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Sample records for established mutans streptococci

  1. Late Established Mutans Streptococci in Children over 3 Years Old

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    Mitsugi Okada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of mutans streptococci has been reported to most commonly occur at approximately 26 months of age. In the present study, we detected Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays in children, then re-examined the subjects to determine the time of acquisition of these bacteria over a 1-year period. The subjects were 57 children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years old, each with primary dentition. Plaque samples were collected from all erupted tooth sites using a sterile toothbrush. PCR assays were performed to detect the targeted mutans streptococci at the beginning of the study (baseline and after 1 year. At the baseline examination, the prevalence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus was 61.4% and 54.4%, respectively, in all subjects, of whom 14 (24.6% were positive for S. mutans alone, 10 (17.5% for S. sobrinus alone, and 21 (36.8% for both S. mutans and S. sobrinus, with 12 (21.1% negative for both. After 1 year, 4 of 22 (18.2% subjects newly had acquired S. mutans and 15 of 26 (57.7% had aquired S. sobrinus, while 5 (8.8% remained negative for both bacteria. The age of the first positive S. mutans finding ranged from 49 to 71 months, while that for S. sobrinus ranged from 49 to 81 months old. Our results suggest that S. sobrinus becomes established later than S. mutans in the oral cavities of children over the age of 3 years old.

  2. Collagen-binding proteins of Streptococcus mutans and related streptococci.

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    Avilés-Reyes, A; Miller, J H; Lemos, J A; Abranches, J

    2017-04-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms used by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Collagen Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans and Related Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Miller, James H.; Lemos, José A.; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms utilized by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. PMID:26991416

  4. Recolonization of mutans Streptococci after application of chlorhexidine gel.

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    Vale, Glauber Campos; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel; Arthur, Rodrigo Alex; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is specifically suppressed by intensive treatment with chlorhexidine gel, but the time for recolonization and the effect on other oral bacteria are not totally clear. In this study, recolonization of mutans streptococci was evaluated in nine healthy adult volunteers, who were highly colonized with this microorganism. Stimulated saliva was collected before (baseline) and at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of 1% chlorhexidine gel on volunteers' teeth for two consecutive days. On each day, the gel was applied using disposable trays for 3 x 5 min with intervals of 5 min between each application. Saliva was plated on blood agar to determine total microorganisms (TM); on mitis salivarius agar to determine total streptococci (TS) and on mitis salivarius agar plus bacitracin to determine mutans streptococci (MS). Chlorhexidine was capable of reducing the counts of MS and the proportion of MS with regard to total microorganisms (%MS/TM) (p0.05) after 14 days for MS and 21 days for %MS/TM. The counts of TM and TS and the proportion of MS to total streptococci did not differ statistically from baseline (p>0.05) after chlorhexidine treatment. The results suggest that the effect of chlorhexidine gel treatment on suppression of mutans streptococci is limited to less than a month in highly colonized individuals.

  5. Lactobacillus paracasei DSMZ16671 Reduces Mutans Streptococci: A Short-Term Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Holz, Caterina; Alexander, Christiane; Balcke, Christina; Mor?, Margret; Auinger, Annegret; Bauer, Maren; Junker, Lauren; Gr?nwald, J?rg; Lang, Christine; Pompejus, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the burden of pathogenic mutans streptococci is a goal of oral health. Lactobacillus paracasei DSMZ16671, even after heat-killing, specifically co-aggregates mutans streptococci in vitro and retains this activity in human saliva. In rats, it reduces mutans streptococcal colonization of teeth and caries scores. This pilot study sought to assess the potential of heat-killed L. paracasei DSMZ16671 (pro-t-action?) to reduce levels of salivary mutans streptococci in humans, using sugar-fr...

  6. the ffects of a dentifrice containing propolis on mutans streptococci

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    salivary samples were collected at baseline, 1st week, 3rd week and 4th week and were analyzed for Mutans. Streptococci count using Dentocult® SM ... antimicrobial agent in traditional medicine worldwide (13). The precise composition of ..... challenge on the recovery of dental plaque pH. The Propolis toothpaste showed ...

  7. The effects of a dentifrice containing propolis on Mutans streptococci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Propolis is a natural resinous mixture produced by honeybees, which exhibits anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic and cariostatic properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-bacterial efficacy of a propolis based dentifrice on Mutans Streptococci colonizing the oral cavity of young patients ...

  8. [Effects of topical application of immunoglobulin yolk on mutans streptococci in dental plaque].

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    Zhou, Zhi; Zhou, Rujun; Tang, Zhen

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate the inhibitory effects of topical application of specific immunoglobulin yolk antibodies (IgY) to mutans streptococci on composition of human dental plaque. A total of 24 healthy adult volunteers were selected and randomly distributed into three experimental groups. After a supragingival scaling, the subjects were treated with an application of IgY containing spray (test group, n = 9), a 0.15% chlorhexidine(CH) spray(positive control group, n = 9) or a placebo phosphate buffered saline(PBS) spray without any active ingredients(negative control group, n = 6) three times daily for three weeks. Pooled plaque samples from the smooth surfaces of teeth were collected for microbiologic analysis before administration (baseline, day 0), during treatment(days 7, 14 and 21) and after withdrawal of the agents(days 28, 42 and 56) and plaque index were recorded. Microbial cultivation were performed by serially diluting the samples with PBS solution an cultivating the aliquots on mitis salivarius agar(MS) and MS supplemented with bacitracin (MSB) for oral streptococci and mutans streptococci respectively. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU) per plate was counted and the percentage of mutans streptococci per oral streptococci in dental plaque were determined. The effect of IgY on colonization of mutans streptococci were analyzed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The plaque indexes remained unchanged, but mutans streptococci in dental plaque was suppressed significantly following a short term(three weeks) application of IgY, and low level of mutans streptococci persisted for at least 5 weeks after withdrawal of IgY. The results suggest that the immunization with specific immunoglobulin yolk against mutans streptococci could be useful for long term suppression of mutans streptococci colonization in human dental plaque.

  9. A Search Within the Genera Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus for Organisms inhibitory to Mutans Streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    James, S. M.; Tagg, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    A deferred antagonism method was used to test 181 Streptococcus, 47 Enterococcus and 49 Lactobacillus isolates for production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity against eight mutans streptococci indicator strains. Inhibitor testing was carried out on blood agar medium (BA) and also on BA which had been supplemented with 0.5 per cent calcium carbonate (BA + Ca) to minimise pH-related inhibitory effects due to the accumulation of acidic metabolites. The streptococci tested for anti-mutans ...

  10. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis. L leaves against salivary Mutans streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlAnbori, Dalia K.A; AlNimer, Marwan S.M; AlWeheb, Athraa M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves in the selective reduction of Mutans streptococci count in saliva compared to chlorhexidine through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Ethanolic extract (2%) was prepared and screened by UV-visible spectrophotometer to detect peaks of active compounds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of myrtle extract as well as chlorhexidine (0.12%) were determined against Mutans streptococci isolated from human saliva and identified bacteriologically in vivo experiments, the effect of single mouth rinse of myrtle extract or chlorhexidine was investigated against the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Mutans streptococci for two hours after rinse. The results showed the presence of one large peak at λ266.5 nm and a small one at λ672 of the extract in UV-visible spectra suggesting the presence of flavanoid. The MIC of myrtle was 106.6 μg/mL compared with 3.3 μg/mL of chlorhexidine. Single mouth rinse of myrtle extract significantly reduced the number of CFU of salivary Mutans streptococci but its effect was significantly less than that of chlorhexidine. It was concluded that the antibacterial effect of myrtle on Mutans streptococci was due to its flavanoid content. Therefore, ethanolic extract of myrtle could be a potential remedy for the prevention of colonization by Mutans streptococci thereby preventing or retarding development of dental caries. (author)

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of glucosyltransferases and implications for the coevolution of mutans streptococci with their mammalian hosts.

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    Silvia Argimón

    Full Text Available Glucosyltransferases (Gtfs catalyze the synthesis of glucans from sucrose and are produced by several species of lactic-acid bacteria. The oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans produces large amounts of glucans through the action of three Gtfs. GtfD produces water-soluble glucan (WSG, GtfB synthesizes water-insoluble glucans (WIG and GtfC produces mainly WIG but also WSG. These enzymes, especially those synthesizing WIG, are of particular interest because of their role in the formation of dental plaque, an environment where S. mutans can thrive and produce lactic acid, promoting the formation of dental caries. We sequenced the gtfB, gtfC and gtfD genes from several mutans streptococcal strains isolated from the oral cavity of humans and searched for their homologues in strains isolated from chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. The sequence data were analyzed in conjunction with the available Gtf sequences from other bacteria in the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc to gain insights into the evolutionary history of this family of enzymes, with a particular emphasis on S. mutans Gtfs. Our analyses indicate that streptococcal Gtfs arose from a common ancestral progenitor gene, and that they expanded to form two clades according to the type of glucan they synthesize. We also show that the clade of streptococcal Gtfs synthesizing WIG appeared shortly after the divergence of viviparous, dentate mammals, which potentially contributed to the formation of dental plaque and the establishment of several streptococci in the oral cavity. The two S. mutans Gtfs capable of WIG synthesis, GtfB and GtfC, are likely the product of a gene duplication event. We dated this event to coincide with the divergence of the genomes of ancestral early primates. Thus, the acquisition and diversification of S. mutans Gtfs predates modern humans and is unrelated to the increase in dietary sucrose consumption.

  12. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

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    Yamaguchi David K

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132 were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day. All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically

  13. Reduction of salivary mutans streptococci in orthodontic patients during daily consumption of yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cildir, Sule Kavaloglu; Germec, Derya; Sandalli, Nuket

    2009-01-01

    probiotic bifidobacteria would affect the levels of salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. A double-blind, randomized crossover study was performed and 24 healthy adolescents (12-16 years) undergoing orthodontic treatment were followed over four periods......, respectively. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were enumerated with chair-side kits before and after the yogurt consumption periods. Pre- and post-treatment values within each regimen were compared with a two-tailed marginal homogeneity test for categorical data. A statistically significant...... reduction of salivary mutans streptococci was recorded after probiotic yogurt consumption (P lactobacilli counts were observed. Short-term daily consumption of fruit yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis...

  14. Transmission of mutans streptococci in mother-child pairs

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    S G Damle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dental caries is an infectious, transmissible disease. Maternal transfer of mutans streptococci (MS has been a subject of research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission of MS from mother to children through genetic analysis. Methods: Thirty mother-child pairs were included and divided into three groups according to the age of the children. Saliva samples were collected and MS colonies from each mother-child pair were isolated. After inoculation and incubation, MS colonies were submitted to amplification technique by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for identification and arbitrarily primed PCRs (AP-PCRs to determine various MS genotypes. Results: From birth to six months of age, 30 per cent of children exhibited MS colonization, and by the age of 30 months, 100 per cent harboured the bacteria (P < 0.001. Factors associated with MS colonization were eruption of teeth (P < 0.001, feeding habits with mean colony count being significantly lower in breast-fed as compared to bottle-fed children (P < 0.001 and a significant association between mean MS count of child and mother′s practice of sharing spoon with child (P < 0.001. The AP-PCR fingerprinting profile analysis showed 17 MS groups (clusters containing identical or highly related isolates in mother-child pairs with a high level of similarity (77.27 %. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of matching MS genotypes suggested vertical transmission from mothers to children. Feeding habits, gum cleaning and number of erupted teeth in children had significant effect on MS colonization. There is a need to develop strategies to present MS colonization in children.

  15. Antimicrobial effects of herbal extracts on Streptococcus mutans and normal oral streptococci.

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    Lee, Sung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is associated with dental caries. A cariogenic biofilm, in particular, has been studied extensively for its role in the formation of dental caries. Herbal extracts such as Cudrania tricuspidata, Sophora flavescens, Ginkgo biloba, and Betula Schmidtii have been used as a folk remedy for treating diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against normal oral streptococci, planktonic and biofilm of S. mutans. Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, and S. mutans were cultivated with brain heart infusion broth and susceptibility assay for the herbal extracts was performed according to the protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Also, S. mutans biofilm was formed on a polystyrene 12-well plate and 8-well chamber glass slip using BHI broth containing 2% sucrose and 1% mannose after conditioning the plate and the glass slip with unstimulated saliva. The biofilm was treated with the herbal extracts in various concentrations and inoculated on Mitis-Salivarius bacitracin agar plate for enumeration of viable S. mutans by counting colony forming units. Planktonic S. mutans showed susceptibility to all of the extracts and S. mutans biofilm exhibited the highest level of sensitivity for the extracts of S. flavescens. The normal oral streptococci exhibited a weak susceptibility in comparison to S. mutans. S. oralis, however, was resistant to all of the extracts. In conclusion, the extract of S. flavescens may be a potential candidate for prevention and management of dental caries.

  16. Short-term effect of mechanical plaque control on salivary mutans streptococci in preschool children.

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    Liu, Min; Ge, Lihong; Zheng, Shuguo; Yuan, Chao; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of mechanical tooth cleaning by toothbrush and dental floss on mutans streptococci in the saliva of preschool children. This blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial included 54 3-year-old preschool children with detectable mutans streptococci in saliva. The children were randomly divided into a test and a control group. Dental college students cleaned the teeth of test group participants with toothbrush and dental floss under the indication of a plaque disclosing agent once a day. The control group received no intervention. Dentocult SM Strip mutans (D-SM) strips were used to test the mutans streptococci in saliva. The D-SM test scores declined from 1.82 to 0.95 for the test group after the teeth were cleaned 10 times (P 0.05 compared with baseline). The D-SM level of the control group did not change significantly. Meticulous and continuous plaque control with toothbrush and dental floss can decrease the mutans streptococci level in preschool children. However, the effect ceased as the intervention ceased.

  17. The Effects of a Dairy Probiotic Product, Espar, on Salivary Calcium and Mutans Streptococci

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    Hamidreza Poureslami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Espar is a dairy product of probiotic nature that contains useful bacteria and high calcium content. The aim of this study was to analyze effects of daily consumption of Espar on the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content in a population of 15 to 17 year-old female students. Materials and methods. A double-blind randomized crossover study (n = 50 of healthy female adolescents was implemented in four stage intervals. The first and third stages were ‘run-in’ and ‘wash-out’ intervals. For the second and fourth stages, two weeks long in duration, the participants consumed 100 grams of Espar or 200 grams of plain yogurt. At the end of each stage, the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content were documented. Results. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of salivary mutans streptococci subsequent to Espar consumption when compared to ordinary yogurt (p < 0.01. Additionally, salivary calcium content increased significantly subsequent to the consumption of Espar and yogurt. However, Espar yielded a higher level of significant increase in salivary calcium when compared to plain yogurt (p < 0.01. Conclusion. This study found that daily consumption of Espar increased the salivary calcium level while decreasing mutans streptococci of the saliva.

  18. Mitis salivarius-bacitracin 10% sacarose agar for oral streptococci and Streptococcus mutans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez de Annan, S; Ruíz de Valladares, R E; Benito de Cárdenas, I L

    1997-01-01

    The MSB Agar (mitis salivarius-bacitracin) 20% sacarose medium is frequently used for the isolation and count of total streptococci and Streptococcus mutans. Although it is considered a selective culture medium for this micro-organism, S. mutans recovery in this medium is much lower than in this Mitis Salivarius Agar (MSA). Because the number of S. mutans in saliva is used for estimating caries risk and activity from a microbiological stand point, the aim of this work was to find a modification of the MSB 20% sacarose medium so that it would offer not only selectivity in the isolation but also maximum recovery. This would detect people at risk more efficiency and would evaluate the preventive odontological treatments more accurately. The results show that: 1) the greatest recovery of total streptococci and S. mutans is obtained in the MSB 10% sacarose medium, 2) S. mutans must be incubated in aerobiosis and the total streptococci in a candle jar (10% CO2). MSB 10% sacarose medium is proposed as a choice medium for the microbiological estimation of cariogenic risk and activity, to detect infection levels and evaluate preventive odontological treatments.

  19. Aciduric Microbiota and Mutans Streptococci in Severe and Recurrent Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher V.; Dahlan, Mohammed; Papadopolou, Eleftheria; Kent, Ralph L.; Loo, Cheen Y.; Pradhan, Nooruddin S.; Lu, Shulin C.; Bravoco, Alexandra; Mathney, Jennifer M.J.; Tanner, Anne C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Severe early childhood caries (ECC) results from bacterial acid production in an acidic environment. The current study determined Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and acid-tolerant counts in severe-ECC. Methods Children (2–6 years) with severe-ECC (n=77) or who were caries-free (n=40) were examined. Plaque samples from teeth and the tongue were cultured anaerobically on blood, acid and S. mutans selective agars. Severe-ECC children were monitored post-treatment for recurrent caries. Results Severe-ECC and caries-free children were balanced by household income and education level. Carious lesions were observed in 75% maxillary incisors and >80% molars in severe-ECC. At baseline, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus counts and proportions of S. mutans were higher in severe-ECC than caries-free children. Acid and blood counts were elevated only in anterior samples of severe-ECC children. Baseline counts of S. sobrinus, but not S. mutans, were higher in children with recurrent compared with no recurrent caries. S. mutans counts were lower post treatment than pre-treatment, particularly for children without caries recurrence. Other counts did not differ between before and after therapy. Conclusions We conclude that severe and recurrent ECC were better explained by mutans streptococci than the aciduric microbiota. S. mutans did not predict children with recurrent caries. PMID:22583872

  20. Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome

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    Cristina Areias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings. In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05 and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03 compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05. The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

  1. Effects of Typified Propolis on Mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Anauate-Netto, Camillo; UNIBAN; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University; Paulino, Niraldo; UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University; Anido-Anido, Andréa; UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University; Amore, Ricardo; UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University; Mendonça, Sergio de; UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University; Borelli Neto, Laurindo; UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University; Bretz, Walter Antonio; New York University

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine in arandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinicaltrial the effects of typified propolis and chlorhexidinerinses on salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS)and lactobacilli (LACT). Methods: One hundredpatients were screened for salivary levels of MS>100,000 CFUs/mL of saliva. All patients presentedwith at least one cavitated decayed surface. Sixtypatients met entry criteria. Subjects were adults 18-55 years old. After restoration ...

  2. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of mastic chewing gum against Streptococcus mutans and mutans streptococci.

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    Aksoy, Alev; Duran, Nizami; Koksal, Fatih

    2006-06-01

    Dental caries is associated with oral pathogens and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is one of the primary cariogenic organisms. Mastic gum, from Pistacia lentiscus, has been shown to have antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of mastic chewing gum against S. mutans and mutans streptococci in vitro and in vivo conditions. Cukurova University, Dental School, in 2002. Antimicrobial activity of mastic gum was evaluated using standard S. mutans strain by disc diffusion method in vitro. Cytotoxicity effect of mastic gum on HEp-2 cells was evaluated by conventional haemocytometer using the trypan blue exclusion method. Clinical studies were then performed on 25 periodontally healthy volunteers. The inhibitory effect of chewing mastic gum against mutans streptococci in saliva was compared to a placebo gum. Saliva samples were taken from the subjects immediately before and after chewing the mastic gum and the placebo gum for 15 min. Additional saliva samples were collected every 30 min. The samples were inoculated onto mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar and incubated for 48 h anaerobically at 37 degrees C. The total number of viable bacteria was then counted. Among tested solvents (chloroform, acetone, petrolium ether and ethanol), it was found that the acetone was found to be more convenient than the others to dissolve the mastic gum. In the cytotoxicity assay, concentrations up to 75 mg/ml of the mastic gum were not toxic for the replication of HEp-2 cells. Thus, lower concentrations of mastic gum (20 and 50 mg/ml) were used for the experiments. In vitro experiments, the diameters of growth inhibition zones of mastic gum were in the range 9.0-27.0 mm. In the clinical trials, the mean number of bacteria in samples taken after chewing the mastic gum and placebo gum were following; at minute 15 was 112 x 10(4)+/-268 x 10(3) and 175 x 10(4)+/-417 x 10(3)cfu/ml, for minute 45 was 85 x 10(4)+/-219 x 10(3) and 165 x 10

  3. Mutans streptococci enumeration and genotype selection using different bacitracin-containing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Patrick, Paul; Wiener, Howard W; Cutter, Gary R; Ruby, John D; Cheon, Kyounga; Whiddon, Jennifer; Moser, Stephen A; Childers, Noel K

    2014-08-01

    The primary etiological agents associated with dental caries include the mutans streptococci (MS) comprised of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. The effective cultivation and isolation of MS are necessary for the study of MS, including their proper clinical assessment in the epidemiological study of dental caries. Several selective media have been developed for the isolation, enumeration, and characterization of MS. However, inhibition of MS may occur, reducing counts and perhaps limiting selection of some strains. The purpose of this study was to compare five culture media containing bacitracin recommended for the isolation of MS. Five commonly used bacitracin-containing media (MSB, MSKB, GTSB, TYS20B, and TYCSB) used for MS isolation were quantitatively evaluated. Standard plate counts were performed in duplicate for 2 prototype MS strains (S. mutans UA159 and S. sobrinus 6715) and for MS isolates from clinical saliva samples obtained from 16 children (approximate age 5years) to determine total plate counts, and total S. mutans counts. Selected isolates (n=249) from all five media for 5 saliva samples were further confirmed as S. mutans with real-time PCR then subsequently evaluated qualitatively with rep-PCR for genotype determination. All media resulted in variable enumeration with no significant difference in MS counts. MS prototype strains grew well on all five media; clinical isolates demonstrated more variability in counts but no overall significant differences were found. MSB demonstrated comparable ability to grow S. mutans but allowed for more non-S. mutans growth. All 5 media identified a consistent predominant genotype by rep-PCR. Recovery of minor genotypes was not inhibited by media type. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of two chair-side tests for enumeration of Mutans Streptococci in saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the prevalence and levels of salivary Mutans Streptococci (MS) assessed with two commercial chair-side methods based on culture growth or monoclonal antibodies, respectively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of a convenience sample of 89 adults, 23-72 years of age, ...... their high specificity, they may be sensitive enough for screening purposes and for patient-centered promotion of oral health....... levels of sensitivity and specificity while the SCM displayed a poor sensitivity but a perfect specificity. Both chair-side methods were significantly related to the prevalence of active root caries lesions (p

  5. Salivary mutans streptococci counts as indicators in caries risk assessment in 6-7-year-old Chinese children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether salivary mutans streptococci (MS) counts in Chinese children had any value in the prediction of new caries in the permanent dentition in the age interval of 6.5-8.5 years. METHODS: Four hundred and thirty-three 6-7-year-old children participated in

  6. EFFECT OF XYLITOL AND SORBITOL IN CHEWING-GUMS ON MUTANS STREPTOCOCCI, PLAQUE PH AND MINERAL LOSS OF ENAMEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WENNERHOLM, K; ARENDS, J; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; EMILSON, CG; DIJKMAN, AG

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen subjects with more than 3 x 10(5) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva completed this randomised, cross-over study. Four different chewing-gums, containing: (1) 70% xylitol, (2) 35% xylitol + 35% sorbitol, (3) 17.5% xylitol + 52.5% sorbitol, and (4) 70% sorbitol, were tested. The

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Commercially Available Freeze Dried Powdered Probiotics on Mutans Streptococci Count: A Randomized, Double Blind, Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Probiotic approaches are being considered to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and are an alternative and promising way to combat infections by using harmless bacteria to displace pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available freeze dried powdered probiotics on mutans streptococci count among 12-15 year-old Indian schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases of in-vitro (phase I and in-vivo (phase II study, which was a double blind, randomized and placebo controlled clinical trial. A total of 33 schoolchildren between 12-15 years were included in the study. They were randomly allocated to three groups. Group A included 11 children using freeze dried Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium lactis. Group B included 11 children using freeze dried lactic acid bacillus only. Group C included 11 children using placebo powder. The study was conducted over a period of three weeks and examination and sampling of the subjects were done on days 0 (baseline, seven, 14 and 21. Results: For both the intervention groups A and B, statistically significant reduction (P<0.05 in salivary mutans streptococci counts was recorded up to the second week.Conclusion: Oral administration of probiotics showed a short-term effect on reduction of mutans streptococci count and showed a preventive role in caries development.Key words: Probiotics; Viridans Streptococci; Dental Caries.

  8. The Distribution of Mutans Streptococci in Plaque on the margin of Amalgam, on the Enamel, and on the Surface of Amalgam Restoration

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    Soeherwin Mangundjaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of distribution of mutans streptococci on the margin of amalgam restoration, compared with that on the enamel and on the surface of restoration. It is assumed that the level of distribution of mutans streptococci on the margin will be able to influence the presence of secondary caries. In this study the first molars of 20 patients were treated with amalgam restoration. The mutans streptococci was measured as the percentage of total CFU count in the plaque. The results showed a mean count of 108.8 (SD= 55.2 of mutans streptococci in the margin; 97.7 (SD=63.5 on the enamel; and 61.4 (SD=32.4 on the surface of amalgam restoration. It seems that the level of mutans streptococci on the margin is higher than those on the enamel (p=0.006 as well as higher than those on the surface of (p=0.031. It is suggested that elevated level of mutans streptococci on the margin can indicate risk to secondary caries.

  9. Identification of non-mutans streptococci organisms in dental plaques recovering on mitis-salivarius bacitracin agar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, So Young; Kim, Pyung Sik; Hwang, Ho-Keel; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Choe, Son-Jin; Min, Byung-Moo; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to both isolate and identify non-mutans streptococci organisms (non-MSO) from dental plaques recovered on mitis-salivarius sucrose bacitracin agar (MSB) plates. The dental plaque samples, which had been collected from 63 human subjects, were diluted and plated on MSB. The bacteria growing on the MSB plates were then identified with biochemical tests, as well as with 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing techniques. Our data indicated that bacteria from 30 subjects had been recovered on the MSB plates. Among the 21 typical colonies selected from the 30 subjects, 12 colonies, derived from 10 subjects, were identified as non-MSO. These 12 colonies were determined to be Streptococcus anginosus (8 colonies), S. sanguinis (1 colony), and Pantoea agglomerans (3 colonies). These results strongly suggest that a new selective medium will be required for the reliable isolation of mutans streptococci.

  10. Establishment of Streptococcus mutans in infants induces decrease in the proportion of salivary α-haemolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mamoru; Hoshino, Tomonori; Ooshima, Takashi; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-03-01

    For paediatric dentists, an indicator to assess caries risk of infants is very important. Conventionally, the number and/or proportions of Streptococcus mutans have been employed as risk indicator; however, because such figures reflect the existing situation, they are not suitable for assessing caries risk of infants that have not yet been infected with S. mutans. Thus, we searched for an indicator for the establishment of S. mutans. To evaluate the changes caused by the establishment of S. mutans in the microbiota of the infant oral cavity, we monitored changes in the oral microbiota of two pre-dentate infants over a 3-year period and in a cross-sectional study of 40 nursery school-aged children by cultivation of saliva on nonselective blood agar, Mitis-Salivarius agar, and Mitis-Salivarius agar supplemented with bacitracin combined with identification of selected isolates. Two longitudinal observations suggested that the establishment of S. mutans would induce a decrease in α-haemolytic bacteria in the microbial population of the oral cavity. This suggestion was compensated with the results of cross-sectional study, and it was revealed that the establishment of 10(3)  CFU/mL of mutans streptococci in saliva might be predicted by a microbiota comprising less than approximately 55% of α-haemolytic. Decrease in the proportion of α-haemolytic bacteria in saliva of infant was found to be applicable as an indicator to predict the establishment of S. mutans and to assess dental caries risk as a background for planning of dental care and treatment in the infants before infection with S. mutans. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Co-aggregation and growth inhibition of probiotic lactobacilli and clinical isolates of mutans streptococci: An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette Kirstine; Hassl F, Pamela; Stecks N-Blicks, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Co-aggregation and growth inhibition abilities of probiotic bacteria may play a key role in their interference with the oral biofilm. The aim was to investigate the in vitro ability of selected commercial probiotic lactobacilli to co-aggregate and inhibit growth of oral mutans...... steptococci isolated from adults with contrasting levels of caries. Materials and methods. Mutans streptococci (MS) strains were isolated from caries-free (n = 3) and caries-susceptible (n = 5) young adults and processed with eight commercial probiotic lactobacilli strains. One laboratory reference strain (S....... mutans Ingbritt) was selected as control. Co-aggregation was determined spectrophotometrically and growth inhibition was assessed with the agar overlay technique. Results. All probiotic lactobacilli showed an ability to co-aggregate with the isolated MS strains. Statistically significant differences (p...

  12. Comparison of culture media and chairside assays for enumerating mutans streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, G.H.; Bretz, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim This study compared several traditional culture-based media and chairside cultural assays for ability to recover mutans streptococci (MS) from pure cultures and from saliva samples. Methods and Results When pure cultures were used with traditional culture-based media, mitis-salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar demonstrated less support for bacterial recovery than trypticase-yeast extract-cysteine sucrose-bacitracin (TYCSB) agar and the modified medium of Ritz (HLR-S). One species of MS, Streptococcus ferus (c), was not recovered on MSB medium. Chairside cultural tests displayed considerable disparity between tests in recovering bacteria from pure cultures. On the glass adherence assay (Mucount®), S. ferus was not detected and Streptococcus criceti was not detected on the dipslide assay (Carie-screen SM®) or on the plastic adherence assay (Dentocult SM Strip mutans®). The frequency of isolation of pure strains of bacteria other than MS was common. From saliva samples, the frequency of isolation of MS on HLR-S and TYCSB media and the glass adherence assay was 91–97%. The frequency of isolation on MSB medium and on the dip-slide and plastic adherence assays was significantly decreased (37, 47 and 69%, respectively). Recovery scores varied considerably among the culture methods studied and tended to be highest on the HLR-S medium and on the glass adherence assay. Conclusions Growth and recovery profiles of pure bacterial cultures and of saliva samples for the MS varied according to different media. Significance and Impact of the Study Caution should be exercised in comparing results between studies that employ different cultural methods for MS enumeration. PMID:16696682

  13. Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries: Pilot Study Examining Mutans Streptococci Genotypic Strains After Full-Mouth Caries Restorative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Elizabeth A.; Nielsen, Truman; Peirano, Patricia; Nguyen, Anna T.; Vo, Alex; Nguyen, Aivan; Jackson, Stephen; Finlayson, Tyler; Sauerwein, Rebecca; Marsh, Katie; Edwards, Issac; Wilmot, Beth; Engle, John; Peterson, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Genotypic strains of mutans streptococci (MS) may vary in important virulence properties, and may be differentially affected by specific components of full-mouth caries restorative therapy. The purpose of this pilot study was to identify MS strains that predominate following caries restorative therapy. Methods Plaque from seven children with severe early childhood caries was collected before and following therapy. MS isolates (N=828) were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR) for assignment within MS strains. Determining the longitudinal changes in MS strain distribution over time within each patient required the isolation of larger numbers of isolates per patient, but from fewer patients. Results Up to 39 genotypic strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, and seven genotypic strains of non-MS streptococci were identified by AP-PCR and 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. The number of MS strains isolated from each patient were 3–7 prior to treatment, diminishing to 1–2 dominant MS strains in most patients 6 months post-therapy. Conclusions Caries restorative therapy resulted in shifts of specific MS and non-MS streptococci strains. The implications are that caries restorative therapy affects the distribution of MS strains, and that well-accepted practices for caries prevention should be more closely examined for efficacy. PMID:22583870

  14. Comparative study of Kefir yogurt-drink and sodium fluoride mouth rinse on salivary mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefdgar, Seyyed Ali Asghar; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Ghadimi, Reza; Gharekhani, Samane; Shirkhani, Leila

    2014-03-01

    The level of mutans streptococci (MS) is reduced by regularly consumption of probiotic Kefir drink. The present study aiming at answer to this question 'may the Kefir drink be considered an alternative to fluoride rinse?' Twenty-two healthy volunteers aged 22-32 years with good oral hygiene participated in this study. None of participants had received any antibiotic or antimicrobial agent or professional fluoride therapy within the last month. None of them exhibited active caries lesions. Smokers and subjects who have chewing gums xylitol habit or who were undergoing orthodontic treatment were excluded. In a cross over design with 2 parallel groups, people in group A for 2 weeks received 100 ml of Kefir drink per day, then avoided brushing, eating and drinking for an hour. Simultaneously, people in group B were administered 0.05% sodium fluoride rinse in the same manner. After washout period, people in groups A and B respectively used 0.05% sodium fluoride rinse and Kefir drink. Saliva sampling was performed before and after interventions. The acidity and the count of MS were assessed and data were analyzed statistically. There was no significant difference between base line pH values of saliva in study groups (p > 0.05). Although, a significant difference was shown between MS counts before and after interventions (p ≤ 0.0001 and p ≤ 0.0001 for NaF and Kefir respectively), but the equal inhibitory effect was found between study groups (p > 0.05). Kefir drink can inhibit salivary MS as well the sodium fluoride rinse. This beverage may be considered an alternative for fluoride rinse. Clinical significance: Probiotics containing dairy products was known with anticariogenic properties. These agents may be used in caries control strategies adjunctively.

  15. Effects of tongue cleaning on plaque and salivary mutans streptococci levels: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochiyil Chacko Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tongue cleaning has been shown to be effective in preventing plaque formation and reducing oral mutans streptococci (MS when used in combination with other oral hygiene procedures. However, correlation between MS counts and plaque levels remains to be demonstrated. Aim: To evaluate the effect of tongue scraping and tongue brushing on salivary MS and plaque levels. Materials and Methods: A triple-blind three arm randomized controlled parallel-group trial was carried out among 54, 12–15-year-old boys in a residential school in Bengaluru city. The study participants were randomly allocated into Group A (toothbrushing and tongue scraping; n = 19, Group B (toothbrushing and tongue brushing; n = 18 and Group C (only toothbrushing; n = 17. The clinical procedure included a collection of saliva and recording of plaque index at baseline, 10th and 21st day. Salivary MS counts were determined using mitis salivarius bacitracin Agar media. ANOVA, Wilcoxon's signed-rank sum test, Mann–Whitney U-test and Spearman's correlation test were performed on log-transformed CFU/mL of MS. Results: The tongue scraping and tongue brushing groups showed statistically significant reductions in salivary MS counts after 10 days (4.76 ± 0.54 (4.79 ± 0.44 and 21 days (4.50 ± 0.44 (4.41 ± 0.57 respectively when performed along with toothbrushing. However, differences between the interventions were not statistically significant. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant reduction in plaque levels after 10 and 21 days. Conclusions: Tongue scraping and tongue brushing were equally effective in reducing salivary MS counts when used in combination with toothbrushing, however, their effect on reducing plaque levels was not significant. Hence, tongue cleaning is recommended as an adjunct to toothbrushing.

  16. Níveis de infecção de estreptococos do grupo mutans em gestantes Infection levels in pregnant women by mutans streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. TORRES

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a aquisição precoce dos estreptococos do grupo mutans é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de lesões cariosas nas crianças e que a transmissão desses microrganismos é dependente do nível de colonização apresentado pelas mães, procurou-se analisar a situação bucal de gestantes residentes na cidade de Bauru-SP-Brasil. Foram amostradas 50 gestantes na faixa etária de 16 a 37 (média de 22,8 ± 5,5 anos de baixo nível sócio-econômico que faziam acompanhamento pré-natal no Núcleo de Assistência às Gestantes (NAG-7. A condição bucal foi avaliada pelo índice CPO-S, realizado com o auxílio de sonda exploradora e espelho, sem o uso de tomadas radiográficas. Amostras de saliva estimulada foram obtidas e manipuladas de acordo com as especificações do fabricante do Caritest-SM (HERPO, para pesquisa do grupo mutans. Entre as 50 gestantes examinadas, o índice CPO-S variou de 5 a 114 (média de 37,1, sendo que 8 (16% possuíam todos os dentes; 39 (78% haviam perdido de 1 a 10 dentes e 4 (8%, de 13 a 22 dentes. O grupo mutans foi detectado em 48 (96% amostras de saliva, das quais 4 (8% apresentavam nível de infecção de 1 x 104 UFC/ml; 10 (20%, 5 x 104 UFC/ml e 4 (8%, 1 x 105 UFC/ml. Níveis de infecção mais favoráveis para a transmissão mãe-filho foram encontrados em 30 (60% gestantes, das quais 10 (20% mostraram 2,5 x 105 UFC/ml; 12 (24%, 5 x 105 UFC/ml e 8 (16%, 1 x 106 UFC/ml. Esses resultados demonstram que as gestantes albergam elevados níveis salivares de estreptococos do grupo mutans e que um programa preventivo direcionado ao grupo urge ser desenvolvido, a fim de reduzir ou protelar a transmissão intrafamilial desses microrganismos.The CFU number of mutans streptococci in saliva has been used to indicate dental caries risk, as well as to assess the effectiveness or the need for preventive measures. Considering that the acquisition in early childhood of mutans streptococci is a risk factor for

  17. Effect of topical applications of a novel chlorhexidine-thymol varnish formula on mutans streptococci and caries development in occlusal fissures of permanent molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Petersson, Lars G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a new formula of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) colonization and fissure caries development. METHODS: The study group consisted of 58 healthy adolescents (12-17 years old) undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances...

  18. Nutritionally Variant Streptococci Interfere with Streptococcus mutans Adhesion Properties and Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angius, Fabrizio; Madeddu, Maria Antonietta; Pompei, Raffaello

    2015-04-01

    The bacterial species Streptococcus mutans is known as the main cause of dental caries in humans. Therefore, much effort has focused on preventing oral colonization by this strain or clearing it from oral tissues. The oral cavity is colonized by several bacterial species that constitute the commensal oral flora, but none of these is able to interfere with the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. This paper describes the interfering ability of some nutritionally variant streptococcal strains (NVS) with S. mutans adhesion to glass surfaces and also to hydroxylapatite. In mixed cultures, NVS induce a complete inhibition of S. mutans microcolony formation on cover glass slides. NVS can also block the adherence of radiolabeled S. mutans to hydroxylapatite in the presence of both saliva and sucrose. The analysis of the action mechanism of NVS demonstrated that NVS are more hydrophobic than S. mutans and adhere tightly to hard surfaces. In addition, a cell-free culture filtrate of NVS was also able to interfere with S. mutans adhesion to hydroxylapatite. Since NVS are known to secrete some important bacteriolytic enzymes, we conclude that NVS can be a natural antagonist to the cariogenic properties of S. mutans.

  19. Comparison of two chair-side tests for enumeration of Mutans Streptococci in saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2014-01-01

    , referred to a maxillofacial hospital clinic with a caries history. Stimulated whole saliva samples were collected and the number of MS was assessed with the Dentocult-SM Strip Mutans (DSM) and the Saliva-Check Mutans (SCM). The outcome was compared with conventional anaerobic laboratory cultivation...

  20. Relationship between feeding habits and mutans streptococci colonization in a group of Spanish children aged 15-20 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Marta; González, Angel; Barbería, Elena; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2003-09-01

    (1) To determine the prevalence of mutans streptococci (MS) in a group of Spanish children aged 15-20 months, and (2) to analyze the relationship between early colonization and feeding habits. In a group of 56 children, various feeding habits with a possible influence on early MS colonization were registered using a questionnaire; saliva samples were taken with a tongue blade in order to detect MS presence. As many as 73% of the children used a nursing bottle at this age, often with sugar content (cereal was added in 83% of children, who were still bottle-fed). The percentage of MS colonization was relatively high (46%), although no child presented caries at the time. A statistically significant relationship (P colonization and sweetening of the bottle contents. A relation was also found, though not significant, between MS colonization and the absence of breastfeeding or, on the other hand, the excessive prolongation of natural or artificial feeding.

  1. The F-ATPase operon from the oral streptococci S. mutans and S. sanguis: How structure relates to function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Wendi Lee

    1999-10-01

    The oral microbe, Streptococcus mutans is known to be a primary contributor to the most common infection in humans, dental caries. In the plaque environment, resident bacteria metabolize dietary sucrose which results in the production of organic acids and a decrease in plaque pH. The proton-translocating ATPase (F-ATPase) protects the bacteria from acidification by extruding protons, at the expense of ATP, to maintain an internal pH which is more neutral than the external environment. Examination of this enzyme will help us to gain insight regarding its contribution to the aciduricity characteristics of oral bacteria. In this work, our goal was to begin the molecular dissection of the mechanism by which streptococcal ATPases are regulated and function enzymatically. Sequence analysis of the F-ATPase from the non-pathogenic S. sanguis revealed that the structural genes are homologous to S. mutans as well as other sequenced F-ATPases. Cloned subunits were functionally similar as shown by complementing E. coli ATPase mutants. S. sanguis/E. coli hybrid enzymes hydrolyzed ATP, but proton conduction was uncoupled as demonstrated with inhibition studies. Transcriptional regulation of the F-ATPase operon from S. mutans was examined using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusions. Fusions containing 136 bp of DNA upstream of the promoter showed higher levels of expression as compared to those with only 16 bp. Similar to ATPase enzymatic activity, CAT expression also increased during growth at low pH. Analysis of RNA demonstrated that ATPase mRNA levels were higher at low pH, which supported the CAT activity data. Therefore, the F-ATPase from S. mutans was regulated, at least partially, by both the DNA located upstream of the promoter as well as by pH. Examination of structural models of the F-ATPase from the pathogenic oral organisms S. mutans and Lactobacillus casei and the non- pathogenic S. sanguis showed that the differences noted in the sequence of the catalytic

  2. Penambahan xylitol dalam glukosa, sukrosa terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans (in vitro (The Additional xylitol in glucose and sucrose on growth of Mutans Streptococci (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Susilowati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Xylitol is a sugar alcohol group consisting of five-carbon chain and the sugar substitutes are recommended to prevent caries. Dietary sugars known as a good substrate for the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Two types of sugar, xylitol and dietary sugars have different effects on the growth of S.mutans. Purpose: The objective of this study were to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of xylitol on the growth of S.mutans and to determine the addition of xylitol in glucose and sucrose in the growth of S. mutans in vitro. Methods: The samples were divided into 3 groups: xylitol group, xylitol and sucrose combination group, and xylitol and glucose combination group . In all groups were tested against S.mutans growth in various concentrations. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration against S.mutans xylitol was equal to 0.625%. The addition of xylitol in sucrose the inhibition of S.mutans growth occurred at concentrations of 0.625 % and 2.5%. The addition of xylitol in glucose inhibited the growth of S.mutans at all concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that the combination of xylitol with dietary sugars could inhibit the growth of S.mutans.Latar belakang: Xylitol adalah golongan gula alkohol yang terdiri dari lima rantai karbon dan merupakan sugar substitutes yang dianjurkan untuk mencegah terjadinya karies. Dietary sugars diketahui sebagai substrat yang baik untuk pertumbuhan bakteri rongga mulut salah satunya Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Dua jenis gula yaitu xylitol dan dietary sugars memiliki pengaruh yang berbeda pada pertumbuhan S. mutans. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah meneliti konsentrasi hambat minimal (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration/ MIC xylitol terhadap pertumbuhan S mutans dan meneliti pengaruh penambahan xylitol dalam glukosa dan dalam sukrosa terhadap pertumbuhan S. mutans secara in vitro. Metode: Sampel dibagi dalam 3 kelompok: kelompok xylitol, kelompok kombinasi

  3. Effect of topical applications of a novel chlorhexidine-thymol varnish formula on mutans streptococci and caries development in occlusal fissures of permanent molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Petersson, Lars G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a new formula of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) colonization and fissure caries development. METHODS: The study group consisted of 58 healthy adolescents (12-17 years old) undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances...... reduction in the levels of MS in the fissures after the initial treatment was displayed with both varnishes (p .../T varnishes in terms of bacterial growth and caries prevention. For MS suppression, a tendency towards an initially superior effect was displayed with the new formula....

  4. Lactobacillus reuteri influences regrowth of mutans streptococci after full-mouth disinfection: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani Vestman, N; Hasslöf, P; Keller, M K; Granström, E; Roos, S; Twetman, S; Stecksén-Blicks, C

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether the persistence of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 in saliva could delay the regrowth of mutans streptococci (MS) after a full-mouth disinfection with chlorhexidine (CHX). A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a 6-week intervention period and 3- and 6-month follow-up was performed. 62 healthy subjects with moderate to high counts of MS were randomly assigned to a test group (n = 32) or a placebo group (n = 30). Before onset of the intervention, subjects received two sessions of professional cleaning, flossing, and application of CHX varnish and rinsed their mouth with a CHX solution between the sessions (2 days). Thereafter, the test group used probiotic lozenges (2/day) containing L. reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289; 1 × 10(8) CFU of each strain), and the placebo group used identical lozenges lacking the lactobacilli. Saliva samples were collected and cultured onto selective media, and isolates of L. reuteri as well as DNA directly extracted from saliva were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. Presence of salivary MS was analysed with a chair-side test. L. reuteri was frequently detected by culture during the intervention period but in only 3 test group subjects at follow-ups. Regrowth of MS statistically significantly differed depending on the presence or absence of L. reuteri DSM 17938 detected by PCR. We conclude that cultivable L. reuteri strains may only sporadically be confirmed after termination of the intervention, but subjects with PCR-detected L. reuteri demonstrated slower regrowth of MS. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Comparative short-term in vitro analysis of mutans streptococci adhesion on esthetic, nickel-titanium, and stainless-steel arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hye; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion between esthetic and metallic orthodontic arch wires based on their surface characteristics. Surface roughness (Ra) and apparent surface free energy (SFE) were measured for six wires-four esthetic, one nickel-titanium (NiTi), and one stainless-steel (SS)-using profilometry and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The amount of MS (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) adhering to the wires was quantified using the colony-counting method. The surfaces, coating layers, and MS adhesion were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical significance was set at P wires were significantly different from one another depending on the coating method (P wire showed the highest SFE, followed by the SS wire and then the four esthetic wires. The NiTi wires produced a significantly higher MS adhesion than did the SS wires (P wires showed significantly lower MS adhesions than did the NiTi wire (P < .05). Pearson correlation analyses found moderate significant positive correlations between the SFE and the S mutans and S sobrinus adhesions (r  =  .636/.427, P < .001/P  =  .001, respectively). The hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that some esthetic coatings on NiTi alloy might reduce MS adhesion in vitro in the short term.

  6. Prevalência de estreptococos do grupo mutans em crianças de 12 a 31 meses de idade e sua associação com a freqüência e severidade de cárie dental Prevalence of mutans streptococci in 12-31-month-old children and its association with frequency and severity of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira MATTOS-GRANER

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os níveis salivares de estreptococos do grupo mutans (GM e a prevalência de cárie dental em 142 crianças, de 12 a 31 meses de idade, da cidade de Piracicaba - SP. Ao exame clínico, foram diagnosticadas as lesões de cárie iniciais (mancha branca e cavitadas de todas as superfícies dentárias. GM foram detectados em 80,3% (n = 114 das crianças estudadas, sendo que 21,8% (n = 31 delas apresentavam altos níveis salivares desses microrganismos. Os níveis salivares de GM foram dependentes do número de dentes irrompidos na cavidade bucal (c2 = 19,03; p c2 = 28,67; p The prevalence of mutans streptococci (MS was evaluated in samples of unstimulated saliva from 142 12-31-month-old children. Initial and manifest caries of all teeth surfaces were recorded. Mutans streptococci were detected in 80.3% (n = 114 of the studied children, and 21.8% of all children (n = 31 presented high levels of these microorganisms. The salivary levels of mutans streptococci depended on the number of erupted teeth (c2 = 19.03; p c2 = 28.67; p < 0.001. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the salivary levels of these microorganisms and the number of caries lesions which was higher when initial caries were considered (r = 0.537; p < 0.001. These data show a high prevalence of mutans streptococci in children with 12 to 31 months of age and its positive association with the frequency and severity of dental caries.

  7. Effect of Long-Term Consumption of Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 on Reducing Mutans streptococci and Caries Risk: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Teanpaisan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous study revealed Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a probiotic strain, could reduce mutans streptococci (MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of L. paracasei SD1 on the colonization of MS, and whether caries lesions developed. Methods: After informed consent, 122 children were recruited and randomly assigned to the probiotic or control groups. The probiotic group received milk-powder containing L. paracasei SD1 and the control group received standard milk-powder once daily for six months. Salivary MS and lactobacilli were enumerated using differential culture at baseline and at three-month intervals for 12 months. The persistence of L. paracasei SD1 was investigated using AP-PCR for DNA-fingerprinting. Oral health was examined at baseline and at the end of the study according to WHO criteria. Results: The long-term consumption could prolong colonization of L. paracasei SD1. Significantly reduced MS counts and increased lactobacilli levels were found among children in the probiotic group. There were less caries lesions in the probiotic group at the end of the study. A significant reduction of the development of new caries lesions (4.5 times was observed in the high caries risk group but not in the low caries risk group. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the long-term daily ingestion of the human-derived probiotic L. paracasei SD1 significantly reduces the number of MS and caries risk in the high caries group.

  8. Effect of maternal use of chewing gums containing xylitol on transmission of mutans streptococci in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsi-Kuei; Fang, Chia-En; Huang, Mao-Suan; Cheng, Hsin-Chung; Huang, Tsai-Wei; Chang, Hui-Ting; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are the major causative bacteria involved in human dental decay. Habitual consumption of xylitol has been proved to reduce MS levels in saliva and plaque. To evaluate the effect of the maternal use of xylitol gum on MS reduction in infants. A structured literature review and meta-analysis. A random effects model was used to assess the relative risks of the incidence of MS in the saliva or plaque of children who were 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months old. We reviewed 11 RCTs derived from 5 research teams that included 601 mothers. Our results indicated that the incidence of MS in the saliva or plaque of the infants was significantly reduced in the xylitol group (risk ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.73, at 12-18 months) and (risk ratio: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.40-0.79, at 36 months) compared with the control groups. The long-term effect of maternal xylitol gum exposure on their children's dental caries was controversial. Habitual xylitol consumption by mothers with high MS levels was associated with a significant reduction in the mother-child transmission of salivary MS. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G Dashper

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  10. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, Stuart G; Catmull, Deanne V; Liu, Sze-Wei; Myroforidis, Helen; Zalizniak, Ilya; Palamara, Joseph E A; Huq, N Laila; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm) formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  11. Control indirecto del grado de infección por Estreptococos mutans en la primera infancia Indirect control of the level of Streptococci mutans infection in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Gispert Abreu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio experimental, longitudinal en 159 niños con edades entre 6 meses 1 año, con el objetivo de evaluar la repercusión del control del grado de infección por E. mutans de la familia sobre el de los niños, en la primera infancia (NPI. Se clasificaron según el grado de infección previa (alto o bajo de sus madres y de manera aleatoria se asignaron a los grupos: T, donde las madres y/o familiares convivientes con alta infección recibieron trimestralmente laca flúor al 2 % + clorhexidina al 1 %, y C, grupo control. Ambos grupos recibieron atención curativa inicial y actividades educativas cada 6 meses. Los niños no recibieron tratamiento; cuando cumplieron 2, 2,5 y 3 años de edad fueron examinados, de donde se obtuvo que: los hijos de madres con infección previa baja, infectaron más tardíamente y desarrollaron a los 3 años menor infección, con diferencias entre grupos por edad muy significativas (x2pAn experimental longitudinal study of 159 children aged 6 months-1 year was conducted to evaluate the effect of the control of the level of E. Mutans infection in the family on the children in their early childhood. After being classified according to the level of previous infection (high or low of their mothers, the children were randomly assigned to either group T where mothers and/or relatives with high level of infection, who lived with them, were quarterly treated with 2% fluoride varnish plus 1% clorhexidine or group C, that is, the control group. Both groups received initial curing care and educational programs every 6 months. Children were not treated at all, but at 2, 2 and a half and 3 years of age, they were examined with the following results: children from mothers with previous low infection level became infected more belatedly and developed lower infection rate at 3 years-old, being the differences by age between groups very significant (x= p 0,001. Children from mothers with previous high level of

  12. The effect of a chlorhexidine-fluoride varnish on mutans streptococci counts and laser fluorescence readings in occlusal fissures of permanent teeth: A split-mouth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipták, Lídia; Bársony, Nóra; Twetman, Svante; Madléna, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a new chlorhexidine-fluoride varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) counts and laser fluorescence (LF) readings in fissures of permanent molars. The study group consisted of 57 healthy schoolchildren (7 to 14 yrs) that volunteered after informed consent. A double-blind split-mouth design was employed and 87 pairs of non-cavitated permanent molars were randomly assigned to treatments with either chlorhexidine-fluoride varnish (CHX-F) or chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (CHX-T, Cervitec Plus) as active control. The varnishes were topically applied at baseline and every sixth week throughout the 24-week study period. Endpoints were MS counts (CRT test) and occlusal LF readings (DIAGNOdent pen) registered regularly during follow-up. At baseline, > 50% of the occlusal fissures harbored high MS counts (≥ 105 CFU), but a significant decrease (P counts. There were no significant differences between the varnishes at any time point. The mean LF values were similar in both treatment groups at baseline, but a significant reduction (P < .05) was scored in the CHX-F group after 12 and 24 weeks. A similar reduction was found also in the CHX-T group after 24 weeks. No adverse events were reported. There were no significant differences between the CHX-F and CHX-T varnishes in terms of MS suppression after four applications over 24 weeks. Both varnishes also reduced the LF readings significantly compared with baseline, but further long-term studies are needed to confirm a caries-preventive effect.

  13. Correlation between dental caries experience and mutans streptococci counts by microbial and molecular (polymerase chain reaction) assay using saliva as microbial risk indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, S G; Loomba, Ashish; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Loomba, Ashu; Beniwal, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of quantitative salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) in children, aged 3-6 years and 12-15 years, exhibiting variable patterns of caries activity, and to compare the association of MS in saliva using microbial and molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) assay. In this cross-sectional observational study, eighty children were included, forty children each in Group I (3-6 years) and Group II (12-15 years). Children were further divided into two subgroups (Group IC, INC and Group IIC, IINC) based on their dental caries status. Saliva samples were collected and plated onto Mitis Salivarius-Bacitracin agar plates. After detection of MS, DNA was isolated and purified, and MS were evaluated using the PCR and AP-PCR. Of the selected 80 children, 42 were male and 38 were female. In Group IC, the mean colony count was 2.27 ± 0.54 × 10 5 CFU/ml, and in Group INC, the mean colony was found to be 1.61 ± 0.54 × 10 5 CFU/ml. In Group II, where mean colony count of 3.31 ± 0.85 × 10 5 CFU/ml and 2.44 ± 0.54 × 10 5 CFU/ml was observed in Group IIC and Group IINC, respectively. The mean colony count increased with increasing age and was also more in children with dental caries. Based on the matrices generated by the PCR analysis using coefficient slipped-strand mispairing, wide range of genetic diversity was seen in cases of children with and without clinically detectable caries.

  14. Streptococcus oligofermentans inhibits Streptococcus mutans in biofilms at both neutral pH and cariogenic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; de Soet, J.J.; Tong, H.; Gao, X.; He, L.; van Loveren, C.; Deng, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide

  15. Physico-chemical and structural properties of the surfaces of Peptostreptococcus micros and Streptococcus mitis as compared to those of mutans streptococci, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, M M; van der Mei, H C; Rouxhet, P G; Busscher, H J

    1992-12-01

    The surface properties of nine Streptococcus mitis and four Peptostreptococcus micros strains from the oral cavity were examined and compared with a large group of oral streptococci. Zeta potential and contact angle measurements were employed to determine physico-chemical cell surface properties. In addition, elemental surface concentration ratios were obtained via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and surface structures were examined with transmission electron microscopy. The S. mitis and P. micros strains were found to have higher isoelectric points, higher hydrophobicities and higher N/C surface concentration ratios than some other oral streptococci. The combined data suggest that both species possess large amounts of surface protein. All the S. mitis strains displayed abundant surface fibrils in negative staining, but the P. micros strains were devoid of surface appendages indicating that surface protein is present in different forms in the two species. The surfaces of S. mitis and P. micros type strains differed significantly from the other strains examined.

  16. Impact of orally administered lozenges with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 on the number of salivary mutans streptococci, amount of plaque, gingival inflammation and the oral microbiome in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiviainen, Aino; Jalasvuori, Heli; Lahti, Emilia; Gursoy, Ulvi; Salminen, Seppo; Fontana, Margherita; Flannagan, Susan; Eckert, George; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce; Söderling, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) on the number of salivary mutans streptococci (MS), amount of plaque, gingival inflammation and the oral microbiota in healthy young adults. The study was a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial. Healthy volunteers used lozenges containing a combination of LGG and BB-12 (test group, n = 29) or lozenges without added probiotics (control group, n = 31) for 4 weeks. At baseline and at the end of the test period, the plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were determined, and stimulated saliva was collected. The microbial composition of saliva was assessed using human oral microbe identification microarray (n = 30). MS and lactobacilli (LB) were plate cultured. The probiotic lozenge decreased both PI and GI (p < 0.05) while no changes were observed in the control group. However, no probiotic-induced changes were found in the microbial compositions of saliva in either group. The probiotic lozenge improved the periodontal status without affecting the oral microbiota. Short-term consumption of LGG and BB-12 decreased the amount of plaque which was associated with a clinical impact: a decrease in gingival inflammation.

  17. The influence of mouthrinses with antimicrobial solutions on the inhibition of dental plaque and on the levels of mutans streptococci in children Influência de bochechos com soluções antimicrobianas na inibição da placa dentária e nos níveis de estreptococos mutans em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildiceli Leite Melo Zanela

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daily mouthrinses on dental plaque accumulation and on salivary mutans streptococci was investigated in 200 children. The utilized solutions were: a placebo solution composed of mentholated deionized water (group I; 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate associated to 0.05% sodium fluoride (group II; 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (group III, and 0.5% stevioside mixed with 0.05% sodium fluoride, with pH 3.4 (group IV. In order to verify the effect on plaque formation, the accumulation of plaque was assessed by means of the Löe12 index, at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, whereas the quantification of cariogenic streptococci was accomplished on three saliva samples collected at 3 different moments: before the first mouthrinse, 24 hours after the first mouthrinse and 1 week after the last mouthrinse. The mouthrinsing routine was carried out on a daily basis during 4 weeks. Five milliliters of solution were rinsed during 1 minute. The results revealed 4.10, 26.75, 41.20, and 5.91% of reduction in plaque accumulation for groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Comparisons between the groups as to plaque reduction revealed that groups II and III were significantly different from groups I (control and IV (p Avaliou-se, num total de 200 crianças, o efeito de bochechos diários com solução placebo de água deionizada mentolada (grupo I; gluconato de clorexidina 0,12% associado ao fluoreto de sódio 0,05% (grupo II; digluconato de clorexidina 0,2% (grupo III e esteviosídeo 0,5% associado ao fluoreto de sódio 0,05% pH 3,4 (grupo IV, sobre o acúmulo de placa dentária e o nível de estreptococos mutans salivares. Utilizando-se o índice de Löe12, o acúmulo de placa dentária foi avaliado no início e no final do experimento, enquanto os níveis de estreptococosmutans foram quantificados com o Caritest SM em 3 momentos: antes do primeiro bochecho, 24 horas após o primeiro bochecho e 1 semana após o último bochecho. O regime

  18. Acidogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoesser, L.; Kneist, S.; Tumovec, M.; Katzmann, M.

    1988-01-01

    The growth kinetic parameters of S. mutans OMZ 176 culture as well as the 32 PO 4 uptake, as a measure of living cell mass, and the acid production rate by germ suspensions in a pH-stat technique were estimated. Subsequently, the acidogenicity of 20 S. mutans strains, other oral streptococci and dental plaque was measured and compared taking into consideration the growth kinetic dependence of studied activities. The strains OMZ 176 and OMZ 65 exhibited the most acidogenic properties whereas FA 1 produced 3.6 times less acid. (author)

  19. Different bacteriocin activities of Streptococcus mutans reflect distinct phylogenetic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, M; Simmonds, RS; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A-D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism...

