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Sample records for established malignant glioma

  1. Temozolomide in malignant glioma

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    Gregor Dresemann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gregor DresemannCenter for Neurooncology at Aerztehaus Velen, Velen, GermanyAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme WHO grade IV (GBM is the most aggressive ­malignant glioma and the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. The median ­survival of newly diagnosed GBM patients was between 9 to 12 months prior to treatment with ­temozolomide being introduced. Primary resection that is as complete as possible is recommended for malignant glioma. Conventional fractionated irradiation 55 to 60 gy with concomitant temozolomide followed by standard temozolomide 6 cycles (5/28 (EORTC/NCIC-regime published by R Stupp in 2005 is the standard of care for newly diagnosed GBM after surgery, independent of the methylation status of the MGM-T gene promoter. Age is no ­contraindication for treatment with temozolomide, although comorbidity and performance status have to be ­considered. For temozolomide naive GBM and astrocytoma grade III patients with disease progression, temozolomide is still the treatment of choice outside of clinical studies. A ­general consensus regarding the schedule of choice has not yet been achieved; so far the 5 out of 28 days regimen (5/28 is the standard of care in most countries. Patients with disease progression after standard temozolomide (5/28 are candidates for clinical studies. Outside of clinical ­studies, dose-dense (7/7, prolonged (21/28, or metronomic (28/28 temozolomide, or alternatively a nitrosourea-based regimen can be an option. The excellent toxicity profile of ­temozolomide allows for various combinations with antitumor agents. None of these ­combinations, however, have been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior compared to temozolomide alone. The role of lower dosed, dose-dense, or continuous regimen with or without drug combination and the role of temozolomide for newly diagnosed astrocytoma grade III and low grade glioma still has to be determined.Keywords: glioblastoma

  2. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

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    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  3. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

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    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  4. Adult high-grade malignant gliomas

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    Fable Zustovich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS malignant gliomas are relatively rare diseases. Prognosis is poor but has improved over recent years due to the improvement in the multi-disciplinary treatment: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy...

  5. Possible novel therapy for malignant gliomas with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

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    Moonsup Jeong

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite intensive clinical investigation and many novel therapeutic approaches, average survival for the patients with malignant gliomas is only about 1 year. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL has shown potent and cancer-selective killing activity and drawn considerable attention as a promising therapy for cancers, but concerns over delivery and toxicity have limited progress. We have developed a secretable trimeric TRAIL (stTRAIL and here evaluated the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy in brain tumors. An adenovirus (Ad-stTRAIL delivering stTRAIL was injected into intra-cranial human glioma tumors established in nude mice and tumor growth monitored using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy showed potent tumor suppressor activity with no toxic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. When compared with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a conventional therapy for malignant gliomas, Ad-stTRAIL suppressed tumor growth more potently. The combination of Ad-stTRAIL and BCNU significantly increased survival compared to the control mice or mice receiving Ad-stTRAIL alone. Our data indicate that Ad-stTRAIL, either alone or combined with BCNU, has promise as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.

  6. Malignant glioma after bombshell injury.

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    Troost, D; Tulleken, C A

    1984-01-01

    A case of post-traumatic glioma is presented. The patient, wounded in the head in World War II by a bombshell, developed symptoms of an intracranial tumor in 1982. Histopathologically the tumor was an astrocytoma grade III. The tumor was in direct continuity with an old abscess membrane.

  7. CURRENT APPROACHES TO CHEMORADIOTHERAPY FOR MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

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    Ye. L. Choinzonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-grade malignant gliomas (WHO grade G III–IV account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. Despite aggressive treatment, survival rates are still very low with a median reported survival of no more than 1.5 years.Radiation therapy is an integral part of the combined treatment, but often does not influence lethally on resistant tumor cells. Thereby, in recent decades there has been an active search for novel approaches to the treatment of malignant gliomas (chemotherapeutic drugs, biological modifiers, local hyperthermia. Experimental data showed that the effect of high temperatures has both a direct damaging effect on tumor cells and a sensitizing effect. Significant advantages are achieved when the complex treatment of different malignant tumorsincludes local hyperthermia. However data on the treatment of patients with primary and recurrent gliomas G III–IV using local hyperthermia are scarce.The literature review is given in the article provides an overview of the existing treatment methods for brain tumors.

  8. Experimental immunotherapy for malignant glioma: lessons from two decades of research in the GL261 model.

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    Maes, Wim; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2011-02-01

    Nearly twenty years of experimental immunotherapy for malignant glioma yielded important insights in the mechanisms governing glioma immunology. Still considered promising, it is clear that immunotherapy does not on its own represent the magic bullet in glioma therapy. In this review, we summarize the major immunotherapeutic achievements in the mouse GL261 glioma model, which has emerged as the gold standard syngeneic model for experimental glioma therapy. Gene therapy, monoclonal antibody treatment, cytokine therapy, cell transfer strategies and dendritic cell therapy were hereby considered. Apart from the considerable progress made in understanding glioma immunology in this model, we also addressed its most pertinent issues and shortcomings. Despite these, the GL261 model will remain indispensable in glioma research since it is a fast, highly reproducible and easy-to-establish model system.

  9. SCCRO Promotes Glioma Formation and Malignant Progression in Mice

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    Stephen R. Broderick

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Originally identified as an oncogene activated by amplification in squamous cell carcinomas, several lines of evidence now suggest that squamous cell carcinoma-related oncogene (SCCRO; aka DCUN1D1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human cancers including gliomas. SCCRO's oncogenic function is substantiated by its ectopic expression, resulting in transformation of cells in culture and xenograft formation in nude mice. The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo oncogenicity of SCCRO in a murine model. Ubiquitous expression of SCCRO resulted in early embryonic lethality. Because SCCRO overexpression was detected in human gliomas, its in vivo oncogenic activity was assessed in an established murine glioma model. Conditional expression of SCCRO using a replication-competent ASLV long terminal repeat with splice acceptor/nestin-(tumor virus-A tv-a model system was not sufficient to induce tumor formation in a wild-type genetic background, but tumors formed with increasing frequency and decreasing latency in facilitated background containing Ink4a deletion alone or in combination with PTEN loss. Ectopic expression of SCCRO in glial progenitor cells resulted in lower-grade gliomas in Ink4a-/- mice, whereas its expression in Ink4a-/-/PTEN-/- background produced high-grade glioblastoma-like lesions that were indistinguishable from human tumors. Expression of SCCRO with platelet-derived growth factor-beta (PDGF-β resulted in an increased proportion of mice forming glioblastoma-like tumors compared with those induced by PDGF-β alone. This work substantiates SCCRO's function as an oncogene by showing its ability to facilitate malignant transformation and carcinogenic progression in vivo and supports a role for SCCRO in the pathogenesis of gliomas and other human cancers.

  10. Malignant clinical features of anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation.

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    Shibahara, Ichiyo; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Shoji, Takuhiro; Kanamori, Masayuki; Saito, Ryuta; Inoue, Tomoo; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yoji; Watanabe, Takashi; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Mika; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas does not always correspond to its clinical outcome because of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene status. Anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation result in a poor prognosis, similar to grade IV glioblastomas. However, the malignant features of anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine anaplastic gliomas, in particular those without IDH mutation, with regard to their malignant features, recurrence patterns, and association with glioma stem cells. We retrospectively analyzed 86 cases of WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas. Data regarding patient characteristics, recurrence pattern, and prognosis were obtained from medical records. We examined molecular alterations such as IDH mutation, 1p19q loss, TP53 mutation, MGMT promoter methylation, Ki67 labeling index, and CD133, SOX2, and NESTIN expression. Of the 86 patients with anaplastic gliomas, 58 carried IDH mutation, and 40 experienced recurrence. The first recurrence was local in 25 patients and distant in 15. Patients without IDH mutation exhibited significantly higher CD133 and SOX2 expression (P = .025 and .020, respectively) and more frequent distant recurrence than those with IDH mutation (P = .022). Patients with anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation experienced distant recurrence and exhibited glioma stem cell markers, indicating that this subset may share some malignant characteristics with glioblastomas. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Fluorescence-Guided Resection of Malignant Glioma with 5-ALA

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    Sadahiro Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are extremely difficult to treat with no specific curative treatment. On the other hand, photodynamic medicine represents a promising technique for neurosurgeons in the treatment of malignant glioma. The resection rate of malignant glioma has increased from 40% to 80% owing to 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD. Furthermore, ALA is very useful because it has no serious complications. Based on previous research, it is apparent that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX accumulates abundantly in malignant glioma tissues after ALA administration. Moreover, it is evident that the mechanism underlying PpIX accumulation in malignant glioma tissues involves an abnormality in porphyrin-heme metabolism, specifically decreased ferrochelatase enzyme activity. During resection surgery, the macroscopic fluorescence of PpIX to the naked eye is more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging, and the alert real time spectrum of PpIX is the most sensitive method. In the future, chemotherapy with new anticancer agents, immunotherapy, and new methods of radiotherapy and gene therapy will be developed; however, ALA will play a key role in malignant glioma treatment before the development of these new treatments. In this paper, we provide an overview and present the results of our clinical research on ALA-PDD.

  12. Treating malignant glioma in Chinese patients: update on temozolomide

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    Chang L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Liang Chang,1 Jun Su,1 Xiuzhi Jia,2,3 Huan Ren2,3 1Department of Neurosurgery, The Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 2Department of Immunology, Harbin Medical University, 3Key Lab Infection and Immunity, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, People's Republic of China Abstract: Malignant glioma, ie, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma, is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor in the People's Republic of China, and is particularly aggressive. The median survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is only 12–14 months despite advanced therapeutic strategies. Treatment of malignant glioma consists mainly of surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ, a second-generation oral alkylating agent, is playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Since the publication of a study by Stupp et al in 2005, which used a protocol of conventional fractionated irradiation with concomitant TMZ followed by standard TMZ for six cycles, many clinical studies in the People's Republic of China have demonstrated that such a treatment strategy has significantly improved efficacy with limited side effects for newly diagnosed glioblastoma after surgery as compared with strategies that do not contain TMZ. However, as a relatively new agent, the history and development of TMZ for malignant glioma is not well documented in Chinese patients. Multicenter, randomized controlled trials including appropriately sized patient populations investigating multiple aspects of TMZ therapy and related combination therapies are warranted in patients with malignant glioma. This review provides an update on the efficacy, mechanism of action, adverse reactions, and clinical role of TMZ in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Keywords: malignant glioma, chemotherapy, temozolomide, efficacy, side effect, People's Republic of China

  13. Current and Future Gene Therapy for Malignant Gliomas

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    Kanzawa Takao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common neoplasm in the central nervous system. When treated with conventional treatments including surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy, the average life expectancy of the most malignant type, glioblastoma multiforme is usually less than 1 year. Therefore, gene therapy is expected to be an effective and possibly curative treatment. Many gene therapeutic approaches have demonstrated efficacy in experimental animal models. However, the current clinical trials are disappointing. This review focuses on current therapeutic genes/vectors/delivery systems/targeting strategies in order to introduce updated trends and hopefully indicate prospective gene therapy for malignant gliomas.

  14. Immunotherapy Approaches for Malignant Glioma From 2007 to 2009

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    Sampson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a deadly disease for which there have been few therapeutic advances over the past century. Although previous treatments were largely unsuccessful, glioma may be an ideal target for immune-based therapy. Recently, translational research led to several clinical trials based on tumor immunotherapy to treat patients with malignant glioma. Here we review 17 recent glioma immunotherapy clinical trials, published over the past 3 years. Various approaches were used, including passive transfer of naked and radiolabeled antibodies, tumor antigen-specific peptide immunization, and the use of patient tumor cells with or without dendritic cells as vaccines. We compare and discuss the current state of the art of clinical immunotherapy treatment, as well as its limited successes, pitfalls, and future potential. PMID:20424975

  15. Pokemon expression in malignant glioma: an application of bioinformatics methods.

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    Rovin, Richard A; Winn, Robert

    2005-10-15

    In this report the authors review the role of bioinformatics in the design of a research project in which the molecular genetics of malignant glioma were studied. A project to characterize Pokemon expression in malignant glioma was developed, refined, and implemented using bioinformatics methods. Using the resources available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence for Pokemon was determined. With this information and online primer design tools, novel primers were designed that would specifically amplify Pokemon mRNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. The promise of bioinformatics is in the rapid and widespread dissemination and analysis of genomic information. This information is then used in research investigating the genetic basis of disease. In this paper the authors review the bioinformatics methods used in their study of Pokemon expression in malignant glioma.

  16. EXPLORING THE ANTITUMOR EFFECT OF VIRUS IN MALIGNANT GLIOMA.

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    Saha, Dipongkor; Ahmed, Seemin S; Rabkin, Samuel D

    Malignant gliomas are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor with no effective treatments. Current conventional therapies (surgical resection, radiation therapy, temozolomide (TMZ), and bevacizumab administration) typically fail to eradicate the tumors resulting in the recurrence of treatment-resistant tumors. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to improve therapeutic outcomes. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are excellent candidates as a more effective therapeutic strategy for aggressive cancers like malignant gliomas since OVs have a natural preference or have been genetically engineered to selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells. OVs have been used in numerous preclinical studies in malignant glioma, and a large number of clinical trials using OVs have been completed or are underway that have demonstrated safety, as well as provided indications of effective antiglioma activity. In this review, we will focus on those OVs that have been used in clinical trials for the treatment of malignant gliomas (herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, parvovirus, reovirus, poliovirus, Newcastle disease virus, measles virus, and retrovirus) and OVs examined preclinically (vesicular stomatitis virus and myxoma virus), and describe how these agents are being used.

  17. Modeling of Malignant Glioma and Investigations into Novel Treatments

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    R.K. Balvers (Rutger)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract With the advent of personalized medicine and large omics-based profiling studies into multiple diseases, new opportunities rise for the treatment of Malignant Glioma. This primary brain tumor remains unvariantly fatal and therefore urgently requires novel treatment

  18. Myxoma virus infection promotes NK lysis of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo.

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    Ogbomo, Henry; Zemp, Franz J; Lun, Xueqing; Zhang, Jiqing; Stack, Danuta; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant; Mody, Christopher H; Forsyth, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a well-established oncolytic agent against different types of tumors. MYXV is also known for its immunomodulatory properties in down-regulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I surface expression (via the M153R gene product, a viral E3-ubiquitin ligase) and suppressing T cell killing of infected target cells. MHC I down-regulation, however, favors NK cell activation. Brain tumors including gliomas are characterized by high MHC I expression with impaired NK activity. We thus hypothesized that MYXV infection of glioma cells will promote NK cell-mediated recognition and killing of gliomas. We infected human gliomas with MYXV and evaluated their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. MYXV enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of glioma cells (U87 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 51.73% vs. 28.63%, P = .0001, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 40.4% vs. 20.03%, P .0007, t test). Using MYXV M153R targeted knockout (designated vMyx-M153KO) to infect gliomas, we demonstrate that M153R was responsible for reduced expression of MHC I on gliomas and enhanced NK cell-mediated antiglioma activity (U87 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 51.73% vs. 25.17%, P = .0002, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 40.4% vs. 19.27, P = .0013, t test). Consequently, NK cell-mediated lysis of established human glioma tumors in CB-17 SCID mice was accelerated with improved mouse survival (log-rank P = .0072). These results demonstrate the potential for combining MYXV with NK cells to effectively kill malignant gliomas.

  19. Myxoma virus infection promotes NK lysis of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo.

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    Henry Ogbomo

    Full Text Available Myxoma virus (MYXV is a well-established oncolytic agent against different types of tumors. MYXV is also known for its immunomodulatory properties in down-regulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC I surface expression (via the M153R gene product, a viral E3-ubiquitin ligase and suppressing T cell killing of infected target cells. MHC I down-regulation, however, favors NK cell activation. Brain tumors including gliomas are characterized by high MHC I expression with impaired NK activity. We thus hypothesized that MYXV infection of glioma cells will promote NK cell-mediated recognition and killing of gliomas. We infected human gliomas with MYXV and evaluated their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. MYXV enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of glioma cells (U87 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 51.73% vs. 28.63%, P = .0001, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 40.4% vs. 20.03%, P .0007, t test. Using MYXV M153R targeted knockout (designated vMyx-M153KO to infect gliomas, we demonstrate that M153R was responsible for reduced expression of MHC I on gliomas and enhanced NK cell-mediated antiglioma activity (U87 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 51.73% vs. 25.17%, P = .0002, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 40.4% vs. 19.27, P = .0013, t test. Consequently, NK cell-mediated lysis of established human glioma tumors in CB-17 SCID mice was accelerated with improved mouse survival (log-rank P = .0072. These results demonstrate the potential for combining MYXV with NK cells to effectively kill malignant gliomas.

