WorldWideScience

Sample records for establishing productive land

  1. Green Mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-02-15

    The Green Mines green energy research project was initiated by the CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the initiative was to demonstrate that organic residuals could be used to remediate mine tailings and establish agriculturally productive land where energy crops such as corn, canola, soy, switchgrass and other species could be grown and harvested specifically as feedstock for the production of green fuels. This paper discussed the scope and progress to date of the Green Mines green energy project. This included discussion about a column leaching study and about effluent treatability and toxicity. Neutralization test results and the results of field trials were presented. The paper concluded with a discussion of next steps. An advisory committee has been established to review annual progress and establish research directions. Overall, preliminary results from the column study suggest that sulphate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is occurring, although steady state has not yet been reached after more than one year of testing. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Green Mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Green Mines green energy research project was initiated by the CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the initiative was to demonstrate that organic residuals could be used to remediate mine tailings and establish agriculturally productive land where energy crops such as corn, canola, soy, switchgrass and other species could be grown and harvested specifically as feedstock for the production of green fuels. This paper discussed the scope and progress to date of the Green Mines green energy project. This included discussion about a column leaching study and about effluent treatability and toxicity. Neutralization test results and the results of field trials were presented. The paper concluded with a discussion of next steps. An advisory committee has been established to review annual progress and establish research directions. Overall, preliminary results from the column study suggest that sulphate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is occurring, although steady state has not yet been reached after more than one year of testing. 1 tab., 3 figs

  3. Green mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2008-07-01

    Municipal governments and provincial regulators are under increasing pressure to divert clean organic waste materials from landfill sites and establish productive uses for them. This article described the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) CANMET Green Mines Green Energy consortium. Composed of mining, forestry, government, and academic representatives, the consortium's aim is to expand the use of organic waste residuals in the rehabilitation of mine sites for use as a feedstock in biofuel production. The program's themes include: (1) determining the conditions required to maximize growth; (2) investigating the interaction of various organic covers on tailings pore water, effluent and mineralogy; (3) investigating the potential economic and environmental impacts on all relevant sectors; and (4) disseminating findings to all relevant stakeholders. Tests are currently being conducted to determine the potential impact of municipal waste materials on tailings oxidation and effluent chemistry. The effect of biosolids and compost-derived dissolved organic carbon on effluent treatability and toxicity is also being investigated. Results from the investigations to date suggest that sulfate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is taking place. It was concluded that steady state has not yet been reached after a 1 year period. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  4. Methodical approaches to the production of technical documentation on land management regarding the establishment of the boundaries of a portion of the land subject to the right of sublease, servitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dorosh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Done scientific justification and proposed methodological approaches to the production of technical documentation on land management on establishing the boundaries of the land covered by the right to sublease, easement. The purpose of making this type of documentation is setting limits and making the State Land Cadastre of information on land covered by the right to sublease, easement

  5. Land availability for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dingbao

    2011-01-01

    Marginal agricultural land is estimated for biofuel production in Africa, China, Europe, India, South America, and the continental United States, which have major agricultural production capacities. These countries/regions can have 320-702 million hectares of land available if only abandoned and degraded cropland and mixed crop and vegetation land, which are usually of low quality, are accounted. If grassland, savanna, and shrubland with marginal productivity are considered for planting low-input high-diversity (LIHD) mixtures of native perennials as energy crops, the total land availability can increase from 1107-1411 million hectares, depending on if the pasture land is discounted. Planting the second generation of biofuel feedstocks on abandoned and degraded cropland and LIHD perennials on grassland with marginal productivity may fulfill 26-55% of the current world liquid fuel consumption, without affecting the use of land with regular productivity for conventional crops and without affecting the current pasture land. Under the various land use scenarios, Africa may have more than one-third, and Africa and Brazil, together, may have more than half of the total land available for biofuel production. These estimations are based on physical conditions such as soil productivity, land slope, and climate.

  6. Sustainable biomass production on Marginal Lands (SEEMLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Federica; Baumgarten, Wibke; Pelikan, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable biomass production on Marginal Lands (SEEMLA) The main objective of the H2020 funded EU project SEEMLA (acronym for Sustainable Exploitation of Biomass for Bioenergy from Marginal Lands in Europe) is the establishment of suitable innovative land-use strategies for a sustainable production of plant-based energy on marginal lands while improving general ecosystem services. The use of marginal lands (MagL) could contribute to the mitigation of the fast growing competition between traditional food production and production of renewable bio-resources on arable lands. SEEMLA focuses on the promotion of re-conversion of MagLs for the production of bioenergy through the direct involvement of farmers and forester, the strengthening of local small-scale supply chains, and the promotion of plantations of bioenergy plants on MagLs. Life cycle assessment is performed in order to analyse possible impacts on the environment. A soil quality rating tool is applied to define and classify MagL. Suitable perennial and woody bioenergy crops are selected to be grown in pilot areas in the partner countries Ukraine, Greece and Germany. SEEMLA is expected to contribute to an increasing demand of biomass for bioenergy production in order to meet the 2020 targets and beyond.

  7. Historic land use influences contemporary establishment of invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, W Brett; Orrock, John L

    2013-08-01

    The legacy of agricultural land use can have widespread and persistent effects on contemporary landscapes. Although agriculture can lead to persistent changes in soil characteristics and plant communities, it remains unclear whether historic agricultural land use can alter the likelihood of contemporary biological invasions. To understand how agricultural land-use history might interact with well-known drivers of invasion, we conducted factorial manipulations of soil disturbance and resource additions within non-agricultural remnant sites and post-agricultural sites invaded by two non-native Lespedeza species. Our results reveal that variation in invader success can depend on the interplay of historic land use and contemporary processes: for both Lespedeza species, establishment was greater in remnant sites, but soil disturbance enhanced establishment irrespective of land-use history, demonstrating that contemporary processes can help to overcome legacy constraints on invader success. In contrast, additions of resources known to facilitate seedling recruitment (N and water) reduced invader establishment in post-agricultural but not in remnant sites, providing evidence that interactions between historic and contemporary processes can also limit invader success. Our findings thus illustrate that a consideration of historic land use may help to clarify the often contingent responses of invasive plants to known determinants of invasibility. Moreover, in finding significantly greater soil compaction at post-agricultural sites, our study provides a putative mechanism for historic land-use effects on contemporary invasive plant establishment. Our work suggests that an understanding of invasion dynamics requires knowledge of anthropogenic events that often occur decades before the introduction of invasive propagules.

  8. Soil Taxonomy and land evaluation for forest establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyoshi Ikawa

    1992-01-01

    Soil Taxonomy, the United States system of soil classification, can be used for land evaluation for selected purposes. One use is forest establishment in the tropics, and the soil family category is especially functional for this purpose. The soil family is a bionomial name with descriptions usually of soil texture, mineralogy, and soil temperature classes. If the...

  9. Productive use of saline lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Water is essential for life, and not least for agricultural activity. It interacts with solar energy to determine the climate of the globe, and its interaction with carbon dioxide inside a plant results in photosynthesis on which depends survival of all life. Much of the water available to man is used for agriculture and yet its usage has not been well managed. One result has been the build up of soil salinity. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Department of Research and Isotopes, to make more productive use of salt-affected land and to limit future build up of salinity. (IAEA)

  10. Variations in land requirements for meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E. V.; Nonhebel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Production of meat requires substantial amounts of feed grains which in turn require vast amounts of land. Future population growth and increase in consumption will raise the demand for meat and with it the land required for meat production. This paper analyses the various factors that affect land

  11. Case study of establishing a clean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Ordovician ash geochemistry and the establishment of land plants

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell John; Foster Sorcha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The colonization of the terrestrial environment by land plants transformed the planetary surface and its biota, and shifted the balance of Earth’s biomass from the subsurface towards the surface. However there was a long delay between the formation of palaeosols (soils) on the land surface and the key stage of plant colonization. The record of palaeosols, and their colonization by fungi and lichens extends well back into the Precambrian. While these early soils provided a potential s...

  13. Growth rate of Heterobasidion annosum in Picea abies established on forest land and arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz-Hellgren, M.; Johansson, Martin; Swedjemark, G.; Stenlid, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Brandtberg, P.O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1999-07-01

    The growth rates of Heterobasidion annosum in Norway spruce were investigated in southern Sweden. In one study, stump and tree roots in stands established on previous forest or arable land were inoculated with H. annosum-infested sawdust. After 1-3 yrs, the linear extent of colonization by the fungus was measured, based on detection of its conidiophores on incubated samples. The average growth rate was 25 cm yr{sup -1} in stump roots and 9 cm yr{sup -1} in tree roots, neither of which differed significantly between forest and arable land. The feeling of a decayed tree could enhance the spread of H. annosum within root systems. In the second study, the height of discoloration and extent of colonization by H. annosum, measured as above, were assessed in naturally infected trees. On average, discoloration moved through the roots and stem at a rate of 36 cm yr{sup -1}. Heterobasidion annosum was found 60 cm in advance of the discoloration, corresponding to a growth rate of 52 cm yr{sup -1}.

  14. THE ROLE OF GROUND RENT IN ESTABLISHING THE AGRICULTURAL LAND PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DOBRE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to demonstrate the role that ground rent has in establishing the agricultural land price. In order to be able to prove the connection between the ground rent and the agricultural land price, there are submitted to debate indicators that are part of ground rent such as the positioning of the land, the distance between the land and the access roads and water source, the intrinsic qualities of the land soil, the type of land and the manner of exploitation. The debate is intended to show how and in what manner the indicators part of ground rent may influence the price of an agricultural land. The final purpose of this study is to prove that a justified land price may contribute to encourage the agricultural land transactions and therefore to develop the land market. To fulfil the purpose of this paper it is necessary to understand what land ground means, why it is important the land price and how can the agricultural land price influence the agricultural land market and the development of the agriculture overall. The main methods utilized are collecting, analyze and interpreting data and information from the specialized literature. The conclusions formulated at the end of the study allow seeing the influence of ground rent on agricultural land price, the influence of the agricultural land price on agricultural land market and the influence of agricultural land market on the development of the agriculture.

  15. Establishment of efficient in vitro culture protocol for wheat land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immature embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/L of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for callogenesis and MS + zeatin riboside (1.0 mg/L) medium for regeneration of these calli. All three land races produced callus on all 2,4-D concentrations; higher doses (8 ...

  16. Ordovician ash geochemistry and the establishment of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, John; Foster, Sorcha

    2012-08-28

    The colonization of the terrestrial environment by land plants transformed the planetary surface and its biota, and shifted the balance of Earth's biomass from the subsurface towards the surface. However there was a long delay between the formation of palaeosols (soils) on the land surface and the key stage of plant colonization. The record of palaeosols, and their colonization by fungi and lichens extends well back into the Precambrian. While these early soils provided a potential substrate, they were generally leached of nutrients as part of the weathering process. In contrast, volcanic ash falls provide a geochemically favourable substrate that is both nutrient-rich and has high water retention, making them good hosts to land plants. An anomalously extensive system of volcanic arcs generated unprecedented volumes of lava and volcanic ash (tuff) during the Ordovician. The earliest, mid-Ordovician, records of plant spores coincide with these widespread volcanic deposits, suggesting the possibility of a genetic relationship. The ash constituted a global environment of nutrient-laden, water-saturated soil that could be exploited to maximum advantage by the evolving anchoring systems of land plants. The rapid and pervasive inoculation of modern volcanic ash by plant spores, and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing fungi, suggests that the Ordovician ash must have received a substantial load of the earliest spores and their chemistry favoured plant development. In particular, high phosphorus levels in ash were favourable to plant growth. This may have allowed photosynthesizers to diversify and enlarge, and transform the surface of the planet.

  17. NASA Web-Enabled Landsat Data 5 year Land Cover Land Use Change Product V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) 5-year Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) is a composite of 30 m land use land change product for the contiguous United States...

  18. Ordovician ash geochemistry and the establishment of land plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnell John

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The colonization of the terrestrial environment by land plants transformed the planetary surface and its biota, and shifted the balance of Earth’s biomass from the subsurface towards the surface. However there was a long delay between the formation of palaeosols (soils on the land surface and the key stage of plant colonization. The record of palaeosols, and their colonization by fungi and lichens extends well back into the Precambrian. While these early soils provided a potential substrate, they were generally leached of nutrients as part of the weathering process. In contrast, volcanic ash falls provide a geochemically favourable substrate that is both nutrient-rich and has high water retention, making them good hosts to land plants. An anomalously extensive system of volcanic arcs generated unprecedented volumes of lava and volcanic ash (tuff during the Ordovician. The earliest, mid-Ordovician, records of plant spores coincide with these widespread volcanic deposits, suggesting the possibility of a genetic relationship. The ash constituted a global environment of nutrient-laden, water-saturated soil that could be exploited to maximum advantage by the evolving anchoring systems of land plants. The rapid and pervasive inoculation of modern volcanic ash by plant spores, and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing fungi, suggests that the Ordovician ash must have received a substantial load of the earliest spores and their chemistry favoured plant development. In particular, high phosphorus levels in ash were favourable to plant growth. This may have allowed photosynthesizers to diversify and enlarge, and transform the surface of the planet.

  19. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...... analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...... are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles....

  20. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...... analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...... are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles...

  1. Land suitability for establishing rainwater harvesting systems for fighting wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    José María León Villalobos; Manuel Anaya Garduño; Enrique Ojeda Trejo; Dante Arturo Rodríguez Trejo; José Luis Oropeza Mota; Jorge Luis García Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting systems (RHSs) can be used to improve the efficiency of helicopter firefighting operations. To this end, RHSs need to be strategically located in areas with high wildfire occurrence to maximize their usefulness. In this study, spatial analysis was carried out to determine suitable sites for establishing RHSs intended for air attack operations in...

  2. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  3. Validation of Land Cover Products Using Reliability Evaluation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wenzhong; Zhang, Xiaokang; Hao, Ming; Shao, Pan; Cai, Liping; Lyu, Xuzhe

    2015-01-01

    Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. ...

  4. Establishment approval in international trade of animal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rau, M.L.; Ge, L.; Valeeva, N.I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an overview of different approaches of establishment approval as well as its implementation and organisation in international agrifood trade. The focus is on animal products as establishment approval is particularly used for exporting these products. Based on trade data, 8

  5. Economic Effects of Land Infrastructure on Agricultural Production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Tarun Kanti; Kato, Isao

    2001-01-01

    We analyse how and to what extent land infrastructure affects productivity and profitability of High Yielding Variety (HYV) Boro rice production in Bangladesh. In our study, “land infrastructure” refers to some basic physical characteristics and facilities of farmland such as farm size, land fragmentation, and irrigation & drainage systems. Our empirical study reveals that in small, fragmented farmlands, production cost is higher, productivity is lower and profitability is marginal. While wea...

  6. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  7. Improvements in Land Areas for IMERG Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Braithwaite, Dan; Hsu, Kuolin; Joyce, Robert; Kidd, Christopher; Nelkin, Eric; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Tan, Jackson; Xie, Pingping

    2017-04-01

    Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) is a suite of global precipitation products being produced by the The U.S. Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM) science team. It is based on intercalibrated estimates from the international constellation of precipitation-relevant satellites and other data. IMERG is computed three times for each half-hour interval at latencies of 5 hours, 15 hours, and 3.5 months (labeled Early, Late, and Final). All three provide half-hourly 0.1° x 0.1° gridded data that are complete in the latitude belt 60°N-S and as-available (from microwave estimates) in the polar zones. All of the GPM algorithms have recently been upgraded to Version 04, which is the first to be based on data and intercalibrations provided by the GPM Core Observatory. Over land in general, and oceans at higher latitudes, the Version 04 GPM products tend to have deficiencies, with high and low biases, respectively. Thus, in those regions IMERG is climatologically calibrated to the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly Satellite-Gauge product to adjust these biases. Over land, this adjustment mostly provides a first approximation to the monthly gauge adjustment that is carried out month-to-month in the Final Run, and climatologicallly in the Early and Late Runs. Some examples will be shown breaking out the contribution to IMERG Final Run uncertainty by each sensor. Half hours with "morphed" values tend to have uncertainties that are comparable to the uncertainties of half hours that directly use sensor estimates, although GMI-based estimates have much better accuracy. The performance by IMERG is frequently directly controlled by the performance of the individual sensors in a more broad-scale sense as well. Known algorithm problems in coastal regions and around complex terrain are passed into IMERG as well. Compared to Version 03 IMERG, regions with high precipitation rates have much better bias, and the inclusion of as

  8. MODIS Collection 6 Land Product Subsets Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Web Service provides data access capabilities for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 land products. The web service...

  9. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2015-10-01

    Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to "telecoupling" between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass-based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor-based and environmentally extended input-output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass-based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints.

  10. The land productivity dynamics trend as a tool for land degradation assessment in a dryland ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, Oguz; Dengiz, Orhan; Demirag, İnci Turan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a land productivity dynamic map of a degraded catchment located in dryland ecosystem via a land degradation assessment using three indicators, namely land use, land productivity, and soil organic carbon density. The study was conducted in the Mogan Catchment, Turkey, between 2000 and 2010. The study embraced the current trend for assessing ecosystem services over wide areas. For this purpose, satellite images were used to determine changes in land use and vegetation density. In addition, a total of 834 soil samples were collected from the surface soil in 2000 and 2010 to assess the soil organic carbon density. In more than 37% of the catchment area of approx. 37,100 ha, land productivity had declined, while about 43% of the catchment showed early signs of decline. Analysis of long-term changes and the conversion of levels of vegetative or standing biomass into land productivity dynamics (LPD) is only the first step. Current land management practices are contributing to serious, widespread land degradation, with only a very small area of the catchment showing a stable or increasing LPD for the period from 2000 to 2010. The implementation of land management policies and practices in order to achieve sustainable land management are urgently required.

  11. 21 CFR 607.40 - Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... product listing information shall be in the English language. (c) Each foreign establishment required to... listing requirements for foreign blood product establishments. 607.40 Section 607.40 Food and Drugs FOOD... REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Foreign...

  12. Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi-data set synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, B.; Hirschi, M.; Jimenez, C.; Ciais, P.; Dirmeyer, P.A.; Dolman, A.J.; Fisher, J.B.; Jung, M.; Ludwig, F.; Maignan, F.

    2013-01-01

    Land evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are available from several global datasets. Here, monthly global land ET synthesis products, merged from these individual datasets over the time periods 1989–1995 (7 yr) and 1989–2005 (17 yr), are presented. The 5 merged synthesis products over the shorter

  13. Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R César; Gross, Katherine L; Robertson, G Philip

    2013-01-24

    Legislation on biofuels production in the USA and Europe is directing food crops towards the production of grain-based ethanol, which can have detrimental consequences for soil carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate pollution, biodiversity and human health. An alternative is to grow lignocellulosic (cellulosic) crops on 'marginal' lands. Cellulosic feedstocks can have positive environmental outcomes and could make up a substantial proportion of future energy portfolios. However, the availability of marginal lands for cellulosic feedstock production, and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, remains uncertain. Here we evaluate the potential for marginal lands in ten Midwestern US states to produce sizeable amounts of biomass and concurrently mitigate GHG emissions. In a comparative assessment of six alternative cropping systems over 20 years, we found that successional herbaceous vegetation, once well established, has a direct GHG emissions mitigation capacity that rivals that of purpose-grown crops (-851 ± 46 grams of CO(2) equivalent emissions per square metre per year (gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1))). If fertilized, these communities have the capacity to produce about 63 ± 5 gigajoules of ethanol energy per hectare per year. By contrast, an adjacent, no-till corn-soybean-wheat rotation produces on average 41 ± 1 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year and has a net direct mitigation capacity of -397 ± 32 gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1); a continuous corn rotation would probably produce about 62 ± 7 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year, with 13% less mitigation. We also perform quantitative modelling of successional vegetation on marginal lands in the region at a resolution of 0.4 hectares, constrained by the requirement that each modelled location be within 80 kilometres of a potential biorefinery. Our results suggest that such vegetation could produce about 21 gigalitres of ethanol per year from

  14. Climate change impacts on productivity of dry lands in Sudan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite the extensive coverage of dry lands, it is water and not land that limits the agricultural production. Thus climate change and variability were expected to present an unprecedented challenges regarding sustainable food production. Critical Analysis of the available data in Sudan showed that droughts and floods with ...

  15. Land and Water requirements for meat production in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Wanli

    2010-01-01

    China will face a challenge for meat production with its available land and water. The production of meat requires substantial amounts of livestock feed, which in turn require vast amounts of land and water to produce it. As China has continued to develop

  16. Downgrading recent estimates of land available for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Nalepa, Rachel A; Perger, Christoph; Schill, Christian; McCallum, Ian; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian; Cai, Ximing; Zhang, Xiao; Ortner, Simone; Hazarika, Rubul; Cipriani, Anna; Di Bella, Carlos; Rabia, Ahmed H; Garcia, Alfredo; Vakolyuk, Mar'yana; Singha, Kuleswar; Beget, Maria E; Erasmi, Stefan; Albrecht, Franziska; Shaw, Brian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-02-05

    Recent estimates of additional land available for bioenergy production range from 320 to 1411 million ha. These estimates were generated from four scenarios regarding the types of land suitable for bioenergy production using coarse-resolution inputs of soil productivity, slope, climate, and land cover. In this paper, these maps of land availability were assessed using high-resolution satellite imagery. Samples from these maps were selected and crowdsourcing of Google Earth images was used to determine the type of land cover and the degree of human impact. Based on this sample, a set of rules was formulated to downward adjust the original estimates for each of the four scenarios that were previously used to generate the maps of land availability for bioenergy production. The adjusted land availability estimates range from 56 to 1035 million ha depending upon the scenario and the ruleset used when the sample is corrected for bias. Large forest areas not intended for biofuel production purposes were present in all scenarios. However, these numbers should not be considered as definitive estimates but should be used to highlight the uncertainty in attempting to quantify land availability for biofuel production when using coarse-resolution inputs with implications for further policy development.

  17. Global land cover products tailored to the needs of the climate modeling community - Land Cover project of the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps, S.; Defourny, P.; Radoux, J.; Kalogirou, V.; Arino, O.

    2012-04-01

    Improving the systematic observation of land cover, as an Essential Climate Variable, will support the United Framework Convention on Climate Change effort to reduce the uncertainties in our understanding of the climate system and to better cope with climate change. The Land Cover project of the ESA Climate Change Initiative aims at contributing to this effort by providing new global land cover products tailored to the expectations of the climate modeling community. During the first three months of the project, consultation mechanisms were established with this community to identify its specific requirements in terms of satellite-based global land cover products. This assessment highlighted specific needs in terms of land cover characterization, accuracy of products, as well as stability and consistency, needs that are currently not met or even addressed. Based on this outcome, the project revisits the current land cover representation and mapping approaches. First, the stable and dynamic components of land cover are distinguished. The stable component refers to the set of land surface features that remains stable over time and thus defines the land cover independently of any sources of temporary or natural variability. Conversely, the dynamic component is directly related to this temporary or natural variability that can induce some variation in land observation over time but without changing the land cover state in its essence (e.g. flood, snow on forest, etc.). Second, the project focuses on the possibility to generate such stable global land cover maps. Previous projects, like GlobCover and MODIS Land Cover, have indeed shown that products' stability is a key issue. In delivering successive global products derived from the same sensor, they highlighted the existence of spurious year-to-year variability in land cover labels, which were not associated with land cover change but with phenology, disturbances or landscape heterogeneity. An innovative land cover

  18. The Triggers, Timing and Speed of New Product Price Landings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hernández-Mireles (Carlos); D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMany high-tech products and durable goods exhibit exactly one significant price cut some time after their launch. We call this sudden transition from high to low prices the price landing. In this paper we present a new model that describes two important features of price landings: their

  19. Hortipastoral based land use systems for enhancing productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hortipastoral based land use systems for enhancing productivity of degraded lands under rain fed and partially irrigated conditions. S K Sharma. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  20. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  1. Reconciling food production and biodiversity conservation: land sharing and land sparing compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalan, Ben; Onial, Malvika; Balmford, Andrew; Green, Rhys E

    2011-09-02

    The question of how to meet rising food demand at the least cost to biodiversity requires the evaluation of two contrasting alternatives: land sharing, which integrates both objectives on the same land; and land sparing, in which high-yield farming is combined with protecting natural habitats from conversion to agriculture. To test these alternatives, we compared crop yields and densities of bird and tree species across gradients of agricultural intensity in southwest Ghana and northern India. More species were negatively affected by agriculture than benefited from it, particularly among species with small global ranges. For both taxa in both countries, land sparing is a more promising strategy for minimizing negative impacts of food production, at both current and anticipated future levels of production.

  2. Improvements to the MODIS Land Products in Collection Version 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. E.; Devadiga, S.; Masuoka, E. J.; Running, S. W.; Vermote, E.; Giglio, L.; Wan, Z.; Riggs, G. A.; Schaaf, C.; Myneni, R. B.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, Z.; Sulla-menashe, D. J.; Zhao, M.

    2013-12-01

    The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), housed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has been processing the earth view data acquired by the MODIS instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites to generate suite of land and atmosphere data products using the science algorithms developed by the MODIS Science Team. These data products are used by diverse set of users in research and other applications from both government and non-government agencies around the world. These validated global products are also being used in interactive Earth system models able to predict global change accurately enough to assist policy makers in making sound decisions concerning the protection of our environment. Hence an increased emphasis is being placed on generation of high quality consistent data records from the MODIS data through reprocessing of the records using improved science algorithms. Since the launch of Terra in December 1999, MODIS land data records have been reprocessed four times. The Collection Version 6 (C6) reprocessing of MODIS Land and Atmosphere products is scheduled to start in Fall 2013 and is expected to complete in Spring 2014. This presentation will describe changes made to the C6 science algorithms to correct issues in the C5 products, additional improvements made to the products as deemed necessary by the data users and science teams, and new products introduced in this reprocessing. In addition to the improvements from product specific changes to algorithms, the C6 products will also see significant improvement in the calibration by the MODIS Calibration Science Team (MCST) of the C6 L1B Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and radiance product, more accurate geolocation, and an improved Land Water mask. For the a priori land cover input, this reprocessing will use the multi-year land cover product generated with three years of MODIS data as input as opposed to one

  3. land evaluation for improved rice production in watari irrigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. This study aimed at raising irrigated rice production in Watari Irrigation scheme, in Kano state, as to bridge the gap between the demand for rice and its supply. The food and Agricultural. Organization FAO, (1985) frame work for land evaluation for irrigated rice production was employed, and the soil map of the ...

  4. Bioeconomic Sustainability of Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ponti, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The use of marginal land (ML) for lignocellulosic biofuel production is examined for system stability, resilience, and eco-social sustainability. A North American prairie grass system and its industrialization for maximum biomass production using biotechnology and agro-technical inputs is the focus of the analysis. Demographic models of ML biomass…

  5. 25 CFR 292.12 - How does a tribe establish connections to newly acquired lands for the purposes of the “restored...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... population, and the tribe must demonstrate one or more of the following modern connections to the land: (1... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribe establish connections to newly acquired... How does a tribe establish connections to newly acquired lands for the purposes of the “restored lands...

  6. A Strategic Framework for the Establishment of International Production Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.P.; Riis, Jens Ove

    2000-01-01

    is the distinction between three different levels of analysis and the use of a production concept to connect the levels. The production concept emerges from the integration of different viewpoints, e.g., a strategic viewpoint, a product-market viewpoint, a supply and production viewpoint, and a concrete...

  7. Corn ethanol production, food exports, and indirect land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, T J; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Kolinski Morris, E; Winkler, S L; Ginder, J M; Nielsen, O J

    2012-06-05

    The approximately 100 million tonne per year increase in the use of corn to produce ethanol in the U.S. over the past 10 years, and projections of greater future use, have raised concerns that reduced exports of corn (and other agricultural products) and higher commodity prices would lead to land-use changes and, consequently, negative environmental impacts in other countries. The concerns have been driven by agricultural and trade models, which project that large-scale corn ethanol production leads to substantial decreases in food exports, increases in food prices, and greater deforestation globally. Over the past decade, the increased use of corn for ethanol has been largely matched by the increased corn harvest attributable mainly to increased yields. U.S. exports of corn, wheat, soybeans, pork, chicken, and beef either increased or remained unchanged. Exports of distillers' dry grains (DDG, a coproduct of ethanol production and a valuable animal feed) increased by more than an order of magnitude to 9 million tonnes in 2010. Increased biofuel production may lead to intensification (higher yields) and extensification (more land) of agricultural activities. Intensification and extensification have opposite impacts on land use change. We highlight the lack of information concerning the magnitude of intensification effects and the associated large uncertainties in assessments of the indirect land use change associated with corn ethanol.

  8. Tool for Land Suitability Assessment for Rice Production in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    results of the thematic suitability assessment for the three cultivars of rice show that the percent of land area very suitable for rice production doubles from medium matured variety to early matured variety, and from early matured variety to very early matured variety. For suitable areas, and for the same sequence as just.

  9. Meat consumption, production and land use : model implementation and scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses simulations with the LEITAP model about opportunities to reduce land use as a consequence of changing meat consumption and production. In order to be able to generate plausible simulation results, the LEITAP model had to be adjusted. These changes are discussed in the first

  10. Land Suitability Assessment for Pineapple Production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... constraints that call for a flexible decision-making support tool able to incorporate multiple evaluation criteria, including the opinions of several stakeholders. In this paper, we report on a GIS-based multi-criteria approach to land suitability evaluation for pineapple production in the Akwapim South Municipality of Ghana.

  11. Land Evaluation for improved Rice Production in Watari Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... suggested to overcome these limitation and upgrade the suitability of the mapping units for increased rice production are; application of inorganic fertilizer, improve the low levels of nutrients and organic matter contents of the soil in the area and other recommendations include land leveling and conservation measures to ...

  12. RESTRICTIVE FACTORS OF PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF LAND IN CARAS - SEVERIN COUNTY AND ITS RECOVERY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bertici

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects concerning land quality in Caras-Severin county. The addressed issues regard an area of 851,976 ha of which 398,043 ha of agricultural land,, located in western Romania and representing a total of 77 cadastral territories. Using the data obtained from pedological studies and researches conducted by specialists from OSPA Timisoara and materialized in “Banat soils map”, updated in 1999 and 2003 with new pedological studies (carried out by O.S.P.A. Timişoara, and also with data gathered from the agricultural and forest sites of the national monitoring system (organized by I.C.P.A. Bucharest, the following aspects regarding land quality can be presented: the identification of land pretability in order to establish their most adequate way of use ,the identification of land favorability for different crops, the identification of land production capacity for different usings and crops when certain technologies are used, defining lands depending on the amelioration and conservation tillages. The examination of eco-pedological conditions was conducted according to „The Pedological Studies Elaboration Methodology“, (vol. I,II,III of ICPA Bucharest, in 1987 and Romanian Soil Taxonomy System (SRTS-2003.

  13. Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Data Sets: Value-Added Products Derived from Terra MODIS Land Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Eric G.; King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Gao, Feng

    2004-01-01

    Spectral land surface albedo is an important parameter for describing the radiative properties of the Earth. Accordingly it reflects the consequences of natural and human interactions, such as anthropogenic, meteorological, and phenological effects, on global and local climatological trends. Consequently, albedos are integral parts in a variety of research areas, such as general circulation models (GCMs), energy balance studies, modeling of land use and land use change, and biophysical, oceanographic, and meteorological studies. Recent observations of diffuse bihemispherical (white-sky) and direct beam directional hemispherical (black-sky ) land surface albedo included in the MOD43B3 product from MODIS instruments aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellite platforms have provided researchers with unprecedented spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics. Cloud and seasonal snow cover, however, curtail retrievals to approximately half the global land surfaces on an annual equal-angle basis, precluding MOD43B3 albedo products from direct inclusion in some research projects and production environments.

  14. A Land Product Characterization System for Comparative Analysis of Satellite Data and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gallo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Land Product Characterization System (LPCS has been developed to provide land data and products to the community of individuals interested in validating space-based land products by comparing them with similar products available from other sensors or surface-based observations. The LPCS facilitates the application of global multi-satellite and in situ data for characterization and validation of higher-level, satellite-derived, land surface products (e.g., surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, and land surface temperature. The LPCS includes data search, inventory, access, and analysis functions that will permit data to be easily identified, retrieved, co-registered, and compared statistically through a single interface. The system currently includes data and products available from Landsat 4 through 8, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra and Aqua, Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, and simulated data for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI. In addition to the future inclusion of in situ data, higher-level land products from the European Space Agency (ESA Sentinel-2 and -3 series of satellites, and other high and medium resolution spatial sensors, will be included as available. When fully implemented, any of the sensor data or products included in the LPCS would be available for comparative analysis.

  15. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the profession of pharmacy including the business of dispensing and selling blood products at retail..., rather, are solely for use in research, teaching, or analysis, including laboratory samples. (d) Carriers...

  16. Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi-data set synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, B.

    2013-10-01

    Land evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are available from several global data sets.Here, Monthly Global Land et Synthesis Products, Merged from These Individual Data Sets over the Time Periods 1989-1995 (7 Yr) and 1989-2005 (17 Yr), Are Presented. the Merged Synthesis Products over the Shorter Period Are Based on A Total of 40 Distinct Data Sets while Those over the Longer Period Are Based on A Total of 14 Data Sets. in the Individual Data Sets, et Is Derived from Satellite And/or in Situ Observations (Diagnostic Data Sets) or Calculated Via Land-surface Models (LSMs) Driven with Observations-based Forcing or Output from Atmospheric Reanalyses. Statistics for Four Merged Synthesis Products Are Provided, One Including All Data Sets and Three Including only Data Sets from One Category Each (Diagnostic, LSMs, and Reanalyses). the Multi-annual Variations of et in the Merged Synthesis Products Display Realistic Responses. They Are Also Consistent with Previous Findings of A Global Increase in et between 1989 and 1997 (0.13 Mm yr-2 in Our Merged Product) Followed by A Significant Decrease in This Trend (-0.18 Mm yr-2), although These Trends Are Relatively Small Compared to the Uncertainty of Absolute et Values. the Global Mean et from the Merged Synthesis Products (Based on All Data Sets) Is 493 Mm yr-1 (1.35 Mm d-1) for Both the 1989-1995 and 1989-2005 Products, Which Is Relatively Low Compared to Previously Published Estimates. We Estimate Global Runoff (Precipitation Minus ET) to 263 Mm yr -1 (34 406 km3 yr-1) for A Total Land Area of 130 922 000 km2. Precipitation, Being An Important Driving Factor and Input to Most Simulated et Data Sets, Presents Uncertainties between Single Data Sets As Large As Those in the et Estimates. in Order to Reduce Uncertainties in Current et Products, Improving the Accuracy of the Input Variables, Especially Precipitation, As Well As the Parameterizations of ET, Are Crucial. 2013 Author(s).

  17. Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi-data set synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Land evapotranspiration (ET estimates are available from several global data sets. Here, monthly global land ET synthesis products, merged from these individual data sets over the time periods 1989–1995 (7 yr and 1989–2005 (17 yr, are presented. The merged synthesis products over the shorter period are based on a total of 40 distinct data sets while those over the longer period are based on a total of 14 data sets. In the individual data sets, ET is derived from satellite and/or in situ observations (diagnostic data sets or calculated via land-surface models (LSMs driven with observations-based forcing or output from atmospheric reanalyses. Statistics for four merged synthesis products are provided, one including all data sets and three including only data sets from one category each (diagnostic, LSMs, and reanalyses. The multi-annual variations of ET in the merged synthesis products display realistic responses. They are also consistent with previous findings of a global increase in ET between 1989 and 1997 (0.13 mm yr−2 in our merged product followed by a significant decrease in this trend (−0.18 mm yr−2, although these trends are relatively small compared to the uncertainty of absolute ET values. The global mean ET from the merged synthesis products (based on all data sets is 493 mm yr−1 (1.35 mm d−1 for both the 1989–1995 and 1989–2005 products, which is relatively low compared to previously published estimates. We estimate global runoff (precipitation minus ET to 263 mm yr−1 (34 406 km3 yr−1 for a total land area of 130 922 000 km2. Precipitation, being an important driving factor and input to most simulated ET data sets, presents uncertainties between single data sets as large as those in the ET estimates. In order to reduce uncertainties in current ET products, improving the accuracy of the input variables, especially precipitation, as well as the parameterizations of ET, are crucial.

  18. Land Surface Phenology from MODIS: Characterization of the Collection 5 Global Land Cover Dynamics Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Friedl, Mark A.; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Verma, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Information related to land surface phenology is important for a variety of applications. For example, phenology is widely used as a diagnostic of ecosystem response to global change. In addition, phenology influences seasonal scale fluxes of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and atmosphere. Increasingly, the importance of phenology for studies of habitat and biodiversity is also being recognized. While many data sets related to plant phenology have been collected at specific sites or in networks focused on individual plants or plant species, remote sensing provides the only way to observe and monitor phenology over large scales and at regular intervals. The MODIS Global Land Cover Dynamics Product was developed to support investigations that require regional to global scale information related to spatiotemporal dynamics in land surface phenology. Here we describe the Collection 5 version of this product, which represents a substantial refinement relative to the Collection 4 product. This new version provides information related to land surface phenology at higher spatial resolution than Collection 4 (500-m vs. 1-km), and is based on 8-day instead of 16-day input data. The paper presents a brief overview of the algorithm, followed by an assessment of the product. To this end, we present (1) a comparison of results from Collection 5 versus Collection 4 for selected MODIS tiles that span a range of climate and ecological conditions, (2) a characterization of interannual variation in Collections 4 and 5 data for North America from 2001 to 2006, and (3) a comparison of Collection 5 results against ground observations for two forest sites in the northeastern United States. Results show that the Collection 5 product is qualitatively similar to Collection 4. However, Collection 5 has fewer missing values outside of regions with persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Interannual variability in Collection 5 is consistent with expected ranges of

  19. Biomass production on marginal lands - catalogue of bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Ivanina, Vadym; Hanzhenko, Oleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Marginal lands are the poorest type of land, with various limitations for traditional agriculture. However, they can be used for biomass production for bioenergy based on perennial plants or trees. The main advantage of biomass as an energy source compared to fossil fuels is the positive influence on the global carbon dioxide balance in the atmosphere. During combustion of biofuels, less carbon dioxide is emitted than is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis. Besides, 20 to 30 times less sulphur oxide and 3 to 4 times less ash is formed as compared with coal. Growing bioenergy crops creates additional workplaces in rural areas. Soil and climatic conditions of most European regions are suitable for growing perennial energy crops that are capable of rapid transforming solar energy into energy-intensive biomass. Selcted plants are not demanding for soil fertility, do not require a significant amount of fertilizers and pesticides and can be cultivated, therefore, also on unproductive lands of Europe. They prevent soil erosion, contribute to the preservation and improvement of agroecosystems and provide low-cost biomass. A catalogue of potential bioenergy plants was developed within the EU H2020 project SEEMLA including woody and perennial crops that are allowed to be grown in the territory of the EU and Ukraine. The catalogue lists high-productive woody and perennial crops that are not demanding to the conditions of growing and can guarantee stable high yields of high-energy-capacity biomass on marginal lands of various categories of marginality. Biomass of perennials plants and trees is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which are directly used to produce solid biofuels. Thanks to the well-developed root system of trees and perennial plants, they are better adapted to poor soils and do not require careful maintenance. Therefore, they can be grown on marginal lands. Particular C4 bioenergy crops are well adapted to a lack of moisture and high

  20. Report: Benefits of EPA Initiative to Promote Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands Have Not Been Established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0198, July 16, 2015. EPA does not know the benefits realized from its efforts to promote siting renewable energy on contaminated lands. As a result, the agency is unable to demonstrate benefits realized for the $4 million it stated it has inve

  1. Chapter 3: Selecting materials for mine soil construction when establishing forests on Appalachian mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Skousen; Carl Zipper; Jim Burger; Christopher Barton; Patrick. Angel

    2017-01-01

    The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), a method for reclaiming coal-mined land to forest (Chapter 2, this volume), is based on research, knowledge, and experience of forest soil scientists and reclamation practitioners. Step 1 of the FRA is to create a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and consists of topsoil, weathered...

  2. Intensification pathways for beef and dairy cattle production systems : Impacts on GHG emissions, land occupation and land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah J.; Lauwerijssen, Rachel B.G.; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Valin, Hugo; Faaij, Andre P.C.; Wicke, Birka

    2017-01-01

    Cattle production is characterized by high land requirements, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the resulting land use change (LUC) and cradle to farm gate processes. Intensification of cattle production systems is considered an important strategy for mitigating anthropogenic GHG

  3. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  4. Land Husbandry: Biochar application to reduce land degradation and erosion on cassava production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniwati, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    This field experiment was carried out to examine the effect of increasing crop yield on land degradation and erosion in cassava-based cropping systems. The experiment was also aimed at showing that with proper crop management, the planting of cassava does not result in land degradation, and therefore, a sustainable production system can be obtained. The experiment was done in a farmer's fields in Batu, about 15 km south east of Malang, East Java, Indonesia. The soils are Alfisols with a surface slope of about 8%. There were 8 experimental treatments with two replications. The experiment results show that biochar applications reduce of soil erosion rate of the cassava field were not necessarily higher than those of maize in terms of crop yield and crop management. At low-to-medium yield, also observed the nutrient uptake of cassava was lower than that of maize. At high yield, only the K uptake of cassava was higher than that of maize, whereas the N and P uptake was more or less similar. Soil erosion on the cassava field was significantly higher than that on the maize field; however, this only occurred when there was no suitable crop management. Simple crop managements, such as ridging, biochar application, or manure application could significantly reduce soil erosion. The results also revealed that proper management could prevent land degradation and increase crop yield. In turn, the increase in crop yield could decrease soil erosion and plant nutrient depletion.

  5. 9 CFR 352.14 - Entry into official establishments; reinspection and preparation of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry into official establishments; reinspection and preparation of products. 352.14 Section 352.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.14 Entry into official establishments; reinspection and preparation of...

  6. Harmonized Landsat/Sentinel-2 Reflectance Products for Land Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, J. G.; Ju, J.; Claverie, M.; Vermote, E.; Dungan, J. L.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    Many land applications require more frequent observations than can be obtained from a single "Landsat class" sensor. Agricultural monitoring, inland water quality assessment, stand-scale phenology, and numerous other applications all require near-daily imagery at better than 1ha resolution. Thus the land science community has begun expressing a desire for a "30-meter MODIS" global monitoring capability. One cost-effective way to achieve this goal is via merging data from multiple, international observatories into a single virtual constellation. The Harmonized Landsat/Sentinel-2 (HLS) project has been working to generate a seamless surface reflectance product by combining observations from USGS/NASA Landsat-8 and ESA Sentinel-2. Harmonization in this context requires a series of radiometric and geometric transforms to create a single surface reflectance time series agnostic to sensor origin. Radiometric corrections include a common atmospheric correction using the Landsat-8 LaSRC/6S approach, a simple BRDF adjustment to constant solar and nadir view angle, and spectral bandpass adjustments to fit the Landsat-8 OLI reference. Data are then resampled to a consistent 30m UTM grid, using the Sentinel-2 global tile system. Cloud and shadow masking are also implemented. Quality assurance (QA) involves comparison of the output 30m HLS products with near-simultaneous MODIS nadir-adjusted observations. Prototoype HLS products have been processed for 7% of the global land area using the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) compute environment at NASA Ames, and can be downloaded from the HLS web site (https://hls.gsfc.nasa.gov). A wall-to-wall North America data set is being prepared for 2018.This talk will review the objectives and status of the HLS project, and illustrate applications of high-density optical time series data for agriculture and ecology. We also discuss lessons learned from HLS in the general context of implementing virtual constellations.

  7. Evaluation of the MERIS aerosol product over land with AERONET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vidot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS launched in February 2002 on-board the ENVISAT spacecraft is making global observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiances. Aerosol optical properties are retrieved over land using Look-Up Table (LUT based algorithm and surface reflectances in the blue and the red spectral regions. We compared instantaneous aerosol optical thicknesses retrieved by MERIS in the blue and the red at locations containing sites within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET. Between 2002 and 2005, a set of 500 MERIS images were used in this study. The result shows that, over land, MERIS aerosol optical thicknesses are well retrieved in the blue and poorly retrieved in the red, leading to an underestimation of the Angstrom coefficient. Correlations are improved by applying a simple criterion to avoid scenes probably contaminated by thin clouds. To investigate the weakness of the MERIS algorithm, ground-based radiometer measurements have been used in order to retrieve new aerosol models, based on their Inherent Optical Properties (IOP. These new aerosol models slightly improve the correlation, but the main problem of the MERIS aerosol product over land can be attributed to the surface reflectance model in the red.

  8. Livestock and human use of land: Productivity trends and dietary choices as drivers of future land and carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Rolinski, Susanne; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Biewald, Anne; Humpenöder, Florian; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Stevanović, Miodrag

    2017-12-01

    Land use change has been the primary driving force of human alteration of terrestrial ecosystems. With 80% of agricultural land dedicated to livestock production, the sector is an important lever to attenuate land requirements for food production and carbon emissions from land use change. In this study, we quantify impacts of changing human diets and livestock productivity on land dynamics and depletion of carbon stored in vegetation, litter and soils. Across all investigated productivity pathways, lower consumption of livestock products can substantially reduce deforestation (47-55%) and cumulative carbon losses (34-57%). On the supply side, already minor productivity growth in extensive livestock production systems leads to substantial CO2 emission abatement, but the emission saving potential of productivity gains in intensive systems is limited, also involving trade-offs with soil carbon stocks. If accounting for uncertainties related to future trade restrictions, crop yields and pasture productivity, the range of projected carbon savings from changing diets increases to 23-78%. Highest abatement of carbon emissions (63-78%) can be achieved if reduced consumption of animal-based products is combined with sustained investments into productivity increases in plant production. Our analysis emphasizes the importance to integrate demand- and supply-side oriented mitigation strategies and to combine efforts in the crop and livestock sector to enable synergies for climate protection.

  9. Vegetation development and native species establishment in reclaimed coal mine lands in Alberta : directions for reclamation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longman, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Design

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a study undertaken to evaluate reclamation vegetation at Coal Valley Mine in Alberta with respect to expected vegetation changes over time, establishing a successional model of vegetation development, and factors contributing to the observed patterns. Most of the expected vegetation trends were evident, including lower grass cover and height, lower legume cover, a higher degree of native plant species richness, and the establishment of woody species. Four vegetation communities (2 graminoid-dominated and 2 conifer-dominated) were identified in the study, for which a possible successional model was constructed. Vegetation dynamics for agronomic grasses, legumes, and tree cover were discussed. Areas with Lodgepole Pine were found to have higher species richness and cover. Concerns were raised that the identified trends may not in fact supply the expected opportunities for native species establishment. In order to facilitate the establishment of native species and better manage reclamation vegetation development, the author recommended that a conifer overstory be established to increase native richness and native cover, and that more appropriate seeding mixes be developed as certain agronomic species are detrimental to long-term goals. The author also recommended that site-specific seed mixes be developed according to end land-use goals, that a planting program for native plants and shrubs be developed, and that a monitoring program be established to better inform future reclamation efforts. The recommendations were designed to bring reclamation efforts into line with reclamation goals. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Using optimization methods to align food production and biodiversity conservation beyond land sharing and land sparing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Aligning food production with biodiversity conservation is one of the greatest challenges of our time. One framing of this challenge is the land-sharing vs. land-sparing debate. Much empirical research has focused on identifying the relationship between agricultural yields and species populations, and using the relative number of species with particular relationships to inform landscape-level management. We feel this is misguided, as such an approach does not guarantee the existence of every species of conservation concern. Here, we show that constrained optimization methods can be used to identify landscape-level solutions which maximize agricultural yields and populations for any number of species. Our results suggest that the relative number of species with particular yield-density curves is not a good indicator as to how landscapes should be managed. Likewise, choosing between blanket sharing or sparing strategies leads to suboptimal outcomes at the landscape scale in many cases. Our framework makes maximum use of the rich information contained in yield-density curves to move beyond black-and-white choices and toward more nuanced, context-specific solutions to aligning biodiversity conservation and agricultural production. Such optimal landscapes will likely have features of both sharing and sparing strategies.

  11. Land management strategies for improving water quality in biomass production under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Miae; Wu, May

    2017-03-01

    The Corn Belt states are the largest corn-production areas in the United States because of their fertile land and ideal climate. This attribute is particularly important as the region also plays a key role in the production of bioenergy feedstock. This study focuses on potential change in streamflow, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus due to climate change and land management practices in the South Fork Iowa River (SFIR) watershed, Iowa. The watershed is covered primarily with annual crops (corn and soybeans). With cropland conversion to switchgrass, stover harvest, and implementation of best management practices (BMPs) (such as establishing riparian buffers and applying cover crops), significant reductions in nutrients were observed in the SFIR watershed under historical climate and future climate scenarios. Under a historical climate scenario, suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) at the outlet point of the SFIR watershed could decrease by up to 56.7%, 32.0%, and 16.5%, respectively, compared with current land use when a portion of the cropland is converted to switchgrass and a cover crop is in place. Climate change could cause increases of 9.7% in SS, 4.1% in N, and 7.2% in P compared to current land use. Under future climate scenarios, nutrients including SS, N, and P were reduced through land management and practices and BMPs by up to 54.0% (SS), 30.4% (N), and 7.1% (P). Water footprint analysis further revealed changes in green water that are highly dependent on land management scenarios. The study highlights the versatile approaches in landscape management that are available to address climate change adaptation and acknowledged the complex nature of different perspectives in water sustainability. Further study involving implementing landscape design and management by using long-term monitoring data from field to watershed is necessary to verify the findings and move toward watershed-specific regional programs for climate adaptation.