  20. Effect of xylitol on cariogenic and beneficial oral streptococci: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bahador, A; Lesan, S; Kashi, N

    2012-01-01

    Background/purpose Although habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels, its effect on beneficial oral streptococci is less clear. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effect of short-term xylitol consumption on the oral beneficial streptococci level of saliva, Streptococcus sanguinis and S. mitis. Material and Methods Twenty four volunteers with a median age of 23.7 years (range: 20-28) harboring Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis and S. mit...

  1. ["In vitro" study of the bacteriocinogenic capacity of Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca García, P; Liébana Ureña, J; Baca García, A

    1991-06-01

    In our paper the bacteriocinogen ability of some subspecies of Streptococci mutans has been studied. We have obtained a production percentage of 50%. That production ability was bigger for subspecies mutans than sobrinus in a significative way, who strength the increasing differences between these microorganisms. A brief revision of the role that bacteriocins look like to play in oral ecologist equilibrium and their feasible utilization in dental caries prevention has been done.

  2. Effect of Probiotic Containing Ice-cream on Salivary Mutans Streptococci (SMS) Levels in Children of 6-12 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Study with Six-months Follow Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Devasya; Ke, Vijayaprasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Nara, Asha; Sarpangala, Mythri

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the caries risk based on the salivary levels of streptococcus mutans in children of 6-12 years of age group before and after consuming probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. A double blind, placebo controlled trial was carried out in 60 children aged between 6 to 12 years with zero decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva sample were collected before the consumption of ice-cream and Streptococcus mutans count was calculated and recorded as baseline data. For the next seven days both the groups were given ice creams marked as A and B. Saliva samples were collected after ice-cream consumption at the end of study period and also after a washout period of 30 days and again after six months. Samples were inoculated and colonies were counted. On statistical evaluation by students paired t-test, probiotic ice-cream brought significant reduction in the Streptococcus mutans count after seven days of ice-cream ingestion (pice-cream consumption. After six months of the study period in both the groups the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans was similar to the baseline. Probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can cause reduction in caries causative organism. The dosage of the probiotic organisms for the long term or synergetic effect on the oral health are still needed to be explored.

  3. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL-PROPERTIES OF THE SURFACES OF PEPTOSTREPTOCOCCUS-MICROS AND STREPTOCOCCUS-MITIS AS COMPARED TO THOSE OF MUTANS STREPTOCOCCI, STREPTOCOCCUS-SANGUIS AND STREPTOCOCCUS-SALIVARIUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COWAN, MM; VANDERMEI, HC; ROUXHET, PG; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1992-01-01

    The surface properties of nine Streptococcus mitis and four Peptostreptococcus micros strains from the oral cavity were examined and compared with a large group of oral streptococci. Zeta potential and contact angle measurements were employed to determine physico-chemical cell surface properties. In

  4. Mutacin II, a Bactericidal Lantibiotic from Streptococcus mutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikindas, Michael L.; Novák, Jan; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wilhelmus; Schilling, Kurt M.; Caufield, Page W.

    1995-01-01

    Mutacin II is a lantibiotic that is produced by group II Streptococcus mutans, it inhibits the growth of other streptococci as well as many other gram-positive microorganisms by a hitherto unknown mechanism, Mutacin LI possesses bactericidal activity against susceptible cells. It transiently

  5. COMPARISON OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL SURFACE-PROPERTIES OF STREPTOCOCCUS-RATTUS WITH THOSE OF OTHER MUTANS STREPTOCOCCAL SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEI, HC; DESOET, JJ; DEGRAAFF, J; ROUXHET, PG; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    Mutans streptococci comprise a group of seven closely related, yet distinct species. The distinction between the four species used in this study, namely Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus cricetus, Streptococcus rattus, and Streptococcus mutans, has been made only recently on the basis of DNA

  6. Establishment of streptococci in the upper respiratory tract: longitudinal changes in the mouth and nasopharynx up to 2 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könönen, E; Jousimies-Somer, H; Bryk, A

    2002-01-01

    at the ages of 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. In the oral cavity, streptococci were found in all infants on every sampling occasion, Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 being the main finding in each age group. S. salivarius and S. mitis biovar 2 reached their highest prevalence during the first year of life, whereas...... in the nasopharynx. S. mitis biovar 1 and S. pneumoniae, a traditional respiratory pathogen, were the principal streptococcal species among nasopharyngeal isolates. IgA1 protease production by early streptococci was common in infancy. Among the oral streptococcal microflora, S. mitis biovar 1 (especially during...... the first year of life) and S. oralis and S. sanguis constituted the main species responsible for this enzyme activity. In the nasopharynx, IgA1 protease was produced by S. mitis biovar 1, S. oralis and S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, streptococcal colonisation differs in these two close habitats in the upper...

  7. Natural Transformation of Oral Streptococci by Use of Synthetic Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Khan, Rabia; Åmdal, Heidi A; Morrison, Donald A; Petersen, Fernanda C

    2017-01-01

    The discovery that Streptococcus pneumoniae uses a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) to induce competence for natural transformation, and that other species of the mitis and the anginosus streptococcal groups use a similar system, has expanded the tools to explore gene function and regulatory pathways in streptococci. Two other classes of pheromones have been discovered since then, comprising the bacteriocin-inducing peptide class found in Streptococcus mutans (also named CSP, although different from the former) and the SigX-inducing peptides (XIP), in the mutans, salivarius, bovis, and pyogenes groups of streptococci. The three classes of peptide pheromones can be ordered from peptide synthesis services at affordable prices, and used in transformation assays to obtain competent cultures consistently at levels usually higher than those achieved during spontaneous competence. In this chapter, we present protocols for natural transformation of oral streptococci that are based on the use of synthetic pheromones, with examples of conditions optimized for transformation of S. mutans and Streptococcus mitis.

  8. Detection of oral streptococci in dental biofilm from caries-active and caries-free children

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andréa Cristina Barbosa; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; de Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado

    2008-01-01

    This work correlated the presence of oral streptococci in dental biofilm with clinical indexes of caries and oral hygiene in caries-active and caries-free children. S. mutans and/or S. sobrinus in the dental biofilm does not indicate a direct risk for developing dental caries. PMID:24031282

  9. Antibacterial activity of various antibiotics against oral streptococci isolated in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquantonio, G; Condò, S; Cerroni, L; Bikiqu, L; Nicoletti, M; Prenna, M; Ripa, S

    2012-01-01

    A total of 550 oral streptococci: 270 Streptococcus mitis, 110 Streptococcus sanguis, 90 Streptococcus anginosus, 50 Streptococcus mutans, 30 Streptococcus salivarius, were isolated from dental plaque and gengival crevices of patients and tested for their susceptibility to 12 β-lactam antibiotics and to 5 non-β-lactam antibiotics, using the microdiluition method. Overall, a reduced susceptibility to penicillin was recorded in 13.4% of cases. The percentage of strains resistant to penicillin appeared significantly higher in S. mitis (24%) than in S. sanguis (19%), in S. mutans (14%) and in S. salivarius (10%). No levels of penicillin resistance were shown by 90 strains of S. anginosus. In susceptibility test to antibiotics, imipenem was the most active molecule tested, confirming its general good activity against oral streptococci. Also third generation cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone and fourth generation cephalosporins such as cefepime, showed good activity. Chinolones, glycopeptides and rifampicin confirmed a good activity against oral streptococci.

  10. Preventive effects of a phospholipid polymer coating on PMMA on biofilm formation by oral streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yukie; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-12-01

    The regulation of biofilm formation on dental materials such as denture bases is key to oral health. Recently, a biocompatible phospholipid polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) coating, was reported to inhibit sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic bacterium, on the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture bases. However, S. mutans is a minor component of the oral microbiome and does not play an important role in biofilm formation in the absence of sucrose. Other, more predominant oral streptococci must play an indispensable role in sucrose-independent biofilm formation. In the present study, the effect of PMB coating on PMMA was evaluated using various oral streptococci that are known to be initial colonizers during biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. PMB coating on PMMA drastically reduced sucrose-dependent tight biofilm formation by two cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus), among seven tested oral streptococci, as described previously [N. Takahashi, F. Iwasa, Y. Inoue, H. Morisaki, K. Ishihara, K. Baba, J. Prosthet. Dent. 112 (2014) 194-203]. Streptococci other than S. mutans and S. sobrinus did not exhibit tight biofilm formation even in the presence of sucrose. On the other hand, all seven species of oral streptococci exhibited distinctly reduced glucose-dependent soft biofilm retention on PMB-coated PMMA. We conclude that PMB coating on PMMA surfaces inhibits biofilm attachment by initial colonizer oral streptococci, even in the absence of sucrose, indicating that PMB coating may help maintain clean conditions on PMMA surfaces in the oral cavity.

  11. Effect of Chocobar Ice Cream Containing Bifidobacterium on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Daryani, Hemasha; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Batra, Mehak; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of chocobar ice cream containing bifidobacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial was conducted with 30 subjects (18 to 22 years of age) divided into 2 groups, test (chocobar ice cream with probiotics) and control (chocobar ice cream without probiotics). The subjects were instructed to eat the allotted chocobar ice cream once daily for 18 days. Saliva samples collected at intervals were cultured on Mitis Salivarius agar and Rogosa agar and examined for salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U-test, Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Postingestion in the test group, a statistically significant reduction (p ice cream containing probiotic bifidobacteria may reduce salivary levels of mutans streptococci in young adults.

  12. Strain-related acid production by oral streptococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Soet, JJ; Nyvad, Bente; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    . The bacteria were grown until mid log-phase under anaerobic conditions and acid production was measured in a pH-stat system at pH 7.0, 6.0, 5.5 and 5.0. At all pH values, the mean velocity of acid production (V(ap)) by Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus was significantly higher (p... that of the other oral streptococci, including S. mitis, S. oralis, S. gordonii, S. sanguis, S. intermedius, S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. vestibularis. However, the V(ap) of some strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and S. oralis, particularly at pH values of 7.0 and 6.0, exceeded that of some strains of S. mutans....... The V(ap) decreased with pH for all strains, but some strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and strains of the mutans streptococci maintained a relatively high rate of acid production. The results suggest that some strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and S. oralis may play an important role in caries development...

  13. Effect of xylitol on cariogenic and beneficial oral streptococci: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahador, A; Lesan, S; Kashi, N

    2012-06-01

    Although habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels, its effect on beneficial oral streptococci is less clear. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effect of short-term xylitol consumption on the oral beneficial streptococci level of saliva, Streptococcus sanguinis and S. mitis. Twenty four volunteers with a median age of 23.7 years (range: 20-28) harboring Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis and S. mitis participated in the randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The experimental chewing gum (1.5 g/pellet) contained 70% xylitol w/w while the control gum contained 63% sorbitol w/w. Saliva samples were collected before and after two three-week test periods with a four-week washout interval. Colony-forming units (CFU)/ml were enumerated for the estimation of S. mutans levels on Mitis Salivarius-Mutans valinomycin (MS-MUTV), S. sobrinus on Mitis Salivarius-Sobrinus (MS-SOB), S. sanguinis on Modified Medium 10-Sucrose (MM10-S) and S. mitis on Mitis Salivarius Agar with Tellurite (MSAT) media. The S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts of the saliva samples decreased significantly (p = 0.01 and p = 0.011, respectively) in the xylitol gum group but not in the sorbitol gum group. The salivary S. sanguinis and S. mitis counts did not decrease in both xylitol and sorbitol gum groups. Based on the findings of this study, xylitol consumption reduced S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts in saliva but appeared not to effect numbers of S. sanguinis and S. mitis in saliva. So, habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels without any effect on beneficial sterptococci for the oral cavity.

  14. Identifikasi S.mutans dan S.sobrinus dengan Morfologi Koloni dan Analisa Biokimia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriandi Sutadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutans streptococci are considered as major bacteria in human dental caries, and S. mutans and S. sobrinus are the ones most commonly found in humans. It has been shown from previous study that the numbers of S. sobrinus in oral samples are usually underestimated, and the S. sobrinus colonies are often misidentified as S. mutans. The aim of this study was to identify S. mutans and S. sobrinus from dental plaque of children. Dental plaque samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs from first and second upper deciduous molars from 3 children. Samples of dental plaque were inoculated onto MSB-0.5% yeast extract-20% sucrose. Identification of S.mutans and S. sobrinus was performed using examination of colony morphology and biochemical analysis with inulin and rafinose. Identification results were then documented as digital images with Olympus Digital BX 51. S. mutans forms convex, translucent colonies with rough margins, while the S. sobrinus colonies are translucent, circular, with pinpoints and smooth margins. Aglisining bubble often accumulates on top of the colony when excessive glucan is synthesized from sucrose. Biochemical analysis had showed positive reaction on S. mutans, and negative on S. sobrinus. From this study it can be concluded that S. mutans and S. sobrinus could be identified clearly with examination of colony morphology and biochemical analysis.

  15. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  16. Enterococcus faecium WB2000 Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Oral Cariogenic Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on biofilm formation by cariogenic streptococci. The ability of E. faecium WB2000 and JCM5804 and Enterococcus faecalis JCM5803 to inhibit biofilm formation by seven laboratory oral streptococcal strains and 13 clinical mutans streptococcal strains was assayed. The Enterococcal strains inhibited biofilm formation in dual cultures with the mutans streptococcal strains Streptococcus mutans Xc and Streptococcus sobrinus JCM5176 (P<0.05, but not with the noncariogenic streptococcal strains. Enterococcus faecium WB2000 inhibited biofilm formation by 90.0% (9/10 of the clinical S. mutans strains and 100% (3/3 of the clinical S. sobrinus strains. After culturing, the pH did not differ between single and dual cultures. The viable counts of floating mutans streptococci were lower in dual cultures with E. faecium WB2000 than in single cultures. Enterococcus faecium WB2000 acted as a probiotic bacterial inhibitor of cariogenic streptococcal biofilm formation.

  17. Clinical presentation of infective endocarditis caused by different groups of non-beta haemolytic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, B; Olaison, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-02-01

    Streptococci are common causes of infective endocarditis (IE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has provided a practical tool for their species determination. We aimed to investigate if particular groups of non-beta heamolytic streptococci were associated with IE or to specific presentations thereof. The Swedish Registry of Infective Endocarditis was used to identify cases of IE caused by streptococci and a local database to identify cases of streptococcal bacteremia. The bacteria were grouped using MALDI-TOF MS and the clinical characteristics of IE caused by different groups were compared. We identified a group of 201 streptococcal IE isolates: 18 isolates belonged to the anginosus, 19 to the bovis, 140 to the mitis, 17 to the mutans, and seven to the salivarius groups. The mitis and mutans groups were significantly more common and the anginosus group less common among IE cases as compared to all cause bacteremia. Patients infected with the bovis group isolates were older, had more cardiac devices, and had more commonly prosthetic valve IE compared to IE caused by streptococci of the other groups. Twenty-one percent of patients needed surgery, and in-hospital mortality was 8% with no significant differences between the groups. Grouping of non-beta haemolytic streptococci using MALDI-TOF MS can provide a basis for decision-making in streptococcal bacteremia. IE caused by bovis group isolates have clinical characteristics distinguishing them from IE caused by other groups of Streptococcus.

  18. Evaluation of a rapid latex agglutination test for identification of group D streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, S J; Washington, J A

    1984-09-01

    The SeroSTAT latex agglutination test (Scott Laboratories, Inc., Fiskesville, R.I.) for identification of group D streptococci was compared with bile-esculin agar and Lancefield grouping by using 110 clinical isolates of group D streptococci (S. faecalis, 74; S. bovis, 24; S. durans, 3; S. faecium, 9) and 65 viridans streptococci (S. anginosus-constellatus, 2; Streptococcus MG, 15; S. sanguis II, 14; S. mitis, 7; S. mutans, 5; S. salivarius, 8; S. sanguis I, 8; S. acidominimus, 1; S. morbillorum, 2; S. pneumoniae, 3). All strains of group D streptococci were bile-esculin positive. SeroSTAT reactions were falsely positive with 2 strains of S. sanguisII and 1 strain of Streptococcus MG (4.6% of all viridans streptococci tested) and falsely negative with 10 S. bovis, 8 S. faecalis, 1 S. durans, and 6 S. faecium strains (22.7% of all group D streptococci tested). When considered with colonial morphology and hemolytic reaction, SeroSTAT is a rapid (60-s) and useful test for recognition of group D streptococci.

  19. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Genotypic characterization of initial acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in American Indian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David J.; Villhauer, Alissa L.; Warren, John J.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Phipps, Kathy R.; Starr, Delores E.; Drake, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. Methods We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Results Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS) scores (p=0.0007). Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. Conclusion These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described ‘window of infectivity’ and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers. PMID:25840611

  1. Genotypic characterization of initial acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in American Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lynch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. Methods: We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR. Results: Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS scores (p=0.0007. Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. Conclusion: These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described ‘window of infectivity’ and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers.

  2. Alkali production associated with malolactic fermentation by oral streptococci and protection against acid, oxidative, or starvation damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiangyun; Baldeck, Jeremiah D.; Nguyen, Phuong T.M.; Quivey, Robert G.; Marquis, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Alkali production by oral streptococci is considered important for dental plaque ecology and caries moderation. Recently, malolactic fermentation (MLF) was identified as a major system for alkali production by oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans. Our major objectives in the work described in this paper were to further define the physiology and genetics of MLF of oral streptococci and its roles in protection against metabolic stress damage. l-Malic acid was rapidly fermented to l-lactic acid and CO2 by induced cells of wild-type S. mutans, but not by deletion mutants for mleS (malolactic enzyme) or mleP (malate permease). Mutants for mleR (the contiguous regulator gene) had intermediate capacities for MLF. Loss of capacity to catalyze MLF resulted in loss of capacity for protection against lethal acidification. MLF was also found to be protective against oxidative and starvation damage. The capacity of S. mutans to produce alkali from malate was greater than its capacity to produce acid from glycolysis at low pH values of 4 or 5. MLF acted additively with the arginine deiminase system for alkali production by Streptococcus sanguinis, but not with urease of Streptococcus salivarius. Malolactic fermentation is clearly a major process for alkali generation by oral streptococci and for protection against environmental stresses. PMID:20651853

  3. Mannosidase Production by Viridans Group Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, K. A.; Roberts, G.; Byers, H. L.; Tarelli, E.; Whiley, R. A.; Philpott-Howard, J.; Beighton, D.

    2001-01-01

    The production of mannosidase activity by all currently recognized species of human viridans group streptococci was determined using an assay in which bacterial growth was dependent on the degradation of the high-mannose-type glycans of RNase B and subsequent utilization of released mannose. RNase B is an excellent substrate for the demonstration of mannosidase activity since it is a glycoprotein with a single glycosylation site which is occupied by high-mannose-type glycoforms containing five to nine mannose residues. Mannosidase activity was produced only by some members of the mitis group (Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus infantis, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Streptococcus intermedius of the anginosus group. None of the other species within the salivarius and mutans groups or Streptococcus peroris and Streptococcus sanguinis produced mannosidase activity. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, it was demonstrated that the Man5 glycan alone was degraded while Man6 to Man9, which contain terminal α(1→2) mannose residues in addition to the α(1→3), α(1→6), and β(1→4) residues present in Man5, remained intact. Investigations on mannosidase production using synthetic (4-methylumbelliferone- or p-nitrophenol-linked) α- or β-mannosides as substrates indicated that there was no correlation between degradation of these substrates and degradation of the Man5 glycan of RNase B. No species degraded these α-linked mannosides, while degradation of the β-linked synthetic substrates was restricted to strains within the Streptococcus anginosus, S. gordonii, and S. intermedius species. The data generated using a native glycoprotein as the substrate demonstrate that mannosidase production within the viridans group streptococci is more widely distributed than had previously been considered. PMID:11230417

  4. Zymographic characterization of bacteriolytic enzymes produced by oral streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Goh; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Kajimura, Junko; Fujiwara, Tamaki; Ohara, Masaru; Kozai, Katsuyuki; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2004-01-01

    Zymographic analysis was performed to know the bacteriolytic enzyme profiles of 4% SDS extracts of oral streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguis, S. mitis and S. salivarius. We investigated the five strains in each species and found that the profile was very similar among strains of the same species except for S. salivarius(the profile was classified into two types). On the other hand, the profile was considerably different among species. Two major bacteriolytic enzymes of S. mutans showing molecular mass of 80 and 100 kDa were found using SDS-boiled S. mutans or S. sobrinus cells as substrate. These bacteriolytic activities were less apparent in the gel containing S. mitis or S. salivarius, and also not detectable in the gel containing S. sanguis. S. sobrinus extract showed only one bacteriolytic band (78 kDa) as strong activity using S. sobrinus cells as substrate. S. sanguis extract showed no bacteriolytic bands using any streptococcal cells. Extracts of either S. mitis or S. salivarius showed weak activity by using respective strains as substrate.

  5. Comparison of mutans streptococcal strains of father, mother, and child in indian families using chromosomal DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Amar N; Damle, Sg

    2013-09-01

    It is now understood and accepted that there is a direct transmission of mutans streptococci (MS) from the mother to the child. There is also a direct correlation between the levels of MS in the mother and the caries status of the child. Advanced technologies in molecular biology like chromosomal DNA fngerprinting have established beyond doubt that the mother and the child bear similar strains of MS. A study was designed with the aim of comparing the MS strains between the father, mother and the child in Indian families. A group of 20 Indian families comprising of the father, mother and child were selected and divided into caries free and caries active groups. Mixed salivary samples were collected from the individuals and were cultured for the growth of Mutans streptococci. The colonies were counted on a colony counter and a comparison was made between the mutans streptococcal counts of the mother and the caries status of the child. Further, the genotypes of the father, mother and the child were isolated and compared using the technique of chromosomal DNA fngerprinting. Following electrophoresis, the band pattern obtained was compared for similarities or differences. The results of the same were tabulated and evaluated statistically. When the colony counts of the mother (in CFU/ml) were compared with the 'dft' status of the child, a positive correlation was seen in group II. Intergroup comparison using the unpaired T test was statistically signifcant. Electrophoretic analysis of the chromosomal DNA on the agarose gels revealed identical band patterns in 13 mother-child pairs, which was statistically signifcant. Three of the father-child pairs showed identical band patterns, which was statistically signifcant. Intergroup comparison using Chi-square test was not statistically signifcant. One may conclude that irrespective of the caries status of the child, majority of the mother child pairs share identical strains of MS and hence the mother is the primary source of

  6. Cloning-independent plasmid construction for genetic studies in streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia; Merritt, Justin

    2013-08-01

    Shuttle plasmids are among the few routinely utilized tools in the Streptococcus mutans genetic system that still require the use of classical cloning methodologies and intermediate hosts for genetic manipulation. Accordingly, it typically requires considerably less time and effort to introduce mutations onto the S. mutans chromosome than it does to construct shuttle vectors for expressing genes in trans. Occasionally, shuttle vector constructs also exhibit toxicity in Escherichia coli, which prevents their proper assembly. To circumvent these limitations, we modified a prolonged overlap extension PCR (POE-PCR) protocol to facilitate direct plasmid assembly in S. mutans. Using solely PCR, we created the reporter vector pZX7, which contains a single minimal streptococcal replication origin and harbors a spectinomycin resistance cassette and the gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase. We compared the efficiency of pZX7 assembly using multiple strains of S. mutans and were able to obtain from 5 × 10³ to 2 × 10⁵ CFU/μg PCR product. Likewise, we used pZX7 to further demonstrate that Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii are also excellent hosts for cloning-independent plasmid assembly, which suggests that this system is likely to function in numerous other streptococci. Consequently, it should be possible to completely forgo the use of E. coli-Streptococcus shuttle vectors in many streptococcal species, thereby decreasing the time and effort required to assemble constructs and eliminating any toxicity issues associated with intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans in oral samples from caries-free and caries-active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkou, S; Balasouli, C; Tsuzukibashi, O; Argyropoulou, A; Menexes, G; Kotsanos, N; Kalfas, S

    2016-10-01

    This was to examine the occurrence of S. mutans, S. sobrinus and C. albicans in dental plaque and saliva from caries-free and caries-active Greek children. Saliva and dental plaque samples from 46 caries-free and 51 caries-active 3-to-13-year-old children were examined using selective media for the three microbes. Identification of isolated mutans streptococci (S. mutans and S. sobrinus) was performed with biochemical test and specific DNA probes. The salivary levels of mutans streptococci were additionally determined by a chair-side test (Dentocult ® SM strips). The isolation frequencies of S. mutans, S. sobrinus and C. albicans were 66, 11 and 18 %, respectively. Caries-active children harboured more frequently and at significantly higher numbers the specific microbes than caries-free children. A similar pattern was observed with the Dentocult ® SM strip scores. No correlation was found between the presence of these microbes and the age or gender of the children. Caries experience was statistically significantly related to the presence of all three microbes under study, both in dental plaque and saliva.

  8. The pathogenic equine streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F

    2004-01-01

    Streptococci pathogenic for the horse include S. equi (S. equi subsp. equi), S. zooepidemicus (S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus), S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. pneumoniae capsule Type III. S. equi is a clonal descendent or biovar of an ancestral S. zooepidemicus strain with which it shares greater than 98% DNA homology and therefore expresses many of the same proteins and virulence factors. Rapid progress has been made in identification of virulence factors and proteins uniquely expressed by S. equi. Most of these are expressed either on the bacterial surface or are secreted. Notable examples include the antiphagocytic SeM and the secreted pyrogenic superantigens SePE-I and H. The genomic DNA sequence of S. equi will greatly accelerate identification and characterization of additional virulence factors and vaccine targets. Although it is the most frequently isolated opportunist pyogen of the horse, S. zooepidemicus has been the subject of few contemporary research studies. Variation in the protectively immunogenic SzP proteins has, however, been well characterized. Given its opportunist behavior, studies are urgently needed on regulation of virulence factors such as capsule and proteases. Likewise, information is also very limited on virulence factors and associated gene regulation of S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. It has recently been shown that equine isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae are clonal, a feature shared with S. equi. All equine isolates express capsule Type III, are genetically similar, and have deletions in the genes for autolysin and pneumolysin. In summary, the evolving picture of the interaction of the equine pathogenic streptococci and their host is that of multiple virulence factors active at different stages of pathogenesis. The inherent complexity of this interaction suggests that discovery of effective combinations of immunogens from potential targets identified in genomic sequence will be laborious.

  9. RgpF Is Required for Maintenance of Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, C J; Faustoferri, R C; Quivey, R G

    2017-12-15

    Bacterial cell wall dynamics have been implicated as important determinants of cellular physiology, stress tolerance, and virulence. In Streptococcus mutans , the cell wall is composed primarily of a rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) linked to the peptidoglycan. Despite extensive studies describing its formation and composition, the potential roles for RGP in S. mutans biology have not been well investigated. The present study characterizes the impact of RGP disruption as a result of the deletion of rgpF , the gene encoding a rhamnosyltransferase involved in the construction of the core polyrhamnose backbone of RGP. The Δ rgpF mutant strain displayed an overall reduced fitness compared to the wild type, with heightened sensitivities to various stress-inducing culture conditions and an inability to tolerate acid challenge. The loss of rgpF caused a perturbation of membrane-associated functions known to be critical for aciduricity, a hallmark of S. mutans acid tolerance. The proton gradient across the membrane was disrupted, and the Δ rgpF mutant strain was unable to induce activity of the F 1 F o ATPase in cultures grown under low-pH conditions. Further, the virulence potential of S. mutans was also drastically reduced following the deletion of rgpF The Δ rgpF mutant strain produced significantly less robust biofilms, indicating an impairment in its ability to adhere to hydroxyapatite surfaces. Additionally, the Δ rgpF mutant lost competitive fitness against oral peroxigenic streptococci, and it displayed significantly attenuated virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella infection model. Collectively, these results highlight a critical function of the RGP in the maintenance of overall stress tolerance and virulence traits in S. mutans IMPORTANCE The cell wall of Streptococcus mutans , the bacterium most commonly associated with tooth decay, is abundant in rhamnose-glucose polysaccharides (RGP). While these structures are antigenically distinct to S. mutans

  10. Proteome Analysis Identifies the Dpr Protein of Streptococcus mutans as an Important Factor in the Presence of Early Streptococcal Colonizers of Tooth Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Niki, Mamiko; Yamamoto, Yuji; Yasunaga, Ai; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Oral streptococci are primary colonizers of tooth surfaces and Streptococcus mutans is the principal causative agent of dental caries in humans. A number of proteins are involved in the formation of monospecies biofilms by S. mutans. This study analyzed the protein expression profiles of S. mutans biofilms formed in the presence or absence of S. gordonii, a pioneer colonizer of the tooth surface, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After identifying S. mutans proteins by Mass spectrometric analysis, their expression in the presence of S. gordonii was analyzed. S. mutans was inoculated with or without S. gordonii DL1. The two species were compartmentalized using 0.2-μl Anopore membranes. The biofilms on polystyrene plates were harvested, and the solubilized proteins were separated by 2-DE. When S. mutans biofilms were formed in the presence of S. gordonii, the peroxide resistance protein Dpr of the former showed 4.3-fold increased expression compared to biofilms that developed in the absence of the pioneer colonizer. In addition, we performed a competition assay using S. mutans antioxidant protein mutants together with S. gordonii and other initial colonizers. Growth of the dpr-knockout S. mutans mutant was significantly inhibited by S. gordonii, as well as by S. sanguinis. Furthermore, a cell viability assay revealed that the viability of the dpr-defective mutant was significantly attenuated compared to the wild-type strain when co-cultured with S. gordonii. Therefore, these results suggest that Dpr might be one of the essential proteins for S. mutans survival on teeth in the presence of early colonizing oral streptococci. PMID:25816242

  11. Differential recovery of Streptococcus mutans from various mitis-salivarius agar preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljemark, W F; Okrent, D H; Bloomquist, C G

    1976-07-01

    Recoveries of Streptococcus mutans from human dental plaque were lower when plated on mitis-salivarius agar obtained from Baltimore Biological Laboratories as compared with mitis-salivarius agar obtained from Difco Laboratories. However, no difference in recoveries of established laboratory strains of S. mutans was observed between these two agar preparations.

  12. Comparing the cariogenic species Streptococcus sobrinus and S. mutans on whole genome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Conrads

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two closely related species of mutans streptococci, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, are associated with dental caries in humans. Their acidogenic and aciduric capacity is directly associated with the cariogenic potential of these bacteria. To survive acidic and temporarily harsh conditions in the human oral cavity with hundreds of other microbial co-colonizers as competitors, both species have developed numerous mechanisms for adaptation. Objectives: The recently published novel genome information for both species is used to elucidate genetic similarities but especially differences and to discuss the impact on cariogenicity of the corresponding phenotypic properties including adhesion, carbohydrate uptake and fermentation, acid tolerance, signaling by two component systems, competence, and oxidative stress resistance. Conclusions: S. sobrinus can down-regulate the SpaA-mediated adherence to the pellicle. It has a smaller number of two-component signaling systems and bacteriocin-related genes than S. mutans, but all or even more immunity proteins. It lacks the central competence genes comC, comS, and comR. There are more genes coding for glucosyltransferases and a novel energy production pathway formed by lactate oxidase, which is not found in S. mutans. Both species show considerable differences in the regulation of fructan catabolism. However, both S. mutans and S. sobrinus share most of these traits and should therefore be considered as equally virulent with regard to dental caries.

  13. A mariner transposon vector adapted for mutagenesis in oral streptococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Martin; Christiansen, Natalia; Høiby, Niels

    2014-01-01

    ATs-pWV01, a selectable kanamycin resistance gene, a Himar1 transposase gene regulated by a xylose-inducible promoter, and an erythromycin resistance gene flanked by himar inverted repeats. The pMN100 plasmid was transformed into Streptococcus mutans UA159 and transposon mutagenesis was performed via...... a protocol established to perform high numbers of separate transpositions despite a low frequency of transposition. The distribution of transposon inserts in 30 randomly picked mutants suggested that mariner transposon mutagenesis is unbiased in S. mutans. A generated transposon mutant library containing...

  14. Streptococcus oligofermentans Inhibits Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms at Both Neutral pH and Cariogenic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xudong; de Soet, Johannes Jacob; Tong, Huichun; Gao, Xuejun; He, Libang; van Loveren, Cor; Deng, Dong Mei

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (HP). Since pH is a critical factor in caries formation, we aimed to study the influence of pH on the competition between S. oligofermentans and S. mutans in biofilms. To this end, S. mutans and S. oligofermentans were inoculated alone or mixed at 1:1 ratio in buffered biofilm medium in a 96-well active attachment model. The single- and dual-species biofilms were grown under either constantly neutral pH or pH-cycling conditions. The latter includes two cycles of 8 h neutral pH and 16 h pH 5.5, used to mimic cariogenic condition. The 48 h biofilms were analysed for the viable cell counts, lactate and HP production. The last two measurements were carried out after incubating the 48 h biofilms in buffers supplemented with 1% glucose (pH 7.0) for 4 h. The results showed that S. oligofermentans inhibited the growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms under both tested pH conditions. The lactic acid production of dual-species biofilms was significantly lower than that of single-species S. mutans biofilms. Moreover, dual-species and single-species S. oligofermentans biofilms grown under pH-cycling conditions (with a 16 h low pH period) produced a significantly higher amount of HP than those grown under constantly neutral pH. In conclusion, S. oligofermentans inhibited S. mutans in biofilms not only under neutral pH, but also under pH-cycling conditions, likely through HP production. S. oligofermentans may be a compelling probiotic candidate against caries.

  15. Genomewide Identification of Essential Genes and Fitness Determinants of Streptococcus mutans UA159

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Culp, David J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposon mutagenesis coupled with next-generation DNA sequencing (Tn-seq) is a powerful tool for discovering regions of the genome that are required for the survival of bacteria in different environments. We adapted this technique to the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159 and identified 11% of the genome as essential, with many genes encoding products required for replication, translation, lipid metabolism, and cell wall biogenesis. Comparison of the essential genome of S. mutans UA159 with those of selected other streptococci for which such information is available revealed several metabolic pathways and genes that are required in S. mutans, but not in some Streptococcus spp. We further identified genes that are essential for sustained growth in rich or defined medium, as well as for persistence in vivo in a rodent model of oral infection. Collectively, our results provide a novel and comprehensive view of the genes required for essential processes of S. mutans, many of which could represent potential targets for therapeutics. IMPORTANCE Tooth decay (dental caries) is a common cause of pain, impaired quality of life, and tooth loss in children and adults. It begins because of a compositional change in the microorganisms that colonize the tooth surface driven by repeated and sustained carbohydrate intake. Although several bacterial species are associated with tooth decay, Streptococcus mutans is the most common cause. Therefore, it is important to identify biological processes that contribute to the survival of S. mutans in the human mouth, with the aim of disrupting the processes with antimicrobial agents. We successfully applied Tn-seq to S. mutans, discovering genes that are required for survival, growth, and persistence, both in laboratory environments and in a mouse model of tooth decay. This work highlights new avenues for the control of an important human pathogen. PMID:29435491

  16. Genomewide Identification of Essential Genes and Fitness Determinants ofStreptococcus mutansUA159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Robert C; Zeng, Lin; Culp, David J; Burne, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis coupled with next-generation DNA sequencing (Tn-seq) is a powerful tool for discovering regions of the genome that are required for the survival of bacteria in different environments. We adapted this technique to the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159 and identified 11% of the genome as essential, with many genes encoding products required for replication, translation, lipid metabolism, and cell wall biogenesis. Comparison of the essential genome of S. mutans UA159 with those of selected other streptococci for which such information is available revealed several metabolic pathways and genes that are required in S. mutans , but not in some Streptococcus spp. We further identified genes that are essential for sustained growth in rich or defined medium, as well as for persistence in vivo in a rodent model of oral infection. Collectively, our results provide a novel and comprehensive view of the genes required for essential processes of S. mutans , many of which could represent potential targets for therapeutics. IMPORTANCE Tooth decay (dental caries) is a common cause of pain, impaired quality of life, and tooth loss in children and adults. It begins because of a compositional change in the microorganisms that colonize the tooth surface driven by repeated and sustained carbohydrate intake. Although several bacterial species are associated with tooth decay, Streptococcus mutans is the most common cause. Therefore, it is important to identify biological processes that contribute to the survival of S. mutans in the human mouth, with the aim of disrupting the processes with antimicrobial agents. We successfully applied Tn-seq to S. mutans , discovering genes that are required for survival, growth, and persistence, both in laboratory environments and in a mouse model of tooth decay. This work highlights new avenues for the control of an important human pathogen.

  17. Alanine racemase is essential for the growth and interspecies competitiveness of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Qiu, Wei; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Ke; Wang, Shi-Da; Li, Yu-Qing; Cheng, Lei; Li, Ji-Yao; Xu, Xin; Li, Ming-Yun

    2016-12-16

    D-alanine (D-Ala) is an essential amino acid that has a key role in bacterial cell wall synthesis. Alanine racemase (Alr) is a unique enzyme that interconverts L-alanine and D-alanine in most bacteria, making this enzyme a potential target for antimicrobial drug development. Streptococcus mutans is a major causative factor of dental caries. The factors involved in the survival, virulence and interspecies interactions of S. mutans could be exploited as potential targets for caries control. The current study aimed to investigate the physiological role of Alr in S. mutans. We constructed alr mutant strain of S. mutans and evaluated its phenotypic traits and interspecies competitiveness compared with the wild-type strain. We found that alr deletion was lethal to S. mutans. A minimal supplement of D-Ala (150 μg·mL -1 ) was required for the optimal growth of the alr mutant. The depletion of D-alanine in the growth medium resulted in cell wall perforation and cell lysis in the alr mutant strain. We also determined the compromised competitiveness of the alr mutant strain relative to the wild-type S. mutans against other oral streptococci (S. sanguinis or S. gordonii), demonstrated using either conditioned medium assays or dual-species fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. Given the importance and necessity of alr to the growth and competitiveness of S. mutans, Alr may represent a promising target to modulate the cariogenicity of oral biofilms and to benefit the management of dental caries.

  18. [Classical and new approaches in laboratory diagnosis of viridans streptococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Alper

    2010-07-01

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are gram-positive microorganisms that can form alpha-hemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar. They reside as normal flora in oral cavity, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital tract and on skin. They can cause bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis and septicemia following dental procedures. The diagnosis of VGS are difficult since the taxonomic classification and species na-mes may change due in time. Viridans group streptococci are classified into 5 groups (Sanguinis, Mitis, Mutans, Salivarius, Anginosus) according to biochemical reactions and 16S rRNA sequencing. Since Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group, the other important species in this group deserves investigation. Genetic exchange between Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis and S.pneumoniae by transformation and lysis mechanisms occur continously as they share the same anatomical region. These mechanisms play role in exchanging capsular and antibiotic resistance genes between these species. The cultivation of VGS usually starts with the inoculation of various patient specimens into sheep blood agar and the detection of alpha-hemolytic colonies. Observation of gram-positive cocci microscopically, the detection of optochin-resistant and bile insoluble colonies with few exceptions are the further important steps in laboratory diagnosis. VGS are then identified at species level by using biochemical reactions, automated diagnostic systems and molecular methods. The last step in the laboratory diagnosis of VGS is antibiotic susceptibility testing which is of outmost importance as penicillin and erythromycin resistance are on rise. In this review article, classification of VGS, similarities between S.pneumoniae and Mitis group streptococci and the laboratory diagnosis of VGS have been discussed.

  19. The efficacy of chlorhexidine gel in reduction of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species in patients treated with radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.B.; McBride, B.C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Merilees, H.; Spinelli, J. (Cancer Control Agency of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    Xerostomia may develop in patients with cancer who receive radiotherapy that includes the salivary glands in the field. These patients are at high risk of rampant dental caries. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species have been associated with dental caries. Quantitative counts of these organisms demonstrated high caries risk due to streptococci in 66% and due to lactobacilli in 100% of patients studied. Use of chlorhexidine rinse was shown to reduce S. mutans counts 1.1 logs and lactobacilli 1.1 logs. The use of chlorhexidine gel resulted in a reduction of S. mutans 1.2 logs and lactobacilli 2.2 logs. In the subjects using the rinse, caries risk due to streptococci was reduced to low levels in 44% and due to lactobacilli in only one subject, with reduction to moderate risk in one third and no change in risk in the remaining patients. The use of chlorhexidine gel was found to reduce the caries risk associated with streptococci to low levels in all patients, and the risk associated with lactobacilli to low and moderate risk in two thirds of patients.

  20. The efficacy of chlorhexidine gel in reduction of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species in patients treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, J.B.; McBride, B.C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Merilees, H.; Spinelli, J.

    1991-01-01

    Xerostomia may develop in patients with cancer who receive radiotherapy that includes the salivary glands in the field. These patients are at high risk of rampant dental caries. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species have been associated with dental caries. Quantitative counts of these organisms demonstrated high caries risk due to streptococci in 66% and due to lactobacilli in 100% of patients studied. Use of chlorhexidine rinse was shown to reduce S. mutans counts 1.1 logs and lactobacilli 1.1 logs. The use of chlorhexidine gel resulted in a reduction of S. mutans 1.2 logs and lactobacilli 2.2 logs. In the subjects using the rinse, caries risk due to streptococci was reduced to low levels in 44% and due to lactobacilli in only one subject, with reduction to moderate risk in one third and no change in risk in the remaining patients. The use of chlorhexidine gel was found to reduce the caries risk associated with streptococci to low levels in all patients, and the risk associated with lactobacilli to low and moderate risk in two thirds of patients

  1. Tigecycline (GAR-936) activity against Streptococcus gallolyticus (bovis) and viridans group streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moet, Gary J; Dowzicky, Michael J; Jones, Ronald N

    2007-03-01

    Viridans group streptococci including Streptococcus gallolyticus (formerly S. bovis) represent serious invasive pathogens often associated with endocarditis or sepsis among immunocompromised or cancer patients. Tigecycline (GAR-936), the first clinically studied glycylcycline, has a potent gram-positive activity with a potential treatment option for these streptococcal infections. The studied collection (848 strains) included 100 isolates each of Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and fewer strains of S. gallolyticus (98 strains) and Streptococcus mutans (50 strains). These strains were isolated from patients on 3 continents in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program and tested for susceptibility and interpreted by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods and criteria (viridans group streptococci species and S. gallolyticus with an overall MIC90 at < or = 0.06 microg/mL; the highest MIC was only 0.25 microg/mL.

  2. Effect of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans from Aggressive Periodontitis patients on Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovsky, A; Wolff, A; Saminsky, M; Mazor, Y; Venezia, E; Bar-Ness Greenstein, R

    2015-11-01

    To determine in vivo association between Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Streptococcus mutans (Sm) in aggressive periodontitis patients (AgP) and the in vitro influence on Sm of saliva and of Aa strains isolated from individual Aa-positive patients. Clinical indices and saliva samples were taken from 30 AgP patients. Aa and mutans streptococci levels were determined. Antibacterial effect of saliva from 12 Aa-positive patients, and their individual Aa strain, was checked turbidimetrically in vitro on Sm. Aa salivary level was inversely correlated with levels of mutans streptococci and directly correlated with pockets of ≥7 mm. During exponential growth phase: (i) All Aa-positive and Aa-negative saliva samples showed no significant influence on Sm growth. (ii) Each individually isolated Aa strain presented significant inhibitory effect on Sm growth. During stationary growth phase, all the above demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Sm growth, with significantly greater influence of Aa individual strains. Saliva of each AgP Aa-positive subject had an inhibitory effect on Sm growth, which is most likely derived from Aa bacterial physiology. This research raises the possibility that suppression of Aa due to periodontal treatment may increase Sm levels and hence caries incidence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genetická diverzita S. mutans v rodinách a u dětí s nízkým a vysokým rizikem zubního kazu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, J.; Broukal, Z.; Janata, Jiří; Novotná, Gabriela; Janatová, T.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 4 (2005), s. 109-112 ISSN 1213-0613 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : s. mutans * oral streptococcci * transfer of cariogenic streptococci Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Akasaka, Tsukasa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus 2 mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR ...

  5. Amino Sugars Enhance the Competitiveness of Beneficial Commensals with Streptococcus mutans through Multiple Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Farivar, Tanaz; Burne, Robert A

    2016-06-15

    Biochemical and genetic aspects of the metabolism of the amino sugars N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN) by commensal oral streptococci and the effects of these sugars on interspecies competition with the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans were explored. Multiple S. mutans wild-type isolates displayed long lag phases when transferred from glucose-containing medium to medium with GlcNAc as the primary carbohydrate source, but commensal streptococci did not. Competition in liquid coculture or dual-species biofilms between S. mutans and Streptococcus gordonii showed that S. gordonii was particularly dominant when the primary carbohydrate was GlcN or GlcNAc. Transcriptional and enzymatic assays showed that the catabolic pathway for GlcNAc was less highly induced in S. mutans than in S. gordonii Exposure to H2O2, which is produced by S. gordonii and antagonizes the growth of S. mutans, led to reduced mRNA levels of nagA and nagB in S. mutans When the gene for the transcriptional regulatory NagR was deleted in S. gordonii, the strain produced constitutively high levels of nagA (GlcNAc-6-P deacetylase), nagB (GlcN-6-P deaminase), and glmS (GlcN-6-P synthase) mRNA. Similar to NagR of S. mutans (NagRSm), the S. gordonii NagR protein (NagRSg) could bind to consensus binding sites (dre) in the nagA, nagB, and glmS promoter regions of S. gordonii Notably, NagRSg binding was inhibited by GlcN-6-P, but G-6-P had no effect, unlike for NagRSm This study expands the understanding of amino sugar metabolism and NagR-dependent gene regulation in streptococci and highlights the potential for therapeutic applications of amino sugars to prevent dental caries. Amino sugars are abundant in the biosphere, so the relative efficiency of particular bacteria in a given microbiota to metabolize these sources of carbon and nitrogen might have a profound impact on the ecology of the community. Our investigation reveals that several oral commensal bacteria have a much

  6. Presença de Streptococcus mutans e Streptococcus mutans associado a Streptococcus sobrinus em escolares de diferentes classes sócio-econômicas e sua relação com a atividade cariogênica dessas populações Association between Streptococcus mutans/Streptococcus sobrinus in students of different social levels and their relationship with the cariogenic activity in these populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco HÖFLING

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de estreptococos do grupo mutans mais predominantemente isoladas de amostras salivares têm sido S. mutans e S. sobrinus. A detecção desses microrganismos em escolares de diferentes classes sócio-econômicas e sua relação com a atividade cariogênica dessas populações foi estudada, em correlação com os parâmetros clínicos CPOD, CPOS, ceo e ceos. Duzentos (200 escolares pertencentes a cinco categorias sócio-econômicas foram separados em subgrupos de acordo com as espécies de microrganismos identificadas em suas amostras salivares. Do total de crianças analisadas, 103 (51,0% apresentaram apenas S. mutans na saliva, 33 (17,0% a associação S. mutans/S. sobrinus, e o restante, 64 (32,0%, outras espécies do grupo mutans (individualmente ou em associação. Nos subgrupos S. mutans e S. mutans/S. sobrinus 79,0% (81 e 76,0% (25, respectivamente, apresentavam cárie dentária, sugerindo um alto índice cariogênico. Para os indivíduos colonizados por S. mutans/S. sobrinus e apenas S. mutans, obtiveram-se valores médios de 9,40 e 6,70, respectivamente, para o índice de ceos, sugerindo que a associação S. mutans/S. sobrinus é potencialmente mais cariogênica que a colonização apenas por S. mutans.The group mutans streptococci, more predominantly isolated of salivary samples, have been the S. mutans and S. mutans/S. sobrinus. The detection of these microorganisms in students of different socio-economic levels and their relationship with the cariogenic activity of these populations was studied, correlating them with the clinical parameters DMFT, DMFS, dmf and dmfs. Two hundred (200 students belonging to five socio-economic levels were distributed in sub-groups, according to the species of microorganisms identified in their salivaries samples. Of all children analysed, 103 (51.0% presented only S. mutans in the saliva, 33 (17.0% the association S. mutans/S. sobrinus, and 64 (32.0%, other group mutans species (individually

  7. Streptococcus mutans SpaP binds to RadD of Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; Shokeen, Bhumika; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2017-10-01

    Adhesin-mediated bacterial interspecies interactions are important elements in oral biofilm formation. They often occur on a species-specific level, which could determine health or disease association of a biofilm community. Among the key players involved in these processes are the ubiquitous fusobacteria that have been recognized for their ability to interact with numerous different binding partners. Fusobacterial interactions with Streptococcus mutans, an important oral cariogenic pathogen, have previously been described but most studies focused on binding to non-mutans streptococci and specific cognate adhesin pairs remain to be identified. Here, we demonstrated differential binding of oral fusobacteria to S. mutans. Screening of existing mutant derivatives indicated SpaP as the major S. mutans adhesin specific for binding to Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum but none of the other oral fusobacteria tested. We inactivated RadD, a known adhesin of F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum for interaction with a number of gram-positive species, in F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum and used a Lactococcus lactis heterologous SpaP expression system to demonstrate SpaP interaction with RadD of F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. This is a novel function for SpaP, which has mainly been characterized as an adhesin for binding to host proteins including salivary glycoproteins. In conclusion, we describe an additional role for SpaP as adhesin in interspecies adherence with RadD-SpaP as the interacting adhesin pair for binding between S. mutans and F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. Furthermore, S. mutans attachment to oral fusobacteria appears to involve species- and subspecies-dependent adhesin interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of hyperimmune colostrum production in bovine against cariogenic streptococci and its impact on growth and bacterial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Ramezanalizadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dental caries is the most common infectious diseases. Among the oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are considered as the main causes of tooth decay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing specific antibodies against cariogenic bacteria and its antimicrobial effects on the growth and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three pregnant bovine immunized with killed antigens of strains of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mutans with Streptococcus Sobrinus and Streptococcus sobrinus through intramuscular injections. After delivery, The colostrum samples were collected, and the changes of anti-streptococci antibodies titers in colostrum and serum were determined by agglutination. Also,their antimicrobial effects against the growth and adhesion of oral streptococci were surveyed by the microtiter plate method. Data were analysed by One-Wey ANOVA in SPSS software. Results: The results showed that in hyperimmunized bovine , the antibodies titers against injected bacteria were from 1.1000 to 1.3000 in sera samples and from 1.320 to 1.1280 in whey of colostrum samples. Colostrum of hyperimmune cows reduced the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus Sobrinus about 69 and 43 percents, respectively and also, the low dilutions of it reduced bacterial growth. Conclusion:  According to the antibacterial effect immune colostrum on two strains of cariogenic bacteria in vitro, It appears that this material could be useful in the prevention and control of dental caries.

  9. Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13. Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo, foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amostras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os

  10. Prevalence rate and antibiotic susceptibility of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) in healthy children population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozkiewicz, D; Daniluk, T; Sciepuk, M; Zaremba, M L; Cylwik-Rokicka, D; Luczaj-Cepowicz, E; Milewska, R; Marczuk-Kolada, G; Stokowska, W

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluated the prevalence rate of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) and their susceptibilities to some antibiotics in healthy children. Samples of pharyngeal swabs and supragingival dental plaques for microbiological studies were collected from 206 healthy children, aged 4-18 years. Additionally, 75 samples of carious lesions from children with dental caries were included. The streptococci were isolated and identified using standard methods and commercial identification kits. For performance of antibacterial susceptibility testing of VGS strains disk diffusion and/or breakpoints procedures were used according to NCCLS standards and criteria. A total of 425 VGS strains were tested against penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. A total of 239 VGS strains belonging to 8 species from pharyngeal swabs of 192 (93.2%) children were isolated. VGS strains from supragingival plaques were isolated in 149 (72.3%) healthy children (p mitis species were isolated most frequently from 4-5 year old as compared to 12 and 18 year old children (p or = 2.0 mg/L) was shown in 71 (16.7%) strains, 33 (46.5%) of them belonged to S. mitis species. VGS strains were also resistant to erythromycin (23.5%), clindamycin (23.1%), tetracyclines (T-52%, DOX-16%), gentamycin (25.9%) and ciprofloxacin (55.2%). All VGS strains were vancomycin - susceptible. 1. In the oral cavities of healthy children, approximately 98% of streptococci belonged to two VGS groups, i.e. mitis and salivarius groups. Streptococci of mutans and anginosus groups were isolated sporadically (2%). 2. We observed difference in susceptibility to penicillin and other antibiotics between the various species of viridans groups streptococci. Mitis group strains (except S. pneumoniae) were more frequently penicillin-resistant (23%) in comparison to salivarius group of VGS strains (9%) (p = 0.0001).

  11. D-Tagatose inhibits the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibul, Khaleque; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Ogawa, Takaaki; Waki, Junpei; Tada, Ayano; Yoneda, Saori; Tokuda, Masaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is an important global health concern and Streptococcus mutans has been established as a major cariogenic bacterial species. Reports indicate that a rare sugar, D-tagatose, is not easily catabolized by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans GS-5 were examined. Monitoring S. mutans growth over a 24 h period revealed that D-tagatose prolonged the lag phase without interfering with the final c...

  12. Live and heat-killed Lactobacillus spp. interfere with Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis during biofilm development on titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, E; Campana, R; Baffone, W

    2017-06-01

    This research investigates the ability of live and heat-killed (HK) Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) to interfere with Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 during biofilm formation. Eight Lactobacillus spp. and two oral colonizers, pathogenic Streptococcus mutans and resident Streptococcus oralis, were characterized for their aggregation abilities, cell surface properties and biofilm formation ability on titanium surface. Then, the interference activity of selected live and HK Lactobacillus spp. during S. mutans and S. oralis biofilm development were performed. The cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) anti-biofilm activity was also determined. LAB possess good abilities of auto-aggregation (from 14.19 to 28.97%) and of co-aggregation with S. oralis. The cell-surfaces characteristics were most pronounced in S. mutans and S. oralis, while the highest affinities to xylene and chloroform were observed in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (56.37%) and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 (43.83%). S. mutans and S. oralis developed a biofilm on titanium surface, while LAB showed a limited or no ability to create biofilm. Live and HK L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 and L. paracasei B21060 inhibited streptococci biofilm formation by competition and displacement mechanisms with no substantial differences. The CFCSs of both LAB strains, particularly the undiluted one of L. paracasei B21060, decreased S. mutans and S. oralis biofilm formation. This study evidenced the association of LAB aggregation abilities and cell-surface properties with the LAB-mediated inhibition of S. mutans and S. oralis biofilm formation. Lactobacilli showed different mechanisms of action and peculiar strain-specific characteristics, maintained also in the heat-killed LAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with two photosensitizers on two oral streptococci: an in vitro study

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    Vahabi, S.; Fekrazad, R.; Ayremlou, S.; Taheri, S.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Kalhori, K. A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Periodontal diseases are caused by infection of tissues supporting the teeth due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm and firstly colonized by streptococci. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Radachlorin® and Toluidine Blue O (TBO)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the viability of two oral streptococci. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis were subjected to either TBO or Radachlorin®, Then exposed to two different diode laser light at energy densities of 3, 6 J/cm2 at 633 nm and 6, 12 J/cm2 at 662 nm, respectively. The control groups were subjected to laser light alone, photosensitizer alone or received neither photosensitizer nor light exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar mediums and viable microorganisms were counted after overnight incubation aerobically at 37°C, 5% CO2 and then reported as colony forming unit. The results indicated that photosensitization by the energy density of 6 J/cm2 with Radachlorin® and both 3 and 6 J/cm2 with TBO caused significant reduction in bacterial colony formation ( p < 0.05). Radachlorin® and TBO-mediated photodynamic therapy seem to show excellent potential in significantly killing of two oral streptococci in vitro.

  14. Fueling the caries process: carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation by Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D.; Zeng, Lin; Burne, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the oral cavity and host behaviors has mandated that the oral microbiota evolve mechanisms for coping with environmental fluctuations, especially changes in the type and availability of carbohydrates. In the case of human dental caries, the presence of excess carbohydrates is often responsible for altering the local environment to be more favorable for species associated with the initiation and progression of disease, including Streptococcus mutans. Some of the earliest endeavors to understand how cariogenic species respond to environmental perturbations were carried out using chemostat cultivation, which provides fine control over culture conditions and bacterial behaviors. The development of genome-scale methodologies has allowed for the combination of sophisticated cultivation technologies with genome-level analysis to more thoroughly probe how bacterial pathogens respond to environmental stimuli. Recent investigations in S. mutans and other closely related streptococci have begun to reveal that carbohydrate metabolism can drastically impact pathogenic potential and highlight the important influence that nutrient acquisition has on the success of pathogens; inside and outside of the oral cavity. Collectively, research into pathogenic streptococci, which have evolved in close association with the human host, has begun to unveil the essential nature of careful orchestration of carbohydrate acquisition and catabolism to allow the organisms to persist and, when conditions allow, initiate or worsen disease. PMID:25317251

  15. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-derived biosurfactant on the gene expression profile of essential adhesion genes (gtfB, gtfC and ftf of Streptococcus mutans

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    Rasoul Salehi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococci are the main causative agents in plaque formation and mutans streptococci are the principle etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. The process of biofilm formation is a step-wise process, starting with adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. It is now a well known fact that expression of glucosyltransferases (gtfs and fructosyltransferase (ftf genes play a critical role in the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the tooth surface, which results in the formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have determined the effect of biosurfactants purified from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM20016 culture on gene expression profile of gftB/C and fft of S. mutans (ATCC35668 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The application of biosurfactant caused considerable down-regulation of the expression of all three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically very significant (P > 0.0001 for all three genes. Conclusions: Inhibition of these genes by the extracted L. reuteri biosurfactant shows the emergence of a powerful alternative to the presently practicing alternatives. In view of the importance of these gene products for S. mutans attachment to the tooth surface, which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, we believe that the biosurfactant prepared in this study could be considered as a step ahead in dental caries prevention.