  20. Convection-enhanced Delivery of Therapeutics for Malignant Gliomas.

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    Saito, Ryuta; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-01-15

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) circumvents the blood-brain barrier by delivering agents directly into the tumor and surrounding parenchyma. CED can achieve large volumes of distribution by continuous positive-pressure infusion. Although promising as an effective drug delivery method in concept, the administration of therapeutic agents via CED is not without challenges. Limitations of distribution remain a problem in large brains, such as those of humans. Accurate and consistent delivery of an agent is another challenge associated with CED. Similar to the difficulties caused by immunosuppressive environments associated with gliomas, there are several mechanisms that make effective local drug distribution difficult in malignant gliomas. In this review, methods for local drug application targeting gliomas are discussed with special emphasis on CED. Although early clinical trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of CED against gliomas, CED potentially can be a platform for translating the molecular understanding of glioblastomas achieved in the laboratory into effective clinical treatments. Several clinical studies using CED of chemotherapeutic agents are ongoing. Successful delivery of effective agents should prove the efficacy of CED in the near future.

  1. Establishment and maintenance of a standardized glioma tissue bank: Huashan experience.

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    Aibaidula, Abudumijiti; Lu, Jun-feng; Wu, Jin-song; Zou, He-jian; Chen, Hong; Wang, Yu-qian; Qin, Zhi-yong; Yao, Yu; Gong, Ye; Che, Xiao-ming; Zhong, Ping; Li, Shi-qi; Bao, Wei-min; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2015-06-01

    Cerebral glioma is the most common brain tumor as well as one of the top ten malignant tumors in human beings. In spite of the great progress on chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as the surgery strategies during the past decades, the mortality and morbidity are still high. One of the major challenges is to explore the pathogenesis and invasion of glioma at various "omics" levels (such as proteomics or genomics) and the clinical implications of biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis or treatment of glioma patients. Establishment of a standardized tissue bank with high quality biospecimens annotated with clinical information is pivotal to the solution of these questions as well as the drug development process and translational research on glioma. Therefore, based on previous experience of tissue banks, standardized protocols for sample collection and storage were developed. We also developed two systems for glioma patient and sample management, a local database for medical records and a local image database for medical images. For future set-up of a regional biobank network in Shanghai, we also founded a centralized database for medical records. Hence we established a standardized glioma tissue bank with sufficient clinical data and medical images in Huashan Hospital. By September, 2013, tissues samples from 1,326 cases were collected. Histological diagnosis revealed that 73 % were astrocytic tumors, 17 % were oligodendroglial tumors, 2 % were oligoastrocytic tumors, 4 % were ependymal tumors and 4 % were other central nervous system neoplasms.

  2. Targeted therapy in the treatment of malignant gliomas

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    Rimas V Lukas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Rimas V Lukas1, Adrienne Boire2, M Kelly Nicholas1,2 1Department of Neurology; 2Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas are invasive tumors with the potential to progress through current available therapies. These tumors are characterized by a number of abnormalities in molecular signaling that play roles in tumorigenesis, spread, and survival. These pathways are being actively investigated in both the pre-clinical and clinical settings as potential targets in the treatment of malignant gliomas. We will review many of the therapies that target the cancer cell, including the epidermal growth factor receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin, histone deacetylase, and farnesyl transferase. In addition, we will discuss strategies that target the extracellular matrix in which these cells reside as well as angiogenesis, a process emerging as central to tumor development and growth. Finally, we will briefly touch on the role of neural stem cells as both potential targets as well as delivery vectors for other therapies. Interdependence between these varied pathways, both in maintaining health and in causing disease, is clear. Thus, attempts to easily classify some targeted therapies are problematic.Keywords: glioma, EGFR, mTOR, HDAC, Ras, angiogenesis

  3. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of malignant glioma.

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    Woolf, Eric C; Scheck, Adrienne C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of glioma biology has led to an increase in targeted therapies in preclinical and clinical trials; however, cellular heterogeneity often precludes the targeted molecules from being found on all glioma cells, thus reducing the efficacy of these treatments. In contrast, one trait shared by virtually all tumor cells is altered (dysregulated) metabolism. Tumor cells have an increased reliance on glucose, suggesting that treatments affecting cellular metabolism may be an effective method to improve current therapies. Indeed, metabolism has been a focus of cancer research in the last few years, as many pathways long associated with tumor growth have been found to intersect metabolic pathways in the cell. The ketogenic diet (high fat, low carbohydrate and protein), caloric restriction, and fasting all cause a metabolic change, specifically, a reduction in blood glucose and an increase in blood ketones. We, and others, have demonstrated that these metabolic changes improve survival in animal models of malignant gliomas and can potentiate the anti-tumor effect of chemotherapies and radiation treatment. In this review we discuss the use of metabolic alteration for the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Overexpression of NIMA-related kinase 2 is associated with poor prognoses in malignant glioma.

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    Liu, Huajie; Liu, Bin; Hou, Xianzeng; Pang, Bo; Guo, Pengbo; Jiang, Wanli; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Xin, Tao; Guo, Hua; Xu, Shangchen; Pang, Qi

    2017-05-01

    Eleated expression of NIMA-related kinase 2 (NEK2) was frequently observed in a variety of malignant cancers, and it appears to be involved in the initiation, maintenance, progression, metastasis of cancer and is positively associated with poor prognosis. We sought to investigate NEK2 expression and its predictive roles in malignant gliomas, and study the correlation of NEK2 protein expression with proliferation, clinical parameters, overall survival and some other parameters. We investigate NEK2 protein expression in 99 samples of malignant gliomas, including 35 WHO grade II, 22 grade III, and 42 grade IV gliomas, by immunohistochemistry and western blot (n = 50). We then made correlative analysis of protein overexpression using the Kaplan-Meier method, Log rank test, and Cox proportional-hazards model analysis. NEK2 protein was overexpressed in malignant gliomas, but not in normal brain tissues. Overexpression of NEK2 correlated with malignancy, proliferation and adverse overall survival in gliomas. Moreover, chemotherapy, resection extent and WHO grade also correlate with overall survival in gliomas. However, within WHO grade II glioma subgroup, NEK2 overexpression showed no impact on overall survival. The present study firstly reveals that NEK2 protein is widely overexpressed in gliomas. NEK2 overexpression correlates significantly with malignancy (WHO grades), proliferation (Ki-67) and prognosis in malignant gliomas. NEK2 is a potential gene therapy target and prognostic indicator.

  5. Correlation of tumor topography and peritumoral edema of recurrent malignant gliomas with therapeutic response to intranasal administration of perillyl alcohol.

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    Da Fonseca, Clovis O; Silva, Julio Thome; Lins, Igor Rodrigo; Simão, Marcela; Arnobio, Adriano; Futuro, Débora; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a correlation of tumor topography and peritumoral brain edema with the therapeutic response to intranasal administration of perillyl alcohol (POH) in a cohort of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. The retrospective study reviewed clinical and neuroradiological data from patients with recurrent malignant gliomas who received intranasal daily administration of POH 440 mg. The following parameters were assessed: demographic characteristics, initial symptoms, overall survival, tumor topography and tumor size, presence of midline shift and extent of peritumoral edema. Statistical analysis was carried out with log rank tests and overall survival as assessed by Kaplan-Meier method including 95% confidence intervals. A cohort of 67 patients included 52 (78%) with glioblastoma (GBM), ten (15%) with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and five (7%) with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO). Accordingly to tumor topography lobar localization was present in all (5/5) AO; eight (8/10) and 41 GBM patients whereas in the basal ganglia two AA and 11 GBM patients. It was also observed a relation between the tumor size and area of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE). Patients with good therapeutic response showed reduction of tumor size and PTBE area, but poor prognosis was associated with lack of response to treatment and persistence of high PTBE. Patients with tumor in the basal ganglia survived significantly longer than those with lobar gliomas (log rank test, p = 0.0003). Presence of midline shift (>1 cm) was a statistically significant risk factor for shorter survival (log rank test, p = 0.0062) This study suggests that: (1) patients with recurrent gliomas with localization in the basal ganglia survive significantly longer than those with tumors at lobar localization; (2) presence of PTBE contributes to symptoms, likely to be implicated in the morbidity and invading potential of malignant gliomas. These findings support the theory that interaction

  6. Spontaneous immune responses against glioma-associated antigens in a long term survivor with malignant glioma

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    Fujita Mitsugu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with high grade glioma, little is known regarding existence of naturally occurring adaptive T cell reactivity against glioma-associated antigens (GAAs. In this report, we characterized GAA-specific CD8+ T cells and innate immune cells in a patient who has survived with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA for over 12 years without recurrence. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from the long term survivor with AA were evaluated for the frequency, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity and differentiation status of CD8+ cells recognizing GAA-derived epitopes as well as relative numbers of other immune cell subsets. This patient's AA tissue was evaluated for expression of two GAAs EphA2 and interleukin-13 receptor α2 subunit (IL-13Rα2 by immunohistochemistry. Results The patient's tumor expressed both EphA2 and IL-13Rα2, and in vitro stimulated PBMC demonstrated superior EphA2883–891 and IL-13Rα2345–353-specific CTL reactivity compared to PBMC samples from two other patients with progressing malignant glioma. Unstimulated EphA2883–891-reactive CD8+ T cells contained high numbers of CD45RA-/CCR7- late effector and CD45RA-/CCR7+ central memory cells. Among other leukocyte subsets, elevated numbers of NK-T cells were found. Conclusion To our knowledge, the current study is one of the first demonstrating the presence of antigen-experienced, GAA-reactive CD8+ T cells in a patient who has survived with AA for over 12 years without recurrence. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the status of GAA-reactive CD8+ T cells dictates survival of patients and/or response to therapeutic vaccines.

  7. Current update of adoptive immunotherapy using cytokine-induced killer cells to eliminate malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Je Il; Han, Myung Hoon; Cheong, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Choong Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The therapeutic outcome for those with malignant glioma is poor, even though diverse therapeutic modalities have been developed. Immunotherapy has emerged as a therapeutic approach for malignant gliomas, making it possible to selectively treat tumors while sparing normal tissue. Here, we review clinical trials of adoptive immunotherapy approaches for malignant gliomas. We also describe a clinical trial that examined the efficacy and safety of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells along with concomitant chemoradiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. These CIK cells identify and kill autologous tumor cells. This review focuses on the use of adoptive immunotherapy for malignant gliomas and reviews the current literature on the concept of antitumor activity mediated by CIK cells.

  8. The Role of Fascin in the Migration and Invasiveness of Malignant Glioma Cells

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    Jeong Hyun Hwang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain tumor, and its ability to invade the surrounding brain parenchyma is a leading cause of tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Whereas the molecular mechanisms of glioma invasion are incompletely understood, there is growing evidence that cytoskeletal-matrix interactions contribute to this process. Fascin, an actin-bundling protein, induces parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and increases cell motility in multiple human malignancies. The role of fascin in glioma invasion remains unclear. We demonstrate that fascin is expressed in a panel of human malignant glioma cell lines, and downregulation of fascin expression in glioma cell lines by small interfering RNA (siRNA is associated with decreased cellular attachment to extracellular matrix (ECM and reduced migration. Using immunofluorescence analysis, we show that fascin depletion results in a reduced number of filopodia as well as altered glioma cell shape. In vitro invasiveness of U251, U87, and SNB19 glioma cells was inhibited by fascin siRNA treatment by 52.2%, 40.3%, and 23.8% respectively. Finally, we show a decreased invasiveness of U251-GFP cells by fascin knockdown in an ex vivo rat brain slice model system. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for fascin in glioma cell morphology, motility, and invasiveness.

  9. A mathematical model describes the malignant transformation of low grade gliomas: Prognostic implications.

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    Magdalena U Bogdańska

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumours. Low grade gliomas (LGGs, WHO grade II gliomas may grow very slowly for the long periods of time, however they inevitably cause death due to the phenomenon known as the malignant transformation. This refers to the transition of LGGs to more aggressive forms of high grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO grade III and IV gliomas. In this paper we propose a mathematical model describing the spatio-temporal transition of LGGs into HGGs. Our modelling approach is based on two cellular populations with transitions between them being driven by the tumour microenvironment transformation occurring when the tumour cell density grows beyond a critical level. We show that the proposed model describes real patient data well. We discuss the relationship between patient prognosis and model parameters. We approximate tumour radius and velocity before malignant transformation as well as estimate the onset of this process.

  10. Genetically Engineered Multilineage-Differentiating Stress-Enduring Cells as Cellular Vehicles against Malignant Gliomas

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    Tomohiro Yamasaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma, the most common malignant brain tumor in adults, is difficult to treat due to its aggressive invasive nature. Enzyme/prodrug suicide gene therapy based on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV system is an efficient strategy for treating malignant gliomas. In the present study, we evaluated treatment with multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse cells, which are endogenous non-tumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells that are easily collectable from the bone marrow as SSEA-3+ cells, as carriers of the HSVtk gene. Human Muse cells showed potent migratory activity toward glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. HSVtk gene-transduced Muse cells (Muse-tk cells at a cell number of only 1/32 that of U87 human glioma cells completely eradicated U87 gliomas in nude mouse brains, showing a robust in vivo bystander effect. Pre-existing intracranial U87 gliomas in nude mouse brains injected intratumorally with Muse-tk cells followed by intraperitoneal GCV administration were significantly reduced in size within 2 weeks, and 4 of 10 treated mice survived over 200 days. These findings suggest that intratumoral Muse-tk cell injection followed by systemic GCV administration is safe and effective and that allogeneic Muse-tk cell-medicated suicide gene therapy for malignant glioma is clinically feasible.

  11. Therapeutic Strategy for Targeting Aggressive Malignant Gliomas by Disrupting Their Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed M; Yamada, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Kohno, Susumu; Ueno, Masaya; Ali, Mohamed A E; Ohta, Kumiko; Tadokoro, Yuko; Ino, Yasushi; Todo, Tomoki; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Takahashi, Chiaki; Hirao, Atsushi

    2016-10-07

    Although abnormal metabolic regulation is a critical determinant of cancer cell behavior, it is still unclear how an altered balance between ATP production and consumption contributes to malignancy. Here we show that disruption of this energy balance efficiently suppresses aggressive malignant gliomas driven by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) hyperactivation. In a mouse glioma model, mTORC1 hyperactivation induced by conditional Tsc1 deletion increased numbers of glioma-initiating cells (GICs) in vitro and in vivo Metabolic analysis revealed that mTORC1 hyperactivation enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by elevations in oxygen consumption rate and ATP production. Inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthetase was more effective in repressing sphere formation by Tsc1-deficient glioma cells than that by Tsc1-competent glioma cells, indicating a crucial function for mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity in GIC expansion. To translate this observation into the development of novel therapeutics targeting malignant gliomas, we screened drug libraries for small molecule compounds showing greater efficacy in inhibiting the proliferation/survival of Tsc1-deficient cells compared with controls. We identified several compounds able to preferentially inhibit mitochondrial activity, dramatically reducing ATP levels and blocking glioma sphere formation. In human patient-derived glioma cells, nigericin, which reportedly suppresses cancer stem cell properties, induced AMPK phosphorylation that was associated with mTORC1 inactivation and induction of autophagy and led to a marked decrease in sphere formation with loss of GIC marker expression. Furthermore, malignant characteristics of human glioma cells were markedly suppressed by nigericin treatment in vivo Thus, targeting mTORC1-driven processes, particularly those involved in maintaining a cancer cell's energy balance, may be an effective therapeutic strategy for glioma patients. © 2016 by The American

  12. Outcome of patients with malignant glioma and synchronous or metachronous non-central nervous system primary neoplasms.

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    Hamza, Mohamed A; Kamiya-Matsuoka, Carlos; Liu, Diane; Yuan, Ying; Puduvalli, Vinay K

    2016-02-01

    Patients with malignant glioma who are also diagnosed with one or more primary neoplasms of other organs present a unique challenge in both determining prognosis and clinical management. The overlapping impact of the malignancies and their treatment result in confounding variables that may adversely affect optimal management of such patients. Additionally, the glioma-related characteristics and survival outcome of these patients is not well-defined. In this retrospective chart and data review from our longitudinal database, we identified patients with malignant glioma including anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma, diagnosed between January 2005 and June 2011, who were also diagnosed with other non-CNS primary neoplasms. Patients with known genetic syndromes were excluded. The data was analyzed to determine the clinical characteristics and glioma-related survival. A total of 204 patients with malignant glioma (165 glioblastoma and 39 anaplastic glioma) were identified. There was no significant difference in the overall survival or progression-free survival between patients with malignant glioma plus non-CNS primary neoplasm when compared with patients with malignant glioma only. In patients with glioblastoma and non-CNS malignancy, the duration between diagnosis of glioblastoma and non-CNS neoplasms did not significantly alter glioma-related survival. Patients with malignant glioma who were diagnosed with other non-CNS malignancy have survival outcome comparable to those with malignant glioma only. The duration between diagnosis of glioblastoma and diagnosis of non-CNS neoplasms did not affect survival. Further prospective studies specifically addressing survival and molecular characteristics of patients with malignant glioma plus non-CNS cancers are recommended.

