thermoset arena. Although the Primaset resins were discovered in the 1960s, this would be the first time they are available commercially. The deal will marry Primaset technology with MGC's Skylex bisphenol A cyanate ester resins, says Fred DiAntonis, director/advanced materials at Allied Signal. The two firms are looking at marketing blends of the two materials. The potential market for these resins, used commercially by the electronics industry in printed circuit boards and by the aerospace industry in composites, is significant, says Robert P. Viarengo, Allied Signal president/performance materials. By aligning ourselves with MGC, the world leader in cyanate ester resin, we anticipate moving forward aggressively. The main competitor is Ciba, which acquired bisphenol A cyanate ester resins with its purchase of Rhone-Poulenc's high temperature resins business. DiAntonis estimates the market for cyanate ester resins could be worth $150 million by the end of the decade, although development costs have been in the tens of millions of dollars range

  6. Chemical Modification of Cellulose Esters for Oral Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangtao

    Polymer functional groups have critical impacts upon physical, chemical and mechanical properties, and thus affect the specific applications of the polymer. Functionalization of cellulose esters and ethers has been under extensive investigation for applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, food ingredients, and automobile coating. In oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulations have been used, prepared by forming miscible blends of polymers and drugs to inhibit crystallization and enhance bioavailability of the drug. The Edgar and Taylor groups have revealed that some cellulose o-carboxyalkanoates were highly effective as ASD polymers, with the pendant carboxylic acid groups providing both specific polymer-drug interactions and pHtriggered release through swelling of the ionized polymer matrix. While a variety of functional groups such as hydroxyl and amide groups are also of interest, cellulose functionalization has relied heavily on classical methods such as esterification and etherification for appending functional groups. These methods, although they have been very useful, are limited in two respects. First, they typically employ harsh reaction conditions. Secondly, each synthetic pathway is only applicable for one or a narrow group of functionalities due to restrictions imposed by the required reaction conditions. To this end, there is a great impetus to identify novel reactions in cellulose modification that are mild, efficient and ideally modular. In the initial effort to design and synthesize cellulose esters for oral drug delivery, we developed several new methods in cellulose functionalization, which can overcome drawbacks of conventional synthetic pathways, provide novel cellulose derivatives that are otherwise inaccessible, and present a platform for structure-property relationship study. Cellulose o-hydroxyalkanoates were previously difficult to access as the hydroxyl groups, if not protected, react

  7. Allenyl esters as quenching agents for ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Animesh; Silvestri, Maximilian A; Hall, Robert A; Lepore, Salvatore D

    2017-01-04

    In the attempt to synthesize substituted allenyl esters through a metathesis coupling of unsubstituted allenyl esters and alkenes using a variety of ruthenium catalysts, it was discovered that allenyl esters themselves cleanly arrested the activity of the catalysts. Further studies suggests possible utility of allene esters as general quenching agents for metathesis reactions. To explore this idea, several representative olefin metathesis reactions, including ring closing, were successfully terminated by the addition of simple allenyl esters for more convenient purification.

  8. GC-ECNICI-MS/MS of eicosanoids as pentafluorobenzyl-trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives: Evidence of CAD-induced intramolecular TMS ether-to-ester rearrangement using carboxy-18O-labelled eicosanoids and possible implications in quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-15

    GC-MS and GC-MS/MS of pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether (PFB-TMS) derivatives of hydroxylated long-chain fatty acids including arachidonic acid metabolites, the eicosanoids, in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) mode are the most sensitive and accurate approaches to quantify carboxyl groups-containing compounds in complex biological fluids such as plasma and urine. Under ECNICI conditions, PFB-TMS derivatives of eicosanoids ionize to form very few ions, with the carboxylates [M-PFB] - being typically the most intense. Less intense ions may be additionally formed by consecutive neutral loss (NL) of trimethylsilanol (TMSOH, 90Da) groups ([M-PFB-(TMSOH) n ] - ). By using [1,1- 18 O 2 ]- and [1,ω- 18 O 2 ]-eicosanoids, we studied ion processes following collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the precursor ions [M-PFB] - . We found that CAD resulted in formation of product ions due to NL of a TMS 18 OH (92Da) group in monocarboxylic and of a PFB 18 OH (200Da) group in dicarboxylic eicosanoids. TMS 18 OH NL implies an intra-molecular transfer of the TMS group from hydroxyl groups to their carboxylate anions [M-PFB] - . From a mechanistic point of view, this rearrangement may explain formation of unique product ions in GC-MS/MS of eicosanoids under ECNICI conditions. From the quantitative point of view, quantification by GC-MS/MS of product ions due to [M-PFB-(TMSOH) n ] - and [M-PFB-TMS 18 OH-(TMSOH) n-1 ] - would reveal incorrect data, if [1,1- 18 O 2 ]-eicosanoids are used as internal standards and if no correction for the 18 O-loss is performed. In 18 O-labelled dicarboxylic eicosanoids, such as the major urinary metabolite (MUM) of E prostaglandins, i.e., [1,ω- 18 O 2 ]-PGE-MUM), no TMS ester/TMS ether rearrangement was observed. Yet, 18 O-loss occurred upon CAD of [M-PFB] - due to NL of PFB 18 OH (200Da). In both cases the extent of 18 O-loss needs to be determined and considered for accurate quantification

  9. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  10. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  11. Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

    2011-12-01

    In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

  12. Inhibitory effect of various Tunisian olive oils on chemical mediator release and cytokine production by basophilic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, P; Zarrouk, M; Kawasaki, K; Isoda, H

    2008-03-05

    Tunisian olive oils have been traditionally used as a medicinal food for chronic inflammation. To investigate the antiallergic effect of virgin olive oil samples from five principal olive varieties grown in various regions of Tunisia, we used the type I allergy reaction model using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells and different dilutions of olive oil samples to determine beta-hexosaminidase release inhibition at two different response stages. Results showed that the Sayali olive oil significantly inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release by the IgE antibody-sensitized, BSA antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells at the antibody-antigen binding stage. The result of our experiment shows that the anti-allergic effect of olive oil at this binding stage may be dependent on their flavone content. The Zarrazi olive oil significantly inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release at the antigen-receptor binding stage. Moreover, we investigated the effect of olive oil samples on histamine release and production of cytokines by activated human basophilic (KU812) cells. Different dilutions of Sayali olive oil dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), and different dilutions of Zarrazi olive oil dose-dependently inhibited histamine release and IL-4 production by calcium ionophore A23187 plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated KU812 cells.

  13. Enhanced Antiproliferative and Pro-apoptotic Activities of a Novel Curcumin-related Compound in Jurkat Leukemia T-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhahn, Katrin; Hintersteininger, Michael; Steiner, Guenter; Erker, Thomas; Kloesch, Burkhard

    2015-05-01

    Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by curcumin has been suggested to be a key mechanism for its anti-carcinogenic action. Recently, we reported on the synthesis of curcumin analogues and their evaluation as selective COX1 inhibitors. Two compounds (HP109/HP102) were selected for evaluation of their anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic potential in Jurkat T-cells. Jurkat T-cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/phytohemagglutinin (PMA/PHA) in the absence and presence of different concentrations of curcumin or HP109/HP102. Interleukin 2 (IL2) production and IL2 promoter activity were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a luciferase reporter assay, respectively. Proliferation and cell viability were monitored by 2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide assay, annexin -V/7-amino-actinomycin D staining and western blotting. HP102 was about 10-times more effective in blocking IL2 synthesis compared to curcumin. Enhanced effects of HP102 were also observed in reducing the proliferation rate and cell viability. In contrast to HP102, HP109 did not exhibit enhanced effects compared to curcumin. The curcumin analog HP102 had strongly improved the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic potential in Jurkat T-cells compared to curcumin. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system on Salmonella survival in activated chicken macrophage-like HD11 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L S Wisner

    Full Text Available In order to better identify the role of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2 type III secretion system (T3SS in chickens, we used the well-known gentamicin protection assay with activated HD11 cells. HD11 cells are a macrophage-like chicken cell line that can be stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA to exhibit more macrophage-like morphology and greater production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Activated HD11 cells were infected with a wild-type Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium strain, a SPI-2 mutant S. Typhimurium strain, a wild-type Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis strain, a SPI-2 mutant S. Enteritidis strain, or a non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli strain. SPI-2 mutant strains were found to survive as well as their parent strain at all time points post-uptake (PU by the HD11 cells, up to 24 h PU, while the E. coli strain was no longer recoverable by 3 h PU. We can conclude from these observations that the SPI-2 T3SS of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis is not important for survival of Salmonella in the activated macrophage-like HD11 cell line, and that Salmonella must employ other mechanisms for survival in this environment, as E. coli is effectively eliminated.

  15. Signaling pathways regulating red blood cell aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyov, Alexei; Tikhomirova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of red blood cells (RBC) to some hormones (epinephrine, insulin and glucagon) and agonists of α- and β-adrenergic receptors (phenylephrine, clonidine and isoproterenol) may modify RBC aggregation (RBCA). Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) significantly decreased RBCA, and PGE2 had a similar but lesser effect. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulator forskolin added to RBC suspension, caused a decrease of RBCA. More marked lowering of RBCA occurred after RBC treatment by dB-cAMP. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors markedly reduced RBCA. Ca2+ influx stimulated by A23187 was accompanied by an increase of RBCA. The blocking of Ca2+ entry into the RBC by verapamil or the chelation of Ca2+ by EGTA led to a significant RBCA decrease. Lesser changes of aggregation were found after RBC incubation with protein kinase C stimulator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). A significant inhibitory effect of tyrosine protein kinase (TPK) activator cisplatin on RBCA was revealed, while selective TPK inhibitor, lavendustin, eliminated the above mentioned effect. Taken together, the data demonstrate that changes in RBCA are connected with activation of different intracellular signaling pathways. We suggest that alterations in RBCA are mainly associated with the crosstalk between the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP system and Ca2+ control mechanisms.

  16. KCl stimulation increases norepinephrine transporter function in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Ordway, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) plays a pivotal role in terminating noradrenergic signaling and conserving norepinephrine (NE) through the process of re-uptake. Recent evidence suggests a close association between NE release and regulation of NET function. The present study evaluated the relationship between release and uptake, and the cellular mechanisms that govern these processes. KCl stimulation of PC12 cells robustly increased [3H]NE uptake via the NET and simultaneously increased [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in uptake and release were dependent on Ca2+. Treatment of cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or okadaic acid decreased [3H]NE uptake but did not block KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake. In contrast, PMA increased [3H]NE release and augmented KCl-stimulated release, while okadaic acid had no effects on release. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated signaling cascades with KN93 (a Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), or ML7 and ML9 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitors), reduced [3H]NE uptake and blocked KCl-stimulated increases in uptake. In contrast, KN93, ML7 and ML9 had no effect on KCl-stimulated [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake were independent of transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane. While increases in both NE release and uptake mediated by KCl stimulation require Ca2+, different intracellular mechanisms mediate these two events.