  16. D-Tagatose inhibits the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibul, Khaleque; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Ogawa, Takaaki; Waki, Junpei; Tada, Ayano; Yoneda, Saori; Tokuda, Masaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is an important global health concern and Streptococcus mutans has been established as a major cariogenic bacterial species. Reports indicate that a rare sugar, D-tagatose, is not easily catabolized by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans GS-5 were examined. Monitoring S. mutans growth over a 24 h period revealed that D-tagatose prolonged the lag phase without interfering with the final cell yield. This growth retardation was also observed in the presence of 1% sucrose, although it was abolished by the addition of D-fructose. S. mutans biofilm formation was significantly inhibited by growth in sucrose media supplemented with 1 and 4% D-tagatose compared with that in a culture containing sucrose alone, while S. mutans formed granular biofilms in the presence of this rare sugar. The inhibitory effect of D-tagatose on S. mutans biofilm formation was significantly more evident than that of xylitol. Growth in sucrose media supplemented with D-tagatose significantly decreased the expression of glucosyltransferase, exo-β-fructosidase and D-fructose-specific phosphotransferase genes but not the expression of fructosyltransferase compared with the culture containing sucrose only. The activity of cell-associated glucosyltransferase in S. mutans was inhibited by 4% D-tagatose. These results indicate that D-tagatose reduces water-insoluble glucan production from sucrose by inhibiting glucosyltransferase activities, which limits access to the free D-fructose released during this process and retards the growth of S. mutans. Therefore, foods and oral care products containing D-tagatose are anticipated to reduce the risk of caries by inhibiting S. mutans biofilm formation. PMID:29115611

  17. Invasion of human aortic endothelial cells by oral viridans group streptococci and induction of inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, E; de Toledo, A; Oho, T

    2011-02-01

    Oral viridans group streptococci are the major commensal bacteria of the supragingival oral biofilm and have been detected in human atheromatous plaque. Atherosclerosis involves an ongoing inflammatory response, reportedly involving chronic infection caused by multiple pathogens. The aim of this study was to examine the invasion of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by oral viridans group streptococci and the subsequent cytokine production by viable invaded HAECs. The invasion of HAECs by bacteria was examined using antibiotic protection assays and was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy. The inhibitory effects of catalase and cytochalasin D on the invasion of HAECs were also examined. The production of cytokines by invaded or infected HAECs was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and a real-time polymerase chain reaction method was used to evaluate the expression of cytokine messenger RNA. The oral streptococci tested were capable of invading HAECs. The number of invasive bacteria increased with the length of the co-culture period. After a certain co-culture period, some organisms were cytotoxic to the HAECs. Catalase and cytochalasin D inhibited the invasion of HAECs by the organism. HAECs invaded by Streptococcus mutans Xc, Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis), Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 produced more cytokine(s) (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) than non-invaded HAECs. The HAECs invaded by S. mutans Xc produced the largest amounts of cytokines, and the messenger RNA expression of cytokines by invaded HAECs increased markedly compared with that by non-invaded HAECs. These results suggest that oral streptococci may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Investigation of presence of α haemolytic streptococci, enterococci and streptococci-like bacteria in different materials originating from pigs

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    Stanojković Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to establish the presence and prevalence of streptococci, enterococci and streptococci-like bacteria in various materials originating from healthy, slaughtered and dead pigs belonging to different categories from several farms and slaughterhouses in the Republic of Serbia. The total number of investigated samples comprised 226 swabs of tonsils and noses from clinically healthy breeders, swabs of tonsils from piglets 5-20 days old, parts of nasopharyngeal tonsils from breeders slaughtered in a slaughterhouse, parts of nasopharyngeal tonsils from piglets slaughtered in a slaughterhouse, swabs of slaughtered pig carcasses from a slaughterhouse, swabs from knives for evisceration in a slaughterhouse, as well as swabs of lungs, abdominal cavity and organs from piglets which died suddenly. The standard microbiological methods were used for investigations of the presence of the listed microorganisms. Commercial biochemical tests were used for the identification of the isolated bacteria and specific sera for capsular antigenes were used for serological determination of the isolated S. suis strains. It was established that the great majority of the isolated strains belonged to the genus Streptococcus (36 (75%, and the minority of the strains belonged to the following genera: Enterococcus (6 (10.4%, Aerococcus (3 (6.2%, Lactococcus (2 (4.2% and Globicatella (2 (4.2%. The great majority of Streptococcus species belonged to S. suis. The presence of other á haemolytic streptococci was established in the swabs of nasopharyngeal tonsils: Streptococcus sanguinis (13.8%, Streptococcus salivarius (5.6%, Streptococcus mitis (5.6%, Streptococcus parasanguinis (2.7% and Streptococcus oralis (2.7%. Also, S. bovis was isolated in a smaller percentage (5.6%. The greatest number of isolated bacteria from the genus Enterococcus belonged to Enterococcus faecalis (80%, while the minority of isolated strains belonged to Enterococcus

  19. Bacteriostatic effect of simvastatin on selected oral streptococci in vitro

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    Eugene J Whitaker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective: Simvastatin is a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug, which has been found to have a number of pleiotropic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of simvastatin against selected oral streptococci as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Methods: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus salivarius were the test microorganisms. The serial dilution method was used to determine the MIC of simvastatin against these organisms. The MIC was defined as the lowest concentration of simvastatin that completely inhibited growth of the test organisms. Results: The data indicate that simvastatin inhibits the growth of the test organisms, with MIC's ranging from 7.8 to 15.6 μg/ml. Conclusions: Simvastatin has MIC's against the selected bacteria that compare favorably with reported values for topical agents such as essential oil, chlorhexidine gluconate, and triclosan. The levels of simvastatin required to inhibit bacterial growth of oral bacteria exceed the reported levels of the drug found in plasma or crevicular fluid of patients who are treated with this cholesterol-lowering drug. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate the potential use of simvastatin as a novel antiplaque agent that could be used in local drug delivery to the oral cavity of those patients who are prescribed this cholesterol-lowering drug.

  20. Quorum Sensing Regulation of Competence and Bacteriocins in Streptococcus pneumoniae and mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Erin; Federle, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence. Over the past two decades, effectors of cellular killing (i.e., fratricides) have been recognized as important targets of the pneumococcal competence QS pathway. Recently, direct interactions between the ComCDE and the paralogous BlpRH pathway, regulating bacteriocin production, were identified, further strengthening the interconnections between these two QS systems. Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S. mutans, the primary etiological agent of dental caries. This review compares the relationship between the bacteriocin and the competence QS pathways in both S. pneumoniae and S. mutans, and hopes to provide clues to regulatory pathways across the genus Streptococcus as a potential tool to efficiently investigate putative competence pathways in nontransformable streptococci. PMID:28067778

  1. Targeting of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms by a Novel Small Molecule Prevents Dental Caries and Preserves the Oral Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S S; Blackledge, M S; Michalek, S; Su, L; Ptacek, T; Eipers, P; Morrow, C; Lefkowitz, E J; Melander, C; Wu, H

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries is a costly and prevalent disease characterized by the demineralization of the tooth's enamel. Disease outcome is influenced by host factors, dietary intake, cariogenic bacteria, and other microbes. The cariogenic bacterial species Streptococcus mutans metabolizes sucrose to initiate biofilm formation on the tooth surface and consequently produces lactic acid to degrade the tooth's enamel. Persistence of S. mutans biofilms in the oral cavity can lead to tooth decay. To date, no anticaries therapies that specifically target S. mutans biofilms but do not disturb the overall oral microbiome are available. We screened a library of 2-aminoimidazole antibiofilm compounds with a biofilm dispersion assay and identified a small molecule that specifically targets S. mutans biofilms. At 5 µM, the small molecule annotated 3F1 dispersed 50% of the established S. mutans biofilm but did not disperse biofilms formed by the commensal species Streptococcus sanguinis or Streptococcus gordonii. 3F1 dispersed S. mutans biofilms independently of biofilm-related factors such as antigen I/II and glucosyltransferases. 3F1 treatment effectively prevented dental caries by controlling S. mutans in a rat caries model without perturbing the oral microbiota. Our study demonstrates that selective targeting of S. mutans biofilms by 3F1 was able to effectively reduce dental caries in vivo without affecting the overall oral microbiota shaped by the intake of dietary sugars, suggesting that the pathogenic biofilm-specific treatment is a viable strategy for disease prevention.

  2. DNA-microarrays identification of Streptococcus mutans genes associated with biofilm thickness

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    Feldman Mark

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A biofilm is a complex community of microorganisms that develop on surfaces in diverse environments. The thickness of the biofilm plays a crucial role in the physiology of the immobilized bacteria. The most cariogenic bacteria, mutans streptococci, are common inhabitants of a dental biofilm community. In this study, DNA-microarray analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes associated with the thickness of S. mutans biofilms. Results Comparative transcriptome analyses indicated that expression of 29 genes was differentially altered in 400- vs. 100-microns depth and 39 genes in 200- vs. 100-microns biofilms. Only 10 S. mutans genes showed differential expression in both 400- vs. 100-microns and 200- vs. 100-microns biofilms. All of these genes were upregulated. As sucrose is a predominant factor in oral biofilm development, its influence was evaluated on selected genes expression in the various depths of biofilms. The presence of sucrose did not noticeably change the regulation of these genes in 400- vs. 100-microns and/or 200- vs. 100-microns biofilms tested by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression profile of selected biofilm thickness associated genes in the luxS- mutant strain. The expression of those genes was not radically changed in the mutant strain compared to wild-type bacteria in planktonic condition. Only slight downregulation was recorded in SMU.2146c, SMU.574, SMU.609, and SMU.987 genes expression in luxS- bacteria in biofilm vs. planktonic environments. Conclusion These findings reveal genes associated with the thickness of biofilms of S. mutans. Expression of these genes is apparently not regulated directly by luxS and is not necessarily influenced by the presence of sucrose in the growth media.

  3. Chlorhexidine varnishes effectively inhibit Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans - An in vivo study

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    George Ashwin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorhexidine varnish (Cervitec- Ivoclar Vivadent- Liechtenstein is a sustained-release delivery system that can provide protection against white spots and gingivitis, which are common iatrogenic side effects of orthodontic treatment. Chlorhexidine in varnish form does not depend on patient compliance, does not stain teeth or alter taste sensation like the mouth rinse. Materials and Methods : A split-mouth technique was followed in the treatment of 30 patients selected by stringent selection criteria, evaluating a single application of the test varnish on two randomly allotted quadrants along with a placebo on the other two quadrants. Streptococcus mutans counts responsible for white spots and P. gingivalis count [using PCR test] responsible for gingivitis were done at the start of the study, and then 1 and 3 months later. Results: The chlorhexidine varnish reduced the Streptococci mutans count at the end of 1 month, and this reduction was statistically significant. At the end of 3 months, there was no difference in the S. mutans counts between the two groups. There was a statistically significant reduction in the P. gingivalis count at the end of both 1 and 3 months in comparison to the placebo group. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine varnishes are capable of reducing S. mutans and P. gingivalis and gingivitis, thus improving the overall oral health of the patient. The side effects of chlorhexidine mouth rinses are not seen with this varnish. An application schedule of at least once a month is recommended as the effectiveness is reduced comparatively at the end of 3 months.

  4. [Results from the Central Laboratory for Streptococci Research in Kiel from 1965 to 1977 - a survey (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, G; Tolle, A

    1979-09-01

    At the Central Laboratory for Streptococci Research at the Institute for Hygiene of the Federal Dairy Research Centre in Kiel a data bank has been established which comprises as well bibliographical data (until now more than 8000 titles out of the international literature concerning streptococci) as laboratory data of all strains which have been identified since 1965. For this present publication as a survey the total material covering 34,935 strains was analyzed and interpreted. Besides a short introduction describing the general examination procedure for streptococci and the encoding of results for the data bank the material is condensed in different tables considering the incidence of pathogenic species occuring mainly in man and animals. In addition findings of enterococci and lactic streptococci are presented. 41.8% of the strains examined were isolated from human specimens, 46.7% from cattle and the remaining ones from pigs, horses, dogs, laboratory animals and others. Only 2.0% of all cultures could not be identified as one of the known species. Remarkable observations are - the high incidence of group B-Streptococci in man - the unexpected frequency of typical "human" streptococci as those of group F and G and also Sc. milleri and Sc. MG in different animals - the possible interrelation of group L- and P-streptococci in pigs and cattle - the overlap of Sc. faecalis and Sc. faecium in man and animals showing no typical distribution as it is postulated in the literature - the high percentage of unidentifiable streptococci from pigs and laboratory animals as an eventual indication for some new species. In consecuting papers some problems emerging from the presented material and own experiments will be discussed as - interrelation of group B-Streptococci in man and cattle - incidence and importance of enterococci in humans, animals and foodstuffs and - classification of species not to identify by serological grouping.

  5. Deficiency of RgpG Causes Major Defects in Cell Division and Biofilm Formation, and Deficiency of LytR-CpsA-Psr Family Proteins Leads to Accumulation of Cell Wall Antigens in Culture Medium by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Arpan; Liao, Sumei; Bitoun, Jacob P; Roth, Randy; Beatty, Wandy L; Wu, Hui; Wen, Zezhang T

    2017-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is known to possess rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP), a major cell wall antigen. S. mutans strains deficient in rgpG , encoding the first enzyme of the RGP biosynthesis pathway, were constructed by allelic exchange. The rgpG deficiency had no effect on growth rate but caused major defects in cell division and altered cell morphology. Unlike the coccoid wild type, the rgpG mutant existed primarily in chains of swollen, "squarish" dividing cells. Deficiency of rgpG also causes significant reduction in biofilm formation ( P mutans plays a critical role in cell division and biofilm formation and that BrpA and Psr may be responsible for attachment of cell wall antigens to the cell envelope. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans , a major etiological agent of human dental caries, produces rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) as the major cell wall antigen. This study provides direct evidence that deficiency of RgpG, the first enzyme of the RGP biosynthesis pathway, caused major defects in cell division and morphology and reduced biofilm formation by S. mutans , indicative of a significant role of RGP in cell division and biofilm formation in S. mutans These results are novel not only in S. mutans , but also other streptococci that produce RGP. This study also shows that the LytR-CpsA-Psr family proteins BrpA and Psr in S. mutans are involved in attachment of RGP and probably other cell wall glycopolymers to the peptidoglycan. In addition, the results also suggest that BrpA and Psr may play a direct role in cell division and biofilm formation in S. mutans This study reveals new potential targets to develop anticaries therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Maternal Transmission of Mutans Streptococci in Severe-Early Childhood Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephen C.; Ruby, John D.; Moser, Stephen; Momeni, Stephanie; Smith, Anita; Osgood, Robert; Litaker, Mark; Childers, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study utilized multiple genetic analyses to detect evidence of maternal MS acquisition in children with S-ECC. Methods Twenty-seven mother/child pairs were selected from children with S-ECC preceding dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Plague samples were collected from the mother, child, and the child’s carious lesion. Arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) genotyped 6–8 MS isolates from each plague sample, and unique genotypes were identified. Representative MS isolates with unique genotypes were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Cluster analysis using the Dice band-based similarity coefficient was used to generate dendrograms from gel banding patterns. A Dice coefficient >70% indicated similarity or match among PFGE genotypes. Results In 26% (7/27) of mother/child pairs, all of the child’s isolates matched the mother. In 15% (4/27), some of the child’s genotypes matched the mother, and in 59% (16/27), no isolates matched the mother. Maternal transmission was a mode of MS acquisition in 41% (11/27) of mother/child pairs, while acquisition from non-maternal sources occurred in 74% (20/27). Conclusions MS genotypes that did not match maternal strains were identified in the majority of children (74%) within this S-ECC population. Evidence of maternal transmission was detected in 41% of mother /child pairs. PMID:19552223

  7. Effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci: A randomized controlled trial

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    N Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tongue cleaning is an important aspect of oral hygiene maintenance along with other mechanical and chemical aids. These methods have an influence on microorganism count in saliva. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial with 45 study subjects aged between 14 and 16 years and were randomly allocated into three groups: Group A - plastic tongue scraper, Group B - chlorhexidine mouthwash along with plastic tongue scraper, and Group C - chlorhexidine mouthwash. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected on the 1st, 7th, and 15th day before routine oral hygiene practices. Saliva samples were collected and incubated for 48 h on itis Salivarius(MS agar. Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus salivarius were counted. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean count of S. mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius for Group A, B, and C was found to be significant (P < 0.001 when compared between 1st, 7th, and 15th day. Between-groups comparisons revealed a significant difference between Groups A and C, B and C (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in bacterial count in all the participants indicating that all the three methods are useful in improving oral hygiene. Combination technique was found to be most effective.

  8. Rare and unusual isolates of viridans streptococci from the human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhotre, Shree; Suryawanshi, Namdev; Nagoba, Basavraj; Selkar, Sohan

    2016-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus consists of more than 65 species. The taxonomic classification of these members is not well-defined. Among the viridans group streptococci (VGS), there are major taxonomic changes by the addition of many new species; whereas, most of the new strains are of animal origin and only a few have been reported to be isolated from humans. Rare and unusual species of VGS such as Streptococcus thoraltensis, S. pluranimalium and S. hyointestinalis are normally associated with different animals. Their isolation from human being is not yet reported. To find out the rare and unusual species of viridans group streptococci from human oral cavity. A case-controlled study carried out at hospital-based dental services in a tertiary care hospital. Subgingival plaque samples of the tooth were collected from 80 patients (34 with periodontitis and 46 without periodontitis) undergoing tooth extraction. Cultures were subcultured onto special media such as Tryptone Soya blood Agar supplemented with strepto supplement and Mutans-Sanguis Agar. Identification of strains and antimicrobial susceptibilities were measured as minimum inhibitory concentration using Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, Paris, France) automated system. We have identified three strains of VGS - S. thoraltensis, S. pluranimalium and S. hyointestinalis from subgingival plaque samples from patients with periodontitis. S. thoraltensis and S. pluranimalium were found to be resistant to most of the antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of these rare and unusual strains from the human oral cavity.

  9. Physiologic actions of zinc related to inhibition of acid and alkali production by oral streptococci in suspensions and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T-N; Buckner, T; Sheng, J; Baldeck, J D; Marquis, R E

    2004-02-01

    Zinc is a known inhibitor of acid production by mutans streptococci. Our primary objective was to extend current knowledge of the physiologic bases for this inhibition and also for zinc inhibition of alkali production by Streptococcus rattus FA-1 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419. Zinc at concentrations as low as 0.01-0.1 mm not only inhibited acid production by cells of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 in suspensions or in biofilms but also sensitized glycolysis by intact cells to acidification. Zinc reversibly inhibited the F-ATPase of permeabilized cells of S. mutans with a 50% inhibitory concentration of about 1 mm for cells in suspensions. Zinc reversibly inhibited the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system with 50% inhibition at about 0.3 mm ZnSO4, or about half that concentration when the zinc-citrate chelate was used. The reversibility of these inhibitory actions of zinc correlates with findings that it is mainly bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. Zinc inhibited alkali production from arginine or urea and was a potent enzyme inhibitor for arginine deiminase of S. rattus FA-1 and for urease of S. salivarius. In addition, zinc citrate at high levels of 10-20 mm was weakly bactericidal.

  10. Ceftaroline activity tested against viridans group streptococci from US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Rhomberg, Paul R; Castanheira, Mariana; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    A total of 840 clinically relevant viridans group streptococci (VGS) isolates (1/patient episode) were collected from 71 US medical centers in 2013-2014. These organisms were tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods against ceftaroline and selected comparator agents. All isolates were speciated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and were primarily from skin/soft tissue (32.6%) and bloodstream (32.3%) infections. Ceftaroline was highly active against all VGS species/groups with MIC50 and MIC90 values ranging from ≤0.015 to 0.03μg/mL and ≤0.015 to 0.06μg/mL, respectively. The highest ceftaroline MIC value was only 0.5μg/mL (0.5% of strains) and ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06μg/mL) was 8-fold more active than ceftriaxone (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5μg/mL). The VGS groups most susceptible to ceftaroline were Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus bovis (MIC90, ≤0.015μg/mL), whereas the highest ceftaroline MIC values were observed among Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis groups. In summary, ceftaroline exhibited potent in vitro activity against VGS, including many uncommonly isolated species/groups for which very limited susceptibility information is currently available to guide therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci by latex agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Y A; Howit, I P; Ellner, P D

    1978-09-01

    Latex agglutination was compared with fluorescent-antibody staining with group A conjugate and Lancefield precipitation for grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci. Latex agglutination correctly grouped 98.8% of 82 group A streptococci and more than 95% of 187 group B, C, or G streptococci. Occasional cross-reactions occurred between groups A and C and groups B and G.

  12. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  13. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa, E-mail: akasaka@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Matsuoka, Makoto [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Meijo Nano Carbon Co. Ltd., Otsubashi bldg. 4F, 3-4-10 Marunouchi, Naka-ku, Nagoya 460-0002 (Japan); Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  14. Gene expression in Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, L D

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the major aetiological agent of human dental caries. It is an obligate biofilm-forming bacterium, which resides on teeth and forms, together with other species, an oral biofilm that is often designated as supragingival plaque. This thesis consists of three distinct parts. The first part describes, using microarray analysis, how S. mutans modulates gene expression when grown under different conditions in biofilms. The goal of this analysis was to identify gen...

  15. Group identification of streptococci. Evaluation of three rapid agglutination methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdash, N M; West, M E; Newell, R T; Teti, G

    1981-12-01

    The clinical need to rapidly and correctly differentiate beta-hemolytic streptococci into Lancefield groups has prompted the commercialization of rapid agglutination methods. Three serogrouping kits, Phadebact, Sero STAT, and Streptex, were compared with the classic precipitin technic. One hundred and fifty beta-hemolytic streptococci and 75 alpha-hemolytic streptococci isolated from clinical specimens were used. Phadebact grouped all beta-hemolytic strains correctly while Sero STAT and Streptex were 96.7% and 99.3% accurate, respectively. Phadebact and Streptex correctly identified all group D streptococci. Commercial agglutination reagents represent a simple and reliable method for grouping streptococci.

  16. The Effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Radachlorin and Toluidine Blue on Streptococcus Mutans: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zangeneh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are caused by infection of teeth and supporting tissues due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm, firstly colonized by streptococci. The main purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobialeffects of toluidine blue O (TBO and Radachlorin® in combination with a diode laser on the viability of Streptococcus mutans.Materials and Methods: Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans were exposed to either 0.1% TBO associated with (20 mW, 633 nm diode laser, continuous mode, 150 s or 0.1% Radachlorin® and laser irradiation (100 mW, 662 nm diode laser, continuous mode,120 s. Those in control groups were subjected to laser irradiation alone or TBO/Radachlorin® alone or received neither TBO/Radachlorin® nor laser exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar plates and incubated aerobically at 37°C. Finally, the bactericidal effects were evaluated based on colony formation.Results: Potential bacterial cell killing was only observed following photosensitization with TBO and 3 j/cm2 laser exposure (p<0.05, whereas Radachlorin® showed significant reduction in dark condition compared to laser exposure (p<0.05.Conclusion: TBO-mediated photodynamic therapy seems to be more efficient than Radachlorin ® in significantly reducing the viability of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

  17. Improved method for rapid and accurate isolation and identification of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from human plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villhauer, Alissa L; Lynch, David J; Drake, David R

    2017-08-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS), specifically Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Streptococcus sobrinus (SS), are bacterial species frequently targeted for investigation due to their role in the etiology of dental caries. Differentiation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus is an essential part of exploring the role of these organisms in disease progression and the impact of the presence of either/both on a subject's caries experience. Of vital importance to the study of these organisms is an identification protocol that allows us to distinguish between the two species in an easy, accurate, and timely manner. While conducting a 5-year birth cohort study in a Northern Plains American Indian tribe, the need for a more rapid procedure for isolating and identifying high volumes of MS was recognized. We report here on the development of an accurate and rapid method for MS identification. Accuracy, ease of use, and material and time requirements for morphological differentiation on selective agar, biochemical tests, and various combinations of PCR primers were compared. The final protocol included preliminary identification based on colony morphology followed by PCR confirmation of species identification using primers targeting regions of the glucosyltransferase (gtf) genes of SM and SS. This method of isolation and identification was found to be highly accurate, more rapid than the previous methodology used, and easily learned. It resulted in more efficient use of both time and material resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakade, Laxmi S; Shah, Preetam; Shirol, Dayanand

    2014-01-01

    The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque. Thirty healthy children aged 8-10 years with dmft (decay component) of three or four were selected. They were divided randomly into two groups: The control or chlorhexidine group and the study group or combination mouth rinse. Both the groups practiced rinsing with respective mouth wash for 1 min for 15 d twice a day. The plaque samples were collected and after incubation Mutans streptococcus count was estimated on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and evaluated using manufacture's chart. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the findings. Statistically significant reduction in the Mutans streptococci count in the plaque was seen in the control and study group from baseline level. But when both the groups were compared, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine was more.

  19. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi S Lakade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy children aged 8-10 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected. They were divided randomly into two groups: The control or chlorhexidine group and the study group or combination mouth rinse. Both the groups practiced rinsing with respective mouth wash for 1 min for 15 d twice a day. The plaque samples were collected and after incubation Mutans streptococcus count was estimated on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and evaluated using manufacture′s chart. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the findings. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the Mutans streptococci count in the plaque was seen in the control and study group from baseline level. But when both the groups were compared, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine was more.

  20. A novel glucan-binding protein with lipase activity from the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Deepan S H; Russell, Roy R B

    2004-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans produces extracellular glucosyltransferases (GTFs) that synthesize glucans from sucrose. These glucans are important in determining the permeability properties and adhesiveness of dental plaque. GTFs and the GbpA glucan-binding protein are characterized by a binding domain containing a series of 33-amino-acid repeats, called 'A' repeats. The S. mutans genome sequence was searched for ORFs containing 'A' repeats, and one novel gene, gbpD, which appears to be unique to the mutans group of streptococci, was identified. The GbpD sequence revealed the presence of three 'A' repeats, in the middle of the protein, and a novel glucan-binding assay showed that GbpD binds to dextran with a K(D) of 2-3 nM. Construction of truncated derivatives of GbpD confirmed that the 'A' repeat region was essential for binding. Furthermore, a gbpD knockout mutant was modified in the extent of aggregation induced by polymers derived from sucrose. The N-terminus of GbpD has a signal sequence, followed by a region with no homologues in the public databases, while the C-terminus has homology to the alpha/beta hydrolase family (including lipases and carboxylesterases). GbpD contains the two regions typical of these enzymes: a GxSxG active site 'lipase box' and an 'oxyanion hole'. GbpD released free fatty acids (FFAs) from a range of triglycerides in the presence of calcium, indicating a lipase activity. The glucan binding/lipase bifunctionality suggested the natural substrate for the enzyme may be a surface macromolecule consisting of carbohydrate linked to lipid. The gbpD mutant was less hydrophobic than wild-type and pure recombinant GbpD reduced the hydrophobicity of S. mutans and another plaque bacterium, Streptococcus sanguinis. GbpD bound to and released FFA from lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of S. sanguinis, but had no effect on LTA from S. mutans. These results raise the intriguing possibility that GbpD may be involved in direct interspecies competition within the plaque

  1. Bacteremia with the bovis group streptococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmolin, Ea S; Hartmeyer, Gitte N; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencing of the intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used to identify 53 blood culture isolates that had previously been designated to the bovis group streptococci and clinical data was collected retrospectively from patients' records using a standardized protocol. ITS sequencing identified 19...

  2. Amino acids transport in lactic streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Arnold Jacob Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    Lactic streptococci are extremely fastidious bacteria. For growth an exogenous source of amino acids and other nutrients is essential. The amino acid requirement in milk is fulfilled by the milk-protein casein, which is degraded by sequential hydrolysis, involving proteases and peptidases. ... Zie:

  3. Streptococcus mutans copper chaperone, CopZ, is critical for biofilm formation and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S S; Du, Q; Wu, H

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is a dynamic environment characterized by hundreds of bacterial species, saliva, and an influx of nutrients and metal ions such as copper. Although there is a physiologic level of copper in the saliva, the oral cavity is often challenged with an influx of copper ions. At high concentrations copper is toxic and must therefore be strictly regulated by pathogens for them to persist and cause disease. The cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans manages excess copper using the copYAZ operon that encodes a negative DNA-binding repressor (CopY), the P1-ATPase copper exporter (CopA), and the copper chaperone (CopZ). These hypothetical roles of the copYAZ operon in regulation and copper transport to receptors led us to investigate their contribution to S. mutans virulence. Mutants defective in the copper chaperone CopZ, but not CopY or CopA, were impaired in biofilm formation and competitiveness against commensal streptococci. Characterization of the CopZ mutant biofilm revealed a decreased secretion of glucosyltransferases and reduced expression of mutacin genes. These data suggest that the function of copZ on biofilm and competitiveness is independent of copper resistance and CopZ is a global regulator for biofilm and other virulence factors. Further characterization of CopZ may lead to the identification of new biofilm pathways. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The effect of five probiotic lactobacilli strains on the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Jiang, W; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of five probiotic lactobacilli strains on the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (MS). Five probiotic lactobacilli bacteria (LB), Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus casei LC01, Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, were used as test strains effecting on the Streptococci strain S. mutans UA159 in this study. The effect of LB strains and their supernatants on the viability of the MS was evaluated. Then, the effect of LB strains on the growth of MS biofilm formation was observed by fluorescence microscope. All of the LB strains inhibited the growth of MS at concentrations of 1 × 10(8) and 3 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1) (P strains inhibited the growth of MS (P strains inhibited the growth and biofilm formation of MS, likely through the production of an acid environment, bacteriocin-like poly peptides, or both, and the effects on MS were dependent on the LB strains used. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Frequency, biofilm formation and acid susceptibility of streptococcus mutans and streptococcus sobrinus in saliva of preschool children with different levels of caries activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghasempour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the causative factors in development of dental caries is microorganisms. Two species of Mutans streptococci including Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are associated with dental caries in human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva of children with different caries activity and ability to form biofilm and acid susceptibility of these microorganisms. Materials and Methods: This analytical case-control study was performed on 83 preschool children, 4-6 years old. Children were divided into two groups including 41 caries-active and 42 caries-free children. Non-stimulated saliva samples were collected and culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques were used. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test, Chi-square, ANOVA, and Kappa tests. Results: S. mutans and S. sobrinus were found in 65% and 21.6% of the samples respectively. S. mutans was isolated from 75.6% of caries-active and 54.8% of caries-free children. Figures for S. sobrinus were 29.2% and 14.3% respectively. Acid susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from saliva was 87.43 in caries-active children and 94.30 for caries-free children. Biofilm formation of microorganisms in caries-active and caries-free children was 0.77 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Frequency of S. mutans in caries-active children was significantly higher than caries-free children, but the difference in frequency of S. sobrinus was not significant. Acid susceptibility of microorganisms in caries-active children was significantly lower, but the ability to form biofilm was not significantly different in two groups.

  6. Oxidative Stressors Modify the Response of Streptococcus mutans to Its Competence Signal Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Furio, Matthew; Ahn, Sang Joon; Burne, Robert A; Hagen, Stephen J

    2017-11-15

    The dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is continually exposed to several types of stress in the oral biofilm environment. Oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species has a major impact on the establishment, persistence, and virulence of S. mutans Here, we combined fluorescent reporter-promoter fusions with single-cell imaging to study the effects of reactive oxygen species on activation of genetic competence in S. mutans Exposure to paraquat, which generates superoxide anion, produced a qualitatively different effect on activation of expression of the gene for the master competence regulator, ComX, than did treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), which can yield hydroxyl radical. Paraquat suppressed peptide-mediated induction of comX in a progressive and cumulative fashion, whereas the response to H 2 O 2 displayed a strong threshold behavior. Low concentrations of H 2 O 2 had little effect on induction of comX or the bacteriocin gene cipB , but expression of these genes declined sharply if extracellular H 2 O 2 exceeded a threshold concentration. These effects were not due to decreased reporter gene fluorescence. Two different threshold concentrations were observed in the response to H 2 O 2 , depending on the gene promoter that was analyzed and the pathway by which the competence regulon was stimulated. The results show that paraquat and H 2 O 2 affect the S. mutans competence signaling pathway differently, and that some portions of the competence signaling pathway are more sensitive to oxidative stress than others. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans inhabits the oral biofilm, where it plays an important role in the development of dental caries. Environmental stresses such as oxidative stress influence the growth of S. mutans and its important virulence-associated behaviors, such as genetic competence. S. mutans competence development is a complex behavior that involves two different signaling peptides and can exhibit cell

  7. Early in vitro and in vivo development of high-level daptomycin resistance is common in mitis group Streptococci after exposure to daptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-la-Mària, Cristina; Pericas, Juan M; Del Río, Ana; Castañeda, Ximena; Vila-Farrés, Xavier; Armero, Yolanda; Espinal, Paula A; Cervera, Carlos; Soy, Dolors; Falces, Carlos; Ninot, Salvador; Almela, Manel; Mestres, Carlos A; Gatell, Jose M; Vila, Jordi; Moreno, Asuncion; Marco, Francesc; Miró, Jose M

    2013-05-01

    The development of high-level daptomycin resistance (HLDR; MIC of ≥ 256 mg/liter) after exposure to daptomycin has recently been reported in viridans group streptococcus (VGS) isolates. Our study objectives were as follows: to know whether in vitro development of HLDR after exposure to daptomycin was common among clinical isolates of VGS and Streptococcus bovis; to determine whether HLDR also developed during the administration of daptomycin to treat experimental endocarditis caused by the daptomycin-susceptible, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus mitis strain S. mitis 351; and to establish whether combination with gentamicin prevented the development of HLDR in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed with 114 VGS strains (mitis group, 92; anginosus group, 10; mutans group, 8; and salivarius group, 4) and 54 Streptococcus bovis strains isolated from 168 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed between 1995 and 2010. HLDR was only observed after 24 h of exposure to daptomycin in 27% of the mitis group, including 27% of S. mitis isolates, 47% of S. oralis isolates, and 13% of S. sanguis isolates. In our experimental model, HLDR was detected in 7/11 (63%) and 8/12 (67%) isolates recovered from vegetations after 48 h of daptomycin administered at 6 mg/kg of body weight/24 h and 10 mg/kg/24 h, respectively. In vitro, time-kill experiments showed that daptomycin plus gentamicin was bactericidal against S. mitis 351 at tested concentrations of 0.5 and 1 times the MIC and prevented the development of HLDR. In vivo, the addition of gentamicin at 1 mg/kg/8 h to both daptomycin arms prevented HLDR in 21 out of 23 (91%) rabbits. Daptomycin plus gentamicin was at least as effective as vancomycin plus gentamicin. In conclusion, HLDR develops rapidly and frequently in vitro and in vivo among mitis group streptococci. Combining daptomycin with gentamicin enhanced its activity and prevented the development of HLDR in most cases.

  8. Stability and activity of specific antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in bovine milk fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG or treated at ultra-high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H; Loimaranta, V; Tenovuo, Jorma; Rokka, S; Syväoja, E-L; Korhonen, H; Joutsjoki, V; Marnila, P

    2002-02-01

    Passive local immunization against dental caries is a promising approach to its prevention, as clinical evidence of active oral or nasal immunization is still limited and controversial. By means of systemic immunization of pregnant cows with a multivalent vaccine, high titres of IgG antibodies against human cariogenic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, were produced in bovine colostrum. The purified immune product (IP) of this preparation has a number of anticariogenic properties, such as inhibition of streptococcal adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite and inhibition of glucosyltransferase enzymes. This study investigated whether IP antibodies remained active and functional when added to ultra-high temperature (UHT)-treated milk or to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-fermented milk stored for an extended time. LGG was chosen because of its widely known health benefits in humans and animals. A commercial UHT toddler's milk was supplemented with IP and stored for 2 months at 5, 21 and 30 degrees C. The antistreptococcal titres in UHT milk did not decline at any temperature during storage, and UHT-IP inhibited the adherence of S. mutans for up to 2 months. This was not the case with UHT toddler's milk without IgG antibodies. Milk was fermented with live LGG cells in the presence or absence of 5% IP. The antistreptococcal titres declined to about 30% of the original titres after storage. Fresh milk alone slightly enhanced streptococcal adhesion but fresh milk with IP inhibited the adherence of S. mutans by over 50%. LGG-positive fermented milk without antibodies also inhibited (P UHT immune milk, the activity of antibodies against cariogenic streptococci was maintained during the expected shelf-life of these products. From the anticariogenic point of view it may be beneficial to add bovine-specific antibodies against mutans streptococci to probiotic LGG-containing milk products.

  9. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

  10. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2007-01-01

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

  11. Serological properties of Streptococcus mutans from humans and some animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simple but reliable diagnostic method of identifying and grouping S. mutans was undertaken. There were three specific antigens of S. mutans, and the slide agglutination test was found to be a good method using three specific antisera. The distribution of S. mutans groups in the Japanese and some animals was studied.

  12. Disinfection of toothbrushes contaminated with Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Giguère, Kim; Giguère, Steeve; Bélanger, Myriam

    2011-06-01

    To determine the most effective method to kill Streptococcus mutans on contaminated toothbrushes. Seven toothbrushes (one for each treatment and the control) were contaminated with S. mutans. Toothbrushes were then rinsed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and treated as follows: (1) control without treatment; (2) air dry for 4 hours; (3) Crest Pro-Health mouthwash for 20 minutes; (4) Listerine mouthwash for 20 minutes; (5) normal cleaning cycle in a dishwasher; (6) microwave on high power for 5 minutes; and (7) ultraviolet light using the DenTek Toothbrush Sanitizer for 10 minutes. All toothbrushes were rinsed again with PBS. The bristles were cut and vortexed in PBS. Serial dilutions were performed and the number of colonies enumerated after incubation. The experiment was independently repeated seven times. The Crest Pro-Health mouthwash and the dishwasher almost completely eliminated S. mutans. The second most effective treatment was the microwave. The Listerine mouthwash and the air dry groups were not significantly different from each other and ranked third. Although UV light significantly decreased the number of bacteria compared to the control, reduction in the number of S. mutans CFU was significantly lower than that of all the other treatments evaluated. Crest Pro-Health mouthwash for 20 minutes and a normal dishwasher cycle are the most effective methods to eradicate S. mutans from contaminated toothbrushes. Dent

  13. Silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and their cytotoxic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Díaz, Mario Alberto; Boegli, Laura; James, Garth; Velasquillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Martínez-Martínez, Rita-Elizabeth; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

    2015-01-01

    Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans, antibiofilm activity against mature S. mutans biofilms and the compatibility with human fibroblasts. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against the planktonic clinical isolate was size and concentration dependent, with smaller AgNPs having a lower minimum inhibitory concentration. A reduction of 2.3 log in the number of colony-forming units of S. mutans was observed when biofilms grown in a CDC reactor were exposed to 100 ppm of AgNPs of 9.5 ± 1.1 nm. However, AgNPs at high concentrations (> 10 ppm) showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a planktonic S. mutans clinical isolate and killed established S. mutans biofilms, which suggests that AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into therapeutic and preventive strategies. - Highlights: • Biological activities of silver nanoparticles for dental caries purposes • Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs on planktonic cell was size and concentration dependent. • Reduction in the S. mutans biofilm formation was statistically significant. • AgNPs at high concentrations showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. • AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries

  14. Silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and their cytotoxic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Díaz, Mario Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Boegli, Laura; James, Garth [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Velasquillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto [Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (Mexico); Martínez-Martínez, Rita-Elizabeth; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro [Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel, E-mail: fidel@uaslp.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2015-10-01

    Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans, antibiofilm activity against mature S. mutans biofilms and the compatibility with human fibroblasts. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against the planktonic clinical isolate was size and concentration dependent, with smaller AgNPs having a lower minimum inhibitory concentration. A reduction of 2.3 log in the number of colony-forming units of S. mutans was observed when biofilms grown in a CDC reactor were exposed to 100 ppm of AgNPs of 9.5 ± 1.1 nm. However, AgNPs at high concentrations (> 10 ppm) showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a planktonic S. mutans clinical isolate and killed established S. mutans biofilms, which suggests that AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into therapeutic and preventive strategies. - Highlights: • Biological activities of silver nanoparticles for dental caries purposes • Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs on planktonic cell was size and concentration dependent. • Reduction in the S. mutans biofilm formation was statistically significant. • AgNPs at high concentrations showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. • AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries.

  15. The GlnR Regulon in Streptococcus mutans Is Differentially Regulated by GlnR and PmrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ywan M Chen

    Full Text Available GlnR-mediated repression of the GlnR regulon at acidic pH is required for optimal acid tolerance in Streptococcus mutans, the etiologic agent for dental caries. Unlike most streptococci, the GlnR regulon is also regulated by newly identified PmrA (SMUGS5_RS05810 at the transcriptional level in S. mutans GS5. Results from gel mobility shift assays confirmed that both GlnR and PmrA recognized the putative GlnR box in the promoter regions of the GlnR regulon genes. By using a chemostat culture system, we found that PmrA activated the expression of the GlnR regulon at pH 7, and that this activation was enhanced by excess glucose. Deletion of pmrA (strain ΔPmrA reduced the survival rate of S. mutans GS5 at pH 3 moderately, whereas the GlnR mutant (strain ΔGlnR exhibited an acid-sensitive phenotype in the acid killing experiments. Elevated biofilm formation in both ΔGlnR and ΔPmrA mutant strains is likely a result of indirect regulation of the GlnR regulon since GlnR and PmrA regulate the regulon differently. Taken together, it is suggested that activation of the GlnR regulon by PmrA at pH 7 ensures adequate biosynthesis of amino acid precursor, whereas repression by GlnR at acidic pH allows greater ATP generation for acid tolerance. The tight regulation of the GlnR regulon in response to pH provides an advantage for S. mutans to better survive in its primary niche, the oral cavity.

  16. The prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of oral Viridans streptococci in healthy children and children with disabilities in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, Nathanael O; Rotimi, Vincent; Philip, Leeba; Haidar, Hussien A; Hamdan, Hussien M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Viridans streptococci (VS) isolated from the oral cavity of healthy children and children with disabilities in Kuwait. Plaque samples were collected from the tooth and tongue surfaces of 102 healthy children and 102 children who were intellectually disabled and institutionalized. The resistance to seven antibiotics (amoxicillin, cephalothin, clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, and vancomycin) was tested. A total of 330 (44.5%) VS were isolated from the children who were healthy and 411 (55.5%) from children with disabilities. The most common isolates were S. salivarius (27.3%) in healthy children; S. sanguis (22.6%) was predominant among children who were disabled. S. mutans was found in 12.1% of the healthy children and in 16.5% of the children who were disabled. The combined percentage of resistant strains (healthy and disabled) was found to be highest with amoxicillin (43%) and lowest with vancomycin (12%). S. sanguis, S. mitis and S. oralis were more resistant in healthy children (45%, 56%, and 55% respectively) than in children with disabilities (40%, 47% and 47% respectively). S. mutans was the least resistant species to all antibiotics in both groups of children. About 56% of all streptococci isolated from both groups were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. The data showed that there was a difference in the level of resistance of oral VS isolated from healthy children and children with disabilities to some antibiotics commonly used in dentistry.

  17. Streptococcus mutans protein synthesis during mixed-species biofilm development by high-throughput quantitative proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise I Klein

    Full Text Available Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA and glucan-binding (gbpB during this transition (P<0.05. Furthermore, S. mutans up-regulates specific adaptation mechanisms to cope with acidic environments (F1F0-ATPase system, fatty acid biosynthesis, branched chain amino acids metabolism, and molecular chaperones (GroEL. Interestingly, the protein levels and gene expression are in general augmented when S. mutans form mixed-species biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm

  18. Pleiotropic Regulation of Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans by the Conserved Small Protein SprV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Hossain, Mohammad S; Biswas, Indranil

    2017-04-15

    critical for successful disease establishment. Sometimes these regulators, which are potential targets for antimicrobials, are lost in the genomic context due to the lack of annotated homologs. This work outlines the regulatory impact of a small, highly conserved hypothetical protein, SprV, encoded by S. mutans We show that SprV affects the transcript levels of various virulence factors required for normal growth, biofilm formation, stress tolerance, genetic competence, and bacteriocin production. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.L.; Arcenaeux, J.E.L.; Byers, B.R.; Martin, M.E.; Aranha, H.

    1986-12-01

    Radioiron uptake from /sup 59/FeCl/sub 3/ by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells, and the reduced PMS then may have generated ferrous iron for transport; reduced PMS also may have depleted dissolved oxygen. It was concluded that S. mutans transports only ferrous iron, utilizing reductants furnished by glucose metabolism to reduce iron prior to its uptake.

  20. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reps, A; Kuzmicka, M; Wisniewska, K

    2008-01-01

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure

  1. Serological grouping of streptococci by a slide coagglutination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, R G; Phillips, I

    1977-02-01

    A new method for the serological grouping of streptococci by coagglutination with specific antibodies absorbed to protein A-containing staphylococci has been assessed. A total of 242 strains of streptococci, including beta-haemolytic streptococci of groups A, B, C, F, and G, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Strep. faecalis were studied. All streptococci of groups A, B, C, and G, groupable by standard methods, were correctly grouped by coagglutination, although 7-3% showed varying degrees of cross-agglutination. Two beta-haemolytic strains of Strep. faecalis produced coagglutination with group C streptococcal reagent. The method appears to be quick, accurate, reproducible, and simple to perform.

  2. Rare and unusual isolates of viridans streptococci from the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Dhotre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The genus Streptococcus consists of more than 65 species. The taxonomic classification of these members is not well-defined. Among the viridans group streptococci (VGS, there are major taxonomic changes by the addition of many new species; whereas, most of the new strains are of animal origin and only a few have been reported to be isolated from humans. Rare and unusual species of VGS such as Streptococcus thoraltensis, S. pluranimalium and S. hyointestinalis are normally associated with different animals. Their isolation from human being is not yet reported. Aim: To find out the rare and unusual species of viridans group streptococci from human oral cavity. Settings and Design: A case-controlled study carried out at hospital-based dental services in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples of the tooth were collected from 80 patients (34 with periodontitis and 46 without periodontitis undergoing tooth extraction. Cultures were subcultured onto special media such as Tryptone Soya blood Agar supplemented with strepto supplement and Mutans-Sanguis Agar. Identification of strains and antimicrobial susceptibilities were measured as minimum inhibitory concentration using Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, Paris, France automated system. Results: We have identified three strains of VGS - S. thoraltensis, S. pluranimalium and S. hyointestinalis from subgingival plaque samples from patients with periodontitis. S. thoraltensis and S. pluranimalium were found to be resistant to most of the antibiotics. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of these rare and unusual strains from the human oral cavity.

  3. Inhibitory effects of β-caryophyllene on Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun-Jun; Jwa, Su-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    The biofilm of Streptococcus mutans is associated with induction of dental caries. Also, they produce glucan as an extracellular polysaccharide through glucosyltransferases and help the formation of cariogenic biofilm. β-caryophyllene has been used for therapeutic agent in traditional medicine and has antimicrobial activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of β-caryophyllene on S. mutans biofilm and the expression of biofilm-related factor. The susceptibility assay of S. mutans for β-caryophyllene was performed to investigate inhibitory concentration for S. mutans growth. To evaluated the effect of β-caryophyllene on S. mutans biofilm, β-caryophyllene was treated on S. mutans in the various concentrations before or after the biofilm formation. Live S. mutans in the biofilm was counted by inoculating on Mitis-salivarius agar plate, and S. mutans biofilm was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope after staining bacterial live/dead staining kit. Finally, the expression of glucosyltransferases of S. mutans was investigated by real-time RT-PCR after treating with β-caryophyllene at the non-killing concentration of S. mutans. The growth of S. mutans was inhibited by β-caryophyllene in above concentration of 0.078%, S. mutans biofilm was inhibited by β-caryophyllene in above 0.32%. Also, 2.5% of β-caryophyllene showed anti-biofilm activity for S. mutans biofilm. β-caryophyllene reduced the expression of gtf genes at a non-killing concentration for S. mutans. On the basis on these results, β-caryophyllene may have anti-biofilm activity and the inhibitory effect on biofilm related factor. β-caryophyllene may inhibit cariogenic biofilm and may be a candidate agent for prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effective oral health in infective endocarditis: efficacy of high-street mouthwashes against the viridans group streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshibly, Ahmed; Coulter, Wilson A; Millar, Beverley Cherie; Prendergast, Bernard D; Thornhill, Martin; Irwin, Christopher; Goldsmith, Colin E; Moore, John E

    2014-05-01

    Recent UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines state that there is no longer a need for oral antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing dental procedures who are at risk of infective endocarditis (IE), and advocate the importance of maintaining good oral health. As viridans group streptococci (VGS) are common etiological agents of IE and inhabitants of the mouth, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of common high-street mouthwashes against four classes of VGS organisms (salivarius, mitis, anginosus, and mutans groupings). The survival of VGS, Streptococcus gordonii (National Collection of Type Cultures [NCTC] 7865), Streptococcus intermedius (NCTC 11324), Streptococcus mutans (NCTC 10449), Streptococcus oralis (NCTC 11427), Streptococcus pneumoniae (NCTC 7465, NCTC 7978, & American Type Culture Collection 49619) and Streptococcus salivarius (NCTC 8618) was assessed in vitro following treatment of approximately 10(7) c.f.u. in planktonic state with four mouthwashes. No organisms were culturable following 1-min exposure, and were not recovered following non-selective enrichment following incubation in Brain Heart Infusion broth supplemented with 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract. These data indicate that such mouthwashes are able to completely kill VGS organisms tested in planktonic solution, where their use would promote good oral hygiene in patients at risk of IE. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Comparative analysis of colony counts of different species of oral streptococci in saliva of dentulous, edentulous and in those wearing partial and complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealla, Kranti Kiran Reddy; Ghanta, Suresh Babu; Motupalli, Naveen Kumar; Bembalgi, Mahanthesh; Madineni, Praveen Kumar; Raju, P Krishnam

    2013-07-01

    To study and compare the number of colony forming units of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus milleri in dentulous, edentulous and in those wearing partial and complete dentures by using semi-quantitative culture method of saliva samples with calibrated standard loop. Sterile specimen collection bottles, Mitis salivarius agar plates, Standard loop, Candle jar, Incubator, Colony counter. Study population consisted of 100 subjects with 25 in each group, with an age range of 40 to 80 years, who were attending the Department of Community Dentistry and Prosthodontics at MNR Dental College, Sangareddy, Hyderabad. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and inoculated on to Mitis salivarius agar plates using calibrated standard loop. The plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 hours and left at room temperature for further 24 hours. Using a colony counter, the number of colonies of each species was counted. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis predominates in the dentulous group, Streptococcus sanguis in complete denture group, Streptococcus salivarius in edentulous group and Streptococcus milleri in removable partial denture group. The results of our study are in accordance with the previous studies, which have sought to differentiate different groups of mutans streptococci using a simple calibrated standard loop.

  6. Phylogenetic analyses and detection of viridans streptococci based on sequences and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the rod shape-determining protein gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Ikuri; Hoshino, Tomonori; Kondo, Yoshio; Saito, Kan; Nishiguchi, Miyuki; Sato, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Taku

    2009-01-01

    Background Population analysis of viridans streptococci is important because these species are associated with dental caries, bacteremia, and subacute endocarditis, in addition to being important members of the human oral commensal microbiota. Design In this study, we phylogenetically analyzed the rod shape-determining protein gene (rodA), which is associated with cellular morphology, cell division, and sensitivity for antibiotics, and demonstrated that the diversity of the rodA gene is sufficient to identify viridans streptococci at the species level. Moreover, we developed a more convenient denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method based on the diversity of the rodA gene (rodA-DGGE) for detecting nine dominant streptococcal species in human saliva, namely, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus vestibularis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus. Results This rodA-DGGE method proved useful in detecting viridans streptococci without cultivation, isolation, and phenotypic characterization. Conclusion Analysis of the oral microbiota by rodA-DGGE offers a higher resolution than the conventional DGGE using 16S rDNA and may be an alternative in the microbial diagnosis of streptococcal infection. PMID:21523207

  7. UV-C-irradiation sublethal stress does not alter antibiotic susceptibility of the viridans group streptococci to β-lactam, macrolide, and fluoroquinolone antibiotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasunori; Coulter, Wilson A; Goldsmith, Colin E; Cherie Millar, B; Moore, John E

    2012-08-01

    Previous work has indicated that environmental stresses on bacteria might lead to an upregulation of stress response. LED curing lights (315-400 nm) and other UV lights used in tooth whitening cosmetic procedures might act as stresses. We examined the effect of UV-C light, as a high-energy surrogate to the lower-energy UV-A light used in such instruments, to examine its effect on the antibiotic susceptibility of viridans group streptococci. Twelve species of viridans group streptococci were examined in this study: Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus australis, Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus infantis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguinis. These organisms were exposed to varying degrees of sublethal UV-C radiation, and their minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility was determined by broth dilution assay against three classes of commonly-used antibiotics: β-lactams (penicillin), macrolides (erythromycin), and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin). There was no significant difference between antibiotic susceptibility before UV-C exposure and following maximum sublethal stress, prior to cell death due to fatal UV-C exposure. Exposure to UV-C light will not result in altered antibiotic susceptibility patterns on viridans group streptococci. Given that UV-C is more toxic and mutagenic than UV-A light, it is unlikely than UV-A light would yield any difference in response to such exposure. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Phylogenetic analyses and detection of viridans streptococci based on sequences and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the rod shape-determining protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Ikuri; Hoshino, Tomonori; Kondo, Yoshio; Saito, Kan; Nishiguchi, Miyuki; Sato, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Taku

    2009-08-28

    Population analysis of viridans streptococci is important because these species are associated with dental caries, bacteremia, and subacute endocarditis, in addition to being important members of the human oral commensal microbiota. In this study, we phylogenetically analyzed the rod shape-determining protein gene (rodA), which is associated with cellular morphology, cell division, and sensitivity for antibiotics, and demonstrated that the diversity of the rodA gene is sufficient to identify viridans streptococci at the species level. Moreover, we developed a more convenient denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method based on the diversity of the rodA gene (rodA-DGGE) for detecting nine dominant streptococcal species in human saliva, namely, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus vestibularis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus. This rodA-DGGE method proved useful in detecting viridans streptococci without cultivation, isolation, and phenotypic characterization. Analysis of the oral microbiota by rodA-DGGE offers a higher resolution than the conventional DGGE using 16S rDNA and may be an alternative in the microbial diagnosis of streptococcal infection.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of propolis against Streptococcus mutans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) obtained from beehives of honeybee (Apis mellifera) was investigated for its antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations were the methods used in this study. The carious ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of propolis against Streptococcus mutans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... The ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) obtained from beehives of honeybee (Apis mellifera) was investigated for its antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations were the methods used.

  11. Trk2 Potassium Transport System in Streptococcus mutans and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis, Biofilm Formation, and Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binepal, Gursonika; Gill, Kamal; Crowley, Paula; Cordova, Martha; Brady, L. Jeannine; Senadheera, Dilani B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in the fluids of dental biofilm. The biochemical and biophysical functions of K+ and a variety of K+ transport systems have been studied for most pathogenic bacteria but not for oral pathogens. In this study, we establish the modes of K+ acquisition in Streptococcus mutans and the importance of K+ homeostasis for its virulence attributes. The S. mutans genome harbors four putative K+ transport systems that included two Trk-like transporters (designated Trk1 and Trk2), one glutamate/K+ cotransporter (GlnQHMP), and a channel-like K+ transport system (Kch). Mutants lacking Trk2 had significantly impaired growth, acidogenicity, aciduricity, and biofilm formation. [K+] less than 5 mM eliminated biofilm formation in S. mutans. The functionality of the Trk2 system was confirmed by complementing an Escherichia coli TK2420 mutant strain, which resulted in significant K+ accumulation, improved growth, and survival under stress. Taken together, these results suggest that Trk2 is the main facet of the K+-dependent cellular response of S. mutans to environment stresses. IMPORTANCE Biofilm formation and stress tolerance are important virulence properties of caries-causing Streptococcus mutans. To limit these properties of this bacterium, it is imperative to understand its survival mechanisms. Potassium is the most abundant cation in dental plaque, the natural environment of S. mutans. K+ is known to function in stress tolerance, and bacteria have specialized mechanisms for its uptake. However, there are no reports to identify or characterize specific K+ transporters in S. mutans. We identified the most important system for K+ homeostasis and its role in the biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and growth. We also show the requirement of environmental K+ for the activity of biofilm-forming enzymes, which explains why such high levels of K+ would favor biofilm formation. PMID:26811321

  12. Diversity of Streptococcus mutans strains in bacterial interspecies interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Ling, Junqi; Crielaard, Wim; Deng, Dong Mei

    2014-02-01

    Biofilms are matrix-enclosed microbial population adhere to each other and to surfaces. Compared to planktonic bacterial cells, biofilm cells show much higher levels of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to investigate Streptococcus mutans strain diversity in biofilm formation and chlorhexidine (CHX) resistance of single S. mutans and dual S. mutans-Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Four clinical S. mutans strains (C180-2, C67-1, HG723 and UA159) formed 24-h biofilms with or without an E. faecalis strain. These biofilms were treated for 10 min with 0.025% CHX. Biofilm formation, CHX resistance and S.mutans-E. faecalis interactions were evaluated by biomass staining, resazurin metabolism, viable count and competition agar assays. The main finding is that the presence of E. faecalis generally reduced all dual-species biofilm formation, but the proportions of S. mutans in the dual-species biofilms as well as CHX resistance displayed a clear S. mutans strain dependence. In particular, decreased resistance against CHX was observed in dual S. mutans C67-1 biofilms, while increased resistance was found in dual S. mutans UA159 biofilms. In conclusion, the interaction of S. mutans with E. faecalis in biofilms varies between strains, which underlines the importance of studying strain diversity in inter-species virulence modulation and biofilm antimicrobial resistance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Epidemiology and pathogenicity of zoonotic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulde, Marcus; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic infections caused by Streptococcus spp. have been neglected in spite of the fact that frequency and severity of outbreaks increased dramatically in recent years. This may be due to non-identification since respective species are often not considered in human medical diagnostic procedures. On the other hand, an expanding human population concomitant with an increasing demand for food and the increased number of companion animals favour conditions for host species adaptation of animal streptococci. This review aims to give an overview on streptococcal zoonoses with focus on epidemiology and pathogenicity of four major zoonotic species, Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus equi sub. zooepidemicus, Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus suis.

  14. Streptococcus mutans Protein Synthesis during Mixed-Species Biofilm Development by High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marlise I.; Xiao, Jin; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M.; Yates, John R.; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v) was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA) and glucan-binding (gbpB) during this transition (Pmutans up-regulates specific adaptation mechanisms to cope with acidic environments (F1F0-ATPase system, fatty acid biosynthesis, branched chain amino acids metabolism), and molecular chaperones (GroEL). Interestingly, the protein levels and gene expression are in general augmented when S. mutans form mixed-species biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms) demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm maintenance in the presence of other

  15. Restricted distribution of Streptococcus milleri carbohydrate type antigens amongst other viridans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Matsunoshita, N; Yakushiji, T

    1992-09-01

    The distribution of oral Streptococcus milleri carbohydrate type antigens in other viridans streptococcus species was examined. Rantz-Randall extracts of cells of the test strains grown in broth containing glucose were allowed to react with typing or grouping antisera for S. milleri serotypes a-k, or Lancefield groups A-G and K. Of 93 strains comprising more than 12 streptococcal species that included S. mutans and S. sanguis complexes, only 15 S. salivarius strains and one S. mitis strain were immunologically related to S. milleri serotype f. Unlike S. milleri strains, S. salivarius type f strains belonged to Lancefield group K, whereas the S. mitis strain was closely related to S. milleri serotype f but did not react with any of the Lancefield grouping antisera tested. Results suggest that oral S. milleri strains can be distinguished serologically from other oral viridans streptococci and that the typing antisera used in our researches might differentiate S. milleri isolates from the mouth from those associated with systemic purulent infections.