  12. Trend analysis of GIMMS and MODIS NDVI time series for establishing a land degradation neutrality national baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichenje, Helene; Godinho, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is a key global environment and development problem that is recognized as a priority by the international development community. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by the global community in 2015, and include a goal related to land degradation and the accompanying target to achieve a land degradation-neutral (LDN) world by 2030. The LDN concept encompasses two joint actions of reducing the rate of degradation and increasing the rate of restoration. Using Kenya as the study area, this study aims to develop and test a spatially explicit methodology for assessing and monitoring the operationalization of a land degradation neutrality scheme at the national level. Time series analysis is applied to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) satellite data records, based on the hypothesis that the resulting NDVI residual trend would enable successful detection of changes in vegetation photosynthetic capacity and thus serve as a proxy for land degradation and regeneration processes. Two NDVI data sets are used to identify the spatial and temporal distribution of degraded and regenerated areas: the long term coarse resolution (8km, 1982-2015) third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) NDVI3g data record; and the shorter-term finer resolution (250m, 2001-2015) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived NDVI data record. Climate data (rainfall, temperature and soil moisture) are used to separate areas of human-induced vegetation productivity decline from those driven by climate dynamics. Further, weekly vegetation health (VH) indexes (4km, 1982-2015) developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), are assessed as indicators for early detection and monitoring of land degradation by estimating vegetation stress (moisture, thermal and combined conditions).

  13. A comparison of all-weather land surface temperature products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joao; Trigo, Isabel F.; Ghilain, Nicolas; Goettche, Frank-M.; Ermida, Sofia; Olesen, Folke-S.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise; Arboleda, Alirio

    2017-04-01

    The Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF, http://landsaf.ipma.pt) has been providing land surface temperature (LST) estimates using SEVIRI/MSG on an operational basis since 2006. The LSA-SAF service has since been extended to provide a wide range of satellite-based quantities over land surfaces, such as emissivity, albedo, radiative fluxes, vegetation state, evapotranspiration, and fire-related variables. Being based on infra-red measurements, the SEVIRI/MSG LST product is limited to clear-sky pixels only. Several all-weather LST products have been proposed by the scientific community either based on microwave observations or using Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models to fill the gaps caused by clouds. The goal of this work is to provide a nearly gap-free operational all-weather LST product and compare these approaches. In order to estimate evapotranspiration and turbulent energy fluxes, the LSA-SAF solves the surface energy budget for each SEVIRI pixel, taking into account the physical and physiological processes occurring in vegetation canopies. This task is accomplished with an adapted SVAT model, which adopts some formulations and parameters of the Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land (TESSEL) model operated at the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and using: 1) radiative inputs also derived by LSA-SAF, which includes surface albedo, down-welling fluxes and fire radiative power; 2) a land-surface characterization obtained by combining the ECOCLIMAP database with both LSA-SAF vegetation products and the H(ydrology)-SAF snow mask; 3) meteorological fields from ECMWF forecasts interpolated to SEVIRI pixels, and 4) soil moisture derived by the H-SAF and LST from LSA-SAF. A byproduct of the SVAT model is surface skin temperature, which is needed to close the surface energy balance. The model skin temperature corresponds to the radiative temperature of the interface between soil and atmosphere

  14. Comparison of energetic productivity in differently renaturalized arable land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskaite-Jadzevice, Asta; Marcinkonis, Saulius; Baksiene, Eugenija

    2014-05-01

    Soil renaturalization or ecological recovery has been studied from local to global scales. On a global scale - it's one of the ways of carbon fixation, preservation of natural diversity, locally - renaturalization processes help to solve problems of damaged (eroded and polluted) and infertile soils areas. Efficient land use can improve soil structure and therefore be attractive as a renewable energy resource that can encourage thermal energy, fuel production and installation of new technologies. Soil renaturalization is very important not only in that it helps to decrease the impact on the environment, but it can produce higher energy value of biomass at a lower cost. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare different renaturalization methods through analyzing biomass yields and chemical composition (pine afforested, fallowing, manage grassland - Alfalfa and cropland) carried out during almost two decades (1995 - 2012). The four stationary experimental sites were set up in 1995 in Vilnius district, Lithuania. Common sandy soils prevail in the region, and the agronomic value of soil is very low. All sites were arranged in one row (the divided sides is 400 m2 each). Managed grassland and cropland areas were subdivided into fertilized and unfertilized subplots. The size of the subdivided plots was 200 m2 each. Gross productions (straw, grain, hay, pine biomass) was recalculated into total energy amount (in the calculationswere used K. Neringa and R. Siman equation) expressed in MJ and the site's productivity data compared. Gross productions total energy amount of pine afforestration was recalculated into trees volume using diameter (DBH), height and density of pines. Observed data suggest that the difference between fertilized and unfertilized plots in the cropland site was on average 1.62 times and made up an average of 20 339 MJ y-1 ha-1. The grassland site was characterized by higher productivity and a bigger difference of total energy between fertilized

  15. High-Precision Land-Cover-Land-Use GIS Mapping and Land Availability and Suitability Analysis for Grass Biomass Production in the Aroostook River Valley, Maine, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzeng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High-precision land-cover-land-use GIS mapping was performed in four major townships in Maine’s Aroostook River Valley, using on-screen digitization and direct interpretation of very high spatial resolution satellite multispectral imagery (15–60 cm and high spatial resolution LiDAR data (2 m and the field mapping method. The project not only provides the first-ever high-precision land-use maps for northern Maine, but it also yields accurate hectarage estimates of different land-use types, in particular grassland, defined as fallow land, pasture, and hay field. This enables analysis of potential land availability and suitability for grass biomass production and other sustainable land uses. The results show that the total area of fallow land in the four towns is 7594 hectares, which accounts for 25% of total open land, and that fallow plots equal to or over four hectares in size total 4870, or 16% of open land. Union overlay analysis, using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil data, indicates that only a very small percentage of grassland (4.9% is on “poorly-drained” or “very-poorly-drained” soils, and that most grassland (85% falls into the “farmland of state importance” or “prime farmland” categories, as determined by NRCS. It is concluded that Maine’s Aroostook River Valley has an ample base of suitable, underutilized land for producing grass biomass.

  16. New Scheme for Validating Remote-Sensing Land Surface Temperature Products with Station Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous land-surface temperature (LST observations from ground-based stations are an important reference dataset for validating remote-sensing LST products. However, a lack of evaluations of the representativeness of station observations limits the reliability of validation results. In this study, a new practical validation scheme is presented for validating remote-sensing LST products that includes a key step: assessing the spatial representativeness of ground-based LST measurements. Three indicators, namely, the dominant land-cover type (DLCT, relative bias (RB, and average structure scale (ASS, are established to quantify the representative levels of station observations based on the land-cover type (LCT and LST reference maps with high spatial resolution. We validated MODIS LSTs using station observations from the Heihe River Basin (HRB in China. The spatial representative evaluation steps show that the representativeness of observations greatly differs among stations and varies with different vegetation growth and other factors. Large differences in the validation results occur when using different representative level observations, which indicates a large potential for large error during the traditional T-based validation scheme. Comparisons show that the new validation scheme greatly improves the reliability of LST product validation through high-level representative observations.

  17. 7 CFR 54.13 - Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments. 54.13 Section 54.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...) Regulations Service § 54.13 Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments. (a) The...

  18. Flammable gas production in Land 2 and Land 3/4 radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    Geological, radiolytic and microbiological sources of gas are considered in relation to Land 2 and Land 3/4 type radioactive waste repositories. Geological sources are potentially the most troublesome and it is concluded that site investigation work should be designed to detect gas trap structures, reservoir lithologies or source rocks. Known source and reservoir lithologies should not be considered as suitable for the siting of waste repositories. Radiolytic and microbiological sources will depend on waste characteristics. A detailed review of the literature on radiolytic gas generation is presented and conclusions from this work indicate that water in waste and matrix should be kept to a minimum. Similarly, the level of radioactivity stored in each waste container should be kept to the minimum compatible with the storage design. Microbiological gas sources will be reduced by maintaining the cellulose content of the waste at a minimum. It is suggested that the removal of organics from the waste stream would be beneficial in terms of potential gas production. (author)

  19. Large-scale restoration mitigate land degradation and support the establishment of green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthmérész, Béla; Mitchley, Jonathan; Jongepierová, Ivana; Baasch, Annett; Fajmon, Karel; Kirmer, Anita; Prach, Karel; Řehounková, Klára; Tischew, Sabine; Twiston-Davies, Grace; Dutoit, Thierry; Buisson, Elise; Jeunatre, Renaud; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Török, Péter

    2017-04-01

    Sustaining the human well-being and the quality of life, it is essential to develop and support green infrastructure (strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services). For developing and sustaining green infrastructure the conservation and restoration of biodiversity in natural and traditionally managed habitats is essential. Species-rich landscapes in Europe have been maintained over centuries by various kinds of low-intensity use. Recently, they suffered by losses in extent and diversity due to land degradation by intensification or abandonment. Conservation of landscape-scale biodiversity requires the maintenance of species-rich habitats and the restoration of lost grasslands. We are focusing on landscape-level restoration studies including multiple sites in wide geographical scale (including Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, and UK). In a European-wide perspective we aimed at to address four specific questions: (i) What were the aims and objectives of landscape-scale restoration? (ii) What results have been achieved? (iii) What are the costs of large-scale restoration? (iv) What policy tools are available for the restoration of landscape-scale biodiversity? We conclude that landscape-level restoration offers exciting new opportunities to reconnect long-disrupted ecological processes and to restore landscape connectivity. Generally, these measures enable to enhance the biodiversity at the landscape scale. The development of policy tools to achieve restoration at the landscape scale are essential for the achievement of the ambitious targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the European Biodiversity Strategy for ecosystem restoration.

  20. Land Data Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products Using the Land Information System Over the NLDAS Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.

  1. Restoration of Degraded Salt Affected Lands to Productive Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yash; Singh, Gurbachan; Singh, Bajrang; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil system determines the fluxes of energy and matter in the Earth and is the source of goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). To restore and rehabilitate the soil system is a key strategy to recover the services the soils offers (Celentano et al., 2016; Galati et al., 2016; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2016). Transformation of degraded sodic lands in biodiversity rich productive forest ecosystem is a challenging task before the researchers all over the world. The soils of the degraded sites remain almost unfavorable for the normal growth, development and multiplication of organisms; all our attempts tend to alleviate the soil constraints. Land degradation due to presence of salts in the soil is an alarming threat to agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the world (Tanji, 1990; Qadir et al., 2006). According to the FAO Land and Nutrition Management Service (2008), over 6% of the world's lands are affected by salinity, which accounts for more than 800 million ha in 100 countries. This is due to natural causes, extensive utilization of land (Egamberdieva et al., 2008), poor drainage systems and limited availability of irrigation water which causes salinization in many irrigated soils (Town et al., 2008).In India, about 6.73 million ha are salt affected which spread in 194 districts out of 584 districts in India and represents 2.1% of the geographical area of the country (Mandal et al., 2009).Out of these, 2.8 million ha are sodic in nature and primarily occurring in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. These lands are degraded in structural, chemical, nutritional, hydrological and microbiological characteristics. The reclamation of salt affected soils with chemical amendments like gypsum and phospho-gypsum are in practice for the cultivation field crops under agricultural production. Forest development on such lands although takes considerable

  2. 'Underutilised' agricultural land: its definitions, potential use for future biomass production and its environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Saori; Bargiel, Damian

    2017-04-01

    A growing bioeconomy and increased demand for biomass products on food, health, fibre, industrial products and energy require land resources for feedstock production. It has resulted in significant environmental and socio-economic challenges on a global scale. As a result, consideration of such effects of land use change (LUC) from biomass production (particularly for biofuel feedstock) has emerged as an important area of policy and research, and several potential solutions have been proposed to minimise such adverse LUC effects. One of these solutions is the use of lands that are not in production or not suitable for food crop production, such as 'marginal', 'degraded', 'abandoned' and 'surplus' agricultural lands for future biomass production. The terms referring to these lands are usually associated with the potential production of 'marginal crops', which can grow in marginal conditions (e.g. poor soil fertility, low rainfall, drought) without much water and agrochemical inputs. In our research, we referred to these lands as 'underutilised' agricultural land and attempted to define them for our case study areas located in Australia and Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Our goal is to identify lands that can be used for future biomass production and to evaluate their environmental implications, particularly impacts related to biodiversity, water and soil at a landscape scale. The identification of these lands incorporates remote sensing and spatially explicit approaches. Our findings confirmed that there was no universal or single definition of the term 'underutilised' agricultural land as the definitions significantly vary by country and region depending not only on the biophysical environment but also political, institutional and socio-economic conditions. Moreover, our results highlighted that the environmental implications of production of biomass on 'underutilised' agricultural land for biomass production are highly controversial. Thus land use change

  3. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Balachandra, P., E-mail: patilb@mgmt.iisc.ernet.in [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-15

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  4. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  5. 9 CFR 316.8 - Unmarked inspected products; moved between official establishments; moved in commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... between official establishments; moved in commerce. 316.8 Section 316.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... commerce. (a) Unmarked products which have been inspected and passed but do not bear the official... from such closed container the product may not be further transported in commerce unless such removal...

  6. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  7. Land use for animal production in global change studies: Defining and characterizing a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Leanne N; Kaplan, Jed O

    2017-11-01

    Land use for animal production influences the earth system in a variety of ways, including local-scale modification to biodiversity, soils, and nutrient cycling; regional changes in albedo and hydrology; and global-scale changes in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. Pasture is furthermore the single most extensive form of land cover, currently comprising about 22-26% of the earth's ice-free land surface. Despite the importance and variable expressions of animal production, distinctions among different systems are effectively absent from studies of land use and land cover change. This deficiency is improving; however, livestock production system classifications are rarely applied in this context, and the most popular global land cover inventories still present only a single, usually poorly defined category of "pasture" or "rangeland" with no characterization of land use. There is a marked lack of bottom-up, evidence-based methodology, creating a pressing need to incorporate cross-disciplinary evidence of past and present animal production systems into global change studies. Here, we present a framework, modified from existing livestock production systems, that is rooted in sociocultural, socioeconomic, and ecological contexts. The framework defines and characterizes the range of land usage pertaining to animal production, and is suitable for application in land use inventories and scenarios, land cover modeling, and studies on sustainable land use in the past, present, and future. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Land Product covering a day V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Land Product contains a daily statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR), photosynthetically...

  9. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land Product covering a year V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Component Global Land Product covering a year contains a statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR), photosynthetically...

  10. 77 FR 59980 - Established Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... certain established aggregate production quotas will mitigate adverse public effects if an unforeseen... (for conversion) 9,000,000 g Noroxymorphone (for sale) 508,750 g Opium (powder) 91,250 g Opium...

  11. 50 CFR 260.97 - Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limited to, size and complexity of operations, volume and variety of products produced, and adequacy of... contracting party will: (1) Use only wholesome raw material which has been handled or stored under sanitary conditions and is suitable for processings; maintain the official establishment(s), designated on the...

  12. The Effect of No Agricultural Productivity Growth on Future Land Use and Climate through Biogeophysical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is

  13. Sycamore and sweetgum plantation productivity on former agricultural land in South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.A.; Trettin, C.C. [USDA Forest Service, Center for Forested Wetlands Research, 2730 Savannah Highway, Charleston, SC 29414 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Former agricultural lands in the southern US comprise a significant land base to support short rotation woody crop (SRWC) plantations. This study presents the seven-year response of productivity and biomass allocation in operational-scale, first rotation sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations that were established on drained Ultisols which were historically planted in cotton and soybeans. Three plantation systems, sycamore open drainage, sycamore plus water management, and sweetgum open drainage were established on replicate 3.5-5.5ha catchments. Height, diameter, and mortality were measured annually. Allometric equations, based on three, five, and seven year-old trees, were used to estimate aboveground biomass. Below-ground biomass was measured in year-five. Water management did not affect sycamore productivity, probably a result of a 5year drought. The sycamore plantations were more productive after seven growing seasons than the sweetgum. Sycamore were twice the height (11.6 vs. 5.5m); fifty percent larger in diameter (10.9 vs. 7.0cm); and accrued more than twice the biomass (38-42 vs. 17Mgha{sup -1}) of the sweetgum. Sweetgum plantation productivity was constrained by localized areas of high mortality (up to 88%) and vegetative competition. Mean annual height increment has not culminated for either species. Diameter growth slowed in the sycamore during growing seasons five through seven, but was still increasing in the sweetgum. Both species had similar partitioning of above-ground (60% of total) and below-ground biomass (40% of total). (author)

  14. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used

  15. Land Suitability Assessment for Pineapple Production in the A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elsewhere, land .use suitability assessment in Ghana is influenced by inherent conflicts and a complex network of socio-economic ... habitat l(1r cnnscrrntinn or. flora and f'auna (Pereira and l)udstein 199>. Store and Kangas ... case studies, the overlay land suitability models have been applied incorrectly and with dubious ...

  16. Hortipastoral based land use systems for enhancing productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Hortipastoral based land-use systems were developed for sub-tropical degraded lands in the central India under rain fed and partially irrigated conditions through long term trials (1991-98) at the Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi (India). Under rain fed condition, jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) ...

  17. Changes in organic carbon storage in a 50 year white spruce plantation chronosequence established on fallow land in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, S.; Perie, C.; Ouimet, R. [Quebec Ministere des ressources naturelles et de la Faune, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    A study was conducted in the southeastern part of Quebec in the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Forest region to investigate the ability of forests to store and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The study referred to the provision made in the Kyoto Protocol for the use of carbon sequestration by forests to reduce greenhouse gases. The carbon budget for afforested fallow land in Quebec was documented to verify if these plantations are in fact a carbon sink or a source of carbon. The evolution of carbon storage in such ecosystems over time was also examined along with an assessment of the temperate changes in organic carbon stocks in aboveground biomass, litter and soil in 50 year chronosequence white spruce plantations (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) established on fallow land. The effect of ploughing on these carbon stocks were investigated for plantations aged 0 to 20 years to determine if ploughing causes a more significant loss of soil carbon during the first years after forestation. Woody aboveground biomass was determined from dendrometric surveys and allometric equations. Litter and soil samples near the surface revealed that the plantations were C sinks over the 50 year period, since they accumulated 75 Mg/per hectare during this period, with the highest rate of C accumulation occurring in the woody aboveground vegetation between 10 and 35 years. However, the soil at 0-30 cm depth was a C source, mainly until the plantations reached 22 years of age, with an annual loss of 0.8 per cent over 50 years. There were no differences between the controls and site-preparation treatments. It was concluded that afforestation of non-regenerated fallow land with white spruce, with or without ploughing led to mean total net sequestration of 75 Mg of carbon per hectare or 275 Mg of carbon dioxide per hectare over 50 years. Although the soil did not act as a carbon sink over the 50 year sequence, it was a key compartment in the global carbon cycle. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4

  18. Shifts in allochthonous input and autochthonous production in streams along an agricultural land-use gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Hagen; Matthew McTammany; Jackson Webster; Ernest Benfield

    2010-01-01

    Relative contributions of allochthonous inputs and autochthonous production vary depending on terrestrial land use and biome. Terrestrially derived organic matter and in-stream primary production were measured in 12 headwater streams along an agricultural land-use gradient. Streams were examined to see how carbon (C) supply shifts from forested streams receiving...

  19. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Results Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains

  20. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Rita H; Goldsmith, Peter D; Rausch, Kent D; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles

  1. Hypothesized link between Neoproterozoic greening of the land surface and the establishment of an oxygen-rich atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kump, Lee R.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable geological, geochemical, paleontological, and isotopic evidence exists to support the hypothesis that the atmospheric oxygen level rose from an Archean baseline of essentially zero to modern values in two steps roughly 2.3 billion and 0.8–0.6 billion years ago (Ga). The first step in oxygen content, the Great Oxidation Event, was likely a threshold response to diminishing reductant input from Earth’s interior. Here I provide an alternative to previous suggestions that the second step was the result of the establishment of the first terrestrial fungal–lichen ecosystems. The consumption of oxygen by aerobes respiring this new source of organic matter in soils would have necessitated an increase in the atmospheric oxygen content to compensate for the reduced delivery of oxygen to the weathering environment below the organic-rich upper soil layer. Support for this hypothesis comes from the observed spread toward more negative carbon isotope compositions in Neoproterozoic (1.0–0.542 Ga) and younger limestones altered under the influence of ground waters, and the positive correlation between the carbon isotope composition and oxygen content of modern ground waters in contact with limestones. Thus, the greening of the planet’s land surfaces forced the atmospheric oxygen level to a new, higher equilibrium state. PMID:25225378

  2. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  3. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establishment may produce a new product for test marketing provided labeling for the product has been approved... product who has a total plant quality control system or plan for controlling such products, after ante... entering or at official establishments; examination and other requirements. (a) No poultry product...

  4. Pregnancy and lactation advice: How does Australian Product Information compare with established information resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma; Hotham, Elizabeth; Hotham, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Product information is a popular medicines information resource; however, there is some evidence that its pregnancy and lactation information is overconservative, which can lead to inadequate treatment of pregnant and lactating women. A thorough analysis of pregnancy and lactation information within Australian Product Information and Consumer Medicines Information was performed. The statements within these resources were compared with established clinical resources: Australian Medicines Handbook, Therapeutic Guidelines, South Australian Perinatal Practice Guidelines, Organization of Teratology Information Specialists, LactMed, Motherisk and the Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Medicines Guide published by the Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne. Product Information was found to be the most cautious resource, with 44.5% of pregnancy recommendations and 69% of lactation recommendations reviewed being more conservative than other resources. Product Information is an imperfect and often overconservative reference for pregnant and lactating women. Health professionals are urged to review established clinical resources to inform decision making.

  5. Climate, soil and land-use based land suitability evaluation for oil palm production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Tiemen; Fairhurst, Thomas; Zingore, Shamie; Fisher, Myles; Oberthür, Thomas; Whitbread, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has become the world's most important oil crop. The large demand for palm oil has resulted in a rapid expansion of oil palm cultivation across the globe. Because of the dwindling availability of land in Southeast Asia, most expansion of the

  6. Localising livestock protein feed production and the impact on land use and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasu-Boakye, Y; Cederberg, C; Wirsenius, S

    2014-08-01

    Livestock farmers in Sweden usually grow feed grains for livestock but import protein feed from outside Sweden. Aside from the economic implications, some environmental issues are associated with this practice. We used life cycle assessment to evaluate the impact of local protein feed production on land use and greenhouse gas emissions, compared with the use of imported protein feed, for pig meat and dairy milk produced in Sweden. Our results showed that local production reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 4.5% and 12%, respectively, for pigs and dairy cows. Land use for feed production in Sweden increased by 11% for pigs and 25% for dairy cows, but total land use decreased for pig production and increased for dairy milk production. Increased protein feed cultivation in Sweden decreased inputs needed for animal production and improved some ecological processes (e.g. nutrient recycling) of the farm systems. However, the differences in results between scenarios are relatively small and influenced to an extent by methodological choices such as co-product allocation. Moreover, it was difficult to assess the contribution of greenhouse emissions from land use change. The available accounting methods we applied did not adequately account for the potential land use changes and in some cases provided conflicting results. We conclude that local protein feed production presents an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but at a cost of increasing land occupation in Sweden for feed production.

  7. 77 FR 20034 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... potentially harmful constituents, including smoke constituents, to health in each tobacco product by brand and by quantity in each brand and subbrand.'' The Agency has considered comments solicited from the... meaning of HPHC, the criteria the Agency used to help develop the established HPHC list, the reasons the...

  8. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the requirement to establish a batch production record? 111.255 Section 111.255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  9. Labour productivity, economies of scale and opening time in large retail establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractDifferences in labour productivity are dealt with for large French retail establishments. Influences of scale, weekly opening time, assortment composition, wage rate and share of counter service are considered. The relationship used is a result of analyses in the field of small retail

  10. A three-point identity criteria tool for establishing product identity using icIEF method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Deepti; Belakavadi, Madesh; Das, Tapan K; Katiyar, Amit

    2018-04-15

    Product identity is one of the release testing requirements that needs to be established to ensure that there is no misidentification of drugs. Here, we demonstrated the challenges that can come across while establishing a product identity method for monoclonal antibody (mAb) and mAb-related products using icIEF method. A unique three-point identity criteria tool (visual comparison, pI of individual peaks and ΔpIs) was applied to distinguish mAb1 from the other in-house mAbs. A reduction approach followed by icIEF showed higher potential for establishing identity for mAb1 product as compared to native and enzymatic digestion approach. In general, icIEF method lacks specificity required to unequivocally establish the identity for mAbs, therefore, risk analysis is recommended before implementing icIEF as a stand-alone identity method for monoclonal antibodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 16824 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Practice; Establishment of a Public Docket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... manufacturing operations. DATES: Submit electronic or written comments on the tobacco companies' recommendations... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0227] Tobacco Product Manufacturing Practice; Establishment of a Public Docket AGENCY: Food...

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular products inhibit staphylococcal growth, and disrupt established biofilms produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Yang, Liang; Qu, Di

    2009-01-01

    in overnight cultures had no effect on established P. aeruginosa biofilms and planktonic growth. These findings reveal that P. aeruginosa extracellular products are important microbial competition factors that overcome competition with S. epidermidis, and the results may provide clues for the development...

  13. THE PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF THE LAND AND ITS ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko E.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Getting the maximum economic effect on agricultural lands without environmental performance needs to restore these areas. The main objective of optimum utilization of land resources is a process of territorial organization, in which the need to apply the most effective option to use the whole complex of land resources for the greatest productive potential of agricultural land. The concept of "productive potential" is considered as the combination of characteristics of land and natural conditions, shaped by human society, and determine the nature of the rational use of land in the area of expanded reproduction. In general terms the maximum opportunity in the economy. The productive potential of land is not a sustainable figure. During the agricultural use of the land productive potential is constantly changing due to the gradual improvement or reduction of logistics, soil fertility and obtaining agricultural products. The productive capacity of agricultural land is proposed to assess the following indicators: a qualitative characterization of soils and agricultural technologies. These indicators are as diverse comparative calculation to be posted in stages. First of all, draws attention to the qualitative characteristics of the soil, which is the basis for growing crops. Data on basic indicators of soil to be correct and complex to define parameters of soil and expressed through generalized estimation of fertility. These figures are in agrochemical passport fields. The final calculation serves agrochemical and environmental agrochemical evaluation, filed in points. Modern agricultural technologies is a complex process operations management processes productive crops in artificial ecosystems to achieve the forecasted yields and product quality while ensuring environmental safety and some economic efficiency. Number of applied agricultural technologies depends on the complexity of environmental conditions and the level of planned productivity. The

  14. Developing tools to identify marginal lands and assess their potential for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsidas, Spyridon; Gounaris, Nikolaos; Dimitriadis, Elias; Rettenmaier, Nils; Schmidt, Tobias; Vlachaki, Despoina

    2017-04-01

    The term "marginal land" is currently intertwined in discussions about bioenergy although its definition is neither specific nor firm. The uncertainty arising from marginal land classification and quantification is one of the major constraining factors for its potential use. The clarification of political aims, i.e. "what should be supported?" is also an important constraining factor. Many approaches have been developed to identify marginal lands, based on various definitions according to the management goals. Concerns have been frequently raised regarding the impacts of marginal land use on environment, ecosystem services and sustainability. Current tools of soil quality and land potentials assessment fail to meet the needs of marginal land identification and exploitation for biomass production, due to the lack of comprehensive analysis of interrelated land functions and their quantitative evaluation. Land marginality is determined by dynamic characteristics in many cases and may therefore constitute a transitional state, which requires reassessment in due time. Also, marginal land should not be considered simply a dormant natural resource waiting to be used, since it may already provide multiple benefits and services to society relating to wildlife, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, etc. The consequences of cultivating such lands need to be fully addressed to present a balanced view of their sustainable potential for bioenergy. This framework is the basis for the development of the SEEMLA tools, which aim at supporting the identification, assessment, management of marginal lands in Europe and the decision-making for sustainable biomass production of them using appropriate bioenergy crops. The tools comprise two applications, a web-based one (independent of spatial data) and a GIS-based application (land regionalization on the basis of spatial data), which both incorporate: - Land resource characteristics, restricting the cultivation of agricultural crops but

  15. Land Suitability Characterization for Crop and Fruit Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this evaluation was to find out which parcels of land may best support the different crops and fruits commonly grown by the local farmer and recommend these results to the local stakeholder for an increased yield. The focus was on food crops and fruits those can be used to alleviate poverty and improve nutrition ...

  16. Land Use and Land Cover Changes under Climate Uncertainty: Modelling the Impacts on Hydropower Production in Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Obahoundje

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bui hydropower plant plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. This paper attempt to explore the combined effects of climate-land use land cover change on power production using the (WEAP model: Water Evaluation and Planning system. The historical analysis of rainfall and stream flow variability showed that the annual coefficient of variation of rainfall and stream flow are, respectively, 8.6% and 60.85%. The stream flow varied greatly than the rainfall, due to land use land cover changes (LULC. In fact, the LULC analysis revealed important changes in vegetative areas and water bodies. The WEAP model evaluation showed that combined effects of LULC and climate change reduce water availability for all of demand sectors, including hydropower generation at the Bui hydropower plant. However, it was projected that Bui power production will increase by 40.7% and 24.93%, respectively, under wet and adaptation conditions, and decrease by 46% and 2.5%, respectively, under dry and current conditions. The wet condition is defined as an increase in rainfall by 14%, the dry condition as the decrease in rainfall by 15%; current account is business as usual, and the adaptation is as the efficient use of water for the period 2012–2040.

  17. Combining emperical and theory-based land use modelling approaches to assess future availability of land and economic potential for sustainable biofuel production: Argentina as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; van der Hilst, Floortje; van Eijck, Janske; Faaij, André; Verstegen, Judith; Hilbert, J.; Carballo, S.; Volante, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a land-use modelling framework is presented combining empirical and theory-based modelling approaches to determine economic potential of biofuel production avoiding indirect land-use changes (iLUC) resulting from land competition with other functions. The empirical approach explores

  18. Establishment of the carbon label mechanism of coal chemical products based oncarbon footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bishan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT After redefining the carbon footprint and carbon label, the paper analyzesthe significance of the carbon labels under the background of the low carbon economy development, and establishes the concept of model of the carbon labels mechanism to chemical products. At the same time, the paper quantitatively studies carbon label data sourceof three kinds of coal chemical industry power products, which are fromhaving not CCS technologies of supercritical boiler of coal, using CCS technologies of supercritical boiler of coal and adopting CCS and IGCC technologies to power generation in CCI. Based on the three kinds of differences, the paper puts forward of establishing the carbon labels mechanism of chemical products under the low carbon consumption.

  19. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and all...

  20. Biosolids management strategies: an evaluation of energy production as an alternative to land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    Currently, more than half of the biosolids produced within the USA are land applied. Land application of biosolids introduces organic contaminants into the environment. There are potential ecological and human health risks associated with land application of biosolids. Biosolids may be used as a renewable energy source. Nutrients may be recovered from biosolids used for energy generation for use as fertilizer. The by-products of biosolids energy generation may be used beneficially in construction materials. It is recommended that energy generation replace land application as the leading biosolids management strategy.

  1. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  2. Online Time Series Analysis of Land Products over Asia Monsoon Region via Giovanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis is critical to the study of land cover/land use changes and climate. Time series studies at local-to-regional scales require higher spatial resolution, such as 1km or less, data. MODIS land products of 250m to 1km resolution enable such studies. However, such MODIS land data files are distributed in 10ox10o tiles, due to large data volumes. Conducting a time series study requires downloading all tiles that include the study area for the time period of interest, and mosaicking the tiles spatially. This can be an extremely time-consuming process. In support of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) has processed MODIS land products at 1 km resolution over the Asia monsoon region (0o-60oN, 60o-150oE) with a common data structure and format. The processed data have been integrated into the Giovanni system (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) that enables users to explore, analyze, and download data over an area and time period of interest easily. Currently, the following regional MODIS land products are available in Giovanni: 8-day 1km land surface temperature and active fire, monthly 1km vegetation index, and yearly 0.05o, 500m land cover types. More data will be added in the near future. By combining atmospheric and oceanic data products in the Giovanni system, it is possible to do further analyses of environmental and climate changes associated with the land, ocean, and atmosphere. This presentation demonstrates exploring land products in the Giovanni system with sample case scenarios.

  3. LBA-ECO ND-01 Georectified Land Cover Products, Rondonia, Brazil: 1984-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a 27-year land cover time series of 28.5-m resolution products derived from Landsat images for 80% of Rondonia, Brazil, for the...

  4. Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Schlup

    2005-11-04

    A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between

  5. Land Management Decisions and Agricultural Productivity in the Hillsides of Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Hans G.P.; Pender, John L.; Damon, Amy L.; Schipper, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing land degradation and concomitant low agricultural productivity are important determinants of rural poverty in the hillside areas of Honduras. Using data at the levels of the farm household, parcel and plot, we develop an econometric modeling framework to analyze land management decisions and their impact on crop productivity. Our econometric model allows for endogenous household decisions regarding livelihood strategy choice, use of labor and external inputs, and participation in o...

  6. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) Users’ Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass, and a soy biodiesel pathway. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2017 which includes five ethanol LUC scenarios and four soy biodiesel LUC scenarios.

  7. Land Use in LCIA: an absolute scale proposal for Biotic Production Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Ibrom, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Environmental impacts caused by land occupation and transformation have been bypassed in many LCA studies due to soils’ multifunctionality and the interconnectedness between the ecosystem services they provide. These inherent modelling complexities have traditionally forced LCA practitioners...... and no externally added inputs. The original ecosystem (or Potential Natural Vegetation) of a certain land gives then the maximum BPP with no additional, downstream or upstream, impacts. This Natural BPP is proposed as the maximum BPP in a hypothetical Absolute Scale for LCA’s Land Use framework. It is argued...... to content with a mere quantification of Land Use (LU), as surface area and duration (in m2 or ha and years) appropriated by humans, without further analysis of the impact pathways derived from those land uses. Milà i Canals established the first comprehensive, basic framework for taking soil quality aspect...

  8. Establishment techniques in under-sown perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Establishment methods have proven to be of major importance for grass-seed production. The objective of this research was to test the effect of different sowing techniques on plant establishment and the subsequent seed yield. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is used as the model grass due...... to its large importance in Danish agriculture. In a three-year trial six different methods of under-sowing of perennial ryegrass in a spring barley cover crop were employed. Perennial ryegrass was either sown directly at different depths within the spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rows or placed 2, 6......, or 12 cm from the spring barley rows. Results of dry-matter yield indicate that the best establishment of the grass occurred when placing the grass 6 or 12 cm from the cover-crop row, and this is of importance in less vigorous grasses. Overall, no seed-yield difference has been observed for perennial...

  9. Novel ideas for maximising dew collection to aid plant establishment to combat desertification and restore degraded dry and arid lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzen, Benz

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the potential of dew to provide water to plants and potentially to people as well in remote and difficult to reach areas where rainfall and underground water cannot be harvested. The combat of desertification and the restoration of degraded and desertified dry and arid lands has never been more urgent. A key practical component of this strategy is the restoration of habitat with planting. But for habitat and planting to survive there needs to be an adequate supply of water. In most cases providing water to the plant's roots is vital. In some areas where habitats have been destroyed, sufficient water is immediately available, for example through seasonal rainfall, or it can be harvested to concentrate adequate supplies of water to the roots. However, in arid and hyper arid areas, as well as in some dryland areas, a consistent and adequate supply of water cannot be provided by any conventional proven method. Thus, as the need to combat desertification and to restore desertified dry and arid land increases, so the need to find novel methods of establishing and maintaining planting and thus habitat increases. In more traditional land management scenarios this can be achieved through manipulating landform on a micro and macro scale, for example, by creating catchments, thereby collecting precipitation and directing it to the plants. Where this cannot be done, other means of water supply are usually required. Bainbridge (2007) and others have shown that supplying water to plants is possible through a number of traditional methods, for example, using clay pots. But most of these techniques require an introduced source of water, for example, obtained through water harvesting methods or by delivering water to site in tanks and by water bowser. This can work but requires continuous manpower. It is expensive and can be physically prohibitive in areas where access is difficult and/or remote. The concept of using dew to supply water in drylands is not new

  10. The land use: A Problem of productive capacity and public policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Rico Calvano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Section result of research and consultancy project study approach of current land use and land tenure and land conflicts. Use the term refers to the types of coverage developed by man, such as agriculture, livestock, urban or recreational use, socioeconomic and cultural conditions of a population center are what determine the forms of resource use core of the territory, and in turn, these resources directly influence the society that uses it. Numerous systems for classifying cover and land use. The objective was to conduct a study on the approach of the current land use in the municipalities of the region Channel Dam and Coastal Area of the departments of Atlantic and Bolivar to establish the approximate use and enjoyment of the premises. The research was descriptive and analytical in nature, allowed to establish local capacity for land management, occupancy and use of land, approached from quantitative methods in secondary sources, investigating in texts and other related documentation systems that guide the setting of parameters analysis.

  11. Establishing a Quality Control System for Stem Cell-Based Medicinal Products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bao-Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell-based medicinal products (SCMPs) are emerging as novel therapeutic products. The success of its development depends on the existence of an effective quality control system, which is constituted by quality control technologies, standards, reference materials, guidelines, and the associated management system in accordance with regulatory requirements along product lifespan. However, a worldwide, effective quality control system specific for SCMPs is still far from established partially due to the limited understanding of stem cell sciences and lack of quality control technologies for accurately assessing the safety and biological effectiveness of SCMPs before clinical use. Even though, based on the existing regulations and current stem cell sciences and technologies, initial actions toward the goal of establishing such a system have been taken as exemplified by recent development of new "interim guidelines" for governing quality control along development of SCMPs and new development of the associated quality control technologies in China. In this review, we first briefly introduced the major institutions involved in the regulation of cell substrates and therapeutic cell products in China and the existing regulatory documents and technical guidelines used as critical references for developing the new interim guidelines. With focus only on nonhematopoietic stem cells, we then discussed the principal quality attributes of SCMPs as well as our thinking of proper testing approaches to be established with relevant evaluation technologies to ensure all quality requirements of SCMPs along different manufacturing processes and development stages. At the end, some regulatory and technical challenges were also discussed with the conclusion that combined efforts should be taken to promote stem cell regulatory sciences to establish the effective quality control system for SCMPs.

  12. 39 CFR 3.9 - Establishment of rates and classes of competitive products of general applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of rates and classes of competitive products of general applicability. 3.9 Section 3.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF... demonstrating compliance with the standards of 39 U.S.C. 3633(a). (b) Pursuant to § 6.6(f) of these bylaws, the...

  13. Research on establishing the rank and quotient of functions in product value analysisengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Burz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The constructive conception of a product results from uniting subsystems with basic usage values. These basic usage values make up the functions of the product. The notion of product function is the basic notion that product value analysis/value engineering(VA/VE operates with, and function analysis together with creative thinking constitutes „the oxygen of value engineering”. The present paper defines the notion of rank of a product function, establishes the formula for calculating its value and it reviews some ways of Determining the levels of importance of product functions, with the aim of proposing a new distribution of the importance of these Functions within the total usage value. Establishing the rank of a function can be reduced to the issue of comparing product functions by experts, consumers, team members for VA/VE. Subsequently, the ensuing results are subjected to adequate mathematical operations in order to determin the levels of importance and the quotients of each function within the product ussage value, as well as the distribution of these quotients. Due to the fact that the quota or quotient of a function within the product usage value plays an important role in conceiving and designing products, more precisely, in the economical shaping of functions, the distribution law to which this parametre is subjected is also very important. A critical study of the methods currently used to determine function quotients shows that these methods conduct to a linear distribution of these quotients, and, under these Circumstances, the ratio between the highest level of importance and the lowest level of importance is equal to the number of functions – number that is very high indeed for complex products. On the other hand, it is rightly assumed that there is a considerable number of products for which the functions do not follow a linear distribution. The Zipf distribution or its generalised form, the Pareto

  14. Optimum land cover products for use in a Glossina-morsitans habitat model of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messina Joseph P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tsetse flies are the primary vector for African trypanosomiasis, a disease that affects both humans and livestock across the continent of Africa. In 1973 tsetse flies were estimated to inhabit 22% of Kenya; by 1996 that number had risen to roughly 34%. Efforts to control the disease were hampered by a lack of information and costs associated with the identification of infested areas. Given changing spatial and demographic factors, a model that can predict suitable tsetse fly habitat based on land cover and climate change is critical to efforts aimed at controlling the disease. In this paper we present a generalizable method, using a modified Mapcurves goodness of fit test, to evaluate the existing publicly available land cover products to determine which products perform the best at identifying suitable tsetse fly land cover. Results For single date applications, Africover was determined to be the best land use land cover (LULC product for tsetse modeling. However, for changing habitats, whether climatically or anthropogenically forced, the IGBP DISCover and MODIS type 1 products where determined to be most practical. Conclusion The method can be used to differentiate between various LULC products and be applied to any such research when there is a known relationship between a species and land cover.

  15. Legal framework for a sustainable biomass production for bioenergy on Marginal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Pelikan, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The EU H2020 funded project SEEMLA is aiming at the sustainable exploitation of biomass for bioenergy from marginal lands in Europe. Partners from Germany, Italy, Ukraine and Greece are involved in this project. Whereas Germany can be considered as well-established and leading country with regard to the production of bioenergy, directly followed by Italy and Greece, Ukraine is doing its first steps in becoming independent from fossil energy resources, also heading for the 2020+ goals. A basic, overarching regulation is the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) which has been amended in 2015; these amendments will be set in force in 2017. A new proposal for the period after 2020, the so called RED II, is under preparation. With cross-compliance and greening, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) offers measures for an efficient and ecological concept for a sustainable agriculture in Europe. In country-specific National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) a concept for 2020 targets is given for practical implementation until 2030 which covers e.g. individual renewable energy targets for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport sectors, the planned mix of different renewables technologies, national policies to develop biomass resources, and measures to ensure that biofuels are used to meet renewable energy targets are in compliance with the EU's sustainability criteria. While most of the NREAP have been submitted in 2010, the Ukrainian NREAP was established in 2014. In addition, the legal framework considering the protection of nature, e.g. Natura 2000, and its compartments soil, water, and atmosphere are presented. The SEEMLA approach will be developed in agreement with this already existing policy framework, following a sustainable principle for growing energy plants on marginal lands (MagL). Secondly, legislation regarding bioenergy and biomass potentials in the EU-28 and partner countries is introduced. For each SEEMLA partner an overview of regulatory

  16. Resolution and Content Improvements to MISR Aerosol and Land Surface Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, M. J.; Bull, M. A.; Diner, D. J.; Hansen, E. G.; Kalashnikova, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Since early 2000, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite has been providing operational Level 2 (swath-based) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property retrievals at 17.6 km spatial resolution and atmospherically corrected land surface products at 1.1 km resolution. The performance of the aerosol product has been validated against ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations, model comparisons, and climatological assessments. This product has played a major role in studies of the impacts of aerosols on climate and air quality. The surface product has found a variety of uses, particularly at regional scales for assessing vegetation and land surface change. A major development effort has led to the release of an update to the operational (Version 22) MISR Level 2 aerosol and land surface retrieval products, which has been in production since December 2007. The new release is designated Version 23. The resolution of the aerosol product has been increased to 4.4 km, allowing more detailed characterization of aerosol spatial variability, especially near local sources and in urban areas. The product content has been simplified and updated to include more robust measures of retrieval uncertainty and other fields to benefit users. The land surface product has also been updated to incorporate the Version 23 aerosol product as input and to improve spatial coverage, particularly over mountainous terrain and snow/ice-covered surfaces. We will describe the major upgrades incorporated in Version 23 and present validation of the aerosol product against both the standard AERONET historical database, as well as high spatial density AERONET-DRAGON deployments. Comparisons will also be shown relative to the Version 22 aerosol and land surface products. Applications enabled by these product updates will be discussed.

  17. Trade-offs between Biofuels Energy Production, Land Use and Water Use in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidler, Michal [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Capece, John [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward [Univ. of Florida, Immokalee, FL (United States); Alsharif, Kamal [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-02-11

    Objective of the presentation is to document land use and water use implications of biomass production to demonstrate the overall resources implications associated with bioethanol production for Florida’s transportation sector needs. Rationale for using biofuels (BF) is explained, so are advantages & challenges of BF production and use. Land use changes (LUC) in Florida are presented and consequences outlined. It is documented that Florida’s agricultural land is a very limited resource, with only 0.43 ac/person comparing to the global average of 1.71 ac/person. The direct relation of increased biofuels production causing increased water use is explained. Favorable climate, water resources, advanced research, traditional leading agricultural role, minor oil reserves, no refineries and increasing energy demands are the main reasons why Florida considers pursuing BF production in large scale. Eight various bioethanol crops produced in Florida were considered in this study (Miscanthus, Switchgrass, Sweet Sorghum, Corn, Elephantgrass, Sugarcane, Energycane, Eucalyptus). Biomass yield and bioethanol yield of these crops are documented. Bioethanol needs of Florida are estimated and related land requirements for the needed bioethanol production calculated. Projections for various bioethanol blends (E15 to E85) are then presented. Finally, water demand for biofuels production is quantified. It is concluded that land use requirement for production of all ethanol in E85 fuel blend in Florida is roughly the same as the total available ag land in Florida for the best yielding biofuels crops (energycane, eucalyptus). Water demand for production of all ethanol needed for E100 would increase current overall water consumption in Florida between 65% and 100% for the most common biofuels crops. Vehicular energy is only 33% of Floridians energy consumption, so even all Florida’s agricultural land was given up for biofuels, it would still produce only 33% of Florida’s total

  18. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  19. Optimising land use and consumption of livestock products in the human diet with an increasing human population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Land use related to food production is generally quantified using product-based life cycle assessments. We, however, quantified land use of diet scenarios with a land use optimization model. Energy and protein requirement of human populations, varying from 15 to 30 mil-lion people, were met with the

  20. Promoting Model-based Definition to Establish a Complete Product Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruemler, Shawn P; Zimmerman, Kyle E; Hartman, Nathan W; Hedberg, Thomas; Feeny, Allison Barnard

    2017-05-01

    The manufacturing industry is evolving and starting to use 3D models as the central knowledge artifact for product data and product definition, or what is known as Model-based Definition (MBD). The Model-based Enterprise (MBE) uses MBD as a way to transition away from using traditional paper-based drawings and documentation. As MBD grows in popularity, it is imperative to understand what information is needed in the transition from drawings to models so that models represent all the relevant information needed for processes to continue efficiently. Finding this information can help define what data is common amongst different models in different stages of the lifecycle, which could help establish a Common Information Model. The Common Information Model is a source that contains common information from domain specific elements amongst different aspects of the lifecycle. To help establish this Common Information Model, information about how models are used in industry within different workflows needs to be understood. To retrieve this information, a survey mechanism was administered to industry professionals from various sectors. Based on the results of the survey a Common Information Model could not be established. However, the results gave great insight that will help in further investigation of the Common Information Model.

  1. Land and agronomic potential for biofuel production in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African region, from a purely biophysical perspective, has huge potential for biofuel production, especially in Mozambique and Zambia. Although many of the soils are sandy and acidic, with careful management and correct fertilization...

  2. Land and agronomic potential for biofuel production in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    von Maltitz, Graham; van der Merwe, Marna

    2017-01-01

    The Southern African region, from a purely biophysical perspective, has huge potential for biofuel production, especially in Mozambique and Zambia. Although many of the soils are sandy and acidic, with careful management and correct fertilization, they should be highly productive. We suggest that sugarcane is the crop most easily mobilized for biofuel. A number of other crops, such as sweet sorghum, cassava, and tropical sugar beet, have good potential but will need further agronomic and proc...

  3. Methodological Challenges of Identifying Ultimate Land Use Changes Caused by Biofuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Kløverpris, Jesper; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2007-01-01

    that is only poorly dealt with by LCA methods. Even though the use of land, or change of land cover and its eco-systems, is acknowledged to be a very important impact of human activities, a methodology for assessing this impact category has not yet  been properly developed within LCA. Some LCA scientists have......-of-the-art is that such inventories typically include data from crop production in the country in which the crop is used  (or from where it is exported) and, thereby, the inventories do not necessarily consider crop and land displacements through market mechanisms and do, thus, not identify the land ultimately affected...... LCA, which means that the consequences of changes in consumption are studied in a market-based perspective. Based on the current market trend for crops and an analysis of basic mechanisms in crop production, concepts for modelling how crop consumption affects the global agricultural area...

  4. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land: a case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217; Tabeau, A.; Hilbert, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  5. PRODUCTIVITY AND LAND ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: HEALTH, PUBLIC INVESTMENTS, AND SEQUENTIAL ADOPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire; Amacher, Gregory S.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger

    2003-01-01

    The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our research examines the interaction between public investments, community health, and adoption of productivity and land enhancing technologies by households in the northern Ethiopian state of Tigray. Agricultural technology adoption decision...

  6. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Haefner, R. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  7. Recent Enhancements in NOAA's JPSS Land Product Suite and Key Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Yu, Y.; Zhan, X.; Vargas, M.; Ek, M. B.; Zheng, W.; Wu, Y.; Smirnova, T. G.; Benjamin, S.; Ahmadov, R.; James, E.; Grell, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of operational land products has been produced as part of NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program to support a wide range of operational applications in environmental monitoring, prediction, disaster management and mitigation, and decision support. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) and the operational JPSS satellite series forms the basis of six fundamental and multiple additional added-value environmental data records (EDRs). A major recent improvement in the land-based VIIRS EDRs has been the development of global gridded products, providing a format and science content suitable for ingest into NOAA's operational land surface and coupled numerical weather prediction models. VIIRS near-real-time Green Vegetation Fraction is now in the process of testing for full operational use, while land surface temperature and albedo are under testing and evaluation. The operational 750m VIIRS active fire product, including fire radiative power, is used to support emission modeling and air quality applications. Testing the evaluation for operational NOAA implementation of the improved 375m VIIRS active fire product is also underway. Added-value and emerging VIIRS land products include vegetation health, phenology, near-real-time surface type and surface condition change, and other biogeophysical variables. As part of the JPSS program, a global soil moisture data product has also been generated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor on the GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1) satellite since July 2012. This product is included in the blended NESDIS Soil Moisture Operational Products System, providing soil moisture data as a critical input for land surface modeling.