  13. Specific Inhibition of SRC Kinase Impairs Malignant Glioma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Hanna Stedt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma is a severe cancer with a poor prognosis. Local occurrence and rare metastases of malignant glioma make it a suitable target for gene therapy. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of Src kinase in different cancers. However, these studies have focused mainly on Src-deficient mice or pharmacological inhibitors of Src. In this study we have used Src small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs in a lentiviral backbone to mimic a long-term stable treatment and determined the role of Src in tumor tissues. Efficacy of Src shRNAs was confirmed in vitro demonstrating up to 90% target gene inhibition. In a mouse malignant glioma model, Src shRNA tumors were almost 50-fold smaller in comparison to control tumors and had significantly reduced vascularity. In a syngenic rat intracranial glioma model, Src shRNA-transduced tumors were smaller and these rats had a survival benefit over the control rats. In vivo treatment was enhanced by chemotherapy and histone deacetylase inhibition. Our results emphasise the importance of Src in tumorigenesis and demonstrate that it can be efficiently inhibited in vitro and in vivo in two independent malignant glioma models. In conclusion, Src is a potential target for RNA interference-mediated treatment of malignant glioma.

  14. Proteomic Cluster Analysis of Malignant Gliomas in Humans

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    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gliomas are the most frequently observed primary brain tumors. These tumors comprise a variety of different histological tumor types and malignancy grades. Oligodendrogliomas typically contain a rich network of branching capillaries. Approximately 50%-80% of oligodendrogliomas demonstrate a combined loss of chromosomes 1p and 19q. Oligodendrogliomas differ from neurocytomas in that they show a diffusely infiltrating pattern of spread that precludes surgical cure. Methods: We evaluated extracted proteins from tumors and normal brain tissues for protein purity by the Bradford test and spectrophotometry. We separated proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The spots were analyzed and compared using statistical data and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Protein clustering analyses were performed on the list of proteins deemed significantly altered in oligodendroglioma tumor tissues. Results: On each analytical two-dimensional gel, we observed an average of 1328 spots. A total of 157 exhibited up-regulation of expression levels, whereas the remaining 276 spots had decreased expression in astrocytoma tumors relative to normal tissue. The results demonstrated that functional clustering and principal component analysis had considerable merit in aiding the interpretation of proteomic data. Conclusion: Clustering methodology is a powerful data mining approach for initial exploration of proteomic data. The clustering results depend on parameters such as data preprocessing, between-profile similarity measurement and the dendrogram construction procedure.

  15. Suppression of TRPM7 inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of malignant human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Tian-Dong; Li, Ming-Hua; Shen, Jian-Feng; Liu, Ming-Li; Li, Xin-Bo; Sun, Hua-Wei; Branigan, Debbie; Zeng, Zhao; Si, Hong-Fang; Li, Jun; Chen, Jeff; Xiong, Zhi-Gang

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor with a dismal prognosis. Despite intensive study on tumor biology, the underlying mechanisms of the unlimited proliferation and progressive local invasion are still poorly understood, and no effective treatment has been developed for GBM patients. We determine the role of TRPM7 channels in the growth, migration, and infiltration of malignant glioma cells. Using a combination of RT-PCR, Western blot, and patch-clamp techniques, we demonstrated the expression of functional TRPM7 channels of A172 cells, a human glioma cell line, as well as in human glioma tissues. Furthermore, we evaluated the role of TRPM7 in growth, migration, and infiltration of A172 cells with MTT and transwell migration and invasion assays. We showed the expression of functional TRPM7 channels in both A172 cells and human glioma tissues. Suppression of TRPM7 expression with TRPM7-siRNA dramatically reduced the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A172 cells. Pharmacological inhibition of TRPM7 channel with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) showed a similar effect as TRPM7-siRNA. We demonstrate that human glioma cells express functional TRPM7 channel and that activation of this channel plays an important role in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of malignant glioma cells. TRPM7 channel may represent a novel and promising target for therapeutic intervention of malignant glioma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma

  17. Genetic and epigenetic modifications of Sox2 contribute to the invasive phenotype of malignant gliomas.

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    Marta M Alonso

    Full Text Available We undertook this study to understand how the transcription factor Sox2 contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most aggressive primary brain tumor. We initially looked for unbalanced genomic rearrangements in the Sox2 locus in 42 GBM samples and found that Sox2 was amplified in 11.5% and overexpressed in all the samples. These results prompted us to further investigate the mechanisms involved in Sox2 overexpression in GBM. We analyzed the methylation status of the Sox2 promoter because high CpG density promoters are associated with key developmental genes. The Sox2 promoter presented a CpG island that was hypomethylated in all the patient samples when compared to normal cell lines. Treatment of Sox2-negative glioma cell lines with 5-azacitidine resulted in the re-expression of Sox2 and in a change in the methylation status of the Sox2 promoter. We further confirmed these results by analyzing data from GBM cases generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas project. We observed Sox2 overexpression (86%; N = 414, Sox2 gene amplification (8.5%; N = 492, and Sox 2 promoter hypomethylation (100%; N = 258, suggesting the relevance of this factor in the malignant phenotype of GBMs. To further explore the role of Sox2, we performed in vitro analysis with brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs and established glioma cell lines. Downmodulation of Sox2 in BTSCs resulted in the loss of their self-renewal properties. Surprisingly, ectopic expression of Sox2 in established glioma cells was not sufficient to support self-renewal, suggesting that additional factors are required. Furthermore, we observed that ectopic Sox2 expression was sufficient to induce invasion and migration of glioma cells, and knockdown experiments demonstrated that Sox2 was essential for maintaining these properties. Altogether, our data underscore the importance of a pleiotropic role of Sox2 and suggest that it could be used as a therapeutic target in GBM.

  18. Genetic and epigenetic modifications of Sox2 contribute to the invasive phenotype of malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marta M; Diez-Valle, Ricardo; Manterola, Lorea; Rubio, Angel; Liu, Dan; Cortes-Santiago, Nahir; Urquiza, Leire; Jauregi, Patricia; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Sampron, Nicolás; Aramburu, Ander; Tejada-Solís, Sonia; Vicente, Carmen; Odero, María D; Bandrés, Eva; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Idoate, Miguel A; Lang, Frederick F; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2011-01-01

    We undertook this study to understand how the transcription factor Sox2 contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumor. We initially looked for unbalanced genomic rearrangements in the Sox2 locus in 42 GBM samples and found that Sox2 was amplified in 11.5% and overexpressed in all the samples. These results prompted us to further investigate the mechanisms involved in Sox2 overexpression in GBM. We analyzed the methylation status of the Sox2 promoter because high CpG density promoters are associated with key developmental genes. The Sox2 promoter presented a CpG island that was hypomethylated in all the patient samples when compared to normal cell lines. Treatment of Sox2-negative glioma cell lines with 5-azacitidine resulted in the re-expression of Sox2 and in a change in the methylation status of the Sox2 promoter. We further confirmed these results by analyzing data from GBM cases generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas project. We observed Sox2 overexpression (86%; N = 414), Sox2 gene amplification (8.5%; N = 492), and Sox 2 promoter hypomethylation (100%; N = 258), suggesting the relevance of this factor in the malignant phenotype of GBMs. To further explore the role of Sox2, we performed in vitro analysis with brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) and established glioma cell lines. Downmodulation of Sox2 in BTSCs resulted in the loss of their self-renewal properties. Surprisingly, ectopic expression of Sox2 in established glioma cells was not sufficient to support self-renewal, suggesting that additional factors are required. Furthermore, we observed that ectopic Sox2 expression was sufficient to induce invasion and migration of glioma cells, and knockdown experiments demonstrated that Sox2 was essential for maintaining these properties. Altogether, our data underscore the importance of a pleiotropic role of Sox2 and suggest that it could be used as a therapeutic target in GBM.

  19. Targeting Glioma Stem Cells by Functional Inhibition of a Prosurvival OncomiR-138 in Malignant Gliomas

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    Xin Hui Derryn Chan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most aggressive forms of brain tumors, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Recurrence and tumorigenesis are attributed to a subpopulation of tumor-initiating glioma stem cells (GSCs that are intrinsically resistant to therapy. Initiation and progression of gliomas have been linked to alterations in microRNA expression. Here, we report the identification of microRNA-138 (miR-138 as a molecular signature of GSCs and demonstrate a vital role for miR-138 in promoting growth and survival of bona fide tumor-initiating cells with self-renewal potential. Sequence-specific functional inhibition of miR-138 prevents tumorsphere formation in vitro and impedes tumorigenesis in vivo. We delineate the components of the miR-138 regulatory network by loss-of-function analysis to identify specific regulators of apoptosis. Finally, the higher expression of miR-138 in GSCs compared to non-neoplastic tissue and association with tumor recurrence and survival highlights the clinical significance of miR-138 as a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for treatment of malignant gliomas.

  20. Downregulation of RKIP is associated with poor outcome and malignant progression in gliomas.

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    Olga Martinho

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are highly infiltrative and invasive tumors, which precludes the few treatment options available. Therefore, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying gliomas aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. The Raf Kinase Inhibitory protein (RKIP, besides regulating important intracellular signaling cascades, was described to be associated with progression, metastasis and prognosis in several human neoplasms. Its role in the prognosis and tumourigenesis of gliomas remains unclear. In the present study, we found that RKIP protein is absent in a low frequency (10%, 20/193 of glioma tumors. Nevertheless, the absence of RKIP expression was an independent prognostic marker in glioma. Additionally, by in vitro downregulation of RKIP, we found that RKIP inhibition induces a higher viability and migration of the cells, having no effect on cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, as assessed by in vivo CAM assay. In conclusion, this is the largest series studied so far evaluating the expression levels of this important cancer suppressor protein in glioma tumors. Our results suggest that in a subset of tumors, the absence of RKIP associates with highly malignant behavior and poor survival of patients, which may be a useful biomarker for tailored treatment of glioma patients.

  1. Erlotinib and Temsirolimus in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  2. Targetable signaling pathway mutations are associated with malignant phenotype in IDH-mutant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Shota; Curry, William T; Loebel, Franziska; Zhao, Dan; Tateishi, Kensuke; Chen, Juxiang; Klofas, Lindsay K; Lelic, Nina; Kim, James C; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Ellisen, Leif W; Borger, Darrell R; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Batchelor, Tracy T; Iafrate, A John; Cahill, Daniel P; Chi, Andrew S

    2014-06-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations occur in low-grade and high-grade gliomas. We sought to identify the genetic basis of malignant phenotype heterogeneity in IDH-mutant gliomas. We prospectively implanted tumor specimens from 20 consecutive IDH1-mutant glioma resections into mouse brains and genotyped all resection specimens using a CLIA-certified molecular panel. Gliomas with cancer driver mutations were tested for sensitivity to targeted inhibitors in vitro. Associations between genomic alterations and outcomes were analyzed in patients. By 10 months, 8 of 20 IDH1-mutant gliomas developed intracerebral xenografts. All xenografts maintained mutant IDH1 and high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate on serial transplantation. All xenograft-producing gliomas harbored "lineage-defining" mutations in CIC (oligodendroglioma) or TP53 (astrocytoma), and 6 of 8 additionally had activating mutations in PIK3CA or amplification of PDGFRA, MET, or N-MYC. Only IDH1 and CIC/TP53 mutations were detected in non-xenograft-forming gliomas (P = 0.0007). Targeted inhibition of the additional alterations decreased proliferation in vitro. Moreover, we detected alterations in known cancer driver genes in 13.4% of IDH-mutant glioma patients, including PIK3CA, KRAS, AKT, or PTEN mutation or PDGFRA, MET, or N-MYC amplification. IDH/CIC mutant tumors were associated with PIK3CA/KRAS mutations whereas IDH/TP53 tumors correlated with PDGFRA/MET amplification. Presence of driver alterations at progression was associated with shorter subsequent progression-free survival (median 9.0 vs. 36.1 months; P = 0.0011). A subset of IDH-mutant gliomas with mutations in driver oncogenes has a more malignant phenotype in patients. Identification of these alterations may provide an opportunity for use of targeted therapies in these patients. Clin Cancer Res; 20(11); 2898-909. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. RO4929097, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma

  4. Fotemustine: A Third-Generation Nitrosourea for the Treatment of Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

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    Beauchesne, Patrick [Neuro-oncology/Neurology, University Hospital of Nancy, Hôpital CENTRAL, CO N 34,54035 Nancy cedex (France)

    2012-02-01

    Malignant gliomas account for approximately 60% of all primary brain tumors in adults. The prognosis for patients with malignant glioma has not changed significantly in recent years. Despite debulking surgery, radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy, the median survival time is nine to 12 months, and very few, if any, patients are cured from this illness. Fotemustine is an alkylating agent characterized by the grafting of a phosphonoalanine group onto the nitrosourea radical with consequent high lipophilicity and improved diffusion through the cell membrane and the blood-brain barrier. Fotemustine has been registered for use in two indications: disseminated malignant melanoma, including cerebral metastases, and primary brain tumors. Fotemustine is currently used in Europe, particularly in France and Italy, as a salvage therapy for recurrent malignant gliomas. Myelosuppression, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia are the most frequent side effects of treatment with fotemustine. The objective response to this treatment is between 26% and 70%, and the reported median survival time is 10 months. New drug combinations containing fotemustine and angiogenesis inhibitors, such as bevacizumab, are currently under development. In this review, we describe all the combinations of fotemustine currently used in clinical practice for recurrent malignant gliomas.

  5. Suppression of miR-184 in malignant gliomas upregulates SND1 and promotes tumor aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdad, Luni; Janjic, Aleksandar; Alzubi, Mohammad A; Hu, Bin; Santhekadur, Prasanna K; Menezes, Mitchell E; Shen, Xue-Ning; Das, Swadesh K; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Malignant glioma is an aggressive cancer requiring new therapeutic targets. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post transcriptionally and are implicated in cancer development and progression. Deregulated expressions of several miRNAs, specifically hsa-miR-184, correlate with glioma development. Bioinformatic approaches were used to identify potential miR-184-regulated target genes involved in malignant glioma progression. This strategy identified a multifunctional nuclease, SND1, known to be overexpressed in multiple cancers, including breast, colon, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as a putative direct miR-184 target gene. SND1 levels were evaluated in patient tumor samples and human-derived cell lines. We analyzed invasion and signaling in vitro through SND1 gain-of-function and loss-of-function. An orthotopic xenograft model with primary glioma cells demonstrated a role of miR-184/SND1 in glioma pathogenesis in vivo. SND1 is highly expressed in human glioma tissue and inversely correlated with miR-184 expression. Transfection of glioma cells with a miR-184 mimic inhibited invasion, suppressed colony formation, and reduced anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Similar phenotypes were evident when SND1 was knocked down with siRNA. Additionally, knockdown (KD) of SND1 induced senescence and improved the chemoresistant properties of malignant glioma cells. In an orthotopic xenograft model, KD of SND1 or transfection with a miR-184 mimic induced a less invasive tumor phenotype and significantly improved survival of tumor bearing mice. Our study is the first to show a novel regulatory role of SND1, a direct target of miR-184, in glioma progression, suggesting that the miR-184/SND1 axis may be a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for malignant glioma. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A New Hope in Immunotherapy for Malignant Gliomas: Adoptive T Cell Transfer Therapy

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    Dong-Sup Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to highly incurable malignant gliomas due to tumor-specific cytotoxicity, minimal side effect, and a durable antitumor effect by memory T cells. But, antitumor activities of endogenously activated T cells induced by immunotherapy such as vaccination are not sufficient to control tumors because tumor-specific antigens may be self-antigens and tumors have immune evasion mechanisms to avoid immune surveillance system of host. Although recent clinical results from vaccine strategy for malignant gliomas are encouraging, these trials have some limitations, particularly their failure to expand tumor antigen-specific T cells reproducibly and effectively. An alternative strategy to overcome these limitations is adoptive T cell transfer therapy, in which tumor-specific T cells are expanded ex vivo rapidly and then transferred to patients. Moreover, enhanced biologic functions of T cells generated by genetic engineering and modified immunosuppressive microenvironment of host by homeostatic T cell expansion and/or elimination of immunosuppressive cells and molecules can induce more potent antitumor T cell responses and make this strategy hold promise in promoting a patient response for malignant glioma treatment. Here we will review the past and current progresses and discuss a new hope in adoptive T cell therapy for malignant gliomas.