  16. Contamination of toothpaste and toothbrush by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, M

    1978-09-01

    Toothbrushes and toothpaste tubes used by persons infected with S. mutans were examined for the presence of this microorganism. Fifteen minutes after brushing greater than 10(6) S. mutans were isolated from the toothbrushes and after ordinary storage for 24 h 10(4) were recovered. From two out of 10 toothpaste tubes S. mutans was isolated from the orifice of the tube. The implications of these findings for the spread of the microorganism are discussed.

  17. Collagen-like proteins of pathogenic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Slawomir; Bachert, Beth A; Squeglia, Flavia; Berisio, Rita

    2017-03-01

    The collagen domain, which is defined by the presence of the Gly-X-Y triplet repeats, is amongst the most versatile and widespread known structures found in proteins from organisms representing all three domains of life. The streptococcal collagen-like (Scl) proteins are widely present in pathogenic streptococci, including Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and S. equi. Experiments and bioinformatic analyses support the hypothesis that all Scl proteins are homotrimeric and cell wall-anchored. These proteins contain the rod-shaped collagenous domain proximal to cell surface, as well as a variety of outermost non-collagenous domains that generally lack predicted functions but can be grouped into one of six clusters based on sequence similarity. The well-characterized Scl1 proteins of S. pyogenes show a dichotomous switch in ligand binding between human tissue and blood environments. In tissue, Scl1 adhesin specifically recognizes the wound microenvironment, promotes adhesion and biofilm formation, decreases bacterial killing by neutrophil extracellular traps, and modulates S. pyogenes virulence. In blood, ligands include components of complement and coagulation-fibrinolytic systems, as well as plasma lipoproteins. In all, the Scl proteins signify a large family of structurally related surface proteins, which contribute to the ability of streptococci to colonize and cause diseases in humans and animals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L.; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 μg mL−1). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them. PMID:24294257

  19. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 μg mL(-1)). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

  20. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Barrientos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anticancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 µgmL-1. Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

  1. The copYAZ Operon Functions in Copper Efflux, Biofilm Formation, Genetic Transformation, and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamna; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Lévesque, Céline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, copper homeostasis is closely monitored to ensure proper cellular functions while avoiding cell damage. Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon. Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen that harbors a putative copper-transporting copYAZ operon. Here, we characterized the role of copYAZ operon in the physiology of S. mutans and delineated the mechanisms of copper-induced toxicity in this bacterium. We observed that copper induced toxicity in S. mutans cells by generating oxidative stress and disrupting their membrane potential. Deletion of the copYAZ operon in S. mutans strain UA159 resulted in reduced cell viability under copper, acid, and oxidative stress relative to the viability of the wild type under these conditions. Furthermore, the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms and develop genetic competence was impaired under copper stress. Briefly, copper stress significantly reduced cell adherence and total biofilm biomass, concomitantly repressing the transcription of the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, and gbpC genes, whose products have roles in maintaining the structural and/or functional integrity of the S. mutans biofilm. Furthermore, supplementation with copper or loss of copYAZ resulted in significant reductions in transformability and in the transcription of competence-associated genes. Copper transport assays revealed that the ΔcopYAZ strain accrued significantly large amounts of intracellular copper compared with the amount of copper accumulation in the wild-type strain, thereby demonstrating a role for CopYAZ in the copper efflux of S. mutans. The complementation of the CopYAZ system restored copper expulsion, membrane potential, and stress tolerance in the copYAZ-null mutant. Taking these results collectively, we have established the function of the S. mutans

  2. The copYAZ Operon Functions in Copper Efflux, Biofilm Formation, Genetic Transformation, and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamna; Senadheera, Dilani B; Lévesque, Céline M; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G

    2015-08-01

    In bacteria, copper homeostasis is closely monitored to ensure proper cellular functions while avoiding cell damage. Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon. Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen that harbors a putative copper-transporting copYAZ operon. Here, we characterized the role of copYAZ operon in the physiology of S. mutans and delineated the mechanisms of copper-induced toxicity in this bacterium. We observed that copper induced toxicity in S. mutans cells by generating oxidative stress and disrupting their membrane potential. Deletion of the copYAZ operon in S. mutans strain UA159 resulted in reduced cell viability under copper, acid, and oxidative stress relative to the viability of the wild type under these conditions. Furthermore, the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms and develop genetic competence was impaired under copper stress. Briefly, copper stress significantly reduced cell adherence and total biofilm biomass, concomitantly repressing the transcription of the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, and gbpC genes, whose products have roles in maintaining the structural and/or functional integrity of the S. mutans biofilm. Furthermore, supplementation with copper or loss of copYAZ resulted in significant reductions in transformability and in the transcription of competence-associated genes. Copper transport assays revealed that the ΔcopYAZ strain accrued significantly large amounts of intracellular copper compared with the amount of copper accumulation in the wild-type strain, thereby demonstrating a role for CopYAZ in the copper efflux of S. mutans. The complementation of the CopYAZ system restored copper expulsion, membrane potential, and stress tolerance in the copYAZ-null mutant. Taking these results collectively, we have established the function of the S. mutans Cop

  3. Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy of Oral Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Brooke D.

    Raman spectroscopy has been used in a variety of applications throughout the field of biomedical optics. It has the ability to acquire chemically-specific information in a non-invasive manner, without the need for exogenous markers. This makes it useful in the identification of bacterial species, as well as in the study of tissues and other cells. In this work, a species identification model has been created in order to discriminate between the oral bacterial species Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans. These are two of the most prevalent species within the human mouth and their relative concentrations can be an indicator of a patient's oral health and risk of tooth decay. They are predominantly found within plaque on the tooth's surface. To study a simplified model for dental plaque, we have examined S. sanguinis and S. mutans grown in biofilm forms. Raman spectroscopy has been implemented here through a confocal microscope. The optical system has been equipped with computationally controlled stages to allow for automated scanning, including autofocusing to probe a consistent depth within a sample. A spectrum has been acquired from each position within a scan and sent for spectral preprocessing before being submitted for species identification. This preprocessing includes an algorithm that has been developed to remove fluorescence features from known contaminants within the confocal volume, to include signal from a fluorescent substrate. Species classification has been accomplished using a principal component score-fed logistic regression model constructed from a variety of biofilm samples that have been transferred and allowed to dry, as might occur with the study of plaque samples. This binary classification model has been validated on other samples with identical preparations. The model has also been transferred to determine the species of hydrated biofilms studied in situ. Artificially mixed biofilms have been examined to test the spatial

  4. RNA-Seq Reveals Enhanced Sugar Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans Co-cultured with Candida albicans within Mixed-Species Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinzhi; Kim, Dongyeop; Zhou, Xuedong; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A.; Richards, Vincent P.; Koo, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC), which can lead to rampant tooth-decay that is painful and costly to treat, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. Previous studies support that interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with the pathogenesis of ECC. The presence of Candida enhances S. mutans growth, fitness and accumulation within biofilms in vitro, although the molecular basis for these behaviors is undefined. Using an established co-cultivation biofilm model and RNA-Seq, we investigated how C. albicans influences the transcriptome of S. mutans. The presence of C. albicans dramatically altered gene expression in S. mutans in the dual-species biofilm, resulting in 393 genes differentially expressed, compared to mono-species biofilms of S. mutans. By Gene Ontology analysis, the majority of up-regulated genes were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolic/catabolic processes. KEGG pathway impact analysis showed elevated pyruvate and galactose metabolism, suggesting that co-cultivation with C. albicans influences carbohydrate utilization by S. mutans. Analysis of metabolites confirmed the increases in carbohydrate metabolism, with elevated amounts of formate in the culture medium of co-cultured biofilms. Moreover, co-cultivation with C. albicans altered transcription of S. mutans signal transduction (comC and ciaRH) genes associated with fitness and virulence. Interestingly, the expression of genes for mutacins (bacteriocins) and CRISPR were down-regulated. Collectively, the data provide a comprehensive insight into S. mutans transcriptomic changes induced by C. albicans, and offer novel insights into how bacterial–fungal interactions may enhance the severity of dental caries. PMID:28642749

  5. RNA-Seq Reveals Enhanced Sugar Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans Co-cultured with Candida albicans within Mixed-Species Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhi He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries (ECC, which can lead to rampant tooth-decay that is painful and costly to treat, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. Previous studies support that interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with the pathogenesis of ECC. The presence of Candida enhances S. mutans growth, fitness and accumulation within biofilms in vitro, although the molecular basis for these behaviors is undefined. Using an established co-cultivation biofilm model and RNA-Seq, we investigated how C. albicans influences the transcriptome of S. mutans. The presence of C. albicans dramatically altered gene expression in S. mutans in the dual-species biofilm, resulting in 393 genes differentially expressed, compared to mono-species biofilms of S. mutans. By Gene Ontology analysis, the majority of up-regulated genes were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolic/catabolic processes. KEGG pathway impact analysis showed elevated pyruvate and galactose metabolism, suggesting that co-cultivation with C. albicans influences carbohydrate utilization by S. mutans. Analysis of metabolites confirmed the increases in carbohydrate metabolism, with elevated amounts of formate in the culture medium of co-cultured biofilms. Moreover, co-cultivation with C. albicans altered transcription of S. mutans signal transduction (comC and ciaRH genes associated with fitness and virulence. Interestingly, the expression of genes for mutacins (bacteriocins and CRISPR were down-regulated. Collectively, the data provide a comprehensive insight into S. mutans transcriptomic changes induced by C. albicans, and offer novel insights into how bacterial–fungal interactions may enhance the severity of dental caries.

  6. Comparison of three methods for grouping streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, W; Heczko, P B; Lütticken, R; Wannamaker, L W

    1976-07-01

    Two new methods for serological grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci, the nitrous acid extraction procedure of El Kholy et al. and the slide agglutination method of Christensen et al., were compared with the Lancefield hot-hydrochloric acid extraction method in classifying 92 strains of groups A, B, C, and G. The nitrous acid extraction method was easily performed, specific, and sensitive when highly potent antisera were used. For the Christensen method these highly potent antisera had to be diluted to avoid cross-reactions between groups A and C and groups B and G, respectively. A few strains, most of them group B, could not be grouped by the latter method. Using these three grouping methods, two sets of commercial sera were compared with the more potent sera supplied by R. C. Lancefield. The low antibody content of these commercial sera, especially anti-group B and G sera, contributed to the inferior results obtained in some of the grouping reactions.

  7. Rapid slide agglutination test for Lancefield grouping of streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damask, L J; Montoya, O; Axelrod, J L

    1979-08-01

    A rapid slide agglutination test (the Phadebact [PB] Streptococcus test) was compared with the standard autoclave extraction method of Lancefield and presumptive clinical laboratory tests for grouping of streptococci (bacitracin disk sensitivity for group A and sodium hippurate hydrolysis for group B). Identification of group A streptococci by the PB kit was statistically as accurate as by the Lancefield method, whereas bacitracin grouping was significantly less accurate than the Lancefield method (P = less than .02). With regard to group B, there was no statistically significant difference between the PB test and the sodium hippurate test. The PB test correctly identified all group C and G streptococci. The PB kit provides a rapid and reliable method for Lancefield grouping of streptococci.

  8. Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Shim, Jae-Seok; Chung, Jae-Youn

    2004-09-01

    The methanol extracts of five tropical plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. mutans in 2 min at 50 microg/ml of extract concentration.

  9. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Fangli; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ruan, Jing; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhenlong; Hu, Yulin; Li, Shentao

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (PurN) from Streptococcus mutans was expressed in E. coli, purified and studied crystallographically. Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (PurN) from Streptococcus mutans was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. An effective purification protocol was established. The purified protein, which had a purity of >95%, was identified by SDS–PAGE and MALDI–TOF MS. The protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method in hanging-drop mode with PEG 3350 as the primary precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Preliminary X-ray analysis indicated that the crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 52.25, b = 63.29, c = 131.81 Å

  10. Inactivation of the spxA1 or spxA2 gene of Streptococcus mutans decreases virulence in the rat caries model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, L C C; Rosalen, P L; Rivera-Ramos, I; Franco, G C N; Kajfasz, J K; Abranches, J; Bueno-Silva, B; Koo, H; Lemos, J A

    2017-04-01

    In oral biofilms, the major environmental challenges encountered by Streptococcus mutans are acid and oxidative stresses. Previously, we showed that the transcriptional regulators SpxA1 and SpxA2 are involved in general stress survival of S. mutans with SpxA1 playing a primary role in activation of antioxidant and detoxification strategies whereas SpxA2 serves as a back up activator of oxidative stress genes. We have also found that spxA1 mutant strains (∆spxA1 and ∆spxA1∆spxA2) are outcompeted by peroxigenic oral streptococci in vitro and have impaired abilities to colonize the teeth of rats fed a highly cariogenic diet. Here, we show that the Spx proteins can also exert regulatory roles in the expression of additional virulence attributes of S. mutans. Competence activation is significantly impaired in Δspx strains and the production of mutacin IV and V is virtually abolished in ΔspxA1 strains. Unexpectedly, the ∆spxA2 strain showed increased production of glucans from sucrose, without affecting the total amount of bacteria within biofilms when compared with the parent strain. By using the rat caries model, we showed that the capacity of the ΔspxA1 and ΔspxA2 strains to cause caries on smooth tooth surfaces is significantly impaired. The ∆spxA2 strain also formed fewer lesions on sulcal surfaces. This report reveals that global regulation via Spx contributes to the cariogenic potential of S. mutans and highlights that animal models are essential in the characterization of bacterial traits implicated in virulence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase on planktonic Streptococcus mutans cells and Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Crielaard, W.; ten Cate, J.M.; Wever, R.; Hartog, A.F.; Renirie, R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase (VCPO) reaction products on planktonic and biofilm cellsof Streptococcus mutans C180-2. Planktonic and biofilm cells were incubated in a buffered reaction mixture containing VCPO, halide (either chloride

  12. Serological and genetic examination of some nontypical Streptococcus mutans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coykendall, A L; Bratthall, D; O'Connor, K; Dvarskas, R A

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-four strains of Streptococcus mutans whose antigenic or genetic positions were unclear or unknown with respect to the serological scheme of Bratthall (1970) and Perch et al. (1974), or the genetic (deoxyribonucleic acid base sequence homology) scheme of Coykendall were analyzed to clarify their relationship to previously well-characterized strains. Strain OMZ175 of the "new" serotype f was genetically homologous with strains of S. mutans subsp. mutans. Strains of the "new" serotype g were homologous with serotype d strains (S. mutans subsp. sobrinus). Strains isolated from wild rats constituted a new genetic group but carried the c antigen. Thus, strains within a "genospecies" (subspecies) of S. mutans may not always carry a unique or characteristic antigen. We suggest that the existence of multiple serotypes within subspecies represents antigenic variation and adaptations to hosts. PMID:965091

  13. Effect of topical anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats' tooth surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, Endang W; Afdhal, Anggraeni; Meidyawati, Ratna; Soejoedono, Retno D; Poerwaningsih, Erni

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats' tooth surface. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed intra-orally with S. mutans Xc and were fed a caries-inducing diet 2000. The 24 rats were divided into four groups: group A had their teeth coated with IgY gel; group B received sterilized water as a control; group C had their teeth coated with IgY gel starting on the 29(th) day; and group D had their teeth coated with a gel without IgY. Plaque samples were swabbed from the anterior teeth for S. mutans colony quantification, and saliva was collected to measure immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the quantity of S. mutans in rats treated with IgY gel showed significant difference compared with the controls. After coating with IgY anti-S. mutans gel, the mean immunoreactivity in rat saliva was higher than that of the no treatment group. In conclusion, topical application with anti-S. mutans IgY gel reduced the quantity of S. mutans on the tooth surface.

  14. Reducing mutans streptococci and caries development by Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 in preschool children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahumunto, Nuntiya; Piwat, Supatcharin; Chankanka, Oitip; Akkarachaneeyakorn, Nuchnaree; Rangsitsathian, Karnrawee; Teanpaisan, Rawee

    2018-03-22

    To examine a reducing effect of Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 on MS and caries in preschool children. A total of 124 children, aged 1.5-5 years old, participated and were randomly assigned to the probiotic or control group. The probiotic group received L. paracasei SD1-milk and the control group received standard-milk once daily for 3 months. MS/lactobacilli were enumerated and the caries score was examined. Association between probiotic consumption and bacterial level, or caries progression was assessed by a multivariate logistic regression. This study was registered at the Thai-Clinical-Trials-Registry (TCTR20140903001). Probiotic was found to be a factor associated with the MS level. Children in the probiotic group had a significantly lower risk of an increase in the MS level than in the control group after receiving the probiotic milk at 3- and 4-months with p < .001 and p = .040, respectively. Probiotic significantly reduced the risk for caries compared to the control group (p = .016). There were no adverse effects or non-compliance reported in either group. Consumption of milk powder containing L. paracasei SD1 resulted in a reduction of both salivary MS and delayed new caries development, and the strain is safe for use in young children. Results suggest that L. paracasei SD1 may be an alternative way for caries prevention in young children.

  15. Growth inhibition of oral mutans streptococci and candida by commercial probiotic lactobacilli--an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasslöf, Pamela; Hedberg, Maria; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are suggested to play a role in the maintenance of oral health. Such health promoting bacteria are added to different commercial probiotic products. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a selection of lactobacilli strains, used in commercially available...

  16. In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol against Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukayadi, Y; Hwang, J-K

    2006-04-01

    We determined the effect of xanthorrhizol (XTZ) purified from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on the Streptococcus mutans biofilms in vitro. The biofilms of S. mutans at different phases of growth were exposed to XTZ at different concentrations (5, 10 and 50 micromol l(-1)) and for different time exposures (1, 10, 30 and 60 min). The results demonstrated that the activity of XTZ in removing S. mutans biofilm was dependent on the concentration, exposure time and the phase growth of biofilm. A concentration of 5 micromol l(-1) of XTZ completely inhibited biofilm formation by S. mutans at adherent phases of growth, whereas 50 micromol l(-1) of XTZ removed 76% of biofilm at plateau accumulated phase when exposed to S. mutans biofilm for 60 min. Xanthorrhizol isolated from an edible plant (C. xanthorrhiza Roxb.) shows promise as an antibacterial agent for inhibiting and removing S. mutans biofilms in vitro. XTZ could be used as a potential antibacterial agent against biofilm formation by S. mutans.

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid inhibits biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Bum; Baik, Jung Eun; Park, Ok-Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-dependent oral disease and Streptococcus mutans is the known primary etiologic agent of dental caries that initiates biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. Although some Lactobacillus strains inhibit biofilm formation of oral pathogenic bacteria, the molecular mechanisms by which lactobacilli inhibit bacterial biofilm formation are not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA) inhibited the biofilm formation of S. mutans on polystyrene plates, hydroxyapatite discs, and dentin slices without affecting the bacterial growth. Lp.LTA interferes with sucrose decomposition of S. mutans required for the production of exopolysaccharide, which is a main component of biofilm. Lp.LTA also attenuated the biding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran to S. mutans, which is known to have a high affinity to exopolysaccharide on S. mutans. Dealanylated Lp.LTA did not inhibit biofilm formation of S. mutans implying that D-alanine moieties in the Lp.LTA structure were crucial for inhibition. Collectively, these results suggest that Lp.LTA attenuates S. mutans biofilm formation and could be used to develop effective anticaries agents. PMID:29420616

  18. Cariogenicity features of Streptococcus mutans in presence of rubusoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jinpu; Zhang, Tieting; He, Kexin

    2016-05-11

    One promising way of reducing caries is by using sucrose substitutes in food. rubusoside is a prototype sweet substance isolated from the leaves of the plant Rubrus suavissimus S. Lee. (Rosaceae), and is rated sweeter than sucrose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rubusoside on Streptococcus mutans growth, acidogenicity, and adherence to glass in vitro. The effects of rubusoside on the growth and glass surface adhering of Streptococcus mutans were investigated by measuring the optical density of the culture at 540 nm with a spectrophotometer. Rubusoside influence on Streptococcus mutans acidogenicity was determined by measuring the pH of the culture. Sucrose, glucose, maltose, fructose and xylitol were designed to compare with rubusoside. S. mutans growth in the rubusoside-treated group was significantly lower than that in the sucrose, glucose, maltose and fructose groups (p  0.05). Sucrose-treated S. mutans exhibited the highest adherence to glass, and rubusoside-treated S. mutans exhibited the lowest. S. mutans adherence to a glass surface and acidogenicity with sucrose were significantly reduced by rubusoside. Rubusoside may have some potential as a non-cariogenic, non-caloric sweetener.

  19. Chemotactic Activity on Human Neutrophils to Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemotactic activity o neutrophil to S. mutans. Chemotaxis assay was performed in blind well chambers. Materials and Methods: Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS containing 106 S. mutans,  108 S. mutans, 10-8 M fMLP, or HBSS alone were placed in the lower wells of the chamber and covered with polycorbonate membrane filter. Neutrophils suspension (2x105 cells was then placed in the upper compartment. After incubation for 60 mins at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2, the filters were removed and stained with Giemsa. Result: ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences among groups (p<0.05, indicating that S. mutans induced neutrophils chemotaxis. The number of neutrophils migration in response to 108 S. mutans and 106 S. mutans were signifiantly greater compared to fMLP (p<0.05. Conclusion: S. mutans may activate human neutrophils, resulting in the chemotaxis of the neutrophils.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.99

  20. Corrosion of dental alloys in artificial saliva with Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunhui; Zheng, Yuanli; Zhong, Qun

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study of the corrosion resistance of CoCr and NiCr alloys in artificial saliva (AS) containing tryptic soy broth (Solution 1) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) species (Solution 2) was performed by electrochemical methods, including open circuit potential measurements, impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization. The adherence of S. mutans to the NiCr and CoCr alloy surfaces immersed in Solution 2 for 24 h was verified by scanning electron microscopy, while the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed the importance of biofilm formation for the corrosion process. The R(QR) equivalent circuit was successfully used to fit the data obtained for the AS mixture without S. mutans, while the R(Q(R(QR))) circuit was found to be more suitable for describing the biofilm properties after treatment with the AS containing S. mutans species. In addition, a negative shift of the open circuit potential with immersion time was observed for all samples regardless of the solution type. Both alloys exhibited higher charge transfer resistance after treatment with Solution 2, and lower corrosion current densities were detected for all samples in the presence of S. mutans. The obtained results suggest that the biofilm formation observed after 24 h of exposure to S. mutans bacteria might enhance the corrosion resistance of the studied samples by creating physical barriers that prevented oxygen interactions with the metal surfaces.

  1. Corrosion of dental alloys in artificial saliva with Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Lu

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the corrosion resistance of CoCr and NiCr alloys in artificial saliva (AS containing tryptic soy broth (Solution 1 and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans species (Solution 2 was performed by electrochemical methods, including open circuit potential measurements, impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization. The adherence of S. mutans to the NiCr and CoCr alloy surfaces immersed in Solution 2 for 24 h was verified by scanning electron microscopy, while the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed the importance of biofilm formation for the corrosion process. The R(QR equivalent circuit was successfully used to fit the data obtained for the AS mixture without S. mutans, while the R(Q(R(QR circuit was found to be more suitable for describing the biofilm properties after treatment with the AS containing S. mutans species. In addition, a negative shift of the open circuit potential with immersion time was observed for all samples regardless of the solution type. Both alloys exhibited higher charge transfer resistance after treatment with Solution 2, and lower corrosion current densities were detected for all samples in the presence of S. mutans. The obtained results suggest that the biofilm formation observed after 24 h of exposure to S. mutans bacteria might enhance the corrosion resistance of the studied samples by creating physical barriers that prevented oxygen interactions with the metal surfaces.

  2. Effect of gallium on growth of Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 and dental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, S P; Owens, G J; Miles, E J; Farmer, N L; Cooper, L; Miller, G; Clowes, R; Lynch, R J M; Higham, S M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium-doped phosphate-based glasses (Ga-PBG) were assessed for their impact on Streptococcus mutans and dental mineralisation, firstly by disc diffusion assays followed by biofilms grown on nitrocellulose filter membrane (NFM) and constant-depth film fermentor (CDFF). Short-time exposure (10 min) effects of Ga-PBG on S. mutans biofilm were compared with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. The effects of Ga-PBG on bovine enamel (which was investigated under pH-cycling condition) and dentine were analysed using transverse microradiography (TMR), profilometry and inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The disc diffusion assays showed inhibition zones of 24.5 ± 0.5 mm for Ga-PBG compared with controls (C-PBG). Ga-PBG showed statistically significant growth inhibition of S. mutans biofilms on NFM (p = 0.001) and CDFF (p PBG. The CDFF assay revealed a maximum of 2.11 log colony-forming unit (CFU) reduction at 48 h, but short-time exposure effects were comparable with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine only on older biofilms (maximum of 0.59 vs. 0.69 log CFU reduction at 120 h). TMR analyses of the enamel revealed non-significant mineral loss (p = 0.37) only in the case of Ga-PBG samples compared with controls including sodium fluoride. ICP-OES analyses indicated transient gallium adsorption into dentine by calcium displacement. The results confirmed that gallium inhibited S. mutans growth and appears to have the potential to protect the enamel surface under conditions representative of the oral environment. Further work is needed to establish whether it has an application in daily oral hygiene procedures to prevent or reduce caries.

  3. Antibiotic sensitivities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, and group A hemolytic streptococci isolated from the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Erol; Aral, Murat; Alpay, H Cengiz

    2006-01-01

    To investigate antibiotic sensitivities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, and group A hemolytic streptococci isolated from the culture materials obtained from the sinuses of patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery due to chronic sinusitis. We recruited 93 patients (63 males, 30 females; mean age 36+/-17.5; range 19 to 68 years) who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery due to chronic sinusitis. Before surgical intervention, in order to eliminate a possible contamination from the skin and neighboring structures, nasal mucosa was cleansed with povidone-iodine solution. Nasal smear samples were obtained from all the patients before and after applying povidone-iodine solution. Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci and group A hemolytic streptococci that were isolated from the cultures were tested for antibiotic sensitivity. The number of anaerobic bacteria isolated from 58 patients (62.3%) before applying povidone-iodine was 72, following the application of povidone-iodine a total of 16 microorganisms were identified from 12 patients (12.9%). Microorganisms were isolated from 95.6% (89/93) of the samples obtained from the maxillary sinuses and 91.3% (85/93) of the samples obtained from the ethmoid sinuses. The most commonly identified microorganisms from both sinuses were coagulase negative staphylococcus followed by viridans streptococci, coagulase positive staphylococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and group A hemolytic streptococci. For viridans streptococcal strains that were isolated, 33.3% were resistant to tetracycline, 23.8% to chloramphenicol, and 19.04% to penicillin. Hemolytic streptococci strains were sensitive to penicillin, ofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and cefepime in all the groups; however, they had 50% resistance to erythromycin and chloramphenicol and 100% resistance to tetracycline. The resistance pattern of the isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were as follows: 25% to penicillin, 66.6% to

  4. Clinical evaluation of the improved streptex method for grouping streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler-Forell, E; Martin, W J; Moody, M D

    1984-04-01

    The improved Streptex method for serogrouping streptococci incorporates a new extraction enzyme and a simplified procedure requiring no centrifugation. A total of 114 clinical isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci were serogrouped from primary plates, isolation plates, and Todd-Hewitt broth cultures using this system. Results were compared to those of the heat extraction Lancefield precipitin method. An additional 33 stock culture isolates of related streptococcal species and 5 strains of Listeria were serogrouped to assess the specificity of the test. Agreement between the two methods was 82.5% with primary plates and 96.5% with both isolation plates and broth cultures. Four isolates from three different serogroups were nongroupable by the Lancefield method, but did agglutinate in specific Streptex antisera; therefore, the enzyme extraction procedure appeared more sensitive than the heat extraction method. Streptex accurately grouped five isolates of gamma-hemolytic group B streptococci, but failed to detect antigen in 33% of the group D streptococcal extracts tested. In addition, cross-reactions were observed with strains of alpha-hemolytic streptococci. Streptex produced fewer ambiguous results and required fewer repeat tests. When used with isolation plates or broth cultures, Streptex is both sensitive and specific for the grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups A, B, C, F, and G.

  5. Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Beom-Su; Keum, Ki-Suk; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoi; Chang, Byoung-Soo; Ra, Ji-Young; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Seo, Bo-Ra; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) has been used as a spice in foods and as an antimicrobial in Oriental medicine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation. First, the inhibitory effects of C. longa essential oil on the growth and acid production of S. mutans were tested. Next, the effect of C. longa essential oil on adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) was investigated. C. longa essential oil inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL. The essential oil also exhibited significant inhibition of S. mutans adherence to S-HAs at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. The essential oil of C. longa inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. The components of C. longa essential oil were then analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the major components were α-turmerone (35.59%), germacrone (19.02%), α-zingiberene (8.74%), αr-turmerone (6.31%), trans-β-elemenone (5.65%), curlone (5.45%), and β-sesquiphellandrene (4.73%). These results suggest that C. longa may inhibit the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Salivary IgA antibody responses to Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans in preterm and fullterm newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Ruchele Dias; Sesso, Maria Lucia Talarico; Borges, Mariana Castro Loureiro; Mattos-Graner, Renata O; Smith, Daniel James; Ferriani, Virginia Paes Leme

    2012-06-01

    The intensities and specificities of salivary IgA antibody responses to antigens of Streptococcus mutans, the main pathogen of dental caries, may influence colonization by these organisms during the first 1.5 year of life. Thus, the ontogeny of salivary IgA responses to oral colonizers continues to warrant investigation, especially with regard to the influence of birth conditions, e.g. prematurity, on the ability of children to efficiently respond to oral microorganisms. In this study, we characterised the salivary antibody responses to two bacterial species which are prototypes of pioneer and pathogenic microorganisms of the oral cavity (Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans, respectively) in fullterm (FT) and preterm (PT) newborn children. Salivas from 123 infants (70 FT and 53 PT) were collected during the first 10h after birth and levels of IgA and IgM antibodies and the presence of S. mutans and S. mitis were analysed respectively by ELISA and by chequerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Two subgroups of 24 FT and 24 PT children were compared with respect to patterns of antibody specificities against S. mutans and S. mitis antigens, using Western blot assays. Cross-adsorption of 10 infant's saliva was tested to S. mitis, S. mutans and Enterococcus faecalis antigens. Salivary levels of IgA at birth were 2.5-fold higher in FT than in PT children (Mann-Whitney; P<0.05). Salivary IgA antibodies reactive with several antigens of S. mitis and S. mutans were detected at birth in children with undetectable levels of those bacteria. Adsorption of infant saliva with cells of S. mutans produced a reduction of antibodies recognizing S. mitis antigens in half of the neonates. The diversity and intensity of IgA responses were lower in PT compared to FT children, although those differences were not significant. These data provide evidence that children have salivary IgA antibodies shortly after birth, which might influence the establishment of the oral microbiota, and that

  7. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Kamuthachad, Ludthawun; Anthapanya, Methinee; Samakchan, Natthapon; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Potup, Pachuen; Ferrante, Antonio; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2016-04-01

    Although kaffir lime has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antileukemic activity, little is known about the antimicrobial effect of kaffir lime extract. Because Streptococcus mutans has been known to cause biofilm formation, it has been considered the most important causative pathogen of dental caries. Thus, the effective control of its effects on the oral biofilm is the key to the prevention of dental caries. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on biofilm formation and its antibacterial activity on S. mutans. We examined the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. For the investigation we used a kaffir lime extract with high phenolic content. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract was determined by broth microdilution assay. The inhibitory effect of the test substances on biofilm formation was also investigated by biofilm formation assay and qRT-PCR of biofilm formation-associated genes. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits the growth of S. mutans, corresponding to the activity of an antibiotic, ampicillin. Formation of biofilm by S. mutans was also inhibited by the extract. These results were confirmed by the down-regulation of genes associated with the biofilm formation. The findings highlight the ability of kaffir lime leaves extract to inhibit S. mutans activity, which may be beneficial in the prevention of biofilm formation on dental surface, reducing dental plaque and decreasing the chance of dental carries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Honey and Green Tea Solutions on Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmegid, F; Al-Agamy, M; Alwohaibi, A; Ka'abi, H; Salama, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess the effect of green tea and honey solutions on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. A convenient sample of 30 Saudi boys aged 7-10 years were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 each. Saliva sample was collected for analysis of level of S. mutans before rinsing. Commercial honey and green tea were prepared for use and each child was asked to rinse for two minutes using 10 mL of the prepared honey or green tea solutions according to their group. Saliva samples were collected again after rinsing. The collected saliva samples were prepared and colony forming unit (CFU) of S. mutans per mL of saliva was calculated. The mean number of S. mutans before and after rinsing with honey and green tea solutions were 2.28* 10(8)(2.622*10(8)), 5.64 *10(7)(1.03*10(8)), 1.17*10(9)(2.012*10(9)) and 2.59*10(8) (3.668*10(8)) respectively. A statistically significant reduction in the average number of S. mutans at baseline and post intervention in the children who were assigned to the honey (P=0.001) and green tea (P=0.001) groups was found. A single time mouth rinsing with honey and green tea solutions for two minutes effectively reduced the number of salivary S. mutans of 7-10 years old boys.

  9. Evaluation of the Bacti-Lab streptococci culture systems for selective recovery and identification of group A streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, P W; Buckingham, J M

    1976-04-01

    Twenty-nine lots of Bacti-Lab streptococci culture plates containing nalidixic acid, neomycin, and amphotericin B were inoculated with 25 strains of group A, B, C, F, and G strepotocci, 13 strains of nonstrepotcoccal organisms representative of the throat flora, and 198 fresh clinical thorat specimens to determine the accuracy of the plates in identifying group A streptococci. With the Bacti-Lab test plates 98.87% of the beta-hemolytic streptococcal strains tested produced growth 95.51% yielding more than 50 colonies. Of the nonstreptococcal beta-hemolytic and non-beta-hemolytic organism tested, 79.54% were inhibited by the selective media. When bacitracin disks were used for presumptive identification group A streptococci from clinical thorat specimens, 12.00% false positive and 0.00% false negative results were obtained as measured by the direct flourescent-antibody and Lancefield grouping methods.

  10. Comparison of species identification of endocarditis associated viridans streptococci using rnpB genotyping and 2 MALDI-TOF systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Jenny; Rasmussen, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Stadler, Liselott Svensson; Kurland, Siri; Olaison, Lars; Ek, Elisabeth; Herrmann, Björn

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus spp. are important causes of infective endocarditis but challenging in species identification. This study compared identification based on sequence determination of the rnpB gene with 2 systems of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI Biotyper (Bruker) and VITEK MS IVD (bioMérieux). Blood culture isolates of viridans streptococci from 63 patients with infective endocarditis were tested. The 3 methods showed full agreement for all 36 isolates identified in the Anginosus, Bovis, and Mutans groups or identified as Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus gordonii, or Streptococcus sanguinis. None of the methods could reliably identify the 23 isolates to the species level when designated as Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, or Streptococcus tigurinus. In 7 isolates classified to the Mitis group, the rnpB sequences deviated strikingly from all reference sequences, and additional analysis of sodA and groEL genes indicated the occurrence of yet unidentified Streptococcus spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis colonization and ex vivo hydrogen peroxide production in carious lesion-free and high caries adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Torres, Sebastián; Gómez, Yenifer; Muñoz-Sandoval, Cecilia; Kreth, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate oral colonization by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in adults with high and without any caries experience. Furthermore, differences in the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by S. sanguinis isolated from both groups were assessed. Forty adults were divided into: (i) carious lesion-free, without any carious lesion, assessed by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), or restoration, (CF) and (ii) high caries experience (HC). Saliva samples were collected and seeded on respective agar-plates for enumeration of total streptococci, S. mutans and S. sanguinis (CFU/mL) and compared between groups. Additionally, S. sanguinis colonies obtained from both groups were inoculated on Prussian blue agar for H2O2 detection. Production of H2O2 was quantified and compared between the two groups. S. sanguinis counts were significantly higher in CF than HC individuals (pmutans showed significantly higher levels in HC than CF subjects (pmutans in saliva of adults without caries experience. In those people, S. sanguinis produces more H2O2ex vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. AtlA Mediates Extracellular DNA Release, Which Contributes to Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation in an Experimental Rat Model of Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chiau-Jing; Hsu, Ron-Bin; Shun, Chia-Tung; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chia, Jean-San

    2017-09-01

    Host factors, such as platelets, have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by oral commensal streptococci, inducing infective endocarditis (IE), but how bacterial components contribute to biofilm formation in vivo is still not clear. We demonstrated previously that an isogenic mutant strain of Streptococcus mutans deficient in autolysin AtlA (Δ atlA ) showed a reduced ability to cause vegetation in a rat model of bacterial endocarditis. However, the role of AtlA in bacterial biofilm formation is unclear. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that extracellular DNA (eDNA) was embedded in S. mutans GS5 floes during biofilm formation on damaged heart valves, but an Δ atlA strain could not form bacterial aggregates. Semiquantification of eDNA by PCR with bacterial 16S rRNA primers demonstrated that the Δ atlA mutant strain produced dramatically less eDNA than the wild type. Similar results were observed with in vitro biofilm models. The addition of polyanethol sulfonate, a chemical lysis inhibitor, revealed that eDNA release mediated by bacterial cell lysis is required for biofilm initiation and maturation in the wild-type strain. Supplementation of cultures with calcium ions reduced wild-type growth but increased eDNA release and biofilm mass. The effect of calcium ions on biofilm formation was abolished in Δ atlA cultures and by the addition of polyanethol sulfonate. The VicK sensor, but not CiaH, was found to be required for the induction of eDNA release or the stimulation of biofilm formation by calcium ions. These data suggest that calcium ion-regulated AtlA maturation mediates the release of eDNA by S. mutans , which contributes to biofilm formation in infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Effects of Psidium guajava Leaf Infusion on Streptococci viridans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Yi Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is recognized as the most important oral burden. It is caused by the formation of lactate acid formed through reaction of bacteria and carbohydrates. Streptococci viridans has been proven as the primary etiologic agents for dental caries. Low accessibility in oral care services leads the Indonesian community to use plants in order to prevent dental caries. One of those plants is Psidium guajava (pink guava. The leaves were suggested to have antimicrobial effects on some gram-positive bacteria. When the organism is resistant to specific substance tested on media, a circular/inhibition zone around a disc containing antimicrobial substance was formed. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of inhibition zones by infusion of Psidium guajava leaf on Streptococci viridians in vitro. Methods: This laboratory experiment was carried out in September to October 2014 at the Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Infusions of Psidium guajava leaf were made into four different concentrations (10%, 25%, 50% and 100%, respectively and the identification of inhibition zones on Streptococci viridans obtained from the laboratory was tested using modified disk diffusion test. Distilled water acted as negative control. The results were then interpreted after 24 hours of incubation. Every procedure was repeated three times. Results: All four concentrations of Psidium guajava leaf infusions have formed inhibition zones on the media, with the highest concentration (100% producing largest average diameter. Conclusions: The infusion of Psidium guajava leaf produces inhibition zones on Streptococci virdans in vitro.

  14. Iodophilic polysaccharide synthesis, acid production and growth in oral streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houte, J. van; Winkler, K.C.; Jansen, H.M.

    The relation between iodophilic polysaccharide formation, acid production and growth in α-haemolytic streptococci, isolated from human dental plaque, was studied. In experiments with resting cell suspensions, or with cells growing at a low rate, all strains synthesizing iodophilic polysaccharide

  15. Hydrophobic and Electrostatic Cell Surface Properties of Thermophilic Dairy Streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mei, HC; de Vries, Jacob; Busscher, HJ

    1993-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) and microelectrophoresis were done in 10 mM potassium phosphate solutions to characterize the surfaces of thermophilic dairy streptococci, isolated from pasteurizers. Regardless of whether they were grown (in M17 broth) with lactose, sucrose, or glucose

  16. The rapid recognition of Lancefield group B haemolytic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, R J

    1974-11-01

    When grown overnight on Columbia agar in an atmosphere of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, haemolytic strains of Lancefield group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) produce orange or brown pigmented colonies. This production of pigmented colonies can be used for the rapid presumptive identification of these organisms as belonging to group B without the need for grouping by serological methods.

  17. Culture media for enterococci and group D-streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, G

    1992-10-01

    Lancefield group D-streptococci are contaminants of various food commodities, especially those of animal origin. They encompass the new genus Enterococcus comprising 13 known species and some species of streptococci which have their habitat in the intestine of animals, e.g. Streptococcus bovis, suis and equinus. The serologically based grouping may no longer constitute the best definition for streptococci from the food chain. Food hygiene monitoring systems using enterococci as indicators need reliable methods for selective cultivation and identification of marker strains. Up to now more than 100 modifications of selective media have been described for isolating streptococci or enterococci from various specimens. The selection of a medium requires either experience or consultation. It depends on the kind of specimen, the method of cultivation (plate count or membrane filter) and whether or not the habitat is heavily contaminated with other organisms. The choice of media is made more difficult as commercial versions of the same culture medium may vary in recipe and/or performance from producer to producer. Therefore, reviewing the literature may help in the choice of medium and confirmation tests. The selectivity and productivity of some commonly used or cited media are reported here, partly based on our own experience: citrate azide tween carbonate agar (CATC), kanamycin aesculin azide agar (KAA) and M-enterococcus agar (ME) including earlier results with aesculin bile azide agar (ABA), and thallous acetate tetrazolium glucose agar (TITG). No medium was completely selective for all group D-streptococci or for all enterococci but some media were highly selective for a single Enterococcus species, e.g., for E. faecalis which serves as indicator of human pollution. Confirmatory tests must be carried out when experience in the evaluation procedure is limited. Selective media for enterococci should be used only after or while checking in parallel their selectivity and

  18. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans strains by different mitis-salivarius agar preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staat, R H

    1976-03-01

    Several Streptococcus mutans strains were markedly inhibited by mitis-salivarius agar manufactured by Baltimore Biological Laboratories, but little, if any, inhibition was noted using Difco Laboratories' mitis-salivarius agar. Supplementation of the basic medium with sucrose and bacitracin for specific selection of S. mutans resulted in suppression of representative S. mutans type a strains regardless of manufacturer.

  19. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs. Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans, and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers.

  20. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Ren, Biao; He, Jinzhi; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans , and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers.

  1. Characterization and Streptococcus mutans adhesion on air polishing dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kazuhiro; Oda, Hirotake; Inatomi, Michitomo; Sato, Soh

    2014-07-01

    Air polishing is known as an effective and time saving tooth cleaning method. However, this method increased surface roughness and bacterial adhesion on dentin surface. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine Streptococcus mutans adhesion on dentin surface after air polishing as compared to the conventional method. The dentin blocks (4 × 4 × 1 mm) were polished by a rubber cup with polishing material (Polishing) and air-polished by 25 μm glycine (G25), 65 μm glycine (G65), and 65 μm sodium bicarbonate (NHC65) microparticles. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured by a laser electron microscope. The amount of adhered S. mutans was quantified using a resazurin reduction assay (alamarBlue(®)). The Ra of G25 and G65 was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than that of NHC65 and greater than that of Polishing. However, there was no significant difference in S. mutans adhesion among Polishing, G25, and G65, while NHC65 showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher S. mutans adhesion. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, air polishing using glycine microparticles conditioned S. mutans adhesion on dentin surface in a similar fashion than the conventional method, and less than air polishing using sodium bicarbonate microparticles.

  2. Variations in surface polymers of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, D C; Baird, J K; Hunter, J R; Longyear, V M

    1976-04-01

    The cell wall composition of strains of S mutans with respect to sugars and proteins appears to be correlated to the serological grouping although groups c and E are rather similar. There also appear to be similarities in the structure of the polysaccharide formed by the glycosyltransferases from organisms of serological groups b and d. However, the activity of these enzymes appears to be variable in these groups. The most noteworthy difference found was that between the three Ingbritt strains. All three strains gave identical results with regard to their cell wall composition, and presumably this would mean that they were identical serologically. However, Ingbritt LH differed considerably from both the others in the types of polysaccharide formed by their glycosyltransferases from sucrose. Ingbritt B was a reisolate from monkeys, whereas Ingbritt LH was maintained in laboratory culture, and this may explain the difference. Clearly, more work will be required to explain this difference and as c strains are commonly isolated from plaque, it would seem desirable to clear up this point.

  3. [High prevalence of beta hemolytic streptococci isolated from throat swabs in Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Hugo E; Jugo, Mónica B; Santana, Gabriela; Baserni, Marisa; Reil, Juan Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Beta hemolytic streptococci, particulary group A, are the most frequently isolated pathogens in cases of pharyngoamigdalitis. Other beta hemolytic streptococci also produce this pathology. An increase of positive cultures for group A streptococci was detected during 2004 in relation to previous years. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rates of beta hemolytic streptococci groups A, C and G during a period of 5 years. Pharyngeal exudates were obtained from children (aged 6 months to 18 years) and adults. Swabs were cultured on Columbia agar plates containing 5% sheep blood. Lancefield grouping was performed using a latex immunoagglutination test. Group A beta hemolytic streptococci were isolated significantly more frequently from pediatric population than from adults. Groups A, C and G beta hemolytic streptococci were isolated significantly more frequently during 2004 than in previous years. Group G beta hemolytic was more prevalent in adult population than in patients less than 18 years of age. Among the isolated beta hemolytic streptococci, in adults and children, 18.9% and 5.8% were non-group A streptococci, respectively. Therefore special attention should be paid not only to group A beta hemolytic streptococci but also to other groups. Throat culture is the most reliable method for detecting the presence of the beta hemolytic streptococci and should also be indicated in adult patients.

  4. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Huang, Jun; Liu, Xiaodi; Peng, Lei; Guo, Lihong; Lv, Guohua; Chen, Wei; Feng, Kecheng; Yang, Si-ze

    2009-03-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals.

  5. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianhui; Huang Jun; Lv Guohua; Liu Xiaodi; Peng Lei; Guo Lihong; Chen Wei; Feng Kecheng; Yang Size

    2009-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O 2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals

  6. Influence of Streptococcus mutans on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong Mei; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Exterkate, Rob A M; Jiang, Lei Meng; van der Sluis, Lucas W M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; Crielaard, Wim

    2009-09-01

    An important virulence factor of Enterococcus faecalis is its ability to form biofilms. Most studies on biofilm formation have been carried out by using E. faecalis monocultures. Given the polymicrobial nature of root canal infections, it is important to understand biofilm formation of E. faecalis in the presence of other microorganisms. Eight clinical strains of E. faecalis were tested for biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite disks in the presence and absence of a Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Significantly more E. faecalis viable cells were found in biofilms in the presence of S. mutans. This phenomenon was, however, strain-dependent. Of the 8 strains tested, biofilm formation of strains AA-OR34, ER5/1, and V583 was not influenced by S. mutans biofilms. The results from this study, especially the strain difference, underline the importance of studying biofilm formation in a more realistic multispecies setting.

  7. Candida albicans mannans mediate Streptococcus mutans exoenzyme GtfB binding to modulate cross-kingdom biofilm development in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Li, Yong; Krysan, Damian J; Koo, Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Candida albicans is frequently detected with heavy infection by Streptococcus mutans in plaque-biofilms from children with early-childhood caries (ECC). This cross-kingdom biofilm contains an extensive matrix of extracellular α-glucans that is produced by an exoenzyme (GtfB) secreted by S. mutans. Here, we report that mannans located on the outer surface of C. albicans cell-wall mediates GtfB binding, enhancing glucan-matrix production and modulating bacterial-fungal association within biofilms formed in vivo. Using single-molecule atomic force microscopy, we determined that GtfB binds with remarkable affinity to mannans and to the C. albicans surface, forming a highly stable and strong bond (1-2 nN). However, GtfB binding properties to C. albicans was compromised in strains defective in O-mannan (pmt4ΔΔ) or N-mannan outer chain (och1ΔΔ). In particular, the binding strength of GtfB on och1ΔΔ strain was severely disrupted (>3-fold reduction vs. parental strain). In turn, the GtfB amount on the fungal surface was significantly reduced, and the ability of C. albicans mutant strains to develop mixed-species biofilms with S. mutans was impaired. This phenotype was independent of hyphae or established fungal-biofilm regulators (EFG1, BCR1). Notably, the mechanical stability of the defective biofilms was weakened, resulting in near complete biomass removal by shear forces. In addition, these in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo using a rodent biofilm model. Specifically, we observed that C. albicans och1ΔΔ was unable to form cross-kingdom biofilms on the tooth surface of rats co-infected with S. mutans. Likewise, co-infection with S. mutans defective in GtfB was also incapable of forming mixed-species biofilms. Taken together, the data support a mechanism whereby S. mutans-secreted GtfB binds to the mannan layer of C. albicans to promote extracellular matrix formation and their co-existence within biofilms. Enhanced understanding of GtfB-Candida interactions

  8. Candida albicans mannans mediate Streptococcus mutans exoenzyme GtfB binding to modulate cross-kingdom biofilm development in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Li, Yong; Krysan, Damian J.

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is frequently detected with heavy infection by Streptococcus mutans in plaque-biofilms from children with early-childhood caries (ECC). This cross-kingdom biofilm contains an extensive matrix of extracellular α-glucans that is produced by an exoenzyme (GtfB) secreted by S. mutans. Here, we report that mannans located on the outer surface of C. albicans cell-wall mediates GtfB binding, enhancing glucan-matrix production and modulating bacterial-fungal association within biofilms formed in vivo. Using single-molecule atomic force microscopy, we determined that GtfB binds with remarkable affinity to mannans and to the C. albicans surface, forming a highly stable and strong bond (1–2 nN). However, GtfB binding properties to C. albicans was compromised in strains defective in O-mannan (pmt4ΔΔ) or N-mannan outer chain (och1ΔΔ). In particular, the binding strength of GtfB on och1ΔΔ strain was severely disrupted (>3-fold reduction vs. parental strain). In turn, the GtfB amount on the fungal surface was significantly reduced, and the ability of C. albicans mutant strains to develop mixed-species biofilms with S. mutans was impaired. This phenotype was independent of hyphae or established fungal-biofilm regulators (EFG1, BCR1). Notably, the mechanical stability of the defective biofilms was weakened, resulting in near complete biomass removal by shear forces. In addition, these in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo using a rodent biofilm model. Specifically, we observed that C. albicans och1ΔΔ was unable to form cross-kingdom biofilms on the tooth surface of rats co-infected with S. mutans. Likewise, co-infection with S. mutans defective in GtfB was also incapable of forming mixed-species biofilms. Taken together, the data support a mechanism whereby S. mutans-secreted GtfB binds to the mannan layer of C. albicans to promote extracellular matrix formation and their co-existence within biofilms. Enhanced understanding of Gtf

  9. Distribusi Streptococcus mutans pada Tepi Tumpatan Glass Ionomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muthalib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries always occurs as a result of the filling not being hermetically. Purposes of this research is to prove whether there is a leak on the border of the tooth enamel and border between the Glass-ionomer filling with the Streptococcus mutans infection with parameter of SMAAPPI (Simplified S. mutans Approximal Plaque Index by Keeni et al, 1981. The subject of the research were 20 patients who came to the Dental Clinic at University of Indonesia with criteria possessing Glass-ionomer filling at the lower jaws. Collection of the samples were dental plaque gathered using a 1.5 mm excavator to scrape one way direction from the enamel, along the border between the enamel and Glass-ionomer filling and Glass-ionomer filling's surface. Isolation with medium transport sem-synthetic Cariostat and TSY20B and identification by using biochemical test. isolated colony strain local Streptococcus mutans from enamel, the border enamel and Glass-ionomer and the surface of the Glass-ionomer. The results were Streptococcus mutans were found from enamel 3006 colonies, on the border between the enamel and Glass-ionomer 143 colonies and on the surface of the Glss-ionomer 7291 colonies. Amoung of Streptococcus mutans colony obtained on the border of the enamel and Glass-ionomer were smaller compared to the surface of the Glass-ionomer and tooth enamel. Concluded that the leak of the filling was not caused by the number of distributed Streptooccus mutans colonies on the side, because the fluoroapatite fastener occurred due to the Glass-ionomer releasing in fluor along the border of the filling.

  10. Clinical Application of Immunofluorescence I. Grouping β-Hemolytic Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas B.

    1965-01-01

    Smith, Thomas B. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C.). Clinical application of immunofluorescence. I. Grouping β-hemolytic streptococci. J. Bacteriol. 89:198–204. 1965.—Procedures are described for the production of antistreptococcal serum in rabbits and for the preparation of group-specific conjugates for Lancefield groups A, C, and G. A modification of the conventional technique of absorption and inhibition to prevent cross-reactions with common antigens was used with excellent results. In addition, a promising new approach to eliminating cross-reactions of group A conjugate with antigens of groups C and G by dilution with group A-variant antiserum was tested. A complete method is introduced that enables the clinical laboratory to report whether group A streptococci are present in a given throat culture well within 24 hr after the physician collects the sample. Images PMID:14255663

  11. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE. I. GROUPING BETA-HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, T B

    1965-01-01

    Smith, Thomas B. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C.). Clinical application of immunofluorescence. I. Grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci. J. Bacteriol. 89:198-204. 1965.-Procedures are described for the production of antistreptococcal serum in rabbits and for the preparation of group-specific conjugates for Lancefield groups A, C, and G. A modification of the conventional technique of absorption and inhibition to prevent cross-reactions with common antigens was used with excellent results. In addition, a promising new approach to eliminating cross-reactions of group A conjugate with antigens of groups C and G by dilution with group A-variant antiserum was tested. A complete method is introduced that enables the clinical laboratory to report whether group A streptococci are present in a given throat culture well within 24 hr after the physician collects the sample.

  12. Cysteine toxicity for oral streptococci and effect of branched-chain amino acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowman, R A; Baron, S S; Fitzgerald, R J

    1983-01-01

    Cysteine was bactericidal to strains of Streptococcus mutans and S. salivarius in concentrations that were nontoxic to S. sanguis, S. milleri, or S. mitior when these microorganisms were incubated in a saliva protein-based synthetic medium. Cysteine toxicity for S. mutans also occurred after incubation in synthetic base medium supplemented with amino acids as the nitrogen source for growth. The bactericidal effect of cysteine for S. mutans or S. salivarius in the saliva protein medium was inf...

  13. What Happened to the Streptococci: Overview of Taxonomic and Nomenclature Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Facklam, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Since the division of the Streptococcus genus into enterococci, lactococci, and streptococci in 1984, many changes in the nomenclature and taxonomy of the Streptococcus genus have taken place. The application of genetic comparisons has improved the proper classification of the different species. The Lancefield system of serogrouping the streptococci by the expression of beta-hemolysis on blood agar plates is still very useful for the identification of streptococci for patient management. The ...

  14. Genome-wide analyses of small noncoding RNAs in streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja ePatenge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococci represent a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria, which colonize a wide range of hosts among animals and humans. Streptococcal species occur as commensal as well as pathogenic organisms. Many of the pathogenic species can cause severe, invasive infections in their hosts leading to a high morbidity and mortality. The consequence is a tremendous suffering on the part of men and livestock besides the significant financial burden in the agricultural and healthcare sectors. An environmentally stimulated and tightly controlled expression of virulence factor genes is of fundamental importance for streptococcal pathogenicity. Bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs modulate the expression of genes involved in stress response, sugar metabolism, surface composition, and other properties that are related to bacterial virulence. Even though the regulatory character is shared by this class of RNAs, variation on the molecular level results in a high diversity of functional mechanisms. The knowledge about the role of sRNAs in streptococci is still limited, but in recent years, genome-wide screens for sRNAs have been conducted in an increasing number of species. Bioinformatics prediction approaches have been employed as well as expression analyses by classical array techniques or next generation sequencing. This review will give an overview of whole genome screens for sRNAs in streptococci with a focus on describing the different methods and comparing their outcome considering sRNA conservation among species, functional similarities, and relevance for streptococcal infection.

  15. Cell-wall composition and the grouping antigens of Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLADE, H D; SLAMP, W C

    1962-08-01

    Slade, Hutton D. (Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill.) and William C. Slamp. Cell-wall composition and grouping antigens of streptococci. J. Bacteriol. 84:345-351. 1962.-The carbohydrates present in the cell walls of streptococci belonging to serological groups A-H and K-S, and unclassifiable strains, have been identified. The sugars found were rhamnose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, and mannose. All sugars vary considerably in their distribution among the groups; glucose, galactose, and rhamnose occur most frequently. Strains were found which contained each of the latter sugars singly or in combination with one or both of the other sugars. Variation within a single group occurred in one-half of the groups. A strain containing only glucose and another only galactose were found. Except for groups A and C, in which only rhamnose is present in the great majority of strains, the presence or absence of the sugars does not aid in the identification of the groups. The cell walls of all groups examined also contained alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, glucosamine, galactosamine, and muramic acid. The cell walls of all groups, except D, agglutinated in the presence of specific group antisera, indicating the presence of the group antigen in the cell wall. Strains in groups F, K, and M gave a weak reaction. The structure and chemical composition of the group antigens of the streptococci are discussed.