  8. Conflict or coordination? Assessing land use multi-functionalization using production-living-ecology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, De; Xu, Jianchun; Lin, Zhulu

    2017-01-15

    Land use multi-functionalization (LUMF) promotes efficient and sustainable land use, reduces land pressures from limited land resources, and elevates urbanization quality in the midst of the increasingly tense relationship between humans and nature. In this study, we propose a new conceptual index system using system science, entropy weight method, triangle model, and coupling coordination degree model for LUMF assessment as well as an analysis of the relationship among land use sub-functions. This framework was applied to six cities in the urban agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay (UAHB) in eastern China's Zhejiang Province using twenty-two indicators in terms of production-living-ecology analysis during 2004-2013. The UAHB LUMF level increased over the past ten years, being affected by the designated functions and the "planning effect" for the six cities in the UAHB. The relationships among land use sub-functions in the six cities displayed strong variabilities at the spatial and temporal scales. The overall patterns of the relative importance of these sub-functions also differed from each other. Our research also shows that urban development in the UAHB had focused more on economic growth than on ecological protection and the regional development in the UAHB's six cities was unbalanced. Therefore, we suggest urban and land use management need to embrace more integrated planning and design in order to maintain efficient and sustainable land use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Accuracy of 10 m winds from satellites and NWP products near land-sea boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, A. B.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Barron, C. N.; Hurlburt, H. E.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    Through a comprehensive analysis, reliability of 10 m wind speeds is presented near the land-sea boundaries over the global ocean. Winds from three numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers and two satellite-based products are analyzed. NWP products are 1.875° × 1.875° National Center Environmental Prediction reanalyses, 1.125° × 1.125° European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 40-year Reanalysis (ERA-40), and 1.0° × 1.0° Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) operational product. These are compared to much finer resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) satellite winds, Quick Scatterometer (QSCAT) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager. Large biases (e.g., >3 m s-1) may exist in NWP products near the land-sea boundaries, because wind speeds from the uniformly gridded global fields are generally at a spatial scale too coarse to appropriately define the contrast between water and land grid points. This so-called land contamination of ocean-only winds varies, and typically depends on the extent of the land-sea mask. A creeping sea-fill methodology is introduced to reduce errors in winds. It is based on the elimination of land-corrupted NWP grid points and replacement by adjacent, purely over-ocean values. In comparison to winds from many moored buoys, the methodology diminishes RMS errors (from >4 m s-1 to <1 m s-1) for NOGAPS and ERA-40. The creeping sea-fill is not advised for NCEP winds which have low contrast between land and sea points, thereby resulting in little impact from the land contamination.

  10. Progresses in hydrogen production and application for establishment of low‐carbon society in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yukitaka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: • H2 has high‐potential as an energy carrier for future energy system in Japan. • HTGR is reliable candidate as a primary energy source for H 2 production because of its stability and abundance of amount. • Nuclear heat usage for fuel reforming are efficient utilization way. • Fuel cell vehicle is developing as a H 2 usage market. • Hydrogen reduction of CO 2 has possibility for establishment of carbon recycling industrial systems in low‐carbon society. • Choice of rational H 2 pass is important.

  11. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF), water (water footprint, WF) and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF) during the production process. The wide range of different land a...

  12. Preliminary Guidelines for Installation Product Line Land Management Suite (LMS) Product Developers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westervelt, James; Dilks, Kelly M; Goran, William D

    2005-01-01

    .... This document provides an introduction to the new technologies and techniques and is written for all involved with installation land management software development including managers, supervisors...

  13. Impacts of supplyshed-level differences in productivity and land Costs on the economics of hybrid poplar production in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Lazarus; William L. Headlee; Ronald S. Zalesny

    2015-01-01

    The joint effects of poplar biomass productivity and land costs on poplar production economics were compared for 12 Minnesota counties and two genetic groups, using a process-based model (3-PG) to estimate productivity. The counties represent three levels of productivity and a range of land costs (annual rental rates) from $128/ha to $534/ha. An optimal rotation age...

  14. Establishment of Neurospora crassa as a host for heterologous protein production using a human antibody fragment as a model product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, David; Brandt, Ulrike; Bohle, Kathrin; Fleißner, André

    2017-07-25

    Filamentous fungi are commonly used as production hosts for bulk enzymes in biotechnological applications. Their robust and quick growth combined with their ability to secrete large amounts of protein directly into the culture medium makes fungi appealing organisms for the generation of novel production systems. The red bread mold Neurospora crassa has long been established as a model system in basic research. It can be very easily genetically manipulated and a wealth of molecular tools and mutants are available. In addition, N. crassa is very fast growing and non-toxic. All of these features point to a high but so far untapped potential of this fungus for biotechnological applications. In this study, we used genetic engineering and bioprocess development in a design-build-test-cycle process to establish N. crassa as a production host for heterologous proteins. The human antibody fragment HT186-D11 was fused to a truncated version of the endogenous enzyme glucoamylase (GLA-1), which served as a carrier protein to achieve secretion into the culture medium. A modular expression cassette was constructed and tested under the control of different promoters. Protease activity was identified as a major limitation of the production strain, and the effects of different mutations causing protease deficiencies were compared. Furthermore, a parallel bioreactor system (1 L) was employed to develop and optimize a production process, including the comparison of different culture media and cultivation parameters. After successful optimization of the production strain and the cultivation conditions an exemplary scale up to a 10 L stirred tank reactor was performed. The data of this study indicate that N. crassa is suited for the production and secretion of heterologous proteins. Controlling expression by the optimized promoter Pccg1nr in a fourfold protease deletion strain resulted in the successful secretion of the heterologous product with estimated yields of 3 mg/L of the

  15. Fostering sustainable feedstock production for advanced biofuels on underutilised land in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergner, Rita; Janssen, Rainer; Rutz, Dominik; Knoche, Dirk; Köhler, Raul; Colangeli, Marco; Gyuris, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Background In context of growing competition between land uses, bioenergy development is often seen as one of possible contributors to such competition. However, the potential of underutilized land (contaminated, abandoned, marginal, fallow land etc.) which is not used or cannot be used for productive activities is not exhausted and offers an attractive alternative for sustainable production of different biomass feedstocks in Europe. Depending on biomass feedstocks, different remediation activities can be carried out in addition. Bioenergy crops have the potential to be grown profitably on underutilized land and can therefore offer an attractive source of income on the local level contributing to achieving the targets of the Renewable Energy Directive (EC/2009). The FORBIO project The FORBIO project demonstrates the viability of using underutilised land in EU Member States for sustainable bioenergy feedstock production that does not affect the supply of food, feed and land currently used for recreational or conservation purposes. Project activities will serve to build up and strengthen local bioenergy value chains that are competitive and that meet the highest sustainability standards, thus contributing to the market uptake of sustainable bioenergy in the EU. Presented results The FORBIO project will develop a methodology to assess the sustainable bioenergy production potential on available underutilized lands in Europe at local, site-specific level. Based on this methodology, the project will produce multiple feasibility studies in three selected case study locations: Germany (lignite mining and sewage irrigation fields in the metropolis region of Berlin and Brandenburg), Italy (contaminated land from industrial activities in Sulcis, Portoscuso) and Ukraine (underutilised marginal agricultural land in the North of Kiev). The focus of the presentation will be on the agronomic and techno-economic feasibility studies in Germany, Italy and Ukraine. Agronomic

  16. Comparison of regional and global land cover products and the implications for biogenic emission modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of biogenic emissions are required for air quality models that support the development of air quality management plans and attainment demonstrations. Land cover characterization is an essential driving input for most biogenic emissions models. This work contrasted the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product against a regional land cover product developed for the Texas Commissions on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) over four climate regions in eastern Texas, where biogenic emissions comprise a large fraction of the total inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and land cover is highly diverse. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) was utilized to investigate the influences of land cover characterization on modeled isoprene and monoterpene emissions through changes in the standard emission potential and emission activity factor, both separately and simultaneously. In Central Texas, forest coverage was significantly lower in the MODIS land cover product relative to the TCEQ data, which resulted in substantially lower estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emissions by as much as 90%. Differences in predicted isoprene and monoterpene emissions associated with variability in land cover characterization were primarily caused by differences in the standard emission potential, which is dependent on plant functional type. Photochemical modeling was conducted to investigate the effects of differences in estimated biogenic emissions associated with land cover characterization on predicted ozone concentrations using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Mean differences in maximum daily average 8-hour (MDA8) ozone concentrations were 2 to 6 ppb with maximum differences exceeding 20 ppb. Continued focus should be on reducing uncertainties in the representation of land cover through field validation. Uncertainties in the estimation of biogenic emissions associated with

  17. Methane production by mariculture on land. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, K.

    1985-01-01

    It was the aim of this program to have the whole cycle running, consisting of algae production, harvesting, fermentation to biogas, and mineral nutrient recycling into the algae ponds in the form of the fermentation residue (sludge). For this purpose two pilot ponds with a total area of 160 m/sup 2/ have been installed and operated which provided a lot of new experience and success in this new field: concerning pond regime, harvesting procedure and species control. As a preparatory step for the fermentation at pilot scale (which is a subject of the next period), the anaerobic digesteability of micro and macro algae was tested at the laboratory scale. The recycling of unoxidized fermentation sludge directly into the algae ponds has successfully been tested over a period of 4 months; it was finished by seasonal circumstances in November 1981. Finally, the productivities of 3 different algal strains, candidates for energy farming, were tested and compared. Tetraselmis showed the highest productivity yielding 65 tons/ha/yr, followed by Oscillatoria with about 88% of this, and Ulva with 68%. It seems, however, that with the last species the optimal yield has not yet been reached.

  18. Establishment and assessment of an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid industrial production, an improved integrated citric acid-methane production process was established in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was stripped by air to remove ammonia. Followed by solid-liquid separation to remove metal ion precipitation, the supernatant was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. 130U/g glucoamylase was added to medium after inoculation and the recycling process performed for 10 batches. Fermentation time decreased by 20% in recycling and the average citric acid production (2nd-10th) was 145.9±3.4g/L, only 2.5% lower than that with tap water (149.6g/L). The average methane production was 292.3±25.1mL/g CODremoved and stable in operation. Excessive Na(+) concentration in ADE was confirmed to be the major challenge for the proposed process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endemic time-spaces of Finland: from wilderness lands to 'vacant production spaces'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Mustonen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional land use and occupancy of the wilderness lands of Finnish pre- and early- historic communities has not received much discussion in contemporary geographical debates. This article explores such occupancies and analyses transformations to present land use through two case studies: the Lake Kuivasjärvi basin in Western Finland and the Linnunsuo marsh-mire in Eastern Finland. Environmental justice provides the analytical framing through which the processes of change are analysed within each case by using historical geographical data and reviewing literature. Both locations were communally used by occupying villages prior to the advent of the industrial era. Yet the forestry and peat production industries that were pursued in the twentieth century ignored this historical use and saw them as ‘vacant spaces’ to be developed. In Linnunsuo, a post-production space has developed since the end of the peat production.

  20. Validation of the MODIS MOD21 and MOD11 land surface temperature and emissivity products in an arid area of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Yang, Y.; Yongming, D.; Cao, B.; Qinhuo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter for hydrological, meteorological, climatological and environmental studies. During the past decades, many efforts have been devoted to the establishment of methodology for retrieving the LST from remote sensing data and significant progress has been achieved. Many operational LST products have been generated using different remote sensing data. MODIS LST product (MOD11) is one of the most commonly used LST products, which is produced using a generalized split-window algorithm. Many validation studies have showed that MOD11 LST product agrees well with ground measurements over vegetated and inland water surfaces, however, large negative biases of up to 5 K are present over arid regions. In addition, land surface emissivity of MOD11 are estimated by assigning fixed emissivities according to a land cover classification dataset, which may introduce large errors to the LST product due to misclassification of the land cover. Therefore, a new MODIS LSE&E product (MOD21) is developed based on the temperature emissivity separation (TES) algorithm, and the water vapor scaling (WVS) method has also been incorporated into the MODIS TES algorithm for improving the accuracy of the atmospheric correction. The MOD21 product will be released with MODIS collection 6 Tier-2 land products in 2017. Due to the MOD21 products are not available right now, the MODTES algorithm was implemented including the TES and WVS methods as detailed in the MOD21 Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document. The MOD21 and MOD11 C6 LST products are validated using ground measurements and ASTER LST products collected in an arid area of Northwest China during the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) experiment. In addition, lab emissivity spectra of four sand dunes in the Northwest China are also used to validate the MOD21 and MOD11 emissivity products.

  1. An integrated evaluation of land surface energy fluxes over China in seven reanalysis/modeling products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Fu, Congbin; Guo, Weidong

    2017-08-01

    An integrated evaluation of monthly mean land surface energy fluxes over China in seven reanalysis and land model products during the period 1979-2015 is conducted. Observations from seven field sites are used to evaluate these flux products, including four reanalysis data sets and three produced by off-line land surface models. In general, the expected seasonal variations and spatial patterns in major climatic regimes are well reproduced by all reanalysis and modeling products. However, large differences among the four reanalysis products are found, while the three off-line land surface modeling products correlate well with each other. Looking at the Bowen ratio, it is found that the off-line land surface models convert a larger fraction of surface available energy into sensible heat flux compared to the reanalysis products in all climatic regimes. There are three centers of high interannual variability in sensible heat located in West China, Northeast China, and the eastern Inner Mongolia, respectively. In addition, the sensible heat flux agrees better with observations at grassland sites than at forest sites, while the latent heat flux and net radiation are significantly overestimated at forest sites in all the flux products. Besides, mean square errors of the fluxes are decomposed into biases, correlations, and differences in standard deviation. Finally, based on a ranking system adopted to quantitatively evaluate the performance of each data set, it is found that the surface energy fluxes in ERA-Interim and JRA-25 agree well with observations and the ensemble mean of all these products remains reasonably realistic as well.

  2. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  3. The evaluation of land consolidation policy in improving agricultural productivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaobin; Shao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihong; Resler, Lynn M; Campbell, James B; Chen, Guo; Zhou, Yinkang

    2017-06-05

    China is presently undergoing rapid economic development and unprecedented urbanization. Concerns over food security have prompted the Chinese government to implement large-scale land consolidation projects. However, no formal evaluation has been conducted on such projects. Thus, effectiveness of land consolidation policy remains uncertain. We obtained detailed geo-spatial information for 5328 land consolidation projects implemented between 2006 and 2010, and used time-series MODIS NDVI (2006-2016) data to assess effectiveness of China's land consolidation policy in improving agricultural productivity. Our results show that the overall effectiveness of land consolidation in improving agricultural productivity is low, which lies in contrast to optimistic estimates based on regional statistical analysis and theoretical approaches. For projects (n = 560) implemented in 2006, about 29.5% showed significant (p consolidation. For 2007-2010, lower percentages (e.g., 25.9% in 2007 and 13.5% in 2010) of projects showed significant increasing trends. Furthermore, we found effectiveness of land consolidation projects displayed clear regional differences and driving factors are inconsistent with policy design. We anticipate our research to be a starting point for a more comprehensive evaluation involving longer time-series and higher spatial resolution data.

  4. The availability and economic analyses of using marginal land for bioenergy production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuqi, Chen; Xudong, Guo; Chunyan, Lv

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, China has witnessed rapid increase in the dependence of foreign oil import. In 2015, the primary energy consumption of China is 543 million tons, of which 328 million tons was imported. The total amount of imported foreign oil increased from 49.8% in 2008 to 60.41% in 2016. To address the national energy security and GHG emission reduction, China has made considerable progress in expanding renewable energy portfolio, especially liquid biofuels. However, under the pressure of high population and vulnerable food security, China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) ruled that bioenergy is only allowed to be produced using non-cereal feedstock. In addition, the energy crops can only be planted on marginal land, which is the land not suitable for growing field crops due to edaphic and/or climatic limitations, and other environmental risks. Although there have been a number of studies about estimating the marginal land for energy plants' cultivation in China, as to the different definition of marginal land and land use data, the results are quite different. Furthermore, even if there is enough marginal land suitable for energy plants' cultivation, economic viability of cultivating energy plants on marginal land is critical. In order to analyze the availability and economic analyses of the marginal land for bioenergy production strategy, firstly, by using of the latest and most authoritative land use data, this study focused on the assessment of marginal land resources and bioenergy potential by planting five species of energy plants including Cassava, Jatropha curcas, Helianthus tuberous L, Pistacia chinensis, Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. The results indicate that there are 289.71 million ha marginal land can be used for these five energy plants' cultivation, which can produce 24.45 million tons bioethanol and 8.77 million tons of biodiesel. Secondly, based on field survey data and literature reviews, we found that, from the farmers

  5. Intensify production, transform biomass to energy and novel goods and protect soils in Europe-A vision how to mobilize marginal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, P; Beckers, B; Daniels, S; Gnädinger, F; Maestri, E; Marmiroli, N; Mench, M; Millan, R; Obermeier, M M; Oustriere, N; Persson, T; Poschenrieder, C; Rineau, F; Rutkowska, B; Schmid, T; Szulc, W; Witters, N; Sæbø, A

    2018-03-01

    The rapid increase of the world population constantly demands more food production from agricultural soils. This causes conflicts, since at the same time strong interest arises on novel bio-based products from agriculture, and new perspectives for rural landscapes with their valuable ecosystem services. Agriculture is in transition to fulfill these demands. In many countries, conventional farming, influenced by post-war food requirements, has largely been transformed into integrated and sustainable farming. However, since it is estimated that agricultural production systems will have to produce food for a global population that might amount to 9.1 billion by 2050 and over 10 billion by the end of the century, we will require an even smarter use of the available land, including fallow and derelict sites. One of the biggest challenges is to reverse non-sustainable management and land degradation. Innovative technologies and principles have to be applied to characterize marginal lands, explore options for remediation and re-establish productivity. With view to the heterogeneity of agricultural lands, it is more than logical to apply specific crop management and production practices according to soil conditions. Cross-fertilizing with conservation agriculture, such a novel approach will provide (1) increased resource use efficiency by producing more with less (ensuring food security), (2) improved product quality, (3) ameliorated nutritional status in food and feed products, (4) increased sustainability, (5) product traceability and (6) minimized negative environmental impacts notably on biodiversity and ecological functions. A sustainable strategy for future agriculture should concentrate on production of food and fodder, before utilizing bulk fractions for emerging bio-based products and convert residual stage products to compost, biochar and bioenergy. The present position paper discusses recent developments to indicate how to unlock the potentials of marginal land

  6. Developing a New North American Land Cover Product at 30m Resolution: Methods, Results and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, C.; Colditz, R. R.; Latifovic, R.; Llamas, R. M.; Pouliot, D.; Danielson, P.; Meneses, C.; Victoria, A.; Ressl, R.; Richardson, K.; Vulpescu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land cover and land cover change information at regional and continental scales has become fundamental for studying and understanding the terrestrial environment. With recent advances in computer science and freely available image archives, continental land cover mapping has been advancing to higher spatial resolution products. The North American Land Change Monitoring System (NALCMS) remains the principal provider of seamless land cover maps of North America. Founded in 2006, this collaboration among the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States has released two previous products based on 250m MODIS images, including a 2005 land cover and a 2005-2010 land cover change product. NALCMS has recently completed the next generation North America land cover product, based upon 30m Landsat images. This product now provides the first ever 30m land cover produced for the North American continent, providing 19 classes of seamless land cover. This presentation provides an overview of country-specific image classification processes, describes the continental map production process, provides results for the North American continent and discusses future plans. NALCMS is coordinated by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and all products can be obtained at their website - www.cec.org.

  7. High spatial resolution satellite observations for validation of MODIS land products: IKONOS observations acquired under the NASA scientific data purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey T. Morisette; Jaime E. Nickeson; Paul Davis; Yujie Wang; Yuhong Tian; Curtis E. Woodcock; Nikolay Shabanov; Matthew Hansen; Warren B. Cohen; Doug R. Oetter; Robert E. Kennedy

    2003-01-01

    Phase 1I of the Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) has provided NASA investigators access to data from four different satellite and airborne data sources. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) land discipline team (MODLAND) sought to utilize these data in support of land product validation activities with a lbcus on tile EOS Land Validation Core Sites. These...

  8. Water and Land Footprints and Economic Productivity as Factors in Local Crop Choice : The Case of Silk in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeboom, Rick; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-01-01

    In deciding what crops to grow, farmers will look at, among other things, the economically most productive use of the water and land resources that they have access to. However, optimizing water and land use at the farm level may result in total water and land footprints at the catchment level that

  9. Evaluating the Potential of Marginal Land for Cellulosic Feedstock Production and Carbon Sequestration in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Isaac; Mueller, Steffen; Qin, Zhangcai; Dunn, Jennifer B

    2017-01-03

    Land availability for growing feedstocks at scale is a crucial concern for the bioenergy industry. Feedstock production on land not well-suited to growing conventional crops, or marginal land, is often promoted as ideal, although there is a poor understanding of the qualities, quantity, and distribution of marginal lands in the United States. We examine the spatial distribution of land complying with several key marginal land definitions at the United States county, agro-ecological zone, and national scales, and compare the ability of both marginal land and land cover data sets to identify regions for feedstock production. We conclude that very few land parcels comply with multiple definitions of marginal land. Furthermore, to examine possible carbon-flow implications of feedstock production on land that could be considered marginal per multiple definitions, we model soil carbon changes upon transitions from marginal cropland, grassland, and cropland-pastureland to switchgrass production for three marginal land-rich counties. Our findings suggest that total soil organic carbon changes per county are small, and generally positive, and can influence life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of switchgrass ethanol.

  10. Consistent retrieval of land surface radiation products from EO, including traceable uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Thomas; Pinty, Bernard; Voßbeck, Michael; Lopatka, Maciej; Gobron, Nadine; Robustelli, Monica

    2017-05-01

    Earth observation (EO) land surface products have been demonstrated to provide a constraint on the terrestrial carbon cycle that is complementary to the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide. We present the Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) for retrieval of variables characterising the state of the vegetation-soil system. The system provides a set of land surface variables that satisfy all requirements for assimilation into the land component of climate and numerical weather prediction models. Being based on a 1-D representation of the radiative transfer within the canopy-soil system, such as those used in the land surface components of advanced global models, the JRC-TIP products are not only physically consistent internally, but they also achieve a high degree of consistency with these global models. Furthermore, the products are provided with full uncertainty information. We describe how these uncertainties are derived in a fully traceable manner without any hidden assumptions from the input observations, which are typically broadband white sky albedo products. Our discussion of the product uncertainty ranges, including the uncertainty reduction, highlights the central role of the leaf area index, which describes the density of the canopy. We explain the generation of products aggregated to coarser spatial resolution than that of the native albedo input and describe various approaches to the validation of JRC-TIP products, including the comparison against in situ observations. We present a JRC-TIP processing system that satisfies all operational requirements and explain how it delivers stable climate data records. Since many aspects of JRC-TIP are generic, the package can serve as an example of a state-of-the-art system for retrieval of EO products, and this contribution can help the user to understand advantages and limitations of such products.

  11. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  12. DIRECTIONS FOR THE RECOVERY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustovska O.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of agricultural production in the Polesie Ukraine traditionally was complicated through the low natural land fertility, their high acidity, perevolotsky valley. During the centrally planned economic system that the natural contrast of the Polesie land had been somewhat neglected by the state through differentiation of purchase prices for agricultural products, which gave the possibility of redistribution of the rent in favor of the farms with poorer land. With transition to market relations the role of the state, and hence the possibility of its influence on this situation has changed dramatically. Economic conditions have become more profitable for the farmers that are occupying the best lands. However, the situation in the regions has not yet been investigated systematically taking into account the modern complex socio-economic processes and phenomena caused by increased environmental stress on land resources. One of the most pernicious environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident was radioactive contamination of agricultural land, defined in the final stage of transfer of radionuclides in the human body and further irradiation. The main danger of the accumulation by plants of radionuclides lies in the fact that they are a major link in the migratory chain of transmission of radionuclides to the more radiosensitive species and, above all, human. Economic feature of agricultural production in the study area is insufficient pricesambien, transformation of land use, violations of industrial-economic relations, the structure of agricultural production, changes in the natural-cost structure commodity products, the reform of the organizational structure of agricultural production. In the farms located in contaminated areas, the necessary conversion of dairy cattle for meat. In conditions of high pollution, the production of milk requires a serious sanitary objections in that time, as meat production is more environmentally

  13. Switchgrass-Based Bioethanol Productivity and Potential Environmental Impact from Marginal Lands in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass displays an excellent potential to serve as a non-food bioenergy feedstock for bioethanol production in China due to its high potential yield on marginal lands. However, few studies have been conducted on the spatial distribution of switchgrass-based bioethanol production potential in China. This study created a land surface process model (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate GIS (Geographic Information System-based (GEPIC model coupled with a life cycle analysis (LCA to explore the spatial distribution of potential bioethanol production and present a comprehensive analysis of energy efficiency and environmental impacts throughout its whole life cycle. It provides a new approach to study the bioethanol productivity and potential environmental impact from marginal lands based on the high spatial resolution GIS data, and this applies not only to China, but also to other regions and to other types of energy plant. The results indicate that approximately 59 million ha of marginal land in China are suitable for planting switchgrass, and 22 million tons of ethanol can be produced from this land. Additionally, a potential net energy gain (NEG of 1.75 x 106 million MJ will be achieved if all of the marginal land can be used in China, and Yunnan Province offers the most significant one that accounts for 35% of the total. Finally, this study obtained that the total environmental effect index of switchgrass-based bioethanol is the equivalent of a population of approximately 20,300, and a reduction in the global warming potential (GWP is the most significant environmental impact.

  14. MODIS land cover and LAI collection 4 product quality across nine states in the western hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maiersperger; David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Dirk Pflugmacher; Robert E. Kennedy; Alan Kirschbaum; Steven W. Running; Marcos Costa; Stith T. Gower

    2006-01-01

    Global maps of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) reflectance data are an important resource in studies of global change, but errors in these must be characterized and well understood. Product validation requires careful scaling from ground and related measurements to a grain commensurate with MODIS...

  15. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Dornburg, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189955007; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and

  16. Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in Sao Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo

  17. Meat and milk production scenarios and the associated land footprint in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosire, Caroline; Krol, Martinus S.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Ogutu, J.O.; de Leeuw, J.; Lannerstad, M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for meat and milk in developing countries and the associated production growth are driving the expansion of agriculture at the expense of environmental conservation and other land uses. While considerable attention has been directed at improving crop yields to alleviate the

  18. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION MODEL FOR SMALL FARMER IN RAINFED ARID LAND

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    A production system model has been developed at model organic farm ,CAZRI,Jodhpur,India with integration of organic system and rainwater harvesting that can be proved viable for providing livelihood security and income insurance to the small farmers in rainfed arid land.

  19. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This

  20. Competition for pulsed resources: an experimental study of establishment and coexistence for an arid-land grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankju-Borzelabad, Mohammad; Griffiths, Howard

    2006-07-01

    In arid environments, episodically-pulsed resources are important components of annual water and nutrient supply for plants. This study set out to test whether seedlings have an increased capacity for using pulsed resources, which might then improve establishment when in competition with older individuals. A second aim was to determine whether there is a trade-off in competitive strategies when resources are supplied continuously at low concentrations, or as pulses with pronounced inter-pulse periods. A glasshouse experiment used a target-neighbour design of size-asymmetric competition, with juveniles of Panicum antidotale (blue panicgrass) introduced into contrasting densities of adult plants. Stable isotopes of nitrogen were used for measuring plant resource uptake from pulses, and tolerance to inter-pulse conditions was assessed as the mean residence time (MRT) of nitrogen. A higher root/shoot ratio and finer root system enhanced the capacity of juveniles to use resources when pulsed, rather than when continuously supplied. Higher resource uptake during pulses improved the establishment of juvenile Panicum in mixed cultures with older individuals. However, a trade-off was observed in plant strategies, with juveniles showing a lower MRT for nitrogen, which suggested reduced tolerance to resource deficit during inter-pulse periods. Under field conditions, higher utilization of pulsed resources would lead to the improved seedling establishment of Panicum adjacent to "nurse" plants, whereas mature plants with well-developed roots, exploiting a greater soil volume, maintain more constant resource uptake and retention during inter-pulse periods.

  1. Methodological Foundations of Clustering and Innovativeness for Establishing the Competitive Production of Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Oleksandr V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to study the worldwide trends in development of innovative processes and creation of cluster structures for elaborating methodological foundations for establishing the competitive production of biofuels. The article highlights the cluster approaches in conducting the global commercial activities that create effective mechanisms and tools to encourage innovation-investment regional development and can be characterized by their relevance for the Ukrainian economy. Emphasis is made on the matter that clustering is one of the key tools for structuring the energy market, integrated exploiting the potential of bioenergy industry sector, management of the economic policies of redistribution of value added, implementation of the growth of investment attractiveness of the biofuel industry in our country. It has been concluded that cluster development in the biofuel production will stimulate specialization and cooperation processes in the agro-industrial economy sector, bringing together related businesses in the direction of an effective interaction, thereby ensuring a high level of competitiveness of biofuels in both the national and the international markets.

  2. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) Users’ Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Energy Resources Center; Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2016-09-01

    The $\\underline{C}$arbon $\\underline{C}$alculator for $\\underline{L}$and $\\underline{U}$se Change from $\\underline{B}$iofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  3. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward; Faaij, Andre; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hilbert, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  4. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  5. [Effects of forest vegetation on runoff and sediment production on sloping lands of Loess area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Yu, Xinxiao; Wu, Sihong; Wei, Tianxing; Zhang, Xuepei

    2005-09-01

    Based on the 1985 - 2003 fixed-position data in 9 runoff plots of Caijiachuan watershed in the Jixian county of Shanxi Province in loess area, this paper discussed the relationships between vegetation and runoff and sediment production on sloping lands of loess area. The results showed that natural-secondary forest had better function in soil and water conservation than artifical Robinia pseudoacacia forest, with runoff and sediment produced 65% - 82% and 23% - 92%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis indicated that runoff and sediment production had a significant correlation with rainfall and its intensity, but this relationship was decreased gradually with increasing canopy density. Different land-use type had different runoff and sediment production, e. g., Ostryopsis davidiana and natural-secondary forests had the least runoff and sediment production, artificial Robinia pseudoacacia and Pinus tabulaeformis forests had 5 folds of it as much as Ostryopsis davidiana forest, mixed apple trees and crops had 17.14 and 3.96 folds of it than Ostryopsis davidiana forest, respectively, while high-standard soil preparation could decrease the production obviously. Gray correlation analysis suggested that the stand canopy density and the biomass of herb and litter were the most important factors affecting the runoff and sediment production on sloping land, whose gray correlation degrees all exceeded 0.6. Mixed forest with multi-layer stand structure and shrub forest should be developed in vegetation re-construction of loess area, which could help to increase the coverage and litter thickness to dramatically decrease the runoff and sediment production on sloping land.

  6. Customer-oriented Data Formats and Services for Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products at the NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew; Teng, BIll; Vollmer, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products simulated by four land surface Models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GESDISC).

  7. INTERCEPTION OF ANIMAL-ORIGIN PRODUCTS AT LAND BORDERS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Janice Eidt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State and Pacaraima (Roraima State, respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. The main animal products confiscated were dairy products, fish, meat, sausage, veterinary products (drugs, animal food (pet foods and apiculture products. Given the clandestine nature of animal transit and its products in these borders, the possibilities of introduction of infectious agents and diseases must be better evaluated, considering the type of products confiscated, as well as the sanitary status of the countries of origin.

  8. Water Footprint and Land Requirement of Solar Thermochemical Jet-Fuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-11-07

    The production of alternative fuels via the solar thermochemical pathway has the potential to provide supply security and to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. H 2 O and CO 2 are converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy mediated by redox reactions of a metal oxide. Because attractive production locations are in arid regions, the water footprint and the land requirement of this fuel production pathway are analyzed. The water footprint consists of 7.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of direct demand on-site and 42.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of indirect demand, where the dominant contributions are the mining of the rare earth oxide ceria, the manufacturing of the solar concentration infrastructure, and the cleaning of the mirrors. The area-specific productivity is found to be 33 362 liters per hectare per year of jet fuel equivalents, where the land coverage is mainly due to the concentration of solar energy for heat and electricity. The water footprint and the land requirement of the solar thermochemical fuel pathway are larger than the best power-to-liquid pathways but an order of magnitude lower than the best biomass-to-liquid pathways. For the production of solar thermochemical fuels arid regions are best-suited, and for biofuels regions of a moderate and humid climate.

  9. A prototype for automation of land-cover products from Landsat Surface Reflectance Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, J.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Steinwand, D.; Nelson, K.; Coan, M.; Wylie, B. K.; Dahal, D.; Wika, S.; Quenzer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landsat data records of surface reflectance provide a three-decade history of land surface processes. Due to the vast number of these archived records, development of innovative approaches for automated data mining and information retrieval were necessary. Recently, we created a prototype utilizing open source software libraries for automatically generating annual Anderson Level 1 land cover maps and information products from data acquired by the Landsat Mission for the years 1984 to 2013. The automated prototype was applied to two target areas in northwestern and east-central North Dakota, USA. The approach required the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and two user-input target acquisition year-days. The Landsat archive was mined for scenes acquired within a 100-day window surrounding these target dates, and then cloud-free pixels where chosen closest to the specified target acquisition dates. The selected pixels were then composited before completing an unsupervised classification using the NLCD. Pixels unchanged in pairs of the NLCD were used for training decision tree models in an iterative process refined with model confidence measures. The decision tree models were applied to the Landsat composites to generate a yearly land cover map and related information products. Results for the target areas captured changes associated with the recent expansion of oil shale production and agriculture driven by economics and policy, such as the increase in biofuel production and reduction in Conservation Reserve Program. Changes in agriculture, grasslands, and surface water reflect the local hydrological conditions that occurred during the 29-year span. Future enhancements considered for this prototype include a web-based client, ancillary spatial datasets, trends and clustering algorithms, and the forecasting of future land cover.

  10. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  11. Impact of Land Use Rights Transfer on Household Labor Productivity: A Study Applying Propensity Score Matching in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the rural labor productivity and farmers’ income, land use transfer was launched and encouraged in recent years, especially the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan (2016–2020. This study aims to shed light on the impact of land use rights transfer on household labor productivity, based on a case study of Chongqing in China. Studies have revealed that land use transfer entails a process of self-selection and does not occur in a random manner. The study, therefore, addressed the issue of sample selection by applying propensity score matching. The study results suggested significant differences in the effects of land use transfer on household labor productivity. Specifically, renting land from other households had a positive effect on total labor productivity (TLP and agricultural labor productivity (ALP. Moreover, TLP and ALP were found to be higher for households that rented more land or that were located in plain areas. Renting out land had a robust and positive effect on the TLP and non-agricultural labor productivity (NALP. TLP and NALP were also higher for households that rented out more land or that were located in plain areas. These findings suggest that land use transfer should be actively encouraged in plain areas. However, in mountainous areas, there is a need to pay more attention to expanding agriculture to benefit poor and marginalized populations in these areas.

  12. Establishing Effective Environmental and Safety Performance Indicators: A Best Practice Approach in Uranium Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezansoff, D.; White, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cameco Corporation (Cameco), with headquarters in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, is the world's largest, low-cost uranium producer, currently supplying sufficient uranium to meet 20% of the world's demand. It is characterized by a diverse range of operations in Canada, the United States and Central Asia, for which Cameco is the majority owner and/or operator, including exploration, mining, milling, refining and conversion. Cameco had four business segments: Uranium; Conversion services; Nuclear energy generation; and Gold Also, in 2002, Cameco revised its vision statement to indicate, 'Cameco will be a dominant nuclear energy company producing uranium fuel and generating clean electricity'. Commensurate with this, Cameco has re-confirmed its overall measures of success as follows: A safe, healthy and rewarding workplace; A clean environment; Supportive communities; and Solid financial performance - all reflected in a growing return to shareholders. Like most organizations, Cameco recognizes the importance of conducting its operations in ways that promote continual improvement in environmental and safety performance. Demonstrating the environmental advantages of nuclear is a vital part of the overall best management practices approach. Detractors often try to point to the uranium production side of the nuclear fuel cycle in pursuit of trying to make the case that the nuclear option does not carry any special environmental advantage. These attempts are mostly based on performance from eras past, not modern performance. The uranium sector must be able to present its case in a modern context, which is largely based on sustainable development principles. This paper focuses on establishing environment and safety performance indicators for the uranium production and conversion aspects of Cameco's business, as well as in support of the environmental advantages of nuclear energy generation

  13. Unlocking the potential of established products: toward new incentives rewarding innovation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayroles, Gabrielle; Frybourg, Sandrine; Gabriel, Sylvie; Kornfeld, Åsa; Antoñanzas-Villar, Fernando; Espín, Jaime; Jommi, Claudio; Martini, Nello; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Tolley, Keith; Wasem, Jürgen; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    Background : Many established products (EPs - marketed for eight years or more) are widely used off-label despite little evidence on benefit-risk ratio. This exposes patients to risks related to safety and lack of efficacy, and healthcare providers to liability. Introducing new indications for EPs may represent a high societal value; however, manufacturers rarely invest in R&D for EPs. The objective of this research was to describe incentives and disincentives for developing new indications for EPs in Europe and to investigate consequences of current policies. Methods : Targeted literature search and expert panel meetings. Results : Within the current European-level and national-level regulatory framework there are limited incentives for development of new indications with EPs. Extension of indication normally does not allow the price to be increased or maintained, the market protection period to be extended, or exclusion from a reference price system. New indication frequently triggers re-evaluation, resulting in price erosion, regardless of the level of added value with the new indication. In consequence, manufacturers are more prone to undertake R&D efforts at early to mid-stage of product life cycle rather than with EPs, or to invest in new chemical entities, even in therapeutic areas with broad off-label use. This represents a potentially missed opportunity as developing new indications for EPs offers an alternative to off-label use or lengthy and expensive R&D for new therapies, opens new opportunities for potentially cost-effective treatment alternatives, as well as greater equity in patients' access to treatment options. Conclusion : There are potential benefits from the development of new indications for EPs that are currently not being realized due to a lack of regulatory and pricing incentives in Europe. Incentives for orphan or paediatric drugs have proven to be effective in promoting R&D. Similarly, incentives to promote R&D in EPs should be developed

  14. Land Rental Market Participation and Its Impact on Fixed Investment and Household Welfare: Evidence from Chinese Apple Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyun Hou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a large dataset from the specialized apple production sites of China and multiple econometric methods, we identify the main determinants of farmers’ land rental decisions and the effects from renting land in on their investment and economic welfare. It is found that having more effective cultivated land before renting in has a significantly negative effect on the land rented in, that households with rich land endowments or large areas of land rented in usually invest more in fixed assets, and that efficient provisions of credit and insurance are helpful to encourage investments in fixed assets. As a result, renting in land generates gains in terms of agricultural income, total income, and productive expenditure.

  15. New Estimates of Land Use Intensity of Potential Bioethanol Production in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheshgi, H. S.; Song, Y.; Torkamani, S.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    We estimate potential bioethanol land use intensity (the inverse of potential bioethanol yield per hectare) across the United States by modeling crop yields and conversion to bioethanol (via a fermentation pathway), based on crop field studies and conversion technology analyses. We apply the process-based land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment model (ISAM), to estimate the potential yield of four crops - corn, Miscanthus, and two variants of switchgrass (Cave-in-Rock and Alamo) - across the U.S.A. landscape for the 14-year period from 1999 through 2012, for the case with fertilizer application but without irrigation. We estimate bioethanol yield based on recent experience for corn bioethanol production from corn kernel, and current cellulosic bioethanol process design specifications under the assumption of the maximum practical harvest fraction for the energy grasses (Miscanthus and switchgrasses) and a moderate (30%) harvest fraction of corn stover. We find that each of four crops included has regions where that crop is estimated to have the lowest land use intensity (highest potential bioethanol yield per hectare). We find that minimizing potential land use intensity by including both corn and the energy grasses only improves incrementally to that of corn (using both harvested kernel and stover for bioethanol). Bioethanol land use intensity is one fundamental factor influencing the desirability of biofuels, but is not the only one; others factors include economics, competition with food production and land use, water and climate, nitrogen runoff, life-cycle emissions, and the pace of crop and technology improvement into the future.

  16. Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with biofuel production: Empirical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Kwon, Hoyoung; Mueller, Steffen; Wander, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) change can be a major impact of land use change (LUC) associated with biofuel feedstock production. By collecting and analyzing data from worldwide field observations with major LUCs from cropland, grassland and forest to lands producing biofuel crops (i.e., corn, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar and willow), we were able to estimate SOC response ratios and sequestration rates and evaluate the effects of soil depth and time scale on SOC change. Both the amount and rate of SOC change were highly dependent on the specific land transition. Irrespective of soil depth or time horizon, cropland conversions resulted in an overall SOC gain of 6-14% relative to initial SOC level, while conversion from grassland or forest to corn (without residue removal) or poplar caused significant carbon loss (9-35%). No significant SOC changes were observed in land converted from grasslands or forests to switchgrass, Miscanthus or willow. The SOC response ratios were similar in both 0-30 and 0-100 cm soil depths in most cases, suggesting SOC changes in deep soil and that use of top soil only for SOC accounting in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA) might underestimate total SOC changes. Soil carbon sequestration rates varied greatly among studies and land transition types. Generally, the rates of SOC change tended to be the greatest during the 10 years following land conversion, and had declined to approach 0 within about 20 years for most LUCs. Observed trends in SOC change were generally consistent with previous reports. Soil depth and duration of study significantly influence SOC change rates and so should be considered in carbon emission accounting in biofuel LCA. High uncertainty remains for many perennial systems, field trials and modeling efforts are needed to determine the site- and system-specific rates and direction of change associated with their production.

  17. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems: establishing a minimum data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues de Lima, Ana Cláudia; Hoogmoed, Willem; Brussaard, Lijbert

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil's capacity to function, can be assessed by indicators based on physical, chemical, and biological properties. Here we report on the assessment of soil quality in 21 rice (Oryza sativa) fields under three rice production systems (semi-direct, pre-germinated, and conventional) on four soil textural classes in the Camaquã region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The objectives of our study were: (i) to identify soil quality indicators that discriminate both management systems and soil textural classes, (ii) to establish a minimum data set of soil quality indicators and (iii) to test whether this minimum data set is correlated with yield. Twenty-nine soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to characterize regional soil quality. Soil quality assessment was based on factor and discriminant analysis. Bulk density, available water, and micronutrients (Cu, Zn, and Mn) were the most powerful soil properties in distinguishing among different soil textural classes. Organic matter, earthworms, micronutrients (Cu and Mn), and mean weight diameter were the most powerful soil properties in assessing differences in soil quality among the rice management systems. Manganese was the property most strongly correlated with yield (adjusted r2 = 0.365, P = 0.001). The merits of sub-dividing samples according to texture and the linkage between soil quality indicators, soil functioning, plant performance, and soil management options are discussed in particular.

  18. Alternative spatial allocation of suitable land for biofuel production in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Chen, Yang; Rao, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    How to select locations for biofuel production is still a critical consideration for balance of crop and biofuel productions as well as of energy consumption and environmental conservation. Biofuels are widely produced all over the world, but this practice in China is still at the initial stage....... Based on China's current stage on food security and changing biofuel demands, this paper selected agro-environmental and socio-economic factors of biofuel production, and simulated and spatially allocated areas suited for biofuel production under the two scenarios of planning-oriented scenario (Po......S) and biofuel-oriented scenario (BoS) by the target year 2020. It also estimated biofuel production potentials and zones across China's provinces. The results show that land suited for biofuel production is primarily located in Northwestern, Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southwestern China...

  19. Differences in production, carbon stocks and biodiversity outcomes of land tenure regimes in the Argentine Dry Chaco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, Sofía; Grau, H. Ricardo; Gasparri, Néstor Ignacio; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Baumann, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Rising global demand for agricultural products results in agricultural expansion and intensification, with substantial environmental trade-offs. The South American Dry Chaco contains some of the fastest expanding agricultural frontiers worldwide, and includes diverse forms of land management, mainly associated with different land tenure regimes; which in turn are segregated along environmental gradients (mostly rainfall). Yet, how these regimes impact the environment and how trade-offs between production and environmental outcomes varies remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed how biodiversity, biomass stocks, and agricultural production, measured in meat-equivalents, differ among land tenure regimes in the Dry Chaco. We calculated a land-use outcome index (LUO) that combines indices comparing actual vs. potential values of ‘preservation of biodiversity’ (PI), ‘standing biomass’ (BI) and ‘meat production’ (MI). We found land-use outcomes to vary substantially among land-tenure regimes. Protected areas showed a biodiversity index of 0.75, similar to that of large and medium-sized farms (0.72 in both farming systems), and higher than in the other tenure regimes. Biomass index was similar among land tenure regimes, whereas we found the highest median meat production index on indigenous lands (MI = 0.35). Land-use outcomes, however, varied more across different environmental conditions than across land tenure regimes. Our results suggest that in the Argentine Dry Chaco, there is no single land tenure regime that better minimizes the trade-offs between production and environmental outcomes. A useful approach to manage these trade-offs would be to develop geographically explicit guidelines for land-use zoning, identifying the land tenure regimes more appropriate for each zone.

  20. Water and Land Footprints and Economic Productivity as Factors in Local Crop Choice: The Case of Silk in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick J. Hogeboom

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In deciding what crops to grow, farmers will look at, among other things, the economically most productive use of the water and land resources that they have access to. However, optimizing water and land use at the farm level may result in total water and land footprints at the catchment level that are in conflict with sustainable resource use. This study explores how data on water and land footprints, and on economic water and land productivity can inform micro-level decision making of crop choice, in the macro-level context of sustainable resource use. For a proposed sericulture project in Malawi, we calculated water and land footprints of silk along its production chain, and economic water and land productivities. We compared these to current cropping practices, and addressed the implications of water consumption at the catchment scale. We found that farmers may prefer irrigated silk production over currently grown rain-fed staple crops, because its economic water and land productivity is higher than that for currently grown crops. However, because the water footprint of irrigated silk is higher, sericulture will increase the pressure on local water resources. Since water consumption in the catchment generally does not exceed the maximum sustainable footprint, sericulture is a viable alternative crop for farmers in the case study area, as long as silk production remains small-scale (~3% of the area at most and does not depress local food markets.

  1. Production of aerial biomass and equivalent land use in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra, T. W.; Pagliaricci, H. R.; Ohanian, A. E.; Bonvillani, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Productivity increase has traditionally been associated to yield increase through breeding and crop management practices. Nevertheless, if production is considered per area and time unit, the intercropping system may be another way to improve cost-effectiveness. The objective of the experiment was to determine the produced biomass and the equivalent land use in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) monocrop and intercrops with sorghum Sudan (Sorghum sudanense L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.). The aerial biomass of all the treatments (expressed per surface unit) and the equivalent land use were determined. The design was completely randomized, arranged in blocks with two repetitions. The results were subject to an ANAVA and the means were compared through Duncan's test, by means of the statistical pack INFOSTAT. The alfalfa-sorghum intercrop triplicated the alfalfa production with regards to the monocrop, while alfalfa-oat did not exceed the production of pure alfalfa in the winter months. The alfalfa-sorghum intercrop was 57 % more efficient in land use than the respective monocrops, while alfalfa-oat did not surpass the unit. (author)

  2. The Response of Grain Potential Productivity to Land Use Change: A Case Study in Western Jilin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of land use change on grain potential productivity is one of the most important topics in the research of land use/cover change and its effects. Western Jilin, located on the edge of an ecotone in northern China, and its land use have changed dramatically in recent decades, with significant impact on grain potential productivity. This study evaluated the grain potential productivity in different conditions and analyzed the response to land use change based on land use data, meteorological data and statistical data by using the Global Agro-ecological Zone model. Results showed that (1 grain potential productivity of Western Jilin in 2010 was 19.12 million tons, an increase of 34.8% over 1975 because of changes in land use and in climate; (2 due to land use change, grain potential productivity in the study area increased between 1975 and 2000, however, it decreased between 2000 and 2010; (3 conversion in type of land use and an increase in irrigation percentage caused grain potential productivity to increase by 0.70 million tons and 3.13 million tons respectively between 1975 and 2000; between 2000 and 2010, grain potential productivity had an increase of 0.17 million tons due to the increase in farmland area, but it decreased by 1.88 million tons because the irrigation percentage declined from 36.6% to 24.7%. Therefore, increasing investment in agriculture, improving land quality and increasing the conversion rate of grain potential productivity to actual production would be a better choice for ensuring national food security and achieving sustainable land use.