  17. Endothelin receptors stimulate both phospholipase C and phospholipase D activities in different cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambar, I; Sokolovsky, M

    1993-03-15

    Endothelin (ET) receptor-binding assays using [125I]ET-1 in C6-glioma cells and in Rat-1 and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts indicated the presence of two binding sites, one of which binds agonists at the pM range and the other at the nM range. All three cell lines exhibited the same pharmacological profile for agonist binding (ET-1 congruent to sarafotoxin-b > ET-3), which suggests that the receptor is of the ETA type. Binding of ET-1 to the receptor resulted in activation of two phospholipases, phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD). The activation of PLC or PLD by endothelin in the three cell lines was mediated by the high affinity binding site (nM range) and was not significantly affected by either extracellular or intracellular Ca2+. Measurement of PLD activation by ET-1 and/or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), in the presence and absence of two potent inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), strongly suggests that activation of PLD by ET receptor in C6 glioma cells as well as in Rat-1 and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts involves both PKC-dependent and PKC-independent mechanisms.

  18. Early age exposure to moisture damage and systemic inflammation at the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, A M; Tischer, C; Kirjavainen, P V; Roponen, M; Hyvärinen, A; Illi, S; Mustonen, K; Pfefferle, P I; Renz, H; Remes, S; Schaub, B; von Mutius, E; Pekkanen, J

    2018-05-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to indoor moisture damage and mold may be associated with subclinical inflammation. Our aim was to determine whether early age exposure to moisture damage or mold is prospectively associated with subclinical systemic inflammation or with immune responsiveness in later childhood. Home inspections were performed in children's homes in the first year of life. At age 6 years, subclinical systemic inflammation was measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood leukocytes and immune responsiveness by ex vivo production of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in whole blood cultures without stimulation or after 24 hours stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or peptidoglycan (PPG) in 251-270 children. Moisture damage in child's main living areas in infancy was not significantly associated with elevated levels of CRP or leukocytes at 6 years. In contrast, there was some suggestion for an effect on immune responsiveness, as moisture damage with visible mold was positively associated with LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and minor moisture damage was inversely associated with PI-stimulated IL-1β. While early life exposure to mold damage may have some influence on later immune responsiveness, it does not seem to increase subclinical systemic inflammation in later life. © 2018 National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase and metalloprotease-9 of human adenocarcinoma gastric cells by chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Michela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Colombo, Elisa; Maschi, Omar; Caruso, Donatella; Bosisio, Enrica; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated whether the antiinflammatory effect of chamomile infusion at gastric level could be ascribed to the inhibition of metalloproteinase-9 and elastase. The infusions from capitula and sifted flowers (250-1500 µg/mL) and individual flavonoids (10 µM) were tested on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated AGS cells and human neutrophil elastase. The results indicate that the antiinflammatory activity associated with chamomile infusions from both the capitula and sifted flowers is most likely due to the inhibition of neutrophil elastase and gastric metalloproteinase-9 activity and secretion; the inhibition occurring in a concentration dependent manner. The promoter activity was inhibited as well and the decrease of metalloproteinase-9 expression was found to be associated with the inhibition of NF-kB driven transcription. The results further indicate that the flavonoid-7-glycosides, major constituents of chamomile flowers, may be responsible for the antiinflammatory action of the chamomile infusion observed here. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Palytoxin: exploiting a novel skin tumor promoter to explore signal transduction and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2007-01-01

    Palytoxin is a novel skin tumor promoter, which has been used to help probe the role of different types of signaling mechanisms in carcinogenesis. The multistage mouse skin model indicates that tumor promotion is an early, prolonged, and reversible phase of carcinogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor promotion is therefore important for developing strategies to prevent and treat cancer. Naturally occurring tumor promoters that bind to specific cellular receptors have proven to be useful tools for investigating important biochemical events in multistage carcinogenesis. For example, the identification of protein kinase C as the receptor for the prototypical skin tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (also called phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) provided key evidence that tumor promotion involves the aberrant modulation of signaling cascades that govern cell fate and function. The subsequent discovery that palytoxin, a marine toxin isolated from zoanthids (genus Palythoa), is a potent skin tumor promoter yet does not activate protein kinase C indicated that investigating palytoxin action could help reveal new aspects of tumor promotion. Interestingly, the putative receptor for palytoxin is the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. This review focuses on palytoxin-stimulated signaling and how palytoxin has been used to investigate alternate biochemical mechanisms by which important targets in carcinogenesis can be modulated.

  1. Tubular lysosome morphology and distribution within macrophages depend on the integrity of cytoplasmic microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.; Bushnell, A.; Silverstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Pinocytosis of the fluorescent dye lucifer yellow labels elongated, membrane-bound tubular organelles in several cell types, including cultured human monocytes, thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the macrophage-like cell line J774.2. These tubular structures can be identified as lysosomes by acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunofluorescence localization of cathepsin L. The abundance of tubular lysosomes is markedly increased by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. When labeled by pinocytosis of microperoxidase and examined by electron microscopic histochemistry, the tubular lysosomes have an outside diameter of ≅ 75 nm and a length of several micrometers; they radiate from the cell's centrosphere in alignment with cytoplasmic microtubules and intermediate filaments. Incubation of phorbol myristate acetate-treated macrophages at 4 0 C or in medium containing 5 μM colchicine or nocodazole at 37 0 C leads to disassembly of microtubules and fragmentation of the tubular lysosomes. Return of the cultures to 37 0 C or removal of nocodazole from the medium leads to reassembly of microtubules and the reappearance of tubular lysosomes within 10-20 min. The authors conclude that microtubules are essential for the maintenance of tubular lysosome morphology and that, in macrophages, a significant proportion of the lysosomal compartment is contained within these tubular structures

  2. UREMIC TOXIN GUANIDINE ACETIC ACID INHIBITS THE OXIDATIVE METABOLISM OF NEUTROPHILS IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Preve Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among the uremic toxins proven to affect the neutrophil function in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD, guanidine compounds stand out. To achieve a clearer understanding of the mechanisms that affect the immunity of uremic patients, the hypothesis that guanidine acetic acid (GAA contributes to the inhibition of oxidative metabolism and an increase in neutrophil apoptosis in healthy dogs was investigated in vitro. To this end, neutrophils isolated from ten healthy dogs were incubated in pure RPMI 1640 (control and enriched with 5 mg/L of GAA. Capillary flow cytometry was used to quantify superoxide production in neutrophils with the probe (hydroethidine, in the presence and absence of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, in order to assess oxidative metabolism. Apoptotic indices were quantified using the Annexin V-PE system, with and without the inductive effect of camptothecin. Neutrophils isolated and incubated in a GAA-enriched medium produced smaller amounts of superoxide (p<0.001 when activated with PMA, however, this inhibition of oxidative metabolism occurred without significantly altering their viability or rate of apoptosis. Thus, the results show guanidine compounds contribute to immunosuppression in dogs with CKD.

  3. Differential signaling during macropinocytosis in response to M-CSF and PMA in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sei; Gaeta, Isabella; Pacitto, Regina; Krienke, Lydia; Alge, Olivia; Gregorka, Brian; Swanson, Joel A

    2015-01-01

    The cellular movements that construct a macropinosome have a corresponding sequence of chemical transitions in the cup-shaped region of plasma membrane that becomes the macropinosome. To determine the relative positions of type I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C (PLC) in this pathway, we analyzed macropinocytosis in macrophages stimulated by the growth factor macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and by the diacylglycerol (DAG) analog phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In cells stimulated with M-CSF, microscopic imaging of fluorescent probes for intracellular lipids indicated that the PI3K product phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) appeared in cups just prior to DAG. We then tested the hypothesis that PMA and DAG function after PI3K and prior to Ras and protein kinase C (PKC) during macropinosome formation in macrophages. Although the PI3K target Akt was activated by M-CSF, the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 did not inhibit macropinocytosis. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 blocked macropinocytosis by M-CSF but not PMA. Macropinocytosis in response to M-CSF and PMA was inhibited by the Ras inhibitor farnesyl thiosalicylate (FTS), by the PKC inhibitor Calphostin C and by the broad specificity inhibitor rottlerin. These studies support a model in which M-CSF stimulates PI3K in macropinocytic cups, and the resulting increase in PIP3 activates PLC, which in turn generates DAG necessary for activation of PKC, Ras and the late stages of macropinosome closure.

  4. Trichloroethylene and Its Oxidative Metabolites Enhance the Activated State and Th1 Cytokine Gene Expression in Jurkat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Pan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE is an occupational and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and TCE exposure will increase the risk of autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases. T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of TCE-related immune disorders, but the effect of TCE and its oxidative metabolites, trichloroacetic acid (TCA and dichloroacetic acid (DCA, on the activation of human T cells is still unknown. In this study, Jurkat cells were pre-treated with TCE, TCA and DCA overnight and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin for another 4, 8 and 24 hours. IL-2 secretion was detected by ELISA; the expressions of CD25 and CD69 were tested by flow cytometry; and IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA expression levels were investigated by real-time PCR. The results showed that TCE and its oxidative metabolites, TCA and DCA, significantly enhanced IL-2 releasing and the expression of T cell activation markers, CD25 and CD69. Consistent with this result, these compounds markedly up-regulated the expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA. Collectively, these findings suggest that TCE and its metabolites, TCA and DCA, might enhance the activation of T cells and disrupt various activities of peripheral T cells.

  5. Factors influencing in vitro respiratory burst assays with head kidney leucocytes from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, J K; Holten-Andersen, L; Buchmann, K

    2010-07-01

    Abstract Head kidney leucocytes are central elements in a number of in vivo and in vitro assays elucidating innate and adaptive immune mechanisms in teleosts following stimulation with various antigens. These systems are sensitive to several factors affecting the outcome of the assays. The present work describes the importance of temperature, cell concentration, exposure time and immune-modulatory molecules on the respiratory burst activity (RBA) of rainbow trout head kidney leucocytes in vitro. Some variation in RBA was observed among individual fish. However, use of cells pooled from four individuals produced satisfactory results following exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, zymosan and beta-glucan. Temperature was shown to have a significant effect on production of reactive radicals as illustrated by a high activity in cells maintained at 15-20 degrees C and a reduced activity at temperature extremes (1, 4 and 30 degrees C). Highest activity was found at a cell concentration of 1 x 10(7) cells mL(-1). Reactivity showed a clear decline when cells were exposed for more than 4 h. Moreover, incubation of cells with inhibitory substances viz., DiMePE2, cortisol and superoxide dismutase decreased the RBA. It is concluded that several biotic and abiotic factors should be taken into account when conducting RBA assays with head kidney leucocytes for elucidation of rainbow trout immune responses.