  16. Population structure and characterization of viridans group streptococci (VGS) including Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasunori; Elborn, J Stuart; Parkins, Michael D; Reihill, James; Goldsmith, Colin E; Coulter, Wilson A; Mason, Charlene; Millar, B Cherie; Dooley, James S G; Lowery, Colm J; Ennis, Madeleine; Rendall, Jacqueline C; Moore, John E

    2011-03-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the population structure of viridans group streptococci (VGS) in the sputum of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Freshly expectorated sputa (n=58) from 45 adult CF patients were examined by selective conventional culture on Mitis-Salivarius agar and yielded 190 isolates of VGS. Sequence analyses of the rpnB and 16-23S rRNA ITS genes identified these isolates to belong to 12 species of VGS and included S. anginosus, S. australis, S. cristatus, S. gordonii, S. infantis, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. pneumoniae, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis. The most frequently VGS organism isolated was S. salivarius (47/190; 24.7%), followed by S. mitis (36/190; 19%), S. sanguinis (25/190; 13.2%), S. oralis (20/190; 11.0%), S. pneumoniae (19/190; 10.0%), S. parasanguinis (16/190; 8.4%), S. infantis (11/190; 5.8%), S. gordonii (7/190; 3.7%), S. anginosus (4/190; 2.1%), S. cristatus (2/190; 1.1%), S. australis (1/190; 0.5%), S. mutans (1/190; 0.5%) and S. agalactiae (1/190; 0.5%). All, but four, patients harboured at least one VGS species, which ranged from one to five streptococcal species, with a mean of 2.85 species per patient. There was no clonality at the subspecies level employing ERIC RAPD PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) testing against penicillin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. Overall, resistance to penicillin with all VGS was 73/190 (38.4%) and 167/190 (87.9%) for erythromycin. With regard to ciprofloxacin, 27/190 (14.2%) were fully resistant, whilst a further 21/190 (11.1%) showed intermediate resistance, which equated to approximately three quarters (74.7%) of isolates being fully sensitive to this agent. In addition, as a comparator control population, we examined antibiotic susceptibility, as above, in a non-CF population comprising 12 individuals (50 VGS isolates), who were not receiving chronic antibiotics. In comparison, 8% and 38% of VGS

  17. Mitis group streptococci express variable pilus islet 2 pili.

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    Dorothea Zähner

    Full Text Available Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguinis are members of the Mitis group of streptococci and agents of oral biofilm, dental plaque and infective endocarditis, disease processes that involve bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Their close relative, the human pathogen S. pneumoniae uses pilus-islet 2 (PI-2-encoded pili to facilitate adhesion to eukaryotic cells.PI-2 pilus-encoding genetic islets were identified in S. oralis, S. mitis, and S. sanguinis, but were absent from other isolates of these species. The PI-2 islets resembled the genetic organization of the PI-2 islet of S. pneumoniae, but differed in the genes encoding the structural pilus proteins PitA and PitB. Two and three variants of pitA (a pseudogene in S. pneumoniae and pitB, respectively, were identified that showed ≈20% difference in nucleotide as well as corresponding protein sequence. Species-independent combinations of pitA and pitB variants indicated prior intra- and interspecies horizontal gene transfer events. Polyclonal antisera developed against PitA and PitB of S. oralis type strain ATCC35037 revealed that PI-2 pili in oral streptococci were composed of PitA and PitB. Electronmicrographs showed pilus structures radiating >700 nm from the bacterial surface in the wild type strain, but not in an isogenic PI-2 deletion mutant. Anti-PitB-antiserum only reacted with pili containing the same PitB variant, whereas anti-PitA antiserum was cross-reactive with the other PitA variant. Electronic multilocus sequence analysis revealed that all PI-2-encoding oral streptococci were closely-related and cluster with non-PI-2-encoding S. oralis strains.This is the first identification of PI-2 pili in Mitis group oral streptococci. The findings provide a striking example of intra- and interspecies horizontal gene transfer. The PI-2 pilus diversity provides a possible key to link strain-specific bacterial interactions and/or tissue tropisms with

  18. Comparative analysis of prophages in Streptococcus mutans genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tiwei; Fan, Xiangyu; Long, Quanxin; Deng, Wanyan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    Prophages have been considered genetic units that have an intimate association with novel phenotypic properties of bacterial hosts, such as pathogenicity and genomic variation. Little is known about the genetic information of prophages in the genome of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of human dental caries. In this study, we identified 35 prophage-like elements in S. mutans genomes and performed a comparative genomic analysis. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses of prophage sequences revealed that the prophages could be classified into three main large clusters: Cluster A, Cluster B, and Cluster C. The S. mutans prophages in each cluster were compared. The genomic sequences of phismuN66-1, phismuNLML9-1, and phismu24-1 all shared similarities with the previously reported S. mutans phages M102, M102AD, and ϕAPCM01. The genomes were organized into seven major gene clusters according to the putative functions of the predicted open reading frames: packaging and structural modules, integrase, host lysis modules, DNA replication/recombination modules, transcriptional regulatory modules, other protein modules, and hypothetical protein modules. Moreover, an integrase gene was only identified in phismuNLML9-1 prophages. PMID:29158986

  19. Streptococcus mutans attachment on a cast titanium surface

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    Sicknan Soares da Rocha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and the corrosion of cast commercially pure titanium, used in dental dentures. The sample discs were cast in commercially pure titanium using the vacuum-pressure machine (Rematitan System. The surfaces of each metal were ground and polished with sandpaper (#300-4000 and alumina paste (0.3 µm. The roughness of the surface (Ra was measured using the Surfcorder rugosimeter SE 1700. Four coupons were inserted separately into Falcon tubes contained Mueller Hinton broth inoculated with S. mutans ATCC 25175 (10(9 cuf and incubated at 37 °C. The culture medium was changed every three days during a 365-day period, after which the falcons were prepared for observations by SEM. The mean Ra value of CP Ti was 0.1527 µm. After S. mutans biofilm removal, pits of corrosion were observed. Despite the low roughness, S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation was observed, which induced a surface corrosion of the cast pure titanium.

  20. Effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on Streptococcus mutans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium ascorbate has been suggested to modify bleaching agents' side effects especially on composite resin bonding to dental hard tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on Streptococcus mutans adherence to bleached enamel surfaces. Sixty enamel slabs from bovine ...

  1. Diversity of Streptococcus mutans strains in bacterial interspecies interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Ling, J.; Crielaard, W.; Deng, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are matrix-enclosed microbial population adhere to each other and to surfaces. Compared to planktonic bacterial cells, biofilm cells show much higher levels of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to investigate Streptococcus mutans strain diversity in biofilm formation and chlorhexidine

  2. Efficacy of some antibacterial agents against Streptococcus mutans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dr.ihsan alsaimary

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... The natural red pomegranate juice is more effective than the acidic and white natural, while the acidic white juice not effective. The biggest diameter was ... A comparison of susceptibility for antimicrobial agents, plant extract and antibiotics against S. mutans isolated from dental caries. Antibacterial agent.

  3. Streptococcus mutans-derived extracellular matrix in cariogenic oral biofilms

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    Marlise eKlein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are highly structured microbial communities that are enmeshed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Within the complex oral microbiome, Streptococcus mutans is a major producer of extracellular polymeric substances including exopolysaccharides (EPS, eDNA and lipoteichoic acid (LTA. EPS produced by S. mutans-derived exoenzymes promote local accumulation of microbes on the teeth, while forming a spatially heterogeneous and diffusion-limiting matrix that protects embedded bacteria. The EPS-rich matrix provides mechanical stability/cohesiveness and facilitates the creation of highly acidic microenvironments, which are critical for the pathogenesis of dental caries. In parallel, S. mutans also releases eDNA and LTA, which can contribute with matrix development. eDNA enhances EPS (glucan synthesis locally, increasing the adhesion of S. mutans to saliva-coated apatitic surfaces and the assembly of highly cohesive biofilms. eDNA and other extracellular substances, acting in concert with EPS, may impact the functional properties of the matrix and the virulence of cariogenic biofilms. Enhanced understanding about the assembly principles of the matrix may lead to efficacious approaches to control biofilm-related diseases.

  4. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-29

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Korelasi Jumlah Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans dan Level Ekspresi Interlukin 8 (IL-8 pada Severe Early Childhood Caries

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    Muhammad Luthfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karies gigi pada anak usia dini merupakan masalah kesehatan yang sangat serius karena merupakan penyakit infeksi kronis yang menular. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir pandangan tentang neutrofil telah berubah secara dramatis. Neutrofil tidak hanya berperan sebagai pembunuh mikroba melalui proses fagositosis, pelepasan reactive oxigen species (ROS dan peptida antimikrobialnya tetapi neutrofil turut mengatur aktifasi respon imun. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 berfungsi sebagai aktivator kuat dan kemoatraktan neutrofil oleh karena itu IL-8 merupakan mediator kunci dalam migrasi neutrofil ke lokasi peradangan dan infeksi. Untuk menganalisis hubungan dari jumlah S. mutans dan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva pada anak usia dini bebas karies dan severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. Perlakuan dilakukan pada dua kelompok yaitu isolasi dan menghitung jumlah S. mutans pada sampel saliva dan sampel hasil kumur dengan NaCl 1,5% yang diisolasi neutrofilnya kemudian dianalisis ekspresi IL-8 menggunakan flow cytometry dari 20 anak bebas karies dan 20 anak severe early childhood caries. Hasil nilai rata-rata diketahui bahwa jumlah S. mutans anak usia dini bebas karies lebih rendah (513.500,00±185.565,28 CFU/ml dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (977.000,00±222.500,15 CFU/ml, sedangkan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva anak usia dini bebas karies lebih tinggi (3,31±0,50 dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (2,95+0,56. Penurunan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva kemungkinan sebagai penyebab meningkatnya jumlah S. mutans pada S-ECC. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans Level and Interleukin 8 (IL-8 Expressions of Salivary Neutrophils in Severe Early Childhood Caries. Early childhood caries is a very serious health problem because it is a chronic infectious disease that is contagious. Dental caries begins after the primary teeth grow and develop on the tooth surface very quickly and progressively. In recent years the views of neutrophils have changed dramatically. Neutrophils

  6. Humoral immunity to commensal oral bacteria in human infants: salivary secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the first two years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M F; Bryan, S; Evans, M K; Pearce, C L; Sheridan, M J; Sura, P A; Wientzen, R L; Bowden, G H

    1999-04-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant's saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity.

  7. The role of zinc in the interplay between pathogenic streptococci and their hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kloosterman, Tomas G.

    Recent studies on pathogenic streptococci have revealed that zinc is a pivotal metal ion in their interaction with the host. In these streptococci, systems exist that ensure optimal use of zinc from the surrounding milieu, as well as export of zinc when concentrations exceed tolerance levels. Zinc

  8. Antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rianti

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experimental study conducted on antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium Infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Effective concentration of Coleus amboinicus, Lour to decrease the quantities Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies is expected to be found out in this study. This study was using Coleus Amboinicus, Lour folium infusum with 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% concentrations. Sterilized aquadest used as a control. Candida albicans and S. mutans quantities was enumerated by counting the amount of Candida albicans and S. mutans growth in the Sabouraud ,s dextrose agar and Tryptone and yeast Agar media, using Colony Forming Unit per milliliter (CFU/ ml unit. Data analysis was using a One-Way ANOVA and LSD with 5% degree of significance. The result showed 22.5% concentration of CAL folium infusum was the most effective in decreasing the quantity Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies.

  9. Streptococcus mutans copes with heat stress by multiple transcriptional regulons modulating virulence and energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Niu, Yulong; Zhou, Xuedong; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Shida; Guo, Qiang; Li, Yuqing; Li, Mingyun; Li, Jiyao; Yang, Yi; Ding, Yi; Lamont, Richard J.; Xu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is closely associated with the virulence of Streptococcus mutans. The virulence expression of S. mutans is linked to its stress adaptation to the changes in the oral environment. In this work we used whole-genome microarrays to profile the dynamic transcriptomic responses of S. mutans during physiological heat stress. In addition, we evaluated the phenotypic changes, including, eDNA release, initial biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharides generation, acid production/acid tolerance, and ATP turnover of S. mutans during heat stress. There were distinct patterns observed in the way that S. mutans responded to heat stress that included 66 transcription factors for the expression of functional genes being differentially expressed. Especially, response regulators of two component systems (TCSs), the repressors of heat shock proteins and regulators involved in sugar transporting and metabolism co-ordinated to enhance the cell’s survival and energy generation against heat stress in S. mutans. PMID:26251057

  10. Daptomycin tested against 915 bloodstream isolates of viridans group streptococci (eight species) and Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Jennifer M; Steenbergen, Judith N; Thorne, Grace M; Alder, Jeffrey; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the activity of daptomycin tested against numerous species of viridans group streptococci and Streptococcus bovis, which are associated with wound infections, sepsis, cellulitis, endocarditis, abscesses and dental caries. The incidence of penicillin-resistant (non-susceptible) and MLS(B)-resistant strains among viridans group streptococci often varies by species. The activity of daptomycin was compared with seven other antimicrobial classes using reference broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods tested against 915 bacteraemic isolates of streptococci (815 viridans group strains; 100 S. bovis). Among all species of viridans group streptococci and S. bovis, 99.9% of isolates were susceptible to daptomycin (MIC values, viridans group streptococci, as well as S. bovis, with all MIC values at < or =2 mg/L.

  11. A bacteriophage endolysin that eliminates intracellular streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Barros, Marilia; Vennemann, Tarek; Gallagher, D Travis; Yin, Yizhou; Linden, Sara B; Heselpoth, Ryan D; Spencer, Dennis J; Donovan, David M; Moult, John; Fischetti, Vincent A; Heinrich, Frank; Lösche, Mathias; Nelson, Daniel C

    2016-03-15

    PlyC, a bacteriophage-encoded endolysin, lyses Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy) on contact. Here, we demonstrate that PlyC is a potent agent for controlling intracellular Spy that often underlies refractory infections. We show that the PlyC holoenzyme, mediated by its PlyCB subunit, crosses epithelial cell membranes and clears intracellular Spy in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative studies using model membranes establish that PlyCB interacts strongly with phosphatidylserine (PS), whereas its interaction with other lipids is weak, suggesting specificity for PS as its cellular receptor. Neutron reflection further substantiates that PlyC penetrates bilayers above a PS threshold concentration. Crystallography and docking studies identify key residues that mediate PlyCB-PS interactions, which are validated by site-directed mutagenesis. This is the first report that a native endolysin can traverse epithelial membranes, thus substantiating the potential of PlyC as an antimicrobial for Spy in the extracellular and intracellular milieu and as a scaffold for engineering other functionalities.

  12. Antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Rianti, Devi; Yogyarti, Sri

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experimental study conducted on antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium Infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Effective concentration of Coleus amboinicus, Lour to decrease the quantities Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies is expected to be found out in this study. This study was using Coleus Amboinicus, Lour folium infusum with 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% concentrations. Sterilized aquadest used as a control. Candida al...

  13. Microbial Diversity in Milk of Women With Mastitis: Potential Role of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci, Viridans Group Streptococci, and Corynebacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Jiménez, Esther; Arroyo, Rebeca; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María

    2017-05-01

    Lactational mastitis constitutes a significant cause of premature weaning. However, its etiology, linked to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, has been scarcely reported. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the microbial diversity in milk samples from women suffering from lactational mastitis and to identify more accurately a collection of isolates belonging to coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, and coryneform bacteria. This is a cross-sectional descriptive one-group study. A total of 5,009 isolates from 1,849 mastitis milk samples was identified by culture, biochemical, and/or molecular methods at the species or genus level. A more precise identification of a collection of 211 isolates was carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Mean total bacterial count in milk samples was 4.11 log 10 colony-forming units/ml, 95% confidence interval [4.08, 4.15]. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species being isolated from 91.56% of the samples, whereas Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 29.74%. Streptococci and corynebacteria constituted the second (70.20%) and third (16.60%) most prevalent bacterial groups, respectively, found in this study. In contrast, Candida spp. was present in only 0.54% of the samples. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a high diversity of bacterial species among identified isolates. Many coagulase-negative staphylococci, viridans group streptococci, and corynebacteria, usually dismissed as contaminant bacteria, may play an important role as etiologic agents of mastitis. Proper diagnosis of mastitis should be established after performing microbiological testing of milk based on standardized procedures. A reliable analysis must identify the mastitis-causing pathogen(s) at the species level and its(their) concentration(s).

  14. Oral colonization by Streptococcus mutans and its association with the severity of periodontal disease in adults

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    MS Contardo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans is associated with the onset of caries. Since root exposure in patients affected by periodontitis leads to higher caries rates, progressively more severe forms of periodontal disease might associate with elevated counts of S. mutans. Aim: To determine whether increasingly destructive forms of periodontal disease are associated with higher counts of S. mutans in untreated patients. Methods: 206 subjects aged 20-75 were classified into three groups according to the severity of periodontal disease: 1 gingivitis, 2 chronic slight periodontitis and 3 chronic moderate or chronic severe periodontitis. S. mutans counts (cfu/mL were obtained by direct counting on selective agar plates from saliva samples. A cumulative proportional logistic regression model was adjusted for S. mutans counts. Results: The model failed to show differences by gender, but periodontal diagnosis had a significant effect on S. mutans counts depending on age. While in the group with moderate and severe periodontitis the probability of having high counts of S. mutans significantly increased with age, the probability remained unchanged in individuals with chronic slight periodontitis or gingivitis. Conclusion: High S. mutans levels appear directly co-associated with increased severity of periodontal disease at older ages in untreated patients.

  15. Effect of nicotine on dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyun; Huang, Ruijie; Zhou, Xuedong; Zhang, Keke; Zheng, Xin; Gregory, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Both Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis are normal bacterial inhabitants of dental plaque. Streptococcus mutans is the major agent causing dental caries. It has been well documented that nicotine affects the growth of S. mutans. This study investigated the effect of nicotine on mono- and dual-species growth of S. mutans and S. sanguinis. The results indicate that nicotine has no significant effect on S. sanguinis grown in either mono- or dual-species biofilms. However, nicotine significantly increased (P mutans in dual-species biofilm formation. In addition, the CFU level of S. sanguinis was higher than S. mutans without nicotine in the culture. With the addition of nicotine, the level of S. mutans biofilm was significantly enhanced as the nicotine concentration increased over the level of S. sanguinis in dual-species biofilm, and we also got the same result from the fluorescence in situ hybridization detecting the two bacteria grown in biofilm formation. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) of S. mutans has also been increased by the increasing nicotine concentration, while the EPS of S. sanguinis was decreased or inhibited by the affected nicotine. The data further confirm that nicotine is able to enhance the growth of S. mutans. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, M; Sallal, A-K; Darmani, H

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and the adhesion of this bacterium to human buccal epithelial cells. Different concentrations of an aqueous extract of thyme were prepared and the effects investigated on growth of S. mutans. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also investigated and compared with the effects of chlorhexidine digluconate. The data revealed that exposure of S. mutans to thyme extract showed a time and concentration-dependent decrease in bacterial viability. The greatest effect was observed when S. mutans had been exposed to 20% thyme extract for a period of 48 h which resulted in 96% inhibition of bacterial growth. Furthermore, the adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also reduced when either buccal epithelial cells or S. mutans had been pre-incubated with different concentrations of aqueous thyme extracts (83-98% and 75-89% inhibition respectively). There was also greater reduction in the adherence of bacterial cells to buccal epithelial cells after mouth rinsing with 20% aqueous thyme extract compared to rinsing with chlorhexidine digluconate (45% and 89% inhibition of bacterial adhesion respectively). The diminished adherence of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells after exposure to various concentrations of aqueous thyme extract as well as the antimicrobial properties of this plant may have clinical relevance.

  17. Alkaloids from aerial parts of Annona senegalensis against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, N; Kishore, N; Bodiba, D; More, G; Tshikalange, E; Kikuchi, H; Oshima, Y

    2017-08-01

    Antimicrobial potential of medicinal plants have been explored extensively these days. This study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial potential from aerial parts of plant, called 'Annona senegalensis' and its constituents. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of four metabolites, (+)-catechin (1), (-)-anonaine (2), (-)-asimilobine (3) and (+)-nornantenine (4). This is the first report on the isolation of compounds 1, 3 and 4 from this plant. Compounds 2 and 4 showed good activity, whereas 1 and 3 displayed weak inhibition against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). The results showed that compound 2 and 3 showed significant activity with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 0.12 and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively. The present study reports for the first time the antibacterial activity of the extract of A. senegalensis and its constituents. As S. mutans is a rather resistant bacteria, the MIC obtained during the present study is significant.

  18. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  19. Import and metabolism of glutathione by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, C; Fahey, R C

    1998-03-01

    Glutathione (gamma-GluCysGly, GSH) is not found in most gram-positive bacteria, but some appear to synthesize it and others, including Streptococcus mutans ATCC 33402, import it from their growth medium. Import of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) by S. mutans 33402 in 7H9 medium was shown to require glucose and to occur with an apparent Km of 18+/-5 microM. GSSG, GSH, S-methylglutathione, and homocysteine-glutathione mixed disulfide (hCySSG) were imported at comparable rates (measured by depletion of substrate in the medium), as was the disulfide of gamma-GluCys. In contrast, the disulfide of CysGly was not taken up at a measurable rate, indicating that the gamma-Glu residue is important for efficient transport. During incubation with GSSG, little GSSG was detected in cells but GSH and gamma-GluCys accumulated during the first 30 min and then declined. No significant intracellular accumulation of Cys or sulfide was found. Transient intracellular accumulation of D/L-homocysteine, as well as GSH and gamma-GluCys, was observed during import of hCySSG. Although substantial levels of GSH were found in cells when S. mutans was grown on media containing glutathione, such GSH accumulation had no effect on the growth rate. However, the presence of cellular GSH did protect against growth inhibition by the thiol-oxidizing agent diamide. Import of glutathione by S. mutans ATCC 25175, which like strain 33402 does not synthesize glutathione, occurred at a rate comparable to that of strain 33402, but three species which appear to synthesize glutathione (S. agalactiae ATCC 12927, S. pyogenes ATCC 8668, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) imported glutathione at negligible or markedly lower rates.

  20. Evaluation of commercial latex agglutination reagents for grouping streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facklam, R R; Cooksey, R C; Wortham, E C

    1979-11-01

    A total of 155 strains of beta-hemolytic streptococci were serologically grouped by conventional techniques (Lancefield extraction and capillary precipitin testing) and by latex agglutination (LA). Agreement between conventional and LA techniques was 97% when the instructions of the manufacturer for the LA technique were followed. Agreement of 99% was obtained when modified autoclave extracts were used as antigens in the LA procedure. A total of 82 strains of non-beta-hemolytic streptococci were also tested by conventional, prescribed LA, and modified autoclave procedures. The agreement between conventional techniques and both LA procedures was 76%. However, when serological cross-reactions in the conventional grouping procedures were considered as errors, the accuracy of identification of both LA procedures was 88% among the non-beta-hemolytic strains. Of 13 strains of Streptococcus bovis, 10 did not react with the LA group D reagent but were serogroup D by conventional techniques. More S. bovis strains were grouped by the LA technique when extracts of 20 ml of broth cultures were used as antigens; however, cross-reactions were observed with non-group D strains when this technique was applied to them.

  1. Sensing of Streptococcus mutans by microscopic imaging ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleel, Mai Ibrahim; Chen, Yu-Da; Chien, Ching-Hang; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2017-05-01

    Microscopic imaging ellipsometry is an optical technique that uses an objective and sensing procedure to measure the ellipsometric parameters Ψ and Δ in the form of microscopic maps. This technique is well known for being noninvasive and label-free. Therefore, it can be used to detect and characterize biological species without any impact. Microscopic imaging ellipsometry was used to measure the optical response of dried Streptococcus mutans cells on a glass substrate. The ellipsometric Ψ and Δ maps were obtained with the Optrel Multiskop system for specular reflection in the visible range (λ=450 to 750 nm). The Ψ and Δ images at 500, 600, and 700 nm were analyzed using three different theoretical models with single-bounce, two-bounce, and multibounce light paths to obtain the optical constants and height distribution. The obtained images of the optical constants show different aspects when comparing the single-bounce analysis with the two-bounce or multibounce analysis in detecting S. mutans samples. Furthermore, the height distributions estimated by two-bounce and multibounce analyses of S. mutans samples were in agreement with the thickness values measured by AFM, which implies that the two-bounce and multibounce analyses can provide information complementary to that obtained by a single-bounce light path.

  2. Effect of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva of Caries Free Children Using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Test: A Randomized Controlled Triple Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Deepti; Jeevarathan, J; Muthu, Ms; Prabhu V, Rathna; Chamundeswari

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of caries free children using Dentocult SM strip mutans and to evaluate the effect of fluoride varnish on the Streptococcus mutans count in saliva of these caries free children. Thirty caries free children were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire prepared. They were randomly assigned into the control group and the study group consisting of ten and twenty children respectively. Samples of saliva were collected using the saliva strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation the presence of the Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturers' chart. The study group was subjected to Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application after 24 hours following which the samples were collected again. The average Streptococcus mutans count in primary dentition of caries free children was in the range of 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming units/ml. The average Streptococcus mutans count in primary dentition of caries free children after Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application was below 10(4) colony forming units/ml. Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application showed a statistically significant reduction in the Streptococcus mutans count in saliva of the caries free children in the study group.

  3. THE PATHOLOGIC EFFECTS OF STREPTOCOCCI FROM CASES OF POLIOMYELITIS AND OTHER SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Carroll G.

    1917-01-01

    Streptococci cultivated from the tonsils of thirty-two cases of poliomyelitis were used to inoculate various laboratory animals. In no case was a condition induced resembling poliomyelitis clinically or pathologically in guinea pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, or monkeys. On the other hand, a considerable percentage of the rabbits and a smaller percentage of some of the other animals developed lesions due to streptococci. These lesions consisted of meningitis, meningo-encephalitis, abscess of the brain, arthritis, tenosynovitis, myositis, abscess of the kidney, endocarditis, pericarditis, and neuritis. No distinction in the character or frequency of the lesions could be determined between the streptococci derived from poliomyelitic patients and from other sources. Streptococci isolated from the poliomyelitic brain and spinal cord of monkeys which succumbed to inoculation with the filtered virus failed to induce in monkeys any paralysis or the characteristic histological changes of poliomyelitis. These streptococci are regarded as secondary bacterial invaders of the nervous organs. Monkeys which have recovered from infection with streptococci derived from cases of poliomyelitis are not protected from infection with the filtered virus, and their blood does not neutralize the filtered virus in vitro. We have failed to detect any etiologic or pathologic relationship between streptococci and epidemic poliomyelitis in man or true experimental poliomyelitis in the monkey. PMID:19868109

  4. Streptococcus mutans Can Modulate Biofilm Formation and Attenuate the Virulence of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; de Alvarenga, Janaína Araújo; Velloso, Marisol dos Santos; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are found together in the oral biofilms on dental surfaces, but little is known about the ecological interactions between these species. Here, we studied the effects of S. mutans UA159 on the growth and pathogencity of C. albicans. Initially, the effects of S. mutans on the biofilm formation and morphogenesis of C. albicans were tested in vitro. Next, we investigate the influence of S. mutans on pathogenicity of C. albicans using in vivo host models, in which the experimental candidiasis was induced in G. mellonella larvae and analyzed by survival curves, C. albicans count in hemolymph, and quantification of hyphae in the host tissues. In all the tests, we evaluated the direct effects of S. mutans cells, as well as the indirect effects of the subproducts secreted by this microorganism using a bacterial culture filtrate. The in vitro analysis showed that S. mutans cells favored biofilm formation by C. albicans. However, a reduction in biofilm viable cells and inhibition of hyphal growth was observed when C. albicans was in contact with the S. mutans culture filtrate. In the in vivo study, injection of S. mutans cells or S. mutans culture filtrate into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, a reduction in hyphal formation was observed in larval tissues when C. albicans was associated with S. mutans culture filtrate. These findings suggest that S. mutans can secrete subproducts capable to inhibit the biofilm formation, morphogenesis and pathogenicity of C. albicans, attenuating the experimental candidiasis in G. mellonella model. PMID:26934196

  5. Clotrimazole and econazole inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm and virulence in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Ren, Biao; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Qiong; Zhou, Xuedong; Li, Yuqing

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of eight antifungal drugs on S. mutans growth, biofilm formation and virulence factors. The actions of antifungal drugs on S. mutans were determined by recovery plates and survival kinetic curves. Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the viable cells were recovered on BHI plates, meanwhile biofilms were stained by BacLight live/dead kit to investigate the biofilm viability. Bacteria/extracellular polysaccharides staining assays were performed to determine the EPS production of S. mutans biofilms. Acidogenicity and acidurity of S. mutans were determined using pH drop and acid tolerance assays, and the expression of ldh gene was evaluated using qPCR. We found that clotrimazole (CTR) and econazole (ECO) showed antibacterial activities on S. mutans UA159 and S. mutans clinical isolates at 12.5 and 25mg/L, respectively. CTR and ECO could also inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation and reduce the viability of preformed biofilm. CTR and ECO affected the live/dead ratio and the EPS/bacteria ratio of S. mutans biofilms. CTR and ECO also inhibited the pH drop, lactate acid production, and acid tolerance. The abilities of CTR and ECO to inhibit S. mutans ldh expression were also confirmed. We found that two antifungal azoles, CTR and ECO, had the abilities to inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans and more importantly, they could also inhibit the virulence factors of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ANTIBODI MONOKLONAL STREPTOKOKUS MUTANS 1(c 67 kDa DALAM PASTA GIGI BAHAN DASAR UNTUK MENGHAMBAT PERTUMBUHAN STREPTOKOKUS MUTANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Devijanti R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of dental caries is still continuing, because the prevalency caries is high. There was many methods to prevent dental caries etc. dental education, oral hygiene, special method on tooth brushing, water fluoridation, fissure sealant and later on the passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to investigate about monoclonal antibodies IgA, IgG1 and IgG3 against Streptococcus mutans 1(c in basic paste for inhibiting the growth Streptococcus mutans. The monoclonal antibodies were IgA Ab, IgG1 Ab and IgG3 Ab. Formula basic paste from PT “X” contained Aqua, Sorbitol, Nipagin, Dicalcium Phosphat, Titanium Dioxid, Sodium Carboxyl Methyl Sel. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sacarin. Basic paste was mixed with monoclonal antibodies IgA, IgG1 and IgG3 in room temperature (27oC then to investigate zone of inhibition from these tooth paste with Wistreich and Lechman methods. The data obtained in this study was analyzed with one way Anova and LSD. The result showed that there was a significant differences between basic paste with or without monoclonal antibodies. From the data analyzed in this study it can be concluded that monoclonal antibodies against S. mutans 1( c could be formulation with basic paste.

  7. Rapid extraction method with pronase B for grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, G M; Herrmann, M M; Bruce, R; Matsen, J M; Chapman, S S

    1972-02-01

    The enzyme, Pronase B, was used to extract the C carbohydrates of betahemolytic streptococci for serological grouping. Reference strains of streptococci, groups A through N, were accurately grouped by using this extraction method. Of the beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from patients' cultures, 1,197 were classified as either group A or not group A by this method. There was 100% correlation with the reference Lancefield method. In contrast, false reactions occurred with the presumptive bacitracin disc method in 4.1% of the group A and 12.7% of the non-group A cultures. The Pronase method proved simple, accurate, and readily adaptable to the clinical laboratory routine.

  8. Relationship between Cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans and cerebral microbleeds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatani, F; Kuriyama, N; Watanabe, I; Nomura, R; Nakano, K; Matsui, D; Ozaki, E; Koyama, T; Nishigaki, M; Yamamoto, T; Mizuno, T; Tamura, A; Akazawa, K; Takada, A; Takeda, K; Yamada, K; Nakagawa, M; Ihara, M; Kanamura, N; Friedland, R P; Watanabe, Y

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage has been shown to occur in animals experimentally infected with Streptococcus mutans carrying the collagen-binding Cnm gene. However, the relationship between cerebral microbleeds and oral hygiene, with a focus on Cnm gene-positive S. mutans infection, remains unclear. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated. The presence or absence of Cnm-positive S. mutans and its collagen-binding activity were investigated using saliva samples, and relationship with cerebral microbleeds detected on MRI investigated, including clinical information and oral parameters. Fifty-one subjects were identified as Cnm-positive S. mutans carriers (36.7%), with cerebral microbleeds being detected in 43 (30.9%). A significantly larger number of subjects carried Cnm-positive S. mutans in the cerebral microbleeds (+) group. S. mutans with Cnm collagen-binding ability was detected in 39 (28.1%) of all subjects, and the adjusted odds ratio for cerebral microbleeds in the Cnm-positive group was 14.4. Regarding the presence of cerebral microbleeds, no significant differences were noted in the number of remaining teeth, dental caries, or in classic arteriosclerosis risk factors. The occurrence of cerebral microbleeds was higher in subjects carrying Cnm-positive S. mutans, indicating that the presence of Cnm-positive S. mutans increases cerebral microbleeds, and is an independent risk for the development of cerebrovascular disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, FC; Assev, S; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Scheie, AA

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the

  10. Contribution of ClpP to stress tolerance and virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang-Hua; Zhang, Jia-Qin; Song, Xiu-Yu; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Shi-Yang

    2014-11-01

    Abilities to tolerate environmental stresses and to form biofilms on teeth surface are key virulence attributes of Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of human dental caries. ClpP, the chief intracellular protease of S. mutans, along with ATPases degrades altered proteins that might be toxic for bacteria, and thus plays important roles in stress response. To further understand the roles of ClpP in stress response of S. mutans, a ClpP deficient strain was constructed and used for general stress tolerance, autolysis, mutacins production, and virulence assays. Here, we demonstrated that inactivation of ClpP in S. mutans resulted in a sensitive phenotype to several environmental stresses, including acid, cold, thermal, and oxidative stresses. The ClpP deficient strain displayed slow growth rates, poor growth yields, formation of long chains, increased clumping in broth, and reduced capacity to form biofilms in presence of glucose. Mutacins production and autolysis of S. mutans were also impaired by mutation of clpP. Animals study showed that clpP mutation increased virulence of S. mutans but not significant. However, enhanced abilities to survive lethal acid and to form biofilm in sucrose were observed in ClpP deficient strain. Our findings revealed a broad impact of ClpP on several virulence properties of S. mutans and highlighted the relevance of ClpP proteolysis with progression of diseases caused by S. mutans. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A Nuclease from Streptococcus mutans Facilitates Biofilm Dispersal and Escape from Killing by Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Sun, Luping; Liu, Wei; Guo, Lihong; Liu, Zhaohui; Wei, Xi; Ling, Junqi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and occasionally infective endocarditis, with the ability to form biofilms and disperse cells into distal sites to exacerbate and spread infection. In this study, we identified a nuclease (DeoC) as a S. mutans biofilm dispersal modulating factor through microarray analysis. In vitro assays revealed a dispersal defect of a deoC deletion mutant, and functional studies with purified protein were indicative of the biofilm dispersal activity of DeoC. Neutrophils are a key host response factor restraining bacterial spreading through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which consist of a nuclear DNA backbone associated with antimicrobial peptides. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dispersed S. mutans might utilize DeoC to degrade NETs and escape killing by the immune system. It was found that S. mutans induced NET formation upon contact with neutrophils, while the presence of NETs in turn enhanced the deoC expression of S. mutans . Fluorescence microscopy inspection showed that deoC deletion resulted in a decreased NET degradation ability of S. mutans and enhanced susceptibility to neutrophil killing. Data obtained from this study assigned two important roles for DeoC in S. mutans : contributing to the spread of infection through mediating biofilm dispersal, and facilitating the escape of S. mutans from neutrophil killing through NET degradation.

  12. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans UA159

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Nang Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we revealed that OA and UA significantly inhibited the expression of most genes related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis in S. mutans UA159. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to introduce the antimicrobial mechanism of OA and UA against S. mutans.

  13. An exploration of the effects of Commiphora glileadenis on a Streptococcus mutans biofilm

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    Hossam A Eid

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Myrrh plant extract has promising antibacterial effect as well as on biofilm inhibition of S. mutans. The significant antimicrobial effect of the Myrrh plant extract indicates about its promise in controlling S. mutans biofilm, which has suspected role in the etiology of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  14. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p dental casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern.

  15. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hugo Peralta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  16. Enterococcus faecalis and pathogenic streptococci inactivate daptomycin by releasing phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Elizabeth V K; Pader, Vera; Edwards, Andrew M

    2017-10-01

    Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We showed previously that Staphylococcus aureus can survive daptomycin exposure by releasing membrane phospholipids that inactivate the antibiotic. To determine whether other pathogens possess this defence mechanism, phospholipid release and daptomycin activity were measured after incubation of Staphylococcus epidermidis, group A or B streptococci, Streptococcus gordonii or Enterococcus faecalis with the antibiotic. All bacteria released phospholipids in response to daptomycin, which resulted in at least partial inactivation of the antibiotic. However, E. faecalis showed the highest levels of lipid release and daptomycin inactivation. As shown previously for S. aureus, phospholipid release by E. faecalis was inhibited by the lipid biosynthesis inhibitor platensimycin. In conclusion, several pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecalis, inactivate daptomycin by releasing phospholipids, which may contribute to the failure of daptomycin to resolve infections caused by these pathogens.

  17. Infective endocarditis in neutropenic patients with viridans streptococci bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beteille, Elisa; Guarana, Mariana; Nucci, Marcio

    2018-03-17

    Viridans streptococci (VS) are important agents of bacteraemia in neutropenic patients and important agents of community-acquired infective endocarditis (IE) in non-neutropenic patients. However, the incidence of IE in neutropenic patients seems to be rare. In this systematic review of the literature we sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the frequency of IE in neutropenic patients with VS bacteraemia? (2) What is the most frequent clinical presentation of IE? (3) Is routine investigation for IE indicated in neutropenic patients with VS bacteraemia? The incidence of IE in patients with VS bacteraemia was 0.74% and a new cardiac murmur was the most frequent clinical presentation. Given the rarity of IE in neutropenic patients, routine investigation with echocardiography is not indicated. However, the presence of a new significant murmur should prompt appropriate investigation to rule out IE. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Characterization and identification of streptococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, J L

    1988-06-01

    A total of 317 gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci isolated from bovine mammary glands were characterized and identified using current species descriptions. Two hundred eighty-seven isolates (90.5%) could be placed in 11 distinct species. Streptococcus uberis was the most frequently encountered species and could be separated into two previously described genetic types based upon sucrose utilization. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and a newly described species, Streptococcus saccharolyticus, were the most frequently isolated organisms from teat canal swabs. Thirty isolates could not be placed in currently described species. A proposed identification scheme based upon serological grouping and seven biochemical tests would permit 24 h identification of streptococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.

  19. [Antibacterial effect of self-etching adhesive systems on Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Yuan, Chong-yang; Tian, Fu-cong; Wang, Xiao-yan; Gao, Xue-jun

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the antibacterial effect of different self-etching adhesive systems against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Six reagents Clearfil(TM) SE Bond primer (SP), Clearfil(TM) SE Bond adhesive (SA),Clearfil(TM) Protect Bond primer (PP), which contained antibacterial monomer methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB), ClearfilTM Protect Bond adhesive (PA), positive control chlorhexidine acetate [CHX, 1% (mass fraction)], and negative control phosphate buffer solution (PBS) were selected. They were mixed with S. mutans for 30 s respectively, then colony-forming units (CFU) were counted after incubated for 48 h on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar medium. The 6 reagents were applied to the sterile paper discs, and distributed onto the BHI agar medium with S. mutans and incubated for 24 h, then the inhibition zones were observed. CHX, PBS, PP, and SP were added on the dentin with artificial caries induced by S. mutans and kept for 30 s, then confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was used to observe the live and dead bacteria after staining. The ratio of live to dead bacteria was calculated. PP+PA and SP+SA were applied on the dentin according to the manual and light cured. S. mutans were incubated on the samples for 2 h, ultrasonically treated and incubated on BHI agar medium for 48 h, then CFU was counted. The data were analyzed by non-parametric analysis and one-way ANOVA. Compared with PBS, the PP, SP, PA, SA and CHX showed the antibacterial effect on free S. mutans (Padhesive systems did not show any antibacterial effect on the free S. mutans. The primer of self-etching adhesives Clearfil(TM) SE Bond and Clearfil(TM) Protect Bond showed significant antibacterial effect on free and attached S. mutans. The adhesive only showed antibacterial effect on free S. mutans before light-cured polymerization. After being cured, the self-etching adhesive systems did not show antibacterial effect anymore.

  20. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of PCR-Amplified gki Genes : a New Technique for Tracking Streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, M. J.; Tissing, W. J. E.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Meessen, N. E. L.; Kamps, W. A.; Harmsen, H. J. M.

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are a well-known cause of infections in immunocompromised patients, accounting for severe morbidity and mortality. Streptococcus mitis group species (Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis) are among the VGS most often encountered in

  1. In vitro adherence of oral streptococci to zirconia core and veneering glass-ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosentritt, M.; Behr, M.; Bürgers, R.; Feilzer, A.J.; Hahnel, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plaque formation on dental ceramics may cause gingival inflammation and secondary caries. This in vitro study compared the susceptibility of various dental ceramics to adhere oral streptococci, and verified the influence of substratum surface roughness and surface hydrophobicity. Three zirconia

  2. Phenotypic and genomic characterization of pneumococcus-like streptococci isolated from HIV-seropositive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegaard, T.M.; Bootsma, H.J.; Caugant, D.A.; Eleveld, M.J.; Mannsaker, T.; Froholm, L.O.; Gaustad, P.; Hoiby, E.A.; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate differentiation between pneumococci and other viridans streptococci is essential given their differences in clinical significance. However, classical phenotypic tests are often inconclusive, and many examples of atypical reactions have been reported. In this study, we applied various

  3. Extrarespiratory non-group A, non-group D isolates of streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniff, H; Bump, C M

    1976-06-01

    The results of serologic analysis of 246 extrarespiratory isolates of streptococci (non-group A or D) obtained from pediatric patients are presented. Watson's double enzyme method was used to obtain the extracts of the organisms for Lancefield grouping. Ninety-two and six tenths percent of beta reacting streptococci were groupable; 77.8 per cent of gamma (nonreacting) were groupable; only 20.6 per cent of the alpha reacting streptococci were groupable. The majority of the groupable streptococci belonged to Lancefield group B (49.6 per cent), although significant numbers of group F (11.4 per cent) and group G (11.8 percent) were present. The significance of the organisms in a pediatric population is discussed.

  4. Capsular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) from fish using multiplex PCR and serotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus spp. including Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) are considered emerging pathogens responsible for approximately $1 billion USD in annual losses to the global tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) aquaculture industry. This study evaluated a published multiplex PCR capsul...

  5. Efeito de um dentifrício fluoretado contendo bicarbonato de sódio na contagem de estreptococos do grupo mutans, acidogenicidade e composição da placa dental Effect of a fluorated dentifrice containing baking soda on mutans counting, acidogenicity and dental plaque composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Fernanda IGNÁCIO

    1999-01-01

    ílica como abrasivo.This investigation evaluated the effect of a fluoride baking soda-containing dentifrice on mutans streptococci counting, acidogenicity and composition of dental plaque. Twenty-three volunteers brushing their teeth 3 times a day, tested 3 formulations of fluoride (1500 ppm F, containing or sodium bicarbonate (12% associated with calcium carbonate (CARB/BICAR, or calcium carbonate (CARBONATE, or silica (SILICA, in a double blind crossover trial, done in 3 phases of 30 days each. On the 28th day, 8-10 hours after the last brushing, a counting of mutans streptococci in saliva (SMS was made. On the 30th day (after 48 hours during which the subjects were instructed to rinse with a slurry of toothpaste/water 3 times a day and sucrose 10% 6 times a day, the effect was analyzed in dental plaque, 10-12 hours after the last rinse: a mutans streptococci (PMS; b polysaccharide alkali-soluble (ASP; c acid-soluble F (ASF and d pH in T0 (T0, 5 min. after cariogenic challenge (T5, calculating DpH (T0 - T5. The results (mean + SE according to the treatments with dentifrices SILICA, CARBONATE and CARB/BICAR, were respectively: 1 SMS (x 106 UFC/mL saliva = 11.43 + 7.62 A; 2,33 + 1.04 A; 2.07 + 1.10 A; 2 PMS (x 106 UFC/mg = 0.099 + 0.095 A; 0.027 + 0.018 A; 0.007 + 0.003 A; 3 ASP (mg/mg = 6.89 + 0.62 AC; 8.46 + 0.80 AB; 6.11 + 0.59 C; 4 ASF (mg/g = 36.67 + 10.10 A; 48.12 + 19.23 A; 52.21 + 15.12 A; 5 T0 = 6.72 + 0.12 A; 6.88 + 0.13 A; 6.65 + 0.11 A; 6 T5 = 5.61 + 0.13 A; 5.71 + 0.13 A; 5.70 + 0.12 A; 7 DpH = 1.12 + 0.11 A; 1.17 + 0.11 A; 0.95 + 0.10 A. Means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly (P < 0.05. The data show that although the baking soda-containing dentifrice demonstrated, collectively, a trend to influence positively the various factors of dental caries, it did not differ significantly from SILICA and CARBONATE dentifrices.

  6. Adherence of oral streptococci to keratinized and nonkeratinized human oral epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Sklavounou, A; Germaine, G R

    1980-01-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius to adhere to keratinized versus nonkeratinized human oral epithelial cells was compared. S. mitis and S. salivarius exhibited significantly greater adherence to keratinized cells than to nonkeratinized cells. S. mutans and S. sanguis adhered equally well to either epithelial cell type. It is concluded that keratinization of epithelial cells may be a significant factor in the adherence...

  7. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathan J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer′s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

  8. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM strip mutans test: a randomized controlled triple blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarathan, J; Deepti, A; Muthu, M S; Rathna Prabhu, V; Chamundeeswari, G S

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer's chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. The average Streptococcus mutans counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10(4)-10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/ml and <10(4) CFU/ml respectively. The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

  9. [A rapid method of grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci using extemporaneous coagglutination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaafar, N; Trabelsi, H; Rassas, M; Jeddi, M

    1989-01-01

    Extemporaneous coagglutination procedure for the serological grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci is reported. Streptococcal group antigens were extracted with nitrous acid. 250 strains of groups A, B, C, F and G streptococci were tested with this method. An agreement of 100% was found between this method and the Lancefield capillary precipitation procedure. Extemporaneous coagglutination method was found to be rapid, reliable, easy and economical and could be adopted in any routine diagnostic laboratory.

  10. New immunofluorescence method for the identification of group a, b, c, e, and g streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cars, O; Forsum, U; Hjelm, E

    1975-04-01

    An immunofluorescence method for the identification of groups A, B, C, E, F, and G beta-haemolytic streptococci has been developed, using FITC-labelled F(ab')2 fragments of IgG with optimal staining characteristics. The method is useful for the rapid confirmation of beta-haemolytic streptococci in cultures; in a blind comparison with Lancefield grouping, there was a 97 per cent agreement.

  11. THE SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF PATHOGENIC AND NON-PATHOGENIC STRAINS OF HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI FROM PARTURIENT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancefield, Rebecca C.; Hare, Ronald

    1935-01-01

    1. The majority of strains of hemolytic streptococci from puerperal infections of the uterus were identified serologically as members of the Group A described by Lancefield. 2. The majority of strains isolated from the birth canal of women whose puerperium was afebrile were not members of Group A. 3. The existence of two new serological groups of hemolytic streptococci, Groups F and G, is described. PMID:19870362

  12. Phenotypic heterogeneity of genomically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R Palmer

    Full Text Available High coverage, whole genome shotgun (WGS sequencing of 57 geographically- and genetically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans from individuals of known dental caries status was recently completed. Of the 57 sequenced strains, fifteen isolates, were selected based primarily on differences in gene content and phenotypic characteristics known to affect virulence and compared with the reference strain UA159. A high degree of variability in these properties was observed between strains, with a broad spectrum of sensitivities to low pH, oxidative stress (air and paraquat and exposure to competence stimulating peptide (CSP. Significant differences in autolytic behavior and in biofilm development in glucose or sucrose were also observed. Natural genetic competence varied among isolates, and this was correlated to the presence or absence of competence genes, comCDE and comX, and to bacteriocins. In general strains that lacked the ability to become competent possessed fewer genes for bacteriocins and immunity proteins or contained polymorphic variants of these genes. WGS sequence analysis of the pan-genome revealed, for the first time, components of a Type VII secretion system in several S. mutans strains, as well as two putative ORFs that encode possible collagen binding proteins located upstream of the cnm gene, which is associated with host cell invasiveness. The virulence of these particular strains was assessed in a wax-worm model. This is the first study to combine a comprehensive analysis of key virulence-related phenotypes with extensive genomic analysis of a pathogen that evolved closely with humans. Our analysis highlights the phenotypic diversity of S. mutans isolates and indicates that the species has evolved a variety of adaptive strategies to persist in the human oral cavity and, when conditions are favorable, to initiate disease.

  13. Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sara R.; Miller, James H.; Abranches, Jacqueline; Zeng, Lin; Lefebure, Tristan; Richards, Vincent P.; Lemos, José A.; Stanhope, Michael J.; Burne, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    High coverage, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of 57 geographically- and genetically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans from individuals of known dental caries status was recently completed. Of the 57 sequenced strains, fifteen isolates, were selected based primarily on differences in gene content and phenotypic characteristics known to affect virulence and compared with the reference strain UA159. A high degree of variability in these properties was observed between strains, with a broad spectrum of sensitivities to low pH, oxidative stress (air and paraquat) and exposure to competence stimulating peptide (CSP). Significant differences in autolytic behavior and in biofilm development in glucose or sucrose were also observed. Natural genetic competence varied among isolates, and this was correlated to the presence or absence of competence genes, comCDE and comX, and to bacteriocins. In general strains that lacked the ability to become competent possessed fewer genes for bacteriocins and immunity proteins or contained polymorphic variants of these genes. WGS sequence analysis of the pan-genome revealed, for the first time, components of a Type VII secretion system in several S. mutans strains, as well as two putative ORFs that encode possible collagen binding proteins located upstream of the cnm gene, which is associated with host cell invasiveness. The virulence of these particular strains was assessed in a wax-worm model. This is the first study to combine a comprehensive analysis of key virulence-related phenotypes with extensive genomic analysis of a pathogen that evolved closely with humans. Our analysis highlights the phenotypic diversity of S. mutans isolates and indicates that the species has evolved a variety of adaptive strategies to persist in the human oral cavity and, when conditions are favorable, to initiate disease. PMID:23613838

  14. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

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    Michele BARNABÉ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  15. Selectivity of Mitis Salivarius agar and a new selective medium for oral streptococci in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kazuko; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Kayoko; Sato, Tsuneo; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2006-09-01

    An evaluation on the applicability of Mitis Salivarius agar (MS) medium, commonly used for the detection of oral streptococci in human and animals, to dog specimens and the development of a new selective medium for isolating streptococci from the canine oral cavity are described. Oral samples from dogs were cultured on MS medium under anaerobic conditions. The predominant facultative anaerobic bacteria on MS plates were gram-negative rods. Selectivity of streptococci on MS medium was 21.2%. A new selective medium, designated MS-CAN-AE, was developed for the isolation of streptococci from the canine oral cavity. The average growth recovery of laboratory and clinically isolated strains of streptococci on MS-CAN-AE medium was 84.1% of that on MS medium. Gram-positive rods and gram-negative rods and cocci rarely grew on the MS-CAN-AE. The selectivity of MS-CAN-AE was 95.0% for clinical samples. MS-CAN-AE medium will be helpful for investigations of streptococci in the canine oral cavity.

  16. Rapid slide coagglutination test for identifying and typing group B streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, M K; Field, C R

    1977-09-01

    A Cowan I strain of Staphylococcus aureus was labeled with either group B streptococcal grouping or typing antiserum. These antibody-labeled reagent cells (ARC) were used in a slide coagglutination test to identify and type group B streptococci from blood agar plates. All streptococci were also identified by the standard Lancefield capillary precipitin test. In a blind study, all 141 group B streptococci were correctly identified by the coagglutination grouping test. None of the 148 non-group B streptococci caused agglutination of ARC. The coagglutination grouping test required an acid extract prepared from only four colonies and could be completed less than 30 min after colonies were removed from plates. The coagglutination typing test correctly identified 98.6% of the types of the 141 group B streptococcal strains tested. At least 88.6% of these streptococci could be typed directly from blood agar plates within 5 min by the coagglutination typing test. The remaining 11.4% of the group B streptococci were acid extracted (less than a 30-min procedure), and the extract was used for coagglutination typing. Coagglutination typing can be performed with only four colonies. The coagglutination grouping and typing tests are inexpensive, rapid, reliable, and easy to perform.

  17. Generation of diversity in Streptococcus mutans genes demonstrated by MLST.

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    Thuy Do

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, consisting of serotypes c, e, f and k, is an oral aciduric organism associated with the initiation and progression of dental caries. A total of 135 independent Streptococcus mutans strains from caries-free and caries-active subjects isolated from various geographical locations were examined in two versions of an MLST scheme consisting of either 6 housekeeping genes [accC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase biotin carboxylase subunit, gki (glucokinase, lepA (GTP-binding protein, recP (transketolase, sodA (superoxide dismutase, and tyrS (tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase] or the housekeeping genes supplemented with 2 extracellular putative virulence genes [gtfB (glucosyltransferase B and spaP (surface protein antigen I/II] to increase sequence type diversity. The number of alleles found varied between 20 (lepA and 37 (spaP. Overall, 121 sequence types (STs were defined using the housekeeping genes alone and 122 with all genes. However pi, nucleotide diversity per site, was low for all loci being in the range 0.019-0.007. The virulence genes exhibited the greatest nucleotide diversity and the recombination/mutation ratio was 0.67 [95% confidence interval 0.3-1.15] compared to 8.3 [95% confidence interval 5.0-14.5] for the 6 concatenated housekeeping genes alone. The ML trees generated for individual MLST loci were significantly incongruent and not significantly different from random trees. Analysis using ClonalFrame indicated that the majority of isolates were singletons and no evidence for a clonal structure or evidence to support serotype c strains as the ancestral S. mutans strain was apparent. There was also no evidence of a geographical distribution of individual isolates or that particular isolate clusters were associated with caries. The overall low sequence diversity suggests that S. mutans is a newly emerged species which has not accumulated large numbers of mutations but those that have occurred have been shuffled as a consequence of

  18. Effect of Infant Formula on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Laura M; Moser, Elizabeth A S; Eckert, George; Gregory, Richard L

    This study investigated the effect that infant formula had on biofilm growth of Streptococcus mutans. Specifically, it compared biofilm growth in media containing lactose-based and sucrose-based formulas. It also analyzed biofilm formation with formulas of varying iron content. Biofilm growth was tested with the specific infant formula components sucrose, lactose, and ferric chloride. The study was designed to determine if these types of infant formulas and components affected S. mutans biofilm formation differently. A 24-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with various concentrations of infant formula diluted in bacteriological media. To test for biofilm formation, S. mutans was cultured with and without the infant formula and formula components. The biofilms were washed, fixed, and stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was measured to evaluate biofilm growth and total absorbance. Sucrose-based formulas provided significant increases in biofilm growth when compared to lactose-based formulas at two dilutions (1:5, 1:20). Similac Sensitive RS (sucrose-based) at most dilutions provided the most significant increase in biofilm growth when compared to the control. Sucrose tested as an individual component provided more of a significant increase on biofilm growth than lactose or iron when compared to the control. A low iron formula provided a significant increase in biofilm growth at one dilution (1:5) when compared to formula containing a normal iron content. There was no significant difference in biofilm growth when comparing high iron formula to normal iron formula or low iron formula. There was no significant difference when comparing Similac PM 60/40 (low iron formula) to Similac PM 60/40 with additional ferric chloride. The results of this study demonstrated that sucrose-based formula provided more of a significant increase in biofilm growth compared to lactose-based formula. Sucrose alone provided a significant increase of biofilm growth at more dilutions

  19. Propolis Extracted from the Stingless Bee Trigona sirindhornae Inhibited S. mutans Activity In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utispan, Kusumawadee; Chitkul, Bordin; Monthanapisut, Paopanga; Meesuk, Ladda; Pugdee, Kamolparn; Koontongkaew, Sittichai

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of propolis extracted from an endemic species of stingless bee, T. sirindhornae, on the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Dichloromethane extracts (DME) of propolis (DMEP) were prepared and analysed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antibacterial growth and antibiofilm formation effects of DMEP on S. mutans were compared with those of apigenin, a commercial propolis product. The effects of DMEP and apigenin on glucosyltransferase (gtf) B expression in S. mutans were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Chlorhexidine (CHX) was used as a positive control in the experiments. Apigenin, pinocembrin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were not detected in the propolis extracts. DMEP and apigenin significantly inhibited S. mutans growth (IC50 = 43.5 and 17.36 mg/ml, respectively). DMEP and apigenin also exhibited antiadherence effects on S. mutans as shown by reduced biofilm formation. Furthermore, a significant inhibition in gtfB expression was observed in DMEP and apigenin treated S. mutans. Propolis produced by T. sirindhornae demonstrated antibacterial and antibiofilm effects, and reduced gtfB expression in S. mutans. The antibacterial activities of propolis observed were not due to apigenin, pinocembrin, p-coumaric acid, or caffeic acid.

  20. Association Between Early Childhood Caries and Colonization with Streptococcus mutans Genotypes From Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Noel K; Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Cutter, Gary R; Wiener, Howard W; Ghazal, Tariq S; Ruby, John D; Moser, Stephen A

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus mutans genotypes (GT) between mother and child (M-C) in a high caries risk cohort to explore the association with early childhood caries (ECC). Sixty-nine infants (each approximately one year old) had periodic oral examinations (dmfs) and microbial samples collected from dental plaque, saliva, and other oral surfaces. Their mothers had an examination and plaque collected. S mutans isolates were genotyped using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR). Statistical analyses were conducted for associations of S mutans in M-C dyads with caries outcomes. Twenty-seven S mutans genotypes (GT) from 3,414 isolates were identified. M-C were categorized as GT match (n equals 40) or no-match (n equals 29). When modeling the severity of ECC at 36 months (approximately four years old), the estimated dmfs in the match group was 2.61 times that of the no-match group (P=.014). Colonization of children with Streptococcus mutans genotypes that matched with mothers was shown to be highly associated with early childhood caries. Although the data suggest vertical transmission of S mutans in 40 of 69 children that shared GT with their mother, it is possible that other individuals transmitted the S mutans. Nonetheless, these findings support the importance of the mother's oral microbial status as a contributing influence to their children's oral health.

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Recaldent and Xylitol on the Amounts of Salivary Streptococcus Mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Emamieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Dental caries is associated with oral pathogenes and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutansis one of the primary cariogenic organisms. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of sugar free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP and Xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutan. Materials and Methods: 60 dental students, who volunteered after signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP, (B Chewing gum containing Xylitol. Subjects within the experimental groups chewed gum for 20 minutes, three times a day after meals for 3 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention unstimulated saliva samples were quantified for Streptococcus mutans count. Results: A statistically significant reduction (p<0.05 of salivary S. mutans was displayed in both groups A and B after the intervention. When results compared with baseline, and group A shows more statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans than group B.Conclusion: In conclusion, daily chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and xylitol reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way, but chewing gum containing CPP-ACP can reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way than Xylitol chewing gum.

  2. The effect of a chlorhexidine-fluoride varnish on mutans streptococci counts and laser fluorescence readings in occlusal fissures of permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipták, Lídia; Bársony, Nóra; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    informed consent. A double-blind split-mouth design was employed and 87 pairs of non-cavitated permanent molars were randomly assigned to treatments with either chlorhexidine- fluoride varnish (CHX-F) or chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (CHX-T, Cervitec Plus) as active control. The varnishes were topically...

  3. Correlation between dental caries experience and mutans streptococci counts by microbial and molecular (polymerase chain reaction assay using saliva as microbial risk indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Damle

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The mean colony count increased with increasing age and was also more in children with dental caries. Based on the matrices generated by the PCR analysis using coefficient slipped-strand mispairing, wide range of genetic diversity was seen in cases of children with and without clinically detectable caries.