  7. Treatment of malignant gliomas with a replicating adenoviral vector expressing herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Nanda (Dharminderkoemar); R. Vogels; M. Havenga; C.J.J. Avezaat (Cees); A. Bout; P.S. Smitt

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe evaluated the interaction between oncolytic, replication-competent adenoviral vectors and the herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene/ganciclovir (GCV) suicide system for the treatment of malignant gliomas. We constructed a panel of

  8. BH3 Mimetics Reactivate Autophagic Cell Death in Anoxia-Resistant Malignant Glioma Cells

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    Holger Hetschko

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigated the specific roles of Bcl-2 family members in anoxia tolerance of malignant glioma. Flow cytometry analysis of cell death in 17 glioma cell lines revealed drastic differences in their sensitivity to oxygen withdrawal (<0.1% O2. Cell death correlated with mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome C release, and translocation of green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged light chain 3 to autophagosomes but occurred in the absence of caspase activation or phosphatidylserine exposure. In both sensitive and tolerant glioma cell lines, anoxia caused a significant up-regulation of BH3-only genes previously implicated in mediating anoxic cell death in other cell types (BNIP3, NIX, PUMA, and Noxa. In contrast, we detected a strong correlation between anoxia resistance and high expression levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 that function to neutralize the proapoptotic activity of BH3-only proteins. Importantly, inhibition of both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with the small-molecule BH3 mimetics HA14-1 and BH3I-2′ and by RNA interference reactivated anoxia-induced autophagic cell death in previously resistant glioma cells. Our data suggest that endogenous BH3-only protein induction may not be able to compensate for the high expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in anoxia-resistant astrocytomas. They also support the conjecture that BH3 mimetics may represent an exciting new approach for the treatment of malignant glioma.

  9. Microglia and Macrophages in Malignant Gliomas: Recent Discoveries and Implications for Promising Therapies

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    Anna Carolina Carvalho da Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Their deadliest manifestation, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, accounts for 15% of all primary brain tumors and is associated with a median survival of only 15 months even after multimodal therapy. There is substantial presence of microglia and macrophages within and surrounding brain tumors. These immune cells acquire an alternatively activated phenotype with potent tumor-tropic functions that contribute to glioma growth and invasion. In this review, we briefly summarize recent data that has been reported on the interaction of microglia/macrophages with brain tumors and discuss potential application of these findings to the development of future antiglioma therapies.

  10. Surgical and therapeutic strategy of recurrent malignant gliomas in intractable location

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    LU Yun-tao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective Recurrent malignant gliomas often violate important neurological function parts or deep brain structures due to tumor invasion, further increasing the difficulty of reoperation and treatment. Therefore, how to develop a reasonable treatment strategy, maximize the removal of the tumor, and ensure a basic quality of life of the patient, is nowadays hotly debated by scholars from various countries. This article aims to explore the reasonable treatment and optimal surgical strategy of recurrent malignant gliomas. Methods Four cases of recurrent malignant glioma were collceted. A comprehensive assessment on preoperative imaging, intraoperative operation, postoperative complications and long-term follow-up was made, and treatment strategy was elaborated. Results Postoperative MRI in 2 cases showed the recurrent tumors located in remnant edema parts, which were revealed by T2WI after first resections. One case underwent expanded resection of edema parts according to T2WI. This patient suffered short-sensory aphasia and weakness of right limbs, but recovered by improving cerebral circulation, hyperbaric oxygen, auxiliary acupuncture and physical rehabilitation trainings. One case with brainstem glioma underwent precise resection by laser knife, without postoperative neurological disorders. All the 4 cases received postoperative chemotherapy with TMZ (200 mg/kg, 5 d/28 d. The average follow-up period was (14.00 ± 12.50 months. Conclusion For obvious recurrence of malignant glioma, reoperation is still the key factor to lengthen the survival of patients, and expanded resection of the edema area supplemented by T2WI can reduce recurrence. Under the precondition of maintaining the basic postoperative quality of life of patients (KPS > 70, expanded resection should be used. As for tumors adjacent to the eloquent areas, precise engraving resection should be used to minimize residual tumor cells.

  11. Role of ketogenic metabolic therapy in malignant glioma: A systematic review.

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    Winter, Sebastian F; Loebel, Franziska; Dietrich, Jorg

    2017-04-01

    Coined as the "Warburg effect" and a recognized hallmark of cancer, energy metabolism is aberrantly geared towards aerobic glycolysis in most human cancers, including malignant glioma. Ketogenic metabolic therapy (KMT), i.e. nutritional intervention with ketogenic or low-glycemic diets, has been proposed as an anti-neoplastic strategy in glioma patients. We here review the rationale and existing data investigating KMT in management of patients with malignant glioma and discuss the promise and potential challenges of this novel strategy. Results from published clinical studies and ongoing clinical trials on the topic are systematically reviewed, including 6 published original articles and 10 ongoing clinical trials. Search criteria for this review entailed the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar, as well as ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NIH) registries. A substantial amount of preclinical literature demonstrates KMT efficacy and safety in model systems of malignant glioma. Clinical literature indicates KMT safety and feasibility; 2 clinical studies suggest KMT-associated anti-neoplastic efficacy and clinical benefit. Ongoing clinical trials address KMT safety and metabolic impact, patient compliance, and patient clinical/survival benefit. While clinical evidence is still limited in this evolving field, increasing numbers of ongoing clinical trials suggest that KMT is emerging as a potential therapeutic option and might be combinable with existing anti-neoplastic treatments for malignant glioma. Emerging clinical data will help answer questions concerning safety and efficacy of KMT, and are aiming to identify the most promising KMT regimen, compatibility with other anti-cancer treatments, ethical aspects, and impact on quality of life of cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Malignant gliomas: current perspectives in diagnosis, treatment, and early response assessment using advanced quantitative imaging methods

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    Ahmed R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rafay Ahmed,1 Matthew J Oborski,2 Misun Hwang,1 Frank S Lieberman,3 James M Mountz11Department of Radiology, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Neurology and Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas consist of glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and some less common tumors such as anaplastic ependymomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas. Malignant gliomas have high morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is only 12–15 months for glioblastomas and 2–5 years for anaplastic gliomas. However, recent advances in imaging and quantitative analysis of image data have led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and tumor response to therapy, providing oncologists with a greater time window for therapy management. In addition, improved understanding of tumor biology, genetics, and resistance mechanisms has enhanced surgical techniques, chemotherapy methods, and radiotherapy administration. After proper diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy, there is now a vital need for quantitative methods that can sensitively detect malignant glioma response to therapy at early follow-up times, when changes in management of nonresponders can have its greatest effect. Currently, response is largely evaluated by measuring magnetic resonance contrast and size change, but this approach does not take into account the key biologic steps that precede tumor size reduction. Molecular imaging is ideally suited to measuring early response by quantifying cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, activities altered early in treatment. We expect that successful integration of quantitative imaging biomarker assessment into the early phase of clinical trials could provide a novel approach for testing new therapies

  13. Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas

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    Torres-Trejo Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains dismal. We addressed the safety, feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of the vaccinations using autologous glioma cells and interleukin (IL-4 gene transfected fibroblasts. Methods In University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI protocol 95-033, adult participants with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM or anaplastic astrocytoma (AA received gross total resection (GTR of the recurrent tumors, followed by two vaccinations with autologous fibroblasts retrovirally transfected with TFG-IL4-Neo-TK vector admixed with irradiated autologous glioma cells. In UPCI 99-111, adult participants with newly diagnosed GBM or AA, following GTR and radiation therapy, received two intradermal vaccinations with the TFG-IL4-Neo-TK-transfected fibroblasts admixed with type-1 dendritic cells (DC loaded with autologous tumor lysate. The participants were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events, immune response, and clinical response by radiological imaging. Results and Discussion In UPCI 95-033, only 2 of 6 participants received the vaccinations. Four other participants were withdrawn from the trial because of tumor progression prior to production of the cellular vaccine. However, both participants who received two vaccinations demonstrated encouraging immunological and clinical responses. Biopsies from the local vaccine sites from one participant displayed IL-4 dose-dependent infiltration of CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells. Interferon (IFN-γ Enzyme-Linked Immuno-SPOT (ELISPOT assay in another human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A2+ participant demonstrated systemic T-cell responses against an HLA-A2-restricted glioma-associated antigen (GAA epitope EphA2883–891. Moreover, both participants demonstrated clinical and radiological improvement with no evidence of allergic encephalitis, although both participants eventually succumbed with the tumor recurrence. In 99-111, 5 of 6 enrolled participants

  14. Interstitial chemotherapy for malignant glioma: Future prospects in the era of multimodal therapy.

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    Mangraviti, Antonella; Tyler, Betty; Brem, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The advent of interstitial chemotherapy has significantly increased therapeutic options for patients with malignant glioma. Interstitial chemotherapy can deliver high concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents, directly at the site of the brain tumor while bypassing systemic toxicities. Gliadel, a locally implanted polymer that releases the alkylating agent carmustine, given alone and in combination with various other antitumor and resistance modifying therapies, has significantly increased the median survival for patients with malignant glioma. Convection enhanced delivery, a technique used to directly infuse drugs into brain tissue, has shown promise for the delivery of immunotoxins, monoclonal antibodies, and chemotherapeutic agents. Preclinical studies include delivery of chemotherapeutic and immunomodulating agents by polymer and microchips. Interstitial chemotherapy was shown to maximize local efficacy and is an important strategy for the efficacy of any multimodal approach.

  15. Plant thymidine kinase 1: a novel efficient suicide gene for malignant glioma therapy

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    Khan, Z.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Willer, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains poor, and new treatments are urgently needed. Targeted suicide gene therapy exploits the enzymatic conversion of a prodrug, such as a nucleoside analog, into a cytotoxic compound. Although this therapeutic strategy has been considered a promising regimen....... In addition, when neural progenitor cells were used as delivery vectors for toTK1 in intracranial GBM xenografts in nude rats, substantial attenuation of tumor growth was achieved in animals exposed to AZT, and survival of the animals was significantly improved compared with controls. The novel toTK1/AZT...... suicide gene therapy system in combination with stem cell mediated gene delivery promises new treatment of malignant gliomas....

  16. Demethoxycurcumin Retards Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Brain Malignant Glioma GBM 8401 Cells

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    Tzuu-Yuan Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Demethoxycurcumin (DMC; a curcumin-related demethoxy compound has been recently shown to display antioxidant and antitumor activities. It has also produced a potent chemopreventive action against cancer. In the present study, the antiproliferation (using the MTT assay, DMC was found to have cytotoxic activities against GBM 8401 cell with IC50 values at 22.71 μM and induced apoptosis effects of DMC have been investigated in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells. We have studied the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and NF-κB transcriptional factor activity. By these approaches, our results indicated that DMC has produced an inhibition of cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells. Both effects were observed to increase in proportion with the dosage of DMC treatment, and the apoptosis was induced by DMC in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways.

  17. Proapoptotic and antiinvasive activity of Rac1 small molecule inhibitors on malignant glioma cells

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    Cardama GA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Georgina A Cardama,1 Nazareno Gonzalez,1 Matias Ciarlantini,2 Lucia Gandolfi Donadío,2 María Julieta Comin,2 Daniel F Alonso,1 Pablo Lorenzano Menna,1,* Daniel E Gomez1,*1Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National University of Quilmes, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Laboratory of Organic Synthesis, Center of Research and Development in Chemistry, National Institute of Industrial Technology, San Martín, Argentina, *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Malignant gliomas are characterized by an intrinsic ability to invade diffusely throughout the normal brain tissue. This feature contributes mainly to the failure of existing therapies. Deregulation of small GTPases signaling, in particular Rac1 activity, plays a key role in the invasive phenotype of gliomas. Here we report the effect of ZINC69391, a specific Rac1 inhibitor developed by our group, on human glioma cell lines LN229 and U-87 MG. ZINC69391 is able to interfere with the interaction of Rac1 with Dock180, a relevant Rac1 activator in glioma invasion, and to reduce Rac1-GTP levels. The kinase Pak1, a downstream effector of Dock180–Rac1 signaling, was also downregulated upon ZINC69391 treatment. ZINC69391 reduced cell proliferation, arrested cells in G1 phase, and triggered apoptosis in glioma cells. Importantly, ZINC69391 dramatically affected cell migration and invasion in vitro, interfering with actin cytoskeleton dynamics. We also evaluated the effect of analog 1A-116, a compound derived from ZINC69391 structure. 1A-116 showed an improved antiproliferative and antiinvasive activity on glioma cells. These findings encourage further preclinical testing in clinically relevant animal models.Keywords: GTPases. invasion, Dock180, small molecule

  18. Overexpression of Transforming Acidic Coiled Coil‑Containing Protein 3 Reflects Malignant Characteristics and Poor Prognosis of Glioma

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    Ying Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are malignant primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. Recently, research was indicative of a tight connection between tumor malignancy and genetic alterations. Here, we propose an oncogenic implication of transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3 in gliomas. By comprehensively analyzing the Chinese glioma genome atlas (CGGA and publicly available data, we demonstrated that TACC3 were overexpressed along with glioma grade and served as an independent negative prognostic biomarker for glioma patients. Functions’ annotations and gene sets’ enrichment analysis suggested that TACC3 may participate in cell cycle, DNA repair, epithelium-mesenchymal transition and other tumor-related biological processes and molecular pathways. Patients with high TACC3 expression showed CD133+ stem cell properties, glioma plasticity and shorter overall survival time under chemo-/radio-therapy. Additionally, a TACC3 associated the miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on in silico prediction and expression pattern, which provide a foundation for further detection of TACC3-miRNA-mRNA axis function. Collectively, our observations identify TACC3 as an oncogene of tumor malignancy, as well as a prognostic and motoring biomarker for glioma patients.

  19. Synergistic and targeted therapy with a procaspase-3 activator and temozolomide extends survival in glioma rodent models and is feasible for the treatment of canine malignant glioma patients.

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    Joshi, Avadhut D; Botham, Rachel C; Schlein, Lisa J; Roth, Howard S; Mangraviti, Antonella; Borodovsky, Alexandra; Tyler, Betty; Joslyn, Steve; Looper, Jayme S; Podell, Michael; Fan, Timothy M; Hergenrother, Paul J; Riggins, Gregory J

    2017-10-06

    Glioblastoma is a deadly brain cancer with a median survival time of ∼15 months. Ionizing radiation plus the DNA alkylator temozolomide (TMZ) is the current standard therapy. PAC-1, a procaspase-3 activating small molecule, is blood-brain barrier penetrant and has previously demonstrated ability to synergize with diverse pro-apoptotic chemotherapeutics. We studied if PAC-1 could enhance the activity of TMZ, and whether addition of PAC-1 to standard treatment would be feasible in spontaneous canine malignant gliomas. Using cell lines and online gene expression data, we identified procaspase-3 as a potential molecular target for most glioblastomas. We investigated PAC-1 as a single agent and in combination with TMZ against glioma cells in culture and in orthotopic rodent models of glioma. Three dogs with spontaneous gliomas were treated with an analogous human glioblastoma treatment protocol, with concurrent PAC-1. Procaspase-3 is expressed in gliomas, with higher gene expression correlating with increased tumor grade and decreased prognosis. PAC-1 is cytotoxic to glioma cells in culture and active in orthotopic rodent glioma models. PAC-1 added to TMZ treatments in cell culture increases apoptotic death, and the combination significantly increases survival in orthotopic glioma models. Addition of PAC-1 to TMZ and radiation was well-tolerated in 3 out of 3 pet dogs with spontaneous glioma, and partial to complete tumor reductions were observed. Procaspase-3 is a clinically relevant target for treatment of glioblastoma. Synergistic activity of PAC-1/TMZ in rodent models and the demonstration of feasibility of the combined regime in canine patients suggest potential for PAC-1 in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  20. Integrins and focal adhesion kinase in the malignant behavior of gliomas

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    Efstathia Giannopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common type of glioma and is associated with a very poor prognosis. The standard treatment includes radiotherapy concurrent with temozolomide, however recently the Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab for use in patients with progressive glioblastoma following prior therapy. The limited number of treatment options points to the need for novel effective therapeutic approaches. A promising approach is the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs in GBM treatment. However, the results from the majority of clinical trials using TKIs are not very encouraging. One growing area is the development of tumor-homing peptides that resemble the integrin recognition sequence RGD. In this article, the role of integrins and focal adhesion kinase in malignant glioma is reviewed, and an experimental study is proposed that will apply a strategy for peptide-mediated delivery of compounds deep into tumor parenchyma using tumor-homing peptides.

  1. 12 years' experience with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) of malignant gliomas

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    Schueller, P.; Micke, O.; Moustakis, C.; Bruns, F.; Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Palkovic, S.; Schroeder, J.; Wassmann, H. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2005-08-01

    Background: Even after surgery and radiotherapy, malignant gliomas still have a poor prognosis. The authors report on their experience with IORT in 71 patients. Patients and methods: From May 1992 to February 2004, 71 patients with malignant gliomas were treated with IORT. 26 patients suffered from grade III gliomas, 45 patients from glioblastomas (GBM). IORT was carried out using a standard electron tube and 9- to 18-MeV electrons. 52/71 patients who were primarily treated received 20 Gy IORT + 60 Gy postoperative radiotherapy, 19/71 patients with recurrences only received IORT (20-25 Gy). Results: The complication rates were 1.4% for wound infections and 5.6% for hemorrhage. Median disease-specific survival amounted to 14.9 months (gliomass III) and 14.2 months (GBM). The 2-year survival rates amounted to 26.9% (gliomas III) and 6.8% (GBM; p=0.0296). Total versus subtotal resection had no significant influence on survival (p=0.0741), nor had age, sex, tumor site, performance status, size, primary versus recurrence, and radiation dose. A comparison to a conventionally treated patient group did not show a significant survival improvement. 3 months after treatment, initial symptoms had improved in 59% (hemiparesis), 50% (aphasia), 50% (hemianopsia), and 60% (convulsions). Conclusion: IORT has been shown to be feasible; perioperative complication rates were not increased. Survival was generally not improved compared to a historical control group. Recurrences achieved the same survival as primary tumors, and GBM also had a slightly increased survival, thus being possible indications for IORT. (orig.)