  6. A Modified NK Cell Degranulation Assay Applicable for Routine Evaluation of NK Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Shabrish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play important role in innate immunity against tumors and viral infections. Studies show that lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1, CD107a is a marker for degranulation of NK and cytotoxic T cells and its expression is a sensitive marker for the cytotoxic activity determination. The conventional methods of determination of CD107a on NK cells involve use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC or pure NK cells and K562 cells as stimulants. Thus, it requires large volume of blood sample which is usually difficult to obtain in pediatric patients and patients with cytopenia and also requires specialized laboratory for maintaining cell line. We have designed a flow cytometric assay to determine CD107a on NK cells using whole blood, eliminating the need for isolation of PBMC or isolate NK cells. This assay uses phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA and calcium ionophore (Ca2+-ionophore instead of K562 cells for stimulation and thus does not require specialized cell culture laboratory. CD107a expression on NK cells using modified NK cell degranulation assay compared to the conventional assay was significantly elevated (p<0.0001. It was also validated by testing patients diagnosed with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL with defect in exocytosis. This assay is rapid, cost effective, and reproducible and requires significantly less volume of blood which is important for clinical evaluation of NK cells.

  7. Inhibition of receptor-bound urokinase by plasminogen-activator inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, Vincent John; Wun, T C; Behrendt, N

    1990-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) binds to a specific receptor on various cell types, the bound molecule retaining its enzymatic activity against plasminogen. We have now investigated whether receptor-bound uPA also retains the ability to react with and be inhibited by plasminogen...... activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). uPA bound to its receptor on human U937 monocyte-like cells was inhibited by PAI-1 (in its active form in the presence of vitronectin fragments) with an association rate constant of 4.5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1, which was 40% lower than that obtained for uPA in solution (7.9 x...... 10(6) M-1 s-1). The inhibition of uPA by PAI-2 was decreased to a similar extent by receptor binding, falling from 5.3 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(5) M-1 s-1. Stimulation of U937 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was accompanied by a further reduction in receptor-bound uPA inhibition by PAI-1...

  8. The beetroot component betanin modulates ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Kostrzewa, Artur; Łuczak, Michał; Jagodziński, Paweł P; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betanin, one of the beetroot major components, on ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human resting and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate polymorphonuclear neutrophils, one of the key elements of the inflammatory response. Incubation of neutrophils with betanin in the concentration range 2-500 µM resulted in significant inhibition of ROS production (by 15-46%, depending on the ROS detection assay). The antioxidant capacity of betanin was most prominently expressed in the chemiluminescence measurements. This compound decreased also the percentage of DNA in comet tails in stimulated neutrophils, but only at the 24 h time point. In resting neutrophils an increased level of DNA in comet tails was observed. Betanin did not affect the activity of caspase-3, in resting neutrophils, but significantly enhanced the enzyme activity in stimulated neutrophils. The western blot analysis showed, however, an increased level of caspase-3 cleavage products as a result of betanin treatment both in resting and stimulated neutrophils. The results indicate that betanin may be responsible for the effect of beetroot products on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and its consequences, DNA damage and apoptosis. The dose and time dependent effects on these processes require further studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Topical Apigenin Alleviates Cutaneous Inflammation in Murine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Qiang Man

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been used in preventing and treating skin disorders for centuries. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration of chrysanthemum extract exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether topical applications of apigenin, a constituent of chrysanthemum extract, influence cutaneous inflammation is still unclear. In the present study, we first tested whether topical applications of apigenin alleviate cutaneous inflammation in murine models of acute dermatitis. The murine models of acute allergic contact dermatitis and acute irritant contact dermatitis were established by topical application of oxazolone and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA, respectively. Inflammation was assessed in both dermatitis models by measuring ear thickness. Additionally, the effect of apigenin on stratum corneum function in a murine subacute allergic contact dermatitis model was assessed with an MPA5 physiology monitor. Our results demonstrate that topical applications of apigenin exhibit therapeutic effects in both acute irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis models. Moreover, in comparison with the vehicle treatment, topical apigenin treatment significantly reduced transepidermal water loss, lowered skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration in a subacute murine allergic contact dermatitis model. Together, these results suggest that topical application of apigenin could provide an alternative regimen for the treatment of dermatitis.

  10. Inhibitory effects of budesonide, desloratadine and dexamethasone on cytokine release from human mast cell line (HMC-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Leung, P C; Woo, K S; Chen, G G; Wong, Y O; Liu, S X; van Hasselt, C A

    2004-12-01

    To determine the inhibitory potency of budesonide on interleukin (IL)-4, 6 and 8, GM-CSF and TNF-alpha release from the human mast cell line (HMC-1) in comparison with the systemic glucocorticosteroid, dexamethasone, and H(1) antagonist, desloratadine. HMC-1 was stimulated with 25 ng/ml phorbol 12- myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and 2.5 x 10(-7) M ionomycin (A23187) for 6, 12 and 24 h in both the presence and absence of 10(-6)-10(-10) M concentrations of the test drugs. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed by ELISAs. HMC-1 produced substantial amounts of GM-CSF and IL-8 and smaller amounts of TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IL-6 after being stimulated with PMA together with A23187. Budesonide and dexamethasone had potent inhibitory effects and desloratadine had modest inhibitory effects on the release of these cytokines. Budesonide was more potent than dexamethasone at most concentrations and time points. IL-4 was the cytokine which was most susceptible to inhibition by the three tested drugs. The inhibitory effects, in some cases, were time- and concentration-dependent. Budesonide had a potent inhibitory effect on cytokine release from HMC-1. Its potency was greater than that of both dexamethasone and desloratadine.

  11. Plant glycoprotein modulates the expression of interleukin-1beta via inhibition of MAP kinase in HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2008-08-01

    Dioscorea batatas Decne (DBD) is used to heal various disorders of the kidney and lungs as an herbal agent in Korea. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the DBD glycoprotein regulates the inflammatory reaction stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI) in human mast cells (HMC-1). The results indicate that DBD glycoprotein decreased gene expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells through blocking of phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38 MAPK and DNA binding activities of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1. The production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) is gradually reduced by concentration-dependent DBD glycoprotein treatment in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Hence, we propose the hypothesis that DBD glycoprotein can serve as a potent anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of inflammatory allergic diseases through inhibition of inflammation-related signal transduction in mast cell activation.

  12. Role and mechanism of PKC on radiosensitization in pancreatic carcinoma cell line Panc-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Qiao; Zhang Shuo; Chen Yanzhi; Li Guang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of PKC on radiosensitization in pancreatic carcinoma cell line Panc-1, and its mediating mechanism. Methods: Panc-1 cells were treated with the specific activator of PKC (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) and the specific inhibitor of PKC (chelerythrine, CH) to observe the SF2 changes. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay. The apoptosis rates of the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of apoptosis related protein Bcl-2 and Bax after the treatment of CH and/or irradiation was determined by immunocytochemistry. Results: The SF 2 values of radiation group, PMA group and CH group were 0.78 ± 0.02, 0.92 ± 0.11 and 0.19 ± 0.20, respectively. CH can significantly increase the sensitivity of Panc-1 to irradiation. SERs of Panc-1 cells were 1.05, 1.24 and 1.77 after the treatment of 0.5, 2 and 8 μmol/L of CH, respectively. The result of flow cytometry analysis showed that PMA decreased the apoptosis index with irradiation, while CH significantly increased the apoptosis index. Expression of Bax protein was increased significantly (P<0.05) while that of Bcl-2 was not influenced; however, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was increased. Conclusions: PKC regulates the radiosensitivity of Panc-1 by mediating the apoptosis of tumor cells. (authors)

  13. Isolation of All CD44 Transcripts in Human Epidermis and Regulation of Their Expression by Various Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Kwesi; Numata, Sanae; Ishii, Norito; Krol, Rafal P; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Hamada, Takahiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Karashima, Tadashi; Ohata, Chika; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Saya, Hideyuki; Haftek, Marek; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    CD44, a cell surface proteoglycan, is involved in many biological events. CD44 transcripts undergo complex alternative splicing, resulting in many functionally distinct isoforms. To date, however, the nature of these isoforms in human epidermis has not been adequately determined. In this study, we isolated all CD44 transcripts from normal human epidermis, and studied how their expressions are regulated. By RT-PCR, we found that a number of different CD44 transcripts were expressed in human epidermis, and we obtained all these transcripts from DNA bands in agarose and acrylamide gels by cloning. Detailed sequence analysis revealed 18 CD44 transcripts, 3 of which were novel. Next, we examined effects of 10 different agents on the expression of CD44 transcripts in cultured human keratinocytes, and found that several agents, particularly epidermal growth factor, hydrogen peroxide, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, retinoic acid, calcium and fetal calf serum differently regulated their expressions in various patterns. Furthermore, normal and malignant keratinocytes were found to produce different CD44 transcripts upon serum stimulation and subsequent starvation, suggesting that specific CD44 isoforms are involved in tumorigenesis via different CD44-mediated biological pathways.

  14. Investigation of MEK activity in COS7 cells entering mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Luo, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Although the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been extensively investigated, numerous events remain unclear. In the present study, we examined mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) expression from interphase to mitosis. Following nocodazole treatment, COS7 cells gradually became round as early as 4 h after treatment. Cyclin B1 expression gradually increased from 4 to 24 h in the presence of nocodazole. When cells were treated with nocodazole for 4 h, the level of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated MEK phosphorylation did not significantly change between nocodazole-untreated and -treated (4 h) cells (P>0.05). However, EGF-mediated MEK phosphorylation was significantly inhibited upon treatment with nocodazole for 8 and 24 h compared to nocodazole-untreated cells (PMEK phosphorylation levels were comparable between 1, 5, 10 and 50 ng/ml EGF treatments. Phorbol 12-myristic 13-acetate (PMA) did not activate MEK in mitotic cells. Following treatment of COS7 cells at the interphase with AG1478 or U0126, MEK phosphorylation was blocked. In addition, the investigation of the expression of proteins downstream of MEK demonstrated that EGF does not significantly affect the phosphorylation level of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK) and Elk in mitotic cells (P>0.05). The results showed that MEK expression is gradually inhibited from cell interphase to mitosis, and that MEK downstream signaling is affected by this inhibition, which probably reflects the requirements of cell physiology during mitosis.

  15. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: Inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, L.P.; Keshav, S.; Gordon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has in 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike the chicken lysozyme cDNA, the human lysozyme cDNA has a >1-kilobase-long 3' nontranslated sequence. Interestingly, within this 3' region, an inverted repeat of the Alu family of repetitive sequences was discovered. In RNA blot analyses, DNA probes prepared from pHL-2 can be used to detect lysozyme mRNA not only from human but also from mouse and rat. Moreover, by in situ hybridization, complementary RNA transcripts have been used as probes to detect lysozyme mRNA in mouse macrophages and Paneth cells. This human lysozyme cDNA clone is therefore likely to be a useful molecular probe for studying macrophage distribution and gene expression

  16. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: Inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, L.P.; Keshav, S.; Gordon, S.

    1988-09-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has in 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike the chicken lysozyme cDNA, the human lysozyme cDNA has a >1-kilobase-long 3' nontranslated sequence. Interestingly, within this 3' region, an inverted repeat of the Alu family of repetitive sequences was discovered. In RNA blot analyses, DNA probes prepared from pHL-2 can be used to detect lysozyme mRNA not only from human but also from mouse and rat. Moreover, by in situ hybridization, complementary RNA transcripts have been used as probes to detect lysozyme mRNA in mouse macrophages and Paneth cells. This human lysozyme cDNA clone is therefore likely to be a useful molecular probe for studying macrophage distribution and gene expression.