  4. Streptococcus mutans: a new Gram-positive paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quivey, Robert G.; Koo, Hyun; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous contributions of the bacterial paradigms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to basic and applied research, it is well known that no single organism can be a perfect representative of all other species. However, given that some bacteria are difficult, or virtually impossible, to cultivate in the laboratory, that some are recalcitrant to genetic and molecular manipulation, and that others can be extremely dangerous to manipulate, the use of model organisms will continue to play an important role in the development of basic research. In particular, model organisms are very useful for providing a better understanding of the biology of closely related species. Here, we discuss how the lifestyle, the availability of suitable in vitro and in vivo systems, and a thorough understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans have greatly advanced our understanding of important areas in the field of bacteriology such as interspecies biofilms, competence development and stress responses. In this article, we provide an argument that places S. mutans, an organism that evolved in close association with the human host, as a novel Gram-positive model organism. PMID:23393147

  5. PRODUKSI ANTIBODI KUNING TELUR (IGY ANTI STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS SEBAGAI ANTI KARIES GIGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okti Nadia Poetri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore IgY anti Streptococcus mutan production and the ability of Igy Streptococcus mutans blocking adhesion process. The eggs was collected from Single Comb Brown Leghorn which have been immunized by S. mutan. Agar gel precipitation test was done to detect IgY anti S. mutans in serum and egg. Egg which Countain IgY anti S. mutans was collected. IgY anti S. mutans extracted from egg yolk by mean s PEG-Amonium sulfat and purified using fast protein liquid chromatography. The purity of Igy anti S. mutans was determined by UV spectropometer. Biological activities of Igy anti S. mutans to inhibit adhession process was learned by anti adhesion test. We use two dose of IgY, which is 100 ug and 500 ug. Igy anti S. mutans formen in serum five weeks after the first immunization while it formed in egg nine weeks after the first immunization. Igy anti S. mutanss still present in serum andegg until twelve weeks from the first immunization. Igy anti S. mutanss could decrease the amount of bacteria which attach the epithelial cell surface. The amount of sticky bacteria on epithelial cell (without IgY are 40 cell bacteria/epithelial cell. After blocked by IgY anti S. mutanss the amount of bacteria turn into 30 cell bacteria/epithelial cell (for dose of 100 ug IgY and 28 cell bacteria/epitheelial cell (for dose of 500 ug IgY. This research concluded that hens were capable producing IgY anti S. mutanss in egg yolk and it can be used to solve dental caries problem which caused by S. mutanss.

  6. Polymers for binding of the gram-positive oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, Eugene P; Francini, Nora; Mastrotto, Francesca; Catania, Rosa; Redhead, Martin; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Bradshaw, David; Churchley, David; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron; Mantovani, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most significant pathogenic bacterium implicated in the formation of dental caries and, both directly and indirectly, has been associated with severe conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease. Polymers able to selectively bind S. mutans and/or inhibit its adhesion to oral tissue in a non-lethal manner would offer possibilities for addressing pathogenicity without selecting for populations resistant against bactericidal agents. In the present work two libraries of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA)-based polymers were synthesized with various proportions of either N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium cationic- or sulfobetaine zwitterionic groups. These copolymers where initially tested as potential macromolecular ligands for S. mutans NCTC 10449, whilst Escherichia coli MG1655 was used as Gram-negative control bacteria. pDMAEMA-derived materials with high proportions of zwitterionic repeating units were found to be selective for S. mutans, in both isolated and S. mutans-E. coli mixed bacterial cultures. Fully sulfobetainized pDMAEMA was subsequently found to bind/cluster preferentially Gram-positive S. mutans and S. aureus compared to Gram negative E. coli and V. harveyi. A key initial stage of S. mutans pathogenesis involves a lectin-mediated adhesion to the tooth surface, thus the range of potential macromolecular ligands was further expanded by investigating two glycopolymers bearing α-mannopyranoside and β-galactopyranoside pendant units. Results with these polymers indicated that preferential binding to either S. mutans or E. coli can be obtained by modulating the glycosylation pattern of the chosen multivalent ligands without incurring unacceptable cytotoxicity in a model gastrointestinal cell line. Overall, our results allowed to identify a structure-property relationship for the potential antimicrobial polymers investigated, and suggest that preferential binding to Gram-positive S

  7. Adherence inhibition of Streptococcus mutans on dental enamel surface using silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Cristóbal, L.F. [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Martínez-Castañón, G.A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Téllez-Déctor, E.J. [Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Veracruzana campus Río Blanco, Mariano Abasolo S/N. Col. Centro. Río Blanco, Veracruz (Mexico); and others

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans after being exposed to three different sizes of silver nanoparticles on healthy human dental enamel. Three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (9.3, 21.3 and 98 nm) were prepared, characterized and an adherence testing was performed to evaluate their anti-adherence activity on a reference strain of S. mutans on healthy dental enamel surfaces. Colony-Forming Unit count was made for adherence test and light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare qualitative characteristics of S. mutans. 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups did not show differences between them but statistical differences were found when 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups were compared with 98 nm and negative control groups (p < 0.05). Microscopy analysis shows a better inhibition of S. mutans adherence in 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups than the 98 nm group when compared with control group. Silver nanoparticles showed an adherence inhibition on S. mutans and the anti-adherence capacity was better when silver nanoparticles were smaller. Highlights: ► We examined how SNP can affect cellular adhesion from S. mutans. ► Several techniques were applied to analyzed S. mutans biofilm on enamel. ► All SNP sizes had an adhesion inhibition of S. mutans. ► Smaller SNP showed a better adhesion inhibition than larger SNP. ► Inhibition effect of SNP could be related with adhesion inhibition from S. mutans.

  8. Adherence inhibition of Streptococcus mutans on dental enamel surface using silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Cristóbal, L.F.; Martínez-Castañón, G.A.; Téllez-Déctor, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans after being exposed to three different sizes of silver nanoparticles on healthy human dental enamel. Three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (9.3, 21.3 and 98 nm) were prepared, characterized and an adherence testing was performed to evaluate their anti-adherence activity on a reference strain of S. mutans on healthy dental enamel surfaces. Colony-Forming Unit count was made for adherence test and light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare qualitative characteristics of S. mutans. 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups did not show differences between them but statistical differences were found when 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups were compared with 98 nm and negative control groups (p < 0.05). Microscopy analysis shows a better inhibition of S. mutans adherence in 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups than the 98 nm group when compared with control group. Silver nanoparticles showed an adherence inhibition on S. mutans and the anti-adherence capacity was better when silver nanoparticles were smaller. Highlights: ► We examined how SNP can affect cellular adhesion from S. mutans. ► Several techniques were applied to analyzed S. mutans biofilm on enamel. ► All SNP sizes had an adhesion inhibition of S. mutans. ► Smaller SNP showed a better adhesion inhibition than larger SNP. ► Inhibition effect of SNP could be related with adhesion inhibition from S. mutans

  9. Aktivitas antibakteri flavonoid propolis Trigona sp terhadap bakteri Streptococcus mutans (in vitro (In vitro antibacterial activity of flavonoids Trigona sp propolis against Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardo Sabir

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of investigations have shown a positive correlation between the number of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans in dental plaque and the prevalence of dental caries. Consequently, this microorganism has been the prime target for the prevention of dental caries. Propolis being a substance made by the honeybee, is a potent antibacterial agent. The main chemical class present in propolis is flavonoids. Flavonoids are well-known plant compounds that have antibacterial property. Because S. mutans is accepted to be one of the microorganisms responsible for dental caries and flavonoids in propolis are antibacterial, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial activity of flavonoids Trigona sp propolis against S. mutans as a first step in its possible use as an alternative anticaries agent. Extract flavonoids was purified from ethanol extract of propolis which was obtained from Bulukumba Regency South Sulawesi using thin layer chromatography. The purification of flavonoids was carried-out by UVradiation at λ max 254 nm and λmax 366 nm and treatment with ammonia. Extract flavonoids was diluted in aquadest to 0.05%; 0.075%; 0.1%; 0.25%; 0.5%; 0.75% concentrations. Aquadest and 10% Povidone iodine were also used as control solution. S mutans were grown in medium glucose nutrient agar and incubated with flavonoids for 24 and 48 hours, at 37° C. Antibacterial activity was reflected by the diameter of the inhibition zones around the stainless steel cylinder. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA followed by LSD test with significance level of 5%. The results of this study showed that after being incubated for 24 and 48 hours, all flavonoid concentrations significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited the growth of S mutans. 0.1% flavonoid was the most effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S mutans after 24 hours of incubation and 0.5% flavonoid after 48 hours of incubator.

  10. PERBANDINGAN PERTUMBUHAN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS INA99 PADA BERBAGAI MEDIA PERBENIHAN PADAT

    OpenAIRE

    Yayuk Yuliarsi; Takarsyah M. Putra; Boedi Oe. Roeslan

    2015-01-01

    Previous study shows that tryptone-yeast extract-cystine-sucrose is choice of the culture media for isolating and growing S. mutans serotype C, but the effectiveness in stepping up the recovery growth of the bacteria has never been compared with that of the blood agar added to yeast extract and sucrose. This study was come to find out the growth of S. mutans serotype-c with blood agar-yest extract-sucrose, S. mutans INA99 serotype-c is identified, sliced, and cultured into blood agar-yeast ex...

  11. Cloning and physical characterization of chromosomal conjugative elements in streptococci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, M.N.; Priebe, S.D.; Pozzi, G.; Hageman, J.M.; Guild, W.R.

    1986-06-01

    A directed insertion method was used to introduce a nonreplicating vector plasmid into the large conjugative cat-tet element found in the chromosome of Streptococcus pneumoniae BM6001 and derivatives. To direct insertion preferentially to the conjugative element, we transferred it by conjugation to Streptococcus faecalis and then used DNA from this strain as a source of restriction nuclease fragments for ligation to digests of the vector pVA891, which can replicate in Escherichia coli but not in streptococci. This ligation mix was used to transform pneumococcal cells carrying the cat-tet element, with selection for the erythromycin resistance carried by pVA891. Eight such isolates were found, and transformation and conjugation tests showed that in each case the vector had inserted into the conjugative element, as expected. DNA from these pneumococcal strains generated a variety of E. coli plasmids which provide tools for obtaining a detailed restriction map and for defining other structural features of the streptococcal conjugative element.

  12. Garenoxacin Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Caused by Viridans Group Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita-Alonso, Paloma; Rouse, Mark S.; Piper, Kerryl E.; Steckelberg, James M.; Patel, Robin

    2006-01-01

    The activity of garenoxacin was compared to that of levofloxacin or penicillin in a rabbit model of Streptococcus mitis group (penicillin MIC, 0.125 μg/ml) and Streptococcus sanguinis group (penicillin MIC, 0.25 μg/ml) endocarditis. Garenoxacin and levofloxacin had MICs of 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively, for both study isolates. Rabbits with catheter-induced aortic valve endocarditis were given no treatment, penicillin at 1.2 × 106 IU/8 h intramuscularly, garenoxacin at 20 mg/kg of body weight/12 h intravenously, or levofloxacin at 40 mg/kg/12 h intravenously. For both isolates tested, garenoxacin area under the curve (AUC)/MIC and maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC ratios were 368 and 91, respectively. Rabbits were sacrificed after 3 days of treatment; cardiac valve vegetations were aseptically removed and quantitatively cultured. For S. mitis group experimental endocarditis, all studied antimicrobial agents were more active than no treatment (P viridans group endocarditis and that garenoxacin and levofloxacin may not be ideal choices for serious infections caused by some quinolone-susceptible viridans group streptococci. PMID:16569838

  13. Modified coagglutination procedure for the serological grouping of streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J R; McCarthy, L R

    1979-03-01

    Cowan I staphylococci coated with antisera to streptococcal groups A, B, C, D, F, and G were used as coagglutination reagents in a modified coagglutination procedure (MCAP). Streptococcal group antigens were extracted with a Streptomyces albus-lysozyme enzyme mixture for 30 min at 55 degrees C and centrifuged, and the supernatant was tested by slide coagglutination. Positive coagglutination reactions occurred within 30 s. The cell pellets from overnight broth cultures and colonies taken directly from sheep blood agar plates were tested and compared with the results of the Lancefield capillary precipitin method. Of the 102 strains of broth-grown cells tested, 100 were grouped by the MCAP and the Lancefield capillary precipitin method. The remaining two isolates were serologically identified only by the MCAP. Of the original 102 strains, 97 were tested by MCAP after extraction of five well-isolated colonies from a sheep blood agar plate. When this latter method was used, 95.9% of the strains were correctly identified. Nonspecific reactions were observed only while testing the MCAP with the direct plate assay. These cross-reactions were remedied promptly by either absorption or dilution of the antisera involved. The MCAP was found to be a rapid and reliable technique for the serological grouping of streptococci.

  14. Effects of Carbohydrate Source on Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D.; Son, Minjun; Rosa-Alberty, Ariana E.; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capacity to internalize and catabolize carbohydrates is essential for dental caries pathogens to persist and cause disease. The expression of many virulence-related attributes by Streptococcus mutans, an organism strongly associated with human dental caries, is influenced by the peptide signaling pathways that control genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between the efficiency of competence signaling and carbohydrate source. A significant increase in the activity of the promoters for comX, comS, and comYA after exposure to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was observed in cells growing on fructose, maltose, sucrose, or trehalose as the primary carbohydrate source, compared to cells growing on glucose. However, only cells grown in the presence of trehalose or sucrose displayed a significant increase in transformation frequency. Notably, even low concentrations of these carbohydrates in the presence of excess glucose could enhance the expression of comX, encoding a sigma factor needed for competence, and the effects on competence were dependent on the cognate sugar:phosphotransferase permease for each carbohydrate. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusions, we observed that growth in fructose or trehalose resulted in a greater proportion of the population activating expression of comX and comS, encoding the precursor of comX-inducing peptide (XIP), after addition of CSP, than growth in glucose. Thus, the source of carbohydrate significantly impacts the stochastic behaviors that regulate subpopulation responses to CSP, which can induce competence in S. mutans. IMPORTANCE The signaling pathways that regulate development of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans are intimately intertwined with the pathogenic potential of the organism, impacting biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and expression of known virulence determinants. Induction of the gene for the master regulator of competence, ComX, by competence

  15. Inhibitory effects of polysaccharides on the cariogenic activities of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Akira; Konno, Naotake; Imai, Susumu; Kato, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    Many carbohydrates are involved in the biofilm formation and activities of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) of Streptococcus mutans, and the effects of various disaccharides and polysaccharides were investigated in this study, including the hot water-extracted glucan fraction of the Lentinula edodes fruiting body (HWG). HWG was found to inhibit the initial adhesion of S. mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA), and also laminarin to inhibit glucan synthesis by Gtfs. However, sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by S. mutans was not inhibited by these materials. Interestingly, dextran was found to have an inhibitory effect on the sucrose-dependent biofilm formation. The data suggest that the presence of such an edible glucan as dextran in daily foods would act to some degree on S. mutans for suppressing the cariogenic activity.

  16. Investigation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth on modified Au(111)-surfaces using AFM and electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans constitute perhaps the most important direct cause of human dental caries formation. We have studied S. mutans biofilm formation and properties on Au(111)-surfaces modified by self-assembled molecular monolayers (SAMs) of different thiol...... (hexadecanethiol, MHD) or hydrophilic (mercapto-hexadecanoic acid, MHDA) end groups. The voltammetric reductive desorption (RD) peaks of the thiol-based SAMs in the absence and presence of biofilms and growth medium was in focus as a sensitive probe of the SAM local environment.AFM showed that S. mutans had grown...... with growth medium or of the growth medium alone. The RD peak potential of the hydrophilic MHDA surface remained, further largely unaffected but the RD peak of the hydrophobic MHD SAM is distinctly shifted compared to the MHD SAM alone. The shifts were further in different directions for the S. mutans biofilm...

  17. The antibacterial effect of four mouthwashes against streptococcus mutans and escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghapanchi, Janan; Lavaee, Fatemeh; Moattari, Afagh; Shakib, Mahmood

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of several mouthwash concentrations on oral Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli. The study was conducted at Shiraz Medicine School in 2011. Serial dilutions of Chlorohexidin, Oral B and Persica and Irsha (2,4,8,16,64,128) were prepared in Muller-Hinton media. Minimum inhibitory concentration was visually determined and defined as the lowest concentration of each oral washing which inhibited > 95% growth reduction compared to the growth control well. Chlorhexidine, Oral B and Irsha mouthwash inhibited Streptococcus mutans even with diluted concentrations. Also, Chlorhexidine and Oral B prohibited Escherichia coli with different potencies. But Persica had no antimicrobial activity against either Escherichia coli or Streptococcus mutans. Chlorhexidine, Irsha, and Oral B mouthwashes can be used for antimicrobial effects, especially on Streptococcus mutans. This chemical activity of mouthwashes is an adjuvant for mechanical removing of plaque. However, the antimicrobial effect of Persicaremains controversial.

  18. Effects of Salts and Metal Oxides on Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Nagame, Seigo; Kambara, Masaki; Yoshino, Katsumi

    1994-10-01

    The effects of calcium salts and metal oxide powders on electrochemical, optical and biological properties of Streptococcus mutans have been studied as a novel method to determine the strain. Electrochemical signals of Streptococcus mutans show remarkable decrease in the presence of saturated calcium salts such as CaHPO4, Ca3(PO4)2, and Ca5(PO4)3OH depending on the strains of Streptococcus mutans: Ingbritt, NCTC-10449, or GS-5. The number of viable cells also decreases upon addition of these powders. The effects of metal oxides such as ZnO and BaTiO3 on the electrochemical characteristics and photoluminescence of Streptococcus mutans have also been studied.

  19. Contribution of plasminogen activation towards the pathogenic potential of oral streptococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Itzek

    Full Text Available Oral streptococci are a heterogeneous group of human commensals, with a potential to cause serious infections. Activation of plasminogen has been shown to increase the virulence of typical human pathogenic streptococci such as S. pneumoniae. One important factor for plasminogen activation is the streptococcal α-enolase. Here we report that plasminogen activation is also common in oral streptococci species involved in clinical infection and that it depends on the action of human plasminogen activators. The ability to activate plasminogen did not require full conservation of the internal plasminogen binding sequence motif FYDKERKVY of α-enolase that was previously described as crucial for increased plasminogen binding, activation and virulence. Instead, experiments with recombinant α-enolase variants indicate that the naturally occurring variations do not impair plasminogen binding. In spite of these variations in the internal plasminogen binding motif oral streptococci showed similar activation of plasminogen. We conclude that the pathomechanism of plasminogen activation is conserved in oral streptococci that cause infections in human. This may contribute to their opportunistic pathogenic character that is unfurled in certain niches.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology and Antibacterial Susceptibility of Streptococci Isolated from Healthy Children Attending Day Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Perçin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of the study were to investigate antibacterial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of streptococci isolated from healthy children attending day care units and to evaluate clonal relatedness of the strains. Material and Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibilities of streptococci isolated from 212 children attending 3 different day care units were evaluated using the agar dilution method. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to investigate resistance mechanisms. Clonal relatedness was evaluated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results: Of 212 children, 11 (5.2% carried Streptococcus pneumoniae, 17 (8.0% S. pyogenes, and 42 (19.8% erythromycin resistant viridans group streptococci. All S. pyogenes were susceptible to penicillin G and macrolides. Ten of 11 clonally unique S. pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin G. Three of 11 S. pneumoniae were macrolide resistant and carried erm(B. Among clonally unique 42 erythromycin resistant viridans group streptococci, 2 (4.8% had erm(B, 33 (78.6% had mef(A and 7 (16.6% had both erm(B and mef(A genes. All S. pyogenes from the first centre and three strains from the second centre were pulse-type A. Conclusion: Among healthy children, colonization with penicillin resistant pneumococci and erythromycin resistant viridans group streptococci is quite high. Clonal spread of S. pyogenes is important for day care units.

  1. Control of natural transformation in salivarius Streptococci through specific degradation of σX by the MecA-ClpCP protease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Astrid; Servais, Florence; Drucbert, Anne-Sophie; Foulon, Catherine; Fontaine, Laetitia; Hols, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    Competence for natural DNA transformation is a tightly controlled developmental process in streptococci. In mutans and salivarius species, the abundance of the central competence regulator σ(X) is regulated at two levels: transcriptional, by the ComRS signaling system via the σ(X)/ComX/SigX-inducing peptide (XIP), and posttranscriptional, by the adaptor protein MecA and its associated Clp ATPase, ClpC. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism and function of the MecA-ClpC control system in the salivarius species Streptococcus thermophilus. Using in vitro approaches, we showed that MecA specifically interacts with both σ(X) and ClpC, suggesting the formation of a ternary σ(X)-MecA-ClpC complex. Moreover, we demonstrated that MecA ultimately targets σ(X) for its degradation by the ClpCP protease in an ATP-dependent manner. We also identify a short sequence (18 amino acids) in the N-terminal domain of σ(X) as essential for the interaction with MecA and subsequent σ(X) degradation. Finally, increased transformability of a MecA-deficient strain in the presence of subinducing XIP concentrations suggests that the MecA-ClpCP proteolytic complex acts as an additional locking device to prevent competence under inappropriate conditions. A model of the interplay between ComRS and MecA-ClpCP in the control of σ(X) activity is proposed. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Polymers for binding of the gram-positive oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, Eugene P.; Francini, Nora; Mastrotto, Francesca; Catania, Rosa; Redhead, Martin; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Bradshaw, David; Churchley, David; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most significant pathogenic bacterium implicated in the formation of dental caries and, both directly and indirectly, has been associated with severe conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease. Polymers able to selectively bind S. mutans and/or inhibit its adhesion to oral tissue in a non-lethal manner would offer possibilities for addressing pathogenicity without selecting for populations resistant against bactericidal agents. In the present work two libraries of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA)-based polymers were synthesized with various proportions of either N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium cationic- or sulfobetaine zwitterionic groups. These copolymers where initially tested as potential macromolecular ligands for S. mutans NCTC 10449, whilst Escherichia coli MG1655 was used as Gram-negative control bacteria. pDMAEMA-derived materials with high proportions of zwitterionic repeating units were found to be selective for S. mutans, in both isolated and S. mutans–E. coli mixed bacterial cultures. Fully sulfobetainized pDMAEMA was subsequently found to bind/cluster preferentially Gram-positive S. mutans and S. aureus compared to Gram negative E. coli and V. harveyi. A key initial stage of S. mutans pathogenesis involves a lectin-mediated adhesion to the tooth surface, thus the range of potential macromolecular ligands was further expanded by investigating two glycopolymers bearing α-mannopyranoside and β-galactopyranoside pendant units. Results with these polymers indicated that preferential binding to either S. mutans or E. coli can be obtained by modulating the glycosylation pattern of the chosen multivalent ligands without incurring unacceptable cytotoxicity in a model gastrointestinal cell line. Overall, our results allowed to identify a structure–property relationship for the potential antimicrobial polymers investigated, and suggest that preferential binding to Gram-positive S

  3. [A novel TaqMan® MGB probe for specifically detecting Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Lin, Jiu-Xiang; DU, Ning; Chen, Feng

    2013-10-18

    To design a new TaqMan® MGB probe for improving the specificity of Streptococcus mutans's detection. We extracted six DNA samples from different streptococcal strains for PCR reaction. Conventional nested PCR and TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR were applied independently. The first round of nested PCR was carried out with the bacterial universal primers, while a second PCR was conducted by using primers specific for the 16S rRNA gene of Streptococcus mutans. The TaqMan® MGB probe for Streptococcus mutans was designed from sequence analyses, and the primers were the same as nested PCR. Streptococcus mutans DNA with 2.5 mg/L was sequentially diluted at 5-fold intervals to 0.16 μg/L. Standard DNA samples were used to generate standard curves by TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR. In the nested PCR, the primers specific for Streptococcus mutans also detected Streptococcus gordonii with visible band of 282 bp, giving false-positive results. In the TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR reaction, only Streptococcus mutans was detected. The detection limitation of TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR for Streptococcus mutans 16S rRNA gene was 20 μg/L. We designed a new TaqMan® MGB probe, and successfully set up a PCR based method for detecting oral Streptococcus mutans. TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR is a both specific and sensitive bacterial detection method.

  4. Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans.

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    Guo, Yi-Jie; Zhang, Bo; Feng, Xue-Song; Ren, Hui-Xun; Xu, Ji-Ru

    2016-09-22

    Streptococcus mutans forms biofilms as a resistance mechanism against antimicrobial agents in the human oral cavity. We recently showed that human cathelicidin LL-37 exhibits inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of S. mutans through interaction with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), but without antibacterial or biofilm dispersal abilities. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant constituent of tea catechins that has the greatest anti-infective potential to inhibit the growth of various microorganisms and biofilm formation. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated whether LL-37 interacts with EGCG to enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on S. mutans biofilm formation. Clinical S. mutans strains (n = 10) isolated from children's saliva were tested in a biofilm formation assay. The antibiofilm effect of EGCG with and without LL-37 was analyzed by the minimum biofilm eradication concentration assay and confirmed using field emission-scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the interaction among EGCG, LL-37, and LTA of S. mutans was determined using quartz crystal microbalance analysis. EGCG killed 100 % of planktonic S. mutans within 5 h, inhibited biofilm formation within 24 h, and reduced bacteria cells in preformed biofilms within 3 h at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. However, EGCG did not appear to interact with LTA. LL-37 effectively enhanced the bactericidal activity of EGCG against biofilm formation and preformed biofilms as determined by quantitative crystal violet staining and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. In addition, quartz crystal microbalance analysis revealed that LL-37 interacted with EGCG and promoted binding between EGCG and LTA of S. mutans. We show that LL-37 enhances the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on S. mutans. This finding provides new knowledge for dental treatment by using LL-37 as a potential antibiofilm compound.

  5. Isolation and Typing of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from Caries-active Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hamzah Abdulrahman; Senthilkumar, R; Imran, Khalid; Selvam, K Panneer

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are main etiological agents of dental caries. The aim of the study was to isolate, identify, characterize, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. mutans and S. sobrinus from caries-active subjects. Sixty-five plaque samples were collected from caries-active subjects aged between 35 and 44 years, processed and cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to morphotyping and the suspected colonies were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The S. mutans and S. sobrinus strains were characterized by biotyping and phylogenetic analysis. The MIC of ampicillin and erythromycin was determined by microtiter plate method. Of the study population, 41 isolates displayed typical colony morphologies of S. mutans and S. sobrinus . The 16S rDNA sequencing results revealed that 36 isolates were S. mutans and 5 isolates were S. sobrinus . The biotyping of these isolates demonstrated three biotypes, namely, biotype I ( n = 35), biotype III ( n = 1), and biotype IV ( n = 2). However, 3 isolates exhibited variant biotypes. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the clinical strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus clustered independently along with respective reference strains. The average MIC of ampicillin and erythromycin against S. mutans and S. sobrinus was 0.047 μg/ml and 0.39 μg/ml, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequencing was an impeccable method for S. mutans and S. sobrinus identification when compared with morphotyping and biotyping methods. The study also suggested that nonspecific bacteria might be involved in caries formation.

  6. Isolation and typing of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from caries-active subjects

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    Hamzah Abdulrahman Salman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are main etiological agents of dental caries. Aim: The aim of the study was to isolate, identify, characterize, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of S. mutans and S. sobrinus from caries-active subjects. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five plaque samples were collected from caries-active subjects aged between 35 and 44 years, processed and cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to morphotyping and the suspected colonies were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The S. mutans and S. sobrinus strains were characterized by biotyping and phylogenetic analysis. The MIC of ampicillin and erythromycin was determined by microtiter plate method. Results: Of the study population, 41 isolates displayed typical colony morphologies of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The 16S rDNA sequencing results revealed that 36 isolates were S. mutans and 5 isolates were S. sobrinus. The biotyping of these isolates demonstrated three biotypes, namely, biotype I (n = 35, biotype III (n = 1, and biotype IV (n = 2. However, 3 isolates exhibited variant biotypes. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the clinical strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus clustered independently along with respective reference strains. The average MIC of ampicillin and erythromycin against S. mutans and S. sobrinus was 0.047 μg/ml and 0.39 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The 16S rDNA sequencing was an impeccable method for S. mutans and S. sobrinus identification when compared with morphotyping and biotyping methods. The study also suggested that nonspecific bacteria might be involved in caries formation.

  7. Effect of the Biofilm Age and Starvation on Acid Tolerance of Biofilm Formed by Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Caries-Active and Caries-Free Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shan; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Chengfei; Zhao, Xingfu; Huang, Xiaojing; Cai, Zhiyu

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is considered a leading cause of dental caries. The capability of S. mutans to tolerate low pH is essential for its cariogenicity. Aciduricity of S. mutans is linked to its adaptation to environmental stress in oral cavity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biofilm age and starvation condition on acid tolerance of biofilm formed by S. mutans clinical isolates. S. mutans clinical strains isolated from caries-active (SM593) and caries-free (SM18) adu...

  8. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  9. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6- 3 H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  10. Antibacterial efficacy of Mimosa Pudica (Lajavanti against streptococcus mutans

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    Swati V Balsaraf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mimosa pudica plant also known as "touch me not" plant, "shame" plant or laajvanti is a widely grown perennial herb as a show plant because of the mysterious action of its leaves which closes when touched. Mimosa pudica is also known for various medicinal purposes such as treatment of depression, piles, insomnia and many more. It has also been used for dental purposes. Literature shows evidence of its use for dental decay, bleeding gums throughout India and worldwide. Materials and Methods: Mimosa pudica plant whole aqueous extract in 10%, 20% and 5% concentration, chlorhexidine mouth wash as control, Streptococcus mutans (Microbial Type Culture Collection. Using agar well method the efficacy of Mimosa pudica extract was tested. Results: The plant extract couldn′t show efficacy as the microorganisms didn′t show any growth. Conclusion: The potential of this drug needs further investigation.

  11. Intracerebral hemorrhage and deep microbleeds associated with cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans; a hospital cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonomura, Shuichi; Ihara, Masafumi; Kawano, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Okuno, Yoshinori; Saito, Satoshi; Friedland, Robert P; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nomura, Ryota; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-05

    Oral infectious diseases are epidemiologically associated with stroke. We previously showed that oral Streptococcus mutans with the cnm gene encoding a collagen-binding Cnm protein induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) experimentally and was also associated with cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in our population-based cohort study. We therefore investigated the roles of cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans in this single hospital-based, observational study that enrolled 100 acute stroke subjects. The cnm gene in Streptococcus mutans isolated from saliva was screened using PCR techniques and its collagen-binding activities examined. CMBs were evaluated on T2* gradient-recalled echo MRI. One subject withdrew informed consent and 99 subjects (63 males) were analyzed, consisting of 67 subjects with ischemic stroke, 5 with transient ischemic attack, and 27 with ICH. Eleven cases showed Streptococcus mutans strains positive for cnm. The presence of cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans was significantly associated with ICH [OR vs. ischemic stroke, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.17-19.1] and increased number of deep CMBs [median (IQR), 3 (2-9) vs. 0 (0-1), p = 0.0002]. In subjects positive for Streptococcus mutans, collagen binding activity was positively correlated with the number of deep CMBs (R(2) = 0.405; p < 0.0001). These results provide further evidence for the key role of oral health in stroke.

  12. Enhanced adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite after exposure to saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Christian; Thewes, Nicolas; Nolle, Friederike; Faidt, Thomas; Umanskaya, Natalia; Hannig, Matthias; Bischoff, Markus; Jacobs, Karin

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans cells form robust biofilms on human teeth and are strongly related to caries incidents. Hence, understanding the adhesion of S. mutans in the human oral cavity is of major interest for preventive dentistry. In this study, we report on atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy measurements of S. mutans cells to hydroxyapatite surfaces. We observe for almost all measurements a significant difference in adhesion strength for S. mutans as well as for Staphylococcus carnosus cells. However, the increase in adhesion strength after saliva exposure is much higher for S. mutans cells compared to S. carnosus cells. Our results demonstrate that S. mutans cells are well adapted to their natural environment, the oral cavity. This ability promotes the biofilm-forming capability of that species and hence the production of caries-provoking acids. In consequence, understanding the fundamentals of this mechanism may pave a way towards more effective caries-reducing techniques. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of pomegranate and aloe vera extract on streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

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    Priya Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect of pomegranate and aloe vera extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts of pulp from both Punica granatum (pomegranate and Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera were prepared to concentrations of 5, 25, 50 and 100%. Pure sorbitol powder dissolved in distilled water was taken as the negative control. Streptococcus mutans (S mutans was isolated from saliva by inoculation on to Mitus Salivarius Bacitracin (MSB agar, which was then streaked onto agar plates containing Brain Heart Infusion. In each petridish, wells were prepared and using a sterile micropipette, 125μl of the specific concentration of the extract (pomegranate/ aloe vera/ sorbitol was deposited in each well. This was done in triplicate for each concentration of the extracts. The effect of different concentrations of the extracts on S mutans was observed and the data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Pomegranate extract showed significantly higher inhibitory effect on S mutans at all concentrations (P≤0.05. On comparison of all three extracts at different concentrations, a significant difference (P≤0.05 was observed only at 50 and 100% concentrations. The inhibitory effect of pomegranate extract was significantly different when compared to aloe vera and sorbitol extracts. (P≤0.01. Discussion: Pomegranate extract has a significant antibacterial effect on S mutans at all concentrations.

  14. Antimicrobial peptide GH12 suppresses cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufei; Wang, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wentao; Wang, Kun; Luo, Junyuan; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xuedong; Zhang, Linglin

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans include acidogenicity, aciduricity, and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis. The de novo designed antimicrobial peptide GH12 has shown bactericidal effects on S. mutans, but its interaction with virulence and regulatory systems of S. mutans remains to be elucidated. The objectives were to investigate the effects of GH12 on virulence factors of S. mutans, and further explore the function mechanisms at enzymatic and transcriptional levels. To avoid decrease in bacterial viability, we limited GH12 to subinhibitory levels. We evaluated effects of GH12 on acidogenicity of S. mutans by pH drop, lactic acid measurement and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, on aciduricity through survival rate at pH 5.0 and F1F0-ATPase assay, and on EPS synthesis using quantitative measurement, morphology observation, vertical distribution analyses and biomass calculation. Afterwards, we conducted quantitative real-time PCR to acquire the expression profile of related genes. GH12 at 1/2 MIC (4 mg/L) inhibited acid production, survival rate, EPS synthesis, and biofilm formation. The enzymatic activity of LDH and F1F0-ATPase was inhibited, and ldh, gtfBCD, vicR, liaR, and comDE genes were significantly downregulated. In conclusion, GH12 inhibited virulence factors of S. mutans, through reducing the activity of related enzymes, downregulating virulence genes, and inactivating specific regulatory systems. PMID:29503706

  15. [Construction of a low-pH-sensing system in Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Kang; Yuqing, Li; Xuedong, Zhou

    2017-06-01

    To construct a low-pH-sensing system in Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and to visually detect the pH in situ. Promoter of ureaseⅠ(PureⅠ) and green fluorescence protein (gfp) DNA fragments were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the genome of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I and S. mutans containing the gfp fragment. The two amplified DNA fragments were ligated together and further integrated into pDL278 to construct the recombinant plasmid pDL278-pureⅠ-gfp. This recombinant plasmid was then transformed into S. mutans UA159 cells. Subsequently, the intensity of the optical density per unit area of the low-pH-sensing system was measured and compared under different pH conditions and different processing times. PureⅠ and gfp DNA fragments were amplified successfully with the correct molecule sizes (450 and 717 bp, respectively). The recombinant plasmid pDL278-pureⅠ-gfp was constructed and further verified by PCR and sequencing. The intensity of the optical density per unit area of the low-pH-sensing system increased with decreasing pH and increasing processing time. A low-pH-sensing system was constructed successfully in S. mutans. Our research verified that pureⅠ of Streptococcus salivarius can function well in S. mutans as an acid induced promoter, and provided a new method of detecting the pH of plaque biofilms in situ.

  16. Effects of Cola-Flavored Beverages and Caffeine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsey, Roger P; Moser, Elizabeth A S; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    To examine the effects of cola-flavored beverages and caffeine on growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. This study was designed to determine if carbonated beverages or caffeine can increase S. mutans growth and biofilm formation and metabolic activity in vitro, potentially leading to increased S. mutans-associated cariogenicity in children that consume them. Six different cola-flavored products, plus pure caffeine, and pure high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), at different concentrations similar to those in the beverages were tested. A 16-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with different dilutions in bacteriological media. To test for the effect on biofilm formation, the biofilm was stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was determined to evaluate biofilm growth. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured based on biofilm having the ability to reduce XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. The inclusion of HFCS in the beverages, as well as pure HFCS, significantly enhanced bacterial biofilm formation and metabolic activity. Pure caffeine and the presence of caffeine in beverages did not significantly increase biofilm formation, but pure caffeine significantly increased metabolism, and Diet Coke had significantly greater metabolic activity than Caffeine-Free Diet Coke. HFCS increases both the biofilm formation and metabolism of S. mutans, and caffeine in some cases increases metabolism of S. mutans.

  17. Inactivation of glutamate racemase (MurI) eliminates virulence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi; Tong, Zhongchun; Fu, Yun; Liang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of enzymes required for bacterial cell wall synthesis is often lethal or leads to virulence defects. Glutamate racemase (MurI), an essential enzyme in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, has been an attractive target for therapeutic interventions. Streptococcus mutans, one of the many etiological factors of dental caries, possesses a series of virulence factors associated with cariogenicity. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which MurI influences pathogenesis of S. mutans. In this work, a stable mutant of S. mutans deficient in glutamate racemase (S. mutans FW1718) was constructed to investigate the impact of murI inactivation on cariogenic virulence in S. mutans UA159. Microscopy revealed that the murI mutant exhibited an enlarged cell size, longer cell chains, diminished cell⬜cell aggregation, and altered cell surface ultrastructure compared with the wild-type. Characterization of this mutant revealed that murI deficiency weakened acidogenicity, aciduricity, and biofilm formation ability of S. mutans (Pmutans virulence properties, making MurI a potential target for controlling dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Photo Inactivation of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm by Violet-Blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace F; Huang, Ruijie; MacPherson, Meoghan; Ferreira Zandona, Andrea G; Gregory, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    Among various preventive approaches, non-invasive phototherapy/photodynamic therapy is one of the methods used to control oral biofilm. Studies indicate that light at specific wavelengths has a potent antibacterial effect. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of violet-blue light at 380-440 nm to inhibit biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans or kill S. mutans. S. mutans UA159 biofilm cells were grown for 12-16 h in 96-well flat-bottom microtiter plates using tryptic soy broth (TSB) or TSB with 1 % sucrose (TSBS). Biofilm was irradiated with violet-blue light for 5 min. After exposure, plates were re-incubated at 37 °C for either 2 or 6 h to allow the bacteria to recover. A crystal violet biofilm assay was used to determine relative densities of the biofilm cells grown in TSB, but not in TSBS, exposed to violet-blue light. The results indicated a statistically significant (P mutans growth and reduce the formation of S. mutans biofilm. This in vitro study demonstrated that violet-blue light has the capacity to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. Potential clinical applications of light therapy in the future remain bright in preventing the development and progression of dental caries.

  19. Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. inhibit growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of caries-inducing Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Reham; Abd El-Rahman, Ola A; Zafer, Mai M; Ashour, Hossam M

    2018-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans contributes significantly to dental caries, which arises from homoeostasic imbalance between host and microbiota. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus sp. inhibits growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of Streptococcus mutans. Antibacterial (agar diffusion method) and antibiofilm (crystal violet assay) characteristics of probiotic Lactobacillus sp. against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) were evaluated. We investigated whether Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 393), Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272), Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 14917) or Lactobacillus salivarius (ATCC 11741) inhibit expression of Streptococcus mutans genes involved in biofilm formation, quorum sensing or stress survival using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Growth changes (OD600) in the presence of pH-neutralized, catalase-treated or trypsin-treated Lactobacillus sp. supernatants were assessed to identify roles of organic acids, peroxides and bacteriocin. Susceptibility testing indicated antibacterial (pH-dependent) and antibiofilm activities of Lactobacillus sp. against Streptococcus mutans. Scanning electron microscopy revealed reduction in microcolony formation and exopolysaccharide structural changes. Of the oral normal flora, L. salivarius exhibited the highest antibiofilm and peroxide-dependent antimicrobial activities. All biofilm-forming cells treated with Lactobacillus sp. supernatants showed reduced expression of genes involved in exopolysaccharide production, acid tolerance and quorum sensing. Thus, Lactobacillus sp. can inhibit tooth decay by limiting growth and virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T P; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. A total of fifty female children aged 8-12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2-3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans . counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans . count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans .

  1. Effect of LongZhang Gargle on Biofilm Formation and Acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans In Vitro

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    Yutao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, with the ability of high-rate acid production and strong biofilm formation, is considered the predominant bacterial species in the pathogenesis of human dental caries. Natural products which may be bioactive against S. mutans have become a hot spot to researches to control dental caries. LongZhang Gargle, completely made from Chinese herbs, was investigated for its effects on acid production and biofilm formation by S. mutans in this study. The results showed an antimicrobial activity of LongZhang Gargle against S. mutans planktonic growth at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 16% and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of 32%. Acid production was significantly inhibited at sub-MIC concentrations. Biofilm formation was also significantly disrupted, and 8% was the minimum concentration that resulted in at least 50% inhibition of biofilm formation (MBIC50. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed an effective disruption of LongZhang Gargle on S. mutans biofilm integrity. In addition, a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM suggested that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS synthesis could be inhibited by LongZhang Gargle at a relatively low concentration. These findings suggest that LongZhang Gargle may be a promising natural anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses planktonic growth, acid production, and biofilm formation against S. mutans.

  2. Inhibitory effects of antiseptic mouthrinses on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A; Leishman, S J; Walsh, L J; Seow, W K

    2015-06-01

    Oral antiseptics are valuable in controlling oral infections caused by cariogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mouthrinses and pure antiseptic compounds on Streptococcus mutans and non-mutans bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus). The agar diffusion assay was employed to determine bacterial growth inhibition. Commercial mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05%) and sodium fluoride (0.05%) produced statistically similar growth inhibition of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus (with zones of inhibition ranging from 7.56 ± 0.52 mm to 7.39 ± 0.53 mm, 17.44 ± 0.94 mm to 18.31 ± 0.62 mm and 8.61 ± 1.43 to 8.67 ± 1.43 mm respectively, p > 0.05). The chlorhexidine mouthwash produced the greatest mean growth inhibition of S. sanguinis and S. mutans compared to all other mouthrinses tested (p < 0.01). The minimum concentrations at which inhibition against S. mutans could be detected were chlorhexidine gluconate at 0.005% (wt/vol), cetylpyridinium chloride 0.01% (wt/ vol), povidone iodine 10% (wt/vol) and sodium hypochlorite 0.5% (vol/vol). Chlorhexidine (0.01%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.01%), povidone iodine (10%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) are effective at inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Viridans streptococci Intracranial Abscess Masquerading as Metastatic Disease

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    Brandon Ruderman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 64-year-old woman with a remote history of breast cancer presented to the emergency department with one day of worsening right-sided weakness and headaches. She had been seen two weeks prior for similar symptoms and underwent unenhanced brain computed tomography (CT, which revealed a left parietal mass suspected to represent new metastatic disease. The patient presented on this visit not only with weakness of her right upper and lower extremity, but was found to be febrile, tachycardic and exhibiting lethargy. Peripheral white blood cell count (WBC was 27.1 (x109/L. Given her rapidly declining clinical course and expected time to complete magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain, the decision was made to first perform an emergent contrast-enhanced brain CT to further evaluate the mass. The contrast-enhanced brain CT revealed a large rim-enhancing left parietal lesion (Figures 1 and 2. Significant findings: A non-contrast CT (Figure 1 revealed a large hypoattenuating left parietal lesion. When the CT was enhanced with intravenous contrast (Figure 2, the same lesion showed peripheral rim enhancement, suggestive of a brain abscess. Discussion: Intracranial abscess is a rare yet potentially devastating disease process that can often be difficult to diagnosis, with an incidence of about 0.4-0.9 cases per 100,000 people.1 Mortality rates are about 15% within the past decade, but can increase up to 85% if the abscess ruptures. The most common mechanisms for formation of intracranial abscesses include direct spread from local infections (odontogenic infections or sinusitis, hematogenous spread (congenital heart disease, endocarditis, dental procedures, or intrapulmonary shunting, or penetrating trauma.2 Intracranial abscesses are more likely to occur in severely immunosuppressed patients, after neurosurgical procedures, or in head trauma. About 32%-60% of brain abscesses are polymicrobial, but Viridans streptococci, a

  4. Detection of group D and viridans streptococci in blood by radiometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the radiometric detection of group D and viridans streptococci in blood, using three media preparations, Bactec 6A and 6B isotonic media and 8B hypertonic medium. All enterococci tested were detected by the 6A and 6B media. However, the 6A medium failed to detect 76% of the Streptococcus bovis isolates and 57% of the viridans streptococci, whereas all S. bovis isolates and 95% of the viridans streptococci were detected with the 6B formulation. No improvement in detection was noted in comparing the 6B and the 8B hypertonic media. The importance of adequate detection of this group of organisms, especially in patients with endocarditis, is discussed.

  5. Clinical Application of Immunofluorescence III. Identification of Lancefield Group B Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas B.

    1971-01-01

    The identification of Lancefield group B streptococci with immunofluorescence was studied after significant differences between the precipitin and immunofluorescent results were noted. It was found that strains of group B streptococci, unlike groups A, C, and G streptococci, do not reliably react with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled conjugate that contains antibodies mainly against C polysaccharide. It was assumed that the difficulty probably resulted from a blocking of the antigen-antibody reaction between the group antigen and its antibody by the S antigen located in the capsule. On the basis of this assumption, a conjugate was prepared that contained antibodies against the various S antigens of group B and it was found to be effective. Images PMID:4949487

  6. Evaluation of a modified nitrous acid extraction latex agglutination kit for grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci and enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, D N

    1995-04-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of the Lancefield group of beta-hemolytic streptococci and enterococci is an important procedure in clinical laboratories. Latex agglutination techniques are more rapid and technically less demanding than traditional extraction-precipitation methods. Prolex (Pro-Lab Diagnostics, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada) is a latex agglutination kit which contains modified nitrous acid reagents to extract antigens and can be used to detect group D antigen in streptococci and enterococci, as well as group A, B, C, F, and G antigens. A total of 302 strains of streptococci and enterococci were tested with this kit. All streptococci of groups A (41 strains), B (39 strains), C (35 strains), D (3 strains), F (10 strains), and G (48 strains) were correctly grouped, as were 125 (97%) of 129 strains of enterococci. Prolex is a reliable method for grouping the beta-hemolytic streptococci and enterococci most frequently encountered in clinical laboratories.

  7. Drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci by the Phoenix automated microbiology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokeng Gertrude

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance is an emerging problem among streptococcal and enterococcal species. Automated diagnostic systems for species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST have become recently available. We evaluated drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci using the recent Phoenix system (BD, Sparks, MD. Diagnostic tools included the new SMIC/ID-2 panel for streptococci, and the PMIC/ID-14 for enterococci. Two-hundred and fifty isolates have been investigated: β-hemolytic streptococci (n = 65, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 50, viridans group streptococci (n = 32, Enterococcus faecium (n = 40, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 43, other catalase-negative cocci (n = 20. When needed, species ID was determined using molecular methods. Test bacterial strains were chosen among those carrying clinically-relevant resistance determinants (penicillin, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides. AST results of the Phoenix system were compared to minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values measured by the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Results Streptococci: essential agreement (EA and categorical agreement (CA were 91.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Major (ME and minor errors (mE accounted for 0.1% and 1.1% of isolates, respectively. No very major errors (VME were produced. Enterococci: EA was 97%, CA 96%. Small numbers of VME (0.9%, ME (1.4% and mE (2.8% were obtained. Overall, EA and CA rates for most drugs were above 90% for both genera. A few VME were found: a teicoplanin and high-level streptomycin for E. faecalis, b high-level gentamicin for E. faecium. The mean time to results (± SD was 11.8 ± 0.9 h, with minor differences between streptococci and enterococci. Conclusion The Phoenix system emerged as an effective tool for quantitative AST. Panels based on dilution tests provided rapid and accurate MIC values with regard to clinically-relevant streptococcal and enterococcal

  8. An Essential Role for (p)ppGpp in the Integration of Stress Tolerance, Peptide Signaling, and Competence Development in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Justin; Kim, Jeong N; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The microbes that inhabit the human oral cavity are subjected to constant fluctuations in their environment. To overcome these challenges and gain a competitive advantage, oral streptococci employ numerous adaptive strategies, many of which appear to be intertwined with the development of genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate that the regulatory circuits that control development of competence in Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiological agent of human dental caries, are integrated with key stress tolerance pathways by the molecular alarmone (p)ppGpp. We first observed that the growth of a strain that does not produce (p)ppGpp (ΔrelAPQ, (p)ppGpp(0)) is not sensitive to growth inhibition by comX inducing peptide (XIP), unlike the wild-type strain UA159, even though XIP-dependent activation of the alternative sigma factor comX by the ComRS pathway is not impaired in the (p)ppGpp(0) strain. Overexpression of a (p)ppGpp synthase gene (relP) in the (p)ppGpp(0) mutant restored growth inhibition by XIP. We also demonstrate that exposure to micromolar concentrations of XIP elicited changes in (p)ppGpp accumulation in UA159. Loss of the RelA/SpoT homolog (RSH) enzyme, RelA, lead to higher basal levels of (p)ppGpp accumulation, but to decreased sensitivity to XIP and to decreases in comR promoter activity and ComX protein levels. By introducing single amino acid substitutions into the RelA enzyme, the hydrolase activity of the enzyme was shown to be crucial for full com gene induction and transformation by XIP. Finally, loss of relA resulted in phenotypic changes to ΔrcrR mutants, highlighted by restoration of transformation and ComX protein production in the otherwise non-transformable ΔrcrR-NP mutant. Thus, RelA activity and its influence on (p)ppGpp pools appears to modulate competence signaling and development through RcrRPQ and the peptide effectors encoded within rcrQ. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that integrate

  9. An essential role for (pppGpp in the integration of stress tolerance, peptide signaling and competence development in Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Kaspar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbes that inhabit the human oral cavity are subjected to constant fluctuations in their environment. To overcome these challenges and gain a competitive advantage, oral streptococci employ numerous adaptive strategies, many of which appear to be intertwined with the development of genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate that the regulatory circuits that control development of competence in Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiological agent of human dental caries, are integrated with key stress tolerance pathways by the molecular alarmone (pppGpp. We first observed that the growth of a strain that does not produce (pppGpp (ΔrelAPQ, (pppGpp0 is not sensitive to growth inhibition by comX inducing peptide (XIP, unlike the wild-type strain UA159, even though XIP-dependent activation of the alternative sigma factor comX by the ComRS pathway is not impaired in the (pppGpp0 strain. Overexpression of a (pppGpp synthase gene (relP in the (pppGpp0 mutant restored growth inhibition by XIP. We also demonstrate that exposure to micromolar concentrations of XIP elicited changes in (pppGpp accumulation in UA159. Loss of the RelA/SpoT homolog (RSH enzyme, RelA, lead to higher basal levels of (pppGpp accumulation, but to decreased sensitivity to XIP and to decreases in comR promoter activity and ComX protein levels. By introducing single amino acid substitutions into the RelA enzyme, the hydrolase activity of the enzyme was shown to be crucial for full com gene induction and transformation by XIP. Finally, loss of relA resulted in phenotypic changes to ΔrcrR mutants, highlighted by restoration of transformation and ComX protein production in the otherwise non-transformable ΔrcrR-NP mutant. Thus, RelA activity and its influence on (ppGpp pools appears to modulate competence signaling and development through RcrRPQ and the peptide effectors encoded within rcrQ. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that integrate

  10. Protective Mechanisms of Respiratory Tract Streptococci against Streptococcus pyogenes Biofilm Formation and Epithelial Cell Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Tomas; Riani, Catur; Koczan, Dirk; Standar, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) encounter many streptococcal species of the physiological microbial biome when entering the upper respiratory tract of humans, leading to the question how GAS interact with these bacteria in order to establish themselves at this anatomic site and initiate infection. Here we show that S. oralis and S. salivarius in direct contact assays inhibit growth of GAS in a strain-specific manner and that S. salivarius, most likely via bacteriocin secretion, also exerts this effect in transwell experiments. Utilizing scanning electron microscopy documentation, we identified the tested strains as potent biofilm producers except for GAS M49. In mixed-species biofilms, S. salivarius dominated the GAS strains, while S. oralis acted as initial colonizer, building the bottom layer in mixed biofilms and thereby allowing even GAS M49 to form substantial biofilms on top. With the exception of S. oralis, artificial saliva reduced single-species biofilms and allowed GAS to dominate in mixed biofilms, although the overall two-layer structure was unchanged. When covered by S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms, epithelial cells were protected from GAS adherence, internalization, and cytotoxic effects. Apparently, these species can have probiotic effects. The use of Affymetrix array technology to assess HEp-2 cell transcription levels revealed modest changes after exposure to S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms which could explain some of the protective effects against GAS attack. In summary, our study revealed a protection effect of respiratory tract bacteria against an important airway pathogen and allowed a first in vitro insight into local environmental processes after GAS enter the respiratory tract. PMID:23241973

  11. Molecular Relationships and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Viridans Group Streptococci Isolated from Blood of Neutropenic Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisplinghoff, H.; Reinert, R. R.; Cornely, O.; Seifert, H.

    1999-01-01

    From January 1995 to May 1998, 57 episodes of bacteremia due to viridans group streptococci were identified in 50 febrile neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. Four patients experienced two separate episodes of streptococcal bacteremia, and one patient had four separate episodes of streptococcal bacteremia. Strains were identified to species level as Streptococcus mitis (n = 37), Streptococcus oralis (n = 19), and Streptococcus salivarius (n = 1). Epidemiologic relatedness of these strains was studied by using PCR-based fingerprinting with M13 and ERIC-2 primers and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with restriction enzyme SmaI. All strains that were isolated from different patients exhibited unique fingerprint patterns, thus suggesting that viridans group streptococcal bacteremia usually derives from an endogenous source. Cross-transmission of strains between patients could not be established. Four S. mitis isolates recovered during four separate bacteremic episodes in a single patient had identical fingerprint patterns. Susceptibility testing was carried out by broth microdilution technique according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited were (in milligrams per liter) as follows: 0.5 (penicillin), 0.5 (amoxicillin), 0.25 (cefotaxime), 2 (chloramphenicol), 4 (erythromycin), 0.5 (clindamycin), ≥32 (tetracycline), ≥32 (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), 4 (ciprofloxacin), 0.5 (sparfloxacin), 0.5 (vancomycin), 0.25 (teicoplanin), and 1 (quinupristin-dalfopristin). High-level penicillin resistance (MIC, ≥4 mg/liter) was found in one isolate only, but intermediate penicillin resistance was noted in 11 isolates (19%). Resistance rates to other drugs were as follows: 7% (amoxicillin), 4% (cefotaxime), 4% (chloramphenicol), 32% (erythromycin), 9% (clindamycin), 39% (tetracycline), 68% (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), 23% (ciprofloxacin), 0% (sparfloxacin), 0% (vancomycin), 0

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Triphala (an Indian Ayurvedic herbal formulation and 0.2% chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in vitro study

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    J Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Triphala showed statistically significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans biofilm formed on tooth substrate. The incorporation of Triphala in mouth rinse could prove to be effective in reducing S. mutans count in the oral cavity.

  13. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans

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    Fani M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic ( Allium sativum extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6% isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4% were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4% and least resistance (0% to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 µg ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 µg ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  14. Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

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    Zubaidah Haji Abdul Rahim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and on partially purifed cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1; with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. RESULTS: It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001. S. mutans adhering to 100 µm² glass surfaces (with/without sucrose exhibited reduced cell surface area, fuffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. CONCLUSION: The SEM analysis confrmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are

  15. The inhibition of Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferase enzyme activity by mangosteen pericarp extract

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    Nirawati Pribadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans is a bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Streptococcus mutans produces the glucosyltransferase enzyme which is capable of catalyzing glucan synthesis in the progression of dental caries. Certain treatments involving traditional plant use have been developed to eradicate Streptococcus mutans as a means of preventing the formation of dental caries. One of these is mangosteen pericarp extract containing a number of polyphenols that have the capacity to act as antibacterial agents, namely; tannin, mangostin, and flavonoid. Purpose: The research aimed to investigate the inhibitory power of mangosteen pericarp extract against Streptococcus mutans producing the glucosyltransferase enzyme. Methods: The research used mangosteen pericarp extract at concentrations of 0.39% and 0.78% as the treatments, while 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate was used as a positive control, and distilled water as a negative control. Each group consisted of six samples. Mangosteen peels extracted with 96% ethanol (maceration method and mangosteen extract constituted 5% of the total weight of the mangosteen pericarp. Supernatant containing Gtf enzyme produced from a culture medium and centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 10 minutes at 4o C. Glucosyltransferase enzyme activity was measured by analyzing the extensive fructose area by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The extensive fructose area was determined according to time retention in each group. Results: Mangosteen peel extract at concentrations of 0.39% and 0.78% demonstrated greater ability than the negative control group (sterile aquades and similar ability to the positive group (chlorhexidine 0.12% to inhibit the activity of the Gtf enzyme or S. mutans bacteria. Conclusion: Mangosteen pericarp extract has the ability to inhibit the activity of Streptococcus mutans in producing glucosyltransferase enzyme.

  16. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanidaz, Nazak; Zafarzadeh, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (Pcoliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms.

  17. Effect of subclinical mastitis caused by ss-haemolytic streptococci on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mastitis is a major constraint to milk production in camels. We conducted a survey in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of Kenya to quantify losses in milk yield associated with subclinical mastitis caused by ß-haemolytic Streptococci in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Four hundred and twenty (420) pair wise ...

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles for group B streptococci isolated from neonates, 1995-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, FYC; Azimi, PH; Weisman, LE; Philips, JB; Regan, J; Clark, P; Rhoads, GG; Clemens, J; Troendle, J; Pratt, E; Brenner, RA; Gill, [No Value

    Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were analyzed for 119 invasive and 227 colonizing strains of group B streptococci isolated from neonates at 6 US academic centers, All strains were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and cefotaxime, The rate of resistance to erythromycin was

  19. TYPING GROUP A HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI BY M PRECIPITIN REACTIONS IN CAPILLARY PIPETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Homer F.; Wilson, Armine T.; Lancefield, Rebecca C.

    1943-01-01

    A method is described for performing type-specific anti-M precipitin tests on group A hemolytic streptococci in 1 mm. capillary pipettes. These tests require so much less precipitating serum than was formerly used that the method now seems to be practical. PMID:19871314

  20. What happened to the streptococci: overview of taxonomic and nomenclature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facklam, Richard

    2002-10-01

    Since the division of the Streptococcus genus into enterococci, lactococci, and streptococci in 1984, many changes in the nomenclature and taxonomy of the Streptococcus genus have taken place. The application of genetic comparisons has improved the proper classification of the different species. The Lancefield system of serogrouping the streptococci by the expression of beta-hemolysis on blood agar plates is still very useful for the identification of streptococci for patient management. The Lancefield grouping system cannot be used in itself for accurate identification of specific beta-hemolytic species, but it can be a useful part of the identification procedure. Except for identification of the "Streptococcus bovis group" of species and Streptococcus suis, Lancefield grouping is of little value in identification of the non-beta-hemolytic streptococci and related genera. In fact, identification of the non-beta-hemolytic species is problematic for conventional as well as commercially available identification procedures. A combination of conventional tests and specific chromogenic tests suggested by several investigators is presented and discussed. Tables are included that suggest tests and procedures to guide investigators attempting to identify all the species.