  2. Malignant Transformation in Glioma Steered by an Angiogenic Switch: Defining a Role for Bone Marrow-Derived Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Raymond; Pisapia, David; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-27

    Low-grade gliomas, such as pilocytic astrocytoma and subependymoma, are often characterized as benign tumors due to their relative circumscription radiologically and typically non-aggressive biologic behavior. In contrast, low-grades that are by their nature diffusely infiltrative, such as diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, have the potential to transform into malignant high-grade counterparts and, given sufficient time, invariably do so. These high-grade gliomas carry very poor prognoses and are largely incurable, warranting a closer look at what causes this adverse transition. A key characteristic that distinguishes low- and high-grade gliomas is neovascularization: it is absent in low-grade gliomas, but prolific in high-grade gliomas, providing the tumor with ample blood supply for exponential growth. It has been well described in the literature that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) may contribute to the angiogenic switch that is responsible for malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas. In this review, we will summarize the current literature on BMDCs and their known contribution to angiogenesis-associated tumor growth in gliomas.

  3. Collaborative labeling of malignant glioma with WebMILL: a first look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Eesha; Asman, Andrew J.; Xu, Zhoubing; Chambless, Lola; Thompson, Reid; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common form of primary neoplasm in the central nervous system, and one of the most rapidly fatal of all human malignancies. They are treated by maximal surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy. Herein, we seek to improve the methods available to quantify the extent of tumors using newly presented, collaborative labeling techniques on magnetic resonance imaging. Traditionally, labeling medical images has entailed that expert raters operate on one image at a time, which is resource intensive and not practical for very large datasets. Using many, minimally trained raters to label images has the possibility of minimizing laboratory requirements and allowing high degrees of parallelism. A successful effort also has the possibility of reducing overall cost. This potentially transformative technology presents a new set of problems, because one must pose the labeling challenge in a manner accessible to people with little or no background in labeling medical images and raters cannot be expected to read detailed instructions. Hence, a different training method has to be employed. The training must appeal to all types of learners and have the same concepts presented in multiple ways to ensure that all the subjects understand the basics of labeling. Our overall objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of studying malignant glioma morphometry through statistical analysis of the collaborative efforts of many, minimally-trained raters. This study presents preliminary results on optimization of the WebMILL framework for neoplasm labeling and investigates the initial contributions of 78 raters labeling 98 whole-brain datasets.

  4. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy targeting Wilms' tumor 1 in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Keiichi; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Maejima, Shinya; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Sano, Kenji; Higuchi, Yumiko; Koya, Terutsugu; Ochiai, Takanaga; Koide, Masanori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Midori; Sugiyama, Haruo; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Okamoto, Masato; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination is considered a potentially effective therapy against advanced cancer. The authors conducted a Phase I study to investigate the safety and immunomonitoring of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-pulsed DC vaccination therapy for patients with relapsed malignant glioma. WT1-pulsed and/or autologous tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccination therapy was performed in patients with relapsed malignant gliomas. Approximately 1 × 10(7) to 2 × 10(7) pulsed DCs loaded with WT1 peptide antigen and/or tumor lysate were intradermally injected into the axillary areas with OK-432, a streptococcal preparation, at 2-week intervals for at least 5-7 sessions (1 course) during an individual chemotherapy regimen. Ten patients (3 men, 7 women; age range 24-64 years [median 39 years]) with the following tumors were enrolled: glioblastoma (6), anaplastic astrocytoma (2), anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (1), and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (1). Modified WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccine was administered to 7 patients, tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine to 2 patients, and both tumor lysate-pulsed and WT1-pulsed DC vaccine to 1 patient. The clinical response was stable disease in 5 patients with WT1-pulsed DC vaccination. In 2 of 5 patients with stable disease, neurological findings improved, and MR images showed tumor shrinkage. No serious adverse events occurred except Grade 1-2 erythema at the injection sites. WT1 tetramer analysis detected WT1-reactive cytotoxic T cells after vaccination in patients treated with WT1-pulsed therapy. Positivity for skin reaction at the injection sites was 80% (8 of 10 patients) after the first session, and positivity remained for these 8 patients after the final session. This study of WT1-pulsed DC vaccination therapy demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and feasibility in the management of relapsed malignant gliomas.

  5. The ketogenic diet is an effective adjuvant to radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant glioma.

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    Mohammed G Abdelwahab

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal® (KC is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4:1 (fat:carbohydrate+protein ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas. METHODS: We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD or KC. The mice received 2×4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging. RESULTS: Animals fed KC had elevated levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173 and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001. Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days. CONCLUSIONS: KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.

  6. PD-1 marks dysfunctional regulatory T cells in malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Daniel E; Goods, Brittany A; Lucca, Liliana E; Lerner, Benjamin A; Raddassi, Khadir; van Dijk, David; Hernandez, Amanda L; Duan, Xiangguo; Gunel, Murat; Coric, Vlad; Krishnaswamy, Smita; Love, J Christopher; Hafler, David A

    2016-04-21

    Immunotherapies targeting the immune checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have shown remarkable efficacy in treating cancer. CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs are critical regulators of immune responses in autoimmunity and malignancies, but the functional status of human Tregs expressing PD-1 remains unclear. We examined functional and molecular features of PD-1hi Tregs in healthy subjects and patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), combining functional assays, RNA sequencing, and cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF). In both patients with GBM and healthy subjects, circulating PD-1hi Tregs displayed reduced suppression of CD4+ effector T cells, production of IFN-γ, and molecular signatures of exhaustion. Transcriptional profiling of tumor-resident Tregs revealed that several genes coexpressed with PD-1 and associated with IFN-γ production and exhaustion as well as enrichment in exhaustion signatures compared with circulating PD-1hi Tregs. CyTOF analysis of circulating and tumor-infiltrating Tregs from patients with GBM treated with PD-1-blocking antibodies revealed that treatment shifts the profile of circulating Tregs toward a more exhausted phenotype reminiscent of that of tumor-infiltrating Tregs, further increasing IFN-γ production. Thus, high PD-1 expression on human Tregs identifies dysfunctional, exhausted Tregs secreting IFN-γ that exist in healthy individuals and are enriched in tumor infiltrates, possibly losing function as they attempt to modulate the antitumoral immune responses.

  7. Evaluation of rat C6 malignant glioma using spectral computed tomography.

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    Liu, Jianli; Zhou, Junlin; Li, Jie; Zhang, Lingyan; Zhang, Peili; Liu, Bin

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the use of multi-parameter spectral computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of rat C6 glioma, 15 male Wistar rats were seeded with C6 glioma cells into the right basal ganglia and scanned 12 days later using spectral CT. Brain sections corresponding to scanned regions were immunostained for proliferation marker protein Ki67 (Ki67). Pearson's correlation coefficients between spectral CT parameters and Ki67 expression were determined. Thirteen rats survived 12 days and developed tumors. Optimal contrast-to-noise ratio achieved was 65 keV. Brain regions containing liquefactive necrosis, solid tumor, peripheral tumor and normal tissue differed significantly with regard to the spectral curve slope (0.24±0.46, 1.81±1.09, 0.8±0.43 and 0.11±0.27, respectively; Pspectral curve slope (r=0.821; PSpectral CT can detect microstructural changes within malignant gliomas and potentially provide important information regarding tumor proliferation and the extent of the invasion.

  8. Metabolic Profiling of IDH Mutation and Malignant Progression in Infiltrating Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Llewellyn E.; Elkhaled, Adam; Phillips, Joanna J.; Neill, Evan; Williams, Aurelia; Crane, Jason C.; Olson, Marram P.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Kurhanewicz, John; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2017-03-01

    Infiltrating low grade gliomas (LGGs) are heterogeneous in their behavior and the strategies used for clinical management are highly variable. A key factor in clinical decision-making is that patients with mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) oncogenes are more likely to have a favorable outcome and be sensitive to treatment. Because of their relatively long overall median survival, more aggressive treatments are typically reserved for patients that have undergone malignant progression (MP) to an anaplastic glioma or secondary glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, ex vivo metabolic profiles of image-guided tissue samples obtained from patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent LGG were investigated using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS). Distinct spectral profiles were observed for lesions with IDH-mutated genotypes, between astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma histologies, as well as for tumors that had undergone MP. Levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) were correlated with increased mitotic activity, axonal disruption, vascular neoplasia, and with several brain metabolites including the choline species, glutamate, glutathione, and GABA. The information obtained in this study may be used to develop strategies for in vivo characterization of infiltrative glioma, in order to improve disease stratification and to assist in monitoring response to therapy.

  9. Aspirin inhibits the SHH/GLI1 signaling pathway and sensitizes malignant glioma cells to temozolomide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jianguang; Sun, Bo; Li, Ziwei; Lin, Lin; Meng, Xiangqi; Han, Bo; Wang, Ruijia; Wu, Pengfei; Li, Jianlong; Cai, Jinquan; Jiang, Chuanlu

    2017-04-01

    Aberrant activation of sonic hedgehog (SHH)/glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) pathway plays an important role in the tumorigenicity of malignant glioma cells and resistance to temozolomide (TMZ). Here we investigated the aspirin's antineoplastic molecular route by targeting SHH/GLI1 pathway and examined the feasibility of aspirin combined with TMZ therapy. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that the activity of the SHH/GLI1 pathway was strongly inhibited by aspirin. Aspirin acted as the glioma growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptosis roles by inhibiting the SHH/GLI1 pathway and reprogramming the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The immunofluorescence assay showed aspirin could prevent the nuclear translocation of GLI1 to inhibit its transcriptional regulation. The stable lentiviral overexpression of GLI1 reversed the DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) caused by the GANT61 and TMZ. Furthermore, aspirin combined with TMZ enhanced chemosensitivity and GLI1-induced chemoprotection was partly blocked by aspirin in vitro and in vivo . Collectively, aspirin has a therapeutic potential for SHH/GLI1 targeted therapy against glioma cells. Acquired activation of GLI1 protects glioma cells against TMZ therapy. Impairment of DNA DSBs repair activity might be involved in the route of aspirin-induced chemosensitivity. Combined aspirin with TMZ may be a promising strategy against malignant glioma.

  10. The correlation between osteopontin level and radiation response of malignant gliomas at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaniah Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteopontin is an endogenous molecular marker for tumor hypoxia, and hypoxia is one of the factors that determine the aggressiveness of the disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between osteopontin levels and radiation response in malignant glioma. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 15 malignant glioma patients who underwent radiation therapy from July 2004 to May 2015 at the RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Osteopontin levels were measured from paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercial ELISA kit. Tumor volume was calculated using computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images, based on three-dimensional volume measurements. Tumor response was evaluated by comparing pre- and post-radiation tumor volumes using CT scan and MRI images. The mean osteopontin level was 0.49 ± 0.45 ng/mL and the mean percentage change in tumor volume was 8.59 ± 54.22%, with a 60% enlargement in tumor volume. A progressive disease was found in 26.7% of patients. There was a weak but insignificant negative correlation (r = -0.39, p = 0.146 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response. In contrast, there was a strong but insignificant positive correlation (r = +0.68, p = 0.219 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response in the patient group that used the chemosensitizer temozolamide.

  11. Treatment of Malignant Gliomas in Elderly Patients: A Concise Overview of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Farina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors and the incidence data has increased in the elderly population. Unfortunately, prospective studies on this population are few and so the right treatment is unknown. In the elderly patients no standard treatment has been established and therefore the optimal treatment should be individualized. We performed a review analyzing the prognostic and predictive factors, the clinical studies, and the correct management of this population.

  12. Myxoma Virus Infection Promotes NK Lysis of Malignant Gliomas In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Henry Ogbomo; Zemp, Franz J.; Xueqing Lun; Jiqing Zhang; Danuta Stack; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Grant McFadden; Christopher H Mody; Forsyth, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a well-established oncolytic agent against different types of tumors. MYXV is also known for its immunomodulatory properties in down-regulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I surface expression (via the M153R gene product, a viral E3-ubiquitin ligase) and suppressing T cell killing of infected target cells. MHC I down-regulation, however, favors NK cell activation. Brain tumors including gliomas are characterized by high MHC I expression with impaired NK activ...

  13. F11R is a novel monocyte prognostic biomarker for malignant glioma.

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    Winnie W Pong

    Full Text Available Brain tumors (gliomas contain large populations of infiltrating macrophages and recruited microglia, which in experimental murine glioma models promote tumor formation and progression. Among the barriers to understanding the contributions of these stromal elements to high-grade glioma (glioblastoma; GBM biology is the relative paucity of tools to characterize infiltrating macrophages and resident microglia. In this study, we leveraged multiple RNA analysis platforms to identify new monocyte markers relevant to GBM patient outcome.High-confidence lists of mouse resident microglia- and bone marrow-derived macrophage-specific transcripts were generated using converging RNA-seq and microarray technologies and validated using qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Expression of select cell surface markers was analyzed in brain-infiltrating macrophages and resident microglia in an induced GBM mouse model, while allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was performed to trace the origins of infiltrating and resident macrophages. Glioma tissue microarrays were examined by immunohistochemistry, and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database was queried to determine the prognostic value of identified microglia biomarkers in human GBM.We generated a unique catalog of differentially-expressed bone marrow-derived monocyte and resident microglia transcripts, and demonstrated that brain-infiltrating macrophages acquire F11R expression in GBM and following bone-marrow transplantation. Moreover, mononuclear cell F11R expression positively correlates with human high-grade glioma and additionally serves as a biomarker for GBM patient survival, regardless of GBM molecular subtype.These studies establish F11R as a novel monocyte prognostic marker for GBM critical for defining a subpopulation of stromal cells for future potential therapeutic intervention.

  14. {sup 18}F-Fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography may differentiate glioblastoma multiforme from less malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Kenji; Shiga, Tohru; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Houkin, Kiyohiro [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo (Japan); Hattori, Naoya [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Magota, Keiichi [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sapporo (Japan); Tanaka, Shinya [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Cancer Pathology, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and its prognosis is significantly poorer than those of less malignant gliomas. Pathologically, necrosis is one of the most important characteristics that differentiate GBM from lower grade gliomas; therefore, we hypothesized that {sup 18}F fluoromisonidazole (FMISO), a radiotracer for hypoxia imaging, accumulates in GBM but not in lower grade gliomas. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of FMISO positron emission tomography (PET) for the differential diagnosis of GBM from lower grade gliomas. This prospective study included 23 patients with pathologically confirmed gliomas. All of the patients underwent FMISO PET and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET within a week. FMISO images were acquired 4 h after intravenous administration of 400 MBq of FMISO. Tracer uptake in the tumor was visually assessed. Lesion to normal tissue ratios and FMISO uptake volume were calculated. Of the 23 glioma patients, 14 were diagnosed as having GBM (grade IV glioma in the 2007 WHO classification), and the others were diagnosed as having non-GBM (5 grade III and 4 grade II). In visual assessment, all GBM patients showed FMISO uptake in the tumor greater than that in the surrounding brain tissues, whereas all the non-GBM patients showed FMISO uptake in the tumor equal to that in the surrounding brain tissues (p {<=} 0.001). One GBM patient was excluded from FDG PET study because of hyperglycemia. All GBM patients and three of the nine (33%) non-GBM patients showed FDG uptake greater than or equal to that in the gray matter. The sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing GBM were 100 and 100% for FMISO, and 100 and 66% for FDG, respectively. The lesion to cerebellum ratio of FMISO uptake was higher in GBM patients (2.74 {+-} 0.60, range 1.71-3.81) than in non-GBM patients (1.22 {+-} 0.06, range 1.09-1.29, p {<=} 0.001) with no overlap between the groups. The lesion to gray matter ratio of FDG was also

  15. ASPM-associated stem cell proliferation is involved in malignant progression of gliomas and constitutes an attractive therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikeye, Sandra-Nadia Ngwabyt; Colin, Carole; Marie, Yannick; Vampouille, Raphaël; Ravassard, Philippe; Rousseau, Audrey; Boisselier, Blandine; Idbaih, Ahmed; Calvo, Charles Félix; Leuraud, Pascal; Lassalle, Myriam; El Hallani, Soufiane; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Sanson, Marc

    2010-01-11

    ASPM (Abnormal Spindle-like Microcephaly associated) over-expression was recently implicated in the development of malignant gliomas. To better characterize the involvement of ASPM in gliomas, we investigated the mRNA expression in 175 samples, including 8 WHO Grade II, 75 WHO Grade III and 92 WHO Grade IV tumors. Aspm expression was strongly correlated with tumor grade and increased at recurrence when compared to the initial lesion, whatever the initial grade of the primary tumor. ASPM expression also increased over serial passages in gliomaspheres in vitro and in mouse xenografts in vivo. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA silencing of ASPM resulted in dramatic proliferation arrest and cell death in two different gliomasphere models. These data suggest that ASPM is involved in the malignant progression of gliomas, possibly through expansion of a cancer stem cell compartment, and is an attractive therapeutic target in glioblastoma multiforme.