  17. Autophagy Primes Neutrophils for Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation during Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Youn, Young-Jin; Kim, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Yeong; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, So-Hee; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Kim, Shin; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Park, Yong Bum; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Yousang; Lee, Suh-Young; Koh, Younsuck; Park, Myung Jae; Song, Dong-Keun; Hong, Chang-Won

    2017-09-01

    Neutrophils are key effectors in the host's immune response to sepsis. Excessive stimulation or dysregulated neutrophil functions are believed to be responsible for sepsis pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating functional plasticity of neutrophils during sepsis have not been fully determined. We investigated the role of autophagy in neutrophil functions during sepsis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Neutrophils were isolated from patients with sepsis and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The levels of reactive oxygen species generation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and granule release, and the autophagic status were evaluated. The effect of neutrophil autophagy augmentation was further evaluated in a mouse model of sepsis. Neutrophils isolated from patients who survived sepsis showed an increase in autophagy induction, and were primed for NET formation in response to subsequent PMA stimulation. In contrast, neutrophils isolated from patients who did not survive sepsis showed dysregulated autophagy and a decreased response to PMA stimulation. The induction of autophagy primed healthy neutrophils for NET formation and vice versa. In a mouse model of sepsis, the augmentation of autophagy improved survival via a NET-dependent mechanism. These results indicate that neutrophil autophagy primes neutrophils for increased NET formation, which is important for proper neutrophil effector functions during sepsis. Our study provides important insights into the role of autophagy in neutrophils during sepsis.

  18. An In Vitro Model of Gastric Inflammation and Treatment with Cobalamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Elliott

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pernicious anaemia (PA is an autoimmune condition where antibodies target intrinsic factor and parietal cells, reducing the patient’s ability to absorb cobalamin promoting atrophic gastritis. Treatment guidelines are based on excretion data of hydroxocobalamin from healthy individuals obtained 50 years ago. This manuscript describes the use of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA to stimulate low grade inflammation in an epithelial colorectal cell line to assess the efficacy of methylcobalamin and hydroxocobalamin. Nitric oxide increased significantly in cells exposed to higher doses of PMA (100 ng/ml, 150 ng/ml, and 200 ng/ml accompanied by a loss of the characteristic cobblestone morphology with no negative effect on cell activity or viability. A significant reduction in nitric oxide production was associated with the addition of 200 pg/ml hydroxocobalamin, alongside a return to the characteristic cobblestone morphology. This study highlights the use of PMA to promote low grade inflammation in human cell lines to model gastric inflammation associated with autoimmunity; furthermore it raises questions regarding the concentration of cobalamin administered clinically to restore cell functionality, feasibly allowing the patient to receive reduced quantity of the vitamin more regularly, providing the patient with levels which are akin to dietary intake.

  19. [Phenotypic and functional features of NK and NKT cells in chronic hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaofei; Li, Man; Sun, Xuehua; Zhou, Zhenhua; Zhu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Yueqiu

    2015-06-01

    To detect the ratio of natural killer (NK)/natural killer T (NKT) cells in peripheral blood, the levels of NKG2D/NKG2A, interferon γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were harvested from CHB patients. The ratio of NK/NKT cells in PBMCs and the levels of NKG2D and NKG2A were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α were analyzed by flow cytometry after the treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), brefeldin A (BFA) or ionomycin in vitro. The comparison between two groups was performed by independent sample t-test. The relationship of each index to hepatitis B virus load and serum alanine aminotransferase was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Compared with healthy controls, CHB patients presented with significantly decreased peripheral blood NK/NKT cell ratio and significantly elevated proportions of NKG2A+ NK and NKG2A+NKT cells, and after the treatment with PMA/BFA/ionomycin, IFN-γ+ NK and IFN-γ+ NKT cells were significantly reduced in CHB patients. NK and NKT cells showed a reduced ratio, disordered receptor expressions and decreased cytokine secretion capacity in CHB patients.

  20. Changes in NK and NKT cells in mesenteric lymph nodes after a Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xueping; Xie, Hongyan; Chen, Dianhui; Yu, Xiuxue; Wu, Fan; Li, Lu; Wu, Changyou; Huang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    The mesenteric lymph node (MLN) is the main draining lymph node in mouse enterocoelia, which contains many types of immune cells. Among these cells, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells belong to innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which have potent activities for controlling a variety of pathogenic infections. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were infected with Schistosoma japonicum for 5-7 weeks. Lymphocytes were isolated from the MLN to detect changes in the phenotype and function of NK and NKT cells using a fluorescence activating cell sorter (FACS). These results demonstrated that a S. japonicum infection could significantly increase the percentage of NK cells in the mouse MLN, (P cell number of both NK and NKT cells. In addition, we found that NK and NKT cells from infected mice expressed higher levels of CD69 compared to normal mice (P NKT cell activation. Moreover, we found that the expression of CD4 was increased in infected MLN NK cells (P NKT cells of infected mice after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin stimulation (P NKT cells might play roles in modulating the classical T cell response. Finally, our results indicated that the expression of CD94 was decreased in NK cells, suggesting that the downregulation of CD94 expression might served as a mechanism in NK cell activation.

  1. In vitro effects of beetroot juice and chips on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis in neutrophils from obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, Agnieszka; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the development of obesity. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) is a food ingredient containing betalain pigments that show antioxidant activity. The in vitro effect of beetroot juice and chips on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis in neutrophils from obese individuals has been investigated. Fifteen obese women (aged 45 +/- 9 years, BMI >30 kg/m2) and nine healthy controls (women, aged 29 +/- 11 years, BMI = 22.2 +/- 1.6 kg/m2) were examined. The investigated products were used as concentrates and after transport and digestion in an artificial gastrointestinal tract. Neutrophil oxidant production, in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, was characterized by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and a flow cytometric dichlorofluorescin oxidation assay. Caspase-3 activity, a marker of apoptosis, was measured by cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC. Neutrophils from obese individuals had a significantly higher ROS production compared with the controls (p < 0.05). Beetroot products inhibited neutrophil oxidative metabolism in a concentration-dependent manner. Also observed were the pro-apoptotic effects of beetroot at a concentration range of 0.1-10% in 24 h culture of stimulated neutrophils. These natural products (in both the liquid and solid state) have antioxidant and antiinflammatory capacity, and could be an important adjunct in the treatment of obesity. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Parathyroid hormone blocks the stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on collagen synthesis in cultured 21-day fetal rat calvariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kream, B.E.; Petersen, D.N.; Raisz, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the interaction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on collagen synthesis in 21-day fetal rat calvariae as assessed by measuring the incorporation of [ 3 H]proline into collagenase-digestible protein. After 96 hours of culture, 10 nM PTH antagonized the stimulation of collagen synthesis and partially blocked the increase in dry weight produced by 10 nM IGF-I. The effect of PTH to block IGF-I stimulated collagen synthesis was observed in the central bone of calvariae and was mimicked by forskolin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, transforming growth factor-alpha or dexamethasone. Our data are consistent with the concept that the direct effect of PTH is to inhibit basal CDP labeling and fully oppose IGF-I stimulated CDP labeling. The finding that this effect of PTH is mimicked by forskolin and PMA suggests that this block in IGF-I stimulation of CDP labeling involves both cAMP and protein kinase C mediated pathways

  3. Parathyroid hormone depresses cytosolic pH and DNA synthesis in osteoblast-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, I.R.; Civitelli, R.; Avioli, L.V.; Hruska, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has recently become apparent that a number of hormones and growth factors modulate cytosolic pH (pH i ) and there is some evidence that this in turn may influence cell growth. The authors have examined the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on both these parameters in an osteoblast-like cell line, UMR 106. Preliminary studies, using the pH-sensitive fluorescent probe 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5,(6)-carboxyfluorescein indicated that these cells regulate pH i by means of an amiloride-inhibitable Na + -H + exchanger. Rat PTH-(1-34) (rPTH) caused a progressive dose-related decrease in pH i with a half-maximal effect at 10 -11 M. The diacylglycerol analogue, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, increased both pH i and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, and amiloride reduced both indexes. However, rPTH remained a potent inhibitor of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation in the presence of amiloride, even though it did not affect pH i in these circumstances. It is concluded that PTH decreases pH i and growth in UMR 106 cells but that these changes can be dissociated. Depression of pH i may have other important effects on bone metabolism, such as reducing cell-cell communication, and may be associated with alkalinization of the bone fluid compartment

  4. Hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids precedes cellular proliferation in asbestos-stimulated tracheobronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesko, A.; Mossman, B.; Cabot, M.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of inositol phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine was investigated in tracheobronchial epithelial cells exposed to mitogenic concentrations of crocidolite asbestos. Alterations in levels of diacylglycerol, the endogenous activator of protein kinase C, and inositol polyphosphates, presumed mobilizers of intracellular calcium, were examined. Cultures labeled with [ 3 H]diacylglycerol. In contrast, crocidolite-exposed cells labeled with [ 3 H]myristic acid or [ 3 H]choline did not display elevated production of [ 3 H]diacylglycerol or release of [ 3 H]choline metabolites (i.e., evidence of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis). The soluble tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate catalyzed both of these changes. myo-[ 3 H]Inositol-labeled cells exposed as briefly as 10 min to mitogenic concentrations of crocidolite demonstrated elevations in [ 3 H]inositol mono-, tris-, and terakisphosphates, phenomena indicating turnover of inositol phospholipids. The detection of diacylglycerol and inositol phosphates in crocidolite asbestos-exposed cells suggests that this fibrous tumor promoter activates phospholipase C as it stimulates cellular proliferation

  5. 25-Hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in primary cultures of pig hepatocytes: evidence for a role of both CYP2D25 and CYP27A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Fardin; Ibranovic, Ines; Tang, Wanjin; Wikvall, Kjell

    2003-04-11

    There has been some controversy over whether the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) is carried out by one enzyme or two and whether this cytochrome P450 enzyme is found in the mitochondrial or microsomal fractions of liver. The pig is currently the only species in which both the microsomal 25-hydroxylase (CYP2D25) and the mitochondrial 25-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) have been cloned and characterized. In this paper, the roles of the two enzymes in 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) are examined in primary cultures of hepatocytes. Inhibition experiments indicated that tolterodine and 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one were selective inhibitors of the CYP2D25- and CYP27A-mediated 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3), respectively. Addition of each inhibitor to primary hepatocytes decreased the total 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) to about the same extent. No inhibition of other hydroxylase activities tested was found. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate down-regulated the expression of both CYP2D25 and CYP27A1 as well as the 25-hydroxylase activity of the hepatocytes. The results implicate that both CYP2D25 and CYP27A1 contribute to the 25-hydroxylation in hepatocytes and are important in the bioactivation of vitamin D(3).