  3. Unlocking the potential of established products: toward new incentives rewarding innovation in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayroles, Gabrielle; Frybourg, Sandrine; Gabriel, Sylvie; Kornfeld, Åsa; Antoñanzas-Villar, Fernando; Espín, Jaime; Jommi, Claudio; Martini, Nello; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Tolley, Keith; Wasem, Jürgen; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Many established products (EPs – marketed for eight years or more) are widely used off-label despite little evidence on benefit–risk ratio. This exposes patients to risks related to safety and lack of efficacy, and healthcare providers to liability. Introducing new indications for EPs may represent a high societal value; however, manufacturers rarely invest in R&D for EPs. The objective of this research was to describe incentives and disincentives for developing new indications for EPs in Europe and to investigate consequences of current policies. Methods: Targeted literature search and expert panel meetings. Results: Within the current European-level and national-level regulatory framework there are limited incentives for development of new indications with EPs. Extension of indication normally does not allow the price to be increased or maintained, the market protection period to be extended, or exclusion from a reference price system. New indication frequently triggers re-evaluation, resulting in price erosion, regardless of the level of added value with the new indication. In consequence, manufacturers are more prone to undertake R&D efforts at early to mid-stage of product life cycle rather than with EPs, or to invest in new chemical entities, even in therapeutic areas with broad off-label use. This represents a potentially missed opportunity as developing new indications for EPs offers an alternative to off-label use or lengthy and expensive R&D for new therapies, opens new opportunities for potentially cost-effective treatment alternatives, as well as greater equity in patients’ access to treatment options. Conclusion: There are potential benefits from the development of new indications for EPs that are currently not being realized due to a lack of regulatory and pricing incentives in Europe. Incentives for orphan or paediatric drugs have proven to be effective in promoting R&D. Similarly, incentives to promote R&D in EPs should

  4. Impacts of climate change on land-use and wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashford, Benjamin S.; Adams, Richard M.; Wu, Jun; Voldseth, Richard A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Werner, Brett; Johnson, W. Carter

    2016-01-01

    Wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is closely linked to climate. A warmer and drier climate, as predicted, will negatively affect the productivity of PPR wetlands and the services they provide. The effect of climate change on wetland productivity, however, will not only depend on natural processes (e.g., evapotranspiration), but also on human responses. Agricultural land use, the predominant use in the PPR, is unlikely to remain static as climate change affects crop yields and prices. Land use in uplands surrounding wetlands will further affect wetland water budgets and hence wetland productivity. The net impact of climate change on wetland productivity will therefore depend on both the direct effects of climate change on wetlands and the indirect effects on upland land use. We examine the effect of climate change and land-use response on semipermanent wetland productivity by combining an economic model of agricultural land-use change with an ecological model of wetland dynamics. Our results suggest that the climate change scenarios evaluated are likely to have profound effects on land use in the North and South Dakota PPR, with wheat displacing other crops and pasture. The combined pressure of land-use and climate change significantly reduces wetland productivity. In a climate scenario with a +4 °C increase in temperature, our model predicts that almost the entire region may lack the wetland productivity necessary to support wetland-dependent species.

  5. Land-atmosphere interaction patterns in southeastern South America using satellite products and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennemann, P. C.; Salvia, M.; Ruscica, R. C.; Sörensson, A. A.; Grings, F.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2018-02-01

    In regions of strong Land-Atmosphere (L-A) interaction, soil moisture (SM) conditions can impact the atmosphere through modulating the land surface fluxes. The importance of the identification of L-A interaction regions lies in the potential improvement of the weather/seasonal forecast and the better understanding of the physical mechanisms involved. This study aims to compare the terrestrial segment of the L-A interaction from satellite products and climate models, motivated by previous modeling studies pointing out southeastern South America (SESA) as a L-A hotspot during austral summer. In addition, the L-A interaction under dry or wet anomalous conditions over SESA is analyzed. To identify L-A hotspots the AMSRE-LPRM SM and MODIS land surface temperature products; coupled climate models and uncoupled land surface models were used. SESA highlights as a strong L-A interaction hotspot when employing different metrics, temporal scales and independent datasets, showing consistency between models and satellite estimations. Both AMSRE-LPRM bands (X and C) are consistent showing a strong L-A interaction hotspot over the Pampas ecoregion. Intensification and a larger spatial extent of the L-A interaction for dry summers was observed in both satellite products and models compared to wet summers. These results, which were derived from measured physical variables, are encouraging and promising for future studies analyzing L-A interactions. L-A interaction analysis is proposed here as a meeting point between remote sensing and climate modelling communities of Argentina, within a region with the highest agricultural and livestock production of the continent, but with an important lack of in-situ SM observations.

  6. Land grab in Ethiopia : the case of Karuturi Agro Products PLC in Bako Tibe, Oromiya

    OpenAIRE

    Aga, Dejene Nemomsa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the opportunities and risks associated with land grabbing in Ethiopia, focusing on the case of Karuturi Agro Products Private Limited Company in Bako Tibe of Oromiya National Regional State, using qualitative analysis. Forty local farmers affected by agricultural investment expansion owned by Karuturi were randomly selected from Bako Tibe Kebele (Bacarraa Odaa Gibee) adjacent to the investment, and placed in to five groups each consisting of eight members for Focus Gro...

  7. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This study contributed to this subject by providing alternative perspectives in addressing these missing links. A method was developed to allocate historical CSC-LUC to agricultural expansions by land classes (products), trade, and end use. The analysis for 1995-2010 leads to three key trends: (i) agricultural land degradation and abandonment is found to be a major (albeit indirect) driver for CSC-LUC, (ii) CSC-LUC is spurred by the growth of cross-border trade, (iii) non-food use (excluding liquid biofuels) has emerged as a significant contributor of CSC-LUC in the 2000's. In addition, the study demonstrated that exact values of CSC-LUC at a single spatio-temporal point may change significantly with different methodological settings. For example, CSC-LUC allocated to 'permanent oil crops' changed from 0.53 Pg C (billion tonne C) of carbon stock gain to 0.11 Pg C of carbon stock loss when spatial boundaries were changed from global to regional. Instead of comparing exact values for accounting purpose, key messages for policymaking were drawn from the main trends. Firstly, climate change mitigation efforts pursued through a territorial perspective may ignore indirect effects elsewhere triggered through trade linkages. Policies targeting specific commodities or types of consumption are also unable to quantitatively address indirect CSC-LUC effects because the quantification changes with different arbitrary methodological settings. Instead, it is recommended that mobilising non-productive or under-utilised lands for productive use should be targeted as a key solution to avoid direct and indirect CSC-LUC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Global land use patterns and the production of bioenergy to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, E.; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-05-01

    The results of a bottom-up analysis of the theoretical global bioenergy production potential are presented and discussed, with specific attention for the impact of underlying factors, existing studies on agriculture and forestry and gaps in the knowledge base that explain ranges in estimates. The impact of various factors is analysed by means of scenario analysis. Results indicate that the key factor for bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land is the type of agricultural management system. Theoretically, 70% of the present agricultural land use can be made available for bioenergy production, without further deforestation or endangering the future supply of food. The bioenergy potential from surplus agricultural land is estimated at 215 EJy -1 to 1471 EJy -1 in 2050. The bulk of this potential comes from the developing regions South America and the Carribean (47-221 EJy -1 ) and sub-Saharan Africa (31-317 EJy -1 ) and the transition economies of the CIS and Baltic States (45-199 EJy -1 )

  9. Global land use patterns and the production of bioenergy to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeets, E.; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-05-15

    The results of a bottom-up analysis of the theoretical global bioenergy production potential are presented and discussed, with specific attention for the impact of underlying factors, existing studies on agriculture and forestry and gaps in the knowledge base that explain ranges in estimates. The impact of various factors is analysed by means of scenario analysis. Results indicate that the key factor for bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land is the type of agricultural management system. Theoretically, 70% of the present agricultural land use can be made available for bioenergy production, without further deforestation or endangering the future supply of food. The bioenergy potential from surplus agricultural land is estimated at 215 EJy{sup -1} to 1471 EJy{sup -1} in 2050. The bulk of this potential comes from the developing regions South America and the Carribean (47-221 EJy{sup -1}) and sub-Saharan Africa (31-317 EJy{sup -1}) and the transition economies of the CIS and Baltic States (45-199 EJy{sup -1})

  10. Estimation of Geographically Weighted Regression Case Study on Wet Land Paddy Productivities in Tulungagung Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Ariyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Regression is a method connected independent variable and dependent variable with estimation parameter as an output. Principal problem in this method is its application in spatial data. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR method used to solve the problem. GWR  is a regression technique that extends the traditional regression framework by allowing the estimation of local rather than global parameters. In other words, GWR runs a regression for each location, instead of a sole regression for the entire study area. The purpose of this research is to analyze the factors influencing wet land paddy productivities in Tulungagung Regency. The methods used in this research is  GWR using cross validation  bandwidth and weighted by adaptive Gaussian kernel fungtion.This research using  4 variables which are presumed affecting the wet land paddy productivities such as:  the rate of rainfall(X1, the average cost of fertilizer per hectare(X2, the average cost of pestisides per hectare(X3 and Allocation of subsidized NPK fertilizer of food crops sub-sector(X4. Based on the result, X1, X2, X3 and X4  has a different effect on each Distric. So, to improve the productivity of wet land paddy in Tulungagung Regency required a special policy based on the GWR model in each distric.

  11. Carbon sequestration potential of forest land: Management for products and bioenergy versus preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Deusen, P.

    2010-01-01

    A 40 year projection of potential carbon sequestration is based on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from the state of Georgia. The objective is to compare carbon sequestration under a sustainable management strategy versus a preservation strategy. FIA plots are projected ahead in time with hotdeck matching. This matches each subject plot with another plot from the database that represents the subject plot at a future time. The matched plot sequences are used to provide input data to a harvest scheduling program to generate a management strategy for the state. The sequestration from the management strategy is compared with a preservation strategy that involves no harvesting. Harvested wood is assumed to go into products with various half life decay rates. Carbon sequestration is increased as increasing proportions go into wood for energy, which is treated like a product with an infinite half life. Therefore, the harvested carbon does not return immediately to the atmosphere. Public land and land close to cities is assumed to be unavailable, and all other private land is assumed to be accessible. The results are presented as gigatonnes of CO 2 equivalent to make them directly comparable to US annual carbon emissions. The conclusion is that forest management will sequester more above-ground carbon than preservation over a 40 year period if the wood is used for products with an average half life greater than 5 years.

  12. HadISDH: an updateable land surface specific humidity product for climate monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Willett

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available HadISDH is a near-global land surface specific humidity monitoring product providing monthly means from 1973 onwards over large-scale grids. Presented herein to 2012, annual updates are anticipated. HadISDH is an update to the land component of HadCRUH, utilising the global high-resolution land surface station product HadISD as a basis. HadISD, in turn, uses an updated version of NOAA's Integrated Surface Database. Intensive automated quality control has been undertaken at the individual observation level, as part of HadISD processing. The data have been subsequently run through the pairwise homogenisation algorithm developed for NCDC's US Historical Climatology Network monthly temperature product. For the first time, uncertainty estimates are provided at the grid-box spatial scale and monthly timescale. HadISDH is in good agreement with existing land surface humidity products in periods of overlap, and with both land air and sea surface temperature estimates. Widespread moistening is shown over the 1973–2012 period. The largest moistening signals are over the tropics with drying over the subtropics, supporting other evidence of an intensified hydrological cycle over recent years. Moistening is detectable with high (95% confidence over large-scale averages for the globe, Northern Hemisphere and tropics, with trends of 0.089 (0.080 to 0.098 g kg−1 per decade, 0.086 (0.075 to 0.097 g kg−1 per decade and 0.133 (0.119 to 0.148 g kg−1 per decade, respectively. These changes are outside the uncertainty range for the large-scale average which is dominated by the spatial coverage component; station and grid-box sampling uncertainty is essentially negligible on large scales. A very small moistening (0.013 (−0.005 to 0.031 g kg−1 per decade is found in the Southern Hemisphere, but it is not significantly different from zero and uncertainty is large. When globally averaged, 1998 is the moistest year since monitoring began in 1973, closely

  13. Application of MODIS Land Products to Assessment of Land Degradation of Alpine Rangeland in Northern India with Limited Ground-Based Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tasumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation of alpine rangeland in Dachigam National Park, Northern India, was evaluated in this study using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land products. The park has been used by a variety of livestock holders. With increasing numbers of livestock, the managers and users of the park are apprehensive about degradation of the grazing land. However, owing to weak infrastructure for scientific and statistical data collection and sociopolitical restrictions in the region, a lack of quality ground-based weather, vegetation, and livestock statistical data had prevented scientific assessment. Under these circumstances, the present study aimed to assess the rangeland environment and its degradation using MODIS vegetation, snow, and evapotranspiration products as primary input data for assessment. The result of the analysis indicated that soil water content and the timing of snowmelt play an important role in grass production in the area. Additionally, the possibility of land degradation in heavily-grazed rangeland was indicated via a multiple regression analysis at a decadal timescale, whereas weather conditions, such as rainfall and snow cover, primarily explained year-by-year differences in grass production. Although statistical uncertainties remain in the results derived in this study, the satellite-based data and the analyses will promote understanding of the rangeland environment and suggest the potential for unsustainable land management based on statistical probability. This study provides an important initial evaluation of alpine rangeland, for which ground-based information is limited.

  14. NDVI, C3 and C4 production, and distributions in Great Plains grassland land cover classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieszen, L.L.; Reed, Bradley C.; Bliss, Norman B.; Wylie, Bruce K.; DeJong, Benjamin D.

    1997-01-01

    The distributions of C3 and C4 grasses were used to interpret the distribution, seasonal performance, and potential production of grasslands in the Great Plains of North America. Thirteen major grassland seasonal land cover classes were studied with data from three distinct sources. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor were collected for each pixel over a 5-yr period (1989–1993), analyzed for quantitative attributes and seasonal relationships, and then aggregated by land cover class. Data from the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database were used to identify dominant plant species contributing to the potential production in each map unit. These species were identified as C3 or C4, and contributions to production were aggregated to provide estimates of the percentage of C3 and C4 production for each intersection of the STATSGO map units and the seasonal land cover classes. Carbon isotope values were obtained at specific sites from the soil organic matter of the upper horizon of soil cores and were related to STATSGO estimates of potential production.The grassland classes were distributed with broad northwest-to-southeast orientations. Some classes had large variations in C3 and C4 composition with high proportions of C4species in the south and low proportions in the north. This diversity of photosynthetic types within land cover classes that cross regions of different temperature and precipitation results in similar seasonal patterns and magnitudes of NDVI. The easternmost class, 65, containing tallgrass prairie components, bluestem, Indiangrass, and switchgrass, possessed the highest maximum NDVI and time-integrated NDVI values each year. Grassland classes varied over 5 yr from a high integrated NDVI mean of 4.9 in class 65 in the east to a low of 1.2 in class 76 (sand sage, blue grama, wheatgrass, and buffalograss) in the

  15. Land, Cryosphere, and Nighttime Environmental Products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Justice, Chris; Csiszar, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP: http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/). VIIRS was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA and NOAA funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and derived products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the former National Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper will present to-date findings of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS Land and Cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization (http://viirsland.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html). The paper will also discuss new capabilities being developed at NASA's Land Product Evaluation and Test Element (http://landweb.nascom.nasa.gov/NPP_QA/); including downstream data and products derived from the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB).

  16. Effect of desertification and soil salinity on land productivity in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Karouri, M.O.H.

    1980-01-01

    Although the Sudan contains one of the largest reserves of cultivable and irrigable land in the world, desertification and salinization have had a severe effect on soil productivity. Irrational cultivation of marginal lands and the abuse of tractor power have led to severe erosion problems. Deforestation, overgrazing and the use of fire in land clearing have destroyed natural vegetation. Desertification has claimed most of the land between latitudes 15 0 and 17 0 N and continues to move rapidly. The wild life habitants has been drastically altered with many species becoming extinct. Conflicts have arisen between nomads and cultivators. The government has thus developed a six year programme with emphasis on range seeding, afforestation, water conservation, fire control, sand dune stabilization and shelter belt development. Soil salinity and sodicity present both chemical and physical soil problems especially in irrigated regions. Since the Sudan is increasing its irrigated area from 2 to 4 million ha the problems will increase. Gypsum has not been effective in reclaimation but cultural practices such as ridge planting, timely seeding, and crop selection have shown promise. (author)

  17. Modeling Biomass Production in Seasonal Wetlands Using MODIS NDVI Land Surface Phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lumbierres

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant primary production is a key driver of several ecosystem functions in seasonal marshes, such as water purification and secondary production by wildlife and domestic animals. Knowledge of the spatio-temporal dynamics of biomass production is therefore essential for the management of resources—particularly in seasonal wetlands with variable flooding regimes. We propose a method to estimate standing aboveground plant biomass using NDVI Land Surface Phenology (LSP derived from MODIS, which we calibrate and validate in the Doñana National Park’s marsh vegetation. Out of the different estimators tested, the Land Surface Phenology maximum NDVI (LSP-Maximum-NDVI correlated best with ground-truth data of biomass production at five locations from 2001–2015 used to calibrate the models (R2 = 0.65. Estimators based on a single MODIS NDVI image performed worse (R2 ≤ 0.41. The LSP-Maximum-NDVI estimator was robust to environmental variation in precipitation and hydroperiod, and to spatial variation in the productivity and composition of the plant community. The determination of plant biomass using remote-sensing techniques, adequately supported by ground-truth data, may represent a key tool for the long-term monitoring and management of seasonal marsh ecosystems.

  18. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  19. Cropping pattern adjustment in China's grain production and its impact on land and water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tian-xiang; Zhu, Jing; Balezentis, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at decomposing China's grain output changes into three terms, namely area sown effect, pure yield effect, and cropping pattern adjustment effect. Furthermore, the paper analyses the impact of shifts in cropping pattern on water and land use in China's grain production. An index...... decomposition analysis framework is employed to calculate the corresponding contributions. The research relies on grain production data at both national and provincial levels during 2003-2012. The results show that besides the effects of area sown and pure yield changes, cropping pattern adjustment has also...... played an important role in promoting China's grain production, with a contribution of over 15 per cent during 2003-2012. Moreover, such changes enabled to save about 6.8 million hectares of sown areas and 31.06 billion m3 of water in grain production (if compared to the case without cropping pattern...

  20. Cropping pattern adjustment in China's grain production and its impact on land and water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tian-xiang; Zhu, Jing; Balezentis, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    played an important role in promoting China's grain production, with a contribution of over 15 per cent during 2003-2012. Moreover, such changes enabled to save about 6.8 million hectares of sown areas and 31.06 billion m3 of water in grain production (if compared to the case without cropping pattern......This paper aims at decomposing China's grain output changes into three terms, namely area sown effect, pure yield effect, and cropping pattern adjustment effect. Furthermore, the paper analyses the impact of shifts in cropping pattern on water and land use in China's grain production. An index...... decomposition analysis framework is employed to calculate the corresponding contributions. The research relies on grain production data at both national and provincial levels during 2003-2012. The results show that besides the effects of area sown and pure yield changes, cropping pattern adjustment has also...

  1. Transforming the food-water-energy-land-economic nexus of plasticulture production through compact bed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nathan; Shukla, Sanjay; Hochmuth, George; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ozores-Hampton, Monica

    2017-12-01

    Raised-bed plasticulture, an intensive production system used around the world for growing high-value crops (e.g., fresh market vegetables), faces a water-food nexus that is actually a food-water-energy-land-economic nexus. Plasticulture represents a multibillion dollar facet of the United States crop production value annually and must become more efficient to be able to produce more on less land, reduce water demands, decrease impacts on surrounding environments, and be economically-competitive. Taller and narrower futuristic beds were designed with the goal of making plasticulture more sustainable by reducing input requirements and associated wastes (e.g., water, nutrients, pesticides, costs, plastics, energy), facilitating usage of modern technologies (e.g., drip-based fumigation), improving adaptability to a changing climate (e.g., flood protection), and increasing yield per unit area. Compact low-input beds were analyzed against conventional beds for the plasticulture production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an economically-important crop, using a systems approach involving field measurements, vadose-zone modeling (HYDRUS), and production analysis. Three compact bed geometries, 61 cm (width) × 25 cm (height), 45 cm × 30 cm, 41 cm × 30 cm, were designed and evaluated against a conventional 76 cm × 20 cm bed. A two-season field study was conducted for tomato in the ecologically-sensitive and productive Everglades region of Florida. Compact beds did not statistically impact yield and were found to reduce: 1) production costs by 150-450/ha; 2) leaching losses by up to 5% (1 cm/ha water, 0.33 kg/ha total nitrogen, 0.05 kg/ha total phosphorus); 3) fumigant by up to 47% (48 kg/ha); 4) plasticulture's carbon footprint by up to 10% (1711 kg CO2-eq/ha) and plastic waste stream by up to 13% (27 kg/ha); 5) flood risks and disease pressure by increasing field's soil water storage capacity by up to 33% (≈1 cm); and 6) field runoff by 0.48-1.40 cm (51-76%) based on

  2. SCaMF–RM: A Fused High-Resolution Land Cover Product of the Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Rodríguez-Jeangros

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land cover (LC products, derived primarily from satellite spectral imagery, are essential inputs for environmental studies because LC is a critical driver of processes involved in hydrology, ecology, and climatology, among others. However, existing LC products each have different temporal and spatial resolutions and different LC classes that rarely provide the detail required by these studies. Using multiple existing LC products, we implement our Spatiotemporal Categorical Map Fusion (SCaMF methodology over a large region of the Rocky Mountains (RM, encompassing sections of six states, to create a new LC product, SCaMF–RM. To do this, we must adapt SCaMF to address the prediction of LC in large space–time regions that present nonstationarities, and we add more flexibility in the LC classifications of the predicted product. SCaMF–RM is produced at two high spatial resolutions, 30 and 50 m, and a yearly frequency for the 30-year period 1983–2012. When multiple products are available in time, we illustrate how SCaMF–RM captures relevant information from the different LC products and improves upon flaws observed in other products. Future work needed includes an exhaustive validation not only of SCaMF–RM but also of all input LC products.

  3. SCaMF–RM: A Fused High-Resolution Land Cover Product of the Rocky Mountains

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez-Jeangros, Nicolás

    2017-10-02

    Land cover (LC) products, derived primarily from satellite spectral imagery, are essential inputs for environmental studies because LC is a critical driver of processes involved in hydrology, ecology, and climatology, among others. However, existing LC products each have different temporal and spatial resolutions and different LC classes that rarely provide the detail required by these studies. Using multiple existing LC products, we implement our Spatiotemporal Categorical Map Fusion (SCaMF) methodology over a large region of the Rocky Mountains (RM), encompassing sections of six states, to create a new LC product, SCaMF–RM. To do this, we must adapt SCaMF to address the prediction of LC in large space–time regions that present nonstationarities, and we add more flexibility in the LC classifications of the predicted product. SCaMF–RM is produced at two high spatial resolutions, 30 and 50 m, and a yearly frequency for the 30-year period 1983–2012. When multiple products are available in time, we illustrate how SCaMF–RM captures relevant information from the different LC products and improves upon flaws observed in other products. Future work needed includes an exhaustive validation not only of SCaMF–RM but also of all input LC products.

  4. Solving problems of modern land relations on the way of formation of competitive agrarian production in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoruk Olena P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is identification of modern problems of conduct of the land reform and ways of their solution in the context of economic consequences for development of the competitive agrarian production in Ukraine. It identifies that the main task of completion of the land reform is creation of the land market, which would ensure transition of the right of ownership on land lots to an efficient land owner. The basis of this development are farms that combine the owner and master of land in one entity. The article shows that adoption of the Draft Law “On Agricultural Land Turnover” would facilitate development of this form of management. The article identifies main problems of the moratorium on agricultural land sales, namely: land black market activity, withdrawal from market turnover of land of about USD 40 thousand million cost and, as a result, impossibility for agrarians to apply mortgage. The article identifies gaps in the legislation with respect to state control over unclaimed shares and escheats, due to which the state budget does not receive significant amounts of money. It offers ways of solution of these problems through empowering the founded Goszembank, which should become a partner and support for development of small and medium farms after withdrawal of the moratorium on agricultural land sales, with relevant authorities.

  5. Evaluation of the 2010 MODIS Collection 5.1 Land Cover Type Product over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the MODIS Collection 5.1 Land Cover Type (MODIS v5.1 LCT product is one of the most recent global land cover datasets and has the shortest updating cycle, evaluations regarding this collection have not been reported. Given the importance of evaluating global land cover data for producers and potential users, the 2010 MODIS v5.1 LCT product IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme layer was evaluated based on two grid maps at scales of 100-m and 500-m,which were derived by rasterizing the 2010 data from the national land use/cover database of China (NLUD-C. This comparison was conducted based on a new legend consisting of nine classes constructed based on the definitions of classes in the IGBP and NLUD-C legends. The overall accuracies of the aggregated classification data were 64.62% and 66.42% at the sub-pixel and pixel scales, respectively. These accuracies differed significantly in different regions. Specifically, high-quality data were obtained more easily for regions with a single land cover type, such as Xinjiang province and the northeast plain of China. The lowest accuracies were obtained for the middle of China, including Ningxia, Shaanxi, Chongqing, Yunnan and Guizhou. At the sub-pixel scale, relatively high producer and user accuracies were obtained for cropland, grass and barren regions; the highest producer accuracy was obtained for forests, and the highest user accuracy was obtained for water bodies. Shrublands and wetlands were associated with low producer and user accuracies at the sub-pixel and pixel scales, of less than 10%. Based on dominant-type reference data, the errors were classified as mixed-pixel errors and labeling errors. Labeling errors primarily originated from misclassification between grassland and barren lands. Mixed pixel errors increased as the pixel diversity increased and as the percentage of dominant-type sub-pixels decreased. Overall, mixed pixels were sources of error for most land cover

  6. Economic characteristics of concrete production from fly ash as a way of land recultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekić Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of fly ash in the construction industry is particularly significant in the terms of environmental protection and in the terms of improvement opportunities of certain properties of cement mortar and concrete. In addition to this, it is possible to perform the recultivation of significant area of agricultural land. Concrete production precedes the production of lightweight aggregate which is then used as an aggregate. Calculated costs of concrete production using lightweight aggregate were 70.52 €/m3. Most of these costs are energy costs in the sum of 85% of total costs. In the situation when the costs of concrete production using lightweight aggregate are compared to the concrete price at the market, or produced with the use of construction gravel, estimation of the economic viability gives a negative result. This result is caused by the high cost of the aggregate. The observed calculation did not include an improved thermal-insulating property of concrete and reduce pollution through binding of waste ash. According to this, final assessment can only be made after extensive technological, macroeconomic and environmental analysis. Economic analysis should be primarily based on the value of land that can be recultivation in this way.

  7. Estimation of Global Vegetation Productivity from Global LAnd Surface Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating vegetation productivity is important in research on terrestrial ecosystems, carbon cycles and climate change. Eight-day gross primary production (GPP and annual net primary production (NPP are contained in MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS products (MOD17, which are considered the first operational datasets for monitoring global vegetation productivity. However, the cloud-contaminated MODIS leaf area index (LAI and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR retrievals may introduce some considerable errors to MODIS GPP and NPP products. In this paper, global eight-day GPP and eight-day NPP were first estimated based on Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI and FPAR products. Then, GPP and NPP estimates were validated by FLUXNET GPP data and BigFoot NPP data and were compared with MODIS GPP and NPP products. Compared with MODIS GPP, a time series showed that estimated GLASS GPP in our study was more temporally continuous and spatially complete with smoother trajectories. Validated with FLUXNET GPP and BigFoot NPP, we demonstrated that estimated GLASS GPP and NPP achieved higher precision for most vegetation types.

  8. The Importance of Seedlings Quality in Timber and Bio-energy Production on marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Margarita; Repmann, Frank; Gerwin, Werner

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issues that the forest sector is facing is to achieve a balance between the demand for biomass &wood production and the need to preserve the sustainability and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. The purposes of the new approaches are to ensure more efficient management of ecosystems and implement intensive forestry that will increase biomass production & timber yields. To achieve this, we need to determine the macroeconomic potential of the various options available, including the use of biotechnology and genetics. The success of the forests plantations capacity may be solved through forest certification, based on: a) Stabilization of the forests and soils structure. b) Hierarchy of biomass production in the forest's management process. c) Οrganization and implementation of effective plantation on marginal lands. d) Maintenance or increase of forest productivity by introducing new items as and when they are required. It is important to evaluate of the influence of factors such as the quality of soils of plantation areas, the utilization of the genetic resources and the management of forest operations with the environmental economic criteria such as net present value of benefits (NPV) and the corresponding flow annuities (EACF).The existing evaluations studies showed that the quality of the plantation areas has the most influence and through validated quality seed production can generate an increase in the NPV up to 73%. The importance of seedlings quality in timber and bio-energy production on marginal lands based on the literature it is estimated according to the heredity of the characteristics of the wood structure (except shrinkage). This clearly indicate that seedlings with the appropriate morphological characteristics can significantly improve the growth performance and help to support the development of biomass plantations oriented in tailor-made timber and bio-energy production.

  9. Evaluating the role of land cover and climate uncertainties in computing gross primary production in Hawaiian Island ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Kimball

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP is the Earth's largest carbon flux into the terrestrial biosphere and plays a critical role in regulating atmospheric chemistry and global climate. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS-MOD17 data product is a widely used remote sensing-based model that provides global estimates of spatiotemporal trends in GPP. When the MOD17 algorithm is applied to regional scale heterogeneous landscapes, input data from coarse resolution land cover and climate products may increase uncertainty in GPP estimates, especially in high productivity tropical ecosystems. We examined the influence of using locally specific land cover and high-resolution local climate input data on MOD17 estimates of GPP for the State of Hawaii, a heterogeneous and discontinuous tropical landscape. Replacing the global land cover data input product (MOD12Q1 with Hawaii-specific land cover data reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8%, primarily because the Hawaii-specific land cover map had less vegetated land area compared to the global land cover product. Replacing coarse resolution GMAO climate data with Hawaii-specific high-resolution climate data also reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8% because of the higher spatial variability of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR in the Hawaii-specific climate data. The combined use of both Hawaii-specific land cover and high-resolution Hawaii climate data inputs reduced statewide GPP by ~16%, suggesting equal and independent influence on MOD17 GPP estimates. Our sensitivity analyses within a heterogeneous tropical landscape suggest that refined global land cover and climate data sets may contribute to an enhanced MOD17 product at a variety of spatial scales.

  10. Law proposition aiming to establish the double display of sale prices of petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannson, F.

    2006-03-01

    Petroleum products are submitted to the internal tax (called TIPP in France) and the sales tax (called TVA in France). The TVA product is increasing proportionally to the petroleum products prices. On the other hand the TIPP product, which is five time as much high as the TVA, is proportional to the consumed volumes and decreases proportionally with the consumption decrease, resulting from the prices increase. In a framework of transparency for the consumers, and to reveal the importance of the taxes in the hydrocarbons prices, it should be desirable to display the sale prices without and with the taxes. Here are the objectives of this law proposition. (A.L.B.)

  11. Maize production and land degradation: a Portuguese agriculture field case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Pato, João V.; Moreira, Pedro M.; Valério, Luís M.; Guilherme, Rosa; Casau, Fernando J.; Santos, Daniela; Keizer, Jacob J.; Ferreira, António J. D.

    2016-04-01

    While food security is a main challenge faced by human kind, intensive agriculture often leads to soil degradation which then can threaten productivity. Maize is one of the most important crops across the world, with 869 million tons produced worldwide in 2012/2013 (IGC 2015), of which 929.5 thousand tons in Portugal (INE 2014). In Portugal, maize is sown in April/May and harvest occurs generally in October. Conventional maize production requires high inputs of water and fertilizers to achieve higher yields. As Portuguese farmers are typically rather old (on average, 63 years) and typically have a low education level (INE 2014), sustainability of their land management practises is often not a principal concern. This could explain why, in 2009, only 4% of the Portuguese temporary crops were under no-tillage, why only 8% of the farmers performed soil analyses in the previous three years, and why many soils have a low organic matter content (INE 2014). Nonetheless, sustainable land management practices are generally accepted to be the key to reducing agricultural soil degradation, preventing water pollution, and assuring long-term crop production objectives and food security. Sustainable land management should therefore not only be a concern for policy makers but also for farmers, since land degradation will have negative repercussions on the productivity, thus, on their economical income. This paper aims to assess the impact of maize production on soil properties. The study focusses on an 8 ha maize field located in central Portugal, with a Mediterranean climate on a gently sloping terrain (<3%) and with a soil classified as Eutric Fluvisol. On the field, several experiments were carried out with different maize varieties as well as with different fertilizers (solid, liquid and both). Centre pivot irrigation was largely used. Data is available from 2003, and concerns crop yield, fertilization and irrigation practices, as well as soil properties assessed through

  12. Establishing and development of nuclear power production in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: As it was stressed by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbaev in his address to people of Kazakhstan on February 28 2007, among the most important directions of domestic and foreign policy there is the need in development of power production and creation of conditions for nuclear power production. Intensive development of new and revived sectors such as machine-building, oil chemistry, nuclear, space, information, nano- and bio-technologies would inevitably require growth in power generation. That is why development of power production becomes a priority task. Growth of demand in power consumption worldwide, rise in prices for oil and natural gas, toughening of environmental regulations for utilization of organic fuel, concerns regarding energy supply security in many countries stipulate growth of interest to nuclear power production. International experience in power production shows the advantages and need in development of nuclear power production. In energy production, people currently use organic fuel, hydropower and alternative energy source; current share of nuclear production in the total rate of energy generation comprises about 17%. The Republic has considerable grounds for development of nuclear power production - well-developed uranium mining and processing National Company 'KazAtomProm' and a State Enterprise 'National Nuclear Center'. Creation of nuclear power production sector and development of nuclear power production in the country would help solving a set of inter-related problems aimed to satisfaction of demand in energy production by diversification of energy supply sources. This, in turn, would contribute to effective and balanced utilization of available mineral resources, improve export capacities of the country, assure environmental security at energy production; it would also preserve and develop science and technology in the country in the field of nuclear power production and nuclear industry. Objective and

  13. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a day V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a daily statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR), photosynthetically...

  14. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a year V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Yearly Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a yearly statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR),...

  15. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a month V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Monthly Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a monthly statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR),...

  16. High level of sperm competition may increase transfer of accessory gland products carried by the love dart of land snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Monica; Staikou, Alexandra; Janssen, Ruben; Koene, Joris M

    2017-01-01

    Postcopulatory adaptations that increase reproductive success compared to rivals, like the transfer of accessory gland products that promote paternity, are common when sperm competition occurs among males. In land snails, the dart shooting behavior and its adaptive significance, in promoting

  17. 9 CFR 325.7 - Shipment of products requiring special supervision between official establishments under official...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subchapter, in railroad cars, trucks, or other means of conveyance sealed with the official seal of the... railroad car or other means of conveyance with other product, such restricted product shall be packed in.../2-inch rubber brand). Such tape must possess the adhesive property to actually remove a portion of...

  18. Coupled C, N and P controls on photosynthesis, primary production and decomposition across a land use intensification gradient and implications for land atmosphere C exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Glanville, Helen; Smart, Simon; Jones, Davey; Mercado, Lina; Blanes-Alberola, Mamen; Cosby, Jack; Emmett, Bridget

    2016-04-01

    The coupling of C, N and P cycles has rarely been studied through the air- land-water continuum. This is essential if we are to enhance land-atmosphere models to account for N and P limitations. It is also important for developing integrated catchment management solutions to deliver improved water quality combined with a wide range of other ecosystem functions and services. We present results from a project which is part of the interdisciplinary pan-UK NERC Macronutrient Cycles Programme (macronutrient-cycles.ouce.ox.ac.uk/). Our aim is to quantify how coupled C, N & P cycles change across a land use intensification gradient from arable to grass, woodland and bog ecosystems and identify the implications for land-atmosphere C exchange. We focus on three key processes; photosynthesis, annual net primary productivity and decomposition and explore their consequences for biodiversity. Other aspects of the project track delivery to, and transformations within, the freshwater and coastal systems. When we explore relationships between C, N and P, results indicate all habitat types fall on a single land use intensification gradient. Stoichiometry suggests plant productivity is primarily N limited. P limitation occurs rarely but at all levels of intensification. Soil priming shows our soils are primarily C limited and, surprisingly, soil acidity provides one of the most powerful single predictors of processes and ecosystem services perhaps as it is a good integrator of many soil properties. Incorporating this knowledge into the UK land-atmosphere model JULES will improve aNPP projections. These are then being used as inputs into a plant species model called MULTIMOVE to enable future scenarios of climate change, land use and air pollution on habitat suitability for > 1400 plant species to be explored. The enhanced Jules model will ensure both N and P limitations on C fluxes from above and below-ground are incorporated into future UK scenario applications.

  19. Survival of Private Sector Manufacturing Establishments in Africa: The Role of Productivity and Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Shiferaw (Admasu)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the risk of exit for privately-owned manufacturing establishments in a small African economy. It shows that changes in the structure of ownership following an economic reform have important implications on stablishment survival. The risk of exit is lower for

  20. Naming "sensory equivalents" of established food products: Is the word wrong, or is it the world going wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; schmit, Viktor; Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter

    . Starting from a review of 821 Danish regulatory cases concerning misleading food naming and labeling, we specifically address conflict scenarios that relate to the naming of innovative “sensory equivalents” to well-established food products. The arguments and assumptions put forward in real-life cases...

  1. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with all...

  2. Population structure and fruit production of Pyrus bourgaeana D. are affected by land-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Castro, Salvador; Fernández-Haeger, Juan; Jordano-Barbudo, Diego

    2016-11-01

    The Iberian wild pear (Pyrus bourgaeana D.) is a rare, fleshy-fruited tree restricted to dehesas and evergreen sclerophyllous Mediterranean forests in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. It produces palatable fruits and leaves attractive to different species groups, playing an important trophic role in the ecological networks of Mediterranean ecosystems. However, the intensification in the traditional land-use linked to these areas could threaten the stability of the wild pear populations in the short/medium-term. In order to determine the population dynamics of this relevant species in relation to the land-use history, we selected two populations (southern Spain) subjected to different land-use management, dehesa (D) and abandoned olive grove (AOG). An analysis of 122 adult trees reported an overall density of 0.6 trees ha-1. The tree age was estimated by tree-rings analysis in all adult trees. Dendrometric parameters, reproductive features, and germination rates were also measured. Regeneration was clearly biased, as evidenced by the truncated age structure. A low correlation (R2 = 34%) between age and DBH (diameter at breast height) (244 cores analysed) showed that diameter seems not to be a reliable predictor of tree age. Trees from AOG populations had significantly-higher values of DBH, height and crown diameter, but were less productive in terms of fruits and seeds. Nested analysis of variance showed significant variation in fruit production, fruit size, dry mass, water content and seed viability. There were also significant differences in masting. No evidence was found to demonstrate that fruit production, seed viability, or germination rate influence the low natural recruitment of this species. These findings indicate that the traditional agrosilvopastoral practices carried out in the study area for decades, and its subsequent intensification, have strongly influenced the ecological structure of the Iberian wild pear populations at the local scale, which

  3. Study of the Production of Radioactive Isotopes through Cosmic Muon Spallation in KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Abe, S.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Leonard, D. S.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gray, F.; Guardincerri, E.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Lendvai, C.; Luk, K.-B.; O' Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Vogel, P.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2009-06-30

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare event detection in {nu} detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillator, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and Geant4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be (2.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -4} n/({mu} {center_dot} (g/cm{sup 2})). For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  4. Tree Productivity Enhanced with Conversion from Forest to Urban Land Covers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittain M Briber

    Full Text Available Urban areas are expanding, changing the structure and productivity of landscapes. While some urban areas have been shown to hold substantial biomass, the productivity of these systems is largely unknown. We assessed how conversion from forest to urban land uses affected both biomass structure and productivity across eastern Massachusetts. We found that urban land uses held less than half the biomass of adjacent forest expanses with a plot level mean biomass density of 33.5 ± 8.0 Mg C ha(-1. As the intensity of urban development increased, the canopy cover, stem density, and biomass decreased. Analysis of Quercus rubra tree cores showed that tree-level basal area increment nearly doubled following development, increasing from 17.1 ± 3.0 to 35.8 ± 4.7 cm(2 yr(-1. Scaling the observed stem densities and growth rates within developed areas suggests an aboveground biomass growth rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 Mg C ha(-1 yr(-1, a growth rate comparable to nearby, intact forests. The contrasting high growth rates and lower biomass pools within urban areas suggest a highly dynamic ecosystem with rapid turnover. As global urban extent continues to grow, cities consider climate mitigation options, and as the verification of net greenhouse gas emissions emerges as critical for policy, quantifying the role of urban vegetation in regional-to-global carbon budgets will become ever more important.

  5. Tree Productivity Enhanced with Conversion from Forest to Urban Land Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briber, Brittain M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Reinmann, Andrew B; Raciti, Steve M; Dearborn, Victoria K; Holden, Christopher E; Dunn, Allison L

    2015-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding, changing the structure and productivity of landscapes. While some urban areas have been shown to hold substantial biomass, the productivity of these systems is largely unknown. We assessed how conversion from forest to urban land uses affected both biomass structure and productivity across eastern Massachusetts. We found that urban land uses held less than half the biomass of adjacent forest expanses with a plot level mean biomass density of 33.5 ± 8.0 Mg C ha(-1). As the intensity of urban development increased, the canopy cover, stem density, and biomass decreased. Analysis of Quercus rubra tree cores showed that tree-level basal area increment nearly doubled following development, increasing from 17.1 ± 3.0 to 35.8 ± 4.7 cm(2) yr(-1). Scaling the observed stem densities and growth rates within developed areas suggests an aboveground biomass growth rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), a growth rate comparable to nearby, intact forests. The contrasting high growth rates and lower biomass pools within urban areas suggest a highly dynamic ecosystem with rapid turnover. As global urban extent continues to grow, cities consider climate mitigation options, and as the verification of net greenhouse gas emissions emerges as critical for policy, quantifying the role of urban vegetation in regional-to-global carbon budgets will become ever more important.

  6. Flux of aquatic insect productivity to land: comparison of lentic and lotic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Claudio; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-10-01

    Recently, food web studies have started exploring how resources from one habitat or ecosystem influence trophic interactions in a recipient ecosystem. Benthic production in lakes and streams can be exported to terrestrial habitats via emerging aquatic insects and can therefore link aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we develop a general conceptual model that highlights zoobenthic production, insect emergence, and ecosystem geometry (driven principally by area-to-edge ratio) as important factors modulating the flux of aquatic production across the ecosystem boundary. Emerging insect flux, defined as total insect production emerging per meter of shoreline (g C x m(-1) x yr(-1)) is then distributed inland using decay functions and is used to estimate insect deposition rate to terrestrial habitats (g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)). Using empirical data from the literature, we simulate insect fluxes across the water-land ecosystem boundary to estimate the distribution of fluxes and insect deposition inland for lakes and streams. In general, zoobenthos in streams are more productive than in lakes (6.67 vs. 1.46 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) but have lower insect emergence to aquatic production ratios (0.19 vs. 0.30). However, as stream width is on average smaller than lake radius, this results in flux (F) estimates 2 1/2 times greater for lakes than for streams. Ultimately, insect deposition onto land (within 100 m of shore) adjacent to average-sized lakes (10-ha lakes, 0.021 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) is greater than for average-sized streams (4 m width, 0.002 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) used in our comparisons. For the average lake (both in size and productivity), insect deposition rate approaches estimates of terrestrial secondary production in low-productivity ecosystems (e.g., deserts and tundra, approximately 0.07 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)). However, larger lakes (1300 ha) and streams (16 m) can have average insect deposition rates (approximately 0.01-2.4 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1

  7. Establishment of pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity at Bio Farma, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhardono, Mahendra; Ugiyadi, Dori; Nurnaeni, Ida; Emelia, Imelda

    2011-07-01

    In Indonesia, avian influenza A(H5N1) virus started to spread in humans in June 2005, with an alarming case-fatality rate of more than 80%. Considering that global influenza vaccine production capacity would barely have covered 10% of the world's pandemic vaccine needs, and that countries with no production facilities or prearranged contracts would be without access to a vaccine, the Government of Indonesia embarked on a programme to increase its readiness for a future influenza pandemic. This included the domestic production of influenza vaccine, which was entrusted to Bio Farma. This health security strategy consists of developing trivalent influenza vaccine production capacity in order to be able to convert immediately to monovalent production of up to 20 million pandemic doses for the Indonesian market upon receipt of the seed strain from the World Health Organization (WHO). For this purpose, a dedicated production facility is being constructed within the Bio Farma premises in Bandung. As an initial stage of influenza vaccine development, imported seasonal influenza bulk has been formulated and filled in the Bio Farma facility. Following three consecutive batches and successful clinical trials, the product was licensed by the Indonesian National Regulatory Authority and distributed commercially for the Hajj programme in 2009. With continued support from its technology transfer partners, Bio Farma is now advancing with the development of upstream processes to produce its own bulk for seasonal and pandemic use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dairy farm impacts of fencing riparian land: pasture production and farm productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Sharon R; Melland, Alice R; Dorling, Lianne

    2013-11-30

    Dairy farmers are encouraged to restrict stock access by fencing riparian zones to reduce stream pollution and improve biodiversity. Many farmers are reluctant to create fenced riparian zones because of the perceived loss of productive pasture. Anecdotal reports indicate that pasture production in fenced areas is especially valued during summer months when water stress is likely to limit pasture growth in other areas of the farm. We measured pasture production, botanical composition, soil moisture, and fertility in Riparian (within 20 m of the riverbank), Flat (greater than 20 but less than 50 m from the riverbank), and Hill (elevated) areas on three commercial dairy farms from October 2006 to November 2007 in south eastern Australia. Riparian and Flat areas produced significantly more pasture, with on average approximately 25% more dry matter per ha grown in these areas compared with Hill paddocks. Percentage ryegrass was 14% lower on Hill slopes compared with Riparian and Flat areas and was compensated for by only a 5% increase in other grass species. Significant seasonal effects were observed with the difference in pasture production between Hill, and Riparian and Flat areas most pronounced in summer, due to soil moisture limitations on Hill paddocks. To examine potential productivity impacts of this lost pasture, we used a questionnaire-based survey to interview the farmers regarding their farm and riparian management activities. The additional pasture that would have been available if the riverbanks were not fenced to their current widths ranged from 6.2 to 27.2 t DM for the 2006/2007 year and would have been grown on 0.4-3.4% of their milking area. If this pasture was harvested instead of grazed, the farmers could have saved between $2000 and $8000 of their purchased fodder costs in that year. By fencing their riparian areas to 20 m for biodiversity benefits, between 2.2% and 9.8% of their milking area would be out of production amounting to about $16

  9. Applying consequential LCA to support energy policy: Land use change effects of bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Marvuglia, Antonino; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Luxembourg aims at complying with the EU objective of attaining a 14% use of bioenergy in the national grid by 2020. The increase of biomethane production from energy crops could be a valuable option in achieving this objective. However, the overall environmental benefit of such option is yet to be proven. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) has shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental suitability of future energy scenarios and policies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the environmental consequences of modifying the Luxembourgish agricultural system to increase maize production for biomethane generation. A total of 10 different scenarios were modelled using a partial equilibrium (PE) model to identify changes in land cultivation based on farmers' revenue maximisation, which were then compared to the baseline scenario, i.e. the state of the agricultural sector in 2009. The results were divided into three different consequential decision contexts, presenting differing patterns in terms of land use changes (LUCs) but with minor shifts in environmental impacts. Nevertheless, energy from maize production would imply substantially higher environmental impacts when compared with the current use of natural gas, mainly due to increases in climate change and agricultural land occupation impacts. The results are discussed based on the consequences they may generate on the bioenergy policy, the management of arable land, the changes in import–export flows in Luxembourg and LUCs in the domestic agricultural system. In addition, the specific PE + LCA method presented intends to be of use for other regional studies in which a high level of site-specific data is available. - Highlights: • Partial equilibrium (PE) model created for the agricultural sector in Luxembourg • PE model combined with a consequential LCA approach to support energy policy • The impact of LUCs due to the additional production of maize for energy was

  10. The need for an established allocation method when assessing absolute sustainability on a product level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of absolute sustainability within life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is operational on the country scale. However, it is difficult to apply the existing approaches to products, which are typically the scope of LCAs. How should we assess whether a chair is (absolutely) sustainable......? If we assess the life cycle and relate the impact scores to the remaining capacity available for impacts, there is a risk that all products are seen absolutely sustainable. In addition, how should we decide on who can use the remaining capacity? To address these issues an allocation method is proposed...... for dividing the remaining capacity between and within product groups. The method is a two- step method developed based on the annual consumption pattern of an average person in the country and share of product sub-groups in the group. For example, in the first allocation step, the remaining capacity share...

  11. 9 CFR 318.1 - Products and other articles entering official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the maintenance of sanitary conditions or constitute an interference with inspection. Glands or organs... supplier, transportation company, agent, or broker involved in the sale or delivery of the product or...

  12. Establishment of a high production system for AIDS retroviruses with a human T-leukemic cell line Molt-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Yoshio; Harada, Shinji; Yamamoto, Naoki

    1986-01-01

    A cell culture system was developed for the continuous and efficient production of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) retrovirus. After infection of a human T-cell line Molt-4 with HTLV-III and LAV the cells grow permanently and produce large amounts of virus continuously. The yields of production of virus were assessed either with reverse transcriptase activity or a newly established biological quantitation assay of active virus. The amounts of virus with this cell system were much higher than those of the H9 cell system. This procedure enabled us first to compare the two viral isolates HTLV-III and LAV directly in the same cell lines. Establishment of the culture system, allowing efficient production of AIDS retroviruses, provides a useful tool for the isolation of the virus from patients with AIDS and for more basic research, such as the mechanisms of immune destruction caused by the virus leading to the occurence of various malignancies (author)

  13. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  14. Research opportunities related to establishing standards for tobacco products under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2012-01-01

    This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed.

  15. Water and Land Limitations to Future Agricultural Production in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A. M.; Wimmer, F.; Schaldach, R.