  16. ASPM-associated stem cell proliferation is involved in malignant progression of gliomas and constitutes an attractive therapeutic target

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    Calvo Charles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ASPM (Abnormal Spindle-like Microcephaly associated over-expression was recently implicated in the development of malignant gliomas. Results To better characterize the involvement of ASPM in gliomas, we investigated the mRNA expression in 175 samples, including 8 WHO Grade II, 75 WHO Grade III and 92 WHO Grade IV tumors. Aspm expression was strongly correlated with tumor grade and increased at recurrence when compared to the initial lesion, whatever the initial grade of the primary tumor. ASPM expression also increased over serial passages in gliomaspheres in vitro and in mouse xenografts in vivo. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA silencing of ASPM resulted in dramatic proliferation arrest and cell death in two different gliomasphere models. Conclusion These data suggest that ASPM is involved in the malignant progression of gliomas, possibly through expansion of a cancer stem cell compartment, and is an attractive therapeutic target in glioblastoma multiforme.

  17. Candidate genes for the progression of malignant gliomas identified by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinov, Oliver; Köhler, Sylvia; Samans, Birgit; Benes, Ludwig; Miller, Dorothea; Ritter, Markus; Sure, Ulrich; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III or IV have a reduced median survival time, and possible pathways have been described for the progression of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas, but the molecular basis of malignant astrocytoma progression is still poorly understood. Microarray analysis provides the chance to accelerate studies by comparison of the expression of thousands of genes in these tumours and consequently identify targeting genes. We compared the transcriptional profile of 4,608 genes in tumours of 15 patients including 6 anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III) and 9 glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) using microarray analysis. The microarray data were corroborated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of two selected genes. We identified 166 gene alterations with a fold change of 2 and higher whose mRNA levels differed (absolute value of the t statistic of 1.96) between the two malignant glioma groups. Further analyses confirmed same transcription directions for Olig2 and IL-13Ralpha2 in anaplastic astrocytomas as compared to glioblastomas. Microarray analyses with a close binary question reveal numerous interesting candidate genes, which need further histochemical testing after selection for confirmation. IL-13Ralpha2 and Olig2 have been identified and confirmed to be interesting candidate genes whose differential expression likely plays a role in malignant progression of astrocytomas.

  18. Bystander killing effect of tymidine kinase gene-transduced adult bone marrow stromal cells with ganciclovir on malignant glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Iwata, Junko; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Osada, Hideo; Tange, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Takuji; Aiko, Yasuhisa; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    Transduction of the suicide gene of Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (Hsv-tk) into glioma cells or neural stem cells combined with pro-drug ganciclovir (GCV) treatment has been effective to treat experimental glioma in the rat through the bystander effect. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) in the adult bone marrow have tropism for brain tumors and act as tumor stromal cells. Whether adult MSCs expressing Hsv-tk can also act as effector cells of the bystander killing effect on murine glioma cells was investigated. In vitro study of co-culture between 9L/LacZ (9L) glioma cells and Hsv-tk-transduced MSCs (MSCs/tk(+)) followed by GCV administration in the culture medium resulted in apparent nuclear morphological changes in the 9L glioma cells surrounding the MSCs/tk(+). 9L glioma cell survival in the presence of MSCs/tk(+) and GCV treatment was quantitatively measured and showed significant decrease of 9L glioma cell proliferation with higher MSCs/tk(+) ratio and GCV concentration. Intracerebral co-inoculation experiments in Fisher rats used 9L glioma cells and either MSCs/tk(+) or Hsv-tk-non-transduced MSCs (MSCs/tk(-)) followed by intraperitoneal injection of GCV (100 mg/kg, daily for 7 days). The animals co-inoculated with 9L glioma cells and MSCs/tk(+) showed significant retardation of tumor growth and prolongation of survival time compared with the animals with 9L glioma cells and MSCs/tk(-). Quantitative findings were established of the novel effects of adult MSCs/tk(+) as effector cells of the bystander killing effect on glioma cells.

  19. Glioma stem cells are more aggressive in recurrent tumors with malignant progression than in the primary tumor, and both can be maintained long-term in vitro

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    Diao Yi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the advances made during decades of research, the mechanisms by which glioma is initiated and established remain elusive. The discovery of glioma stem cells (GSCs may help to elucidate the processes of gliomagenesis with respect to their phenotype, differentiation and tumorigenic capacity during initiation and progression. Research on GSCs is still in its infancy, so no definitive conclusions about their role can yet be drawn. To understand the biology of GSCs fully, it is highly desirable to establish permanent and biologically stable GSC lines. Methods In the current study, GSCs were isolated from surgical specimens of primary and recurrent glioma in a patient whose malignancy had progressed during the previous six months. The GSCs were cryopreserved and resuscitated periodically during long-term maintenance to establish glioma stem/progenitor cell (GSPC lines, which were characterized by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and transmission electronic microscopy. The primary and recurrent GSPC lines were also compared in terms of in vivo tumorigenicity and invasiveness. Molecular genetic differences between the two lines were identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and further validated by real-time PCR. Results Two GSPC lines, SU-1 (primary and SU-2 (recurrent, were maintained in vitro for more than 44 months and 38 months respectively. Generally, the potentials for proliferation, self-renewal and multi-differentiation remained relatively stable even after a prolonged series of alternating episodes of cryopreservation and resuscitation. Intracranial transplantation of SU-1 cells produced relatively less invasive tumor mass in athymic nude mice, while SU-2 cells led to much more diffuse and aggressive lesions strikingly recapitulated their original tumors. Neither SU-1 nor SU-2 cells reached the terminal differentiation stage under conditions that would induce terminal differentiation in neural

  20. Glioma stem cells are more aggressive in recurrent tumors with malignant progression than in the primary tumor, and both can be maintained long-term in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Quan-Bin; Dong, Jun; Wu, Yin-Yan; Shen, Yun-Tian; Zhao, Yao-Dong; Zhu, Yu-De; Diao, Yi; Wang, Ai-Dong; Lan, Qing

    2008-10-22

    Despite the advances made during decades of research, the mechanisms by which glioma is initiated and established remain elusive. The discovery of glioma stem cells (GSCs) may help to elucidate the processes of gliomagenesis with respect to their phenotype, differentiation and tumorigenic capacity during initiation and progression. Research on GSCs is still in its infancy, so no definitive conclusions about their role can yet be drawn. To understand the biology of GSCs fully, it is highly desirable to establish permanent and biologically stable GSC lines. In the current study, GSCs were isolated from surgical specimens of primary and recurrent glioma in a patient whose malignancy had progressed during the previous six months. The GSCs were cryopreserved and resuscitated periodically during long-term maintenance to establish glioma stem/progenitor cell (GSPC) lines, which were characterized by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and transmission electronic microscopy. The primary and recurrent GSPC lines were also compared in terms of in vivo tumorigenicity and invasiveness. Molecular genetic differences between the two lines were identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and further validated by real-time PCR. Two GSPC lines, SU-1 (primary) and SU-2 (recurrent), were maintained in vitro for more than 44 months and 38 months respectively. Generally, the potentials for proliferation, self-renewal and multi-differentiation remained relatively stable even after a prolonged series of alternating episodes of cryopreservation and resuscitation. Intracranial transplantation of SU-1 cells produced relatively less invasive tumor mass in athymic nude mice, while SU-2 cells led to much more diffuse and aggressive lesions strikingly recapitulated their original tumors. Neither SU-1 nor SU-2 cells reached the terminal differentiation stage under conditions that would induce terminal differentiation in neural stem cells. The differentiation of most of the tumor

  1. Pharmacokinetic and Tumor Distribution Characteristics of Temsirolimus in Patients with Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, John G.; Chang, Susan M.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Greenberg, Harry; Schiff, David; Conrad, Charles; Fink, Karen L.; Robins, H. Ian; Mehta, Minesh; DeAngelis, Lisa; Raizer, Jeffrey; Hess, Kenneth; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Dancey, Janet; Prados, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the pharmacokinetics of temsirolimus and its major metabolite, sirolimus, in patients receiving enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAED) compared with patients receiving non-EIAEDs. An additional objective was to determine whether concentrations of temsirolimus or sirolimus were achieved in brain tumor tissue. Experimental Design Patients with recurrent malignant gliomas not receiving EIAEDs initially received temsirolimus weekly at a dose of 250 mg i.v. The dose was subsequently reduced to 170 mg due to intolerable side effects. For patients taking EIAEDs, the starting dose of temsirolimus was 250 mg with standard dose escalation until the maximal tolerated dose was established. Ten whole blood samples were obtained over a period of 24 h after administration of temsirolimus for pharmacokinetic assessments. Patients eligible for cytoreductive surgery received temsirolimus before tumor resection. Whole blood and tumor tissue were obtained for analysis. Results Significant differences in the pharmacokinetic variables for temsirolimus and sirolimus were observed between the two patient groups at a comparable dose level of 250 mg. For patients receiving EIAEDs, the systemic exposure to temsirolimus was lower by 1.5-fold. Likewise, peak concentrations and exposure to sirolimus were lower by 2-fold. Measurable concentrations of temsirolimus and sirolimus were observed in brain tumor specimens. The average tissue to whole blood ratio for temsirolimus was 1.43 and 0.84 for sirolimus. Conclusions Drugs that induce cytochrome P450 3A4, such as EIAEDs, significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of temsirolimus and its active metabolite, sirolimus. Total exposure to temsirolimus and sirolimus was lower in the EIAED group at the maximum tolerated dose of 250 mg compared with the non-EIAED group at the maximum tolerated dose of 170 mg. However, brain tumor tissue concentrations of temsirolimus and sirolimus were relatively comparable in both groups of

  2. The in vitro effects of tricyclic drugs and dexamethasone on cellular respiration of malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, S C; Pilkington, G J

    2010-02-01

    In this investigation the effects of tricyclic drugs on cellular respiration were studied using the anaplastic astrocytoma cell line IPSB-18 by use of a Clark-type oxygen electrode which measured changes in cellular respiration rate (oxygen consumption), in a dose-response assay. The drugs investigated were clomipramine, norclomipramine, amitriptyline and doxepin. In addition, the combined effects of dexamethasone and clomipramine on cellular respiration were investigated. It was established that at lower concentrations (0.14 mM-0.5 mM) amitriptyline was the most potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. Previous studies have indicated that inhibition of cellular respiration is considered an indicator of apoptosis. Overall, it appeared that clomipramine and its metabolite norclomipramine were the most potent inhibitors of cellular respiration in glioma cells over the concentration range 0.5-0.9 mM. Dexamethasone was able to induce inhibition of cellular respiration both alone in glioma cells, and in combination with clomipramine, where it had an additive or synergistic effect, thereby increasing cell death. The extensive research currently ongoing and previously reported regarding the use of clomipramine as a potential antineoplastic agent aimed at targeting the mitochondria of gliomas is promising.

  3. Human cytomegalovirus antigens in malignant gliomas as targets for adoptive cellular therapy

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    Daniel eLandi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor in adults, with over 12,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States each year. Over the last decade, investigators have reliably identified human cytomegalovirus (HCMV proteins, nucleic acids, and virions in most high-grade gliomas, including glioblastoma (GBM. This discovery is significant because human cytomegalovirus gene products can be targeted by immune-based therapies.In this review, we describe the current level of understanding regarding the presence and role in pathogenesis of HCMV in GBM. We describe our success detecting and expanding HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill GBM cells and explain how these cells can be used as a platform for enhanced cellular therapies. We discuss alternative approaches that capitalize on HCMV infection to treat patients with HCMV-positive tumors. Adoptive cellular therapy for HCMV-positive GBM has been tried in a small number of patients with some benefit, but we reason why, to date, these approaches generally fail to generate long-term remission or cure. We conjecture how cellular therapy for GBM can be improved and describe the barriers that must be overcome to cure these patients.

  4. Tracking Functional Tumor Cell Subpopulations of Malignant Glioma by Phasor Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy of NADH

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    Andrew L. Trinh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra-tumoral heterogeneity is associated with therapeutic resistance of cancer and there exists a need to non-invasively identify functional tumor subpopulations responsible for tumor recurrence. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH is a metabolic coenzyme essential in cellular respiration. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM of NADH has been demonstrated to be a powerful label-free indicator for inferring metabolic states of living cells. Using FLIM, we identified a significant shift towards longer NADH fluorescence lifetimes, suggesting an increase in the fraction of protein-bound NADH, in the invasive stem-like tumor-initiating cell (STIC subpopulation relative to the tumor mass-forming cell (TMC subpopulation of malignant gliomas. By applying our previously studied model to transition glioma from a majority of STIC to a majority of TMC in serum-adherent culture conditions following serial passages, we compared changes in NADH states, cellular respirations (oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, EGFR expression, and cell-growth speed over passages. We identified a significant positive correlation between free-NADH fraction and cell growth, which was related to an increase of TMC fraction. In comparison, the increase of EGFR and cellular respirations preceded all these changes. In conclusion, FLIM of NADH provides a non-invasive method to monitor the dynamics of tumor heterogeneity before and after treatment.

  5. IDH mutation is associated with higher risk of malignant transformation in low-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Severina; von Felten, Stefanie; Frank, Stephan; Boulay, Jean-Louis; Mariani, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Acquisition of IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (IDHmut) is among the earliest genetic events that take place in the development of most low-grade glioma (LGG). IDHmut has been associated with longer overall patient survival. However, its impact on malignant transformation (MT) remains to be defined. A collection of 210 archived adult LGG previously stratified by IDHmut, MGMT methylation (MGMTmet), 1p/19q combined loss of heterozygosity (1p19qloh) and TP53 immunopositivity (TP53pos) status was analyzed. We used multistate models to assess MT-free survival, considering one initial, one transient (MT), and one absorbing state (death). Missing explanatory variables were multiply imputed. Overall, although associated with a lower risk of death (HR(DEATH) = 0.35, P = 0.0023), IDHmut had a non-significantly higher risk of MT (HR(MT) = 1.84; P = 0.1683) compared to IDH wild type (IDHwt). The double combination of IDHmut and MGMTmet and the triple combination of IDHmut, MGMTmet and 1p/19qloh, despite significantly lower hazards for death (HR(DEATH) versus IDHwt: 0.35, P = 0.0194 and 0.15, P = 0.0008, respectively), had non-significantly different hazards for MT. Conversely, the triple combination of IDHmut/MGMTmet/TP53pos, with a non-significantly different hazard for death, had a significantly higher hazard for MT than IDHwt (HR(MT) versus IDHwt: 2.83; P = 0.0452). Although IDHmut status is associated with longer overall patient survival, all IDHmut/MGMTmet subsets consistently showed higher risks of MT than of death, compared to IDHwt LGG. This supports the findings that molecular events relevant to IDH mutations impact early glioma development prior to malignant transformation.

  6. Plant thymidine kinase 1: a novel efficient suicide gene for malignant glioma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zahidul; Knecht, Wolfgang; Willer, Mette; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Kristoffersen, Peter; Clausen, Anders Ranegaard; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Almqvist, Per M; Gojkovic, Zoran; Piskur, Jure; Ekström, Tomas J

    2010-06-01

    The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains poor, and new treatments are urgently needed. Targeted suicide gene therapy exploits the enzymatic conversion of a prodrug, such as a nucleoside analog, into a cytotoxic compound. Although this therapeutic strategy has been considered a promising regimen for central nervous system (CNS) tumors, several obstacles have been encountered such as inefficient gene transfer to the tumor cells, limited prodrug penetration into the CNS, and inefficient enzymatic activity of the suicide gene. We report here the cloning and successful application of a novel thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) from the tomato plant, with favorable characteristics in vitro and in vivo. This enzyme (toTK1) is highly specific for the nucleoside analog prodrug zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT), which is known to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. An important feature of toTK1 is that it efficiently phosphorylates its substrate AZT not only to AZT monophosphate, but also to AZT diphosphate, with excellent kinetics. The efficiency of the toTK1/AZT system was confirmed when toTK1-transduced human glioblastoma (GBM) cells displayed a 500-fold increased sensitivity to AZT compared with wild-type cells. In addition, when neural progenitor cells were used as delivery vectors for toTK1 in intracranial GBM xenografts in nude rats, substantial attenuation of tumor growth was achieved in animals exposed to AZT, and survival of the animals was significantly improved compared with controls. The novel toTK1/AZT suicide gene therapy system in combination with stem cell-mediated gene delivery promises new treatment of malignant gliomas.