  1. Identifikasi epitop dari Streptococcus mutans terhadap sekretori Imunoglobulin A saliva (The identification of Streptococcus mutans epitopes to secretory Immunoglobulin A saliva

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    Anita Yuliati

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available S. mutans is one of the etiology agent of dental caries, these bacteria have a surface protein of about 185 kDa named Ag I/II. The secretory of sIgA saliva to Ag I/II of S.mutans has shown to be able to prevent colonization in human oral cavity. Peptides derived from the 824 to 853 residues of the P region of antigen I/II S. mutans related to the pathogenesis of dental caries. The aim of this study was to identify the overlapping sequence of amino acids (epitope derived from the 624 to 853 residues of P of antigen I/II S. mutans to sIgA saliva on caries and caries-free subject in a observational cross sectional study. The P region of antigen I/II S.mutans was cut into 22 peptides of 9 mer sequences with an overlapping of 8 mer and an offset of 1 mer, synthesized on polyethylene pins and tested for the reactivity with an ELISA indirect method to sIgA saliva on caries and caries-free subject. The results of this study showed that amino acid sequences with TPPVKP (832–837 and TAPTKPTY (838–845 were reactive to sIgA saliva on caries and caries-free subject. The conclusion of this study was that the overlapping common sequence of amino acid (epitopes corresponding to TPPVKP (832–837 and TAPTKPTY (838–845 was identified as caries marker epitopes in human.

  2. PERBEDAAN DAYA HAMBAT PASTA GIGI BERBAHAN HERBAL TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

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    Susi Susi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKaries gigi dan penyakit periodontal dapat dicegah dengan mengontrol pembentukan plak secara teratur. Penggunaan pasta gigi herbal dapat memberikan efek kimia untuk mengontrol pembentukan plak. Studi terdahulu mendapatkan bahwa pasta gigi herbal dapat mengurangi jumlah bakteri utama pada rongga mulut yaitu Streptococcus mutans. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti perbedaan daya hambat beberapa pasta gigi herbal (mengandung siwak, cengkeh, dan daun sirih terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans. Metode penelitian adalah eksperimental dengan meletakkan cakram yang sudah direndam dengan pasta gigi ke medium agar darah yang mengandung koloni Streptococcus mutans. Uji daya hambat bakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi. Terbentuknya zona bening di sekitar koloni bakteri menunjukkan adanya penghambatan pertumbuhan bakteri uji. Hasil uji satu arah ANOVA menunjukkan adanya perbedaan daya hambat yang bermakna antar pasta gigi herbal yang digunakan (p<0.05. Ketiga pasta gigi didapakan memiliki kemampuan antibakteri kuat dengan rata-rata zona hambat 16.075 mm, 13.375 mm dan 11.080 mm. Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa pasta gigi herbal mempunyai efek anti bakteri terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans dengan efek anti bakteri terkuat di tunjukkan oleh pasta gigi mengandung cengkeh.AbstractDental caries and periodontal disease can be eliminated by regularly control plaque formation. The usage of herbal toothpaste is able to give chemical effect toward plaque control. Previous studies shown that the usage of herbal toothpaste was able to reduce the growth of Streptococcus mutans, the main bacteria in the mouth. The study aimed at investigating the difference of zone of inhibition of several herbal toothpastes (siwak- , cloves- , and betel leaves- contained toward the growth of Streptococcus mutans.This study was experimental research using disc that had been immersed and subsequently put it onto Blood agar medium that contain Streptococcus mutans

  3. Antibacterial activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia in planktonic cultures and biofilms of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane A; Costa, Anna Carolina B Pereira; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane S; Rego, Marcos A; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic microorganism, and alternative methods for its elimination are required. Different concentrations of Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil (EO) were tested to determine its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in planktonic cultures, and this concentration was used in S. mutans biofilms. Additionally, we assessed the effect of a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and saline solution in S. mutans biofilms. The biofilms were grown in discs of composite resin for 48h and exposed to B. dracunculifolia, CHX or saline solution for 5min. The viability of the biofilms was determined by counting the colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) in agar, which was statistically significant (Pmutans was 6%. In biofilms of S. mutans clinical isolates, B. dracunculifolia EO (6%) and CHX resulted in reductions of 53.3-91.1% and 79.1-96.6%, respectively. For the biofilm formed by the S. mutans reference strain, the reductions achieved with B. dracunculifolia EO and CHX were, respectively, 39.3% and 88.1%. It was concluded that B. dracunculifolia EO showed antibacterial activity and was able to control this oral microorganism, which otherwise causes dental caries. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new gcrR-deficient Streptococcus mutans mutant for replacement therapy of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenting; Mao, Tiantian; Xu, Qing-an; Shao, Jin; Liu, Chang; Fan, Mingwen

    2013-01-01

    gcrR gene acts as a negative regulator related to sucrose-dependent adherence in S. mutans. It is constructive to test the potential capacity of mutans with gcrR gene deficient in bacteria replacement therapy. In this study, we constructed the mutant by homologous recombination. The morphological characteristics of biofilms were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. S. mutans UA159 and the mutant MS-gcrR-def were inoculated, respectively, or together for competitive testing in vitro and in rat model. Adhesion assay showed that the adhesion ability of the mutant increased relative to the wild type, especially in the early stage. MS-gcrR-def out-competed S. mutans UA159 in vitro biofilm, and correspondingly coinfection displayed significantly fewer caries in vivo. The former possessed both a lower level of acid production and a stronger colonization potential than S. mutans UA159. These findings demonstrate that MS-gcrR-def appears to be a good candidate for replacement therapy.

  5. A New gcrR-Deficient Streptococcus mutans Mutant for Replacement Therapy of Dental Caries

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    Wenting Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. gcrR gene acts as a negative regulator related to sucrose-dependent adherence in S. mutans. It is constructive to test the potential capacity of mutans with gcrR gene deficient in bacteria replacement therapy. Methods. In this study, we constructed the mutant by homologous recombination. The morphological characteristics of biofilms were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. S. mutans UA159 and the mutant MS-gcrR-def were inoculated, respectively, or together for competitive testing in vitro and in rat model. Results. Adhesion assay showed that the adhesion ability of the mutant increased relative to the wild type, especially in the early stage. MS-gcrR-def out-competed S. mutans UA159 in vitro biofilm, and correspondingly coinfection displayed significantly fewer caries in vivo. The former possessed both a lower level of acid production and a stronger colonization potential than S. mutans UA159. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that MS-gcrR-def appears to be a good candidate for replacement therapy.

  6. The effect of Stevioside and Stevia rebaudiana on the growth of Streptococcus mutans

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    fatemeh Aghai Hosseinabadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Streptococcus mutans is a major cause of dental caries and tooth damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Stevioside and Stevia rebaudiana leaf extracts on the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: In this study, the aqueous and acetone extracts of Stevia rebaudiana were extracted by the maceration method, and methanol and ethanol extracts were prepared by a Soxhlet apparatus. Stevioside was purchased from Malaysia. The agar-well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of Stevioside and Stevia extracts. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined by the microdilution method. The antibacterial effects of Stevioside and Stevia extracts together and in combination with Penicillin were compared through variance analysis. Results: The results indicated the inhibitory effects of methanol extracts at MIC= 25 mg/ml, ethanol extract at MIC=3.13 mg/ml, and acetone extract at MIC=1.56 mg/ml on growth of Streptococcus mutans. The aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana and Stevioside could not inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Conclusion: The alcoholic and acetone extracts of Stevia rebaudiana may be used as pharmaceuticals and preservatives in controlling the growth of Streptococcus mutans.

  7. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide production, and virulence by an oxazole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lulu; Ren, Zhi; Zhou, Xuedong; Zeng, Jumei; Zou, Jing; Li, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, a biofilm-related oral disease, is a result of disruption of the microbial ecological balance in the oral environment. Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the primary cariogenic bacteria, produces glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) that synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). The EPSs, especially water-insoluble glucans, contribute to the formation of dental plaque, biofilm stability, and structural integrity, by allowing bacteria to adhere to tooth surfaces and supplying the bacteria with protection against noxious stimuli and other environmental attacks. The identification of novel alternatives that selectively inhibit cariogenic organisms without suppressing oral microbial residents is required. The goal of the current study is to investigate the influence of an oxazole derivative on S. mutans biofilm formation and the development of dental caries in rats, given that oxazole and its derivatives often exhibit extensive and pharmacologically important biological activities. Our data shows that one particular oxazole derivative, named 5H6, inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms and prevented synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides by antagonizing Gtfs in vitro, without affecting the growth of the bacteria. In addition, topical applications with the inhibitor resulted in diminished incidence and severity of both smooth and sulcal surface caries in vivo with a lower percentage of S. mutans in the animals' dental plaque compared to the control group (P mutans.

  8. Calcium fluoride nanoparticles induced suppression of Streptococcus mutans biofilm: an in vitro and in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shatavari; Khan, Shakir; Hasan, Sadaf; Khan, M Ehtisham; Misba, Lama; Khan, Asad U

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation on the tooth surface is the root cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Streptococcus mutans is known to produce biofilm which is one of the primary causes of dental caries. Acid production and acid tolerance along with exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation are major virulence factors of S. mutans biofilm. In the current study, calcium fluoride nanoparticles (CaF2-NPs) were evaluated for their effect on the biofilm forming ability of S. mutans in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro studies revealed 89 % and 90 % reduction in biofilm formation and EPS production, respectively. Moreover, acid production and acid tolerance abilities of S. mutans were also reduced considerably in the presence of CaF2-NPs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were in accordance with the other results indicating inhibition of biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. The qRT-PCR gene expression analysis showed significant downregulation of various virulence genes (vicR, gtfC, ftf, spaP, comDE) associated with biofilm formation. Furthermore, CaF2-NPs were found to substantially decrease the caries in treated rat groups as compared to the untreated groups in in vivo studies. Scanning electron micrographs of rat's teeth further validated our results. These findings suggest that the CaF2-NPs may be used as a potential antibiofilm applicant against S. mutans and may be applied as a topical agent to reduce dental caries.

  9. Effect of Probiotic Yogurt and Xylitol-Containing Chewing Gums on Salivary S Mutans Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Elnaz; Mazaheri, Romina; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10 5 colony forming units S. mutans per milliliter of their saliva. The participants were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive either probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 andBifidobacteriumbifidum ATCC 29521 (200 g daily) or xylitol-containing chewing gums (two gums three times daily after each meal; total xylitol content: 5.58 g daily) for three weeks. At baseline and one day, two weeks, and four weeks after the interventions, saliva samples were cultured on mitis-salivarius-bacitracin agar and salivary S. mutans counts were determined. Data were analyzed with independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and Fisher's least significant difference test. In both groups, S. mutans counts on the first day, second week, and fourth weeks after the intervention were significantly lower than baseline values (P yogurt consumers, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums seem to be as effective in reduction of salivary S. mutans levels. Their constant long-term consumption is thus recommended to prevent caries.

  10. In Vitro Effects of Sports and Energy Drinks on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, LaQuia A; Goodlett, Amy K; Huang, Ruijie; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    2017-09-15

    Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours. The biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained. Biofilm growth was evaluated by reading absorbance of the crystal violet. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured by the biofilm-reducing XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Espresso Energy were found to significantly increase biofilm (30-fold and 22-fold, respectively) and metabolic activity (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively). However, most of the remaining drinks significantly inhibited biofilm growth and metabolic activity. Several sports and energy drinks, with sugars or sugar substitutes as their main ingredients inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. Among the drinks evaluated, Gatorade Protein Recovery Chocolate Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Energy appear to have cariogenic potential since they increased the biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans.

  11. Antibacterial effect of dental adhesive containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate on the development of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  12. Subinhibitory concentrations of triclosan promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and adherence to oral epithelial cells.

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    Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran

    Full Text Available Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans.

  13. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans. PMID:24551218

  14. Influence of Surface Properties on Adhesion Forces and Attachment of Streptococcus mutans to Zirconia In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pei; Wang, Chuanyong; Zhou, Jinglin; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia is becoming a prevalent material in dentistry. However, any foreign bodies inserted may provide new niches for the bacteria in oral cavity. The object of this study was to explore the effect of surface properties including surface roughness and hydrophobicity on the adhesion and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to zirconia. Atomic force microscopy was employed to determine the zirconia surface morphology and the adhesion forces between the S. mutans and zirconia. The results showed that the surface roughness was nanoscale and significantly different among tested groups (P Medium (17.00 ± 3.81 nm) > Fine (11.89 ± 1.68 nm). The contact angles of the Coarse group were the highest, followed by the Medium and the Fine groups. Increasing the surface roughness and hydrophobicity resulted in an increase of adhesion forces and early attachment (2 h and 4 h) of S. mutans on the zirconia but no influence on the further development of biofilm (6 h~24 h). Our findings suggest that the surface roughness in nanoscale and hydrophobicity of zirconia had influence on the S. mutans initial adhesion force and early attachment instead of whole stages of biofilm formation. PMID:27975061

  15. In vitro study of Streptococcus mutans adhesion on composite resin coated with three surface sealants

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    Da Hye Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Although the coating of surface sealants to dental composite resin may potentially reduce bacterial adhesion, there seems to be little information regarding this issue. This preliminary in vitro study investigated the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans on the dental composite resins coated with three commercial surface sealants. Materials and Methods Composite resin (Filtek Z250 discs (8 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness were fabricated in a mold covered with a Mylar strip (control. In group PoGo, the surfaces were polished with PoGo. In groups PS, OG, and FP, the surfaces polished with PoGo were coated with the corresponding surface sealants (PermaSeal, PS; OptiGuard, OG; Fortify Plus, FP. The surfaces of the materials and S. mutans cells were characterized by various methods. S. mutans adhesion to the surfaces was quantitatively evaluated using flow cytometry (n = 9. Results Group OG achieved the lowest water contact angle among all groups tested (p 0.05 or significantly lower (group OG, p < 0.001 bacterial adhesion when compared with the control group. Conclusions The application of the surface sealants significantly reduced S. mutans adhesion to the composite resin polished with the PoGo.

  16. Damage of Streptococcus mutans biofilms by carolacton, a secondary metabolite from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum

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    Irschik Herbert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen in human dental caries. One of its important virulence properties is the ability to form biofilms (dental plaque on tooth surfaces. Eradication of such biofilms is extremely difficult. We therefore screened a library of secondary metabolites from myxobacteria for their ability to damage biofilms of S. mutans. Results Here we show that carolacton, a secondary metabolite isolated from Sorangium cellulosum, has high antibacterial activity against biofilms of S. mutans. Planktonic growth of bacteria was only slightly impaired and no acute cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblasts could be observed. Carolacton caused death of S. mutans biofilm cells, elongation of cell chains, and changes in cell morphology. At a concentration of 10 nM carolacton, biofilm damage was already at 35% under anaerobic conditions. A knock-out mutant for comD, encoding a histidine kinase specific for the competence stimulating peptide (CSP, was slightly less sensitive to carolacton than the wildtype. Expression of the competence related alternate sigma factor ComX was strongly reduced by carolacton, as determined by a pcomX luciferase reporter strain. Conclusions Carolacton possibly interferes with the density dependent signalling systems in S. mutans and may represent a novel approach for the prevention of dental caries.

  17. Quantitative assessment of S. mutans and C. albicans in patients with Haas and Hyrax expanders

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    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the number of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans colonies in patients with Haas and Hyrax appliances before and after insertion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 84 patients requiring orthodontic treatment. For all patients a midpalatal suture expansion was indicated. Patients were randomly divided into Group HA, who used the Haas appliance (n = 42 and Group HY, who used the Hyrax appliance (n = 42. Initially and thirty days after appliance insertion all patients were submitted to saliva collections. The saliva was diluted followed by seeding in Mitis Salivarius and CHROMagar media, for growth of S. mutans and C. albicans respectively. RESULTS: Results showed statistically significant difference between groups HA and HY for Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans (p <0.05. Haas appliance promoted greater S. mutans and C. albicans proliferation when compared to Hyrax appliance. CONCLUSION: The Haas appliance favored greater proliferation of S. mutans and C. albicans when compared with the Hyrax appliance. Insertion of the appliances resulted in greater buildup of microorganisms.

  18. Bactericidal effect of the photocatalystic reaction of titanium dioxide using visible wavelengths on Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Lee, Eun-Song; Kang, Si-Mook; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalysis induced by the application of clinically acceptable visible light at 405nm on the growth of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were grown on a hydroxyapatite (HA) disk and deposited in a rutile-type TiO 2 solution at a concentration of 0.1mg/mL. TiO 2 photocatalysis was measured for exposure to visible light (405nm) and ultraviolet (UV) light (254nm) produced by light-emitting diodes for 10, 20, 30, and 40min. After two treatments, the number of colonies formed in the final S. mutans biofilm on the HA disk were measured to confirm their viability, and the morphological changes of S. mutans were evaluated using scanning electronic microscopy. The bactericidal effects of 254- and 405-nm light resulted in > 5-log and 4-log reductions, respectively (p7-log reduction after 40min of treatment in both treatment groups relative to the control group. It was confirmed that the antibacterial effect could be shown by causing the photocatalytic reaction of TiO 2 in S. mutans biofilm even at the wavelength of visible light (405nm) as at the wavelength of ultraviolet light (254nm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

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    Suping Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  20. Contribution of the Collagen-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans to Bacterial Colonization of Inflamed Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryota; Ogaya, Yuko; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen of dental caries. Collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) (approximately 120 kDa), termed Cnm and Cbm, are regarded as important cell surface antigens related to the adherence of S. mutans to collagenous tissue. Furthermore, CBP-positive S. mutans strains are associated with various systemic diseases involving bacteremia, such as infective endocarditis. Endodontic infection is considered to be an important cause of bacteremia, but little is known regarding the presence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissue. In the present study, the distribution and virulence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissues were investigated by focusing on CBPs. Adhesion and invasion properties of various S. mutans strains were analyzed using human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPFs). CBP-positive strains had a significantly higher rate of adhesion to HDPFs compared with CBP-defective isogenic mutant strains (Pmutans strains isolated from infected root canal specimens was then analyzed by PCR. We found that approximately 50% of the root canal specimens were positive for S. mutans. Approximately 20% of these strains were Cnm-positive, while no Cbm-positive strains were isolated. The Cnm-positive strains isolated from the specimens showed adhesion to HDPFs. Our results suggest that CBP-positive S. mutans strains exhibit high colonization in dental pulp. This could be a possible virulence factor for various systemic diseases.

  1. investigating acid production by Streptococcus mutans with a surface-displayed pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein.

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    Lihong Guo

    Full Text Available Acidogenicity and aciduricity are the main virulence factors of the cavity-causing bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Monitoring at the individual cell level the temporal and spatial distribution of acid produced by this important oral pathogen is central for our understanding of these key virulence factors especially when S. mutans resides in multi-species microbial communities. In this study, we explored the application of pH-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (pHluorins to investigate these important features. Ecliptic pHluorin was functionally displayed on the cell surface of S. mutans as a fusion protein with SpaP. The resulting strain (O87 was used to monitor temporal and spatial pH changes in the microenvironment of S. mutans cells under both planktonic and biofilm conditions. Using strain O87, we revealed a rapid pH drop in the microenviroment of S. mutans microcolonies prior to the decrease in the macro-environment pH following sucrose fermentation. Meanwhile, a non-uniform pH distribution was observed within S. mutans biofilms, reflecting differences in microbial metabolic activity. Furthermore, strain O87 was successfully used to monitor the S. mutans acid production profiles within dual- and multispecies oral biofilms. Based on these findings, the ecliptic pHluorin allows us to investigate in vivo and in situ acid production and distribution by the cariogenic species S. mutans.

  2. Incidence of staphylococci and streptococci during winter in mastitic milk of sahiwal cow and murrah buffaloes.

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    Sentitula; Yadav, B R; Kumar, Ravinder

    2012-06-01

    Mastitis is a serious problem in dairy sector and among various aetiological agents, the incidence of staphylococci and streptococci remains high in milking animal. The present study was focused on detection of staphylococci and streptococci in winter season. Milk samples (117) of mastitic animals were tested for presence of staphylococci and streptococci using biochemical and PCR based assays. The testing revealed majority of animals (90.6%) were infected with more than one causative agent. Amongst 117 sample, 109 and 90 comprised of staphylococci and 90 streptococci, respectively. Distribution proportion of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. agalactiae, S. uberis and S. dysgalactiae among the mastitic cases was found as 64.9, 7.7, 5.1, 1.7, 48.7, 65.8 and 0.8%, respectively. Streptococci and staphylococci were observed in different combinations and the frequent were S. aureus/S. agalactiae/S. uberis, S. aureus/S. uberis, S. aureus/S. agalactiae and S. agalactiae/S. uberis which were accounted for 23.9, 19.7, 5.9 and 2.6%, respectively. Approximately half of the (52.1%) cases were observed for reoccurrence of mastitis. Reoccurrence of mastitis in winter season among these cases was significantly low as compared to summer (cattle-5 cases; buffaloes-2 cases). In addition, prevalence of S. aureus, S. agalactiae, S. uberis, and S. epidermidis in reoccurring mastitic cases was 73.7, 63.9, 45.9 and 6.6%, respectively. The observations revealed mastitis causing pathogens remains in hidden phase in winter season; however, cannot be neglected. The observation might be helpful in culling or segregation of cows for mastitis reduction programmes.

  3. Viridans streptococci in peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: clinical courses and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The clinical courses and long-term outcomes of viridans streptococcus (VS) peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all PD patients in a single center with gram-positive cocci (GPC) peritonitis between 2005 and 2011, and divided them into 3 groups: VS, other streptococci and other GPC (apart from VS). Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the VS group were compared with the other streptococci and other GPC groups, with prognostic factors determined. A total of 140 patients with 168 episodes of GPC peritonitis (44% of all peritonitis) were identified over 7 years. Among these, 18 patients (13%) developed VS peritonitis, while 14 patients (10%) developed other streptococcal peritonitis. Patients with VS peritonitis had a high cure rate by antibiotic alone (94%), despite a high polymicrobial yield frequency (28%). We found that VS peritonitis carried a lower risk of Tenckhoff catheter removal and relapsing episodes than other GPC peritonitis (6% vs 11%), and a lower mortality than other streptococci peritonitis (0% vs 7%). However, after the index peritonitis episodes, VS, other streptococci, and other GPC group had a significantly increased peritonitis incidence compared with the period before the index peritonitis (all p < 0.01). Patients with VS peritonitis had a significantly higher incidence of refractory peritonitis compared with other streptococci or other GPC peritonitis in the long term (both p < 0.01). VS poses a higher risk of subsequent refractory peritonitis after the index episode as compared with other streptococcal or GPC peritonitis. It might be prudent to monitor the technique of these patients with VS peritonitis closely to avoid further peritonitis episodes. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  4. Efficacy of direct Gram stain in differentiating staphylococci from streptococci in blood cultures positive for gram-positive cocci.

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    Agger, W A; Maki, D G

    1978-01-01

    A preponderance of clusters seen on direct Gram stain of blood cultures positive for gram-positive cocci was 98% sensitive and 100% specific for identification of staphylococcal species or of Peptococcus. A preponderance of chains, pairs, or both was 100% sensitive and 98% specific for identifying streptococci. Further presumptive identification of either staphylococci or streptococci based on microscopic morphology was unreliable. The direct Gram stain is highly reliable for differentiating staphylococci from streptococci and should be of considerable value to clinicians selecting initial antimicrobial therapy. PMID:75888

  5. Adherence to Streptococci facilitates Fusobacterium nucleatum integration into an oral microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuesong; Hu, Wei; Kaplan, Christopher W.; Guo, Lihong; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2012-01-01

    The development of multispecies oral microbial communities involves complex intra- and interspecies interactions at various levels. The ability to adhere to the resident bacteria or the biofilm matrix and overcome community resistance are among the key factors that determine whether a bacterium can integrate into a community. In this study, we focus on community integration of Fusobacterium nucleatum, a prevalent Gram-negative oral bacterial species that is considered an important member of the oral community due to its ability to adhere to Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative species. This interaction with a variety of different species is thought to facilitate the establishment of multispecies oral microbial community. However, the majority of experiments thus far has focused on the physical adherence between two species as measured by in vitro co-aggregation assays, while the community-based effects on the integration of F. nucleatum into multispecies microbial community remains to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrated using an established in vitro mice oral microbiota (O-mix) that the viability of F. nucleatum was significantly reduced upon addition to the O-mix due to cell contact-dependent induction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by oral community. Interestingly, this inhibitory effect was significantly alleviated when F. nucleatum was allowed to adhere to its known interacting partner species (such as Streptococcus sanguinis) prior to addition. Furthermore, this aggregate formation-dependent protection was absent in the F. nucleatum mutant strain ΔFn1526 that is unable to bind to a number of Gram-positive species. More importantly, this protective effect was also observed during integration of F. nucleatum into a human salivary microbial community (S-mix). These results support the idea that by adhering to other oral microbes, such as streptococci, F. nucleatum is able to mask the surface components that are recognized by H2O2 producing

  6. Influence of fluoride on the bacterial composition of a dual-species biofilm composed of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis.

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    Jung, Ji-Eun; Cai, Jian-Na; Cho, Sung-Dae; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2016-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries, few studies have demonstrated the effects of fluoride on the bacterial composition of dental biofilms. This study investigated whether fluoride affects the proportion of Streptococcus mutans and S. oralis in mono- and dual-species biofilm models, via microbiological, biochemical, and confocal fluorescence microscope studies. Fluoride did not affect the bacterial count and bio-volume of S. mutans and S. oralis in mono-species biofilms, except for the 24-h-old S. mutans biofilms. However, fluoride reduced the proportion and bio-volume of S. mutans but did not decrease those of S. oralis during both S. oralis and S. mutans dual-species biofilm formation, which may be related to the decrease in extracellular polysaccharide formation by fluoride. These results suggest that fluoride may prevent the shift in the microbial proportion to cariogenic bacteria in dental biofilms, subsequently inhibiting the cariogenic bacteria dominant biofilm formation.

  7. Antibiofilm Activity of Chilean Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Is Influenced by the Year of Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloz, Jorge Jesús; Saavedra, Nicolás; Lillo, Alexis; Alvear, Marysol; Barrientos, Leticia; Salazar, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of propolis varies according to factors that could have an influence on its biological properties. Polyphenols from propolis have demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans growth. However, it is not known if different years of propolis collection may affect its activity. We aimed to elucidate if the year of collection of propolis influences its activity on Streptococcus mutans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from propolis collected in three different years, characterized by LC-MS and quantified the content of total polyphenols and flavonoids groups. Finally, was evaluated the antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans and the biofilm formation. Qualitative differences were observed in total polyphenols, flavones, and flavonols and the chemical composition between the extracts, affecting the strength of inhibition of biofilm formation but not the antimicrobial assays. In conclusion, chemical composition of propolis depends on the year of collection and influences the strength of the inhibition of biofilm formation.

  8. INHIBITION TEST OF METHANOL EXTRACT FROM SOURSOP LEAF (Annona muricata Linn. AGAINST Streptococcus mutans BACTERIA

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    Raudhatul Jannah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a disease with a high prevalence of caries in Indonesia is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn. is one of the herbs that can remove dental plaque. This study aims to determine the chemical content and measure the inhibitory antibacterial soursop leaft methanol extractin inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Phytochemical screening stated that the leaf of the soursop contains flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, glycosides and saponins. Test of inhibition were measured using paper disc diffusion method with variation concentrations of 5, 10, 15 20, and 25%, positive control is tetrasilkin 30 µg, and a negative control is methanol. Antibacterial test results showed that the methanol extract of soursop leaves have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% with inhibitory diameter of 9,1; 10,57; 11,53; 12,01 and 13,75 mm respectively.

  9. Antibiofilm Activity of Chilean Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Is Influenced by the Year of Collection

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    Jorge Jesús Veloz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of propolis varies according to factors that could have an influence on its biological properties. Polyphenols from propolis have demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans growth. However, it is not known if different years of propolis collection may affect its activity. We aimed to elucidate if the year of collection of propolis influences its activity on Streptococcus mutans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from propolis collected in three different years, characterized by LC-MS and quantified the content of total polyphenols and flavonoids groups. Finally, was evaluated the antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans and the biofilm formation. Qualitative differences were observed in total polyphenols, flavones, and flavonols and the chemical composition between the extracts, affecting the strength of inhibition of biofilm formation but not the antimicrobial assays. In conclusion, chemical composition of propolis depends on the year of collection and influences the strength of the inhibition of biofilm formation.

  10. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Carl Martin Peter; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are tolerant to antibiotic treatment and therefore cause problematic infections. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance will aid the development of antibiofilm drugs. Screening of a Streptococcus mutans transposon mutant...... library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower...... and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating...

  11. PRESENCE OF Streptococcus Mutans IN SALIVA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH DENTAL CARIES: ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Gamboa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a localized, transmissible, pathological infectious process that ends up in the destruction of hard dental tissue. Streptococcus mutans is considered to be the main cause of dental caries. Indeed, numerous reports have shown the close relationship between salivary levels of S. mutans and dental caries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries, and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 53 3 to 5-year-old children from the Diego Torres school in Turmequé (Boyacá, Colombia. Saliva samples were vortexed and serially diluted in 0.05 M phosphate buffer. Aliquots of 100 ul of the appropriate dilutions were cultured on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar medium for the selective isolation of S. mutans, and incubated anaerobically for two days at 37 o C. The minimal inhibitoryconcentrations of the S. mutans isolates were evaluated against penicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, clindamycin, imipenem and vancomycin by an agar dilution method. The dental caries experience in these children was 66% (35/53 and S. mutans was found in the saliva of 33 children (62%; 21 of them had dental caries and 12 did not. In the 20 children from whom S. mutans was not isolated, 14 (70% were found to have caries. There were no statistically significant differences in S. mutans counts between the group with dental caries and the caries-free group (p=0.21. All isolates were highly sensitive to penicillin, amoxycillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, clindamycin, imipenem and vancomycin; 50 and 90% of the strains from S. mutans were inhibited by concentrations of less than 0.12 and 0.5 ug/ml, respectively, for all antibiotics studied. In conclusion, not all of the children hosting this microorganism had caries, and the S. mutans strains were highly sensitive to the antibiotics tested.

  12. Streptococcus mutans forms xylitol-resistant biofilm on excess adhesive flash in novel ex-vivo orthodontic bracket model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cindy S F; Ming, Yue; Foong, Kelvin W C; Rosa, Vinicius; Thuyen, Truong; Seneviratne, Chaminda J

    2017-04-01

    During orthodontic bonding procedures, excess adhesive is invariably left on the tooth surface at the interface between the bracket and the enamel junction; it is called excess adhesive flash (EAF). We comparatively evaluated the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans on EAF produced by 2 adhesives and examined the therapeutic efficacy of xylitol on S mutans formed on EAF. First, we investigated the biofilm formation of S mutans on 3 orthodontic bracket types: stainless steel preadjusted edgewise, ceramic preadjusted edgewise, and stainless steel self-ligating. Subsequently, tooth-colored Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and green Grengloo (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) adhesives were used for bonding ceramic brackets to extracted teeth. S mutans biofilms on EAF produced by the adhesives were studied using the crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness and surface energy of the EAF were examined. The therapeutic efficacies of different concentrations of xylitol were tested on S mutans biofilms. Significantly higher biofilms were formed on the ceramic preadjusted edgewise brackets (P = 0.003). Transbond XT had significantly higher S mutans biofilms compared with Grengloo surfaces (P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in surface roughness between Transbond XT and Grengloo surfaces (P >0.05). Surface energy of Transbond XT had a considerably smaller contact angle than did Grengloo, suggesting that Transbond XT is a more hydrophilic material. Xylitol at low concentrations had no significant effect on the reduction of S mutans biofilms on orthodontic adhesives (P = 0.016). Transbond XT orthodontic adhesive resulted in more S mutans biofilm compared with Grengloo adhesive on ceramic brackets. Surface energy seemed to play a more important role than surface roughness for the formation of S mutans biofilm on EAF. Xylitol does not appear to have a therapeutic effect on mature S mutans biofilm. Copyright © 2017 American

  13. Symbiotic Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Synergizes Virulence of Plaque Biofilms In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsetta, Megan L.; Klein, Marlise I.; Colonne, Punsiri M.; Scott-Anne, Kathleen; Gregoire, Stacy; Pai, Chia-Hua; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Watson, Gene; Krysan, Damian J.; Bowen, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is often cited as the main bacterial pathogen in dental caries, particularly in early-childhood caries (ECC). S. mutans may not act alone; Candida albicans cells are frequently detected along with heavy infection by S. mutans in plaque biofilms from ECC-affected children. It remains to be elucidated whether this association is involved in the enhancement of biofilm virulence. We showed that the ability of these organisms together to form biofilms is enhanced in vitro and in vivo. The presence of C. albicans augments the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS), such that cospecies biofilms accrue more biomass and harbor more viable S. mutans cells than single-species biofilms. The resulting 3-dimensional biofilm architecture displays sizeable S. mutans microcolonies surrounded by fungal cells, which are enmeshed in a dense EPS-rich matrix. Using a rodent model, we explored the implications of this cross-kingdom interaction for the pathogenesis of dental caries. Coinfected animals displayed higher levels of infection and microbial carriage within plaque biofilms than animals infected with either species alone. Furthermore, coinfection synergistically enhanced biofilm virulence, leading to aggressive onset of the disease with rampant carious lesions. Our in vitro data also revealed that glucosyltransferase-derived EPS is a key mediator of cospecies biofilm development and that coexistence with C. albicans induces the expression of virulence genes in S. mutans (e.g., gtfB, fabM). We also found that Candida-derived β1,3-glucans contribute to the EPS matrix structure, while fungal mannan and β-glucan provide sites for GtfB binding and activity. Altogether, we demonstrate a novel mutualistic bacterium-fungus relationship that occurs at a clinically relevant site to amplify the severity of a ubiquitous infectious disease. PMID:24566629

  14. The SloR metalloregulator is involved in the Streptococcus mutans oxidative stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepps, S C; Fields, E E; Galan, D; Corbett, J P; Von Hasseln, E R; Spatafora, G A

    2016-12-01

    SloR, a 25-kDa metalloregulatory protein in Streptococcus mutans modulates the expression of multiple genes, including the sloABC operon that encodes essential Mn 2+ transport and genes that promote cariogenesis. In this study, we report on SloC- and SloR-deficient strains of S. mutans (GMS284 and GMS584, respectively) that demonstrate compromised survivorship compared with their UA159 wild-type progenitor and their complemented strains (GMS285 and GMS585, respectively), when challenged with streptonigrin and/or in growth competition experiments. The results of streptonigrin assays revealed significantly larger zones of inhibition for GMS584 than for either UA159 or GMS585, indicating weakened S. mutans survivorship in the absence of SloR. Competition assays revealed a compromised ability for GMS284 and GMS584 to survive peroxide challenge compared with their SloC- and SloR-proficient counterparts. These findings are consistent with a role for SloC and SloR in S. mutans aerotolerance. We also predicted differential expression of oxidative stress tolerance genes in GMS584 versus UA159 and GMS585 when grown aerobically. The results of quantitative RT-PCR experiments revealed S. mutans sod, tpx, and sloC expression that was upregulated in GMS584 compared with UA159 and GMS585, indicating that the impact of oxidative stress on S. mutans is more severe in the absence of SloR than in its presence. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that SloR does not bind to the sod or tpx promoter regions directly, implicating intermediaries that may arbitrate the SloR response to oxidative stress. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. In silico analysis of the competition between Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans in the dental biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdebenito, B; Tullume-Vergara, P O; González, W; Kreth, J; Giacaman, R A

    2018-04-01

    During dental caries, the dental biofilm modifies the composition of the hundreds of involved bacterial species. Changing environmental conditions influence competition. A pertinent model to exemplify the complex interplay of the microorganisms in the human dental biofilm is the competition between Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans. It has been reported that children and adults harbor greater numbers of S. sanguinis in the oral cavity, associated with caries-free teeth. Conversely, S. mutans is predominant in individuals with a high number of carious lesions. Competition between both microorganisms stems from the production of H 2 O 2 by S. sanguinis and mutacins, a type of bacteriocins, by S. mutans. There is limited evidence on how S. sanguinis survives its own H 2 O 2 levels, or if it has other mechanisms that might aid in the competition against S. mutans, nonetheless. We performed a genomic and metabolic pathway comparison, coupled with a comprehensive literature review, to better understand the competition between these two species. Results indicated that S. sanguinis can outcompete S. mutans by the production of an enzyme capable of metabolizing H 2 O 2 . S. mutans, however, lacks the enzyme and is susceptible to the peroxide from S. sanguinis. In addition, S. sanguinis can generate energy through gluconeogenesis and seems to have evolved different communication mechanisms, indicating that novel proteins may be responsible for intra-species communication. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Effects of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on the root surfaces and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhong, Li; Zhongcheng, Li; Mengqi, Luo; Daonan, Shen; Shu, Zhang; Shu, Meng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with different powers of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on root surfaces and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion. Extracted teeth because of severe periodontal disease were divided into the following four groups: control group, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3. After scaling and root planning, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3 were separately treated with Nd: YAG laser irradiation (4/6/8 W, 60 s); however, the control group did not receive the treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the morphology. S. mutans were cultured with root slices from each group. Colony forming unit per mL (CFU·mL⁻¹) was used to count and compare the amounts of bacteria adhesion among groups. SEM was used to observe the difference of bacteria adhesion to root surfaces between control group (scaling) and laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s), thereby indicating the different bacteria adhesions because of different treatments. Morphology alterations indicated that root surfaces in control group contain obvious smear layer, debris, and biofilm; whereas the root surfaces in laser group contain more cracks with less smear layer and debris. The bacteria counting indicated that S. mutans adhesion to laser group was weaker than that of control group (P0.05) was observed. Morphology alterations also verified that S. mutans adhesion to laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s) was weaker than that of control group (scaling). This study demonstrated that Nd: YAG laser irradiation treatment after scaling can reduce smear layer, debris, and biofilm on the root surfaces as compared with conventional scaling. The laser treatment reduces the adhesion of S. mutans as well. However, Nd: YAG laser irradiation can cause cracks on the root surfaces. In this experiment, the optimum laser power of 6 W can thoroughly remove the smear layer and debris, as well as relatively improve the control of thermal damagee.

  17. CovR Regulates Streptococcus mutans Susceptibility To Complement Immunity and Survival in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lívia A.; Nomura, Ryota; Mariano, Flávia S.; Harth-Chu, Erika N.; Stipp, Rafael N.; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, may promote systemic infections after accessing the bloodstream from oral niches. In this study, we investigate pathways of complement immunity against S. mutans and show that the orphan regulator CovR (CovRSm) modulates susceptibility to complement opsonization and survival in blood. S. mutans blood isolates showed reduced susceptibility to C3b deposition compared to oral isolates. Reduced expression of covRSm in blood strains was associated with increased transcription of CovRSm-repressed genes required for S. mutans interactions with glucans (gbpC, gbpB, and epsC), sucrose-derived exopolysaccharides (EPS). Consistently, blood strains showed an increased capacity to bind glucan in vitro. Deletion of covRSm in strain UA159 (UAcov) impaired C3b deposition and binding to serum IgG and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as phagocytosis through C3b/iC3b receptors and killing by neutrophils. Opposite effects were observed in mutants of gbpC, epsC, or gtfBCD (required for glucan synthesis). C3b deposition on UA159 was abolished in C1q-depleted serum, implying that the classical pathway is essential for complement activation on S. mutans. Growth in sucrose-containing medium impaired the binding of C3b and IgG to UA159, UAcov, and blood isolates but had absent or reduced effects on C3b deposition in gtfBCD, gbpC, and epsC mutants. UAcov further showed increased ex vivo survival in human blood in an EPS-dependent way. Consistently, reduced survival was observed for the gbpC and epsC mutants. Finally, UAcov showed an increased ability to cause bacteremia in a rat model. These results reveal that CovRSm modulates systemic virulence by regulating functions affecting S. mutans susceptibility to complement opsonization. PMID:27572331

  18. Genetic Diversity and Evidence for Transmission of Streptococcus mutans by DiversiLab rep-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Ghazal, Tariq; Moser, Stephen A; Childers, Noel K

    2016-09-01

    This two-part study investigated the genetic diversity and transmission of Streptococcus mutans using the DiversiLab repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) approach. For children with S. mutans and participating household members, analysis for evidence of unrelated child-to-child as well as intra-familial transmission was evaluated based on commonality of genotypes. A total of 169 index children and 425 household family members from Uniontown, Alabama were evaluated for genetic diversity using rep-PCR. Thirty-four unique rep-PCR genotypes were observed for 13,906 S. mutans isolates. For transmission, 117 child and household isolates were evaluated for shared genotype (by child and by genotype cases, multiple matches possible for each child). Overall, children had 1-9 genotypes and those with multiple genotypes were 2.3 times more likely to have caries experience (decayed, missing and filled teeth/surfaces>0). Only 28% of children shared all genotypes within the household, while 72% had at least 1 genotype not shared with anyone in the household. Children had genotype(s) not shared with any household members in 157 cases. In 158 cases children and household members shared a genotype in which 55% (87/158 cases) were shared with more than one family member. Children most frequently shared genotypes with their mothers (54%; 85/158), siblings (46%; 72/158) and cousins (23%; 37/158). A reference library for S. mutans for epidemiological surveillance using the DiversiLab rep-PCR approach is detailed. The genetic diversity of S. mutans in this population demonstrated frequent commonality of genotypes. Evidence for both child-to-child and intra-familial transmission of S. mutans was observed by rep-PCR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydroxychalcone inhibitors of Streptococcus mutans glucosyl transferases and biofilms as potential anticaries agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Casals, Luke; Zheng, Ruowen; Wu, Hui; Velu, Sadanandan E

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major etiological agent in the initiation and the development of dental caries due to its robust capacity to form tenacious biofilms. Ideal therapeutics for this disease will aim to selectively inhibit the biofilm formation process while preserving the natural bacterial flora of the mouth. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacies of flavonols on S. mutans biofilms and have suggested the mechanism of action through their effect on S. mutans glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). These enzymes metabolize sucrose into water insoluble and soluble glucans, which are an integral measure of the dental caries pathogenesis. Numerous studies have shown that flavonols and polyphenols can inhibit Gtf and biofilm formation at millimolar concentrations. We have screened a group of 14 hydroxychalcones, synthetic precursors of flavonols, in an S. mutans biofilm assay. Several of these compounds emerged to be biofilm inhibitors at low micro-molar concentrations. Chalcones that contained a 3-OH group on ring A exhibited selectivity for biofilm inhibition. Moreover, we synthesized 6 additional analogs of the lead compound and evaluated their potential activity and selectivity against S. mutans biofilms. The most active compound identified from these studies had an IC50 value of 44μM against biofilm and MIC50 value of 468μM against growth displaying >10-fold selectivity inhibition towards biofilm. The lead compound displayed a dose dependent inhibition of S. mutans Gtfs. The lead compound also did not affect the growth of two commensal species (Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii) at least up to 200μM, indicating that it can selectively inhibit cariogenic biofilms, while leaving commensal and/or beneficial microbes intact. Thus non-toxic compounds have the potential utility in public oral health regimes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Consumption of Yogurt Containing Probiotic Bifidobacterium Lactis Reduces Streptococcus mutans in Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelia Sari Widyarman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic bacteria is commonly used as a food supplement intended to benefit the host by improving intestinal bacterial balance. Probiotics have also been investigated from the perspective of oral health. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of yogurt containing probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (B. lactis on salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans counts in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from each subject (n = 7; mean age, 21 years using spitting method in centrifuge tubes at baseline and two weeks after daily probiotic yogurt consumption. B. lactis BB-12 and S. mutans ATCC 25175 were cultured in BHI-broth (37ºC, anaerobic conditions. After 48-h incubation, the number of colonies on each dilution plate was used to extrapolate a standard curve. The total number of target DNA molecules were identified using real-time PCR followed by SYBR Green reagents and 16S rRNA gene specific primers S. mutans and B. lactis BB-12. Data were analyzed statistically using paired-sample t-tests. Results: Statistical evaluation indicated that there was a significant reduction in the presence of S. mutans before probiotic yogurt consumption, (4.73 ± 1.43 log10 CFU/mL and after two weeks of daily consumption of probiotic yogurt, (4.03 ± 0.77 log10 CFU/mL, p=0.001. Moreover, no B. lactis was found in the saliva of any of the subjects before probiotic consumption, but after two weeks of consumption, B. lactis was found in the saliva of four subjects. Conclusions: Consuming probiotic yogurt containing B. lactis reduced the quantity of S. mutans in the saliva of subjects during fixed orthodontic treatment. Thus, the probiotic bacteria could be beneficial in improving oral health.

  1. Assessment of Streptococcus mutans in healthy versus gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sneha; Prabhu, Ashwin; Chaitra, K R; Desai, N C; Patil, Sudhir R; Rajeev, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are most common oral diseases. Streptococcus mutans are considered to be the major pathogens in initiation of dental caries. Evidence shows that periodontal disease and caries share a number of contributory factors. Thus in view of these findings it would be worthwhile to examine whether Streptococcus mutans persist within the saliva and subgingival environment of the periodontitis patients and to determine whether there is any association between Streptococcus mutans colonization, pH of saliva and sub-gingival plaque pH in periodontal diseases before therapy. The study comprises of 75 subjects aged between 20-70 years, reporting to department of Periodontology, KLEs Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore. Subjects were divided into 3 groups of 25 each. Group 1 - Healthy controls, Group 2 - Gingivitis Group, 3 - Chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile container and immediately pH was evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four deepest periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis and from first molars in healthy subjects using 4 sterile paper points. In gingivitis subjects samples were collected from areas showing maximum signs of inflammation. All paper points and saliva samples were cultured on mitis salivarius agar culture media with bacitracin for quantification of the Streptococcus mutans colonies. Increased colonization of Streptococcus mutans was seen in chronic periodontitis subjects both in saliva and sub-gingival plaque samples. There was also a positive correlation seen with the periodontal parameters. More severe forms of periodontal disease may create different ecological niches for the proliferation of Streptococcus mutans .

  2. Assessment of Streptococcus mutans in healthy versus gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Dani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are most common oral diseases. Streptococcus mutans are considered to be the major pathogens in initiation of dental caries. Evidence shows that periodontal disease and caries share a number of contributory factors. Thus in view of these findings it would be worthwhile to examine whether Streptococcus mutans persist within the saliva and subgingival environment of the periodontitis patients and to determine whether there is any association between Streptococcus mutans colonization, pH of saliva and sub-gingival plaque pH in periodontal diseases before therapy. Methods: The study comprises of 75 subjects aged between 20-70 years, reporting to department of Periodontology, KLEs Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore. Subjects were divided into 3 groups of 25 each. Group 1 – Healthy controls, Group 2 – Gingivitis Group, 3 – Chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile container and immediately pH was evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four deepest periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis and from first molars in healthy subjects using 4 sterile paper points. In gingivitis subjects samples were collected from areas showing maximum signs of inflammation. All paper points and saliva samples were cultured on mitis salivarius agar culture media with bacitracin for quantification of the Streptococcus mutans colonies. Results: Increased colonization of Streptococcus mutans was seen in chronic periodontitis subjects both in saliva and sub-gingival plaque samples. There was also a positive correlation seen with the periodontal parameters. Conclusion: More severe forms of periodontal disease may create different ecological niches for the proliferation of Streptococcus mutans.

  3. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fani, M M; Kohanteb, J; Dayaghi, M

    2007-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans, extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6%) isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4%) were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4%) and least resistance (0%) to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 microg ml(-1) and from 0.25 to 1 microg ml(-1), respectively (Pgarlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 microg ml(-1). Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  4. Effect of oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans count in plaque and saliva using Dentocult SM Strip mutans test: A randomized, controlled, triple-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oil pulling has been used extensively for many years, without scientific evidence or proof, as a traditional Indian folk remedy to prevent teeth decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums, dryness of throat and cracked lips, and for strengthening the teeth, gums, and jaws. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with sesame oil on the count of Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva of children, using the Dentocult SM Strip mutans test, and to compare its efficacy with that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: Twenty age-matched adolescent boys were selected based on information obtained through a questionnaire. They were divided randomly into two groups: the control or chlorhexidine group (group I and the study or oil pulling group (group II; there were ten subjects in each group. Plaque and saliva samples were collected from all the 20 subjects on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and, after incubation, the presence of S. mutans was evaluated using the manufacturers′ chart. The study group practiced oil pulling with sesame oil and the control group used chlorhexidine mouthwash for 10 min every day in the morning before brushing. Samples were collected from both groups after 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks and the efficacy of oil pulling was compared with that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Results: There was a reduction in the S. mutans count in the plaque and saliva samples of both the study and the control groups. The reduction in the S. mutans count in the plaque of the study group was statistically significant after 1 and 2 weeks (P = 0.01 and P = 0.008, respectively; the control group showed significant reduction at all the four time points (P = 0.01, P = 0.04, P = 0.005, and P = 0.005, respectively, at 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks. In the saliva samples, significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in the control group at 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks (P = 0.02, P = 0.02, P = 0

  5. INVOLVEMENT OF BACTERICIDAL FACTORS FROM THROMBIN-STIMULATED PLATELETS IN CLEARANCE OF ADHERENT VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERFF, J; ZAAT, SAJ; JOLDERSMA, W; HESS, J

    Platelets activated with thrombin release bactericidal factors. We studied the role of the susceptibility of viridans streptococci to these bactericidal factors in the development of infective endocarditis (IE). By using the experimental endocarditis rabbit model, the initial adherence and the

  6. Radioimmunoassay of class-specific antibodies to Streptococcus mutans in monkey serum and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.; Colman, G.; Huges, M.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure class-specific antibodies to Streptococcus mutans in the serum and saliva of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Antihuman immunoglobulin antibodies purified by affinity chromatography on immobilised monkey immoglobulins and labelled with 125 I were employed. Formalised cells of S. mutans and an extract of culture supernatant adsorbed to polystyrene wells were used as solid-phase antigens. The coefficients of variation of IgG, IgA, and IgM assays were less than or equal to 10% for both antigen systems. It is shown that this RIA is a sensitive, reproducible and quantitative method. (Auth.)

  7. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy against Streptococcus mutans Biofilm in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhóca, V H; Florez, Fle; Batista de Faria, N; Rastelli, Alessandra Nara de Souza; Tanomaru, Jmg; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of antimicrobial photo-dynamic therapy (aPDT) over Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Eighteen (n = 18) patients were selected and one palatine device with dental blocks was used. The biofilm was treated by curcumin and Photogem® with a LED and the effect was analyzed by CFU/ml. Although, statistical analysis showed significant reductions for aPDT mainly with Photogem® (p = 0.02), these were low. The results suggest a low antimicrobial effect of aPDT over S. mutans biofilm. Some parameters used need to be improved. This technique can be a promising in Dentistry.

  8. The molecular epidemiological characteristics of streptococci isolated from primary school children in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Nosik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The goal of the study was to isolate group A, С, and G streptococci from children and characterize them by the methods of molecular epidemiology.Materials and methods. Group A, С, and G streptococci were isolated from tonsils and back wall of pharynx of Vietnamese children during 2012–2014. сpn60 gene based PCR approach and rnpB gene sequencing were used to identify streptococcal species belonging to group С and G streptococci. The presence of scpA, lmb, nga, slo virulence genes was analyzed in S. anginosus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strainS. emm-typing of S. pyogenes was done as published (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/biotech/strep/MProteinGene_typing.htm. Antibiotic resistance of the strains was tested by the disk diffusion method.Results. A total of 1359 children were examined. Group A streptococci (S. pyogenes were isolated from 49 children, group C streptococci – from 8 children (4 stains – S. anginosus, 1 strain – S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, 1 strain – S. parasanguinis, 1 strain – S. gordonii, 1 strain – S. constellatus, and group G streptococci – from 75 children (55 stains – S. anginosus, 8 stains – S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, 4 stains – S. sanguinis, 3 stains – S. parasanguinis, 2 stains – S. australis, 2 stains – S. constellatus, 1 stain – S. mitis. emm-typing of 47 S. pyogenes strains revealed 15 different emm-subtypes belonging to 11 different emm-typeS. The subtypes emm104.0 and emm109.1 were found to be predominant. S. anginosus strains under study were genetically heterogeneous for the presence of virulence genes. All tested strains were susceptible to cephalosporins and vancomycin, and resistant to amikacine. A total of 70% and 52,5% of S. pyogenes were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, respectively.

  9. Highly Variable Streptococcus oralis Strains Are Common among Viridans Streptococci Isolated from Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denapaite, Dalia; Rieger, Martin; Köndgen, Sophie; Brückner, Reinhold; Ochigava, Irma; Kappeler, Peter; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Leendertz, Fabian; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Viridans streptococci were obtained from primates (great apes, rhesus monkeys, and ring-tailed lemurs) held in captivity, as well as from free-living animals (chimpanzees and lemurs) for whom contact with humans is highly restricted. Isolates represented a variety of viridans streptococci, including unknown species. Streptococcus oralis was frequently isolated from samples from great apes. Genotypic methods revealed that most of the strains clustered on separate lineages outside the main cluster of human S. oralis strains. This suggests that S. oralis is part of the commensal flora in higher primates and evolved prior to humans. Many genes described as virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae were present also in other viridans streptococcal genomes. Unlike in S. pneumoniae, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) gene clusters were common among viridans streptococci, and many S. oralis strains were type PI-2 (pilus islet 2) variants. S. oralis displayed a remarkable diversity of genes involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan (penicillin-binding proteins and MurMN) and choline-containing teichoic acid. The small noncoding cia-dependent small RNAs (csRNAs) controlled by the response regulator CiaR might contribute to the genomic diversity, since we observed novel genomic islands between duplicated csRNAs, variably present in some isolates. All S. oralis genomes contained a β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase gene absent in S. pneumoniae, which in contrast frequently harbors the neuraminidases NanB/C, which are absent in S. oralis. The identification of S. oralis-specific genes will help us to understand their adaptation to diverse habitats. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare example of a human-pathogenic bacterium among viridans streptococci, which consist of commensal symbionts, such as the close relatives Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis. We have shown that S. oralis can frequently

  10. Latex agglutination testing directly from throat swabs for rapid detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci from Lancefield serogroup C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, G F; Turner, J C; Kiselica, D; Dunn, M; Hendley, J O

    1992-01-01

    A latex agglutination method for the rapid detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci from Lancefield serogroup C in throat swabs from 403 university students with symptomatic pharyngitis was evaluated. Compared with culture, the rapid test was poorly sensitive (34.4%) but very specific (98.4%) in detecting group C beta-hemolytic streptococci. The sensitivity of the rapid test improved with an increasing quantity of growth on culture. PMID:1551989

  11. Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy = Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos, Laurylene César de S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. Metodologia: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstico positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. Resultados: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5% e II (53,5%. A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 104. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis

  12. Streptococcus mutans Displays Altered Stress Responses While Enhancing Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus casei in Mixed-Species Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zezhang T.; Liao, Sumei; Bitoun, Jacob P.; De, Arpan; Jorgensen, Ashton; Feng, Shihai; Xu, Xiaoming; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Caufield, Page W.; Koo, Hyun; Li, Yihong

    2017-01-01

    Like Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli are commonly isolated from carious sites, although their exact role in caries development remains unclear. This study used mixed-species models to analyze biofilm formation by major groups of oral lactobacilli, including L. casei, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius ssp. salivarius, and L. gasseri. The results showed that lactobacilli did not form good biofilms when grown alone, although differences existed between different species. When grown together with S. mutans, biofilm formation by L. gasseri and L. rhamnosus was increased by 2-log (P 1-log (P mutans wild-type, but no such effects were observed with S. mutans deficient of glucosyltransferase GtfB and adhesin P1. Both S. mutans and L. casei in dual-species enhanced resistance to acid killing with increases of survival rate by >1-log (P mutans in dual-species with L. casei as either up- or down-regulated when compared to those grown alone. The up-regulated genes include those for superoxide dismutase, NADH oxidase, and members of the mutanobactin biosynthesis cluster. Among the down-regulated genes were those for GtfB and alternative sigma factor SigX. These results further suggest that interactions between S. mutans and oral lactobacilli are species-specific and may have significant impact on cariogenic potential of the community. PMID:29326887

  13. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus colonization and caries experience in 3- and 5-year-old Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraithong, P; Pattanaporn, K; Chen, Z; Khongkhunthian, S; Laohapensang, P; Chhun, N; Pattanaporn, W; Gaw, H Y; Li, Y

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the colonization of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in supra-gingival plaque samples and to determine their correlation with the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in Thai children. A total of 344 Thai children, ages 3 and 5 years, were invited to participate in this study. Caries status of the children was examined. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to evaluate DNA levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Eighty-five percent of the children were colonized by S. mutans and 50.9% of them were colonized by S. sobrinus. The prevalence of ECC was 43.8% and 56.2% among 3- and 5-year-old children, respectively, and was significantly associated with the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The severity of ECC was significantly correlated with increased DNA levels of the two bacteria. Children who were positive for S. mutans and S. sobrinus (Sm+/Sb+) were 8 times or 44 times more likely to experience ECC than children who were Sm-/Sb + or were Sm-/Sb-. The study evidence further suggest that children colonized by both S. mutans and S. sobrinus are at the higher risk for ECC. Molecular-based qPCR can be used to detect and quantify S. mutans and S. sobrinus colonization for epidemiological and clinical studies for ECC risk assessment.

  14. Association between salivary level of infection with Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacilli and caries-risk factors in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi-Xhemajli, B; Véronneau, J; Begzati, A; Bytyci, A; Kutllovci, T; Rexhepi, A

    2016-03-01

    Understanding factors in mothers associated with high and low salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli is an important strategy for early childhood caries prevention. Aim of the study was to identify the association between salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus and potential caries risk factors in mothers. Cross-sectional design used a voluntary sample of 300 mothers of young children. Close-ended questions and observations were used to identify mothers' potential caries risk factors. The presence of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli was determined using the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent). All collected information was converted into frequency and proportion describing the prevalence factor in correlation with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli cariogenic bacteria levels of infection. Results Sample participants showed a high caries risk based on socioeconomic, behavioural and clinical factors. also showed high levels (>105) of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections among 28% of mothers. Three factors were significantly associated with Streptococcus mutans infection: level of education, past caries experiences, and observable dental plaque, whereas, a fourth factor, frequency of daily tooth brushing, was associated to Lactobacilli infection. This study showed that easily collectible informations such as maternal level of education, frequency of daily tooth brushing and past clinical factors tend to be associated with high level of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections in caregivers.