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Middle East use a large fraction of their scarce water resources to produce cash crops, such as fruit and vegetables, for international markets. At the same time, these countries import large amounts of staple crops, such as cereals, required to meet the nutritional demand of their populations. This makes food security in the Middle East heavily dependent on world market prices for staple crops. Under these preconditions, increasing food demand due to population growth, urban expansion on fertile farmlands, and detrimental effects of a changing climate on the production of agricultural commodities present major challenges to countries in the Middle East that try to improve food security by increasing their self-sufficiency rate of staple crops.We applied the spatio-temporal land-use change model LandSHIFT.JR to simulate how an expansion of urban areas may affect the production of agricultural commodities in Jordan. We furthermore evaluated how climate change and changes in socio-economic conditions may influence crop production. The focus of our analysis was on potential future irrigated and rainfed production (crop yield and area demand) of fruit, vegetables, and cereals. Our simulation results show that the expansion of urban areas and the resulting displacement of agricultural areas does result in a slight decrease in crop yields. This leads to almost no additional irrigation water requirements due to the relocation of agricultural areas, i.e. there is the same amount of "crop per drop". However, taking into account projected changes in socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a large volume of water would be required for cereal production in order to safeguard current self-sufficiency rates for staple crops. Irrigation water requirements are expected to double until 2025 and to triple until 2050. Irrigated crop yields are projected to decrease by about 25%, whereas there is no decrease in rainfed crop yields to be expected.

  16. Land Use Change under Biofuel Policies and a Tax on Meat and Dairy Products: Considering Complexity in Agricultural Production Chains Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Delzeit

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for meat and dairy products (MDP, biofuels, and scarcity of agricultural land are drivers of global land use competition. Impacts of policies targeting demand for MDP or biofuels have only been analysed separately. We use the computable general equilibrium model DART-BIO to investigate combined effects, since MDP and biofuel production are closely related via feestock use and co-production of animal feed. We implement four scenarios: (a a baseline scenario; (b halving MDP consumption in industrialised countries by a tax; (c abolishing current biofuel policies; and (d no exogenous land use change. We find that a MDP tax and exogenous land use change have larger effects on land use and food markets than biofuel policies. International trade is affected in all scenarios. With respect to combined effects of a MDP tax and biofuel policies, we find decreasing biodiesel but increasing bioethanol production. In addition, the MDP tax decreases the impact of biofuel policies on agricultural markets and land use. Our results highlight the importance of a detailed representation of different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production and related by-products. Finally, since the MDP tax increases the use of fossil fuels, the net climate mitigation potentials of such a tax should be investigated further.

  17. What scope for integrating land management policies, land administration processes and data infrastructures for housing production in Nigeria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agunbiade, M.E.; Rajabifard, A.; Bennett, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Existing knowledge reveals that land as a resource is not currently managed efficiently and effectively in most countries of the world. One of the factors considered important in understanding the inefficiencies and ineffectiveness is the level of integration between agencies. The objective of this

  18. Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in São Paulo state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, André Luiz Monteiro; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo state has impacted dairy and beef production. Historical changes in land use, production technologies, and product and land prices are described, as well as how these are linked to changing policies in Brazil. We argue that sugarcane/biofuel expansion should be understood in the context of the dynamics of other agricultural sectors and the long-term national political economy rather than as solely due to recent global demand for biofuel. This argument is based on a meticulous analysis of changes in three important sectors - sugarcane, dairy farming, and beef production - and the mutual interactions between these sectors.

  19. Does the Recent Growth of Aquaculture Create Antibiotic Resistance Threats Different from those Associated with Land Animal Production in Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Hansa Y; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-05-01

    Important antibiotics in human medicine have been used for many decades in animal agriculture for growth promotion and disease treatment. Several publications have linked antibiotic resistance development and spread with animal production. Aquaculture, the newest and fastest growing food production sector, may promote similar or new resistance mechanisms. This review of 650+ papers from diverse sources examines parallels and differences between land-based agriculture of swine, beef, and poultry and aquaculture. Among three key findings was, first, that of 51 antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture and agriculture, 39 (or 76%) are also of importance in human medicine; furthermore, six classes of antibiotics commonly used in both agriculture and aquaculture are also included on the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of critically important/highly important/important antimicrobials. Second, various zoonotic pathogens isolated from meat and seafood were observed to feature resistance to multiple antibiotics on the WHO list, irrespective of their origin in either agriculture or aquaculture. Third, the data show that resistant bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and agriculture share the same resistance mechanisms, indicating that aquaculture is contributing to the same resistance issues established by terrestrial agriculture. More transparency in data collection and reporting is needed so the risks and benefits of antibiotic usage can be adequately assessed.

  20. How biobased products contribute to the establishment of sustainable, phthalate free, plasticizers and coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Oostveen, E.A.; Micciche, F.; Weijnen, J.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Biobased components for the development of environmentally friendly, durable products are being described. The potential and versatility of isosorbide diesters as subsitutes for the currently phthalate based plasticisers for PVC and other resins, is shown. Also high solid alkyd resins for decorative

  1. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems: establishing a minimum data set.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Brussaard, L.

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil's capacity to function, can be assessed by indicators based on physical, chemical, and biological properties. Here we report on the assessment of soil quality in 21 rice (Oryza sativa) fields under three rice production systems (semi-direct, pre-germinated, and

  2. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is prima...

  3. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  4. Increased sugarcane water productivity in Brazil avoids land use change and related environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, F. V.; Galdos, M. V.; Kolln, O.; Gava, G.; Franco, H.; Trivelin, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fábio V. Scarparea, Marcelo V. Galdosa, Oriel T. Kollna, Glauber J.C. Gavab, Henrique J. Francoa, Paulo C.O. Trivelinc a Laboratório Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE/CNPEM, C.P. 6170, Campinas, SP, 13083-970, Brazil. E-mail: fabio.scarpare@bioetanol.org.br b APTA - Polo Centro Oeste. Rod. SP 304, km 304, CP 66, Jaú, SP, 17201-970, Brazil. c Laboratório de Isótopos Estáveis, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, CENA/USP, C.P. 9, Piracicaba, SP, 13418-900, Brazil. Increasing crop water productivity is a key factor where water is scarce compared with land and other resources. A widespread method for water use assessment is the water productivity (WP) approach which is the ratio between biomass production per unit of water utilized. WP is useful to evaluate water utilization and to identify where and when water can be saved in an irrigation system. Traditionally, field experiments are conducted to quantify and evaluate water management practices in irrigation systems. This field trial was conducted in Jaú - São Paulo State (Lat 22.17° S, Long 48.32° W) during first and second ratoon cycles. Four treatments were appraised; rainfed only (R0); rainfed + 150 kg ha-1 of N (RN); irrigation only (I0) and irrigation + 150 kg ha-1 of N (IN). The subsurface drip irrigation was carried out considering the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to restore 100% of evapotranspired water. The irrigation frequency was considered the water supply to the soil by precipitation and the atmospheric demand for sugarcane ETc, with a maximum soil storage capacity of 70 mm. Our results point that the WP in irrigated condition was 13% higher than rainfed field whereas for N application, WP reached even higher values, 40%. WP among all treatments showed better results for IN (~28 kg mm-1) followed by RN (~23 kg mm-1); I0 (~16 kg mm-1) and R0 (~15 kg mm-1). Those results are in agreement with some studies which suggest high synergy between water and nitrogen for the

  5. Establishing a Bayesian approach to determining cosmogenic nuclide reference production rates using He-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Brent M.; Muzikar, Paul; Lifton, Nathaniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Production rates are a cornerstone of in situ cosmogenic nuclide applications, including surface exposure dating, erosion rate/denudation rate estimates, and burial dating. The most common approach for estimating production rates is to measure cosmogenic nuclide samples from sites with independently well-constrained exposure histories. In addition, while researchers attempt to minimize the effects of erosion through careful site and sample selection, it can be present at some unknown level in certain sites. We present a general Bayesian methodology for combining information from the nuclide concentrations, the exposure history, and the possibility of erosion, to determine the production rate at a given site. Then, we use another Bayesian approach to combine the results from the various sites. Cosmogenic 3He is an ideal test-bed for our Bayesian approach. It has the most calibration sites of the commonly measured cosmogenic nuclides, and there is evidence for the effect of erosion on some of the sites. Our approach largely reconciles previous discrepancies between sites of widely varying age, even at latitudes where geomagnetic effects are significant. With the canonical Lal/Stone scaling scheme, we derive a global sea level high latitude 3He production rate of 118 ± 2 atoms g-1 yr-1 when considering olivine and pyroxene together. Using the Lifton-Sato-Dunai scaling scheme yields a similar rate of 121 ± 2 atoms g-1 yr-1. Uncertainties associated with these values are improved over previous studies, due to both reduced scatter among the sites and an approach to combining sites which deemphasizes outliers.

  6. Location and limitation of cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum established from oxygen profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, P.G.; Cardona, T.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gooijer, de K.D.; Heuvel, van den J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The static fermentation of coconut water sucrose by Acetobacter xylinum was carried out at initial pH's of 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 or 6.0. Cellulose was produced at the surface, and its production was most favourable at pH's 4.0 and 5.0. These pH values also allowed for optimal bacterial growth. Oxygen

  7. Mitigation of unwanted direct and indirect land-use change - an integrated approach illustrated for palm oil, pulpwood, rubber and rice production in North and East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, Carina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32821129X; Wicke, Birka|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Verweij, Pita A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843; Faaij, André P C

    2017-01-01

    The widespread production of cash crops can result in the decline of forests, peatlands, rice fields and local community land. Such unwanted land-use and land-cover (LULC) change can lead to decreased carbon stocks, diminished biodiversity, displaced communities and reduced local food production. In

  8. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  9. Beyond trend analysis: How a modified breakpoint analysis enhances knowledge of agricultural production after Zimbabwe's fast track land reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Konrad; Thonfeld, Frank; Menz, Gunter

    2017-10-01

    In the discourse on land reform assessments, a significant lack of spatial and time-series data has been identified, especially with respect to Zimbabwe's ;Fast-Track Land Reform Programme; (FTLRP). At the same time, interest persists among land use change scientists to evaluate causes of land use change and therefore to increase the explanatory power of remote sensing products. This study recognizes these demands and aims to provide input on both levels: Evaluating the potential of satellite remote sensing time-series to answer questions which evolved after intensive land redistribution efforts in Zimbabwe; and investigating how time-series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be enhanced to provide information on land reform induced land use change. To achieve this, two time-series methods are applied to MODIS NDVI data: Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) and Breakpoint Analysis for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST). In our first analysis, a link of agricultural productivity trends to different land tenure regimes shows that regional clustering of trends is more dominant than a relationship between tenure and trend with a slightly negative slope for all regimes. We demonstrate that clusters of strong negative and positive productivity trends are results of changing irrigation patterns. To locate emerging and fallow irrigation schemes in semi-arid Zimbabwe, a new multi-method approach is developed which allows to map changes from bimodal seasonal phenological patterns to unimodal and vice versa. With an enhanced breakpoint analysis through the combination of STA and BFAST, we are able to provide a technique that can be applied on large scale to map status and development of highly productive cropping systems, which are key for food production, national export and local employment. We therefore conclude that the combination of existing and accessible time-series analysis methods: is able to achieve both: overcoming demonstrated limitations of

  10. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following land application of municipal biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, D R; Topp, E; Metcalfe, C D; Li, H; Edwards, M; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Curnoe, W; Payne, M; Beck, A

    2008-07-25

    Land application of municipal biosolids (sewage) is a common farming practice in many parts of the world. There is potential for transport of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from agricultural fields to adjacent surface waters via tile drainage systems. In this study, liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) (total solids=11,933 mg L(-1)), supplemented with selected PPCPs and the fluorescent dye tracer rhodamine WT (RWT), were applied to tile drained fields using two land application approaches. Objectives included evaluating the relative benefits of land application practices with respect to reducing PPCP loadings to tile drains, evaluating PPCP persistence in tile water, and determining whether rhodamine WT can be used to estimate PPCP mass loads in tile. The PPCPs examined included an antibacterial agent used in personal care products (triclosan), a metabolite of nicotine (cotinine), and a variety of drugs including two sulfonamide antimicrobials (sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole), a beta-blocker (atenolol), an anti-epileptic (carbamazepine), an antidepressant (fluoxetine), analgesic/anti-inflammatories (acetaminophen, naproxen, ibuprofen), and a lipid-regulator (gemfibrozil). Maximum observed PPCP concentrations in the spiked LMB were about 10(3) ng g(-1) dry weight. PPCPs were shown to move rapidly via soil macropores to tile drains within minutes of the land application. Maximum observed PPCP concentrations in tile effluent associated with the LMB application-induced tile flow event were approximately 10(1) to 10(3) ng L(-1). PPCP mass loads, for the application-induced tile-hydrograph event, were significantly (ptile water during several precipitation-induced tile flow events that occurred post-application, included: triclosan (max. approximately 1.5 x 10(2) ng L(-1)), carbamazepine (max. approximately 7 x 10(1) ng L(-1)), atenolol (max approximately 4 x 10(1) ng L(-1)), and cotinine (max approximately 2 x 10(1) ng L(-1)). In spite of their presence

  11. NASA's MODIS/VIIRS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Products: Asssessment of Accuracy, Continuity and Science Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, G. C.; Malakar, N.; Islam, T.

    2017-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) are an important Earth System Data Record (ESDR) and Environmental Climate Variable (ECV) defined by NASA and GCOS respectively. LST&E data are key variables used in land cover/land use change studies, in surface energy balance and atmospheric water vapor retrieval models and retrievals, and in climate research. LST&E products are currently produced on a routine basis using data from the MODIS instruments on the NASA EOS platforms and by the VIIRS instrument on the Suomi-NPP platform that serves as a bridge between NASA EOS and the next-generation JPSS platforms. Two new NASA LST&E products for MODIS (MxD21) and VIIRS (VNP21) are being produced during 2017 using a new approach that addresses discrepancies in accuracy and consistency between the current suite of split-window based LST products. The new approach uses a Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm, originally developed for the ASTER instrument, to physically retrieve both LST and spectral emissivity consistently for both sensors with high accuracy and well defined uncertainties. This study provides a rigorous assessment of accuracy of the MxD21/VNP21 products using temperature- and radiance-based validation strategies and demonstrates continuity between the products using collocated matchups over CONUS. We will further demonstrate potential science use of the new products with studies related to heat waves, monitoring snow melt dynamics, and land cover/land use change.

  12. Comparing and Combining Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature Products for Improved Hydrological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Parinussa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important variable that provides a valuable connection between the energy and water budget and is strongly linked to land surface hydrology. Space-borne remote sensing provides a consistent means for regularly observing LST using thermal infrared (TIR and passive microwave observations each with unique strengths and weaknesses. The spatial resolution of TIR based LST observations is around 1 km, a major advantage when compared to passive microwave observations (around 10 km. However, a major advantage of passive microwaves is their cloud penetrating capability making them all-weather sensors whereas TIR observations are routinely masked under the presence of clouds and aerosols. In this study, a relatively simple combination approach that benefits from the cloud penetrating capacity of passive microwave sensors was proposed. In the first step, TIR and passive microwave LST products were compared over Australia for both anomalies and raw timeseries. A very high agreement was shown over the vast majority of the country with R2 typically ranging from 0.50 to 0.75 for the anomalies and from 0.80 to 1.00 for the raw timeseries. Then, the scalability of the passive microwave based LST product was examined and a pixel based merging approach through linear scaling was proposed. The individual and merged LST products were further compared against independent LST from the re-analysis model outputs. This comparison revealed that the TIR based LST product agrees best with the re-analysis data (R2 0.26 for anomalies and R2 0.76 for raw data, followed by the passive microwave LST product (R2 0.16 for anomalies and R2 0.66 for raw data and the combined LST product (R2 0.18 for anomalies and R2 0.62 for raw data. It should be noted that the drop in performance comes with an increased revisit frequency of approximately 20% compared to the revised frequency of the TIR alone. Additionally, this comparison against re

  13. Commercial Landings Monitoring Reports (Coastal Dealers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains pounds and value for all seafood products that are landed and sold by established seafood dealers and brokers in the SE Region of the US...

  14. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  15. Monitoring Land Based Sources of Pollution over Coral Reefs using VIIRS Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, E.; Strong, A. E.; Eakin, C. M.; Wang, M.; Hernandez, W. J.; Cardona Maldonado, M. A.; De La Cour, J. L.; Liu, G.; Tirak, K.; Heron, S. F.; Skirving, W. J.; Armstrong, R.; Warner, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    NOAA's Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program and the NESDIS Ocean Color Team are developing new products to monitor land based sources of pollution (LBSP) over coral reef ecosystems using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the S-NPP satellite. LBSP are a major threat to corals that can cause disease and mortality, disrupt critical ecological reef functions, and impede growth, reproduction, and larval settlement, among other impacts. From VIIRS, near-real-time satellite products of Chlorophyll-a, Kd(490), and sea surface temperature are being developed for three U.S. Coral Reef Task Force priority watershed sites - Ka'anapali (West Maui, Hawai'i), Faga'alu (American Samoa), and Guánica Bay (Puerto Rico). Background climatological levels of these parameters are being developed to construct anomaly products. Time-series data are being generated to monitor changes in water quality in near-real-time and provide information on historical variations, especially following significant rain events. A pilot calibration/validation field study of the VIIRS-based ocean color products is underway in Puerto Rico; we plan to expand this validation effort to the other two watersheds. Working with local resource managers, we have identified a focal area for product development and validation for each watershed and its associated local reefs. This poster will present preliminary results and identify a path forward to ensure marine resource managers understand and correctly use the new ocean color products, and to help NOAA CRW refine its satellite products to maximize their benefit to coral reef management. NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NESDIS - NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service S-NPP - Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership

  16. Climate driven crop planting date in the ACME Land Model (ALM): Impacts on productivity and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, B.

    2017-12-01

    Climate is one of the key drivers of crop suitability and productivity in a region. The influence of climate and weather on the growing season determine the amount of time crops spend in each growth phase, which in turn impacts productivity and, more importantly, yields. Planting date can have a strong influence on yields with earlier planting generally resulting in higher yields, a sensitivity that is also present in some crop models. Furthermore, planting date is already changing and may continue, especially if longer growing seasons caused by future climate change drive early (or late) planting decisions. Crop models need an accurate method to predict plant date to allow these models to: 1) capture changes in crop management to adapt to climate change, 2) accurately model the timing of crop phenology, and 3) improve crop simulated influences on carbon, nutrient, energy, and water cycles. Previous studies have used climate as a predictor for planting date. Climate as a plant date predictor has more advantages than fixed plant dates. For example, crop expansion and other changes in land use (e.g., due to changing temperature conditions), can be accommodated without additional model inputs. As such, a new methodology to implement a predictive planting date based on climate inputs is added to the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM). The model considers two main sources of climate data important for planting: precipitation and temperature. This method expands the current temperature threshold planting trigger and improves the estimated plant date in ALM. Furthermore, the precipitation metric for planting, which synchronizes the crop growing season with the wettest months, allows tropical crops to be introduced to the model. This presentation will demonstrate how the improved model enhances the ability of ALM to capture planting date compared with observations. More importantly, the impact of changing the planting date and introducing tropical

  17. Understanding the Long Run Determinants of Land Use in Global Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldos, U. C.; Hertel, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    growth (+1.6%), biofuels (+0.2%) and urbanization (-0.3%). Technological change in crop, livestock and processed food production also have a modest impact on global cropland use over this historical period (+0.8%, -0.3% and +0.1%, respectively). We then turn our attention to projections of global land use over the coming decade. Here we project continued expansion in global cropland (13.7%). We then decompose the drivers of this projected change in land use. For example, if population grows at projected rates and yields grow at recent historical rates, then projected cropland use rises by just 1.7%. If we add urbanization, then global cropland use is slightly reduced (+1.5%). Because of the magnitude of the projected production targets, adding biofuels boosts global cropland use strongly (+4.2%) when added to the preceding factors. Adding technological change in the livestock and food processing sectors, as well as growth in per capita incomes boosts projected cropland use to 13.7%. In short, income growth is likely to be the critical driver of global cropland change in the future.

  18. PROSPECTS OF CORN PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT IN DRY LAND IN PAPUA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrizal Malik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of dry land in the province of Papua were directed not only to commodities such as coffee, cocoa, and coconut but also for the development of upland rice, soybean, and corn. Corn has the largest composition for feed, industrial raw materials, edible oil, starch, and drinks. In agricultural development policy of Papua province, the government set the development of maize as one of the priority food commodities in addition to rice and soybeans. But productivity is less than 1.8 tons per hectare, while the results of the assessment of more than 10 tonnes per ha. This is due to the low productivity of yield improvement technologies (seeds, fertilizers are not yet fully mastered farmers and socioeconomic factors (a scarcity of capital. Need encouragement for improved productivity include Integrated Crop Management approaches in maize. The use of fertilizers such as Urea 250 kg + 100 kg SP-36 + KCl 100 kg per ha could increase the productivity of maize. There are 4,445,871 ha for maize development in Papua.

  19. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    has been validated for softwoods (white pine) on several reclaimed mine sites in the southern Appalachian coal region. The classification model is a viable method for classifying post-SMCRA abandoned mined lands into productivity classes for white pine. A thinning study was established as a random complete block design to evaluate the response to thinning of a 26-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in southwest Virginia. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 32.3 m at base age 50 years. Thinning rapidly increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.84 cm yr{sup -1} compared to 0.58 cm yr{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per hectare. At age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 457.1 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} but was only worth $8807 ha{sup -1}, while the thinned treatment was projected to have 465.8 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1}, which was worth $11265 ha{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume being in sawtimber size classes.

  20. Prediction of Biomass Production and Nutrient Uptake in Land Application Using Partial Least Squares Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR can integrate a great number of variables and overcome collinearity problems, a fact that makes it suitable for intensive agronomical practices such as land application. In the present study a PLSR model was developed to predict important management goals, including biomass production and nutrient recovery (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus, associated with treatment potential, environmental impacts, and economic benefits. Effluent loading and a considerable number of soil parameters commonly monitored in effluent irrigated lands were considered as potential predictor variables during the model development. All data were derived from a three year field trial including plantations of four different plant species (Acacia cyanophylla, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Populus nigra, and Arundo donax, irrigated with pre-treated domestic effluent. PLSR method was very effective despite the small sample size and the wide nature of data set (with many highly correlated inputs and several highly correlated responses. Through PLSR method the number of initial predictor variables was reduced and only several variables were remained and included in the final PLSR model. The important input variables maintained were: Effluent loading, electrical conductivity (EC, available phosphorus (Olsen-P, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K2+, SAR, and NO3−-N. Among these variables, effluent loading, EC, and nitrates had the greater contribution to the final PLSR model. PLSR is highly compatible with intensive agronomical practices such as land application, in which a large number of highly collinear and noisy input variables is monitored to assess plant species performance and to detect impacts on the environment.

  1. Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wiśniewska, Anita; Pączkowski, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with β-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg · g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg · dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg · g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg · dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions.

  2. Evaluating Future Land-use Change Scenarios: Trade-offs between Bio-energy Demand, Food Production, and Carbon Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the construction of consistent future climate scenario, land use scenario has important role through both biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects on climate change. In terms of carbon emissions by the land-use change, relative importance may be high in the lower radiative forcing and lower carbon emission scenarios, which may use large amount of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). In this study, we first evaluated the CO2 emissions by land-use change in the 21st century using each RCPs scenarios. We use an offline terrestrial biogeochemical model VISIT, with book-keeping consideration of the carbon emission from deforested biomass and the regrowing uptake from abandoned cropland and pasture employing the gridded transition land-use data from RCPs. Effect of CO2 fertilization, land-use transition itself, and climate change are evaluated in the analysis. We found that constructing consistent land-use change carbon emission scenario with the gridded land-use change data requires precise considerations of effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change particularly for the regrowing uptake. Also, our result showed more emission of CO2 by the land-use change than the assumption in the integrated assessment model for RCP2.6 scenario. Then, we estimated the land-use area required to sustain the required biofuel production to match the assumption of BECCS use in RCPs with a global process based crop model. In the evaluation, we also estimated the further changes in carbon emissions by the required land-use change due to differences in crop yield assumptions, which also take into account of climate change. The trade-offs between land-use for crop, biocrop, and natural vegetation low-carbon scenario are discussed using the integrated terrestrial modeling approach.

  3. Data records of biophysical products in the Copernicus Global Land Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydekerke, L.; Smets, B.; Swinnen, E.; Lacaze, R. N.; Calvet, J. C.; Baret, F.; camacho De Coca, F.; Roujean, J. L.; Tansey, K.; Coelho, S.; Jann, A.; Paulik, C.; Verger, A.

    2014-12-01

    From 1stJanuary 2013, the Copernicus Global Land service provides continuously a set of bio-geophysical variables describing, over the whole globe, the vegetation dynamic, the energy budget at the continental surface and some components of the water cycle. These generic products serve numerous applications such as agriculture and food security monitoring, weather forecast, climate change impact studies, water, forest and natural resources management. The portfolio contains Essential Climate Variables like Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), surface albedo, Land Surface Temperature, soil moisture, burnt areas, areas of water bodies, and additional vegetation indices. They are generated daily on a reliable and automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data. Beside this timely production, the available historical archives, up to 16 years for SPOT-VEGETATION, have been processed using the same innovative algorithms. For a number of ECVs, the algorithms are adapted to work with NOAA-AVHRR as input to extend the time series up to 1982. The service continuity is provided in two parallel paths. On one hand, the existing retrieval methodologies are adapted to use the new PROBA-V sensor, fully consistent with SPOT-VEGETATION, and as such extends the time-series at 1km spatial resolution. On the other hand, the operation is moving to the finer resolution of PROBA-V (300m), while maintaining consistency with the 1km series. The data records are documented in terms of the physical methodologies, the technical properties, and the results of validation exercises. The service performs a continuous quality monitoring on three levels: technical, scientific and cross-cutting, following where possible the rules of CEOS/LPV and comparing with both in-situ and other datasets, e.g. MODIS. The service is improved through feedback from an independent expert team performing regular independent reviews and providing user feedback. All

  4. Use of Land Use Land Cover Change Mapping Products in Aiding Coastal Habitat Conservation and Restoration Efforts of the Mobile Bay NEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Bay region has undergone significant land use land cover change (LULC) over the last 35 years, much of which is associated with urbanization. These changes have impacted the region s water quality and wildlife habitat availability. In addition, much of the region is low-lying and close to the Gulf, which makes the region vulnerable to hurricanes, climate change (e.g., sea level rise), and sometimes man-made disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Land use land cover change information is needed to help coastal zone managers and planners to understand and mitigate the impacts of environmental change on the region. This presentation discusses selective results of a current NASA-funded project in which Landsat data over a 34-year period (1974-2008) is used to produce, validate, refine, and apply land use land cover change products to aid coastal habitat conservation and restoration needs of the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MB NEP). The project employed a user defined classification scheme to compute LULC change mapping products for the entire region, which includes the majority of Mobile and Baldwin counties. Additional LULC change products have been computed for select coastal HUC-12 sub-watersheds adjacent to either Mobile Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the MB NEP watershed profile assessments. This presentation will include results of additional analyses of LULC change for sub-watersheds that are currently high priority areas, as defined by MB NEP. Such priority sub-watersheds include those that are vulnerable to impacts from the DWH oil spill, as well as sub-watersheds undergoing urbanization. Results demonstrating the nature and permanence of LULC change trends for these higher priority sub-watersheds and results characterizing change for the entire 34-year period and at approximate 10-year intervals across this period will also be presented. Future work will include development of value-added coastal habitat quality

  5. Astrocytes sustain long-term productive HIV-1 infection without establishment of reactivable viral latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Corinne; Proust, Alizé; Deshiere, Alexandre; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Drouin, Jean; Tremblay, Michel J

    2018-02-21

    The "shock and kill" HIV-1 cure strategy proposes eradication of stable cellular reservoirs by clinical treatment with latency-reversing agents (LRAs). Although resting CD4 + T cells latently infected with HIV-1 constitute the main reservoir that is targeted by these approaches, their consequences on other reservoirs such as the central nervous system are still unknown and should be taken into consideration. We performed experiments aimed at defining the possible role of astrocytes in HIV-1 persistence in the brain and the effect of LRA treatments on this viral sanctuary. We first demonstrate that the diminished HIV-1 production in a proliferating astrocyte culture is due to a reduced proliferative capacity of virus-infected cells compared with uninfected astrocytes. In contrast, infection of non-proliferating astrocytes led to a robust HIV-1 infection that was sustained for over 60 days. To identify astrocytes latently infected with HIV-1, we designed a new dual-color reporter virus called NL4.3 eGFP-IRES-Crimson that is fully infectious and encodes for all viral proteins. Although we detected a small fraction of astrocytes carrying silent HIV-1 proviruses, we did not observe any reactivation using various LRAs and even strong inducers such as tumor necrosis factor, thus suggesting that these proviruses were either not transcriptionally competent or in a state of deep latency. Our findings imply that astrocytes might not constitute a latent reservoir per se but that relentless virus production by this brain cell population could contribute to the neurological disorders seen in HIV-1-infected persons subjected to combination antiretroviral therapy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxue Li

    Full Text Available The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, total potassium (TK, available nitrogen (AN, available phosphorus (AP and available potassium (AK. The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1 Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2 Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3 Soil "fertile islands" were formed, and the "fertile islands" were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous

  7. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingxue; Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Defu; Zhao, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1) Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2) Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3) Soil "fertile islands" were formed, and the "fertile islands" were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E) for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous shrub.

  8. Establishing the potential of Ca isotopes as proxy for consumption of dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, N.-C.; Henderson, Gideon M.; Belshaw, Nick S.; Hedges, Robert E.M.

    2006-01-01

    A procedure has been developed which allows precise determination of Ca isotope ratios in natural and organic samples such as bones, milk and other biological materials. In this study the procedure is used to determine Ca isotope ratios in modern dietary systems and to establish the potential of Ca isotopes as a paleodiet tracer by analysis of bones. Multi-sampling across a 5 cm portion of a red deer jawbone shows invariant Ca isotope ratios and suggests negligible isotopic effect during bone remodelling. The difference between Ca isotopes in red deer diet and bones from one location was 0.65 per mille , in agreement with a previous study of diet/bone offsets. Similar values for modern deer-bone δ 44/42 Ca from four geographically diverse populations demonstrate that geological/environmental conditions do not cause large variability and suggest that diet is the major cause for variations in bone δ 44/42 Ca. δ 44/42 Ca of herbivore milk is found to be ∼0.5 to 0.6 higher than the corresponding diet. Modern human milk has a δ 44/42 Ca of -1.15 (n = 4) and is isotopically the lightest material reported in this study. This suggests that, for these samples, a significant portion of Ca intake was from dairy sources, and that human milk has Ca which is, again, ∼0.6 per mille isotopically lighter than dietary Ca intake. Finally, Ca isotope ratios are presented from a variety of samples formed during fermentation processes (e.g., curds, whey, etc.) which indicate that these processes do not fractionate Ca isotopes significantly. Together, the data in this paper indicate that, because milk is an important dietary source of Ca with a distinctive signature, Ca isotope ratios should provide a tracer for past dairy consumption. A simplified model is outlined to demonstrate the ability to quantify dairy consumption by the analysis of Ca isotopes in bones

  9. Linking primary production, climate and land use along an urban-wildland transect: a satellite view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yonghong; Jia Gensuo; Guo Huadong

    2009-01-01

    Variation of green vegetation cover influences local climate dynamics, exchange of water-heat between land and atmosphere, and hydrological processes. However, the mechanism of interaction between vegetation and local climate change in subtropical areas under climate warming and anthropogenic disturbances is poorly understood. We analyzed spatial-temporal trends of vegetation with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index datasets over three sections, namely urban, urban-rural fringe and wildland along an urban-wildland transect in a southern mega-city area in China from 2000-2008. The results show increased photosynthetic activity occurred in the wildland and the stable urban landscape in correspondence to the rising temperature, and a considerable decrease of vegetation activity in the urban-rural fringe area, apparently due to urban expansion. On analyzing the controlling factors of climate change and human drivers of vegetation cover change, we found that temperature contributed to vegetation growth more than precipitation and that rising temperature accelerated plant physiological activity. Meanwhile, human-induced dramatic modification of land cover, e.g. conversion of natural forest and cropland to built-up areas in the urban-rural fringe, has caused significant changes of green vegetation fraction and overall primary production, which may further influence local climate.

  10. Linking primary production, climate and land use along an urban-wildland transect: a satellite view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Guo, Huadong

    2009-10-01

    Variation of green vegetation cover influences local climate dynamics, exchange of water-heat between land and atmosphere, and hydrological processes. However, the mechanism of interaction between vegetation and local climate change in subtropical areas under climate warming and anthropogenic disturbances is poorly understood. We analyzed spatial-temporal trends of vegetation with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index datasets over three sections, namely urban, urban-rural fringe and wildland along an urban-wildland transect in a southern mega-city area in China from 2000-2008. The results show increased photosynthetic activity occurred in the wildland and the stable urban landscape in correspondence to the rising temperature, and a considerable decrease of vegetation activity in the urban-rural fringe area, apparently due to urban expansion. On analyzing the controlling factors of climate change and human drivers of vegetation cover change, we found that temperature contributed to vegetation growth more than precipitation and that rising temperature accelerated plant physiological activity. Meanwhile, human-induced dramatic modification of land cover, e.g. conversion of natural forest and cropland to built-up areas in the urban-rural fringe, has caused significant changes of green vegetation fraction and overall primary production, which may further influence local climate.

  11. Impact of Monsoon to Aquatic Productivity and Fish Landing at Pesawaran Regency Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunarso; Zainuri, Muhammad; Ario, Raden; Munandar, Bayu; Prayogi, Harmon

    2018-02-01

    Monsoon variability influences the productivity processes in the ocean and has different responses in each waters. Furthermore, variability of marine productivity affects to the fisheries resources fluctuation. This research has conducted using descriptive method to investigate the consequences of monsoon variability to aquatic productivity, sea surface temperature (SST), fish catches, and fish season periods at Pesawaran Regency waters, Lampung. Variability of aquatic productivity was determined based on chlorophyll-a indicator from MODIS satellite images. Monsoon variability was governed based on wind parameters and fish catches from fish landing data of Pesawaran fish market. The result showed that monsoon variability had affected to aquatic productivity, SST, and fish catches at Pesawaran Regency waters. Maximum wind speed and lowest SST occurred twice in a year, December to March and August to October, which the peaks were on January (2.55 m/s of wind speed and 29.66°C of SST) and September (2.44 m/s of wind speed and 29.06°C of SST). Also, Maximum aquatic productivity happened on January to March and July to September, which it was arisen simultaneously with maximum wind speed and the peaks was 0.74 mg/m3 and 0.78 mg/m3, on February and August respectively. The data showed that fish catches decreased along with strong wind speed and low SST. However, when weak wind speed and high SST occurred, fish catches increased. The correlation between Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) with SST, wind speed, and chlorophyll-a was at value 0.76, -0.67, and -0.70, respectively. The high rate fish catches in Pesawaran emerged on March-May and September-December.

  12. Modeling land subsidence due to shallow-water hydrocarbon production: A case study in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambolati, G.; Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Janna, C.; Teatini, P.

    2012-12-01

    One major environmental concern of subsurface fluid withdrawal is land subsidence. The issue of a reliable estimate and prediction of the expected anthropogenic land subsidence is particularly important whenever the production of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) occurs from large reservoirs located close to deltaic zones (e.g., Mississippi, Po, Nile, Niger, Yellow rivers) or shallow-water with low-lying coastlands (e.g., Northern Caspian sea, Dutch Wadden Sea). In such cases even a small reduction of the ground elevation relative to the mean sea level may impact seriously on human settlements and natural environment. The monitoring of the ongoing land subsidence has been significantly improved over the last decade by SAR-based interferometry. These measurements can be quite effectively used to map the process and calibrate geomechanical models for predicting the future event. However, this powerful methodology cannot be implemented off-shore. Although permanent GPS stations can be established to monitor the movement of the production facilities usually installed above the gravity center of a reservoir, an accurate characterization of the settlement bowl affecting the sea bottom, with a possible migration toward the shore, is a challenge still today. In the present communication the case study of the Riccione gas reservoir is discussed. The field is located in the near-shore northern Adriatic Sea, approximately 15 km far from the coastline, where the seawater height is about 20 m. The gas-bearing strata are 1100 m deep and are hydraulically connected to a relatively weak aquifer. Production of 70% of the cumulative reserves as of 2006 yielded a pore pressure decrease of 60 bars. Reliable geometry and geomechanical properties of the depleted formations were detected with the aid of a 3D seismic survey and a borehole equipped with radioactive markers, respectively. The latter pointed out that the Riccione formations are characterized by an unusually high oedometer

  13. Establishment of a sensor testbed at NIST for plant productivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. W.; Hutyra, L.; Reinmann, A.; Trlica, A.; Marrs, J.; Jones, T.; Whetstone, J. R.; Logan, B.; Reblin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate assessments of biogenic carbon fluxes is challenging. Correlating optical signatures to plant activity allows for monitoring large regions. New methods, including solar-induced fluorescence (SIF), promise to provide more timely and accurate estimate of plant activity, but we are still developing a full understanding of the mechanistic leakage between plant assimilation of carbon and SIF. We have initiated a testbed to facilitate the evaluation of sensors and methods for remote monitoring of plant activity at the NIST headquarters. The test bed utilizes a forested area of mature trees in a mixed urban environment. A 1 hectare plot within the 26 hectare forest has been instrumented for ecophysiological measurements with an edge (100 m long) that is persistently monitored with multimodal optical sensors (SIF spectrometers, hyperspectral imagers, thermal infrared imaging, and lidar). This biological testbed has the advantage of direct access to the national scales maintained by NIST of measurements related to both the physical and optical measurements of interest. We offer a description of the test site, the sensors, and preliminary results from the first season of observations for ecological, physiological, and remote sensing based estimates of ecosystem productivity.

  14. Improving simulated spatial distribution of productivity and biomass in Amazon forests using the ACME land model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Shi, X.; Xu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.; Norby, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle, accounting for one third of the global NPP and containing about 25% of global vegetation biomass and soil carbon. This is particularly true for tropical forests in the Amazon region, as it comprises approximately 50% of the world's tropical forests. It is therefore important for us to understand and represent the processes that determine the fluxes and storage of carbon in these forests. In this study, we show that the implementation of phosphorus (P) cycle and P limitation in the ACME Land Model (ALM) improves simulated spatial pattern of NPP. The P-enabled ALM is able to capture the west-to-east gradient of productivity, consistent with field observations. We also show that by improving the representation of mortality processes, ALM is able to reproduce the observed spatial pattern of above ground biomass across the Amazon region.

  15. Computational Short-cutting the Big Data Classification Bottleneck: Using the MODIS Land Cover Product to Derive a Consistent 30 m Landsat Land Cover Product of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Roy, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    Classification is a fundamental process in remote sensing used to relate pixel values to land cover classes present on the surface. The state of the practice for large area land cover classification is to classify satellite time series metrics with a supervised (i.e., training data dependent) non-parametric classifier. Classification accuracy generally increases with training set size. However, training data collection is expensive and the optimal training distribution over large areas is unknown. The MODIS 500 m land cover product is available globally on an annual basis and so provides a potentially very large source of land cover training data. A novel methodology to classify large volume Landsat data using high quality training data derived automatically from the MODIS land cover product is demonstrated for all of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). The known misclassification accuracy of the MODIS land cover product and the scale difference between the 500 m MODIS and 30 m Landsat data are accommodated for by a novel MODIS product filtering, Landsat pixel selection, and iterative training approach to balance the proportion of local and CONUS training data used. Three years of global Web-enabled Landsat data (WELD) data for all of the CONUS are classified using a random forest classifier and the results assessed using random forest `out-of-bag' training samples. The global WELD data are corrected to surface nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance and are defined in 158 × 158 km tiles in the same projection and nested to the MODIS land cover products. This reduces the need to pre-process the considerable Landsat data volume (more than 14,000 Landsat 5 and 7 scenes per year over the CONUS covering 11,000 million 30 m pixels). The methodology is implemented in a parallel manner on WELD tile by tile basis but provides a wall-to-wall seamless 30 m land cover product. Detailed tile and CONUS results are presented and the potential for global production using the

  16. Mining waste contaminated lands: an uphill battle for improving crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining drastically alters the physico-chemical and biological environment of the landscape. Low organic matter content, unfavourable pH, low water holding capacity, salinity, coarse texture, compaction, siltation of water bodies due to wash off of mineral overburden dumps, inadequate supply of plant nutrients, accelerated erosion, acid generating materials, and mobilization of contaminated sediments into the aquatic environment are the principal constraints experienced in mining contaminated sites. A variety of approaches have been considered for reclaiming mine wastes including direct revegetation of amended waste materials, top soiling, and the use of capillary barriers. The simplest technology to improve crop productivity is the addition of organic amendments. Biosolids and animal manure can support revegetation, but its rapid decomposition especially in the wet tropics, necessitates repeated applications. Recalcitrant materials such as “biochars”, which improve soil properties on a long term basis as well as promote soil carbon sequestration, hold enormous promise. An eco-friendly and cost-effective Microbe Assisted Phytoremediation system has been proposed to increase biological productivity and fertility of mine spoil dumps. Agroforestry practices may enhance the nutrient status of degraded mine spoil lands (facilitation. N-fixing trees are important in this respect. Metal tolerant ecotypes of grasses and calcium-loving plants help restore lead, zinc, and copper mine tailings and gypsum mine spoils, respectively. Overall, an integrated strategy of introduction of metal tolerant plants, genetic engineering for enhanced synthesis and exudation of natural chelators into the rhizosphere, improvement of rhizosphere, and integrated management including agroforestry will be appropriate for reclaiming mining contaminated lands.

  17. The Nutrient Uptake Efficiency, Crop Productivity and Quality of Rice Bean in Dry Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Endang Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean is a group of beans that are rich in carbohydrates, proteins and fats. This plant is resistant to pests and diseases, as well as the broad adaptability. This study aims to obtain an efficient fertilization pattern on rice bean cultivation in dry land. The treatments consisted of 9 fertilization patterns which were RP0: no fertilizer (control; RP1: 100% recommendation fertilizer (50 kg Urea and 100 kg SP-36 ha-1; RP2: 5 Mg ha-1 manure plus 50% recommendation fertilizer; RP3: RP2 plus MVA; RP4: 5 Mg ha-1 Crotalaria sp compost plus 50% recommendation fertilizer; RP5: RP4 plus VAM; RP6: 2.5 t ha-1 manure, 2.5 Mg ha-1 Crotalaria sp compost plus 50% recommendation fertilizer; RP7: 1.5 Mg ha-1 manure, 1 Mg ha-1 Crotalaria sp compost plus 50% recommendation fertilizer; RP8: RP7 plus MVA. Fertilization treatments were arranged in RCBD and each treatment was repeated 3 times. The fertilization treatments had no significant effect on NUE. Productivity of rice bean in RP3 and RP5 reached 3.75 Mg ha-1, in RP2 and RP4 achieved 2.64 Mg ha-1, and in the control treatment reached 1.94 Mg ha-1. Carbohydrate content in seeds increased by 20% in the fertilization treatments compared to the control. Protein and anthocyanin content in all treatments were not significantly different. The combination of 5 Mg organic fertilizer (manure and / or Crotalaria compost, 50% recommendation fertilizer plus MVA was an efficient fertilization pattern to improve P fertilizer uptake efficiency (PUE, productivity and quality of rice bean crop in dry land.

  18. Land-based production of animal protein: impacts, efficiency, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Cross, H Russell

    2014-11-01

    Land-based production of high-quality protein by livestock and poultry plays an important role in improving human nutrition, growth, and health, as well as economical and social developments worldwide. With exponential growth of the global population and marked rises in meat consumption per capita, demands for animal-source protein are expected to increase by 72% between 2013 and 2050. This raises concerns about the sustainability and environmental impacts of animal agriculture. An attractive solution to meeting the increasing needs for animal products and mitigating undesired effects of agricultural practices is to enhance the efficiency of animal growth, reproduction, and lactation. Breeding techniques may help achieve this goal, but have only met with limited success. A promising, mechanism-based approach is to optimize the proportion and amounts of amino acids in diets for maximizing whole-body protein synthesis and feed efficiency. Improvements in farm animal productivity will not only decrease the contamination of soils, groundwater, and air by excessive manure, but will also help sustain animal agriculture to produce high-quality protein for the expanding population in the face of diminishing resources. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Chapter 10: Establishing native trees on legacy surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Burger; C.E. Zipper; P.N. Angel; N. Hall; J.G. Skousen; C.D. Barton; S. Eggerud

    2017-01-01

    More than 1 million acres have been surface mined for coal in the Appalachian region. Today, much of this land is unmanaged, unproductive, and covered with nonnative plants. Establishing productive forests on such lands will aid restoration of ecosystem services provided by forests—services such as watershed protection, water quality enhancement, carbon storage, and...

  20. Land administration for housing production : analysis of need for interagency integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agunbiade, M.E.; Rajabifard, A.; Bennett, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In most country contexts the activities of government land administration agencies, those dealing with the functions of land tenure, valuation, planning, and development, are disparate and lack harmonisation. This paper analyses the imperative for integrating these functions across and between

  1. Bio-economic farm modelling to analyse agricultural land productivity in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidogeza, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: Rwanda; farm household typology; sustainable technology adoption; multivariate analysis;
    land degradation; food security; bioeconomic model; crop simulation models; organic fertiliser; inorganic fertiliser; policy incentives

    In Rwanda, land degradation contributes to the

  2. Bio-economic farm modelling to analyse agricultural land productivity in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidogeza, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: Rwanda; farm household typology; sustainable technology adoption; multivariate analysis;
    land degradation; food security; bioeconomic model; crop simulation models; organic fertiliser; inorganic fertiliser; policy incentives In Rwanda, land degradation contributes to the low and

  3. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flachowsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF, water (water footprint, WF and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF during the production process. The wide range of different land and water inputs per unit feed between various studies largely influences the results. Further influencing factors are species and categories of animals that produce edible protein, their yields and the feeding of animals. Coproducts with no or low humanly edible fractions and grassland as feed contribute to a lower need for arable land and lower LF, WF and CF. The most efficient land use or the lowest LF per kilogram of edible protein was estimated for higher milk and egg yields; the highest LF values were calculated for beef, followed by pork. The lowest WF and CF were calculated for edible protein of chicken meat and eggs. Edible protein from ruminants is mostly characterized by a higher CF because of the high greenhouse gas potential of methane produced in the rumen. A key prerequisite for further progress in this field is the harmonization of data collection and calculation methods. Alternatives to partial or complete replacement of protein of terrestrial animals, such as marine animals, insects, cell cultures, single-cell proteins or simulated animal products from plants, as well as changing eating patterns and reducing food losses are mentioned as further potential ways for more efficient feed production. For all those dealing with plant or animal breeding and cultivation and all those who are working along the whole food production chain, it is a major challenge to enhance the production of more food for more people with, at the same time, less, limited resources and

  4. Drought Dynamics and Vegetation Productivity in Different Land Management Systems of Eastern Cape, South Africa—A Remote Sensing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Graw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Cape Province in South Africa has experienced extreme drought events during the last decade. In South Africa, different land management systems exist belonging to two different land tenure classes: commercial large scale farming and communal small-scale subsistence farming. Communal lands are often reported to be affected by land degradation and drought events among others considered as trigger for this process. Against this background, we analyzed vegetation response to drought in different land management and land tenure systems through assessing vegetation productivity trends and monitoring the intensity, frequency and distribution of the drought hazard in grasslands and communal and commercial croplands during drought and non-drought conditions. For the observation period 2000–2016, we used time series of 250 m Vegetation Condition Index (VCI based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Climate Hazard Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS precipitation data with 5 km resolution. For the assessment of vegetation dynamics, we: (1 analyzed vegetation productivity in Eastern Cape over the last 16 years with EVI; (2 analyzed the impact of drought events on vegetation productivity in grasslands as well as commercial and communal croplands; and (3 compared precipitation-vegetation dynamics between the drought season 2015/2016 and the non-drought season 2011/2012. Change in total annual vegetation productivity could detect drought years while drought dynamics during the season could be rather monitored by the VCI. Correlation of vegetation condition and precipitation indicated areas experiencing significant vegetation productivity trends showing low and even negative correlation coefficients indicating other drivers for productivity change and drought impact besides rainfall.

  5. Evaluation of the S-NPP VIIRS land surface temperature product using ground data acquired by an autonomous system at a rice paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclòs, Raquel; Pérez-Planells, Lluís; Coll, César; Valiente, José A.; Valor, Enric

    2018-01-01

    The S-NPP VIIRS Land Surface Temperature (LST) product attained the stage V1 of validation maturity (provisional validated) at the end of 2014. This paper evaluates the current VIIRS V1 LST product versus concurrent ground data acquired at a rice paddy site from December 2014 to August 2016. The experimental site has three different seasonal and homogeneous land covers through the year, which makes the site interesting for validation activities. An autonomous and multiangular system was used to record continuous ground data at the site. The data acquired at zenith angles similar to the VIIRS viewing angles were used for the validation to avoid possible differences between satellite and ground views due to angular dependences of the LSTs. Concurrently to surface data, downwelling sky radiances were measured at different incidence angles by the system, which were used to improve the cloud screening of the validation dataset, since cloud leakage was identified in previous validation studies as an important issue for further improvement. The validation results show good performance for the VIIRS V1 LST product at zenith angles ≤40°, with systematic uncertainties within ±0.5 K and accuracies around 1.2 K. These values are within the threshold requirements established for the VIIRS LST product, and they are better than the validation results published previously for the beta version of the product or using VIIRS data reprocessed with the calibrated algorithm coefficients implemented from April 2014. As the VIIRS LST algorithm has regression coefficients dependent on land cover type, the impact of land cover misclassifications on VIIRS LST data accuracy was also evaluated. It was expected that changing the surface type assigned by the VIIRS product to more appropriate types at the site pixels should improve the validation results. However, the improvement was limited, likely due to the reduced range of variability of the emissivities considered for the different land

  6. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: A consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops...... and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow...