  7. Mismatch Repair Deficiency Does Not Mediate Clinical Resistance to Temozolomide in Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jill A.; Johnson, Stewart P.; McLendon, Roger E.; Lister, David W.; Horne, Krystle S.; Rasheed, Ahmed; Quinn, Jennifer A.; Ali-Osman, Francis; Friedman, Allan H.; Modrich, Paul L.; Bigner, Darell D.; Friedman, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A major mechanism of resistance to methylating agents, including temozolomide, is the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Preclinical data indicates that defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) results in tolerance to temozolomide regardless of AGT activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of MMR deficiency in mediating resistance in samples from patients with both newly diagnosed malignant gliomas and those who have failed temozolomide therapy. Experimental Design The roles of AGT and MMR deficiency in mediating resistance in glioblastoma multiforme were assessed by immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability (MSI), respectively. The mutation status of the MSH6 gene, a proposed correlate of temozolomide resistance, was determined by direct sequencing and compared with data from immunofluorescent detection of MSH6 protein and reverse transcription-PCR amplification of MSH6 RNA. Results Seventy percent of newly diagnosed and 78 % of failed-therapy glioblastoma multiforme samples expressed nuclear AGT protein in ≥20% of cells analyzed, suggesting alternate means of resistance in 20% to 30% of cases. Single loci MSI was observed in 3% of patient samples; no sample showed the presence of high MSI. MSI was not shown to correlate with MSH6 mutation or loss of MSH6 protein expression. Conclusions Although high AGT levels may mediate resistance in a portion of these samples, MMR deficiency does not seem to be responsible for mediating temozolomide resistance in adult malignant glioma. Accordingly, the presence of a fraction of samples exhibiting both lowAGT expression and MMR proficiency suggests that additional mechanisms of temozolomide resistance are operational in the clinic. PMID:18676759

  8. Decreased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is associated with neural progenitor phenotype in normal brain and shorter survival in malignant glioma.

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    Brent A Orr

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modification of DNA by cytosine methylation to produce 5-methylcytosine (5mC has become well-recognized as an important epigenetic process in human health and disease. Recently, further modification of 5mC by the ten eleven translocated (TET family of enzymes to produce 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC has been described. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the distribution of 5hmC in human brain during different periods of development and in a large series of gliomas (n=225. We found that during development, 5hmC levels are high in more differentiated compartments like the fetal cortex, but low in the periventricular progenitor cell regions. In adults, we found 5hmC levels to be highest in the cortex, but present in all intrinsic cell types in the brain including stromal elements. In brain tumors, 5hmC levels were high in low grade tumors and reduced in malignant glioma, but did not exhibit any correlation with IDH1 mutation status. Additionally, we identified a significant relationship between low levels of 5hmC and reduced survival in malignant glioma. This observation was further supported by in silico analysis showing differential expression of genes involved in 5hmC homeostasis in aggressive subsets of glioblastoma. Finally, we show that several genes involved in regulating the levels of 5hmC are also prognostic in malignant glioma. These findings suggest that 5hmC regulation in malignant glioma may represent an important determinant of tumor differentiation and aggressive behavior, as well as a potential therapeutic target.

  9. Decreasing expression of the interleukin-13 receptor IL-13Ralpha2 in treated recurrent malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinov, Oliver; Kalk, Jens-Martin; Krayenbühl, Niklaus; Woernle, Christoph Michael; Sure, Ulrich; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The IL-13Ralpha2 gene encodes for a 65 kDa protein that forms one of the subunits of the interleukin-13 (IL-13) receptor. This gene is highly expressed in various types of human tumors including malignant gliomas. The expression level of IL-13Ralpha2 was examined in a total of 45 tissue samples of anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) World Health Organization (WHO) grade III, glioblastomas (GBMs) WHO grade IV, and first-recurrent glioblastomas (frGBMs) after treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. IL-13Ralpha2 expression was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using ABI PRISM 7700 and Qiagen QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR kits. The expression level of IL-13Ralpha2 (15 fold) was significantly reduced in frGBMs compared to the primary GBMs (p = 0.014), and significantly reduced by more than 15 fold (p = 0.003) in all untreated malignant astrocytomas (AAs and GBMs) compared with treated frGBMs. Expression of IL-13Ralpha2 seems to be lower in frGBMs compared to GBMs. The promising antitumor effect of IL-13 cytotoxin could be greatly reduced in frGBM or only achievable with higher amounts of cytotoxin, due to the significantly lower expression of the cytotoxin's target structure.

  10. Dexamethasone inhibits the HSV-tk/ ganciclovir bystander effect in malignant glioma cells

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    Jolois Olivier

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HSV-tk/ ganciclovir (GCV gene therapy has been extensively studied in the setting of brain tumors and largely relies on the bystander effect. Large studies have however failed to demonstrate any significant benefit of this strategy in the treatment of human brain tumors. Since dexamethasone is a frequently used symptomatic treatment for malignant gliomas, its interaction with the bystander effect and the overall efficacy of HSV-TK gene therapy ought to be assessed. Methods Stable clones of TK-expressing U87, C6 and LN18 cells were generated and their bystander effect on wild type cells was assessed. The effects of dexamethasone on cell proliferation and sensitivity to ganciclovir were assessed with a thymidine incorporation assay and a MTT test. Gap junction mediated intercellular communication was assessed with microinjections and FACS analysis of calcein transfer. The effect of dexamethasone treatment on the sensitivity of TK-expressing to FAS-dependent apoptosis in the presence or absence of ganciclovir was assessed with an MTT test. Western blot was used to evidence the effect of dexamethasone on the expression of Cx43, CD95, CIAP2 and BclXL. Results Dexamethasone significantly reduced the bystander effect in TK-expressing C6, LN18 and U87 cells. This inhibition results from a reduction of the gap junction mediated intercellular communication of these cells (GJIC, from an inhibition of their growth and thymidine incorporation and from a modulation of the apoptotic cascade. Conclusion The overall efficacy of HSV-TK gene therapy is adversely affected by dexamethasone co-treatment in vitro. Future HSV-tk/ GCV gene therapy clinical protocols for gliomas should address this interference of corticosteroid treatment.

  11. Novel antitumor effect of carboplatin delivered by intracerebral microinfusion in a rat malignant glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Iwata, Junko; Aiko, Yasuhisa; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Mori, Kentaro

    2009-12-01

    Carboplatin loaded osmotic mini-pumps were implanted in 24 9L malignant glioma-bearing rats to investigate the implications of direct intracerebral microinfusion. Carboplatin using 0.1 mg/ml (low dose group) or 1.0 mg/ml (high dose group) with eight rats in each group, or 5% D-glucose (control group) in eight rats were infused at 1 microl/hr for 7 days. The tumor volume was serially measured by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium as the enhanced area, and the survival periods and histological findings were also examined. Separately, to examine the effects of intracerebral carboplatin infusion on vascular permeability, tumor-bearing rats received intravenous administration of 2% Evans blue at 21 days after infusion. The high dose group showed transient increase of enhanced volume at 21 days associated with mass effect, and significantly decreased tumor volume at 28 and 35 days compared with the control and low dose groups. The high dose group showed significant longer survival time than the control and low dose groups. Histological examination of the high dose group at 21 days showed the central tumor necrotic area around the infusion site and Evans blue leakage into the surrounding enhanced rim and the necrotic core. Therefore, leakage of plasma fluid into the necrotic area was considered to be the cause of apparent transient swelling. The present study demonstrated quantitatively using MR imaging that intracerebral carboplatin microinfusion significantly inhibited the rapid growth of experimental rat glioma but that the high dose required carries the risk of transient swelling of the target tumor.

  12. Dexamethasone inhibits the HSV-tk/ ganciclovir bystander effect in malignant glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robe, Pierre A; Nguyen-Khac, Minh; Jolois, Olivier; Rogister, Bernard; Merville, Marie-Paule; Bours, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Background HSV-tk/ ganciclovir (GCV) gene therapy has been extensively studied in the setting of brain tumors and largely relies on the bystander effect. Large studies have however failed to demonstrate any significant benefit of this strategy in the treatment of human brain tumors. Since dexamethasone is a frequently used symptomatic treatment for malignant gliomas, its interaction with the bystander effect and the overall efficacy of HSV-TK gene therapy ought to be assessed. Methods Stable clones of TK-expressing U87, C6 and LN18 cells were generated and their bystander effect on wild type cells was assessed. The effects of dexamethasone on cell proliferation and sensitivity to ganciclovir were assessed with a thymidine incorporation assay and a MTT test. Gap junction mediated intercellular communication was assessed with microinjections and FACS analysis of calcein transfer. The effect of dexamethasone treatment on the sensitivity of TK-expressing to FAS-dependent apoptosis in the presence or absence of ganciclovir was assessed with an MTT test. Western blot was used to evidence the effect of dexamethasone on the expression of Cx43, CD95, CIAP2 and BclXL. Results Dexamethasone significantly reduced the bystander effect in TK-expressing C6, LN18 and U87 cells. This inhibition results from a reduction of the gap junction mediated intercellular communication of these cells (GJIC), from an inhibition of their growth and thymidine incorporation and from a modulation of the apoptotic cascade. Conclusion The overall efficacy of HSV-TK gene therapy is adversely affected by dexamethasone co-treatment in vitro. Future HSV-tk/ GCV gene therapy clinical protocols for gliomas should address this interference of corticosteroid treatment. PMID:15804364

  13. Phase II multicenter study of gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy as adjuvant to surgical resection for newly diagnosed malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lee A; Manzanera, Andrea G; Bell, Susan D; Cavaliere, Robert; McGregor, John M; Grecula, John C; Newton, Herbert B; Lo, Simon S; Badie, Behnam; Portnow, Jana; Teh, Bin S; Trask, Todd W; Baskin, David S; New, Pamela Z; Aguilar, Laura K; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Chiocca, E Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Despite aggressive standard of care (SOC) treatment, survival of malignant gliomas remains very poor. This Phase II, prospective, matched controlled, multicenter trial was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of aglatimagene besadenovec (AdV-tk) plus valacyclovir (gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy [GMCI]) in combination with SOC for newly diagnosed malignant glioma patients. Treatment cohort patients received SOC + GMCI and were enrolled at 4 institutions from 2006 to 2010. The preplanned, matched-control cohort included all concurrent patients meeting protocol criteria and SOC at a fifth institution. AdV-tk was administered at surgery followed by SOC radiation and temozolomide. Subset analyses were preplanned, based on prognostic factors: pathological diagnosis (glioblastoma vs others) and extent of resection. Forty-eight patients completed SOC + GMCI, and 134 met control cohort criteria. Median overall survival (OS) was 17.1 months for GMCI + SOC versus 13.5 months for SOC alone (P = .0417). Survival at 1, 2, and 3 years was 67%, 35%, and 19% versus 57%, 22%, and 8%, respectively. The greatest benefit was observed in gross total resection patients: median OS of 25 versus 16.9 months (P = .0492); 1, 2, and 3-year survival of 90%, 53%, and 32% versus 64%, 28% and 6%, respectively. There were no dose-limiting toxicities; fever, fatigue, and headache were the most common GMCI-related symptoms. GMCI can be safely combined with SOC in newly diagnosed malignant gliomas. Survival outcomes were most notably improved in patients with minimal residual disease after gross total resection. These data should help guide future immunotherapy studies and strongly support further evaluation of GMCI for malignant gliomas. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00589875. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Postoperative radiation therapy for malignant glioma. Results of conventional radiation therapy

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    Teshima, T.; Inoue, T.; Chatani, M.; Hata, K.; Taki, T.; Nii, Y.; Nakagawa, H.

    1987-02-01

    From December 1977 through September 1984, a total of 39 cases of malignant glioma were treated with radiation therapy (RT) postoperatively. Twenty-nine cases were classified into glioblastoma (GM) and 10 astrocytoma (AS) (low grade : 6 and anaplastic : 4) histologically. One third of cases received 50 Gy/25 FRX/5 WKS of whole brain RT. Another two thirds of cases underwent 60 Gy/30 FRX/6 WKS of whole brain or 50 Gy/25 FRX/5 WKS of whole brain + additional 20 Gy/10 FRX/2 WKS of localized field RT. Chemotherapy (BLM, MeCCNU and ACNU) was given for 34 cases. Survivals at 3 years for GM and AS were 12 % and 68 %, respectively. Prognostic factors for GM were age, neurologic function (RTOG), AJC-staging T-factor, pre-RT LDH level and volume of residual tumor. Corresponding factors for AS were histological subclassification and neurologic function (RTOG). However, RT dose and field did not impact on survival significantly. Acute adverse effects of RT were otitis media or externa (70 %) and conjunctivitis (8 %). Retinal bleeding was noted in three long-term survivors at 2 years after RT.

  15. Personalized care in neuro-oncology coming of age: why we need MGMT and 1p/19q testing for malignant glioma patients in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Michael; Stupp, Roger; Hegi, Monika E.; van den Bent, Martin; Tonn, Joerg C.; Sanson, Marc; Wick, Wolfgang; Reifenberger, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Histological subtyping and grading by malignancy are the cornerstones of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system. They shall provide clinicians with guidance as to the course of disease to be expected and the choices of treatment to be made. Nonetheless, patients with histologically identical tumors may have very different outcomes, notably in patients with astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas of WHO grades II and III. In gliomas of adulthood, 3 molecular markers have undergone extensive studies in recent years: 1p/19q chromosomal codeletion, O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, and mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2. However, the assessment of these molecular markers has so far not been implemented in clinical routine because of the lack of therapeutic implications. In fact, these markers were considered to be prognostic irrespective of whether patients were receiving radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy, or both (1p/19q, IDH1/2), or of limited value because testing is too complex and no chemotherapy alternative to temozolomide was available (MGMT). In 2012, this situation has changed: long-term follow-up of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 26951 trials demonstrated an overall survival benefit from the addition to RT of chemotherapy with procarbazine/CCNU/vincristine confined to patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors with (vs without) 1p/19q codeletion. Furthermore, in elderly glioblastoma patients, the NOA-08 and the Nordic trial of RT alone versus temozolomide alone demonstrated a profound impact of MGMT promoter methylation on outcome by therapy and thus established MGMT as a predictive biomarker in this patient population. These recent results call for the routine implementation of 1p/19q and MGMT testing at least in subpopulations of malignant glioma patients and represent an encouraging

  16. Light-controlled inhibition of malignant glioma by opsin gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Tu, J; Pan, J-Q; Luo, H-L; Liu, Y-H; Wan, J; Zhang, J; Wei, P-F; Jiang, T; Chen, Y-H; Wang, L-P

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas are aggressive cancers with low survival rates and poor prognosis because of their highly proliferative and invasive capacity. In the current study, we describe a new optogenetic strategy that selectively inhibits glioma cells through light-controlled membrane depolarization and cell death. Transfer of the engineered opsin ChETA (engineered Channelrhodopsin-2 variant) gene into primary human glioma cells or cell lines, but not normal astrocytes, unexpectedly decreased cell proliferation and increased mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, upon light stimulation. These optogenetic effects were mediated by membrane depolarization-induced reductions in cyclin expression and mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Importantly, the ChETA gene transfer and light illumination in mice significantly inhibited subcutaneous and intracranial glioma growth and increased the survival of the animals bearing the glioma. These results uncover an unexpected effect of opsin ion channels on glioma cells and offer the opportunity for the first time to treat glioma using a light-controllable optogenetic approach. PMID:24176851

  17. Trans-4-lodo,4'-boranyl-chalcone induces antitumor activity against malignant glioma cell lines in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Takashi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Mizukawa, Katsu; Kawamura, Atsufumi; Kondoh, Takeshi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2007-11-01

    Chalcones are considered the precursors of flavonoids and have been identified as interesting compounds with antitumor properties. Boronic-chalcone derivatives are more toxic to breast cancer cells compared to normal breast cells. Here, we studied the antitumor activities of trans-4-lodo,4'-boranyl-chalcone (TLBC), which is a boronic-chalcone derivative, in several glioma cell lines. TLBC showed a dose-dependent inhibition with inhibitory concentration 50% value in the muM range (5.5-25.5 microM) in various glioma cell lines. Flow cytometric and western blot assay demonstrated that TLBC induced apoptosis independent of changes to the tumor suppressor p53. This cytotoxic effect was the caspase-dependent manner. Also, TLBC lowered levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-X(L) protein in several of the cell lines. To examine the antitumor effect of TLBC in vivo, we used a malignant glioma xenograft model. This result showed that in the mice treated with TLBC at 20 mg/kg, mean tumor volume was reduced by 43.9% (P < 0.01) in comparison with the control group. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis showed that Bcl-2 protein levels were decreased and Bax protein levels were slightly increased in the tumors injected with 20 mg/kg TLBC compared with the control tumors. Therefore, we conclude that TLBC may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for human glioma.