  6. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  7. Depletion of the cellular levels of Bag-1 proteins attenuates phorbol ester-induced downregulation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Jana V., E-mail: Jana.maier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Volz, Yvonne [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Berger, Caroline [Joint Research Division Vascular Biology of the Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, and the German Cancer Research Center, Ludolf-Krehl-Str. 13-17, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schneider, Sandra; Cato, Andrew C.B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields}Bag-1 depletion only marginally affects the action of the glucocorticoid receptor but strongly regulates the activity of NF-{kappa}B. {yields}Bag-1 depletion attenuates phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B p65 and p50. {yields}Bag-1 interacts with I{kappa}B{alpha} and partially restores I{kappa}B{alpha} and NF-{kappa}B activation in Bag-1 depleted cells. -- Abstract: Bag-1 consists in humans of four isoforms generated from the same RNA by alternative translation. Overexpression of single Bag-1 isoforms has identified Bag-1 as a negative regulator of action of many proteins including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Here we have analysed the ability of Bag-1 to regulate the transrepression function of the GR. Silencing Bag-1 expression only marginally affects the transrepression action of the GR but decreased the action of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor protein I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of p65 and p50 NF-{kappa}B proteins in response to phorbol ester was attenuated following Bag-1 depletion in HeLa cells. Reconstitution of Bag-1 in depleted cells partially restored I{kappa}B{alpha} and NF-{kappa}B activation. Knock-down of Bag-1 expression also did not significantly alter GR-mediated transactivation but affected the basal transcription of some of the target genes. Thus Bag-1 proteins function as regulators of the action of selective transcription factors.

  8. Zero birefringence films of pullulan ester derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjo, Takahiro; Enomoto, Yukiko; Shimada, Hikaru; Nobukawa, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2017-04-01

    High-performance films with almost zero-birefringence and zero-wavelength dispersion were succeeded to prepare from pullulan esters derivatives (PLEs) without any additives. Optical transmittance analysis, birefringence measurement of PLE cast film and hot stretched films, and infrared dichroism analysis were conducted to characterize optical properties of PLE films comparing with cellulose triacetate which is commercially used as low-birefringence in optical devices. The aims of this study, characterization of optical properties of pullulan esters, can develop a deep understanding of the fundamental knowing and applicability of polysaccharides. Accordingly, authors believe this paper will open the gate for researches in the application of polysaccharides.

  9. Synthesis of sulfur-containing lubricant additives on the basis of fatty acid ethyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii S. Bodachivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals an energy-, resource- and eco-friendly method for preparation of sulfur-containing lubricant additives via interaction of fatty acid ethyl esters of rapeseed oil with elemental sulfur. The structure of synthesized compounds under various reactants ratio (5–50 wt.% of sulfur, duration (30–240 min and temperature of the process (160–215°С was investigated using various analytical techniques. According to the established data, aside from addition to double bonds, the side reaction of hydrogen substitution at α-methylene groups near these bonds occurs and induces the formation of conjugated systems and chromophoric sulfur-rich derivatives. Also, we found that increase of process duration evokes growth of polysulfane chains, in contrast to the raise of temperature, which leads to the formation of sulfur-containing heterocycles and hydrogen sulfide, as a result of elimination. Influence of accelerators on sulfurization of fatty acid ethyl esters was also examined. The most effective among them are mixtures of zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate with zinc oxide or stearic acid, which soften synthesis conditions and doubly decrease duration of the high-temperature stage. In addition, sulfur-containing compositions of ethyl esters and α-olefins, vulcanized esters by benzoyl peroxide, nonylphenols and zinc dinonylphenyldithiophosphate were designed. The study identified that lithium lubricant with sulfurized vulcanized esters provides improved tribological properties, in comparison with base lubricant or lubricant with the non-modified product.

  10. Aspergillus niger whole-cell catalyzed synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapriya, Govindaraju; Morya, Vivek Kumar; Mai, Ngoc Lan; Koo, Yoon-Mo

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis of caffeic acid ester essentially requires an efficient esterification process to produce various kinds of medicinally important ester derivatives. In the present study, a comprehensive and comparative analysis of whole-cell catalyzed caffeic acid esters production in ionic liquids (ILs) media was performed. Olive oil induced mycelial mass of halotolerant Aspergillus niger (A.niger) EXF 4321 was freeze dried and used as a catalyst. To ensure maximum solubilization of caffeic acid for highest substrate loading several ILs were screened and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf 2 N]) was found to have the maximum solubility and favoured for enzymatic activity of freeze dried mycelia. The whole-cell catalyzed synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) conditions were optimized and bioconversion up to 84% was achieved at a substrate molar ratio of 1:20 (caffeic acid:2-phenyl ethanol), 30°C for 12h. Results obtained during this study were encouraging and helpful to design a bioreactor system to produce caffeic acid derived esters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  12. Synthesis and stability of new spiroaminoborate esters

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanenko, Viatcheslav; de Jesús, Melvin; Garcia, Carmelo; Barnes, Charles L.; Ortiz-Marciales, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    New spiroaminoborate esters derived from 1,1-diphenylprolinol, ephedrine and dihydroquinine with different alkoxy substituents were prepared as stable crystalline compounds and characterized by spectroscopical analysis and specific rotation. The structure of the spiroborate 4 derived from 1,1-diphenylprolinol and dicyclohexyl-1,1′-diol was confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  13. 1347-IJBCS-Article-Dr Innocent Ester

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    Say (Culicidae: Diptera). Ester INNOCENT 1*, Eliangiringa KAALE 2 and Zakaria H. MBWAMBO 1. 1 Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences,. P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and ...

  14. Two New Phorbol Esters from Euphorbia bothae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Euphorbias of South Africa: Two New Phorbol Esters from. Euphorbia bothae. Wendy L. Popplewell,1 Eloise A. Marais,1 Linda Brand,2. Brian H. Harvey2 and Michael T. Davies-Coleman1*. 1Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 6140 South Africa. 2Unit for Drug Research and Development, Division ...

  15. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  16. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, incl...

  17. Ester Tuiksoo - Eesti esimene naissoost põllumajandusminister / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Toomas Verrev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Ametist lahkuv põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo räägib saadud juhtimiskogemusest, Euroopa Liidu ühise põllumajanduspoliitika juurutamisest, rahvuskala valimisest, Rahvaliidu käekäigust parlamendivalimistel

  18. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.

  19. Curcumin inhibits phorbol ester-induced up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 by blocking ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in MCF10A human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyong Joo; Surh, Young-Joon

    2005-01-01

    Elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are often observed in various types of cancerous and transformed cells, and hence recognized as potential molecular targets for the chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated the possible inhibitory effects of curcumin on the expression of COX-2 and MMP-9 induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in MCF10A human breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells and the underlying mechanisms. Curcumin inhibited the TPA-induced COX-2 expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and reduced the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2), one of the major products of COX-2. Likewise, curcumin attenuated invasiveness and motility of MCF10A cells stimulated with TPA through suppression of MMP expression. Curcumin blocked TPA-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcriptional activity. Overexpression of the dominant negative forms of ERK2 abrogated the TPA-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Treatment of MCF10A cells with U0126, which is a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2, reduced TPA-induced up-regulation of COX-2 and MMP-9. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumin inhibits the TPA-induced up-regulation of COX-2 and MMP-9 by suppressing ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NF-kappaB trans-activation in human breast epithelial cells, which may contribute to its chemopreventive potential. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 7, 1612-1620.

  20. Euphorbias of South Africa: Two New Phorbol Esters from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbias of South Africa: Two New Phorbol Esters from Euphorbia bothae. ... WL Popplewell, EA Marais, L Brand, BH Harvey, MT Davies-Coleman. Abstract. Two known phorbol esters, 12-deoxyphorbol-13-isobutyrate-20-acetate (1) and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-(2-methylbutyrate)-20-acetate (2), and two new phorbol esters, ...

  1. Biocatalytic synthesis and antioxidant capacities of ascorbyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... available on the comparison of antioxidant activities of ascorbyl esters biosynthesized using alkyl ester, fatty acid and triglyceride as acyl donors. Therefore, this study focused on the enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl acid fatty acid esters catalyzed by immobilized lipase from C. antarctica (Novozym 435) in.

  2. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  3. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solvents which may be used in the preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters are those generally recognized... preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters. (b) Sucrose fatty acid esters meet the following specifications: (1..., 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or available for inspection at the National Archives...

  4. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for packaging...

  5. Activated Sludge Biodegradation of 12 Commercial Phthalate Esters

    OpenAIRE

    O'Grady, Dean P.; Howard, Philip H.; Werner, A. Frances

    1985-01-01

    The activated sludge biodegradability of 12 commercial phthalate esters was evaluated in two test systems: (i) a semicontinuous activated sludge test and (ii) an acclimated 19-day die-away procedure. Both procedures demonstrated that phthalate esters are rapidly biodegraded under activated sludge conditions when loss of the parent phthalate ester (primary degradation) is measured.

  6. Celorbicol, isocelorbicol, and their esters: new sesquiterpenoids from Celastrus orbiculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.R. Jr. (Dept. of Agriculture, Peoria, IL); Miller, R.W.; Weisleder, D.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Eickman, N.; Clardy, J.

    1976-10-01

    Esters of two new sesquiterpenoid polyalcohols - celorbicol and isocelorbicol - have been isolated from Celastrus orbiculatus. Structures of the parent alcohols have been established by x-ray crystallography, and those of the derived esters have been assigned by NMR spectroscopy. These compounds are structurally related to other polyesters and ester alkaloids from the Celastraceae, all of which are based on the dihydroagarofuran ring system.

  7. Application of lipase technology for transesterification of fatty acid ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKO SULISTYO

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reported the potency of microbial extracellular enzyme for synthesis of fatty acid ester. Further investigation was aimed to study capacity of the enzyme on bioprocess of crude palm oil by transesterification of saturated fatty acid to fatty acid ester. We have studied some lipases from culture filtrate of Candida rugosa FM-9301, Bacillus subtilis FM-9101 and Pseudomonas aerogenes FM-9201, which were preincubated in a medium containing olive oil as inducers, using a shaker under conditions that allowed for lipase production at pH 4.5-6.5 and room temperature for 5 days. Those strains shown different activities during the hydrolysis of substrates, which resulted in decreasing or increasing free fatty acids those, were liberated from media containing crude palm oil and organic solvents. The optimal transesterification condition was at temperature of 45-50C and at pH 4.5 for C. rugosa and pH 6.0 to 7.0 for P. aerogenes and B. subtilis. Under the enzyme concentration of 50% (v/v, the transesterification was rapidly occurred, while at the concentration of 20% (v/v the enzymatically biosynthesis required longer incubation period. The substrates incubated with C. rugosa lipase exhibited higher linoleic and linolenic acid (7.16 and 2.15%, respectively, than that of B. subtilis lipase (4.85% and 1.43%, respectively, while P. aerogenes lipase (3.73% and 1.11%, respectively.