  7. Introducing "biophysical redundancy": the global status and past evolution of unused water, land and productivity resources for food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela

    2017-04-01

    Countries have different resilience to sudden and long-term changes in food demand and supply. An important part of this resilience is the degree of biophysical redundancy, defined as the potential food production of 'spare land', available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. The presentation will show the results of a recently published paper1 on the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Results indicate that in 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as 'Low Income Economies (LIEs)' since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  8. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway.

  9. Puerto Rico Commercial Landings Statistics 1983 and more recent in Accumulated Landings System (ALS) Compatible Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains multi-trip and single trip level quantities and value for all seafood products that are landed and sold by established seafood dealers and...

  10. Influence of land area and capital strengthening fund of rural economic enterprises toward corn production in North Sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanta

    2018-02-01

    Corn is one of the staple food crops. Corn can also be processed into various foods and also as animal feed. The need for corn will continue to increase from year to year so it is necessary to increase production. The government has targeted corn crop self-sufficiency to achieve the corn production standards required by the animal feed industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of land area and capital strengthening funds to rural economic enterprises on corn production. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Central Statistical Agency of North Sumatra Province. The research method used is panel regression method. The result shows that the area of land has a significant effect on corn production and the capital strengthening fund to the rural economy institution has an insignificant effect on corn production in North Sumatera Province.

  11. Seed Production, Herbage Residue and Crude Protein Content of Centro (Centrosema pubescens) in the Year of Establishment at Shika, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omokanye, AT.

    2001-01-01

    A field trial was carried out on seed production pattern of centro (Centrosema pubescens,) in the year of establishment in a sub humid environment of Nigeria as influenced by sowing date and phosphorus application levels. The herbage residue and its crude protein content were also determined after pod harvest. The variation in seeds per pod for plantings between June 21 to August 2 was from 16.5 to 14.5, while for unfertilized and fertilized plots seeds number varied between 12.6 and 16.2/pod...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    between the sites. The first site was small, 5000 m2. Weeding and harvest were done manually, and the alternative was excavation of the contaminated soil followed by landfilling. The second site was 12 ha. Salix Vinimalis cultivation was assumed as entirely machine- based, and the alternative was covering the entire site with 0.5 m clean soil. Transport of soil would constitute the major environmental costs for the conventional remediation alternatives (excavation or covering), and cause 60-90% of the energy use, waste, use of fossil resources, land surface occupation, global warming, acidification, photochemical smog formation, and the global human toxicity of water, soil and air. Soil transports would cause 40% of water use, and less than 10% of the environmental effect on soil use, odour or local human toxicity. We calculated with clean soil transport of 30 km and a landfill 22 km from the smaller site. Biofuel cultivation would cause a lower environmental cost for all effect categories above, even when soil transport was ignored. This was in spite of the higher fertiliser use and the increased car transport for biofuel production compared to excavation or covering. The amount of fuel needed for covering the larger area was roughly equivalent to the amount needed for the agricultural equipment for Salix Vinimalis cultivation, but the total energy need for the conventional remediation was higher. This includes e.g. the energy needed for the production of plastic groundwater wells, production of equipment, production of fertiliser etc. Demand for arable area would increase as a result of the increasing demand for food and the increasing demand for biofuels. This spurred a detailed look at the land surface needed for the remediation alternatives. Contaminated soil occupies surface itself, and remediation leads to the exploitation of land beyond the location as well. In this study, the surface required beyond Salix Vinimalis cultivation has been included. That is to say

  13. System Establishment and Method Application for Quantitatively Evaluating the Green Degree of the Products in Green Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengguo Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The government green purchase is widely considered to be an effective means of promoting sustainable consumption. However, how to identify the greener product is the biggest obstacle of government green purchase and it has not been well solved. A quantitative evaluation method is provided to measure the green degree of different products of the same use function with an indicator system established, which includes fundamental indicators, general indicators, and leading indicators. It can clearly show the products’ green extent by rating the scores of different products, which provides the government a tool to compare the green degree of different products and select greener ones. A comprehensive evaluation case of a project purchasing 1635 desk computers in Tianjin government procurement center is conducted using the green degree evaluation system. The environmental performance of the products were assessed quantitatively, and the evaluation price, which was the bid price minus the discount (the discount rate was according to the total scores attained by their environmental performance, and the final evaluation price ranking from low to high in turn is supplier C, D, E, A, and B. The winner, supplier C, was not the lowest bid price or the best environmental performance, but it performed well at both bid price and environmental performance so it deserved the project. It shows that the green extent evaluation system can help classify the different products by evaluating their environment performance including structure and connection technology, selection of materials and marks, prolonged use, hazardous substances, energy consumption, recyclability rate, etc. and price, so that it could help to choose the greener products.

  14. The impact of German biogas production on European and global agricultural markets, land use and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britz, Wolfgang; Delzeit, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    As part of its climate policy, Germany promotes the production of biogas via its so-called Renewable-Energy-Act (EEG). The resulting boost in biogas output went along with a significant increase in production of green maize, the dominant feedstock. Existing studies of the EEG have analysed its impacts on German agriculture without considering market feedback. We thus expand existing quantitative analysis by also considering impacts on European and global agricultural markets, land use and the environment by combining a detailed location model for biogas plants, the Regionalised Location Information System-Maize (ReSi-M2012), with a global Partial Equilibrium model for agriculture, the Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact (CAPRI) model. Our results indicate that the German biogas production is large enough to have sizeable impacts on global agricultural markets in prices and quantities, causing significant land use change outside of Germany. While profits in the agricultural sector increase, food consumer face higher prices, and subsidies for biogas production are passed on to electricity consumers. The German biogas program, as long as it is almost entirely based on non-waste feedstocks, is probably not a promising avenue towards a GHG-saving renewable energy production, but a rather expensive one. - Highlights: • Recent changes to that program decrease green maize use but increase land demands. • The program could raise EU prices for cereals by 3%. • Agricultural land use expansion outside of the EU estimated at 1 Mio ha

  15. Improving Land Tenure Security through Customary Boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The benefits of this improved land tenure security are enhanced agricultural productivity, wealth creation for rural dwellers, peace and stability. Boundary demarcations and documentations established were important steps in the process of reformation and improving land tenure security in the rural communities. Information ...

  16. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  17. Plant community, primary productivity, and environmental conditions following wetland re-establishment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.L.; Fujii, R.

    2010-01-01

    Wetland restoration can mitigate aerobic decomposition of subsided organic soils, as well as re-establish conditions favorable for carbon storage. Rates of carbon storage result from the balance of inputs and losses, both of which are affected by wetland hydrology. We followed the effect of water depth (25 and 55 cm) on the plant community, primary production, and changes in two re-established wetlands in the Sacramento San-Joaquin River Delta, California for 9 years after flooding to determine how relatively small differences in water depth affect carbon storage rates over time. To estimate annual carbon inputs, plant species cover, standing above- and below-ground plant biomass, and annual biomass turnover rates were measured, and allometric biomass models for Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) acutus and Typha spp., the emergent marsh dominants, were developed. As the wetlands developed, environmental factors, including water temperature, depth, and pH were measured. Emergent marsh vegetation colonized the shallow wetland more rapidly than the deeper wetland. This is important to potential carbon storage because emergent marsh vegetation is more productive, and less labile, than submerged and floating vegetation. Primary production of emergent marsh vegetation ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 kg of carbon per square meter annually; and, mid-season standing live biomass represented about half of the annual primary production. Changes in species composition occurred in both submerged and emergent plant communities as the wetlands matured. Water depth, temperature, and pH were lower in areas with emergent marsh vegetation compared to submerged vegetation, all of which, in turn, can affect carbon cycling and storage rates. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  18. Combining empirical and theory-based land-use modelling approaches to assess economic potential of biofuel production avoiding iLUC: Argentina as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; van der Hilst, F.; van Eijck, J.; Verstegen, J.A.; Hilbert, J.; Carballo, S.; Volante, J.; Faaij, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a land-use modelling framework is presented combining empirical and theory-based modelling approaches to determine economic potential of biofuel production avoiding indirect land-use changes (iLUC) resulting from land competition with other functions. The empirical approach explores

  19. LAND REFORM IN UKRAINE: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barantsov B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern land reform, that continues in Ukraine since the beginning of the 90-th of ХХ century, is a logical result of the functioning of society and the state.. It’s prerequisites becames, especially full monopolization of state on ownership of land; absence of payment for land as one of the means of ensuring the rational use of lands; absence on workers motivation for intensive work on the land, etc.. These and other preconditions contributed to soil degradation, production of agricultural products with exceeding of maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants, development of diseases, undermine the gene pool of nature and man. Mentioned reasons determined the goal and objectives of modern land reform, which were originally set out in the preamble to the Resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine from December 18, 1990 «On Land Reform» with following changes and additions, and in the implementation of the land-reformation measures gained more complete content. Conducted analysis shows that land reform in Ukraine leads to a change of ownership of land, contributes to solving problems of citizens by land plots, enactment of payment for land usecreation of conditions for the development of land market. Thus changing land relations, is formed legal and regulatory framework of land reform and land market. However, positive developments in the implementation of land reform to end of the 90-th years have not led to a radical and effective upgrade of agricultural production, recovery of investment processes in other branches of industry, improving of welfare of the population. Land reform measures didn’t receive adequate financial support. The ultimate goal - an economically-effective and environmentally safe use of land in Ukraine - has not been achieved. Further reforming of land relations contributed to the adoption in October 2001 of the Land Code of Ukraine in the new edition that created the legal principles of land reform. Since it

  20. Evaluation of coarse scale land surface remote sensing albedo product over rugged terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J.; Xinwen, L.; You, D.; Dou, B.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite derived Land surface albedo is an essential climate variable which controls the earth energy budget and it can be used in applications such as climate change, hydrology, and numerical weather prediction. The accuracy and uncertainty of surface albedo products should be evaluated with a reliable reference truth data prior to applications. And more literatures investigated the validation methods about the albedo validation in a flat or homogenous surface. However, the albedo performance over rugged terrain is still unknow due to the validation method limited. A multi-validation strategy is implemented to give a comprehensive albedo validation, which will involve the high resolution albedo processing, high resolution albedo validation based on in situ albedo, and the method to upscale the high resolution albedo to a coarse scale albedo. Among them, the high resolution albedo generation and the upscale method is the core step for the coarse scale albedo validation. In this paper, the high resolution albedo is generated by Angular Bin algorithm. And a albedo upscale method over rugged terrain is developed to obtain the coarse scale albedo truth. The in situ albedo located 40 sites in mountain area are selected globally to validate the high resolution albedo, and then upscaled to the coarse scale albedo by the upscale method. This paper takes MODIS and GLASS albedo product as a example, and the prelimarily results show the RMSE of MODIS and GLASS albedo product over rugged terrain are 0.047 and 0.057, respectively under the RMSE with 0.036 of high resolution albedo.

  1. Relevance of various animal models of human infections to establish therapeutic equivalence of a generic product of piperacillin/tazobactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Maria; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Zuluaga, Andres F; Vesga, Omar

    2015-02-01

    After demonstrating with diverse intravenous antibacterials that pharmaceutical equivalence (PE) does not predict therapeutic equivalence, we tested a single generic product of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) in terms of PE, pharmacokinetics and in vitro/vivo pharmacodynamics against several pathogens in neutropenic mouse thigh, lung and brain infection models. A generic product was compared head-to-head against the innovator. PE was evaluated by microbiological assay. Single-dose serum pharmacokinetics were determined in infected mice, and the MIC/MBC were determined by broth microdilution. In vivo experiments were done in a blind fashion. Reproducibility was tested on different days using different infecting organisms and animal models. Neutropenic MPF mice were infected in the thighs with Staphylococcus aureus GRP-0057 or Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and in the lungs or brain with Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031. Treatment started 2h (thigh and brain) or 14 h (lung) after infection and was administered every 3h over 24h (thigh and lung) or 48 h (brain). Both products exhibited the same MIC/MBC against each strain, yielded overlaid curves in the microbiological assay (P>0.21) and were bioequivalent (IC90 83-117% for AUC test/reference ratio). In vivo, the generic product and innovator were again undistinguishable in all models and against the different bacterial pathogens involved. The relevance of these neutropenic murine models of infection was established by demonstrating their accuracy to predict the biological response following simultaneous treatment with a generic product or the innovator of TZP. Therapeutic equivalence of the generic product was proved in every model and against different pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ho-Young; Mueller, Steffen; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Wander, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Current estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels produced in the US can be improved by refining soil C emission factors (EF; C emissions per land area per year) for direct land use change associated with different biofuel feedstock scenarios. We developed a modeling framework to estimate these EFs at the state-level by utilizing remote sensing data, national statistics databases, and a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic C dynamics submodel (SCSOC). We estimated the forward change in soil C concentration within the 0–30 cm depth and computed the associated EFs for the 2011 to 2040 period for croplands, grasslands or pasture/hay, croplands/conservation reserve, and forests that were suited to produce any of four possible biofuel feedstock systems [corn (Zea Mays L)-corn, corn–corn with stover harvest, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter)]. Our results predict smaller losses or even modest gains in sequestration for corn based systems, particularly on existing croplands, than previous efforts and support assertions that production of perennial grasses will lead to negative emissions in most situations and that conversion of forest or established grasslands to biofuel production would likely produce net emissions. The proposed framework and use of the SCSOC provide transparency and relative simplicity that permit users to easily modify model inputs to inform biofuel feedstock production targets set forth by policy. -- Highlights: ► We model regionalized feedstock-specific United States soil C emission factors. ► We simulate soil C changes from direct land use change associated with biofuel feedstock production. ► Corn, corn-stover, and perennial grass biofuel feedstocks grown in croplands maintain soil C levels. ► Converting grasslands to bioenergy crops risks soil C loss. ► This modeling framework yields more refined soil C emissions than national-level emissions

  3. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  4. Assessing the ability of MODIS EVI to estimate terrestrial ecosystem gross primary production of multiple land cover types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shi, H.; Li, L.; Eamus, D.; Huete, A.; Cleverly, J.; Tian, X.; Yu, Q.; Wang, S.; Montagnani, L.; Magliulo, V.; Rotenberg, E.; Pavelka, Marian; Carrara, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, Jan (2017), s. 153-164 ISSN 1470-160X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Enhanced vegetation index * Gross primary production * Land cover types * Leaf area index * MODIS * Remote sensing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2016

  5. 10 CFR 2.707 - Production of documents and things; entry upon land for inspections and other purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of documents and things; entry upon land for inspections and other purposes. 2.707 Section 2.707 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... the request is objected to, in which case the reasons for objection must be stated. If objection is...

  6. Integrated spatiotemporal modelling of bioenergy production potentials, agricultural land use, and related GHG balances; demonstrated for Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, Floortje; Verstegen, Judith A.; Zheliezna, Tetiana; Drozdova, Olga; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    This study shows how bioenergy potential and total greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of land-use change and agricultural intensification can be modeled in an integrated way. The modeling framework is demonstrated for first- and second-generation ethanol production in Ukraine for the timeframe 2010-2030

  7. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  8. A Decision Support System for Land Allocation under Multiple Objectives in Public Production Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco W. Lentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging in natural forests is a vital economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. However, illegal and unplanned logging is exhausting forests rapidly. In 2006, a new forestry law in Brazil (Lei 11,284/2006 established the legal framework to develop state and national public forests for multiple uses. To support public forest planning efforts, we combine spatially explicit data on logging profits, biodiversity, and potential for community use for use within a forest planning optimization model. While generating optimal land use configurations, the model enables an assessment of the market and nonmarket tradeoffs associated with different land use priorities. We demonstrate the model's use for Faro State Forest, a 636,000 ha forest embedded within a large mosaic of conservation units recently established in the state of Pará. The datasets used span the entire Brazilian Amazon, implying that the analysis can be repeated for any public forest planning effort within the region.

  9. Establishment and Efficiency Evaluation of a Simple Mini hatchery for production of Oreochromis niloticus (GIFT strain seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.K.S.K. De Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple technology mini hatchery was established for small scale farmers to meet their own GIFT seed requirements. Different shapes and sizes of jars were trialed for incubation of eggs and yolk-sac larvae. Concaved bottom round plastic bottles (4 L and rectangular (3 L plastic trays gave the best hatchability of eggs and survival of yolk-sac larvae respectively. The best stocking density was 500 eggs/larvae L-1. Optimised flow rate into the incubation bottles and rearing trays were 2.70±0.18 L min-1 and 5.40±0.14 L min-1 respectively. Two gravel filters (15 L and 20 L made with discarded and low cost material purified the water from the incubation containers and directed into a water recirculation system. Production efficiency of this mini hatchery was compared with a hapa breeding method. Two hapas having 10 m3 size and 1.6 mm mesh were positioned in an earthen pond. Each hapa was stocked with 40 GIFT broodfish at 1:1 female to male ratio. In Phase I of the study (60 days, eggs collected from Hapa I were placed in incubation bottles and hatchability and survival rate were determined. In parallel, free-swimming fry were collected and counted from the Hapa II at every 14 days. The study continued in the same way for Phase II (next 60 days by interchanging the brood fish between Hapa I and Hapa II. Yield from the mini hatchery (24,000 fry was significantly different (P≤0.05 from hapa method (4,879 fry indicating that this established mini hatchery could serve as a productive model to support small scale farmers in GIFT seed production.

  10. PNRI Pioneering the Establishment and Operation of the Tc-99m Generator Production Facility for Nuclear Medicine Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, Adelina DM.; Borras, Ma. Teresa L.; Ciocson, Gregory R.; Mascariñas, Rommel D.C.; Nuñez, Ivy Angelica A.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the increasing demand in the nuclear medicine sector in the Philippines, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) initiated the establishment of a radioisotope production facility. To date, the most commonly used radioisotope in nuclear medicine, Technetium-99m or Tc-99m has been successfully produced in the new laboratory, the PNRI facility has already obtained a license to operate from the Philippine FDA. The new facility is envisioned to meet the country’s requirements for all the major medical radioisotope starting with the local production of Tc-99m and the most commonly used Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals. At present, all radioisotope supplies in the country are sourced overseas at price that varies accordingly. With the establishment of the PNRI’s laboratories, we now have a GMP-grade Tc-99m generator facility capable of producing 50 Tc-99m generators per batch. Instead of Tc-99m being imported, it will be the parent Mo-99m that will be transferred to PNRI facility from Mo-99 processing facilities overseas, contained in specialized transport containers and via airfreight arrangements so it can be processed locally to make Tc-99m generators. But, to make radiopharmaceuticals, the other non-radioactive components are needed to be sourced from abroad. Thus, it has become imperative to also locally produce these non-radioactive components. All of these components, radioactive and non-radioactive, from the radiopharmaceutical finished products which are utilized in nuclear medicine caters for the diagnosis and detection of critical and non-critical human illnesses. The completion of this program is foreseen as another concrete validation on the capacity of the Philippine as a country that is at par with advanced nations on competency and expertise in the research and development of nuclear medicine application for better healthcare delivery and management. (author)

  11. Land-Use Implications to Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Biodiesel from Palm Oil Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    HARSONO, Soni; SUBRONTO, Bronto

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the energy balance of Indonesian palm oil biodiesel production, including the stages of land use change, transport and milling and biodiesel processing, and to estimate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from different production systems, including large and small holder plantations either dependent or independent, located in Kalimantan and in Sumatra. Results show that the accompanied implications of palm oil biodiesel produced in Kalimantan a...

  12. Land reform in NE Brazil: a stochastic frontier production efficiency evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marques de Magalhães

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to address the sources of technical and allocative inefficiency from a cross section sample of 308 beneficiaries of a market assisted land reform program, called "Cédula da Terra"; from five states in Northeastern region of Brazil. In spite of some differences on governance of the "Cédula da Terra"; in comparison with traditional expropriation land reform program, studies carried by Buainain et al. (2002 have shown small differences between then, regarding their social and economic characteristics. We believe that our results could be useful to identify the main problems of Brazilian land reform settlements. We estimated a potential production frontier following the methodology of Battese and Coelli (1995, Coelli et al. (1998 and applied econometric techniques to explain inefficiency. The results indicate the existence of technical and allocative inefficiency, which is identified mostly in situations where the presence of production for consumption is high. This is a result that shows how immature the agriculture activity is in most of Cédula da Terra Program settlements and the difficulty to overcome the limitations imposed by the initial condition of formation of agrarian reform, primarily in Northeastern region of Brazil.O objetivo desse artigo é caracterizar as fontes da ineficiência técnica e alocativa em um conjunto de 308 beneficiários de um programa de reforma agrária de mercado, chamado "Cédula da Terra";, distribuídos em cinco estados do Nordeste brasileiro. Estudos conduzidos por Buainain et al. (2002 mostraram existem poucas diferenças entre as características de beneficiários deste programa e dos programas tradicionais de reforma agrária por expropriação e que portanto, os resultados obtidos por este trabalho permitem visualizar as dificuldades enfrentadas pelos assentamentos no Brasil. Para medir eficiência, estimou-se uma função de produção potencial segundo a metodologia de Battese e

  13. Infectious bronchitis corona virus establishes productive infection in avian macrophages interfering with selected antimicrobial functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Amarasinghe

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV causes respiratory disease leading to loss of egg and meat production in chickens. Although it is known that macrophage numbers are elevated in the respiratory tract of IBV infected chickens, the role played by macrophages in IBV infection, particularly as a target cell for viral replication, is unknown. In this study, first, we investigated the ability of IBV to establish productive replication in macrophages in lungs and trachea in vivo and in macrophage cell cultures in vitro using two pathogenic IBV strains. Using a double immunofluorescent technique, we observed that both IBV Massachusetts-type 41 (M41 and Connecticut A5968 (Conn A5968 strains replicate in avian macrophages at a low level in vivo. This in vivo observation was substantiated by demonstrating IBV antigens in macrophages following in vitro IBV infection. Further, IBV productive infection in macrophages was confirmed by demonstrating corona viral particles in macrophages and IBV ribonucleic acid (RNA in culture supernatants. Evaluation of the functions of macrophages following infection of macrophages with IBV M41 and Conn A5968 strains revealed that the production of antimicrobial molecule, nitric oxide (NO is inhibited. It was also noted that replication of IBV M41 and Conn A5968 strains in macrophages does not interfere with the induction of type 1 IFN activity by macrophages. In conclusion, both M41 and Con A5968 IBV strains infect macrophages in vivo and in vitro resulting productive replications. During the replication of IBV in macrophages, their ability to produce NO can be affected without affecting the ability to induce type 1 IFN activity. Further studies are warranted to uncover the significance of macrophage infection of IBV in the pathogenesis of IBV infection in chickens.

  14. Gypsiferous mine water use in irrigation on rehabilitated open-cast mine land: Crop production, soil water and salt balance

    OpenAIRE

    Annandale, J.; Jovanovic, N.; Pretorius, J.; Lorentz, S.; Rethman, N.; Tanner, P.

    2001-01-01

    The use of gypsiferous mine water for irrigation of agricultural crops is a promising technology, which could alleviate a shortage of irrigation water and address the problem of disposal of mine effluent. A field trial was established at Kleinkopje Colliery in Witbank (Mpumalanga Province, South Africa) during the 1997-1998 season. Sugar beans and wheat were irrigated with three center pivots, on both virgin and rehabilitated land. The objectives were to determine crop response to irrigation ...

  15. Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products, Services and Application from NASA Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Rodell, matthew; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products simulated by four land surface models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current data holdings include a set of 1.0 degree resolution data products from the four models, covering 1979 to the present; and a 0.25 degree data product from the Noah model, covering 2000 to the present. The products are in Gridded Binary (GRIB) format and can be accessed through a number of interfaces. Users can search the products through keywords and perform on-the-fly spatial and parameter subsetting and format conversion of selected data. More advanced visualization, access and analysis capabilities will be available in the future. The long term GLDAS data are used to develop climatology of water cycle components and to explore the teleconnections of droughts and pluvial.

  16. Change Detection Algorithm for the Production of Land Cover Change Maps over the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Aleksandrowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary satellite Earth Observation systems provide growing amounts of very high spatial resolution data that can be used in various applications. An increasing number of sensors make it possible to monitor selected areas in great detail. However, in order to handle the volume of data, a high level of automation is required. The semi-automatic change detection methodology described in this paper was developed to annually update land cover maps prepared in the context of the Geoland2. The proposed algorithm was tailored to work with different very high spatial resolution images acquired over different European landscapes. The methodology is a fusion of various change detection methods ranging from: (1 layer arithmetic; (2 vegetation indices (NDVI differentiating; (3 texture calculation; and methods based on (4 canonical correlation analysis (multivariate alteration detection (MAD. User intervention during the production of the change map is limited to the selection of the input data, the size of initial segments and the threshold for texture classification (optionally. To achieve a high level of automation, statistical thresholds were applied in most of the processing steps. Tests showed an overall change recognition accuracy of 89%, and the change type classification methodology can accurately classify transitions between classes.

  17. Quality Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS Land Surface Temperature Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The VIIRS Land Surface Temperature (LST Environmental Data Record (EDR has reached validated (V1 stage maturity in December 2014. This study compares VIIRS v1 LST with the ground in situ observations and with heritage LST product from MODIS Aqua and AATSR. Comparisons against U.S. SURFRAD ground observations indicate a similar accuracy among VIIRS, MODIS and AATSR LST, in which VIIRS LST presents an overall accuracy of −0.41 K and precision of 2.35 K. The result over arid regions in Africa suggests that VIIRS and MODIS underestimate the LST about 1.57 K and 2.97 K, respectively. The cross comparison indicates an overall close LST estimation between VIIRS and MODIS. In addition, a statistical method is used to quantify the VIIRS LST retrieval uncertainty taking into account the uncertainty from the surface type input. Some issues have been found as follows: (1 Cloud contamination, particularly the cloud detection error over a snow/ice surface, shows significant impacts on LST validation; (2 Performance of the VIIRS LST algorithm is strongly dependent on a correct classification of the surface type; (3 The VIIRS LST quality can be degraded when significant brightness temperature difference between the two split window channels is observed; (4 Surface type dependent algorithm exhibits deficiency in correcting the large emissivity variations within a surface type.

  18. The Development of Sustainable Saltwater-Based Food Production Systems: A Review of Established and Novel Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Gunning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant collapse. Global aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of the food industry and currently accounts for approximately 45.6% of the world’s fish consumption. However, the rapid development of extensive and semi-extensive systems, particularly intensive marine-fed aquaculture, has resulted in worldwide concern about the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of such systems. In recent years, there has been a significant amount of research conducted on the development of sustainable saltwater-based food production systems through mechanical (e.g., recirculatory aquaculture (RAS systems methods and ecosystem-based approaches (e.g., integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA. This review article will examine the potential negative impacts of monocultural saltwater aquaculture operations and review established (RAS and novel (IMTA; constructed wetlands; saltwater aquaponics saltwater-based food production systems and discuss their (potential contribution to the development of sustainable and environmentally-friendly systems.

  19. Development of an Operational Land Water Mask for MODIS Collection 6, and Influence on Downstream Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M. L.; DiMiceli, C. M.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Sohlberg, R. A.; Elders, A. I.; Devadiga, S.; Sayer, A. M.; Levy, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS)on-board the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua satellites are processed using a land water mask to determine when an algorithm no longer needs to be run or when an algorithm needs to follow a different pathway. Entering the fourth reprocessing (Collection 6 (C6)) the MODIS team replaced the 1 km water mask with a 500 m water mask for improved representation of the continental surfaces. The new water mask represents more small water bodies for an overall increase in water surface from 1 to 2 of the continental surface. While this is still a small fraction of the overall global surface area the increase is more dramatic in certain areas such as the Arctic and Boreal regions where there are dramatic increases in water surface area in the new mask. MODIS products generated by the on-going C6 reprocessing using the new land water mask show significant impact in areas with high concentrations of change in the land water mask. Here differences between the Collection 5 (C5) and C6 water masks and the impact of these differences on the MOD04 aerosol product and the MOD11 land surface temperature product are shown.

  20. The impact of sustainable energy production on land use in Britain through to 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, D.C.; Wadsworth, R.A.; Whitaker, J.W.; Hughes, N.; Bunce, R.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Historically. land use in Britain has been shaped by the environment's capacity to provide energy as well as food, water and shelter. Over the next decades, energy will again become a major driver in land cover change as we seek to capture the necessary energy to replace fossil fuels, reduce

  1. Differences in forest plant functional trait distributions across land-use and productivity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret M. Mayfield; John M. Dwyer; Loic Chalmandrier; Jessie A. Wells; Stephen P. Bonser; Carla P. Catterall; Fabrice DeClerck; Yi Ding; Jennifer M. Fraterrigo; Daniel J. Metcalfe; Cibele Queiroz; Peter A. Vesk; John W. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of study: Plant functional traits are commonly used as proxies for plant responses to environmental challenges, yet few studies have explored how functional trait distributions differ across gradients of land-use change. By comparing trait distributions in intact forests with those across land-use change gradients, we can improve our understanding of the ways...

  2. Land rental market, off-farm employment and agricultural production in Southeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, S.; Heerink, N.; Ruben, R.; Qu, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper performs a plot-level analysis of the impact of land rentalmarket participation and offfarm employment on land investment, input use, and rice yields for 215 plots cultivated by 52 households in three villages inNortheast Jiangxi Province. Our findings showthat households that rent extra

  3. Monitoring Multidecadal satellite earth observation of soil moisture products through land surface reanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albergel, C.; Dorigo, W.; Balsamo, G.; Sabatar, J; de Rosnay, P.; Isaksen, I; Brocca, L; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Wagner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture from ERA-Land, a revised version of the land surface components of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim), is used to monitor at a global scale the consistency of a new microwave based multi-satellite surface soil moisture date set

  4. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-12-23

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the fifteenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) hosting the SWC spring proposal meeting in Golden Colorado, (2) planning of the upcoming SWC fall technology transfer meetings, and (3) recruiting the SWC base membership.

  5. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-12-28

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the first quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) hosting the SWC spring proposal meeting in Golden Colorado, (2) planning of the upcoming SWC fall technology transfer meetings, and (3) recruiting the SWC base membership.

  6. Selectivity of Some Herbicides to Standard Wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. Schultes During Stand Establishment and Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliya Katova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops –Pleven on a slightly leached chernozem soil in 2011-2012 to determine the selectivity ofsome herbicides to standard wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. Schultes duringstand establishment and its seed production. The study had the following results: the herbicidesKambio SL (320 g/l bentazone + 90 g/l dicamba – 1250 ml/ha; Kalam (125 g/l tritosulfuron+ 600 g/kg dicamba – 200 g/ha; Lintur 70 WG (4.1% triasulfuron + 65.9% dicamba– 150 g/ha, and Axial 050ЕK (50 g/l pinoxaden – 600 ml/ha showed high selectivityto standard wheatgrass when applied at the stage of 3-4 leaves during the year of standestablishment; the herbicides Imaspro (69 g/l fenoxaprop-P-ethyl+antidote and Stelar (50g/l topramezone + 160 g/l dicamba, each applied at the rate of 1000 ml/ha, caused phytotoxicity(scores from 4 to 6, while Termidor (40 g/l nicosulfuron – 1250 ml/ha completelydestroyed the crop (score 9; the herbicides Kambio SL; Kalam; Lintur 70WG and Axial 050ЕKapplied at the same doses at the stage from spring growth to the beginning of shootingup in the seed production year had a high selectivity to standard wheatgrass and could beapplied in seed production stands without negative influence on seed productivity. Theherbicide Termidor was very phytotoxic (scores from 3 to 7 and prevented the formationof generative stems.

  7. Establishment of alleycropped hybrid aspen "Crandon" in central Iowa, USA: effects of topographic position and fertilizer rate on above ground biomass production and allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Headlee; Richard B. Hall; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid poplars have demonstrated high productivity as short rotation woody crops (SRWC) in the Midwest USA, and the hybrid aspen "Crandon" (Populus alba L. × P. grandidenta Michx.) has exhibited particularly promising yields on marginal lands. However, a key obstacle for wider deployment is the lack of economic...

  8. Safety and anti-HIV assessments of natural vaginal cleansing products in an established topical microbicides in vitro testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Maureen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, there is no effective vaccine or other approved product for the prevention of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. It has been reported that women in resource-poor communities use vaginally applied citrus juices as topical microbicides. These easily accessible food products have historically been applied to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cytotoxicity of these substances using an established topical microbicide testing algorithm. Freshly squeezed lemon and lime juice and household vinegar were tested in their original state or in pH neutralized form for efficacy and cytotoxicity in the CCR5-tropic cell-free entry and cell-associated transmission assays, CXCR4-tropic entry and fusion assays, and in a human PBMC-based anti-HIV-1 assay. These products were also tested for their effect on viability of cervico-vaginal cell lines, human cervical explant tissues, and beneficial Lactobacillus species. Results Natural lime and lemon juice and household vinegar demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity in transformed cell lines. Neutralization of the products reduced both anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity, resulting in a low therapeutic window for both acidic and neutralized formulations. For the natural juices and vinegar, the IC50 was ≤ 3.5 (0.8-3.5% and the TC50 ≤ 6.3 (1.0-6.3%. All three liquid products inhibited viability of beneficial Lactobacillus species associated with vaginal health. Comparison of three different toxicity endpoints in the cervical HeLa cell line revealed that all three products affected membrane integrity, cytosolic enzyme release, and dehydrogenase enzyme activity in living cells. The juices and vinegar also exerted strong cytotoxicity in cervico-vaginal cell lines, mainly due to their acidic pH. In human cervical explant tissues, treatment with 5% lemon or lime juice

  9. Life cycle cost and economic assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production and biochar land application in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krish Homagain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Replacement of fossil fuel based energy with biochar-based bioenergy production can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions while mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change and global warming. However, the production of biochar-based bioenergy depends on a sustainable supply of biomass. Although, Northwestern Ontario has a rich and sustainable supply of woody biomass, a comprehensive life cycle cost and economic assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production technology has not been done so far in the region. Methods In this paper, we conducted a thorough life cycle cost assessment (LCCA of biochar-based bioenergy production and its land application under four different scenarios: 1 biochar production with low feedstock availability; 2 biochar production with high feedstock availability; 3 biochar production with low feedstock availability and its land application; and 4 biochar production with high feedstock availability and its land application- using SimaPro®, EIOLCA® software and spreadsheet modeling. Based on the LCCA results, we further conducted an economic assessment for the break-even and viability of this technology over the project period. Results It was found that the economic viability of biochar-based bioenergy production system within the life cycle analysis system boundary based on study assumptions is directly dependent on costs of pyrolysis, feedstock processing (drying, grinding and pelletization and collection on site and the value of total carbon offset provided by the system. Sensitivity analysis of transportation distance and different values of C offset showed that the system is profitable in case of high biomass availability within 200 km and when the cost of carbon sequestration exceeds CAD $60 per tonne of equivalent carbon (CO2e. Conclusions Biochar-based bioenergy system is economically viable when life cycle costs and environmental assumptions are accounted for. This study provides a medium scale

  10. Empowering biotechnology in southern Africa: establishment of a robust transformation platform for the production of transgenic industry-preferred cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, C C; Rossin, C B; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H; Rey, M E C

    2013-01-25

    Knowledge and technology transfer to African laboratories and farmers is an important objective for achieving food security and sustainable crop production on the sub-Saharan African continent. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for more than a billion people in developing countries, and its potential industrial use for starch and bioethanol in the tropics is increasingly being recognized. However, cassava production remains constrained by the susceptibility of the crop to several biotic and abiotic stresses. For more than a decade, biotechnology has been considered an attractive tool to improve cassava as it substantially circumvents the limitations of traditional breeding, which is particularly time-consuming and tedious because of the high heterozygosity of the crop. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite some success achieved in genetic modification of the model cassava cultivar Tropical Manihot Series (TMS), TMS 60444, in some European and U.S. laboratories, the lack of a reproducible and robust protocol has not allowed the establishment of a routine transformation system in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we optimized a robust and efficient protocol developed at ETH Zurich to successfully establish transformation of a commercially cultivated South African landrace, T200, and compared this with the benchmark model cultivar TMS 60444. Results from our study demonstrated high transformation rates for both T200 (23 transgenic lines from 100 friable embryogenic callus (FEC) clusters) compared with TMS 60444 (32 transgenic lines from 100 FEC clusters). The success in transforming landraces or farmer-preferred cultivars has been limited, and the high transformation rate of an industry-preferred landrace in this study is encouraging for a feasible transformation program for cassava

  11. PROVING THE CAPABILITY FOR LARGE SCALE REGIONAL LAND-COVER DATA PRODUCTION BY SELF-FUNDED COMMERCIAL OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Thompson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For service providers developing commercial value-added data content based on remote sensing technologies, the focus is to typically create commercially appropriate geospatial information which has downstream business value. The primary aim being to link locational intelligence with business intelligence in order to better make informed decisions. From a geospatial perspective this locational information must be relevant, informative, and most importantly current; with the ability to maintain the information timeously into the future for change detection purposes. Aligned with this, GeoTerraImage has successfully embarked on the production of land-cover/land-use content over southern Africa. The ability for a private company to successfully implement and complete such an exercise has been the capability to leverage the combined advantages of cutting edge data processing technologies and methodologies, with emphasis on processing repeatability and speed, and the use of a wide range of readily available imagery. These production workflows utilise a wide range of integrated procedures including machine learning algorithms, innovative use of non-specialists for sourcing of reference data, and conventional pixel and object-based image classification routines, and experienced/expert landscape interpretation. This multi-faceted approach to data produce development demonstrates the capability for SMME level commercial entities such as GeoTerraImage to generate industry applicable large data content, in this case, wide area coverage land-cover and land-use data across the sub-continent. Within this development, the emphasis has been placed on the key land-use information, such as mining, human settlements, and agriculture, given the importance of this geo-spatial land-use information in business and socio-economic applications and decision making.

  12. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2001-09-12

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. the consortium creates a partnership with the US petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the third quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. During this reporting period the SWC entered into a co-funding arrangement with the New York State Energy Development Authority (NYSERDA) to provide an additional $100,000 in co-funding for stripper well production-orientated projects.The SWC hosted its first meeting in which members proposed research projects to the SWC membership. The meeting was held on April 9-10, 2001 in State College, Pennsylvania. Twenty three proposals were submitted to the SWC for funding consideration. Investigators of the proposed projects provided the SWC membership with a 20 minute (15 minute technical discussion, 5 minute question and answer session) presentation. Of the 23 proposals, the Executive Council approved $921,000 in funding for 13 projects. Penn State then immediately started the process of issuing subcontracts to the various projects approved for funding.

  13. Impacts of land use changes on net ecosystem production in the Taihu Lake Basin of China from 1985 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Yang, Guishan; Tan, Yan; Tang, Xuguang; Jiang, Hong; Sun, Xiaoxiang; Zhuang, Qianlai; Li, Hengpeng

    2017-03-01

    Land use changes play a major role in determining sources and sinks of carbon at regional and global scales. This study employs a modified Global biome model-biogeochemical cycle model to examine the changes in the spatiotemporal pattern of net ecosystem production (NEP) in the Taihu Lake Basin of China during 1985-2010 and the extent to which land use change impacted NEP. The model is calibrated with observed NEP at three flux sites for three dominant land use types in the basin including cropland, evergreen needleleaf forest, and mixed forest. Two simulations are conducted to distinguish the net effects of land use change and increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and nitrogen deposition on NEP. The study estimates that NEP in the basin decreased by 9.8% (1.57 Tg C) from 1985 to 2010, showing an overall downward trend. The NEP distribution exhibits an apparent spatial heterogeneity at the municipal level. Land use changes during 1985-2010 reduced the regional NEP (3.21 Tg C in year 2010) by 19.9% compared to its 1985 level, while the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nitrogen deposition compensated for a half of the total carbon loss. Critical measures for regulating rapid urban expansion and population growth and reinforcing environment protection programs are recommended to increase the regional carbon sink.

  14. How Reliable is the MODIS Land Cover Product for Crop Mapping Sub-Saharan Agricultural Landscapes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Leroux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate cropland maps at the global and local scales are crucial for scientists, government and nongovernment agencies, farmers and other stakeholders, particularly in food-insecure regions, such as Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we aim to qualify the crop classes of the MODIS Land Cover Product (LCP in Sub-Saharan Africa using FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation and AGRHYMET (AGRiculture, Hydrology and METeorology statistical data of agriculture and a sample of 55 very-high-resolution images. In terms of cropland acreage and dynamics, we found that the correlation between the statistical data and MODIS LCP decreases when we localize the spatial scale (from R2 = 0.86 *** at the national scale to R2 = 0.26 *** at two levels below the national scale. In terms of the cropland spatial distribution, our findings indicate a strong relationship between the user accuracy and the fragmentation of the agricultural landscape, as measured by the MODIS LCP; the accuracy decreases as the crop fraction increases. In addition, thanks to the Pareto boundary method, we were able to isolate and quantify the part of the MODIS classification error that could be directly linked to the performance of the adopted classification algorithm. Finally, based on these results, (i a regional map of the MODIS LCP user accuracy estimates for cropland classes was produced for the entire Sub-Saharan region; this map presents a better accuracy in the western part of the region (43%–70% compared to the eastern part (17%–43%; (ii Theoretical user and producer accuracies for a given set of spatial resolutions were provided; the simulated future Sentinel-2 system would provide theoretical 99% user and producer accuracies given the landscape pattern of the region.

  15. BEFORE THE SALE RIGHTS TO AGRICULTURAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSTOVSKA О.

    2017-05-01

    local authority on the land auction. 3. Drawing of lots for the land auction includes: creation, coordination and approval of the project land for allotment of land (in case of changing the target purpose of the land plot and in case the boundaries of the land are not established in kind (on ground; state registration of the land plot; state registration of property rights to land; the receipt of the statement of regulatory monetary evaluation of land plot in case of sale of land auction the right to lease it; an expert monetary valuation of land, except in cases of sales of land auction the right to lease it; the establishment of the starting price sale of land, which on the lands of state and communal ownership cannot be lower than expert monetary valuation of land; the establishment of a starting annual rent of the lands of state and communal ownership may not be less than the amount of rent; 4. A contract between the organizer of land sales and land auction administrator (business entity, which is licensed to conduct land auctions for the tendering. 5. Publication in print media and on the official website announcement indicating the date of tendering and list of lots. The absence of a land market is a rejection of the economic methods of land redistribution and, as a consequence, the introduction of administrative, which is a deviation from the formation of a market economic system. In all countries with a market economy with a high level of industrial development of agriculture and agribusiness was primarily achieved through the active participation of the state in providing legal and financial stability. This eliminates the preconditions of naturalization of agricultural production, and also introduced the principle of - land to those who it works better.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. 21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and the resulting CO 2 -eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N 2 O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO 2 -eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  17. Revising the potential of large-scale Jatropha oil production in Tanzania: An economic land evaluation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerstedt, Anna; Bobert, Jans

    2013-01-01

    Following up the rather sobering results of the biofuels boom in Tanzania, we analyze the preconditions that would make large-scale oil production from the feedstock Jatropha curcas viable. We do this by employing an economic land evaluation approach; first, we estimate the physical land suitability and the necessary inputs to reach certain amounts of yields. Subsequently, we estimate costs and benefits for different input-output levels. Finally, to incorporate the increased awareness of sustainability in the export sector, we introduce also certification criteria. Using data from an experimental farm in Kilosa, we find that high yields are crucial for the economic feasibility and that they can only be obtained on good soils at high input rates. Costs of compliance with certification criteria depend on site specific characteristics such as land suitability and precipitation. In general, both domestic production and (certified) exports are too expensive to be able to compete with conventional diesel/rapeseed oil from the EU. Even though the crop may have potential for large scale production as a niche product, there is still a lot of risk involved and more experimental research is needed. - Highlights: ► We use an economic land evaluation analysis to reassess the potential of large-scale Jatropha oil. ► High yields are possible only at high input rates and for good soil qualities. ► Production costs are still too high to break even on the domestic and export market. ► More research is needed to stabilize yields and improve the oil content. ► Focus should be on broadening our knowledge-base rather than promoting new Jatropha investments

  18. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

    2012-06-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

  19. Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Marie E.; Torre Ugarte, D.G. de la; Shapouri, H.; Slinsky, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

  20. Sperm cryopreservation in live-bearing Xiphophorus fishes: offspring production from Xiphophorus variatus and strategies for establishment of sperm repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2012-09-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm, and 4) discuss the requirements for establishment of sperm repositories. The 35 males used in this study had a body weight of 0.298±0.096 g (mean±SD), body length of 2.5±0.2 cm, and testis weight of 6.4±3.4 mg. The sperm production per gram of testis was 2.33±1.32×10(9) cells. After freezing, the post-thaw motility decreased significantly to 37%±17% (ranging from 5% to 70%) (p=0.000) from 57%±14% (40%-80%) of fresh sperm (N=20). Artificial insemination of post-thaw sperm produced confirmed offspring from females of X. hellerii and X. variatus. This research, taken together with previous studies, provides a foundation for development of strategies for sperm repositories of Xiphophorus fishes. This includes: 1) the need for breeding strategies for regeneration of target populations, 2) identification of minimum fertilization capacity of frozen samples, 3) identification of fish numbers necessary for sampling and their genetic relationships, 4) selection of packaging containers for labeling and biosecurity, 5) assurance of quality control and standardization of procedures, 6) information systems that can manage the data associated with cryopreserved samples, including the genetic data, 7) biological data of sampled fish, 8) inventory data associated with frozen samples, and 9) data linking germplasm samples with other related materials such as body tissues or cells saved for DNA and RNA analyses.

  1. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000-2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit tropical

  2. A Model-based Approach to Scaling GPP and NPP in Support of MODIS Land Product Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Cohen, W. B.; Gower, S. T.; Ritts, W. D.

    2003-12-01

    Global products from the Earth-orbiting MODIS sensor include land cover, leaf area index (LAI), FPAR, 8-day gross primary production (GPP), and annual net primary production (NPP) at the 1 km spatial resolution. The BigFoot Project was designed specifically to validate MODIS land products, and has initiated ground measurements at 9 sites representing a wide array of vegetation types. An ecosystem process model (Biome-BGC) is used to generate estimates of GPP and NPP for each 5 km x 5 km BigFoot site. Model inputs include land cover and LAI (from Landsat ETM+), daily meteorological data (from a centrally located eddy covariance flux tower), and soil characteristics. Model derived outputs are validated against field-measured NPP and flux tower-derived GPP. The resulting GPP and NPP estimates are then aggregated to the 1 km resolution for direct spatial comparison with corresponding MODIS products. At the high latitude sites (tundra and boreal forest), the MODIS GPP phenology closely tracks the BigFoot GPP, but there is a high bias in the MODIS GPP. In the temperate zone sites, problems with the timing and magnitude of the MODIS FPAR introduce differences in MODIS GPP compared to the validation data at some sites. However, the MODIS LAI/FPAR data are currently being reprocessed (=Collection 4) and new comparisons will be made for 2002. The BigFoot scaling approach permits precise overlap in spatial and temporal resolution between the MODIS products and BigFoot products, and thus permits the evaluation of specific components of the MODIS NPP algorithm. These components include meteorological inputs from the NASA Data Assimilation Office, LAI and FPAR from other MODIS algorithms, and biome-specific parameters for base respiration rate and light use efficiency.

  3. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000–2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit

  4. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantie Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the initial three years and decreased at an accelerated rate of 31.0 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the final three years, resulting in a total NPP loss of approximately 167 × 106 g∙C. The spatiotemporal of NPP varied obviously in the central area, suburb and exurb of Guangzhou driven by three patterns of weather and LULC changes. By the interactive effects and the weather variation dominated effects, NPP of most areas changed slightly with dynamic index less than 5% of NPP mean value in the central area and the suburb. The LULC change dominated effects caused obvious NPP reduction, by more than 15% of the NPP mean value, which occurred in some areas of the suburb and extended to the exurb with the outward urban sprawl. Importantly, conversion from wood grassland, shrublands and even forests to croplands occupied by urban landscapes proved to be a main process in the conversion from high-NPP coverage to low-NPP coverage, thereby leading to the rapid degradation of urban carbon stock capacity in urban fringe areas. It is helpful for government to monitor urban ecological health and safety and make relevant policies.