  15. The effect of propolis honey candy on Streptococcus mutans prevalence in caries and caries-free subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekanto, Sri Angky; Bachtiar, Endang W.; Jiwanakusuma, Pramodanti; Gladea, Zahara; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2018-02-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Propolis Honey candy on Streptococcus mutans prevalence in caries and caries-free subject. The subject of this research was caries and caries-free subjects. The Streptococcus mutans colony was counted in saliva samples before and after a 7-day period of consuming Propolis Honey candy, Honey candy, and "X" candy. The Streptococcus mutans was proliferated in a TYS20B gelatin medium for 48 hours. The number of Streptococcus mutans colonies was expressed in CFU/ml. Compared with the pre-treatment group, the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies in the treatment group tends to show a statistically significant reduction (pStreptococcus mutans after consuming Propolis honey candy were lower (5.8×106 CFU/ml) than before (2.4×1010 CFU/ml) in caries-free subject. In caries subject, the result of Propolis honey candy were also lower (2.2×107 CFU/ml) than before (5.8×109 CFU/ml). The study showed a decrease in the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies from caries and caries-free subjects after propolis honey candy consumption.

  16. Meningitis caused by streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae: a retrospective clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Harder, Eva; Wandall, Johan

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed the medical records of 26 patients (median age 62 years, range 5-76 years) admitted to our institution during 1978-98 with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) caused by streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae (comprising 1.9% of all patients with ABM). 19 cases were community......-acquired and 7 were nosocomial. 73% had comorbid or predisposing conditions and 73% had an identifiable extracerebral focus; only in 2 patients no comorbid disease, primary focus or predisposing condition was present. Five patients had cerebral abscesses, and 5 had endocarditis. Beta-haemolytic streptococci were...... grown in 14 cases (serotype A: 4, B: 5, C: 1, G: 4) and were predominant among patients with endocarditis, whereas alpha- or non-haemolytic strains grew in 12 cases (S. mitis: 4, S. constellatus: 2, E. faecalis: 2, S. bovis: 1, unspecified: 3) and were predominant in patients with a brain abscess...

  17. Macrolide resistance can be transferred by conjugation from viridans streptococci to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Maria; Swedberg, Göte

    2006-08-01

    Efflux pumps encoded by mef genes are among the most common mechanisms of resistance to macrolides. These genes are often located on horizontally transferable elements such as transposons. We present data indicating conjugative transfer of the mef(E) gene from viridans streptococci to the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. The mef(E) gene is located on the previously described MEGA (macrolide efflux genetic assembly) element. Of 110 isolates tested, 85% of those that carried the mef(A/E) gene carried it on MEGA, and in all cases of conjugal transfer of the mef(E) gene it was carried on MEGA. It therefore appears reasonable to draw the conclusion that this element is important in the lateral transfer of macrolide resistance between streptococci.

  18. Rapid identification of group D streptococci with the API 20S system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J H; Crawford, S A; Alexander, G A

    1983-06-01

    The API 20S system (Analytab Products) was evaluated as a means of identifying 209 isolates of Lancefield group D streptococci to the species level. Results were compared with those from a conventional tube biochemical identification system and from serological grouping. Use of the latest 20S computerized data base allowed species identification of 97% (203 of 209) of test isolates after a 4-h incubation period and 99% (208 of 209) of test isolates if supplemental overnight biochemical tests were used to clarify the identity of five Streptococcus bovis-variant isolates. The API 20S system appears to be a convenient and accurate method for rapid, same-day species identification of group D streptococci.

  19. Differences in SpeB protease activity among group A streptococci associated with superficial, invasive, and autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhphan T Ly

    Full Text Available The secreted cysteine proteinase SpeB is an important virulence factor of group A streptococci (GAS, whereby SpeB activity varies widely among strains. To establish the degree to which SpeB activity correlates with disease, GAS organisms were recovered from patients with pharyngitis, impetigo, invasive disease or acute rheumatic fever (ARF, and selected for analysis using rigorous sampling criteria; >300 GAS isolates were tested for SpeB activity by casein digestion assays, and each GAS isolate was scored as a SpeB-producer or non-producer. Highly significant statistical differences (p < 0.01 in SpeB production are observed between GAS recovered from patients with ARF (41.5% SpeB-non-producers compared to pharyngitis (20.5%, invasive disease (16.7%, and impetigo (5.5%. SpeB activity differences between pharyngitis and impetigo isolates are also significant, whereas pharyngitis versus invasive isolates show no significant difference. The disproportionately greater number of SpeB-non-producers among ARF-associated isolates may indicate an altered transcriptional program for many rheumatogenic strains and/or a protective role for SpeB in GAS-triggered autoimmunity.

  20. Validation of use of a traditional remedy from Bridelia grandis (Pierre ex Hutch) stem bark against oral Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueyem, T A; Brusotti, G; Marrubini, G; Grisoli, P; Dacarro, C; Vidari, G; Finzi, P Vita; Caccialanza, G

    2008-10-30

    Bridelia grandis (Pierre ex Hutch) (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Cameroon by pygmies Baka as a remedy for oral cavity affection. Bioassay-guided stem bark extracts were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial properties as well as their phytochemical constituents. The first extraction was carried out according to the traditional use. Further extractions were carried out with solvents of different polarity such as methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and mixtures of MeOH-H2O. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts against oral Streptococci was evaluated on the basis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by the macrodilution method; the bacterial surface hydrophobicity was also evaluated. Water, methanol and mixtures methanol-water extracts, exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC between 0.5 and 2mg/ml justifying the traditional use of Bridelia grandis stem bark for oral cavity affection. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed on the most active extract (methanol) using appropriate tests and well established analytical screening methods, such as TLC and RP-HPLC/DAD. The data obtained indicate that tannins constitute the chemical family responsible for the biological activity.

  1. Immunogenicity and prediction of epitopic region of antigen Ag I/II and glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi-Xi; Fan, Jian; Chen, Jiang; Li, Yu-Hong; Fan, Ming-Wen

    2016-06-01

    The levels of Streptococcus (S.) mutans infections in saliva were evaluated and a comparison for specific antibody levels among children with different levels of S. mutans infection was made. The promising epitopic regions of antigen AgI/II (PAc) and glucosyltransferase (GTF) for potential vaccine targets related to S. mutans adherence were screened. A total of 94 children aged 3-4 years were randomly selected, including 53 caries-negative and 41 caries-positive children. The values of S. mutans and those of salivary total secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), anti-PAc and anti-Glucan binding domain (anti-GLU) were compared to determine the correlation among them. It was found the level of s-IgA against specific antigens did not increase with increasing severity of S. mutans infection, and the complete amino acid sequence of PAc and GTFB was analyzed using the DNAStar Protean system for developing specific anti-caries vaccines related to S. mutans adherence. A significantly positive correlation between the amount of S. mutans and children decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was observed. No significant difference was detected in specific sIgA against PAc or GLU between any two groups. No significant correlation was found between such specific sIgA and caries index. A total of 16 peptides from PAc as well as 13 peptides from GTFB were chosen for further investigation. S. mutans colonization contributed to early children caries as an important etiological factor. The level of sIgA against specific antigens did not increase with increasing severity of S. mutans infection in children. The epitopes of PAc and GTF have been screened to develop the peptide-based or protein-based anti-caries vaccines.

  2. Rapid identification of group D streptococci with the API 20S system.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, J H; Crawford, S A; Alexander, G A

    1983-01-01

    The API 20S system (Analytab Products) was evaluated as a means of identifying 209 isolates of Lancefield group D streptococci to the species level. Results were compared with those from a conventional tube biochemical identification system and from serological grouping. Use of the latest 20S computerized data base allowed species identification of 97% (203 of 209) of test isolates after a 4-h incubation period and 99% (208 of 209) of test isolates if supplemental overnight biochemical tests ...

  3. Comparison of latex agglutination and immunofluorescence for direct Lancefield grouping of streptococci from blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Shlaes, D M; Toossi, Z; Patel, A

    1984-01-01

    Simulated positive blood cultures with 84 known stock strains of streptococci were used to comparatively evaluate the direct identification of these organisms by fluorescein-tagged antibody staining (immunofluorescence [IF]) and latex agglutination (LA). IF was not evaluated for Lancefield group D strains (a total of 81 strains tested) and had 89% sensitivity and 91% specificity. IF was least sensitive for the identification of Lancefield group F, in which three of seven strains showed no flu...

  4. Evaluation of Phadebact and Streptex Kits for rapid grouping of streptococci directly from blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Wellstood, S

    1982-01-01

    The Phadebact Streptococcus Test and the Streptex Test kits were evaluated for grouping streptococci directly from blood cultures. Pellets of bacteria obtained from centrifuged samples of positive blood cultures were inoculated into Todd-Hewitt broth for 2- and 4-h Phadebact tests and into pronase for Streptex tests. Hemolysis was determined after pipetting a portion of each pellet into cuts made in blood agar plates incubated anaerobically for 2 to 6 h. Serological groups were also determine...

  5. Structural investigation of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans strain UA159

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of an extracellular polysaccharide EPS159 produced from sucrose by Streptococcus mutans UA159 was investigated through the main oligosaccharides obtained from partial acid hydrolysis, monosaccharide/methylation analysis, and 1D/2D H-1 NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that EPS159

  6. Streptococcus mutans Competence-Stimulating Peptide Inhibits Candida albicans Hypha Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, Lucja M.; Deng, Dong Mei; van der Mei, Henny C.; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the

  7. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans to Antibacterial Effect from Mammea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Herrera Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of periodontal disease and dental caries is influenced by several factors, such as microorganisms of bacterial biofilm or commensal bacteria in the mouth. These microorganisms trigger inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Currently, medicinal plants are treatment options for these oral diseases. Mammea americana extracts have reported antimicrobial effects against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, this effect is unknown against oral bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of M. americana extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans. For this, an experimental study was conducted. Ethanolic extract was obtained from seeds of M. americana (one oil phase and one ethanolic phase. The strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were exposed to this extract to evaluate its antibacterial effect. Antibacterial activity was observed with the two phases of M. americana extract on P. gingivalis and S. mutans with lower MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration. Also, bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity was detected against S. mutans, depending on the concentration of the extract, while on M. americana extract presented only bacteriostatic activity against P. gingivalis. These findings provide important and promising information allowing for further exploration in the future.

  8. Anti-adherence and bactericidal activity of sphingolipids against Streptococcus mutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cukkemane, N.; Bikker, F.J.; Nazmi, K.; Brand, H.S.; Sotres, J.; Lindh, L.; Arnebrant, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-biofilm activity of sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), and sphinganine for: (i) anti-adherence activity on hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces; and (ii) bactericidal activity on different Streptococcus mutans phenotypes (i.e. planktonic cells and cells from a disrupted

  9. Antibacterial Effects of Natural Herbal Extracts on Streptococcus mutans: Can They Be Potential Additives in Dentifrices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoorthi Banavar Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many plants or herbs exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. They have no side effects and presumably act against and modulate the factors that are crucial for microbial survival or their activity. Streptococcus mutans is a pioneer bacteria implicated in dental caries. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of garlic bulbs, pudina leaves, and mango and eucalyptus twig extracts on Streptococcus mutans by evaluating their zone of inhibition and determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Methods. Microbiological assay (well diffusion method to determine zone of inhibition against pure forms of Streptococcus mutans was performed. The antibacterial effects of methanolic extracts of mango twigs, eucalyptus twigs, pudina leaves, and garlic bulbs were studied. Test compounds were further evaluated for their MIC. Results. Extracts derived from mango and eucalyptus twigs showed significant antibacterial effects at test concentrations. Pudina and garlic extracts did not show any significant antibacterial effects at similar concentrations. Upon further evaluation of the 2 positive compounds for their MIC, mango twigs demonstrated more antimicrobial potential than eucalyptus twigs at a lower concentration. Conclusion. Our observations indicated that the mango twig extracts possess higher antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans than other compounds at specific test concentration.

  10. Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, L.M.; Deng, D.M.; van der Mei, H.C.; Crielaard, W.; Krom, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the

  11. The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

  12. Prevalence of Streptococcus mutans with different colonial morphologies in human plaque and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilson, C G

    1983-02-01

    Plaque and saliva samples were obtained twice from 58 children at an interval of 1 year and examined for the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans on Mitis salivarius (MS) and Mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar. Two types of S. mutans colonies with different colonial morphologies were seen on both media. They were serologically identified as serotypes c/e/f and d/g respectively. The first type, morphogroup c/e/f, had the typical "frosted-glass" appearance. It was the most prevalent and was found in 97% of the children. The second type, morphogroup d/g, had a creamy marzipan consistency with a dull, granular surface, gray to brown in color and often with some liquid around or on top of the colony. Group d/g was detected in 21 children (36%) and then together with colonies of group c/e/f. Children infected with single or multiple morphogroups of S. mutans generally harbored the same groups 1 year later. There was a significant positive correlation between the proportion of S. mutans in plaque and their numbers in saliva.

  13. Effect of γ-lactones and γ-lactams compounds on Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Beatriz Sordi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering oral diseases, antibiofilm compounds can decrease the accumulation of pathogenic species such as Streptococcus mutans at micro-areas of teeth, dental restorations or implant-supported prostheses. Objective To assess the effect of thirteen different novel lactam-based compounds on the inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation. Material and methods We synthesized compounds based on γ-lactones analogues from rubrolides by a mucochloric acid process and converted them into their corresponding γ-hydroxy-γ-lactams by a reaction with isobutylamine and propylamine. Compounds concentrations ranging from 0.17 up to 87.5 μg mL-1 were tested against S. mutans. We diluted the exponential cultures in TSB and incubated them (37°C in the presence of different γ-lactones or γ-lactams dilutions. Afterwards, we measured the planktonic growth by optical density at 630 nm and therefore assessed the biofilm density by the crystal violet staining method. Results Twelve compounds were active against biofilm formation, showing no effect on bacterial viability. Only one compound was inactive against both planktonic and biofilm growth. The highest biofilm inhibition (inhibition rate above 60% was obtained for two compounds while three other compounds revealed an inhibition rate above 40%. Conclusions Twelve of the thirteen compounds revealed effective inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation, with eight of them showing a specific antibiofilm effect.

  14. Genome mining unveils widespread natural product biosynthetic capacity in human oral microbe Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwei; Hao, Tingting; Xie, Zhoujie; Horsman, Geoff P; Chen, Yihua

    2016-11-21

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen causing human dental caries. As a Gram-positive bacterium with a small genome (about 2 Mb) it is considered a poor source of natural products. Due to a recent explosion in genomic data available for S. mutans strains, we were motivated to explore the natural product production potential of this organism. Bioinformatic characterization of 169 publically available genomes of S. mutans from human dental caries revealed a surprisingly rich source of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. Anti-SMASH analysis identified one nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster, seven polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters and 136 hybrid PKS/NRPS gene clusters. In addition, 211 ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) clusters and 615 bacteriocin precursors were identified by a combined analysis using BAGEL and anti-SMASH. S. mutans harbors a rich and diverse natural product genetic capacity, which underscores the importance of probing the human microbiome and revisiting species that have traditionally been overlooked as "poor" sources of natural products.

  15. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent.

  16. Evolution of resistance to cationic biocides in Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Haruaki; Izutani, Naomi; Kitagawa, Ranna; Maezono, Hazuki; Yamaguchi, Mikiyo; Imazato, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis develop resistance to the cationic biocides chlorhexidine (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CHX, CPC, and MDPB were assessed after repeated exposure of S. mutans and E. faecalis to these biocides. Cell-surface hydrophobicity and protein expression profiles of bacterial cells were examined to elucidate possible resistance mechanisms. The MIC of CHX against E. faecalis showed constant increases up to 10 passages. No changes in the MICs of CPC and MDPB against E. faecalis were observed. The MICs of CHX, CPC, and MDPB against S. mutans did not increase. The surface hydrophobicity of E. faecalis significantly increased with increasing exposure to CHX and CPC. However, changes in protein expression profiles were only found in CHX-adapted E. faecalis, as evidenced by the emergence of a novel, approximately 19-kDa band following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. While E. faecalis and S. mutans did not exhibit increased resistance to CPC or MDPB, repeated exposure of E. faecalis to CHX led to resistance. It is likely that the acquisition of resistance is related to an altered protein composition. Alkyl pyridinium compounds, such as CPC and MDPB, could have a lower risk to cause adaptation of E. faecalis, which is advantageous compared with CHX. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers

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    Cínthia Pereira Machado Tabchoury

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11 presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

  18. The decreased of Streptococcus Mutans growth after topical application of phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste

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    Tika Faradina Araf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP paste is a topical application substance that consisted of a series of milk derivative peptide as a result of phosphorylation and has an antibacterial activity. The objective of this research was to find out the difference of Streptococcus mutans growth before and after CPP-ACP paste given topically to child's teeth. The method of the research was a quasi-experiment. Research samples were 10 students of MI Al Falah Islamic Boarding School, Jatinangor, West Jawa Indonesia and collected with purposive sampling technique. This research used dental plaque from child's teeth before and after applicated by CPP-ACP paste. The plaque was cultivated in selective media Tryptone Yeast Cysteine Sucrose Bacitracin (TYCSB with repeated twice. Streptococcus mutans colony in TYCSB were counted by Stuart colony counter and statistically analyzed based on paired t-test. The results showed the average of Streptococcus mutans growth before applicated CPP-ACP paste was 57.05, whereas after applicated CPP-ACP paste for 1 days was 9.4; for 3 days was 2.85, and for 14 days was 1.7 colony. The research concluded that there was a decrease of Streptococcus mutans growth in isolate plaque after CPP-ACP paste topically given to child's teeth.

  19. Comparison of SEM and VPSEM imaging techniques with respect to Streptococcus mutans biofilm topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kathryn; Delben, Juliana; Bromage, Timothy G; Duarte, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The study compared images of mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms captured at increasing magnification to determine which microscopy method is most acceptable for imaging the biofilm topography and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). In vitro S. mutans biofilms were imaged using (1) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which requires a dehydration process; (2) SEM and ruthenium red (SEM-RR), which has been shown to support the EPS of biofilms during the SEM dehydration; and (3) variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM), which does not require the intensive dehydration process of SEM. The dehydration process and high chamber vacuum of both SEM techniques devastated the biofilm EPS, removed supporting structures, and caused cracking on the biofilm surface. The VPSEM offered the most comprehensive representation of the S. mutans biofilm morphology. VPSEM provides similar contrast and focus as the SEM, but the procedure is far less time-consuming, and the use of hazardous chemicals associated with SEM dehydration protocol is avoided with the VPSEM. The inaccurate representations of the biofilm EPS in SEM experimentation is a possible source of inaccurate data and impediments in the study of S. mutans biofilms. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibacterial effect of clove (Eugenia aromaticum oil extracted from clove cigarettes towards Streptococcus mutans

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    Ahmad Alif Wazir bin Jumali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, particularly found in dental plaque attached to the tooth surface, and can also found in the saliva, buccal mucosa, tongue, and the gingival sulcus. Clove cigarette contains the clove oil used worldwide as a herbal remedy for a variety of health disorders due to its antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. The purpose of this study was to determined the antibacterial effect of the clove oil contained in the clove cigarette towards Streptococcus mutans as a cariogenic bacteria. The research was an experimental laboratory, which tested the sensitivity of the Streptococcus mutans bacteria taken from the saliva of 10 clove cigarette smokers towards the clove oil extract of the clove cigarette in-vitro by using the Kirby-Bauer method. The study showed that the clove oil extract of the clove cigarette which contained eugenol has antibacterial towards the growth of Streptococcus mutans, and there was a difference of the antibacterial activity between clove oil extracted from minced and combusted clove cigarette. The conclusion of this study was the clove oil extracted from minced clove cigarette had a better antibacterial effect than the combusted clove cigarette.

  1. Antibacterial activity of fluoride compounds and herbal toothpastes on Streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, J P; Seow, W K; Walsh, L J

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an important bacterial species implicated in dental caries. This laboratory study compared the antimicrobial activity of a number of fluoride containing and herbal dentifrices and their components against S. mutans. An agar diffusion method was used with Mueller-Hinton agar. Wells were filled with either 10 commercial fluoride or 6 herbal dentifrices, or with solutions of various fluoride compounds, sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium benzoate, chlorhexidine digluconate or triclosan. Diameters of zones of bacterial growth inhibition surrounding the wells were measured using a micrometer. Significant differences were found for growth inhibition between the 10 fluoridated dentifrices (p fluoride type or fluoride concentration. The antibacterial activities of the 6 herbal toothpastes varied, with Herbal Fresh being the strongest. Sodium lauryl sulphate showed strong antimicrobial activity against S. mutans at the levels used in dentifrices. Antimicrobial activity of commercial dentifrices against S. mutans may be exerted by components other than fluoride. Ingredients such as triclosan and sodium lauryl sulphate have larger antimicrobial effects than fluorides in this model. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Effect of Punica granatum on the virulence factors of cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulube, Zandiswa; Patel, Mrudula

    2016-09-01

    Dental caries is caused by acids produced by biofilm-forming Streptococcus mutans from fermentable carbohydrates and bacterial byproducts. Control of these bacteria is important in the prevention of dental caries. This study investigated the effect of the fruit peel of Punica granatum on biofilm formation, acid and extracellular polysaccharides production (EPS) by S. mutans. Pomegranate fruit peels crude extracts were prepared. The Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined against S. mutans. At 3 sub-bactericidal concentrations, the effect on the acid production, biofilm formation and EPS production was determined. The results were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests. The lowest MBC was 6.25 mg/mL. Punica granatum significantly inhibited acid production (p granatum killed cariogenic S. mutans at high concentrations. At sub-bactericidal concentrations, it reduced biofilm formation, acid and EPS production. This suggests that P. granatum extract has the potential to prevent dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

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    Arash Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20. Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  4. Antimicrobial Effect of Ginger, Garlic, Honey, and Lemon Extracts on Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Kiran; Anand, Swathy; Aravind, A; Dinatius, Praveen; Krishnan, Anandhu V; Mathai, Meera

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lemon, ginger, garlic, and honey extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Commercially obtained honey, ginger, garlic, and lemon were included in the study to evaluate its efficacy in isolation and in combination against S. mutans. The efficacies of extracts were tested using well diffusion method, and its effect was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition around the well. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out individually and compared considering triplicates of all the extracts. When individual comparison of the extracts was made, garlic showed greatest antimicrobial activity with a mean zone of inhibition (34.9 ± 0.58 mm) and honey showed least antimicrobial activity (0.5 ± 0.6 mm). When combinations of extracts were tested against S. mutans, lemon and garlic combination showed the greatest zone of inhibition (27.6 ± 0.43 mm) compared with other combinations, and ginger + lemon combinations showed the least zone of inhibition (12.6 ± 0.43 mm). This study concluded that garlic showed a greatest antimicrobial effect against S. mutans when compared with other preparations individually and garlic and lemon showed greatest zone of inhibition in combination than other preparations. Antibiotics and other chemical agents are mainly used to treat the common dental infections. However, due to the excessive use, it can result in antibiotic resistance. Hence, herbal medicines with medicinal values should be replaced with conventional methods.

  5. Influence of pH on inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chu, Lei; Wu, Fei; Guo, Lili; Li, Mengci; Wang, Yinghui; Wu, Ligeng

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is a novel strain of oral streptococcus that can specifically inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The aims of this study were to assess the growth of S. oligofermentans and the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans at different pH values. Growth inhibition was investigated in vitro using an interspecies competition assay. The 4-aminoantipyine method was used to measure the initial production rate and the total yield of hydrogen peroxide in S. oligofermentans. S. oligofermentans grew best at pH 7.0 and showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect when it was inoculated earlier than S. mutans. In terms of the total yield and the initial production rate of hydrogen peroxide by S. oligofermentans, the effects of the different culture pH values were as follows: pH 7.0 > 6.5 > 6.0 > 7.5 > 5.5 = 8.0 (i.e. there was no significant difference between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0). Environmental pH and the sequence of inoculation significantly affected the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit the growth of S. mutans. The degree of inhibition may be attributed to the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  6. Comparative erythromycin and tylosin susceptibility testing of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Kadlec, Kristina; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Tylosin, a 16-membered macrolide, is - besides other indications - used for the treatment of bovine mastitis. So far, there is only limited information available on the tylosin susceptibility of streptococci isolated from mastitis. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate 303 streptococci from bovine mastitis, including 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 102 Streptococcus uberis, for their tylosin and erythromycin susceptibility by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion. Both tests followed the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). For erythromycin, the results were interpreted using the CLSI-approved clinical breakpoints. Moreover, erythromycin-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of macrolide resistance genes and for inducible macrolide resistance. In general, both testing methods showed a good correlation for the three streptococcal species, although for the erythromycin susceptibility testing 11 S. uberis isolates fell into the very major error category. All but one of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored at least one macrolide resistance gene, with the erm(B) gene being most common. Moreover, single isolates of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae proved to be inducibly macrolide-resistant. Since inducible macrolide resistance can easily switch to constitutive resistance, tylosin should not be used for the treatment of infections caused by inducibly resistant streptococci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of rapid, commercial latex techniques for serogrouping beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J A; Seskin, K C

    1988-11-01

    The clinical need to rapidly and correctly differentiate beta-hemolytic streptococci into Lancefield groups has prompted the development of commercially available rapid agglutination techniques. A modified Streptex (Wellcome Diagnostics, Research Triangle Park, N.C.) technique and the PathoDx latex Strep Grouping Kit (Diagnostic Products Corporation, Los Angeles, Calif.) technique were applied to 220 strains of beta-hemolytic streptococci that were serologically grouped by standard techniques. Agreements between standard and modified Streptex and PathoDx techniques were 99.1 and 100%, respectively. Modified Streptex produced a false-negative for one group G isolate and a weak-positive reaction for a group G reagent with a nongroupable isolate. Sixty-five strains representative of bacteria that may be found in the posterior pharynx in concentrations high enough to cause potential reactions with antigen detection reagents were tested with Streptex and PathoDx reagents. No cross-reactions were observed with any reagent tested when challenged with these 65 strains. When combined with colonial morphology and hemolytic reaction, both modified Streptex and PathoDx were rapid, specific tests for identifying streptococci, with PathoDx being slightly faster.

  8. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of fecal streptococci for rapid assessment of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, M.T.; Beauvais, E.; Brezenski, F.T.; Litsky, W.

    1975-01-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF) techniques were employed in an attempt to develop a rapid test for the identification of fecal streptococci. Fresh isolates were obtained from river waters and raw sewage. Identification to species were made by the conventional physiological, biochemical, and serological tests. Both whole and disrupted cells of representative strains of each species were used for the preparation of the fecal streptococcal vaccine. Globulin fractions of individual and pooled antisera were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and the resulting conjugates were tested with homologous and heterologous antigens. The present findings suggest that the immunofluorescence techniques can be employed in the determination of the presence and source of fecal pollution in water employing the fecal streptococci as indicator organisms. By using this method it was determined that fecal streptococci can be identified from water and sewage samples within 20 hours. Parenthetically it should be noted that the identification procedures using the routine biochemical and serological tests may take as long as 7 to 14 days. The procedure may be automated for continual monitoring.

  9. NEW APPROACHES FOR THE LABORATORY RECOGNITION OF M TYPES OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotta, Jiri; Krause, Richard M.; Lancefield, Rebecca C.; Everly, William; Lackland, Henry

    1971-01-01

    The successful classification of Group A streptococci by the capillary precipitin technique requires a complete series of M type antisera which are sufficiently potent and specific to give unequivocal type-specific reactions with all the serotypes. Specific antisera for this purpose have been prepared by absorption with heterologous streptococci. Unabsorbed antisera have been employed here in the Ouchterlony double-diffusion agar-gel test to identify the M type of streptococci. Techniques have been developed for making this method of M typing fully reliable. The results reported here confirm and amplify the original findings of Michael and Massell (3). With crude HCl extracts and unabsorbed M type antisera, a precipitin line due to the M protein and another to the group-specific carbohydrate are the two major reactions observed. These reactions, however, are usually readily distinguishable. There was a surprising lack of cross-reactive precipitin lines due to non-type-specific protein antigens in the extracts. Although many of the unabsorbed M type antisera can be employed in the double-diffusion tests, the group-specific antibody must be removed from some of the unabsorbed antisera to avoid confusing cross-reactions. Absorption of these antibodies has been achieved by means of a specific immunoabsorbent column prepared from para-aminophenyl-β-N-acetylglucosamine and cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose. Excellent agreement was observed between the M typing results obtained on 117 field strains by the conventional capillary precipitin method and the Ouchterlony double-diffusion method. PMID:4106969

  10. Evaluation of the MicroScan MICroSTREP plus antimicrobial panel for testing β-hemolytic streptococci and viridans group streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ju; Uh, Young; Jang, In Ho; Lee, Kwan Soo; Park, Soon Deok; Yoon, Kap Jun

    2011-07-01

    In order to determine the clinical usefulness of the MicroScan (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA) MICroSTREP plus antimicrobial panel (MICroSTREP) for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of β-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) and viridans group streptococci (VGS), we compared the accuracy of MICroSTREP with that of the CLSI reference method. Seventy-five BHS and 59 VGS isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin, cefotaxime, meropenem, erythromycin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and vancomycin by using MICroSTREP and the CLSI agar dilution method. The overall essential agreement with regard to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (within ±1 double dilution) between MICroSTREP and the CLSI reference method was 98.2%, and categorical agreement (CA) was 96.9%. For the BHS isolates, the CA for erythromycin was 96.0%, whereas that for cefotaxime, meropenem, levofloxacin, and vancomycin (for ampicillin, penicillin, and clindamycin; 98.7%) was 100%. For the VGS isolates, the CA for penicillin was 84.7% and that for erythromycin, clindamycin, and vancomycin (for meropenem, 86.5%; for ampicillin, 88.1%; and for cefotaxime and levofloxacin, 96.6%) was 100%. All categorical errors of penicillin and ampicillin in the VGS isolates were minor. The accuracy of MICroSTREP is comparable to that of the CLSI reference method, suggesting that this panel can be effective for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of BHS and VGS.

  11. In-situ, time-lapse study of extracellular polymeric substance discharge in Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yu, Li-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus mutans is one of the main pathogens that cause tooth decay. By metabolizing carbohydrates, S. mutans emits extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that adheres to the tooth surface and forms layers of biofilm. Periodontal disease occurs due to the low pH environment created by S. mutans biofilm, and such an acidic environment gradually erodes tooth enamel. Since the existence of EPS is essential in the formation of biofilm, the in-situ investigation of its generation and distribution in real time is the key to the control and suppression of S. mutans biofilm. Prior studies of the biofilm formation process by fluorescence microscope, scanning electron microscope, or spectroscope have roughly divided the mechanism into three stages: (1) initial attachment; (2) microcolonies; and (3) maturation. However, these analytical methods are incapable to observe real-time changes in different locations of the extracellular matrix, and to analyze mechanical properties for single bacteria in micro and nanoscale. Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) operates by precise control of tip-sample interaction forces in liquid and in air, living microorganisms can be analyzed under near-physiological conditions. Thus, analytical techniques based on AFM constitute powerful tools for the study of biological samples, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this study, we used AFM to quantitatively track the changes of multiple nanomechanical properties of S. mutans, including dissipation energy, adhesion force, deformation, and elastic modulus at different metabolic stages. The data revealed that the bacterial extracellular matrix has a gradient distribution in stickiness, in which different stickiness indicates the variation of EPS compositions, freshness, and metabolic stages. In-situ, time-lapse AFM images showed the local generation and distribution of EPS at different times, in which the highest adhesion distributed along sides of the S. mutans cells. Through time

  12. Differences of Streptococcus mutans adhesion between artificial mouth systems: a dinamic and static methods

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    Aryan Morita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various materials have been used for treating dental caries. Dental caries is a disease that attacks hard tissues of the teeth. The initial phase of caries is a formation of bacterial biofilm, called as dental plaque. Dental restorative materials are expected for preventing secondary caries formation initiated by dental plaque. Initial bacterial adhesion is assumed to be an important stage of dental plaque formation. Bacteria that recognize the receptor for binding to the pellicle on tooth surface are known as initial bacterial colonies. One of the bacteria that plays a role in the early stage of dental plaque formation is Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Artificial mouth system (AMS used in bacterial biofilm research on the oral cavity provides the real condition of oral cavity and continous and intermittent supply of nutrients for bacteria. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the profile of S. mutans bacterial adhesion as the primary etiologic agent for dental caries between using static method and using artificial mouth system, a dinamic. method (AMS. Method: The study was conducted at Faculty of Dentistry and Integrated Research and testing laboratory (LPPT in Universitas Gadjah Mada from April to August 2015. Composite resin was used as the subject of this research. Twelve composite resins with a diameter of 5 mm and a width of 2 mm were divided into two groups, namely group using static method and group using dynamic method. Static method was performed by submerging the samples into a 100µl suspension of 1.5 x 108 CFU/ml S. mutans and 200µl BHI broth. Meanwhile AMS method was carried out by placing the samples at the AMS tube drained with 20 drops/minute of bacterial suspension and sterile aquadest. After 72 hours, five samples from each group were calculated for their biofilm mass using 1% crystal violet and read by a spectrofotometer with a wavelength of 570 nm. Meanwhile, one sample from each group was taken for its

  13. The effect of CPP-ACP containing fluoride on Streptococcus mutans adhesion and enamel roughness

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    Yulita Kristanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Direct contact between the bleaching agent and the enamel surface results in demineralization, alteration in surface roughness and bacterial adhesion. Many studies try to minimize this side effect through different way. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determined the effect of Calcium Phospho Peptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP containing fluoride application before and after bleaching procedure on the adhesion of S. Mutans and enamel roughness. Methods: The samples were 6 teeth which were divided into 4 groups, and each tooth was cut into four pieces. Group A and C were treated with CPP-ACP after bleaching, while group B and D were treated with CPP-ACP before and after bleaching. CPP-ACP used in group C and D was the one that contain fluoride. After treatment, all samples were sterilized, immersed in steril human saliva for one hour, then immersed into S. mutans suspension of 108 CFU. Samples were incubated overnight. On the next day the samples were put into steril BHI and vortexed for one minute to detach the bacteria. Fifteen ml BHI containing bacteria was poured into TYS agar then incubated 37°Cfor 48 hours. Bacterial colony was counted with colony counter. The SEM examination was done on all samples. Results: Application of desensitizing agent reduced the S.mutans adhesion significantly among groups (p<0.05 except between group A and C. SEM evaluation revealed significant differences among groups. Conclusion: The application of CPP-ACP containing fluoride before and after bleaching was effective to reduce the accumulation of S.mutans colony and enamel roughness.Latar belakang: Kontak langsung antara bahan bleaching dan permukaan enamel menyebabkan demineralisasi, perubahan kekasaran permukaan dan berpengaruh terhadap banyaknya bakteri Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans yang melekat. Banyak peneliti mencoba meminimalkan efek samping ini dengan cara yang beragam. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti efek

  14. Antimicrobial proteins of Snail mucus (Achatina fulica against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

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    Herluinus Mafranenda DN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achasin and mytimacin-AF are proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica which have antimicrobial activity. Snail mucus is suspected to have other proteins which have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the oral pathologic bacteria. Purpose: The study were aimed to characterize the proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica that have antimicrobial activities to Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and to compared the antimicrobial effect of achasin and mytimacin-AF. Methods: The sample of study was the mucus of snails which were taken from Yogyakarta Province. The isolation and characterization of protein were conducted by using SDS-PAGE method, electroelution, and dialysis. Nano drop test was conducted to determine protein concentration. The sensitivity test was conducted by using dilution test, and followed by spectrophotometry and paper disc diffusion tests. Results: The study showed that proteins successfully characterized from snail mucus (Achatina fulica were proteins with molecular weights of 83.67 kDa (achasin, 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa (full amino acid sequence of mytimacin-AF and 9.7 kDa (mytimacin-AF. Based on the dilution test, Achasin had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. But the paper disc diffusion test result showed that Achasin had antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, while mytimacin-AF had no antimicrobial activities. Conclusion: The proteins with molecular weights of 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa were considered as new antimicrobial proteins isolated from snail mucus. Achasin, had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

  15. Binding of 18F by cell membranes and cell walls of Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotis, W.W.; Zeb, M.; McNulty, J.; Kirchner, F.; Reilly, C.; Glendenin, L.

    1983-01-01

    The binding of 18 F to isolated cell membranes and cell walls of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 or other bacteria was assayed. The attachment of 18 F to these cell envelopes proceeded slowly and reached equilibrium within 60 min. 18 F binding was stimulated by Ca 2+ (1 mM). The binding of 18 F to cellular components was dependent upon the pH, as well as the amount of 18 F and dose of the binder employed. The binding of 18 F by cell walls prepared from fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-resistant cells of S. salivarius and S. mutans did not differ significantly. The pretreatment of cell walls or cell membranes for 60 min at 30 degrees C with 1 mg of RNase, DNase, or trypsin per ml did not influence the binding of 18 F by the walls and membranes of S. mutans GS-5. However, prior exposure of cell membranes to sodium dodecyl sulfate caused a significant reduction in the number of 18 F atoms bound by the membranes. In saturated assay systems, cell membranes of S. mutans GS-5 bound 10(15) to 10(16) atoms of 18 F per mg (dry weight), whereas cell walls from S. mutans GS-5, FA-1, and HS-6 or Actinomyces viscosus T14V and T14AV bound 10(12) to 10(13) atoms of 18 F per mg (dry weight). 18 F in this quantity (10(12) to 10(13) atoms) cannot be detected with the fluoride electrode. The data provide, for the first time, a demonstration of 18 F binding by cell membranes and walls of oral flora

  16. Ultrastructural damage in Streptococcus mutans incubated with saliva and histatin 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Presas, A M; Márquez Torres, Y; García González, R; Reyes Torres, A; Becker Fauser, I; Rodríguez Barrera, H; Ruíz García, B; Toloza Medina, R; Delgado Domínguez, J; Molinarí Soriano, J L

    2018-03-01

    To study the ultrastructural alterations induced in Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) incubated with saliva, saliva plus histatin 5 and histatin 5. S. mutans incubated with saliva histatin 5 or a combination of both were morphologically analyzed and counted. The results were expressed as (CFU)ml -1 . Ultrastructural damage was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural localization of histatin 5 was examined using immunogold labeling. Apoptotic cell death was determined by flow cytometry (TUNEL). A decrease in the bacteria numbers was observed after incubation with saliva, saliva with histatin 5 or histatin 5 compared to the control group (p<0.0001). Ultrastructural damage in S. mutans incubated with saliva was found in the cell wall. Saliva plus histatin 5 induced a cytoplasmic granular pattern and decreased the distance between the plasma membrane bilayers, also found after incubation with histatin 5, together with pyknotic nucleoids. Histatin 5 was localized on the bacterial cell walls, plasma membranes, cytoplasm and nucleoids. Apoptosis was found in the bacteria incubated with saliva (63.9%), saliva plus histatin 5 (71.4%) and histatin 5 (29.3%). Apoptosis in the control bacteria was 0.2%. Antibacterial activity against S. mutans and the morphological description of damage induced by saliva and histatin 5 was demonstrated. Pyknotic nucleoids observed in S. mutans exposed to saliva, saliva plus histatin 5 and histatin 5 could be an apoptosis-like death mechanism. The knowledge of the damage generated by histatin 5 and its intracellular localization could favor the design of an ideal peptide as a therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans colonization in patients wearing dental prosthesis.

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    Baena-Monroy, Tania; Moreno-Maldonado, Víctor; Franco-Martínez, Fernando; Aldape-Barrios, Beatriz; Quindós, Guillermo; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    2005-04-01

    Denture stomatitis is associated to Candida albicans, different bacteria and other co-factors such as an acid pH, a carbohydrate ingestion increase, different systemic illnesses and pharmacological treatments. The aim of this study was to determine Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans prevalence in the mucous membrane and prosthesis of patients with and without atrophic denture stomatitis and its relationship with other potential clinical co-factors. Saliva was collected from 105 patients (62 female and 43 male) wearing dental prosthesis in order to measure their pH. Oral samples of the mucous membrane and the internal surface of dental prosthesis were taken with sterile cotton to proceed with the microbiological study. The identification of the isolated microorganisms was performed using conventional microbiological methods. Diabetes and Hypertension were the most frequent systemic illnesses. High carbohydrate ingestion was observed in numerous patients. Atrophic denture stomatitis was reported in 50 patients and the pH average in saliva was of 5.2. The presence of C albicans, S. aureus and S. mutans in the mucous membrane and prosthesis was of 51.4%, 52.4% and 67.6%, respectively. C. albicans was isolated in 66.7% from the prosthesis, whereas S. aureus and S. mutans were isolated in 49.5% of those same prosthesis. C. albicans was isolated in 86% of the patients with atrophic denture stomatitis and S. aureus was isolated in a similar percentage (84% of patients). The isolation of S. mutans was less frequent, and it was observed in 16% of the oral samples of these patients. C. albicans, S. aureus and S. mutans frequently colonize the oral mucous of patients wearing dental prosthesis. This illness-bearing condition is more frequent in patients with denture stomatitis, even though dental prosthesis colonization is lower than in the oral mucous.

  18. Identification and functional analysis of an ammonium transporter in Streptococcus mutans.

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    Arifah Chieko Ardin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive bacterium, is considered to be a major etiologic agent of human dental caries and reported to form biofilms known as dental plaque on tooth surfaces. This organism is also known to possess a large number of transport proteins in the cell membrane for export and import of molecules. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for Gram-positive bacteria, though alternative sources such as ammonium can also be utilized. In order to obtain nitrogen for macromolecular synthesis, nitrogen-containing compounds must be transported into the cell. However, the ammonium transporter in S. mutans remains to be characterized. The present study focused on characterizing the ammonium transporter gene of S. mutans and its operon, while related regulatory genes were also analyzed. The SMU.1658 gene corresponding to nrgA in S. mutans is homologous to the ammonium transporter gene in Bacillus subtilis and SMU.1657, located upstream of the nrgA gene and predicted to be glnB, is a member of the PII protein family. Using a nrgA-deficient mutant strain (NRGD, we examined bacterial growth in the presence of ammonium, calcium chloride, and manganese sulfate. Fluorescent efflux assays were also performed to reveal export molecules associated with the ammonium transporter. The growth rate of NRGD was lower, while its fluorescent intensity was much higher as compared to the parental strain. In addition, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the structure of biofilms formed by NRGD was drastically different than that of the parental strain. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis showed that the nrgA gene was co-transcribed with the glnB gene. These results suggest that the nrgA gene in S. mutans is essential for export of molecules and biofilm formation.

  19. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

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    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans.

  20. Comparative effects of photodynamic therapy mediated by curcumin on standard and clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans.

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    Tonon, Caroline C; Paschoal, Marco Aurélio; Correia, Marilia; Spolidório, Denise M P; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; Giusti, Juçaíra S M; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using curcumin (C) as a photosensitizing agent irradiated with an LED (L) in the blue wavelength as a light source on a standard and clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in a planktonic suspension model. Suspensions of both strains were divided into 4 groups as follows: absence of C and L (control group: C-L-), with C and without L (C group: C+L-), absence of C with L (L group: C-L+) and presence of C and L (PDT group: C+L+). Three different concentrations of curcumin (0.75 mg/ml, 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml) and three light fluences of studied light source (24, 48 and 72 J cm(-2)) were tested. Aliquots of each studied group was plated in BHI agar and submitted to colony forming units counting (CFU/ml) and the data transformed into logarithmical scale. A high photoinactivation rate of more than 70% was verified to standard S. mutans strain submitted to PDT whereas the clinical isolate showed a lower sensitivity to all the associations of curcumin and LED. A slight bacterial reduction was verified to C+L- and C-L+, demonstrating no toxic effects to the isolated application of light and photosensitizer to both S. mutans strains tested. Photodynamic therapy using a combination of curcumin and blue LED presented a substantial antimicrobial effect on S. mutans standard strain in a planktonic suspension model with a less pronounced effect on its clinical isolate counterparts due to resistance to this alternative approach. Alternative antimicrobial approaches, as photodynamic therapy, should be encouraged due to optimal results against cariogenic bacteria aiming to prevent or treat dental caries.

  1. Contribution of chloride channel permease to fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans.

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    Murata, Takatoshi; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Genes encoding fluoride transporters have been identified in bacterial and archaeal species. The genome sequence of the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans bacteria suggests the presence of a putative fluoride transporter, which is referred to as a chloride channel permease. Two homologues of this gene (GenBank locus tags SMU_1290c and SMU_1289c) reside in tandem in the genome of S. mutans The aim of this study was to determine whether the chloride channel permeases contribute to fluoride resistance. We constructed SMU_1290c- and SMU_1289c-knockout S. mutans UA159 strains. We also constructed a double-knockout strain lacking both genes. SMU_1290c or SMU_1289c was transformed into a fluoride transporter- disrupted Escherichia coli strain. All bacterial strains were cultured under appropriate conditions with or without sodium fluoride, and fluoride resistance was evaluated. All three gene-knockout S. mutans strains showed lower resistance to sodium fluoride than did the wild-type strain. No significant changes in resistance to other sodium halides were recognized between the wild-type and double-knockout strains. Both SMU_1290c and SMU_1289c transformation rescued fluoride transporter-disrupted E. coli cell from fluoride toxicity. We conclude that the chloride channel permeases contribute to fluoride resistance in S. mutans. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to Fiber-Reinforced Filling Composite and Conventional Restorative Materials

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    Lassila, Lippo V.J; Garoushi, Sufyan; Tanner, Johanna; Vallittu, Pekka K; Söderling, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to investigate the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to a short glass fibers reinforced semi-IPN polymer matrix composite resin. The effect of surface roughness on adhesion was also studied. For comparison, different commercial restorative materials were also evaluated. Materials and Methods. Experimental composite FC resin was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers, 22.5 wt% of IPN-resin and 55 wt% of silane treated silica fillers using high speed mixing machine. Three direct composite resins (Z250, Grandio and Nulite), resin-modified glass ionomers (Fuji II LC), amalgam (ANA 2000), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) (everStick and Ribbond), and pre-fabricated ceramic filling insert (Cerana class 1) were tested in this study. Enamel and dentin were used as controls. The specimens (n=3/group) with or without saliva were incubated in a suspension of S. mutans allowing initial adhesion to occur. For the enumeration of cells on the disc surfaces as colony forming units (CFU) the vials with the microbe samples were thoroughly Vortex-treated and after serial dilutions grown anaerobically for 2 days at +37°C on Mitis salivarius agars (Difco) containing bacitracin. Bacterial adhesion was also evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness (Ra) of the materials was also determined using a surface profilometer. All results were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results. Composite FC resin and other commercial restorative materials showed similar adhesion of S. mutans, while adhesion to dentin and enamel was significantly higher (p<0.05). Surface roughness had no effect on bacterial adhesion. Saliva coating significantly decreased the adhesion for all materials (p<0.05). Composite FC resin had a significantly higher Ra value than control groups (p<0.05). Conclusions. Short fiber-reinforced composite with semi-IPN polymer matrix revealed similar S. mutans adhesion than

  3. PERBANDINGAN PERTUMBUHAN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS INA99 PADA BERBAGAI MEDIA PERBENIHAN PADAT

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    Yayuk Yuliarsi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous study shows that tryptone-yeast extract-cystine-sucrose is choice of the culture media for isolating and growing S. mutans serotype C, but the effectiveness in stepping up the recovery growth of the bacteria has never been compared with that of the blood agar added to yeast extract and sucrose. This study was come to find out the growth of S. mutans serotype-c with blood agar-yest extract-sucrose, S. mutans INA99 serotype-c is identified, sliced, and cultured into blood agar-yeast extract-sucrose, brucella agar blood-yeast extract sucrose, blood agar and tryptone-yeast extract-cystine-sucrose, each 4 slices. The average amount of blood agar colonies that grows after an incubation of 2x24 hours in an anaerob conditionof 37 C, diluted by 40 time is 4.890. In blood agar-yeast extract-sucrose, the average colony is 145.600, diluted 1.600 time. In brucella agar blood-yeast extract-sucrose, the average colony is 103.50, diluted 40 times. In tryptone-yeast extract-cystine-sucrose the average colony is 2.430, diluted 40 times. Statistical result shows that, there are significant difference (p=0.000 between the total colonies of S. mutans INA99 serotype c which grows on the different types of culture media. The largest amount of colony is present on blood agar-yeast extract-sucrose, the followed by brucella agar blood-yeast extract-sucrose, blood agar and tryptone-yeast extract-cystine-sucrose. Conclusion : blood agar which added yeast extract and sucrose is the best culture media for S. mutans INA99 serotype c growth.

  4. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on composite resins containing ursolic acid

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    Kim, Soohyeon; Song, Minju; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Park, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid (UA)-containing composites on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm. Materials and Methods Composite resins with five different concentrations (0.04, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) of UA (U6753, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared, and their flexural strengths were measured according to ISO 4049. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate source on biofilm formation, either glucose or sucrose was used as a nutrient source, and to investigate the effect of saliva treatment, the specimen were treated with either unstimulated whole saliva or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For biofilm assay, composite disks were transferred to S. mutans suspension and incubated for 24 hr. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed with PBS and sonicated. The colony forming units (CFU) of the disrupted biofilm cultures were enumerated. For growth inhibition test, the composites were placed on a polystyrene well cluster, and S. mutans suspension was inoculated. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was recorded by Infinite F200 pro apparatus (TECAN). One-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction were used for the data analyses. Results The flexural strength values did not show significant difference at any concentration (p > 0.01). In biofilm assay, the CFU score decreased as the concentration of UA increased. The influence of saliva pretreatment was conflicting. The sucrose groups exhibited higher CFU score than glucose group (p composite showed inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and growth. PMID:23741708

  5. Inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans and mechanical properties of the chitosan containing composite resin

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    Ji-Sun Kim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the antibacterial effect and mechanical properties of composite resins (LCR, MCR, HCR incorporating chitosan with three different molecular weights (L, Low; M, Medium; H, High. Materials and Methods Streptococcus (S. mutans 100 mL and each chitosan powder were inoculated in sterilized 10 mL Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI solution, and was centrifuged for 12 hr. Absorbance of the supernatent was measured at OD660 to estimate the antibacterial activities of chitosan. After S. mutans was inoculated in the disc shaped chitosan-containing composite resins, the disc was cleansed with BHI and diluted with serial dilution method. S. mutans was spread on Mitis-salivarius bacitracin agar. After then, colony forming unit (CFU was measured to verify the inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm. To ascertain the effect on the mechanical properties of composite resin, 3-point bending and Vickers hardness tests were done after 1 and 3 wk water storage, respectively. Using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Scheffe test, statistical analysis was done with 95% significance level. Results All chitosan powder showed inhibition effect against S. mutans. CFU number in chitosan-containing composite resins was smaller than that of control resin without chitosan. The chitosan containing composite resins did not show any significant difference in flexural strength and Vickers hardness in comparison with the control resin. However, the composite resin, MCR showed a slightly decreased flexural strength and the maximum load than those of control and the other composite resins HCR and LCR. Conclusions LCR and HCR would be recommended as a feasible antibacterial restorative due to its antibacterial nature and mechanical properties.

  6. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

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    Shahin Kasraei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30. The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683 and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643 were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37℃ for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05. The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus.

  7. Genetic adaptation of Streptococcus mutans during biofilm formation on different types of surfaces

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    Aharoni Reuven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesion and successful colonization of bacteria onto solid surfaces play a key role in biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and the colonization of bacteria may differ between the various types of surfaces found in oral cavity. Therefore, it is conceivable that diverse biofilms are developed on those various surfaces. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular modifications occurring during in vitro biofilm development of Streptococcus mutans UA159 on several different dental surfaces. Results Growth analysis of the immobilized bacterial populations generated on the different surfaces shows that the bacteria constructed a more confluent and thick biofilms on a hydroxyapatite surface compared to the other tested surfaces. Using DNA-microarray technology we identified the differentially expressed genes of S. mutans, reflecting the physiological state of biofilms formed on the different biomaterials tested. Eight selected genes were further analyzed by real time RT-PCR. To further determine the impact of the tested material surfaces on the physiology of the bacteria, we tested the secretion of AI-2 signal by S. mutans embedded on those biofilms. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicated on changes in the S. mutans genome in biofilms formed onto different types of surfaces and enabled us to identify genes most differentially expressed on those surfaces. In addition, the levels of autoinducer-2 in biofilms from the various tested surfaces were different. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that gene expression of S. mutans differs in biofilms formed on tested surfaces, which manifest the physiological state of bacteria influenced by the type of surface material they accumulate onto. Moreover, the stressful circumstances of adjustment to the surface may persist in the bacteria enhancing intercellular signaling and surface dependent biofilm formation.

  8. Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose.

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    Decker, Eva-Maria; Klein, Christian; Schwindt, Dimitri; von Ohle, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown under different dietary conditions by using multifaceted methodological approaches to gain deeper insight into the cariogenic impact of carbohydrates. S. mutans biofilms were generated during a period of 24 h in the following media: Schaedler broth as a control medium containing endogenous glucose, Schaedler broth with an additional 5% sucrose, and Schaedler broth supplemented with 1% xylitol. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based analyses of the microbial vitality, respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, CTC) and production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were performed separately in the inner, middle and outer biofilm layers. In addition to the microbiological sample testing, the glucose/sucrose consumption of the biofilm bacteria was quantified, and the expression of glucosyltransferases and other biofilm-associated genes was investigated. Xylitol exposure did not inhibit the viability of S. mutans biofilms, as monitored by the following experimental parameters: culture growth, vitality, CTC activity and EPS production. However, xylitol exposure caused a difference in gene expression compared to the control. GtfC was upregulated only in the presence of xylitol. Under xylitol exposure, gtfB was upregulated by a factor of 6, while under sucrose exposure, it was upregulated by a factor of three. Compared with glucose and xylitol, sucrose increased cell vitality in all biofilm layers. In all nutrient media, the intrinsic glucose was almost completely consumed by the cells of the S. mutans biofilm within 24 h. After 24 h of biofilm formation, the multiparametric measurements showed that xylitol in the presence of glucose caused predominantly genotypic differences but did not induce metabolic differences compared to the control. Thus, the availability of dietary carbohydrates in either a pure or combined form seems to affect the

  9. In vitro bacterial plaque suppression and recolonization by S. mutans and S. sobrinus Supressão e recolonização de placa bacteriana por S. mutans e S. sobrinus in vitro

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    Cássio Vicente Pereira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro study of the interactions between S. mutans and S. sobrinus is important to determine the role of these microorganisms in the formation of biofilms on dental structures and their potential to induce carious lesions. The objective of this research was to study the suppression of bacterial plaque formation and its recolonization by rifampycin-resistant S.mutans and streptomycin-resistant S. sobrinus. To study the competitive relationship between these species, previously standardized strains were incubated in media containing different fermentable carbohydrates. At determined time intervals, samples were collected from mixed cultures of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, diluted and plated on BHI-agar containing rifampycin or streptomycin to determine the number of viable cells of each species by counting colony-forming units. In order to study the bacterial colonization process and in vitro recolonization of bacterial plaque, three experiments were performed: I - co-cultivation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus; II - inoculation of bacterial plaque pre formed by S. sobrinus with S. mutans; and III - bacterial plaque pre formed by S. mutans dispersed and plated on BHI- agar containing streptomycin or rifampicin to determine the number of viable cells for each species. The results indicated a predominance of S. mutans in relation to S. sobrinus, demonstrating the capacity of S. mutans to inhibit plaque formation by S. sobrinus and recolonize the surfaces.O estudo in vitro das interações entre S. mutans e S. sobrinus pode ser importante na determinação do papel desses microrganismos na formação de biofilmes nas estruturas dentais e seu potencial em induzir lesões cariosas. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi estudar a supressão da formação da placa dental e sua recolonização por S. mutans rifampicina-resistentes e S. sobrinus estreptomicina-resistentes in vitro. Para avaliar as relações de competitividade entre essas espécies, cepas

  10. A carbohydrate pulse experiment to demonstrate the sugar metabolization by S. mutans

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    T.P. Paulino

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a fast growing organism, of low cost and easily prepared culture medium. It has been  related  primarily to  an  elevated risk  of dental cavity development  in the host due  to the  acid-induced tooth demineralization. To prevent this disease, addition of fluoride can be required, promoting the mouth  hygiene. The  main  objective  of  this  experiment  is  to  show  the  influence  of  the  carbon  source  and fluoride on the acidogenic capacity of S.  mutans. The strain was cultivated in microaerophilia, at 37ºC for 12  hours  in  complete  medium  (stationary  phase.  The  cells  were  harvested  by  centrifugation  at  room temperature,  washed  with  saline  solution  and  suspended  in  the  same  solution.  The  absorbance  was adjusted  to  1  and  the  pH  to  7.3  using  0,1  mol/L  KOH  solution.  To  10  mL  of  the  cell  suspension,  distinct carbohydrates  (glucose,  xilose,  sucrose,  fructose  or  maltose  were  added,  enough  to  establish  a  50 mMol/L final concentration. Fluoride was added (1 mmol/L final concentration and the pH was monitored during  2 hours. In this  incubation  period,  the  suspension  was  kept  at  room  temperature  with  slow  stirring and  the  pH  was  monitored  each  7  minutes.  In  the  20  initial  minutes  of  incubation  with  glucose,  fructose, maltose  and  sucrose,  an  intense  and  very  similar  pH  decrease  (2.5  units  can  be  observed.  This acidification reflects both the sugar uptake and anaerobic metabolization. After this initial acid liberation, a phase of slow pH decrease is observed, continuing up to 120 minutes of incubation. In presence of xilose, the  acidification  is  less  intense  and  reaches  a  similar  value  to  that  of  the  control  without

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of serological group C streptococci isolated from diseased pigs and monkeys in Indonesia.

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    Soedarmanto, I; Pasaribu, F H; Wibawan, I W; Lämmler, C

    1996-01-01

    The present study was designed to comparatively investigate 34 beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from infected pigs and monkeys from various islands in Indonesia. According to the serological and biochemical data, all 34 isolates were Lancefield's serological group C streptococci and could be identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Of the 34 group C streptococci investigated, 28 grew on solid media in large, mucoid colonies, in fluid media at a uniform turbidity, and in soft agar in diffuse colonies. A decapsulation test with a hyaluronidase-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain revealed the hyaluronic acid nature of the capsular material. The remaining six streptococci grew on solid media in small, nonmucoid colonies, in fluid media as sediment with clear supernatant, and in soft agar in compact colonies. Determination of surface hydrophobicity by salt aggregation revealed a hydrophilic surface for the encapsulated bacteria and a hydrophobic surface for the unencapsulated group C streptococci. To further analyze the epidemiological relationships, all 34 mucoid and nonmucoid isolates from pigs and monkeys were subjected to protein and DNA fingerprinting. The latter was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The protein profiles of all 34 isolates and the DNA profiles of 32 isolates appeared to be identical, with the DNA profiles of 2 isolates being closely related, indicating that a single virulent clone is responsible for this disease outbreak in Indonesia. PMID:8862585

  12. Evolutionary relationships among salivarius streptococci as inferred from multilocus phylogenies based on 16S rRNA-encoding, recA, secA, and secY gene sequences

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    Boissinot Maurice

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococci are divided into six phylogenetic groups, i.e, anginosus, bovis, mitis, mutans, pyogenic, and salivarius, with the salivarius group consisting of only three distinct species. Two of these species, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus vestibularis, are members of the normal human oral microflora whereas the third, Streptococcus thermophil