  8. Phorbol esters inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S; Gavin, J R; Hammerman, M R

    1985-08-01

    Gluconeogenesis is a major metabolic function of the renal proximal tubular cell. To characterize the regulation of this process in proximal tubule, glucose production from gluconeogenic precursors was measured in proximal tubular segments prepared from dog kidney. Production of glucose was a linear function of time for up to 120 min of incubation at 37 degrees C under a variety of conditions. Lowering the pH of incubation media from 7.5 to 7.0 increased glucose synthesis. Production of glucose was inhibited by 3-mercaptopicolinate. Incubation of proximal tubular segments with insulin diminished synthesis of glucose. Incubation of segments with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, resulted in decreased production of glucose. This effect was not observed following incubation with the inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol. Changes in glucose synthesis could not be attributed to alterations in cell viability or in rates of glucose oxidation induced by experimental maneuvers. Our findings confirm the usefulness of proximal tubular segments for characterization of metabolic processes in this portion of the nephron. The experimental results are consistent with a role for protein kinase C in the control of gluconeogenesis in proximal tubule.

  9. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) micro- and nanospheres: DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Blaine A; Burdick, Jason A; Little, Steve R; Langer, Robert

    2005-11-04

    Poly(ester-anhydride) delivery devices allow flexibility regarding carrier dimensions (micro- versus nanospheres), degradation rate (anhydride versus ester hydrolysis), and surface labeling (through the anhydride functional unit), and were therefore tested for DNA encapsulation and transfection of a macrophage P388D1 cell line. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-sebacic anhydride) and poly(l-lactic acid-co-adipic anhydride) were synthesized through melt condensation, mixed with 25 wt.% poly(beta-amino ester), and formulated with plasmid DNA (encoding firefly luciferase) into micro- and nanospheres using a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The micro- and nanospheres were then characterized (size, morphology, zeta potential, DNA release) and assayed for DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection over a range of poly(ester-anhydride) copolymer ratios. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) composite microspheres (6-12 microm) and nanospheres (449-1031 nm), generated with copolymers containing between 0 and 25% total polyanhydride content, encapsulated plasmid DNA (>or=20% encapsulation efficiency). Within this polyanhydride range, poly(adipic anhydride) copolymers provided DNA encapsulation at an increased anhydride content (10%, microspheres; 10-25%, nanospheres) compared to poly(sebacic anhydride) copolymers (1%, microspheres and nanospheres) with cellular transfection correlating with the observed DNA encapsulation.

  10. Rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters with thallium trinitrate: synthesis of indans bearing a beta-keto ester moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jr. Luiz F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters, such as 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl-propionic acid ethyl ester, with thallium trinitrate (TTN in acetic acid leads to 3-indan-1-yl-2-methyl-3-oxo-propionic acid ethyl ester in good yield, through a ring contraction reaction. The new indans thus obtained feature a beta-keto ester moiety, which would be useful for further functionalization.

  11. Carboxylesterase-dependent cytotoxicity of dibasic esters (DBE) in rat nasal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, B A; Bogdanffy, M S

    1991-02-01

    Dibasic esters (DBE) are a solvent mixture of dimethyl adipate (DMA), dimethyl glutarate (DMG), and dimethyl succinate (DMS) used in the paint and coating industry. Subchronic inhalation toxicity studies have demonstrated that DBE induce a mild degeneration of the olfactory, but not the respiratory, epithelium of the rat nasal cavity. Carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis of the individual dibasic esters is more efficient in olfactory than in respiratory mucosal homogenates. In the present study, an in vitro system of cultured rat nasal explants was utilized to determine if DBE toxicity is dependent on a metabolic activation by nonspecific carboxylesterase. Explants from both the olfactory and the respiratory regions of the female rat nasal cavity were incubated for 2 hr in Williams' medium E containing 10-100 mM DMA, DMG, or DMS. DBE caused a dose-related increase in nasal explant acid phosphatase release, a biochemical index of cytotoxicity. HPLC analysis demonstrated parallel increases in the carboxylesterase-mediated formation of monomethyl ester metabolites. Diacid metabolite production in the nasal explant system was not entirely concentration-dependent. Metabolite concentrations and acid phosphatase release were generally greater in olfactory than respiratory tissues. DBE-induced cytotoxicity and acid metabolite production were markedly attenuated in nasal tissue excised from rats which were pretreated with bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate, a carboxylesterase inhibitor. This study presents a viable in vitro method for assessing organic ester cytotoxicity in the rat nasal cavity. It was shown that DBE are weak nasal toxicants under the conditions of this system. It was further demonstrated that DBE toxicity is dependent on a carboxylesterase-mediated activation. A similar mechanism was proposed for the nasal toxicity induced by other organic esters following inhalation exposure.

  12. Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Matti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria.

  13. Synthesis of Estolide 2-ethylhexyl Ester from Ricinus communis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrizawati Ahmad Tajuddin; Nor Habibah Rosli

    2013-01-01

    Estolide 2-ethylhexyl ester synthesized through condensation reaction between ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and lauric acid, and then capped with 2-ethylhexyl alcohol. The reaction was continuously conducted under vacuum for 24 hours. Product of 2-ethylhexyl ester was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) to determine functional group and Nuclear Magnetic Resonans (NMR) for structure's determination. The presence of ester group at 1738.23 cm -1 wavenumber indicates that the formation of estolide ester has occurred. The vibration peak of C-O at 1174.60 cm -1 and 1117.10 cm -1 support the formation of ester. The presence of CH 2 bending indicated the long-chain compound. The ester methine signal at 3.8669 ppm indicated the estolide linkage in the 1 H-NMR spectrum while the 13 C-NMR showed two carbonyl signals at 173.41 ppm for acid and 173.56 ppm for ester. (author)

  14. Alteration of Wax Ester Content and Composition in Euglena gracilis with Gene Silencing of 3-ketoacyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masami; Andoh, Hiroko; Koyama, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Yomi; Nakai, Takeo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Euglena gracilis produces wax ester under hypoxic and anaerobic culture conditions with a net synthesis of ATP. In wax ester fermentation, fatty acids are synthesized by reversing beta-oxidation in mitochondria. A major species of wax ester produced by E. gracilis is myristyl myristate (14:0-14:0Alc). Because of its shorter carbon chain length with saturated compounds, biodiesel produced from E. gracilis wax ester may have good cold flow properties with high oxidative stability. We reasoned that a slight metabolic modification would enable E. gracilis to produce a biofuel of ideal composition. In order to produce wax ester with shorter acyl chain length, we focused on isozymes of the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT), a condensing enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway in E. gracilis. We performed a gene silencing study of KAT isozymes in E. gracilis. Six KAT isozymes were identified in the E. gracilis EST database, and silencing any three of them (EgKAT1-3) altered the wax ester amount and composition. In particular, silencing EgKAT1 induced a significant compositional shift to shorter carbon chain lengths in wax ester. A model fuel mixture inferred from the composition of wax ester in EgKAT1-silenced cells showed a significant decrease in melting point compared to that of the control cells.

  15. Enzymatic synthesizing of phytosterol oleic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Chen, Biqiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zhul, Biyun; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    A method of synthesizing the phytosterol esters from oleic acid and sterols was studied, using immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99-125 as catalyst. Molar ratio (oleic acid/phytosterols), temperature, reaction period, organic solvents, catalyst, and silica-gel drier were optimized, and the result showed that 93.4% of the sterols had been esterified under the optimal synthetic condition: the molar ratio of oleic acid/phytosterol is 1:1 in 10 mL iso-octane, immobilized lipase (w, 140% of the sterols), incubated in an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at a temperature of 45 °C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase could be reused for at least 13 times with limited loss of esterification activity. The conversion still maintained up to 86.6%. Hence, this developed process for synthesizing phytosterol esters could be considered as simple and low-energy consumption compared to existing chemical processes.

  16. Atmospheric oxidation of selected alcohols and esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Cavalli, F.

    2001-03-01

    The decision whether it is appropriate and beneficial for the environment to deploy specific oxygenated organic compounds as replacements for traditional solvent types requires a quantitative assessment of their potential atmospheric impacts including tropospheric ozone and other photooxidant formation. This involves developing chemical mechanisms for the gasphase atmospheric oxidation of the compounds which can be reliably used in models to predict their atmospheric reactivity under a variety of environmental conditions. Until this study, there was very little information available concerning the atmospheric fate of alcohols and esters. The objectives of this study were to measure the atmospheric reaction rates and to define atmospheric reaction mechanisms for the following selected oxygenated volatile organic compounds: the alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, and the esters, methyl propionate and dimethyl succinate. The study has successfully addressed these objectives. (orig.)

  17. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  18. Mechanistic Evaluation of Hydration Effects on the Human Epidermal Permeation of Salicylate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Shereen; Mohammed, Yousuf; Namjoshi, Sarika; Grice, Jeffrey; Sakran, Wedad; Roberts, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We sought to understand when and how hydration enhances the percutaneous absorption of salicylate esters. Human epidermal membrane fluxes and stratum corneum solubilities of neat and diluted solutions of three esters were determined under hydrated and dehydrated conditions. Hydration doubled the human epidermal flux seen for methyl and ethyl salicylate under dehydrated conditions and increased the flux of neat glycol salicylate 10-fold. Mechanistic analyses showed that this hydration-induced enhancement arises mainly from an increase in the stratum corneum diffusivity of the three esters. Further, we showed that unlike methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol salicylate is hygroscopic and the ∼10-fold hydration-induced flux enhancement seen with neat glycol salicylate may be due to its ability to hydrate the stratum corneum to a greater extent. The hydration-induced enhancements in in vitro epidermal flux seen here for glycol and ethyl salicylate were similar to those reported for their percutaneous absorption rates in a comparable in vivo study, whilst somewhat higher enhancement was seen for methyl salicylate in vivo. This may be explained by a physiologically induced self enhancement of neat methyl salicylate absorption in vivo which is not applicable in vitro.

  19. Synthetic Methods for Ester Bond Formation and Conformational Analysis of Ester-Containing Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbusch, Sven

    This dissertation encompasses work related to synthetic methods for the formation of ester linkages in organic compounds, as well as the investigation of the conformational influence of the ester functional group on the flexibility of inter-saccharide linkages, specifically, and the solution phase structure of ester-containing carbohydrate derivatives, in general. Stereoselective reactions are an important part of the field of asymmetric synthesis and an understanding of their underlying mechanistic principles is essential for rational method development. Here, the exploration of a diastereoselective O-acylation reaction on a trans-2-substituted cyclohexanol scaffold is presented, along with possible reasons for the observed reversal of stereoselectivity dependent on the presence or absence of an achiral amine catalyst. In particular, this work establishes a structure-activity relationship with regard to the trans-2-substituent and its role as a chiral auxiliary in the reversal of diastereoselectivity. In the second part, the synthesis of various ester-linked carbohydrate derivatives, and their conformational analysis is presented. Using multidimensional NMR experiments and computational methods, the compounds' solution-phase structures were established and the effect of the ester functional group on the molecules' flexibility and three-dimensional (3D) structure was investigated and compared to ether or glycosidic linkages. To aid in this, a novel Karplus equation for the C(sp2)OCH angle in ester-linked carbohydrates was developed on the basis of a model ester-linked carbohydrate. This equation describes the sinusoidal relationship between the C(sp2)OCH dihedral angle and the corresponding 3JCH coupling constant that can be determined from a J-HMBC NMR experiment. The insights from this research will be useful in describing the 3D structure of naturally occurring and lab-made ester-linked derivatives of carbohydrates, as well as guiding the de novo-design of

  20. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  1. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga, Carla C., E-mail: curanga@cicese.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beld, Joris, E-mail: joris.beld@drexelmed.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Mrse, Anthony, E-mail: amrse@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Córdova-Guerrero, Iván, E-mail: icordova@uabc.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Calzada Universidad 14418 Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, Tijuana, B.C. 22390 (Mexico); Burkart, Michael D., E-mail: mburkart@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Hernández-Martínez, Rufina, E-mail: ruhernan@cicese.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  2. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranga, Carla C.; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D.; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-01-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  3. Possible molecular targets for therapeutic applications of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in inflammation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Murtaza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Of the various derivatives of caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is a hydrophobic, bioactive polyphenolic ester obtained from propolis extract. The objective in writing this review article was to summarize all published studies on therapeutics of CAPE in inflammation and cancer to extract direction for future research. The possible molecular targets for the action of CAPE, include various transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB, tissue necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, Nrf2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor of activated T cells, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and signal transducers and activators of transcription. Based on the valuable data on its therapeutics in inflammation and cancer, clinical studies of CAPE should also be conducted to explore its toxicities, if any.