  5. The sustainable arable land use pattern under the tradeoff of agricultural production, economic development, and ecological protection-an analysis of Dongting Lake basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanyi; Liu, Liming; Jiang, Xilong

    2017-11-01

    To find a solution regarding sustainable arable land use pattern in the important grain-producing area during the rapid urbanization process, this study combined agricultural production, locational condition, and ecological protection to determine optimal arable land use. Dongting Lake basin, one of the major grain producing areas in China, was chosen as the study area. The analysis of land use transition, the calculation of arable land barycenter, the landscape indices of arable land patches, and the comprehensive evaluation of arable land quality(productivity, economic location, and ecological condition) were adopted in this study. The results showed that (1) in 1990-2000, the arable land increased by 11.77%, and the transformation between arable land and other land use types actively occurred; in 2000-2010, the arable land decreased by 0.71%, and more ecological area (forestland, grassland, and water area) were disturbed and transferred into arable land; (2) urban expansion of the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city cluster (the major economy center of this area) induced the northward movement of the arable land barycenter; (3) the landscape fragmentation and decentralization degree of arable land patches increased during 1990-2010; (4) potential high-quality arable land is located in the zonal area around Dongting Lake, which contains the Li County, Linli County, Jinshi County, Taoyuan County, Taojiang County, Ningxiang County, Xiangxiang County, Shaoshan County, Miluo County, and Zhuzhou County. The inferior low-quality arable land is located in the northwestern Wuling mountainous area, the southeastern hilly area, and the densely populated big cities and their surrounding area. In the optimized arable land use pattern, the high-quality land should be intensively used, and the low-quality arable land should be reduced used or prohibitively used. What is more, it is necessary to quit the arable land away from the surrounding area of cities appropriately, in order to

  6. Assessing the ability of MODIS EVI to estimate terrestrial ecosystem gross primary production of multiple land cover types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shi, H.; Li, L.; Eamus, D.; Huete, A.; Cleverly, J.; Tian, X.; Yu, Q.; Wang, S.; Montagnani, L.; Magliulo, V.; Rotenberg, E.; Pavelka, Marian; Carrara, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, Jan (2017), s. 153-164 ISSN 1470-160X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Enhanced vegetation index * Gross primary production * Land cover types * Leaf area index * MODIS * Remote sensing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2016

  7. Effect of deforestation and land use changes on mosquito productivity and development in western Kenya highlands: Implication for malaria Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: African highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past fifty years. However, the ever growing human population in the highlands of Africa have led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing and house construction materials needs. This has lead to creation of suitable breeding habitats which are in open places. Decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in deforested areas. This increased temperature has resulted in shortening of developmental stages of aquatic stages of mosquitoes and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes. Method: Assessment of the effects of deforestation and land coverage changes (decrease which leads to temperature changes and subsequently increases survivorship of adults and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes body was gathered from previous data collected from 2003 to 2012 using different analysis techniques. Habitats productivity, species dynamics and abundance, mosquitoes feeding rates and sporogony development are presented in relation to temperature changes.Results: The effects of temperature rise due to land cover changes in highlands of western Kenya on larval developmental rates, adult sporogony developments and malaria risk in human population were derived. Vector species dynamics and abundance in relation to land use changes have been found to change with time.Conclusion: This study found that, land cover changes is a key driver for the temperature rise in African highlands and increases the rate of malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s , An. funestus and An. arabiensis colonising the highlands. It has also significantly enhanced sporogony development rate and adult vector survival and therefore the risk of malaria transmission in the highlands.

  8. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, Mark A.; de Vries, Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector. The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts. This contribution is 78% for terrestrial biodiversity loss, 80% for soil acidification and air pollution (ammonia and nitrogen oxides emissions), 81% for global warming, and 73% for water pollution (both N and P). The agriculture sector itself is one of the major contributors to these environmental impacts, ranging between 12% for global warming and 59% for N water quality impact. Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens.

  9. Importance of benthic production to fish populations in Lake Mead prior to the establishment of quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, John; Chandra, Sudeep; Rosen, Michael; Wittmann, Marion; Sullivan, Joe; Orsak, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Limnologists recently have developed an interest in quantifying benthic resource contributions to higher-level consumers. Much of this research focuses on natural lakes with very little research in reservoirs. In this study, we provide a contemporary snapshot of the food web structure of Lake Mead to evaluate the contribution of benthic resources to fish consumers. In addition, we document the available food to fishes on soft sediments and changes to the invertebrate community over 2 time periods. Benthic invertebrate food availability for fishes is greater in Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Las Vegas Bay is dominated by oligochaetes, whose biomass increased with depth, while Overton Arm is dominated by chironomids, whose biomass did not change with depth. Diet and isotopic measurements indicate the fish community largely relies on benthic resources regardless of basin (Las Vegas Bay >80%; Overton Arm >92%); however, the threadfin shad likely contribute more to largemouth and striped bass production in Overton Arm versus Las Vegas Bay. A 2-time period analysis, pre and post quagga mussel establishment and during lake level declines, suggests there is no change in the density of benthic invertebrates in Boulder Basin, but there were greater abundances of select taxa in this basin by season and depth than in other basins. Given the potential of alterations as a result of the expansion of quagga mussel and the reliance of the fishery on benthic resources, future investigation of basin specific, benthic processes is recommended.

  10. Seed Production, Herbage Residue and Crude Protein Content of Centro (Centrosema pubescens in the Year of Establishment at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out on seed production pattern of centro (Centrosema pubescens, in the year of establishment in a sub humid environment of Nigeria as influenced by sowing date and phosphorus application levels. The herbage residue and its crude protein content were also determined after pod harvest. The variation in seeds per pod for plantings between June 21 to August 2 was from 16.5 to 14.5, while for unfertilized and fertilized plots seeds number varied between 12.6 and 16.2/pod. The weight of 1000 seeds decreased with delayed planting. Phosphorus application improved seed weight. Seed yield was highest (1000 kg/ha for July 5 sowing with phosphorus application of 60 kg/ha P205 combination. The variation in mean seed yield for planting between June 21 and August 2 was 782.0 to 360.3 kg/ha. The application of 0 to 60 kg/ha P205 resulted in mean seed yields of 405.7 to 776.8 kg/ha. Herbage residue was favoured more by June 21 sowing and the application of 60 kg/ha P205. The crude protein content was better with August sowing and 60 kg/ha P205.

  11. Sustainable production of afforestation and reforestation to salvage land degradation in Asunafo District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Peprah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Savannazation and marshy areas are common features of once evergreen and deciduous forest of Ghana. Attempts to salvage such degraded lands have considered replacement with closed tree canopy. This study aims at examining efforts at Asunafo forest area to use tree planting of different species to remedy land degradation in a swamp area colonized by shrubs and grasses. Study methods include the use of field visits and transect walk, photography, archival data, key informant interview, community meeting and socio-economic survey for sourcing primary data for analysis. The results indicate that where the swamp is vegetated by shrubs of different kinds, afforestation shows rapid success. And, where the swamp is dominated by grass species, afforestation success is slow. Terminalia ivorensis, Triplochiton scleroxylon and Ceiba pentandra registered quick impacts in height growth, stem development, canopy formation where the degraded land was originally covered with shrubs. Trees grow well when weed competition for essential resources is reduced through weed control. The study concludes that tree planting in swamp area is sustainable land management practice to redeem land degradation. Also, environmental benefits are imperatives but host communities derived near to zero social and economic benefits because such projects happen outside clean development mechanisms’ arrangement.

  12. Geospatial Method for Computing Supplemental Multi-Decadal U.S. Coastal Land-Use and Land-Cover Classification Products, Using Landsat Data and C-CAP Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J. P.; Smoot, James; Ellis, Jean; Hilbert, Kent; Swann, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and implementation of a geospatial data processing method and multi-decadal Landsat time series for computing general coastal U.S. land-use and land-cover (LULC) classifications and change products consisting of seven classes (water, barren, upland herbaceous, non-woody wetland, woody upland, woody wetland, and urban). Use of this approach extends the observational period of the NOAA-generated Coastal Change and Analysis Program (C-CAP) products by almost two decades, assuming the availability of one cloud free Landsat scene from any season for each targeted year. The Mobile Bay region in Alabama was used as a study area to develop, demonstrate, and validate the method that was applied to derive LULC products for nine dates at approximate five year intervals across a 34-year time span, using single dates of data for each classification in which forests were either leaf-on, leaf-off, or mixed senescent conditions. Classifications were computed and refined using decision rules in conjunction with unsupervised classification of Landsat data and C-CAP value-added products. Each classification's overall accuracy was assessed by comparing stratified random locations to available reference data, including higher spatial resolution satellite and aerial imagery, field survey data, and raw Landsat RGBs. Overall classification accuracies ranged from 83 to 91% with overall Kappa statistics ranging from 0.78 to 0.89. The accuracies are comparable to those from similar, generalized LULC products derived from C-CAP data. The Landsat MSS-based LULC product accuracies are similar to those from Landsat TM or ETM+ data. Accurate classifications were computed for all nine dates, yielding effective results regardless of season. This classification method yielded products that were used to compute LULC change products via additive GIS overlay techniques.

  13. 1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    "1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use" Liquid bio fuels are perceived as a means of mitigating CO2 emissions from transport and thus climate change, but much concern has been raised to the energy consumption from refining biomass...... to liquid fuels. Integrating technologies such that waste stream can be used will reduce energy consumption in the production of bioethanol from wheat. We show that the integration of bio refining and combined heat an power generation reduces process energy requirements with 30-40 % and makes bioethanol...

  14. Biomechanical and neuromuscular adaptations during the landing phase of a stepping-down task in patients with early or established knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C.; Malfait, Bart; Baert, Isabel; van der Leeden, Marike; van Dieën, Jaap; Lems, Willem F.; Dekker, Joost; Luyten, Frank P.; Verschueren, Sabine

    Background: To compare the knee joint kinematics, kinetics and EMG activity patterns during a stepping-down task in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with control subjects. Methods: 33 women with knee OA (early OA, n = 14; established OA n = 19) and 14 female control subjects performed a

  15. Study on Rangeland production Potential and its Limitations in the Semi-Arid lands of Northern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keya, G.A.; Hornetz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Results obtained from recent studies focused on rangeland potential as influenced by human activity and climatic factors in the semi-arid and pastoral ecosystems of Northern Kenya indicated great temporal and spatial forage production variability. The objective of the studies was to document the primary production potential in relation to water stress (drought), herbivory and direct human activities. Efforts also focused on finding possibilities of increasing productivity while conserving the finite resources for sustainable use. Laboratory field and numeric methods were employed over several seasons and years. Forb and grass production was more viable than that of the brows (dwarf shrub) layer. Compared to forbs and dwarf shrubs, The grass layer contributed less to the total of production in all seasons, indicating that the region had less potential for grazers compared to browsers. Spatial-temporal variations in rangeland carrying capacity reflected the great spatial heterogeneity in vegetation types and production. Similarly, seasonal difference were very evident, with highest estimates in the long rainy and lowest during the dry and short rainy seasons, respectively. Factors limiting rangeland production potential and were identified to be moisture deficiency, resource-use conflicts, an increasing and partial sedentarised nomadic population, overgrazing, tree felling, and land degradation (desert encroachment). Measures that can increase rangelands production potential and provide a better way of life for the inhabitants of the region include: (a) identification of land degradation (e.g. by means of bio-indicators and Geographical Information systems, GIS); (b) technical interventions (i.e. soil and water conservation,restoration of degraded ares, fodder production); (c)socio-economic interventions (i.e. resolution of resource-use conflicts, alleviation of poverty, infrastructure development, improvement of livestock marketing channels, etc) and (d) continued

  16. Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C

    2014-08-01

    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual

  17. Typologies and Spatialization of Agricultural Production Systems in Rondônia, Brazil: Linking Land Use, Socioeconomics and Territorial Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current Amazon landscape consists of heterogeneous mosaics formed by interactions between the original forest and productive activities. Recognizing and quantifying the characteristics of these landscapes is essential for understanding agricultural production chains, assessing the impact of policies, and in planning future actions. Our main objective was to construct the regionalization of agricultural production for Rondônia State (Brazilian Amazon at the municipal level. We adopted a decision tree approach, using land use maps derived from remote sensing data (PRODES and TerraClass combined with socioeconomic data. The decision trees allowed us to allocate municipalities to one of five agricultural production systems: (i coexistence of livestock production and intensive agriculture; (ii semi-intensive beef and milk production; (iii semi-intensive beef production; (iv intensive beef and milk production, and; (v intensive beef production. These production systems are, respectively, linked to mechanized agriculture (i, traditional cattle farming with low management, with (ii or without (iii a significant presence of dairy farming, and to more intensive livestock farming with (iv or without (v a significant presence of dairy farming. The municipalities and associated production systems were then characterized using a wide variety of quantitative metrics grouped into four dimensions: (i agricultural production; (ii economics; (iii territorial configuration, and; (iv social characteristics. We found that production systems linked to mechanized agriculture predominate in the south of the state, while intensive farming is mainly found in the center of the state. Semi-intensive livestock farming is mainly located close to the southwest frontier and in the north of the state, where human occupation of the territory is not fully consolidated. This distributional pattern reflects the origins of the agricultural production system of Rond

  18. Land-Use Implications to Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Biodiesel from Palm Oil Production in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni HARSONO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to identify the energy balance of Indonesian palm oil biodiesel production, including the stages of land use change, transport and milling and biodiesel processing, and to estimate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from different production systems, including large and small holder plantations either dependent or independent, located in Kalimantan and in Sumatra. Results show that the accompanied implications of palm oil biodiesel produced in Kalimantan and Sumatra are different: energy input in Sumatra is higher than in Kalimantan, except for transport processes; the input/output ratios are positive in both regions and all production systems. The findings demonstrate that there are considerable differences between the farming systems and the locations in net energy yields (43.6 to 49.2 GJ t-1 biodiesel yr-1 as well as greenhouse gas emissions (1969.6 to 5626.4 kg CO2eq t-1 biodiesel yr-1. The output to input ratios are positive in all cases. The largest greenhouse gas emissions result from land use change effects, followed by the transesterification, fertilizer production, agricultural production processes, milling and transportation. Ecosystem carbon payback times range from 11 to 42 years.

  19. Derivation of Land Surface Albedo at High Resolution by Combining HJ-1A/B Reflectance Observations with MODIS BRDF Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface albedo is an essential parameter for monitoring global/regional climate and land surface energy balance. Although many studies have been conducted on global or regional land surface albedo using various remote sensing data over the past few decades, land surface albedo product with a high spatio–temporal resolution is currently very scarce. This paper proposes a method for deriving land surface albedo with a high spatio–temporal resolution (space: 30 m and time: 2–4 days. The proposed method works by combining the land surface reflectance data at 30 m spatial resolution obtained from the charge-coupled devices in the Huanjing-1A and -1B (HJ-1A/B satellites with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF parameters product (MCD43A1, which is at a spatial resolution of 500 m. First, the land surface BRDF parameters for HJ-1A/B land surface reflectance with a spatial–temporal resolutions of 30 m and 2–4 day are calculated on the basis of the prior knowledge from the MODIS BRDF product; then, the calculated high resolution BRDF parameters are integrated over the illuminating/viewing hemisphere to produce the white- and black-sky albedos at 30 m resolution. These results form the basis for the final land surface albedo derivation by accounting for the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation arriving at the ground. The albedo retrieved by this novel method is compared with MODIS land surface albedo products, as well as with ground measurements. The results show that the derived land surface albedo during the growing season of 2012 generally achieved a mean absolute accuracy of ±0.044, and a root mean square error of 0.039, confirming the effectiveness of the newly proposed method.

  20. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  1. Models of reforestation productivity and carbon sequestration for land use and climate change adaptation planning in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Trevor J; Neumann, Craig R; Meyer, Wayne S; Moon, Travis; Bryan, Brett A

    2016-10-01

    Environmental management and regional land use planning has become more complex in recent years as growing world population, climate change, carbon markets and government policies for sustainability have emerged. Reforestation and agroforestry options for environmental benefits, carbon sequestration, economic development and biodiversity conservation are now important considerations of land use planners. New information has been collected and regionally-calibrated models have been developed to facilitate better regional land use planning decisions and counter the limitations of currently available models of reforestation productivity and carbon sequestration. Surveys of above-ground biomass of 264 reforestation sites (132 woodlots, 132 environmental plantings) within the agricultural regions of South Australia were conducted, and combined with spatial information on climate and soils, to develop new spatial and temporal models of plant density and above-ground biomass productivity from reforestation. The models can be used to estimate productivity and total carbon sequestration (i.e. above-ground + below-ground biomass) under a continuous range of planting designs (e.g. variable proportions of trees and shrubs or plant densities), timeframes and future climate scenarios. Representative spatial models (1 ha resolution) for 3 reforestation designs (i.e. woodlots, typical environmental planting, biodiverse environmental plantings) × 3 timeframes (i.e. 25, 45, 65 years) × 4 possible climates (i.e. no change, mild, moderate, severe warming and drying) were generated (i.e. 36 scenarios) for use within land use planning tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable land use in Tikopia: Food production and consumption in an isolated agricultural system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Fog, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    making, and the collection of soil samples from the major soil and garden types. The Tikopian land use system has not undergone significant changes since the 1970s; indeed the focus on self-sufficiency in food crops may have been strengthened over the past 30 years as ship arrivals have become...... long-term setbacks, not even from extreme events such as Cyclone Zoe in 2002. The high fertility of Tikopian soils reported in the 1960s was found to be unchanged. It is concluded that the land use system is highly resilient to shocks and that there are no indications that Tikopian villagers would...

  3. The Contribution of Livestock in Soil Productivity, Biodiversity, Land Use, and Welfare Change in Nduuri Embu, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang'ara, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Nduuri is situated in Runyenjes Division of Embu district in South East of Mt Kenya. Majority of farms in Nduuri are scale mixed with coffee as main cash crop. Livestock production especially cattle dairy has been only second to coffee in economic importance . Due to decline in coffee price and breakdown of milk marketing channel, the standard of living and land use system has changed. A survey was therefore conducted in this area to determine the contribution of livestock to this changes. the survey inquired among others the Household sources of income, land size and distribution in various farm uses, livestock species and their management, crop produced and their role in the household, Manure generated its fate and effect in the farm integrity as animal pollution decline. The result indicated that coffee was the mainstay of the household economy, but this is shifting to livestock due to low coffee revenue as a result of poor price. since in some farms need for revenue outstrips the normal from dairy production sales, the milking cows are also being sold to meet large domestic need. This reduces the livestock population and the manure generated in the farm that is used for improvement of coffee an food crop production. This then break the farm nutrient cycle that result in soil low fertility, decline in crop production, changes in biodiversity, land use system and decline in household food security and livelihood. It was concluded that there is need for restoring the nutrient cycle through restocking with dairy cattle as a matter of policy in future when the coffee price improve as part of coffee production improvement and poverty alleviation strategy

  4. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; David R. Coyle; J. Blake; M. Buford; R.G. Campbell; J. Cox; B. Cregg; D. Daniels; M. Jacobson; Kurt Johnsen; Timothy McDonald; K. McLeod; E. Nelson; D. Robison; R. Rummer; F. Sanchez; John A. Stanturf; B. Stokes; Carl Trettin; J. Tuskan; L. Wright; S. Wullschleger

    2004-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the productivity potential of intensively managed forest plantations. However, we need to learn more about the effects of fundamental growth processes on forest productivity; especially the influence of above- and belowground resource acquisition and allocation. This report presents installation, establishment, and first-year results of...

  5. Operationalizing land cover/land use data products to support decision making in the forestry sector of Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamer, F. M.; Gilani, H.; Uddin, K.; Pradhan, S.; Murthy, M.; Bajracharya, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan mountain ecosystem is under severe stress due to population pressure and overexploitation, which is now being further compounded by climate change. Particularly the Himalayan mountain forests has been degrading since the 1850s, in the early years of British administration. Consistent country-wide and local level data are needed to show the patterns and processes of degradation as a basis for developing management strategies to halt degradation and ensure long-term sustainability. Realizing the need for developing consistent national and regional databases in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions to be used by resource managers for informed decision making, time series land cover maps were developed for 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on the Landsat images. Considering forest sector as a primary user, a special attention was given to forest cover interpretation and relevant professional from national forestry institutions of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan were closely engaged in developing standardized data products. With the use of consistent datasets and interpretation methods, this study provides first systematic assessment on forest cover distribution and change patterns during last two decades in these countries. At the same time, the results compiled at sub-district administrative unit, may facilitate institutions in developing appropriate forest conservation strategies, ecosystem vulnerability assessment and ecosystem services valuation at local level. To promote such usages, national forestry institutions are being closely engaged in a number of capacity building activities at national and regional level. In context of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives, these datasets are also being evaluated to be considered as baseline for deforestation and degradation rates in the respective countries. To promote easy and open access, a web system was

  6. Effect of Climate Conditions on Land Surface Productivity Across the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahua Deserts and Apache Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. C., Pratima

    Understanding the patterns and relationships between land surface productivity and the climatic condition is essential to predict the impact of climate change. This study aims to understand spatial temporal variability and relationships of land surface productivity using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and drought indices, mainly Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI) across four ecoregions: Mojave, Sonoran, Apache Highlands and Chihuahua of the Southwest United States. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land cover data, and Parameter Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation and temperature data were used for analysis. Using Mann-Kendall, I calculated the trends in annual and seasonal NDVI, SPI and SPEI datasets. I used the Pearson Correlation Coefficients to examine the response of integrated and monthly NDVI values to SPI and SPEI values. The positive and negative trends were found during the annual and monsoon seasons whereas only negative trends were found during the spring season for NDVI, SPI and SPEI values. The relationship between NDVI and coincident and antecedent SPEI values changed significantly by area and season for each of the ecoregions across the east-west seasonal precipitation gradient.

  7. Product recovery from tree grade 1 northern red oak on Menominee tribal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey

    2007-01-01

    Since 1854 the Menominee Tribal people have practiced some level of forest management on their lands. In April of 2000, Menominee Tribal Enterprises (MTE) forestry staff along with federal, state, and university researchers began a comprehensive study of value in northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). One of the objectives of this study was to relate...

  8. An operative environmental accounting framework for forest land blue water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguería, Santiago; Leandri, Marc; Campos, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    We present a conceptual framework for the economic valuation of the water flows occurring in the forest lands. This framework is an extension of the criteria developed in the System of Environmental Economic Accounting-Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA) and provides a practical tool for the assessment of national or regional environmental assets. In terms of environmental policy, our accounting framework aims at valuing the contribution of forest lands to fresh water supply, contributing to a more complete valuation of the environmental asset value of forest land. Thanks to a combination of hydrological and economic models, our approach allows organizing hydrological and economic information in a coherent manner, constituting an informed tool to support the design of efficient incentives for forest-owners to manage their land cover towards more water-friendly options. As an example, we apply our hydro-economic model to a real life case study of two reservoirs in Andalusia, Spain, that differ significantly in their use of water. We use available hydrologic and economic data for evaluating the water environmental income at each site. We discuss on the differences found between the two sites and between vegetation types, and we present a sensitivity analysis regarding the main assumptions made in our calculations.

  9. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  10. Natural resource use for food : land, water and energy in production and consumption systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, Popkje Winfrieda

    2006-01-01

    We consumeren steeds meer vlees, fruit, koffie en alcohol. Daardoor is er meer land, water en energie nodig voor onze voedselproductie. Inmiddels nemen mensen in ontwikkelingslanden ons niet-duurzame westerse eetpatroon over. Dit kan de druk op schaarse natuurlijke hulpbronnen verder vergroten.

  11. CryoSat Land Ice Product Validation within the CryoVal-LI project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Baker, Steven; Csatho, Bea

    The main objective of the ESA funded CryoVal-LI project has been to identify and quantify the error sources for the CryoSat-2 mission over land ice. This has been undertaken through the careful documentation of the possible error sources, the identification of suitable validation sites and the cr...

  12. Land Transformation and Occupation Impacts of Farming Practices for the Production of Soybean in Mato Grosso, Brazil, Using Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Miranda, E. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso is the largest producer of soybean in Brazil with production continuously increasing since 2000 through a near tripling of cropland area under soybean cultivation. This increase in production has occurred by land cover transformation (extensification into natural ecosystems, e.g. forest to crop) and land use intensification (increase in area by conversion of already cleared land, e.g. pasture to crop), largely to satisfy international demand. In this study, we assess cradle-to-farm gate impacts of soybean production in Mato Grosso using life cycle impact assessment applied to data collected from 110 farms. We combine 21 impact indicators of land transformation and occupation (i.e. land use and land cover change) to show impacts of life cycle stages of production to land, air, water, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The greatest damage to human health and ecosystem quality came from land transformation which primarily takes place in the tropical forest (Amazon) and savanna (Cerrado/Cerradão) biomes. Soybean production in tropical forest landscapes has greater impacts on climate regulation, biotic production and groundwater recharge compared to production in native savanna areas, while impacts on biodiversity, erosion and soil water purification are roughly equivalent for tropical forest vs. savanna transformation and occupation. Soybean production practices showed hot spots of damage to environmental quality and resources from phosphorous fertilizer application and diesel consumption in machinery through impact pathways such as terrestrial and aquatic acidification and the use of non-renewable energy. Life cycle impact assessment modeling can provide further information into the production process to enlighten decision making with respect to impacts occurring along the soybean product supply chain.

  13. Litter Production and Decomposition Rate in the Reclaimed Mined Land under Albizia and Sesbania Stands and Their Effects on some Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suhartoyo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation establishment is considered as a critical step of mined land rehabilitation. The growing plants do not only prevent soil erosion, but also play important roles in soil ecosystem development. Their litterfall is the main process of transferring organic matter and nutrients from aboveground tree biomass to soil. Thus, its quantification would aid in understanding biomass and nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem. This study was aimed to investigate the litter production and its decomposition rate in a reclaimed mined land using albizia and sesbania, and their effects on some soil properties. The litter under each stand was biweekly collected for four months. At the same time litter samples were decomposed in mesh nylon bags in soils and the remaining litters were biweekly measured. Soil samples were taken from 0-15 cm depths from each stand for analyses of soil organic C, total N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. The results demonstrated that total litter production under albizia (10.58 t ha-1 yr-1 was almost twice as much as that under sesbania stands (5.43 t ha-1 yr-1. Albizia litter was dominated by leaf litter (49.26% and least as understory vegetation (23.31%, whereas sesbania litter was more evenly distributed among litter types. Decomposition rates of all litters were fastest in the initial stage and then gradually decreased. Sesbania leaf litters decomposed fastest, while albizia twigs slowest. Differences in the litter production and decomposition rates of the two species had not sufficiently caused significant effects on organic-C, total N, and CEC of the soils after one year of revegetation.

  14. The On Line Validation Exercise (OLIVE) Tool: a CEOS/LPV initiative for validation of global land products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.; Baret, F.; Block, T.; Koetz, B.; Burini, A.; Fernandes, R. A.; Nightingale, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The OLIVE (On Line Interactive Validation Exercise) system enables transparent and traceable validation and inter-comparison of EO land products (LAI, FAPAR, FCOVER). The ultimate objective of OLIVE is to provide consistent and reliable information on the accuracy and associated uncertainty of EO products. The validation exercise follows the guidelines proposed by CEOS/LPV and allows for regular updates when new versions or products are available. OLIVE is accessible to the whole EO community which can run validation exercises, including existing or new products. The validation process involves several criterions listed hereafter: (i) continuity of products, i.e. evaluation of the spatial and temporal distribution of missing values,(ii) accuracy assessment achieved by comparing the product value derived from satellite observations to ground measurements of the corresponding biophysical variable (i.e. direct validation) (iii) precision assessment, mainly regarding the temporal and spatial consistency, including the long term temporal stability mandatory for several applications, and (iv) intercomparison between currently existing products. OLIVE is a web platform and provides three main functionalities: 1. Easy and transparent access to validation exercise results, including product definition, description of the validation process and associated data. 2. Evaluate new EO products/versions developed by any producer. Formats required for the candidate input product are described in details. The validation can be run in two modes: (i) the 'private' mode for which the validation results are only visible to this user. This mode is dedicated to perform tests when the product may not be mature enough for public scrutiny; (ii) the 'public' mode, for more mature products, where the results are published on the system and accessible to the community. In the latter case, the data used for the validation are stored on the system and available to the community for inter

  15. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-08-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Baseline soil carbon was determined for each of the eighty-one plots. Fertility analysis of soil samples was completed and these data were used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions and the pre-designated plots were fertilized. We also evaluated economic-based policy instruments that are designed to mitigate the reforestation burden borne by the owner of reclaimed mined land. Results suggest that although profitability of reforestation of these previously reclaimed mine lands may be achievable on better sites under lower interest rates, substantial payments would be required to reach &apos

  16. Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Arnaldo; Dolzan, Paulo; Quilodran, Oscar; Oliveira, Janaina G. de; Silva, Cinthia da; Piacente, Fabricio; Segerstedt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

  17. Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Bell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%, but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon.

  18. Impacts of Land Use Change on Net Ecosystem Production in China's Taihu Lake Basin in 1985-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Yang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Land use change play a major role in determining sources and sinks of carbon at regional and global scales. This study employs a modified BIOME-BGC model to examine the changes in the spatio-temporal pattern of net ecosystem production (NEP) in China's Taihu Lake Basin in 1985-2010 and the extent to which land use change impacted NEP. The BIOME-BGC model was calibrated with observed NEP at three open-path eddy covariance flux sites for three dominant land-use types in the Basin including cropland, evergreen needleleaf forest, and mixed forest. Land use data were interpreted from Landsat TM images in 1985, 2000, 2005 and 2010 at the scale of 1:100,000 based on a decision tree method. Two simulations are conducted to distinguish the net effects of land use change and increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and nitrogen deposition on NEP. S1 deals with the actual outcomes of NEP under the interactions between land use change and increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2 and N deposition. S2 assumes that atmospheric CO2 concentration and N deposition remain unchanged at their 1985 levels: 338.32 ppm and 0.0005 kg m-2, respectively. The study estimates that NEP in the Basin showed an overall downward trend, decreasing by 9.8% (1.57 TgC) and 3.21 TgC (or 20.9%) from 1985 to 2010 under situation S1 and S2, respectively. The NEP distribution exhibits an apparent spatial heterogeneity at the municipal level. Land use changesin 1985-2010 reduced the regional NEP (3.21 Tg C in year 2010) by 19.9% compared to its 1985 level, while the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nitrogen deposition compensated for a half of the total carbon loss. Critical measures for regulating rapid urban expansion and population growth and reinforcing environment protection programs are recommended to increase the regional carbon sink.

  19. Using LIDAR and Quickbird Data to Model Plant Production and Quantify Uncertainties Associated with Wetland Detection and Land Cover Generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Naesset, Erik; Anderson, Ryan S.; Garrigues, Sebastian; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Nickeson, Jaime; Davis, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatiotemporal data from satellite remote sensing and surface meteorology networks have made it possible to continuously monitor global plant production, and to identify global trends associated with land cover/use and climate change. Gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) are routinely derived from the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard satellites Terra and Aqua, and estimates generally agree with independent measurements at validation sites across the globe. However, the accuracy of GPP and NPP estimates in some regions may be limited by the quality of model input variables and heterogeneity at fine spatial scales. We developed new methods for deriving model inputs (i.e., land cover, leaf area, and photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by plant canopies) from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and Quickbird multispectral data at resolutions ranging from about 30 m to 1 km. In addition, LiDAR-derived biomass was used as a means for computing carbon-use efficiency. Spatial variables were used with temporal data from ground-based monitoring stations to compute a six-year GPP and NPP time series for a 3600 ha study site in the Great Lakes region of North America. Model results compared favorably with independent observations from a 400 m flux tower and a process-based ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC), but only after removing vapor pressure deficit as a constraint on photosynthesis from the MODIS global algorithm. Fine resolution inputs captured more of the spatial variability, but estimates were similar to coarse-resolution data when integrated across the entire vegetation structure, composition, and conversion efficiencies were similar to upland plant communities. Plant productivity estimates were noticeably improved using LiDAR-derived variables, while uncertainties associated with land cover generalizations and wetlands in this largely forested landscape were considered less important.

  20. Land cover mapping using lidar data and aerial image and soil fertility degradation assessment for rice production area in Quezon, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R. T.; Damian, G. B.; Camaso, E. E.; Isip, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Land-cover maps were important for many scientific, ecological and land management purposes and during the last decades, rapid decrease of soil fertility was observed to be due to land use practices such as rice cultivation. High-precision land-cover maps are not yet available in the area which is important in an economy management. To assure accurate mapping of land cover to provide information, remote sensing is a very suitable tool to carry out this task and automatic land use and cover detection. The study did not only provide high precision land cover maps but it also provide estimates of rice production area that had undergone chemical degradation due to fertility decline. Land-cover were delineated and classified into pre-defined classes to achieve proper detection features. After generation of Land-cover map, of high intensity of rice cultivation, soil fertility degradation assessment in rice production area due to fertility decline was created to assess the impact of soils used in agricultural production. Using Simple spatial analysis functions and ArcGIS, the Land-cover map of Municipality of Quezon in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was overlaid to the fertility decline maps from Land Degradation Assessment Philippines- Bureau of Soils and Water Management (LADA-Philippines- BSWM) to determine the area of rice crops that were most likely where nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and sulfur deficiencies were induced by high dosage of urea and imbalance N:P fertilization. The result found out that 80.00 % of fallow and 99.81% of rice production area has high soil fertility decline.

  1. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' manual and technical documentation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S; Dunn, JB; Wang, M (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago)

    2012-06-07

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released May 31, 2012 which includes corn, as did the previous CCLUB version, and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. CCLUB calculations are based upon two data sets: land change areas and above- and below-ground carbon content. Table 1 identifies where these data are stored and used within the CCLUB model, which is built in MS Excel. Land change area data is from Purdue University's Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) economic model. Section 2 describes the GTAP data CCLUB uses and how these data were modified to reflect shrubland transitions. Feedstock- and spatially-explicit below-ground carbon content data for the United States were generated with a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic carbon sub-model (Kwon and Hudson 2010) as described in Section 3. CENTURY is a soil organic matter model developed by Parton et al. (1987). The previous CCLUB version used more coarse domestic carbon emission factors. Above-ground non-soil carbon content data for forest ecosystems was sourced from the USDA/NCIAS Carbon Online Estimator (COLE) as explained in Section 4. We discuss emission factors used for calculation of international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Section 5. Temporal issues associated with modeling LUC emissions are the topic of Section 6. Finally, in Section 7 we provide a step-by-step guide to using CCLUB and obtaining results.

  2. Land and water use practices intended to increase water productivity in arid and semi-arid zones. Application to Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshadiev, Mirzokhid; Fleskens, Luuk; van Dam, Jos; Pulatov, Alim

    2017-04-01

    Water demand increases as more food is required to meet population growth and higher living standards. In addition, climate change is expected to further exacerbate water scarcity in already dry areas where irrigation is most needed. In the water scarce areas, the key strategy to meet demand of growing food production and water use is increase of water productivity (WP) based on best land and water use practices. A literature review will be conducted to study promising land and water use practices that increase water productivity in arid and semi-arid zones, with a special focus on Uzbekistan. In addition to literature review we will conduct interviews with local farmers and land and water management experts. However, due to time constraints and difficult to access grey literature, the review paper cannot cover all promising land and water use practices that have been used in Uzbekistan. We selected the following promising practices: a) conventional furrow irrigation; b) deficit irrigation; c) drip/sprinkle irrigation, and d) rain-fed with supplemental irrigation. The preliminary findings of the literature review show that in Uzbekistan in case of conventional furrow irrigation the WP range of cotton was 0.32-0.89, and of wheat 0.44-1.77 (kg m3). By applying deficit irrigation practices, WP values of cotton can be 0-25% higher (0.32-1.11 kg m3), and of wheat 114-400% higher (2.20-3.78 kg m3). However, deficit irrigation practices for potato's need to be managed carefully to reach higher WP, and might even negatively effect WP, showing a range of 0.85-7.04 compared to conventional furrow irrigation 4.02-4.81 (kg m3). Important to mention that drip irrigation practice can highly contribute to increase WP of cotton by 156-91 % (0.82-1.70 kg m3) compared to furrow irrigation. Also, rain-fed cultivation with supplemental irrigation result is anticipated and will be included in the presentation and full version of paper. In summary, the review of current land and water

  3. Miscanthus and willow heat production-An effective land-use strategy for greenhouse gas emission avoidance in Ireland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Jones, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent decoupling of EU direct payments from agricultural production, to land-area-based payments, has accelerated the national trend of declining livestock numbers, presenting opportunities for new agricultural products. This paper uses life-cycle analyses to quantify the national magnitude and area-based efficiency of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions possible from utilising indigenously grown willow and Miscanthus as heating fuels in domestic/commercial premises. Willow and Miscanthus fuel-chain emissions were calculated at 0.045 and 0.062 kg CO 2 eq. kWh th , compared with 0.248, 0.331 and 0.624 kg CO 2 eq. kWh th for gas, oil and electric heat, respectively. Long-term soil C sequestration where willow and Miscanthus are grown on tillage land could exceed fuel-chain emissions, resulting in heat production better than C-neutral. Net GHG emission reductions ranged from 7671 kg CO 2 eq. ha -1 a -1 where willow displaced grassland and gas to 34,187 kg CO 2 eq. ha -1 a -1 where Miscanthus displaced set-aside and electric heat. A simple, indicative scenario assumed that energy-crops were grown on set-aside and destocked grassland in the ratio of 1:2, and displaced a total of 4728 GWh th combined gas, oil and electric heat. Consequent net GHG emission reductions arising from sole utilisation of either willow or Miscanthus equated to 2.6% or 2.5% of 2004 national emissions, and required just 2.9% or 2.1% of Ireland's agricultural land area. Net total emission reductions were relatively insensitive to variation in yield and cultivation emissions, but large reductions associated with electric-heat displacement will decline as electricity production becomes less GHG-intensive, and may not be representative of other countries. Energy-crop heat production offers considerably greater GHG emission reduction potential compared with agricultural destocking alone, and appears to represent an efficient land-use option for this purpose

  4. Scientific and methodical bases of transformation of agricultural land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolisnyk H.

    2016-05-01

    land use. Based on the concept of "transformation of agricultural land use" recommended to carry out classification of it’s types: by the result - effective, moderately effective and ineffective; by duration - short, medium and long-term; by the way impact of external and internal factors - evolution, revolutionary; within the meaning of preconditions – economic, social, environmental, political, military and others. Described stages of transformation of agricultural land use, namely: first - imbalance second - unstable and uncertain state; coexistence between forms; third - the establishment of stability and dominance of the new system; fourth - arising of equilibrium state; fifth - post-transformational. The result of of transformation of agricultural land use is the emergence of agricultural formations of market type based on various forms of ownership. In the article analyzes experience of transformation forms of ownership of land in countries such as: Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Czech Republic, where land privatization was carried out by restitution and immediately had the opportunity to freely dispose of land. This had a positive impact on the rapid recovery of agricultural production after the establishment of a market economy. But in Ukraine the land was equally distributed among rural population, much of which has never conducted an independent business that has affected the efficiency of agricultural production. After transformation of land relations in our state occurred redistribution of lands between the categories of landowners and land users. The main land users were newly established agricultural enterprises, farms, private farms and citizens for agricultural commodity production. The specific of transformation was the concentration of agricultural land in large agricultural enterprises, which are the main producers of agricultural products and services and in fact - legal successors of collective farms and state farms with employees. Study

  5. Nitrification is a primary driver of nitrous oxide production in laboratory microcosms from different land-use soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on soil N2O emissions have focused either on the quantifying of agricultural N2O fluxes or on the effect of environmental factors on N2O emissions. However very limited information is available on how land-use will affect N2O production, and nitrifiers involved in N2O emissions in agricultural soil ecosystems. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the relative importance of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emissions from different land-use soils and identifying the potential underlying microbial mechanisms. A 15N-tracing experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions on four agricultural soils collected from different land-use. We measured N2O fluxes, nitrate (NO3− and ammonium (NH4+ concentration and15N2O, 15NO3− and 15NH4+ enrichment during the incubation. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB. Our results showed that nitrification was the main contributor to N2O production in soils from sugarcane, dairy pasture and cereal cropping systems, while denitrification played a major role in N2O production in the vegetable soil under the experimental conditions. Nitrification contributed to 96.7% of the N2O emissions in sugarcane soil followed by 71.3% in the cereal cropping soil and 70.9% in the dairy pasture soil, while only around 20.0% of N2O was produced from nitrification in vegetable soil. The proportion of nitrified nitrogen as N2O (PN2O value varied across different soils, with the highest PN2O value (0.26‰ found in the cereal cropping soil, which was around 10 times higher than that in other three systems. AOA were the abundant ammonia oxidizers, and were significantly correlated to N2O emitted from nitrification in the sugarcane soil, while AOB were significantly correlated with N2O emitted from nitrification in the cereal cropping soil. Our findings suggested that soil type and land-use might have strongly affected the

  6. Impact of land-use on savanna vegetation and populations of non-timber forest product-providing tree species in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Savannas are the most important timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) providing ecosystems in West Africa. They have been shaped by traditional human land-use (i.e. agriculture, grazing, and harvesting) for thousands of years. In the last decades, land-use has drastically changed due to the rapid population growth and the growing production of cash-crop in West Africa and this process is still continuing. The percentage of land intensively used for agriculture has increased, while the...

  7. Quantifying Impacts of Land-Use/Cover Change on Urban Vegetation Gross Primary Production: A Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishi Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study quantified the impacts of land-use/cover change (LUCC on gross primary production (GPP during 2000–2013 in a typical densely urbanized Chinese city, Wuhan. GPP was estimated at 30-m spatial resolution using annual land cover maps, meteorological data of the baseline year, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, which was generated with the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM based on Landsat and MODIS images. The results showed that approximately 309.95 Gg C was lost over 13 years, which was mainly due to the conversion from cropland to built-up areas. The interannual variation of GPP was affected by the change of vegetation composition, especially the increasing relative fraction of forests. The loss of GPP due to the conversion from forest to cropland fluctuated through the study period, but showed a sharp decrease in 2007 and 2008. The gain of GPP due to the conversion from cropland to forest was low between 2001 and 2009, but increased dramatically between 2009 and 2013. The change rate map showed an increasing trend along the highways, and a decreasing trend around the metropolitan area and lakes. The results indicated that carbon consequences should be considered before land management policies are put forth.

  8. Estimating Trends and Variation of Net Biome Productivity in India for 1980-2012 Using a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlot, Shilpa; Shu, Shijie; Jain, Atul K.; Baidya Roy, Somnath

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we explore the trend in net biome productivity (NBP) over India for the period 1980-2012 and quantify the impact of different environmental factors, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), land use and land cover change, climate, and nitrogen deposition on carbon fluxes using a land surface model, Integrated Science Assessment Model. Results show that terrestrial ecosystems of India have been a carbon sink for this period. Driven by a strong CO2 fertilization effect, magnitude of NBP increased from 27.17 TgC/yr in the 1980s to 34.39 TgC/yr in the 1990s but decreased to 23.70 TgC/yr in the 2000s due to change in climate. Adoption of forest conservation, management, and reforestation policies in the past decade has promoted carbon sequestration in the ecosystems, but this effect has been offset by loss of carbon from ecosystems due to rising temperatures and decrease in precipitation.

  9. Effect of soil and water conservation on rehabilitation of degraded lands and crop productivity in Maego watershed, North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam Yaebiyo Dimtsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many soil and water conservation (SWC measures were undertaken to decrease land degradation in Ethiopia. However, evaluation of their performance is essential to understand their success or failure and readjusting accordingly in the future planning.  Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of SWC measures in rehabilitation of degraded watershed and increase crop productivity in Maego watershed, Ethiopia. Seventy six sample plots were randomly taken from treated and untreated sub-watersheds for woody species and soil sampling. Crops yield was measured on top side, middle zone and below side of SWC structures. There were significantly higher woody species density and diversity, total nitrogen (TN, soil organic matter (SOM and soil moisture in the treated uncultivated land than the untreated one. The highest tree and sapling species density and diversity, TN and SOM were recorded on the exclosure part of the treated sub-watershed. Landscape position affected soil fertility, but has no effect on woody species density and diversity. The highest barley and wheat yield was measured on top side of SWC structures. Therefore, physical SWC structures should be integrated with exclosure to enhance rehabilitation of degraded watersheds/landscapes. Integration of biological SWC measures that improve soil fertility are essential on the cultivated land of the watershed. Most of the existing SWC structures, especially the old ones are filled with accumulated sediment, so maintenance is needed.

  10. Land use in the Northern Great Plains region of the U.S. influences the survival and productivity of honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff S.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Spivak, Marla S.

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains region of the US annually hosts a large portion of commercially managed U.S. honey bee colonies each summer. Changing land use patterns over the last several decades have contributed to declines in the availability of bee forage across the region, and the future sustainability of the region to support honey bee colonies is unclear. We examined the influence of varying land use on the survivorship and productivity of honey bee colonies located in six apiaries within the Northern Great Plains state of North Dakota, an area of intensive agriculture and high density of beekeeping operations. Land use surrounding the apiaries was quantified over three years, 2010–2012, and survival and productivity of honey bee colonies were determined in response to the amount of bee forage land within a 3.2-km radius of each apiary. The area of uncultivated forage land (including pasture, USDA conservation program fields, fallow land, flowering woody plants, grassland, hay land, and roadside ditches) exerted a positive impact on annual apiary survival and honey production. Taxonomic diversity of bee-collected pollen and pesticide residues contained therein varied seasonally among apiaries, but overall were not correlated to large-scale land use patterns or survival and honey production. The predominant flowering plants utilized by honey bee colonies for pollen were volunteer species present in unmanaged (for honey bees), and often ephemeral, lands; thus placing honey bee colonies in a precarious situation for acquiring forage and nutrients over the entire growing season. We discuss the implications for land management, conservation, and beekeeper site selection in the Northern Great Plains to adequately support honey bee colonies and insure long term security for pollinator-dependent crops across the entire country.

  11. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-02-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During the reporting period (October-December 2004) we completed the validation of a forest productivity classification model for mined land. A coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.68 confirms the model's ability to predict SI based on a selection of mine soil properties. To determine carbon sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio (Figure 1), West Virginia (Figure 2), and Virginia (Figure 3). The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). For hybrid poplar, total plant biomass differences increased significantly with the intensity of silvicultural input. Root, stem, and foliage biomass also increased with the level of silvicultural intensity. Financial feasibility analyses of reforestation on mined lands previously reclaimed to grassland have been completed for conversion to white pine and mixed hardwood species. Examination of potential policy instruments for promoting financial feasibility also have been completed, including lump sum payments at time of conversion, annual payments through the life of the stand, and payments based on carbon sequestration that provide both minimal profitability and fully offset initial reforestation outlays. We have compiled a database containing mine permit information obtained from permitting agencies in Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Due to differences and irregularities in permitting procedures

  12. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land: Does the regional and local climate respond? Germany as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Merja H.; Gutjahr, Oliver; Busch, Gerald; Thiele, Jan C.

    2014-03-01

    The extent and magnitude of land cover change effect on local and regional future climate during the vegetation period due to different forms of bioenergy plants are quantified for extreme temperatures and energy fluxes. Furthermore, we vary the spatial extent of plant allocation on arable land and simulate alternative availability of transpiration water to mimic both rainfed agriculture and irrigation. We perform climate simulations down to 1 km scale for 1970-1975 C20 and 2070-2075 A1B over Germany with Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling in Climate Mode. Here an impact analysis indicates a strong local influence due to land cover changes. The regional effect is decreased by two thirds of the magnitude of the local-scale impact. The changes are largest locally for irrigated poplar with decreasing maximum temperatures by 1°C in summer months and increasing specific humidity by 0.15 g kg-1. The increased evapotranspiration may result in more precipitation. The increase of surface radiative fluxes Rnet due to changes in latent and sensible heat is estimated by 5 W m-2locally. Moreover, increases in the surface latent heat flux cause strong local evaporative cooling in the summer months, whereas the associated regional cooling effect is pronounced by increases in cloud cover. The changes on a regional scale are marginal and not significant. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land may result in local temperature changes but not in substantial regional climate change in Germany. We show the effect of agricultural practices during climate transitions in spring and fall.

  13. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  14. Impact of land-use change on soil degradation by establishment of terraces with subtropical orchards in sloping areas (Granada, SE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Duran Zuzo, V. H.; Martin Peinado, F. J.; Franco Tarifa, D.

    2009-07-01

    In the coast of Granada, an intensive irrigated agriculture based on subtropical crops has been established. These trees have been planted in highly sloped areas, by the construction of terraces. In this fragile Mediterranean agroecosystem, the removal of native spontaneous vegetation cover and substitution by orchards, increase the susceptibility to soil degradation and eventually brings up the destruction of these structures by rainfall events. To study this net change, we monitored the soil loss and runoff over a two-year period in the taluses of terraces with a mature mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchard. The studied treatments were bare soil (BS) and spontaneous vegetation (NSV), each twice replicated. The erosion plots were 4 m x 4 m in area and were located in the taluses of orchard in the taluses of orchard terraces (65 degree centigrade slope). The average annual soil loss by erosion for BS and NSV was 2.5 and 0.3 Mg ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1, and for runoff 34.1 and 6.8 mm yr{sup -}1, respectively. Therefore, soil erosion and runoff from BS plot were 8- and 5-times higher than in NSV, showing the importance of plant covers in the taluses of terraces in reducing this impact. Thus, the removal of plant cover from the taluses under these conditions, represent a high risk of slump and collapse, causing serious environmental and economic problems for farmers of subtropical crops. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Impact of land-use change on soil degradation by establishment of terraces with subtropical orchards in sloping areas (Granada, SE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Duran Zuzo, V. H.; Martin Peinado, F. J.; Franco Tarifa, D.

    2009-01-01

    In the coast of Granada, an intensive irrigated agriculture based on subtropical crops has been established. These trees have been planted in highly sloped areas, by the construction of terraces. In this fragile Mediterranean agroecosystem, the removal of native spontaneous vegetation cover and substitution by orchards, increase the susceptibility to soil degradation and eventually brings up the destruction of these structures by rainfall events. To study this net change, we monitored the soil loss and runoff over a two-year period in the taluses of terraces with a mature mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchard. The studied treatments were bare soil (BS) and spontaneous vegetation (NSV), each twice replicated. The erosion plots were 4 m x 4 m in area and were located in the taluses of orchard in the taluses of orchard terraces (65 degree centigrade slope). The average annual soil loss by erosion for BS and NSV was 2.5 and 0.3 Mg ha - 1 yr - 1, and for runoff 34.1 and 6.8 mm yr - 1, respectively. Therefore, soil erosion and runoff from BS plot were 8- and 5-times higher than in NSV, showing the importance of plant covers in the taluses of terraces in reducing this impact. Thus, the removal of plant cover from the taluses under these conditions, represent a high risk of slump and collapse, causing serious environmental and economic problems for farmers of subtropical crops. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. On Line Validation Exercise (OLIVE: A Web Based Service for the Validation of Medium Resolution Land Products. Application to FAPAR Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Weiss

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The OLIVE (On Line Interactive Validation Exercise platform is dedicated to the validation of global biophysical products such as LAI (Leaf Area Index and FAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation. It was developed under the framework of the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Land Product Validation (LPV sub-group. OLIVE has three main objectives: (i to provide a consistent and centralized information on the definition of the biophysical variables, as well as a description of the main available products and their performances (ii to provide transparency and traceability by an online validation procedure compliant with the CEOS LPV and QA4EO (Quality Assurance for Earth Observation recommendations (iii and finally, to provide a tool to benchmark new products, update product validation results and host new ground measurement sites for accuracy assessment. The functionalities and algorithms of OLIVE are described to provide full transparency of its procedures to the community. The validation process and typical results are illustrated for three FAPAR products: GEOV1 (VEGETATION sensor, MGVIo (MERIS sensor and MODIS collection 5 FPAR. OLIVE is available on the European Space Agency CAL/VAL portal, including full documentation, validation exercise results, and product extracts.