  4. Secreted 3-isopropylmalate methyl ester signals invasive growth during amino acid starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumlao, Darren S; Hertz, Nicholas; Clarke, Steven

    2008-01-15

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae methyltransferase encoded by TMT1 catalyzes the AdoMet-dependent monomethylation of 3-isopropylmalate, an intermediate of the leucine biosynthetic pathway. The biological significance of methylating 3-isopropylmalate and the relationship between Tmt1 and the leucine biosynthetic pathway is not yet established. We present evidence here showing that methylation of 3-isopropylmalate functions to extracellularly signal yeast to grow invasively. We show that methyl esterification generates 3-isopropylmalate-1-methyl ester. We find that the Tmt1 methyltransferase functions independently of the biosynthetic pathway but is induced when cells are starved for amino acids; the largest induction is observed with the removal of leucine from the media. This amino acid starvation stress response is controlled by the transcriptional activator Gcn4. After methylation, 3-isopropylmalate methyl ester is secreted into the media within 3 h. Thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy confirm that the intact molecule is secreted. Finally, we show that purified 3-isopropylmalate methyl ester can enhance the ability of the haploid yeast strain 10560-23C to grow invasively. Our data identifies 3-isopropylmalate methyl ester as an autoinductive molecule that provides a signal to yeast to switch from vegetative to invasive growth in response to amino acid starvation.

  5. Synthesis of Dipeptide Benzoylalanylglycine Methyl Ester and Corrosion Inhibitor Evaluation by Tafel Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurrahman, J.; Wahyuningrum, D.; Achmad, S.; Bundjali, B.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the major problems in petroleum mining and processing industry. The pipelines used to transport crude oil from reservoir to the processing installation were made from carbon steel that is susceptible towards corrosion. One of the best methods to prevent corrosion that occurred at the inner parts of carbon steel pipelines is to use organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the potent organic corrosion inhibitors is amino acids derivatives. In this study, dipeptide compound namely benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and benzoylalanylglycine have been synthesized. The structure elucidation of the products was performed by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. The determination of corrosion inhibition activity utilized the Tafel method. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of glycine methyl ester, benzoyl alanine, dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine were 63.34 %, 35.86 %, 68.40 % and 27.72 %, respectively. These results showed that the formation of dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester, derived from carboxylic protected glycine and amine protected alanine, increased the corrosion inhibition activity due to the loss of acidity center in the structure of glycine and L-alanine that would induce the corrosive environment towards carbon steel. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Jatrophane Esters from Euphorbia spp. as Modulators of Candida albicans Multidrug Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mélissa; Nim, Shweta; Nothias, Louis-Félix; Gallard, Jean-François; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Costa, Jean; Roussi, Fanny; Prasad, Rajendra; Di Pietro, Attilio; Paolini, Julien; Litaudon, Marc

    2017-02-24

    Twenty-nine jatrophane esters (1-10, 12-30) and one lathyrane (11) diterpenoid ester isolated from Euphorbia species were evaluated for their capacity to inhibit drug-efflux activities of the primary ABC transporter CaCdr1p and the secondary MFS transporter CaMdr1p of Candida albicans, in yeast strains overexpressing the corresponding transporter. These diterpenoid esters were obtained from Euphorbia semiperfoliata (1-10), E. insularis (11), and E. dendroides (12-30) and included five new compounds, euphodendroidins P-T (26-30). The jatrophane esters 12 and 23 were found to inhibit the efflux of Nile Red (NR) mediated by the two multidrug transporters, at 85-64% for CaCdr1p and 79-65% for CaMdr1p. In contrast, compound 21 was selective for CaCdr1p and induced a strong inhibition (92%), whereas compound 8 was selective for CaMdr1p, with a 74% inhibition. It was demonstrated further that potency and selectivity are sensitive to the substitution pattern on the jatrophane skeleton. However, these compounds were not transported and showed no synergism with fluconazole cytotoxicity.

  7. Carbon Fiber—Vinyl Ester Interfacial Adhesion Improvement by the Use of an Epoxy Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautard, Frederic; Xu, Lanhong; Drzal, Lawrence T.

    With the use of composites expanding into larger structural applications, vinyl ester matrices which are not dependent on an autoclave cure and are more environmentally resistant to water absorption are being investigated. The degree of adhesion between the fiber and matrix has been recognized to be a critical factor in determining the performance of fiber-reinforced composites. The mechanical properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites are low compared to carbon fiber-epoxy composites, partly because of lower interfacial adhesion. The origins of this limitation were investigated. The influence of preferential adsorption of the matrix constituents on the interfacial adhesion was not significant. However, the high cure volume shrinkage was found to be an important factor. An engineered interphase consisting of a partially cross-linked epoxy sizing that could chemically bond to the carbon fiber and form an interpenetrating network with the vinyl ester matrix was found to sharply improve the interfacial adhesion. The mechanisms involved in that improvement were investigated. The diffusion of styrene in the epoxy coating decreased the residual stress induced by the volume shrinkage of the vinyl ester matrix. The optimal value of the thickness was found to be a dominant factor in increasing the value of the interfacial shear strength according to a 2D non-linear finite element model.

  8. Palmitic Acid Curcumin Ester Facilitates Protection of Neuroblastoma against Oligomeric Aβ40 Insult

    OpenAIRE

    Zhangyang Qi; Meihao Wu; Yun Fu; Tengfei Huang; Tingting Wang; Yanjie Sun; Zhibo Feng; Changzheng Li

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin) which can be cultivated on the cell membrane...

  9. Gold-catalyzed alkylation of silyl enol ethers with ortho-alkynylbenzoic acid esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Yamamoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented alkylation of silyl enol ethers has been developed by the use of ortho-alkynylbenzoic acid alkyl esters as alkylating agents in the presence of a gold catalyst. The reaction probably proceeds through the gold-induced in situ construction of leaving groups and subsequent nucleophilic attack on the silyl enol ethers. The generated leaving compound abstracts a proton to regenerate the silyl enol ether structure.

  10. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  11. Mutagenic activity of phthalate esters in bacterial liquid suspension assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Seed, J L

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenic activities of several phthalate esters have been evaluated in an 8-azaguanine resistance assay in Salmonella typhimurium. Three phthalate esters were found to be mutagenic: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate. A number of other phthalate esters were not found to be mutagenic, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate. A metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 2-ethylhe...

  12. Parameters affecting ethyl ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerens, S M G; Delvaux, F; Verstrepen, K J; Van Dijck, P; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection.

  13. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  14. Biotransformation--XXXIV. Metabolism of testosterone esters in fungi cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezowska, E; Dmochowska-Gładysz, J; Kołek, T; Nobilec, E

    1993-08-01

    Seven esters of testosterone: acetate, propionate, enanthate, caprate, undecanoate, isobutyrate and isocaproate (some of them are used as drugs) were transformed by microorganisms: Absidia coerulea, Acremonium roseum, Aphanocladium album and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa to obtain some information about their metabolism. It was observed that the presence and structure of the acyl group mainly influenced the degree of transformation. The first step of the reaction was probably hydrolysis of ester, followed by testosterone transformation. Only the branched chain esters were transformed by R. mucilaginosa without hydrolysis of the ester bond.

  15. Emission and Mechanical Evaluations of Vinyl-Ester Resin Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl-ester resins (VE) are frequently used in liquid molding of composite materials for several applications including naval and army structures, commercial boat manufacturing, and building construction...

  16. A novel thermooxidatively stable poly(ester-imide-benzoxazole)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundar, R.A.; Mathias, L.J. [Univ. of Sothern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A poly(ester-amide-imide) was synthesized by the low temperature solution polycondensation of 4-amino-5-hydroxy-N,4{prime}-hydroxyphenyl phthalimide with isophthaloyl chloride. Subsequent thermal cyclodehydration of the poly(ester-amide-imide) at 320{degrees}C in vacuum afforded the poly(ester-imide-benzoxazole). This polymer was only soluble in sulfuric acid. FTIR and NMR spectra confirmed structure. The poly(ester-imide-benzoxazole) had no detectable thermal transitions up to 500{degrees}C in nitrogen, and was reasonably stable in air and nitrogen, with weight retentions of 95% at 500{degrees}C.

  17. Investigation of bifunctional ester additives for methanol-gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, C.; Tang, Y.; Du, Q.; Song, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To explore new and multifunctional additives for methanol-gasoline, tartaric ester were synthesized and screened as phase stabilizer and saturation vapor pressure depressor for methanol-gasoline. The effect of the esters structure on the efficiency was discussed. The results show that the stabilities of the blends depend on the length of the glycolic esters alkoxy group. In addition, the tartaric esters also can depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline effectively in M15. Effect of the structure on the efficiency was also discussed. (author)

  18. Tandem transformation of glycerol to esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotenko, Maria V; Rebroš, Martin; Sans, Victor S; Loponov, Konstantin N; Davidson, Matthew G; Stephens, Gill; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2012-12-31

    Tandem transformation of glycerol via microbial fermentation and enzymatic esterification is presented. The reaction can be performed with purified waste glycerol from biodiesel production in a continuous mode, combining continuous fermentation with membrane-supported enzymatic esterification. Continuous anaerobic fermentation was optimized resulting in the productivity of 2.4 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹ of 1,3-propanediol. Biphasic esterification of 1,3-propanediol was optimized to achieve ester yield of up to 75%. A hollow fibre membrane contactor with immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase was demonstrated for the continuous tandem fermentation-esterification process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Palladium-catalysed arylation of acetoacetate esters to yield 2-arylacetic acid esters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zeevaart, JG

    2004-05-24

    Full Text Available The coupling reaction between ethyl acetoacetate and a number of aryl halides in the presence of palladium acetate, a bulky and electron rich phosphine and K3PO4 is described. The arylated acetoacetate ester is de-acylated under the reaction...

  20. Structure, cytotoxic activity and mechanism of protoilludane sesquiterpene aryl esters from the mycelium of Armillaria mellea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijin; Wang, Yunchao; Jiang, Bin; Li, Wenliang; Zheng, Lihua; Yang, Xiaoguang; Bao, Yongli; Sun, Luguo; Huang, Yanxin; Li, Yuxin

    2016-05-26

    Armillaria mellea (Vahl. ex. Fr.) Karst is an important traditional Chinese medicine used in dispelling wind and removing obstruction in the meridians, and strengthening tendons and bones. Armillaria mellea has been recorded in the book Caobenshiyi which was written by ancestor for the function of suppressing hyderactive liver for calming endogenous wind medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic activity for liver cell lines (normal and cancerous) of protoilludane sesquiterpene aryl esters from the mycelium of A. mellea. A systemic fractionation of the mycelium extracts of A. mellea and relative activity mechanisms were studied. Two new protoilludane sesquiterpene aryl esters named 5'-methoxy-armillasin (1) and 5-hydroxyl-armillarivin (2) were isolated. In addition, eight known protoilludane sesquiterpene aryl esters armillaridin (3), armillartin (4), armillarin (5), melleolide B (6), armillarilin (7), armillasin (8), armillarigin (9) and melleolide (10) were also isolated from the mycelium of A. mellea. The relative configurations of the two new compounds were confirmed by NOESY spectra. Among ten protoilludane sesquiterpene aryl esters, compounds 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10 were active constituents with highly cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cells (4.95-37.65μg/mL). We reported here for the time, that compound 10 (melleolide) showed anti-tumor ability on hepatoma cell. The relative mechanism was assessed on HepG2 cells. Among all the ten protoilludane sesquiterpene aryl esters, melleolide (10) showed the best cytotoxic activity for HepG2 cells (4.95μg/mL) and lower activity for L02 cells (16.05μg/mL). Mechanism study showed that melleolide decreased the viability of the cancer cells with varying levels of cleaved-caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, Bax and Ki67 expression. On the other hand, melleolide induced HepG2 cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel Strategy of Using Methyl Esters as Slow Release Methanol Source during Lipase Expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Arti; Gupta, Rani

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5%) caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression. PMID:25170843

  2. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant E...

  3. Rapid detection of sugar alcohol precursors and corresponding nitrate ester explosives using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Edward; Forbes, Thomas P

    2015-04-21

    This work highlights the rapid detection of nitrate ester explosives and their sugar alcohol precursors by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) using an off-axis geometry. Demonstration of the effect of various parameters, such as ion polarity and in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) on the detection of these compounds is presented. Sensitivity of sugar alcohols and nitrate ester explosives was found to be greatest in negative ion mode with sensitivities ranging from hundreds of picograms to hundreds of nanograms, depending on the characteristics of the particular molecule. Altering the in-source CID potential allowed for acquisition of characteristic molecular ion spectra as well as fragmentation spectra. Additional studies were completed to identify the role of different experimental parameters on the sensitivity for these compounds. Variables that were examined included the DART gas stream temperature, the presence of a related compound (i.e., the effect of a precursor on the detection of a nitrate ester explosive), incorporation of dopant species and the role of the analysis surface. It was determined that each variable affected the response and detection of both sugar alcohols and the corresponding nitrate ester explosives. From this work, a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of individual sugar alcohols and corresponding nitrate ester explosives, or mixtures of the two, has been developed, providing a useful tool in the real-world identification of homemade explosives.

  4. Effects of phorbol ester and dexamethasone treatment on histidine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase in basophilic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, I; Urdiales, J L; Medina, M A; Sanchez-Jimenez, F

    2001-05-01

    Both histamine and polyamines are important for maintaining basophilic cell function and viability. The synthesis of these biogenic amines is regulated by histidine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase, respectively. In other mammalian tissues, an interplay between histamine and polyamine metabolisms has been suspected. In this report, the interplay between histamine and ornithine-derived polyamines was studied in a non-transformed mouse mast cell line (C57.1) treated with phorbol ester and dexamethasone, a treatment previously used to increase histidine decarboxylase expression in mastocytoma and basophilic leukemia. Treatment with phorbol ester and dexamethasone increased histidine decarboxylase expression and intracellular histamine levels in C57.1 mast cells to a greater extent than those found for other transformed basophilic models. The treatment also induced a reduction in ornithine decarboxylase expression, intracellular polyamine contents, and cell proliferation. These results indicate that the treatment induces a co-ordinate response of polyamine metabolism and proliferation in mast cells and other immune-related cells. The decrease in the proliferative capacity of mast cells caused by phorbol ester and dexamethasone was simultaneous to an increase in histamine production. Our results, together with those reported by other groups working with polyamine-treated mast cells, indicate an antagonism between histamine and polyamines in basophilic cells.

  5. Preparation of esters of gallic acid with higher primary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Verbeek, J.H.; Cleton, J.C.F.

    1951-01-01

    The esters of gallic acid and higher primary alcohols, especially fatty alcohols, have recently gained considerable interest as possible antioxidants for fats. Two independent methods for the preparation of these esters are described. In the first method the hitherto unknown compound galloyl

  6. Production of both esters and biogas from Mexican poppy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    esters, use oils of plant origin like vegetable oils and tree born oil seeds are ... Usage of ester will allow a balance to be sought between agriculture .... Sci. Technol. Plastic tube. Stopper. Glass bottle. (1 liter capacity). Rubber cap. Gas collector. Digester. Displaced water. Figure 1. Reactor design (see experimental set up).

  7. Alternative Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Triglycerides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalysts activity was tested in thermocatalytic cracking of triglyceride; a direct conversion process for fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). The SZ1 not only exhibited higher conversion of triglycerides but higher fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yields of approximately 59% after 3h as compared to SZ2 (32%). In addition ...

  8. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    modified starch were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: The properties of wheat starch changed greatly by adding different sucrose esters to their structures. Starch containing 0.30 % sucrose esters had the ...

  9. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half...... matter with high biogas yields and efficient reduction of the phthalic acid ester contamination....

  10. Determination of Phthalate Esters in the Aquatic Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of solid phase extraction and capillary GLC provides the basis for selective determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in rivers and marine water samples. Of the several solvent ratios (methanol in dichloromethane) that were tried for selective elution of phthalate esters from the C18 solid phase glass catridge, the ...

  11. Protective effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on osteoarthritis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on osteoarthritis (OA) in a rat model. Methods: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot assays were used to analyze the effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on changes in mRNA and protein ...

  12. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African Index. Medicus, JournalSeek .... Table 1: Rapid visco-analyzer parameters for wheat starch modified with sucrose esters. Content of sucrose esters δ%ε. Peak. (cP). Trough. (cP). Breakdown. (cP). Final. (cP). Setback.

  13. Distribution of phthalate esters in underground water from power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the distribution of phthalateacid esters (PAEs) in groundwater from some power stations in Delta State. Groundwater samples were collected from eight power transmission and distribution stations. Concentrations (μg/L) of six phthalate acid esters compounds in the groundwater ranged from ...

  14. Protective effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on osteoarthritis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on osteoarthritis (OA) in a rat model. Methods: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot assays were used to analyze the effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on changes in mRNA and.

  15. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayuela, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%. [es

  16. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  17. Activated sludge degradation of adipic acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeger, V W; Kalley, R G; Hicks, O; Tucker, E S; Mieure, J P

    1976-01-01

    The biodegradability of three aliphatic adipic acid diesters and a 1,3-butylene glycol adipic acid polyester was determined in acclimated, activated sludge systems. Rapid primary biodegradation from 67 to 99+% was observed at 3- and 13-mg/liter feed levels for di-n-hexyl adipate, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, and di(heptyl, nonyl) adipate in 24 h. When acclimated, activated sludge microorganisms were employed as the seed for two carbon dioxide evolution procedures, greater than 75% of the theoretical carbon dioxide was evolved for the three diesters and the polyester in a 35-day test period. The essentially complete biodegradation observed in these studies suggests that these esters would not persist when exposed to similar mixed microbial populations in the environment. PMID:1275494

  18. Thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H; Vorwerg, W; Rihm, R

    2014-02-15

    The current study examined thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters (FASEs). All highly soluble esters were obtained by the sustainable, homogeneous transesterification of fatty acid vinyl esters in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Casted films of products with a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.40-1.73 were compared with highly substituted ones (DS 2.20-2.63). All films were free of any plasticizer additives. Hydrophobic surfaces were characterized by contact angle measurements. Dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) revealed thermal transitions (T(g), T(m)) which were influenced by the internal plasticizing effect of the ester groups. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed the increased thermal stability toward native starch. Tensile tests revealed the decreasing strength and stiffness of the products with increasing ester-group chain length while the elongation increased up to the ester group laurate and after that decreased. Esters of the longest fatty acids, palmitate and stearate turned out to be brittle materials due to super molecular structures of the ester chains such as confirmed by X-ray. Summarized products with a DS 1.40-1.73 featured more "starch-like" properties with tensile strength up to outstanding 43 MPa, while products with a DS >2 behaved more "oil-like". Both classes of esters should be tested as a serious alternative to commercial starch blends and petrol-based plastics. The term Cnumber is attributed to the number of total C-Atoms of the fatty acid (e.g. C6=Hexanoate). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lipid-lowering effect of bergamot polyphenolic fraction: role of pancreatic cholesterol ester hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, V; Gliozzi, M; Carresi, C; Maiuolo, J; Mollace, R; Bosco, F; Scarano, F; Scicchitano, M; Maretta, A; Palma, E; Iannone, M; Morittu, V M; Gratteri, S; Muscoli, C; Fini, M; Mollace, V

    2017-01-01

    Bergamot polyphenolic fraction (BPF) has been shown to positively modulate several mechanisms involved in metabolic syndrome, suggesting its use in therapy. In particular, it is able to induce a significant amelioration of serum lipid profile in hyperlipemic patients at different levels. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of BPF on cholesterol absorption physiologically mediated by pancreatic cholesterol ester hydrolase (pCEH). An in vitro activity assay was performed to study the effect of BPF on pCEH, whereas the rate of cholesterol absorption was evaluated through in vivo studies. In particular, male, Sprague-Dawley rats (200–225 g) were fed either normal chow or chow supplemented with 0.5% cholic acid, 5.5% peanut oil, and varying amounts of cholesterol (0 to 1.5%). BPF (10 mg/Kg) was daily administrated by means of a gastric gavage to animals fed with lipid supplemented diet for 4 weeks and, at the end of the study, plasma lipids and liver cholesteryl esters were measured in all experimental groups. Our results show that BPF was able to inhibit pCEH activity and this effect was confirmed, in vivo, via detection of lymphatic cholesteryl ester in rats fed with a cholesterol-rich diet. This evidence clarifies a further mechanism responsible for the hypolipemic properties of BPF previously observed in humans, confirming its beneficial effect in the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  20. Protein kinase Calpha contains two activator binding sites that bind phorbol