  17. Large-Scale Power Production Potential on U.S. Department of Energy Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillesheim, Michael B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jeff [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Boak, Jeremy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Washington, Jeremy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Sharp, Cory [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This report summarizes the potential for independent power producers to generate large-scale power on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands and export that power into a larger power market, rather than serving on-site DOE loads. The report focuses primarily on the analysis of renewable energy (RE) technologies that are commercially viable at utility scale, including photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), wind, biomass, landfill gas (LFG), waste to energy (WTE), and geothermal technologies. The report also summarizes the availability of fossil fuel, uranium, or thorium resources at 55 DOE sites.

  18. Establishment of floor ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Robič, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    After the socioeconomic system had been changed in 1991 the right of ownership and land registry seemed to gain a much greater importance. In that time the concept of floor ownership has also started to develop, but after 25 years a significant number of multi-unit buildings without the established floor ownership still exist in Slovenia. In this thesis both theoretical background and practical solutions for establishing a floor ownership are presented, furthermore, possible causes for an ina...

  19. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values

  20. On the imaging of land mines using 3+ - e- pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.F.; Arkuszewski, J.; Ritt, S.; Suwannakachorn, D.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of disposing of abandoned land mines is very serious in many countries. Anti-personnel land mines (APM's) contain as little as 50 gram or less of explosive, which is enough to take off an adult's foot, or to kill a child. Anti-tank mines (ATM's), designed to penetrate the armour on the bottom of a tank, are much larger. Current techniques of finding them are not adequate. All practical high explosives contain 20% or more of nitrogen, which has a thermal neutron cross section of 75 mbarn, producing γ's of up to 10.8 MeV. The idea of using this property to detect explosives has been tested by others, but because of backgrounds is unable to find anything less than several hundred grams of explosive. The refinement proposed here is to convert the γs, track the resulting e + - e - pairs in MWPC's, and use the information to locate the γ source, i.e. the mine. The directional information provided should reduce the backgrounds considerably. Result of an experimental test are presented, and possibilities for the future discussed. (author)

  1. Assessing soil quality and potential productivity - a basic approach to define and assess the marginality of land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repmann, Frank; Gerwin, Werner; Freese, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    An ever growing demand for energy and the widely proposed switch from fossil fuels to more sustainable energy sources puts the cultivation and use of bioenergy plants into focus. However, bioenergy production on regular and fertile agricultural soils might conflict with the worldwide growing demand for food. To mitigate or omit this potential conflict, the use of low quality or marginal land for cultivation of bioenergy plants becomes favorable. Against this background the definition and assessment of land marginality and, respectively, the evaluation whether and to which extent specific areas are marginal and thus convenient for sustainable bioenergy production, becomes highly relevant. Within the framework of the EU funded Horizon 2020 project SEEMLA, we attempted to asses land marginality of designated test sites in the Ukraine, Greece and Germany by direct field survey. For that purpose, soil and site properties were investigated and evaluated by applying the Muencheberg Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method, developed at the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF). The method deploys a comprehensive set of biogeophysical and chemical indicators to describe and finally evaluate the quality of the soil and site by a score ranging from 1 to 100 points. Field survey data were supported by additional laboratory tests on a representative set of soil samples. Practical field work and analysis of field and lab data from the investigated sites proved the applicability of the SQR method within the SEEMLA context. The SQR indices calculated from the field and lab data ranged from 2 to Germany, which differed considerably in respect to their characteristics. Correlating the site quality index to yield data reflecting yield estimations for common bioenergy plants such as willow (Salix sp.), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and poplar (Populus sp.) cultivated at the respective test sites, revealed that SQR might additionally reflect the potential yield of

  2. Global patterns of extreme drought-induced loss in land primary production: Identifying ecological extremes from rain-use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ling; Mikle, Nathaniel; Zou, Zhenhua; Huang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zheng; Jiang, Lifen; McCarthy, Heather R; Liang, Junyi; Luo, Yiqi

    2018-02-14

    Quantifying the ecological patterns of loss of ecosystem function in extreme drought is important to understand the carbon exchange between the land and atmosphere. Rain-use efficiency [RUE; gross primary production (GPP)/precipitation] acts as a typical indicator of ecosystem function. In this study, a novel method based on maximum rain-use efficiency (RUE max ) was developed to detect losses of ecosystem function globally. Three global GPP datasets from the MODIS remote sensing data (MOD17), ground upscaling FLUXNET observations (MPI-BGC), and process-based model simulations (BESS), and a global gridded precipitation product (CRU) were used to develop annual global RUE datasets for 2001-2011. Large, well-known extreme drought events were detected, e.g. 2003 drought in Europe, 2002 and 2011 drought in the U.S., and 2010 drought in Russia. Our results show that extreme drought-induced loss of ecosystem function could impact 0.9% ± 0.1% of earth's vegetated land per year and was mainly distributed in semi-arid regions. The reduced carbon uptake caused by functional loss (0.14 ± 0.03 PgC/yr) could explain >70% of the interannual variation in GPP in drought-affected areas (p ≤ 0.001). Our results highlight the impact of ecosystem function loss in semi-arid regions with increasing precipitation variability and dry land expansion expected in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential Economic and Development Prospects of Non Timber Forest Products in Community Agroforestry Land around Sibolangit Tourism Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oding Affandi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The communities who live around Sibolangit Tourism Park have developed nontimber forest products (NTFP in their own agroforestry lands. This research evaluates the potential economic and development prospects from NTFP development in the Park by examining: (1 type of NTFP and economic value from community agrofrestry land, (2 contribution of NTFPs on household income, (3 development prospects of NTFP-based agroforestry around Sibolangit Tourism Park. The research was conducted in two selected villages around Sibolangit Tourism Park: Sembahe Village and Batu Mbelin Village. The research took place over a period between June and August 2016. Research data was obtained from in-depth interviews and observations. A descriptive method was used to analyze and describe facts related to the research aims. The type of NTFPs cultivated by communities at the research sites include mangosteen, durian, garcinia, candlenut, lanzones, lansium, bitter bean, and areca nut (as their forestry component and ginger, turmeric, chili, papaya, etlingera, and banana (as the agriculture component. Most NTFPs are cultivated as a comercial product. The economic value of NTFPs in Batu Mbelin Village has reached Rp. 547,275,000/year or contribute 80.07% of total family income. Meanwhile, the economic value of NTFPs in Sembahe Village has reached Rp 682,100,000/year, contributing to 78.75% of total household income. Therefore, the prospects for supporting and expanding NTFP in agroforestry plots in and around Sibolangit Tourism Park has high potential for supporting household income

  4. 39 CFR 3.10. - Establishment of rates and classes of competitive products not of general applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of rates and classes of competitive... proposed changes in classes; and (2) Management analysis demonstrating compliance with the standards of 39... proceedings of the Governors, and any supporting documentation required by 39 CFR Part 3015, to be filed with...

  5. Agricultural productivity changes induced by the sloping land conversion program: an analysis of Wuqi county in the Loess Plateau region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunbo; Li, Hua

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines the agricultural productivity change induced by the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) using the Malmquist index method and household data collected from Wuqi. We find that during the period of 1998-2004, the total factor productivity (TFP) grew by 15.8%. While numerous households suffered a TFP decline, the majority of them experienced a large gain. By decomposing the TFP, we further show that its increase is due exclusively to the improvement of technical efficiency rather than to technological change. To validate these findings and put them in perspective, we also estimated the TFP change with county-level aggregate data. It is revealed that driven by technological change and scale efficiency, the TFP grew slightly during the period of 1992-1998. Because of the tremendous cropland reduction and production mode shift caused by implementing the SLCP, the TFP declined substantially during the first three years of the program; due to continued improvement of technical efficiency; however, its growth accelerated later. Altogether, our evidence consistently suggests that implementing the SLCP has contributed to the agricultural TFP growth in the longer term and that the efficiency improvement has resulted mainly from the increased public expenditures for extension services and diffusion of technical knowledge. Wuqi's experience proves that it is possible to achieve environmental conservation and increase productivity simultaneously, even when facing a cropland reduction and production mode alternation.

  6. Land use of drained peatlands: Greenhouse gas fluxes, plant production, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir, Åsa; He, Hongxing; Coria, Jessica; Nordén, Anna

    2017-10-10

    Drained peatlands are hotspots for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which could be mitigated by rewetting and land use change. We performed an ecological/economic analysis of rewetting drained fertile peatlands in a hemiboreal climate using different land use strategies over 80 years. Vegetation, soil processes, and total GHG emissions were modeled using the CoupModel for four scenarios: (1) business as usual-Norway spruce with average soil water table of -40 cm; (2) willow with groundwater at -20 cm; (3) reed canary grass with groundwater at -10 cm; and (4) a fully rewetted peatland. The predictions were based on previous model calibrations with several high-resolution datasets consisting of water, heat, carbon, and nitrogen cycling. Spruce growth was calibrated by tree-ring data that extended the time period covered. The GHG balance of four scenarios, including vegetation and soil, were 4.7, 7.1, 9.1, and 6.2 Mg CO 2 eq ha -1  year -1 , respectively. The total soil emissions (including litter and peat respiration CO 2 + N 2 O + CH 4 ) were 33.1, 19.3, 15.3, and 11.0 Mg CO 2 eq ha -1  year -1 , respectively, of which the peat loss contributed 35%, 24%, and 7% of the soil emissions for the three drained scenarios, respectively. No peat was lost for the wet peatland. It was also found that draining increases vegetation growth, but not as drastically as peat respiration does. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is sensitive to time frame, discount rate, and carbon price. Our results indicate that the net benefit was greater with a somewhat higher soil water table and when the peatland was vegetated with willow and reed canary grass (Scenarios 2 and 3). We conclude that saving peat and avoiding methane release using fairly wet conditions can significantly reduce GHG emissions, and that this strategy should be considered for land use planning and policy-making. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Precision farming for increased land and labour productivity in semi-arid West Africa. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, Jens B.; Coulibaly, Adama; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Farmers in the semi-arid regions of West Africa face challenges related to poor crop establishment, variable rainfall, low soil fertility and a shortage of labour at times of peak demand. Farmers are generally low on resources. Given these conditions, it is important to develop farming practices

  8. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and

  9. Giant reed (Arundo donax L. for biogas production: land use saving and nitrogen utilisation efficiency compared with arable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Dragoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to improve the sustainability of biogas supply chains, the research for alternative feedstocks is a key issue and giant reed (Arundo donax L. is a promising no-food crop to be used in anaerobic digestion. In fact, giant reed is a perennial species characterised by low nutrient requirements and is able to provide promising biogas yields. Its suitability for anaerobic digestion is influenced by harvest time, since plant characteristics vary noticeably along the season. Moreover, ensiling is a storage technique that can assure a good preservation of the biomass over time, but also influence the methane yields. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the suitability for biogas production of giant reed silage, according to different cutting regimes, and to evaluate the efficiency in saving land and nitrogen for fuelling biogas plants, in comparison with maize and two sorghum varieties. Methane yields per hectare (Nm3 CH4 ha–1 were determined by multiplying the biochemical methane potential of each substrate by the aboveground biomass of the corresponding crop. The land use coefficient (LU, namely the land needed to fuel one kW power (ha kWe–1, was calculated from the estimated methane yields per hectare. Finally, nitrogen utilisation efficiency (NUtE, which is the ratio between the estimated methane yield and the nitrogen uptake per hectare (Nm3 CH4 kgN–1, was determined for each crop species and according to the harvest time and frequency of giant reed. Overall, a good suitability for ensiling was observed in giant reed. When harvested in September, the crop yielded about 9900 Nm3 CH4 ha–1, while in double harvest systems biomethane was about 12,000 Nm3 CH4 ha–1, +35% and +70% than maize and sorghum respectively. Moreover, giant reed under double harvest management was the most land-conservative option, as LU was about 0.22 ha kWe–1, while in annual crops it was about 0.35 ha kWe–1. The higher NUtE was observed in single

  10. Bacteria increase arid-land soil surface temperature through the production of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couradeau, Estelle; Karaoz, Ulas; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; Northen, Trent; Brodie, Eoin; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2016-01-20

    Soil surface temperature, an important driver of terrestrial biogeochemical processes, depends strongly on soil albedo, which can be significantly modified by factors such as plant cover. In sparsely vegetated lands, the soil surface can be colonized by photosynthetic microbes that build biocrust communities. Here we use concurrent physical, biochemical and microbiological analyses to show that mature biocrusts can increase surface soil temperature by as much as 10 °C through the accumulation of large quantities of a secondary metabolite, the microbial sunscreen scytonemin, produced by a group of late-successional cyanobacteria. Scytonemin accumulation decreases soil albedo significantly. Such localized warming has apparent and immediate consequences for the soil microbiome, inducing the replacement of thermosensitive bacterial species with more thermotolerant forms. These results reveal that not only vegetation but also microorganisms are a factor in modifying terrestrial albedo, potentially impacting biosphere feedbacks on past and future climate, and call for a direct assessment of such effects at larger scales.

  11. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  12. Impacts of decadal variations in natural emissions due to land-cover changes on ozone production in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The decadal variations in emissions of high-reactivity biogenic volatile organics (BVOCs, as a result of land-cover changes, could significantly impact ozone (O3 production. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem modelling system, coupled with dynamic vegetation data sets derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, 2001–2012 and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, early 1990s measurements, were used to investigate the impacts of land-cover changes on natural emissions, and consequently O3 production, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of southern China over the past two decades. Model results indicate that BVOC emissions were highly dependent on forest area. The total BVOC emissions in the modelling domain increased by a factor of two due to afforestation since the early 1990s, declined slowly (−5.8% yr−1 until 2006 and then increased continuously (+9.1% yr−1 to 2012. The decadal variations in BVOC emissions have complex implications for summer O3 production in PRD, depending on the chemical regimes and prevailing winds. The impacts on O3 production were most sensitive in downwind areas, and it was found that the large increase in BVOC emissions during 2006–2012 tended to reduce surface O3 concentrations by 1.6–2.5 ppb in rural regions, but caused an increment of O3 peaks by up to 2.0–6.0 ppb in VOC-limited urban areas (e.g., Guangzhou, Foshan and Zhongshan. The opposite was true in the period 2001–2006, when the reduced BVOC emissions resulted in 1.3–4.0 ppb increases in daytime O3 concentrations over northern rural regions. Impact of the two-fold increase in BVOC emissions since the early 1990s to 2006 was a 0.9–4.6 ppb increment in surface O3 concentrations over the downwind areas. This study suggests that the potential impacts on ozone chemistry should be considered in long-term land-use planning and air-quality management.

  13. Survey on pigeon pea production systems, utilization and marketing in semi-arid lands of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the status of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. production in Kenya, two surveys were carried out in Makueni and Mbeere Districts in areas representative of the main agro-ecological pigeonpea producing zone of the country : (Mid-altitude ASAL. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA approach was chosen as research method and was completed by household interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire. The main points developed are the presentation of the different farming systems in which pigeonpea is considered as an important legume crop, the identification of the factors explaining pigeonpea production variations, the quantification of the use of improved varieties and improved production practices, and the analysis of the major patterns and trends in pigeonpea production, consumption and marketing.

  14. Grassland futures in Great Britain - Productivity assessment and scenarios for land use change opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Aiming; Holland, Robert A; Taylor, Gail; Richter, Goetz M

    2018-04-11

    To optimise trade-offs provided by future changes in grassland use intensity, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of respective grassland productivities are required at the systems level. Here, we benchmark the potential national availability of grassland biomass, identify optimal strategies for its management, and investigate the relative importance of intensification over reversion (prioritising productivity versus environmental ecosystem services). Process-conservative meta-models for different grasslands were used to calculate the baseline dry matter yields (DMY; 1961-1990) at 1km 2 resolution for the whole UK. The effects of climate change, rising atmospheric [CO 2 ] and technological progress on baseline DMYs were used to estimate future grassland productivities (up to 2050) for low and medium CO 2 emission scenarios of UKCP09. UK benchmark productivities of 12.5, 8.7 and 2.8t/ha on temporary, permanent and rough-grazing grassland, respectively, accounted for productivity gains by 2010. By 2050, productivities under medium emission scenario are predicted to increase to 15.5 and 9.8t/ha on temporary and permanent grassland, respectively, but not on rough grassland. Based on surveyed grassland distributions for Great Britain in 2010 the annual availability of grassland biomass is likely to rise from 64 to 72milliontonnes by 2050. Assuming optimal N application could close existing productivity gaps of ca. 40% a range of management options could deliver additional 21∗10 6 tonnes of biomass available for bioenergy. Scenarios of changes in grassland use intensity demonstrated considerable scope for maintaining or further increasing grassland production and sparing some grassland for the provision of environmental ecosystem services. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The impact of visitor segments on the perception of the quality of the product of accommodation establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Švec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate differences in the quality perception among particular segments of demand. Data for analysis were collected by means of the questionnaire survey among clients of accommodation establishments. The research in accommodation establishments succeeded to identify four factors of the perception of quality of services provided in those establishments, when only accommodation and catering services were taken into consideration. Age appeared to be an important criterion for the evaluation the of the quality of offered services as the differences in the quality perception among particular age groups were proved for three of four identified factors of the quality perception. The factors are as follows: “environment of the accommodation establishment”, “hygiene in accommodation establishment”, “service in the catering part of the establishment” and “quality of the meals”. The duration of stay as well as the gender of the respondents influences the quality of perception only in the perception of the “quality of meal” factor. Compared to the duration of stay, the repetition of the stay is a considerably important factor in causing the variability of the answers on the rate of the quality perception. The purpose of travel was also proven to be a criterion affecting the rate of the quality perception of the first three factors, whereas the impact of the criterion “client’s travel companionship” was proven in case of the first and third factor.

  16. IS LAND LEVELLING IN VALLEY FLOORS A VIABLE OPTION FOR INCREASING CROP PRODUCTION UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF POTHWAR PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nisar Ali; Sharif, Ch.M.; Akmal, Nadeem

    2004-01-01

    Population pressure on limited land resources pushed farmers to bring non-cultivated area of the rainfed Pothwar under arable farming. Land leveling options -are used by farmers extensively to bridge land resources inadequacy to ensure even a subsistence level of farming. The use of land leveling as a single solution is not endorsed by the soil and water conservation experts as against the development oriented public departments. The expensive and low paying nature of existing land leveling p...

  17. Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Harriëtte L.; Meesters, Koen P.H.; Conijn, Sjaak G.; Corré, Wim J.; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams,

  18. Bio-economic modelling of the influence of family planning, land consolidation and soil erosion on farm production and food security in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidogeza, J.C.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Graaff, de J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Rwandan agriculture is not able to meet its population’s food needs from its own production, which results in food insecurity. Land degradation is a serious problem which contributes to a low and declining agricultural productivity and consequently to food insecurity. The objective of this paper is

  19. Sensitivity of boreal forest regional water flux and net primary production simulations to sub-grid-scale land cover complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.; Saatchi, S. S.

    1999-11-01

    We use a general ecosystem process model (BIOME-BGC) coupled with remote sensing information to evaluate the sensitivity of boreal forest regional evapotranspiration (ET) and net primary production (NPP) to land cover spatial scale. Simulations were conducted over a 3 year period (1994-1996) at spatial scales ranging from 30 to 50 km within the BOREAS southern modeling subarea. Simulated fluxes were spatially complex, ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 18 to 29 cm yr-1. Biomass and leaf area index heterogeneity predominantly controlled this complexity, while biophysical differences between deciduous and coniferous vegetation were of secondary importance. Spatial aggregation of land cover characteristics resulted in mean monthly NPP estimation bias from 25 to 48% (0.11-0.20 g C m-2 d-1) and annual estimation errors from 2 to 14% (0.04-0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Error was reduced at longer time intervals because coarse scale overestimation errors during spring were partially offset by underestimation of fine scale results during summer and winter. ET was relatively insensitive to land cover spatial scale with an average bias of less than 5% (0.04 kg m-2 d-1). Factors responsible for differences in scaling behavior between ET and NPP included compensating errors for ET calculations and boreal forest spatial and temporal NPP complexity. Careful consideration of landscape spatial and temporal heterogeneity is necessary to identify and mitigate potential error sources when using plot scale information to understand regional scale patterns. Remote sensing data integrated within an ecological process model framework provides an efficient mechanism to evaluate scaling behavior, interpret patterns in coarse resolution data, and identify appropriate scales of operation for various processes.

  20. Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils 1: spatial variation in DOC productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallop, A R; Clutterbuck, B

    2009-06-01

    The importance of soil storage in global carbon cycling is well recognised and factors leading to increased losses from this pool may act as a positive feedback mechanism in global warming. Upland peat soils are usually assumed to serve as carbon sinks, there is however increasing evidence of carbon loss from upland peat soils, and DOC concentrations in UK rivers have increased markedly over the past three decades. A number of drivers for increasing DOC release from peat soils have been proposed although many of these would not explain fine-scale variations in DOC release observed in many catchments. We examined the effect of land use and management on DOC production in upland peat catchments at two spatial scales within the UK. DOC concentration was measured in streams draining 50 small-scale catchments (b3 km2) in three discrete regions of the south Pennines and one area in the North Yorkshire Moors. Annual mean DOC concentration was also derived from water colour data recorded at water treatment works for seven larger scale catchments (1.5-20 km2) in the south Pennines. Soil type and land use/management in all catchments were characterised from NSRI digital soil data and ortho-corrected colour aerial imagery. Of the factors assessed, representing all combinations of soil type and land use together with catchment slope and area, the proportion of exposed peat surface resulting from new heather burning was consistently identified as the most significant predictor of variation in DOC concentration. This relationship held across all blanket peat catchments and scales. We propose that management activities are driving changes in edaphic conditions in upland peat to those more favourable for aerobic microbial activity and thus enhance peat decomposition leading to increased losses of carbon from these environments.

  1. Khat Production and Consumption; Its Implication on Land Area Used for Crop Production and Crop Variety Production among Rural Household of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wondafrash Ademe, Beyene; Coates C, Jennifer; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk), is a stimulant plant grown mainly in Ethiopia, Yemen and Kenya. Currently it is a ubiquitous commodity cultivated and chewed; imbedded in Ethiopian culture and agriculture. In a circumstance of land degradation and scarcity farmers consider Khat as a better small-scale ...

  2. Developing an Experimental Watershed for Monitoring the Impacts of Bioenergy Production on Marginal Lands of the Northeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, B. M.; Adler, P. R.; Kemanian, A. R.; Saha, D.; Montes, F.

    2012-12-01

    In the northeastern U.S. over 400,000 acres have been placed into conservation programs to reduce erosion and improve water quality. Most of this acreage is within the Chesepeake Bay watershed. Many of these acres may be suitable for raising second generation bioenergy crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) or miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus). Bioenergy production may provide a viable economic incentive to keep marginal lands in perennial crop production, and improve water quality. However, the environmental impacts and benefits of second generation bioenergy crop production are not well understood on marginal lands. We designed an experimental watershed to compare switchgrass and miscanthus production against typical conservation grasslands. The Mattern Watershed is a horseshoe shaped 1st order watershed located near Leck Kill, PA, and is representative of the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Province. The upper portions of the watershed have been and are currently used for tillage corn and bean production. The lower portions of the watershed are excessively wet and have been in a conservation easement since 2005. In spring 2012 we planted eight 0.4 ha replicate plots of switchgrass (4 fertilized and 4 with no fertilizer) and four 0.4 ha plots of miscanthus into the lower portions of the watershed an additional four 0.4 ha plots were left in conservation grassland using a randomized block design. We compare biomass production, biomass elemental content, N2O emissions, soil moisture, shallow groundwater quality, surface runoff, and soil organic carbon in order to determine which treatment most effectively produces bioenergy feedstock, mitigates greenhouse gas emissions, and improves water quality. The experimental watershed will provide an unparalleled opportunity to verify and parameterize watershed, and bigeochemical models. Preliminary results suggest that early in the growing season cool season grasses minimized shallow groundwater NO3 and N2O

  3. An Economic Basis for Littoral Land-Based Production of Low Carbon Fuel from Renewable Electrical Energy and Seawater for Naval Use: Diego Garcia Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    the whole process is due to the height needed for the modular chemical reactors . Approximately 0.3% of the land mass of Diego Garcia is needed...to fit the entire carbon capture and fuel production part of the process. The modular nature of the chemical reactors and carbon capture modules...wind turbines due to its extremely small land area and Class II wind classification. This study uses this remote base as a detailed example of the

  4. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 12: User evaluation of experimental land use maps and related products from the central Atlantic test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Recommendations resulting from the CARETS evaluation reflect the need to establish a flexible and reliable system for providing more detailed raw and processed land resource information as well as the need to improve the methods of making information available to users.

  5. Primary production and algae diversity vs. pollution in xochimilco wet-lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroza-Pichardo, R.; Hernandez-Delgadillo, R.; Boll-Arguello, G.

    2009-01-01

    Xochimilco is an ancient endorheic lake located in the Valley of Mexico. Due to its shallow water and the freshwater springs that lined the canals, they are surround raised agricultural fields called chinampas. Since the Valley of Mexico was originally wetlands, the chinampas were the most productive means of agricultural production. Xochimilco are considered one of the most important urban lungs in Mexico City. However, it is not clear how the huge urbanization around is to know if there is a correlation between primary production (PP), algae diversity, BOD 5 and faecal coliforms. Sample collection was done every month over a year at six different canals named: Embarcadero Celada, Embarcadero Nuevo Nativitas, Canal Las Abejas, Canal Zacapa, Canal Santo Domingo y Canal Nacional. (Author)

  6. Primary production and algae diversity vs. pollution in xochimilco wet-lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroza-Pichardo, R.; Hernandez-Delgadillo, R.; Boll-Arguello, G.

    2009-07-01

    Xochimilco is an ancient endorheic lake located in the Valley of Mexico. Due to its shallow water and the freshwater springs that lined the canals, they are surround raised agricultural fields called chinampas. Since the Valley of Mexico was originally wetlands, the chinampas were the most productive means of agricultural production. Xochimilco are considered one of the most important urban lungs in Mexico City. However, it is not clear how the huge urbanization around is to know if there is a correlation between primary production (PP), algae diversity, BOD{sub 5} and faecal coliforms. Sample collection was done every month over a year at six different canals named: Embarcadero Celada, Embarcadero Nuevo Nativitas, Canal Las Abejas, Canal Zacapa, Canal Santo Domingo y Canal Nacional. (Author)

  7. Maximizing land productivity by diversified cropping systems with different nitrogen fertilizer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Hafeez Ahmed ZOHRY

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Six field experiments were conducted in Giza Agricultural Research Station, Egypt during 2010, 2011 and 2012 growing seasons to study the effect of two types of N fertilizers (urea and urea form as slow-release (UF on intercropping cowpea with sunflower and intercropping wheat with pea. A split plot design with three replications was used. The results indicated that insignificant effect of cropping systems was found for sunflower and significant effect was found for cowpea yield. Significant effect of N fertilizers was found on sunflower and insignificant effect was found for cowpea yield. Furthermore, insignificant effect of interaction of cropping systems and N fertilizers was found for sunflower and significant effect was found for cowpea yield. With respect to wheat and pea intercropping, both crops were significantly affected by intercropping system. Significant effect of N fertilizers was found on wheat and insignificant effect was found for pea yield. Both wheat and pea were significantly affected by the interaction of cropping system and N fertilizers. Yield advantage was achieved because land equivalent ratio exceeded 1.00. Dominance analysis proved that leguminous crop is dominated component. Thus, the studied intercropping systems could be recommended to farmers due to its beneficial returns.

  8. Establishment and Efficiency Evaluation of a Simple Mini hatchery for production of Oreochromis niloticus (GIFT strain) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    M.P.K.S.K. De Silva; W.A.R.K. Senaarachchi; N.P.P. Liyanage

    2015-01-01

    A simple technology mini hatchery was established for small scale farmers to meet their own GIFT seed requirements. Different shapes and sizes of jars were trialed for incubation of eggs and yolk-sac larvae. Concaved bottom round plastic bottles (4 L) and rectangular (3 L) plastic trays gave the best hatchability of eggs and survival of yolk-sac larvae respectively. The best stocking density was 500 eggs/larvae L-1. Optimised flow rate into the incubation bottles and rearing trays were 2.70±0...

  9. Agave proves to be a low recalcitrant lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuels production on semi-arid lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Agave, which is well known for tequila and other liquor production in Mexico, has recently gained attention because of its attractive potential to launch sustainable bioenergy feedstock solutions for semi-arid and arid lands. It was previously found that agave cell walls contain low lignin and relatively diverse non-cellulosic polysaccharides, suggesting unique recalcitrant features when compared to conventional C4 and C3 plants. Results Here, we report sugar release data from fungal enzymatic hydrolysis of non-pretreated and hydrothermally pretreated biomass that shows agave to be much less recalcitrant to deconstruction than poplar or switchgrass. In fact, non-pretreated agave has a sugar release five to eight times greater than that of poplar wood and switchgrass . Meanwhile, state of the art techniques including glycome profiling, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Simon’s Stain, confocal laser scanning microscopy and so forth, were applied to measure interactions of non-cellulosic wall components, cell wall hydrophilicity, and enzyme accessibility to identify key structural features that make agave cell walls less resistant to biological deconstruction when compared to poplar and switchgrass. Conclusions This study systematically evaluated the recalcitrant features of agave plants towards biofuels applications. The results show that not only does agave present great promise for feeding biorefineries on semi-arid and arid lands, but also show the value of studying agave’s low recalcitrance for developments in improving cellulosic energy crops. PMID:24708685

  10. Protection, landscaping and regulation of agricultural land in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is protection, landscaping and regulation on agricultural land, based on The Agriculture Land Law in Serbia. Land is besides water and air the basic component of the environment. Bearing in mind the long-term processes of creation and development, land is the conditionally renewable resources. Land use, particularly in agricultural production, there is often a balance disorder of certain factors, which inevitably leads of damage. Land is in the nature of a slow learner, but in the process of degradation quickly destroyed. The main impact on land, recognized in the EU and candidate countries include erosion, reduction in organic matter, contamination (local and diffuse, occupation of land by building (buildings road, compaction floods and avalanches, reduction of soil biodiversity and salinization. Inventory of the state of pollution and damage to land, the establishment of permanent monitoring and reporting system requirement for developing strategies and selection of measures of quality care and prevention of negative processes. The measures of landscaping in The Agricultural land Law are: linking of land plots, voluntary grouping of lad plots and melioration of land. The owner of agricultural land has an obligation to cultivate the land in accordance with the code of good agricultural practice, prescribed by the Law.

  11. Causes of low productivity of cocoa in Ghana: farmers' perspectives and insights from research and the socio-political establishment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormon, E.N.A.; Huis, van A.; Leeuwis, C.; Obeng-Ofori, D.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic study was conducted to identify the major constraints on organic cocoa production at Brong-Densuso and surrounding communities in the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar District, Eastern Region, Ghana. The study followed a technographic study that highlighted cocoa as a public crop requiring broad

  12. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  13. Membangun Keunggulan Produk Ikonik Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja Pemasaran UMKM [Establishing Advantages of Iconic Products to Improve Marketing Performance of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanfan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a new concept of the iconic product advantage as a bridge to solve the research gap on the impact of product development capability on marketing performance. This new concept is studied through relevant theory and tested through empirical research. Data were collected empirically from the owner of Salted Egg (micro, small and medium enterprises MSME in Brebes, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The sample distribution was given to 115 respondents by using sample random sampling technique. The structural equation model (SEM with AMOS 22 software is used to test the model and research hypothesis. Four hypotheses are proposed, and all hypotheses are accepted with the support of existing data, as well as showing primarily the strategic role of iconic product advantage in bridging the capabilities of product development and marketing performance. This study aims to enrich the literature as well as contribute to the science associated with the product development model of excellence. Furthermore, managerial implications and further research are also discussed in this article. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak:  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan konsep baru keunggulan produk ikonik sebagai jembatan untuk memecahkan kesenjangan penelitian mengenai dampak kemampuan pengembangan produk terhadap kinerja pemasaran. Konsep baru ini dipelajari melalui teori yang relevan dan diuji melalui penelitian empiris. Data dikumpulkan secara empiris dari pemilik telur asin UMKM (Usaha Mikro, Kecil dan Menengah di Brebes, Provinsi Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Distribusi sampel diberikan kepada 115 responden dengan menggunakan teknik sample random sampling. Model persamaan struktural (SEM dengan perangkat lunak AMOS 22 digunakan untuk menguji model dan hipotesis penelitian. Empat hipotesis diajukan, dan semua hipotesis diterima dengan dukungan data yang ada, serta menunjukkan terutama peran strategis keunggulan produk ikonik dalam menjembatani

  14. A global analysis of alternative tillage and crop establishment practices for economically and environmentally efficient rice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debashis; Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rana, Dharamvir Singh; Jat, Mangi Lal; Gathala, Mahesh Kumar; Yadav, Sudhir; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Ramesha, Mugadoli S; Raman, Anitha

    2017-08-24

    Alternative tillage and rice establishment options should aim at less water and labor to produce similar or improved yields compared with traditional puddled-transplanted rice cultivation. The relative performance of these practices in terms of yield, water input, and economics varies across rice-growing regions. A global meta and mixed model analysis was performed, using a dataset involving 323 on-station and 9 on-farm studies (a total of 3878 paired data), to evaluate the yield, water input, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost and net return with five major tillage/crop establishment options. Shifting from transplanting to direct-seeding was advantageous but the change from conventional to zero or reduced tillage reduced yields. Direct-seeded rice under wet tillage was the best alternative with yield advantages of 1.3-4.7% (p Direct-seeding under zero tillage was another potential alternative with high savings in water input and cost of cultivation, with no yield penalty. The alternative practices reduced methane emissions but increased nitrous oxide emissions. Soil texture plays a key role in relative yield advantages, and therefore refinement of the practice to suit a specific agro-ecosystem is needed.

  15. Is there a better metric than site index to indicate the productivity of forested lands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria E. Blanco Martin; Michael Hoppus; Andrew Lister; James A. Westfall

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program selects site trees for each plot that are used to measure site productivity. The ability of a site to produce wood volume is indicated indirectly by comparing total tree height with tree age. This comparison assumes that the rate of height growth is strongly related to...

  16. Natural Products Research in South Africa: End of an Era on Land or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African organic chemistry is deeply rooted in a rich history of natural product chemistry research with the secondary metabolites emanating from South Africa's unique floral kingdoms dominating this research for nearly a century. However, South Africa's terrestrial biodiversity is exceeded by an even greater diversity of ...

  17. The economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its production and sales helped in building up serious interactions and inter community's relations between the Igala and various ethnic groups that frequented the markets of the area thereby encouraging inter-group relations among neighbouring communities. This paper attempts a historical narration of the economy of ...

  18. Holocene productivity changes off Adélie Land (East Antarctica) on decadal to millennial timescales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, D.; Crosta, X.; Schmidt, S.; Carson, D.; Ganeshram, R.; Renssen, H.; Crespin, J.; Ther, O.; Billy, I.; Giraudeau, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the first high-resolution multiproxy investigation of primary productivity (PP) during the Holocene from the Antarctic continental margins. Micropaleontological and geochemical data from the sediment core MD03-2601,associated to sea ice model outputs, give unprecedented insights

  19. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  20. Shared Opportunities on Institutional Lands: On-Site Food Production, Its Benefits, Barriers, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Irena; Mount, Phil; Clement, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines preliminary findings of a 3-year project that explored on-site food production on institutional properties, primarily healthcare facilities. There are growing pressures on healthcare facilities to improve their food offerings and incorporate food gardens into their health programs. While several healthcare facilities produce food on-site, there are few studies that explore opportunities, capacities, and institutional barriers related to on-site food production. The study employed mixed methods including historical review, case studies, surveys, interviews, pilot garden projects, and Geographic Information System mapping. The number of participating institutions varied by method. Benefits associated with on-site food production can be health, economic, environmental, and social. There are also institutional barriers including administrative roadblocks, perceived obstacles, and the difficulty in quantitatively, measuring the qualitatively documented benefits. The benefits of food gardens far outweigh the challenges. On-site food production has tremendous potential to improve nutrition for staff and patients, offer healing spaces, better connect institutions with the communities in which they are located, and provide the long-professed benefits of gardening for all involved-from therapeutic benefits and outdoor physical activities to developing skills and social relationships in ways that few other activities do. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Productivity and Utilization of Leguminous Tree Indigofera zollingeriana on Dry Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Herdiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera is well known as tarum plant, has about 700 species, including Indigofera zollingeriana. These plants are leguminous species that have high nutrient content and production as well as tolerant to abiotic stresses. This plant originated in tropical Africa, Asia, Australia, and North and South America, then spread to arid zone of Africa and Asia. In early 1900, it was brought by Europeans colonial to Indonesia. Indigofera can grow well at altitudes between 0-2200 m above sea level, with rainfall between 600-3000 mm/year. It can be used as a fodder crop because it has high nutrient content and production. It can be harvested at the age of eight months with an average production of 2,595 kg of fresh biomass/tree, with a total production of fresh approximately 52 tons/ha. Indigofera zollingeriana has crude protein content of 27.60%; neutral detergent fiber (NDF 43.56%; acid detergent fiber (ADF 35.24%; calcium (Ca 1.16%; phosphorous (P 0.26%; in vitro-dry matter digestibility (IVDMD 67.50%; organic matter digestibility (IVOMD 60.32%; 0.08% tannins and 0.41% saponin. Additionally I. zollingeriana is often used as green manure, cover crop in plantation areas, fabric dyeing and therapeutic herbs.

  2. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  3. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-11-29

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Tree survival, height and diameter were measured after the first growing season. There were significant treatment and treatment x site interactions. A STELLA{reg_sign}-based model helped us develop insight as to whether it is possible to differentiate the permanent SOC from the C contained in the labile forms of SOM. The model can be used for predicting the amount of C sequestered on mine lands, and the amount of C that is expected to reside in the mine soil for more than 1,000 years. Based on our work, it appears that substantial carbon payments to landowners would be required to reach ''profitability'' under present circumstances. However, even though the

  4. Indian Land Areas Judicially Established 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The data portrays the results of cases before the commission in which an Indian tribe proved its original tirbal occupancy of a tract within the continental United...

  5. Evaluation of the Consistency of MODIS Land Cover Product (MCD12Q1 Based on Chinese 30 m GlobeLand30 Datasets: A Case Study in Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land cover plays an important role in the climate and biogeochemistry of the Earth system. It is of great significance to produce and evaluate the global land cover (GLC data when applying the data to the practice at a specific spatial scale. The objective of this study is to evaluate and validate the consistency of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land cover product (MCD12Q1 at a provincial scale (Anhui Province, China based on the Chinese 30 m GLC product (GlobeLand30. A harmonization method is firstly used to reclassify the land cover types between five classification schemes (International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP global vegetation classification, University of Maryland (UMD, MODIS-derived Leaf Area Index and Fractional Photosynthetically Active Radiation (LAI/FPAR, MODIS-derived Net Primary Production (NPP, and Plant Functional Type (PFT of MCD12Q1 and ten classes of GlobeLand30, based on the knowledge rule (KR and C4.5 decision tree (DT classification algorithm. A total of five harmonized land cover types are derived including woodland, grassland, cropland, wetland and artificial surfaces, and four evaluation indicators are selected including the area consistency, spatial consistency, classification accuracy and landscape diversity in the three sub-regions of Wanbei, Wanzhong and Wannan. The results indicate that the consistency of IGBP is the best among the five schemes of MCD12Q1 according to the correlation coefficient (R. The “woodland” LAI/FPAR is the worst, with a spatial similarity (O of 58.17% due to the misclassification between “woodland” and “others”. The consistency of NPP is the worst among the five schemes as the agreement varied from 1.61% to 56.23% in the three sub-regions. Furthermore, with the biggest difference of diversity indices between LAI/FPAR and GlobeLand30, the consistency of LAI/FPAR is the weakest. This study provides a methodological reference for evaluating the

  6. Decoupling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution from Crop Production: A Case Study of Heilongjiang Land Reclamation Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture often leads to nonpoint source pollution. From the perspective of a decoupling analysis, this research evaluates the relationship between crop production and agricultural nonpoint source pollution (via fertilizer application, using the Heilongjiang land reclamation area as a case study. As it is the largest commodity grain base and green food base in China, more than 80% of water pollution in this area comes from fertilizer application. This study adopts an export coefficient model to hindcast nitrogen loss delivered to surface water via fertilizer application and conduct a further analysis of decoupling agricultural nonpoint source pollution from crop production. The results indicated that weak decoupling frequently occurred. However, this tendency was not steady in the period 2001–2012, and weak decoupling was typical in each branch based on the average value. Regarding the example of decoupling agricultural nonpoint source pollution from rice production, weak decoupling occurred more often, but this tendency was not steady over time. In addition, expansive coupling occurred in 2006, 2010 and 2012, and there were no definite signs of it improving. All branches, except for the Suihua branch, reached the degree of weak decoupling. A basic fact is that a decoupling tendency and environmental deterioration coexist in both the past and present. The decoupling analysis will contribute to localized strategies for sustainable agricultural development.

  7. Returns on investment in wild dog management-beef production in the South Australian Arid Lands

    OpenAIRE

    Wicks, Santhi; Allen, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Beef cattle producers in Australia have reported an increase in calf losses as a result of wild dog attacks in recent years. However, while control measures may reduce calf losses from wild dog attacks, they may also reduce attacks on kangaroos. Thus, wild dog control measures may inadvertently increase kangaroo competition with cattle for grazing vegetation, which is potentially costly for graziers. In this study the net returns to beef production from investments in wild dog controls in a c...

  8. Impact of Laser Land Leveling On Water Productivity of Wheat under Deficit Irrigation Condations

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelraouf R. Eid; Mehana H. Mohamed; Sabreen Kh. Pipars; Bakry A. Bakry

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays determining the optimum crop water requirements is considered one of the most important factors affecting plant productions, especially, with scarce water resources. This may be due to the interrelation between the amount of water added and the ability of plant. Two field experiments were carried out during the two growing seasons 2010/2011–2011/2012, at the Research Farm of the National Research Centre in Nubarya region, Egypt, to study the effect of both deficit irrigation and lase...

  9. Water and nitrogen use efficiency under limited water supply for maize to increase land productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, I.; Craciun, M.

    1995-01-01

    As drought is the main environmental factor limiting productivity, the study of plant response to water deficit has been one of the major research topics. The increasing of maize evapotranspiration ET does not always mean the increase of efficiency because, the brightest ET value does not always mean the highest grain yield value, AS the result of the mechanisms relating to the grain yield and ET which are far from simple. The rain amount and distribution during the reproductive stage is the main meteorological factor in flouncing yield. In our study 1991, the high soil moisture content determines a reduction of maize grain yield, in the wet years due to excess of water under irrigation conditions which normally limits root development as a result of insufficient oxygen for transpiration and lac ha of nitrate formation, the yield response to water deficit of different hybrids is of major importance in production planing. The available water supply would be directed towards fully meeting requirements of the hybrids with the higher K sub y over the restricted area and for the hybrids with a lower K sub y, the overall production will increase by extending the area under irrigation, without fully meeting water requirement provided water deficit do not exceed critical values.1 tab; 9 figs (Author)

  10. Use of cellular automata in the study of variables involved in land use changes: an application in the wine production sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioli, Francesco; El Asmar, Toufic; El Asmar, Jean-Pierre; Fratini, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The study of changes in land use has been included lately in territorial processes in order to optimize future management decisions. The different functions that the territory plays (production, aesthetic, and natural functions, etc.) make planning choices more difficult. This work focuses on the selection and combination of a set of indicators to analyze the variables through which the changes occur in the land used in viticulture for wine production. The proposed approach makes use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) in the development of a map of land use scenario. It is applied to a case study through a model involving cellular automata (CA) implemented with maps of suitability for viticulture and Markov chains. The use in this case of the CA is aimed at validating the scenario map in order to deduce the variables and the orientations of the farmers in the field of wine production.

  11. Measuring the Total-Factor Carbon Emission Performance of Industrial Land Use in China Based on the Global Directional Distance Function and Non-Radial Luenberger Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Industry is a major contributor to carbon emissions in China, and industrial land is an important input to industrial production. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the carbon emission performance of industrial land use is necessary for making reasonable carbon reduction policies that promote the sustainable use of industrial land. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic changes in the total-factor carbon emission performance of industrial land use (TCPIL in China by applying a global directional distance function (DDF and non-radial Luenberger productivity index. The empirical results show that the eastern region enjoys better TCPIL than the central and western regions, but the regional gaps in TCPIL are narrowing. The growth in NLCPILs (non-radial Luenberger carbon emission performance of industrial land use in the eastern and central regions is mainly driven by technological progress, whereas efficiency improvements contribute more to the growth of NLCPIL in the western region. The provinces in the eastern region have the most innovative and environmentally-friendly production technologies. The results of the analysis of the influencing factors show implications for improving the NLCPIL, including more investment in industrial research and development (R&D, the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies, reduction in the use of fossil energy, especially coal, in the process of industrial production, actively learning about foreign advanced technology, properly solving the problem of surplus labor in industry and the expansion of industrial development.

  12. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Coyle; J. Blake; K. Britton; M.; R.G. Campbell; J. Cox; B. Cregg; D. Daniels; M. Jacobson; K. Johnsen; T. McDonald; K. McLeod; E.; D. Robison; R. Rummer; F. Sanchez; J.; B. Stokes; C. Trettin; J. Tuskan; L. Wright; S. Wullschleger

    2003-12-31

    Coleman, M.D., et. al. 2003. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses. Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 26 pp. Abstract: Many researchers have studied the productivity potential of intensively managed forest plantations. However, we need to learn more about the effects of fundamental growth processes on forest productivity; especially the influence of aboveground and belowground resource acquisition and allocation. This report presents installation, establishment, and first-year results of four tree species (two cottonwood clones, sycamore, sweetgum, and loblolly pine) grown with fertilizer and irrigation treatments. At this early stage of development, irrigation and fertilization were additive only in cottonwood clone ST66 and sweetgum. Leaf area development was directly related to stem growth, but root production was not always consistent with shoot responses, suggesting that allocation of resources varies among treatments. We will evaluate the consequences of these early responses on resource availability in subsequent growing seasons. This information will be used to: (1) optimize fiber and bioenergy production; (2) understand carbon sequestration; and (3) develop innovative applications such as phytoremediation; municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes management; and protection of soil, air, and water resources.

  13. Land use and soil organic matter in South Africa 2: A review on the influence of arable crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson N.S. Mnkeni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The decline of soil organic matter as a result of agricultural land use was identified for a review with the ultimate aim of developing a soil protection strategy and policy for South Africa. Such a policy is important because organic matter, especially the humus fraction, influences the characteristics of soil disproportionately to the quantities thereof present. Part 1 of this review dealt with the spatial variability of soil organic matter and the impact of grazing and burning under rangeland stock production. In this second part of the review, the impact of arable crop production on soil organic matter is addressed. A greater number of studies have addressed the degradation of soil organic matter that is associated with arable crop production than the restoration. However, cropping under dryland has been found to result in significant losses of soil organic matter, which is not always the case with cropping under irrigation. Restoration of soil organic matter has been very slow upon the introduction of conservational practices like zero tillage, minimal tillage, or mulch tillage. Reversion of cropland to perennial pasture has also been found to result in discouragingly slow soil organic matter restoration. Although increases or decreases in soil organic matter levels have occurred in the upper 300 mm, in most instances this took place only in the upper 50 mm. The extent of these changes was dependent inter alia on land use, soil form and environmental conditions. Loss of soil organic matter has resulted in lower nitrogen and sulphur reserves, but not necessarily lower phosphorus reserves. Depletion of soil organic matter coincided with changes in the composition of amino sugars, amino acids and lignin. It also resulted in a decline of water stable aggregates which are essential in the prevention of soil erosion. Although much is known about how arable crop production affects changes in soil organic matter, there are still

  14. Evaluation of Precipitation Climatology Derived from TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA Monthly Product over Land with Two Gauge-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The NASA/JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM has been in operation for over 17 years since 1997. The length of TRMM is far shorter than those from ground observations, raising a question as to whether TRMM derived climatology products are good enough for research and applications. In this study, three climatologies derived from a blended product (the TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA monthly product or 3B43 and gauge-based ground observations (Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC and Willmott and Matsuura (WM are compared over land on a global scale (50° N–50° S to assess the performance and weaknesses of the TMPA-derived climatology. Results show that the 3B43 climatology matches well with the two gauge-based climatologies in all seasons in terms of spatial distribution, zonal means as well as seasonal variations. However, large variations are found in light rain (<0.5 mm/day regions such as the Sahara Desert. At high rain rates, large negative biases (3B43 < WM < GPCC are found in orographically influenced regions such as windward sides of monsoon mountains in JJA, which is associated with underestimation of shallow orographic rain rates in microwave radiometer algorithms and sparse gauge data for bias correction. Nonetheless, biases in 3B43 exist and vary with geographic locations due to a number of factors such as gauge availability and algorithm issues.

  15. LandSense: A Citizen Observatory and Innovation Marketplace for Land Use and Land Cover Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian

    2017-04-01