  18. Histologic classification of gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157872866

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic,

  19. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Isotretinoin in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  20. C/EBPβ mediates RNA polymerase III-driven transcription of oncomiR-138 in malignant gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pascale, Federica; Nama, Srikanth; Muhuri, Manish; Quah, Shan; Ismail, Hisyam M; Chan, Xin Hui Derryn; Sundaram, Gopinath M; Ramalingam, Rajkumar; Burke, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract MicroRNA-138 (miR-138) is a pro-survival oncomiR for glioma stem cells. In malignant gliomas, dysregulated expression of microRNAs, such as miR-138, promotes Tumour initiation and progression. Here, we identify the ancillary role of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) as a transcriptional activator of miR-138. We demonstrate that a short 158 bp DNA sequence encoding the precursor of miR-138-2 is essential and sufficient for transcription of miR-138. This short sequence includes the A-box and B-box elements characteristic of RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) promoters, and is also directly bound by C/EBPβ via an embedded ‘C/EBPβ responsive element’ (CRE). CRE and the Pol III B-box element overlap, suggesting that C/EBPβ and transcription factor 3C (TFIIIC) interact at the miR-138-2 locus. We propose that this interaction is essential for the recruitment of the RNA Pol III initiation complex and associated transcription of the oncomiR, miR-138 in malignant gliomas. PMID:29136251

  1. Immunogene therapy using immunomodulating HVJ-E vector augments anti-tumor effects in murine malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masahide; Nimura, Keisuke; Shimbo, Takashi; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2011-05-01

    The hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) vector derived from inactivated replication-defective Sendai virus enhances anti-tumor immunity through activation of effector T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and inhibition of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Interleukin (IL)-2 enhances T cell proliferation and activates T cells and NK cells. However, recent studies have revealed that the application of IL-2 also has immune suppressive effects through expansion of Tregs. Here, we investigated the efficacy of IL-2 gene therapy using immunomodulating HVJ-E vector in murine malignant glioma models. A single intratumoral injection of HVJ-E containing pVAX-mIL-2 significantly suppressed tumor growth of intracranial gliomas, resulting in prolonged survival. Furthermore, HVJ-E, following intracavitary administration, delivered genes into post-operative residual tumor cells. Consequently, prolonged survival resulted from a single intracavitary administration of HVJ-E containing pVAX-mIL-2 following tumor removal. IL-2 gene therapy delivered via the HVJ-E vector significantly inhibited the expansion of Tregs in tumors compared to IL-2 gene transfer using retroviral vector and resulted in marked infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells into tumors. Through inhibition of Treg-mediated immunosuppression, HVJ-E enhanced effector T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity induced by IL-2. This combination of an immunomodulating vector and immunostimulating cytokine gene shows promise as an attractive, novel immunogene therapy for malignant glioma.

  2. Convection-enhanced delivery and in vivo imaging of polymeric nanoparticles for the treatment of malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Giovanna M; LaRiviere, Michael J; Mansour, Nassir; Pytel, Peter; Cahill, Kirk E; Voce, David J; Kang, Shijun; Spretz, Ruben; Welp, Ulrich; Noriega, Sandra E; Nunez, Luis; Larsen, Gustavo F; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2014-01-01

    A major obstacle to the management of malignant glioma is the inability to effectively deliver therapeutic agent to the tumor. In this study, we describe a polymeric nanoparticle vector that not only delivers viable therapeutic, but can also be tracked in vivo using MRI. Nanoparticles, produced by a non-emulsion technique, were fabricated to carry iron oxide within the shell and the chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ), as the payload. Nanoparticle properties were characterized and subsequently their endocytosis-mediated uptake by glioma cells was demonstrated. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can disperse nanoparticles through the rodent brain and their distribution is accurately visualized by MRI. Infusion of nanoparticles does not result in observable animal toxicity relative to control. CED of TMZ-bearing nanoparticles prolongs the survival of animals with intracranial xenografts compared to control. In conclusion, the described nanoparticle vector represents a unique multifunctional platform that can be used for image-guided treatment of malignant glioma. GBM remains one of the most notoriously treatment-unresponsive cancer types. In this study, a multifunctional nanoparticle-based temozolomide delivery system was demonstrated to possess enhanced treatment efficacy in a rodent xenograft GBM model, with the added benefit of MRI-based tracking via the incorporation of iron oxide as a T2* contrast material in the nanoparticles. © 2014.

  3. Impact of MACC1 on human malignant glioma progression and patients' unfavorable prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Carsten; Fuchs, Steffen; Monoranu, Camelia M; Herrmann, Pia; Smith, Janice; Hohmann, Tim; Grabiec, Urszula; Kessler, Almuth F; Dehghani, Faramarz; Löhr, Mario; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Vince, Giles H; Stein, Ulrike

    2013-12-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been established as an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis formation and metastasis-free survival for patients with colon cancer and other solid tumors. However, no data are available concerning MACC1 expression in human astrocytic tumors. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent primary brain tumor of adulthood, and due to its invasive and rapid growth, patients have unfavorable prognoses. Although these tumors rarely metastasize, their invasive and migratory behavior is similar to those of metastatic cells of tumors of different origin. Thus, we hypothesized that MACC1 may be involved in progression of human gliomas. We performed real-time measurements of proliferation and migration in MACC1-transfected GBM cell lines (U138, U251) and evaluated tumor formation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures of mice. Semiquantitative and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses were performed for MACC1 and for its transcriptional target c-Met in human astrocytoma of World Health Organization grade II (low-grade astrocytoma) and GBM biopsies. Data were validated by MACC1 immunohistochemistry in independent matched samples of low-grade astrocytoma and GBM. MACC1 increases the proliferative, migratory, and tumor-formation abilities of GBM cells. The c-Met inhibitor crizotinib reduced MACC1-induced migration and tumor formation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures of mice. Analyzing patients' biopsies, MACC1 expression increased concomitantly with increasing World Health Organization grade. Moreover, MACC1 expression levels allowed discrimination of dormant and recurrent low-grade astrocytomas and of primary and secondary GBM. Strong MACC1 expression correlated with reduced patient survival. MACC1 may represent a promising biomarker for prognostication and a new target for treatment of human gliomas.

  4. MicroRNA-203 Modulates the Radiation Sensitivity of Human Malignant Glioma Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ji Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Yeo Hyun; Lee, David J.; Kim, Dan Hyo; Park, Ji Min [Medical Science Research Institute, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Kyeonggido (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong-Gyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah, E-mail: inah228@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Medical Science Research Institute, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Kyeonggido (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether miR-203 could modulate the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and which target gene(s) could be involved. Methods and Materials: Three human malignant glioma (MG) cell lines and normal human astrocytes were transfected with control microRNA, pre-miR-203, or antisense miR-203. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR), clonogenic assays, immunofluorescence, and invasion/migration assays were performed. To predict the target(s), bioinformatics analyses using microRNA target databases were performed. Results: Overexpression of miR-203 increased the radiation sensitivity of all 3 human MG cell lines and prolonged radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that miR-203 could be involved in post-transcriptional control of DNA repair, PI3K/AKT, SRC, and JAK/STAT3 and the vascular signaling pathway. Western blot analysis validated the fact that miR-203 downregulated ATM, RAD51, SRC, PLD2, PI3K-AKT, JAK-STAT3, VEGF, HIF-1α, and MMP2. Overexpression of miR-203 inhibited invasion and migration potentials, downregulated SLUG and Vimentin, and upregulated Claudin-1 and ZO1. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that miR-203 potentially controls DNA damage repair via the PI3K/AKT and JAK/STAT3 pathways and may collectively contribute to the modulation of radiation sensitivity in MG cells by inhibiting DNA damage repair, prosurvival signaling, and epithelium-mesenchyme transition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-203 could be a target for overcoming the radiation resistance of GBM.

  5. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  6. Blood-brain barrier pericyte importance in malignant gliomas: what we can learn from stroke and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sadhana; ElAli, Ayman; Virgintino, Daniela; Gilbert, Mark R

    2017-09-01

    The pericyte, a constitutive component of the central nervous system, is a poorly understood cell type that envelops the endothelial cell with the intended purpose of regulating vascular flow and endothelial cell permeability. Previous studies of pericyte function have been limited to a small number of disease processes such as ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Recently, publications have postulated a link between glioma stem cell differentiation and pericyte function. These studies suggest that there may be an important interaction of pericytes with tumor cells and other components of the tumor microenvironment in malignant primary glial neoplasms, most notably glioblastoma. This potential cellular interaction underscores the need to pursue more investigations of pericytes in malignant brain tumor biology. In this review, we summarize the functional roles of pericytes, particularly focusing on changes in pericyte biology during response to immune cells, inflammation, and hypoxic conditions. The information presented is based on the available data from studies of pericyte function in other central nervous system diseases but will serve as a foundation for research investigations to further understand the role of pericytes in malignant gliomas. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Oncolytic virotherapy for malignant glioma: translating laboratory insights into clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda eAuffinger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme, one of the most common and aggressive brain tumors in adults, is highly resistant to currently available therapies and often recurs. Due to its poor prognosis and difficult management, there is an urgent need for the development and translation of new anti-glioma therapeutic approaches into the clinic. In this context, oncolytic virotherapy arises as an exciting treatment option for glioma patients. These natural or genetically engineered viruses are able to effectively infect cancer cells, inducing a specific anti-tumor cytotoxic effect. In addition, some viruses have been redesigned to specially modulate glioma microenvironment, to express cytokines to boost a systemic anti-glioma immune response and to incorporate angiostatic genes to decrease glioma vasculature. Although recent clinical trials have confirmed the safety of oncolytic virotherapies in the brain, their moderate clinical efficacy has not yet matched the encouraging preclinical laboratory results. In this review, we will discuss the leading anti-glioma virotherapy approaches that are presently under preclinical and clinical evaluation. We will also review different delivery methods, in vivo virus behavior, fate, replication, and intratumoral spread, activation of antitumor immune response and targeting of glioma stem cells. We will focus on the advantages and limitations of each therapeutic approach and how to overcome these hurdles to effectively translate exciting laboratory results into promising clinical trials.

  8. Oncolytic virotherapy for malignant glioma: translating laboratory insights into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffinger, Brenda; Ahmed, Atique U; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, one of the most common and aggressive brain tumors in adults, is highly resistant to currently available therapies and often recurs. Due to its poor prognosis and difficult management, there is an urgent need for the development and translation of new anti-glioma therapeutic approaches into the clinic. In this context, oncolytic virotherapy arises as an exciting treatment option for glioma patients. These natural or genetically engineered viruses are able to effectively infect cancer cells, inducing a specific anti-tumor cytotoxic effect. In addition, some viruses have been redesigned to modulate glioma microenvironment, to express cytokines to boost a systemic anti-glioma immune response and to incorporate angiostatic genes to decrease glioma vasculature. Although recent clinical trials have confirmed the safety of oncolytic virotherapies in the brain, their moderate clinical efficacy has not yet matched the encouraging preclinical laboratory results. In this review, we will discuss the leading anti-glioma virotherapy approaches that are presently under preclinical and clinical evaluation. We will also review different delivery methods, in vivo virus behavior, fate, replication, intratumoral spread, activation of anti-tumor immune response, and targeting of glioma stem cells. We will focus on the advantages and limitations of each therapeutic approach and how to overcome these hurdles to effectively translate exciting laboratory results into promising clinical trials.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy with bevacizumab may prolong the survival of recurrent malignant glioma patients: four cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background and importance Recurrent malignant gliomas (RMGs) are very difficult to control, and no standard treatments have been established for them. We performed boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for patients with RMG. BNCT enables high-dose particle radiation to be applied selectively to tumor cells. However, RMG cases generally receive nearly 60 Gy X-ray irradiation prior to re-irradiation by BNCT. Therefore, even with tumor-selective particle radiation BNCT, radiation necrosis in the brain and symptomatic pseudoprogression may develop. In four of our recent patients with RMG after BNCT, we applied the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab to treat two pathological entities. This approach appeared to prolong survival. Here we present the case reports of these four consecutive patients with RMG and discuss the novel use of bevacizumab in this context. Clinical presentation Four patients with RMGs were treated with BNCT at our institutes. Upon the referral for BNCT, they were assessed as belonging to the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 3 (n = 3 patients) or RPA class 4 (n = 1 patient) (the RPA classification for RMG was advocated by Carson et al. in 2007). The estimated median survival times for RPA classes 3 and 4 were 3.8 and 10.8 months, respectively, after some treatment at the recurrence. We applied BNCT for these four patients and administered bevacizumab when the lesions were considered radiation necrosis or symptomatic pseudoprogression. The class 3 patients survived after the BNCT for 14, 16.5 and > 23 months, and the class 4 patient survived > 26 months, with favorable improvements in clinical symptoms. Conclusion BNCT with the addition of bevacizumab for radiation necrosis or symptomatic pseudoprogression improved the clinical symptoms and prolonged the survival in RMG patients. PMID:24387301

  10. Olaparib in Treating Patients With Advanced Glioma, Cholangiocarcinoma, or Solid Tumors With IDH1 or IDH2 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Glioblastoma; Grade II Glioma; IDH1 Gene Mutation; IDH2 Gene Mutation; Recurrent Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Glioma; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; WHO Grade III Glioma

  11. Frequent ATRX, CIC, FUBP1 and IDH1 mutations refine the classification of malignant gliomas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiao, Yuchen; Killela, Patrick J; Reitman, Zachary J; Rasheed, Ahmed B; Heaphy, Christopher M; de Wilde, Roeland F; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Rosemberg, Sergio; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Nagahashi Marie, Suely Kazue; Bettegowda, Chetan; Agrawal, Nishant; Lipp, Eric; Pirozzi, Christopher; Lopez, Giselle; He, Yiping; Friedman, Henry; Friedman, Allan H; Riggins, Gregory J; Holdhoff, Matthias; Burger, Peter; McLendon, Roger; Bigner, Darell D; Vogelstein, Bert; Meeker, Alan K; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Diaz, Luis A; Yan, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the critical chromatin modifier ATRX and mutations in CIC and FUBP1, which are potent regulators of cell growth, have been discovered in specific subtypes of gliomas, the most common type...

  12. Oncolytic virotherapy for malignant glioma: translating laboratory insights into clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Auffinger, Brenda; Ahmed, Atique U.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, one of the most common and aggressive brain tumors in adults, is highly resistant to currently available therapies and often recurs. Due to its poor prognosis and difficult management, there is an urgent need for the development and translation of new anti-glioma therapeutic approaches into the clinic. In this context, oncolytic virotherapy arises as an exciting treatment option for glioma patients. These natural or genetically engineered viruses are able to effective...

  13. Dying endothelial cells stimulate proliferation of malignant glioma cells via a caspase 3-mediated pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Ping; Smith, Luke; XIE, WANFU; Wang, Maode

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence has indicated that apoptotic cells have a compensatory effect on the proliferation of neighboring cells. However, the potential role of dying vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in glioma tumor proliferation remains unclear. In the present study, three glioma cell lines were cocultured with dying ECs under various conditions to evaluate the effect of dying ECs on tumor proliferation using alamarBlue and trypan blue assays to assess cell proliferation and viability, respectively...

  14. Cellular host responses to gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Najbauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive type of malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Molecular and genetic analysis has advanced our understanding of glioma biology, however mapping the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment is crucial for understanding the pathology of this dreaded brain cancer. In this study we identified major cell populations attracted by glioma using orthotopic rodent models of human glioma xenografts. Marker-specific, anatomical and morphological analyses revealed a robust influx of host cells into the main tumor bed and tumor satellites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human glioma cell lines and glioma spheroid orthotopic implants were used in rodents. In both models, the xenografts recruited large numbers of host nestin-expressing cells, which formed a 'network' with glioma. The host nestin-expressing cells appeared to originate in the subventricular zone ipsilateral to the tumor, and were clearly distinguishable from pericytes that expressed smooth muscle actin. These distinct cell populations established close physical contact in a 'pair-wise' manner and migrated together to the deeper layers of tumor satellites and gave rise to tumor vasculature. The GBM biopsy xenografts displayed two different phenotypes: (a low-generation tumors (first in vivo passage in rats were highly invasive and non-angiogenic, and host nestin-positive cells that infiltrated into these tumors displayed astrocytic or elongated bipolar morphology; (b high-generation xenografts (fifth passage had pronounced cellularity, were angiogenic with 'glomerulus-like' microvascular proliferations that contained host nestin-positive cells. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and its receptor CXCR4 were highly expressed in and around glioma xenografts, suggesting their role in glioma progression and invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a robust migration of nestin-expressing host cells to glioma, which

  15. HIF-1α inhibition by siRNA or chetomin in human malignant glioma cells: effects on hypoxic radioresistance and monitoring via CA9 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bache Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia induces activation of the HIF-1 pathway and is an essential characteristic of malignant gliomas. Hypoxia has been linked to tumor progression, therapy resistance and poor prognosis. However, little is known about the impact of HIF-1α inhibition on radioresistance of malignant glioma. Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of the inhibition of HIF-1α on cell survival and radiosensitivity in U251MG and U343MG glioma cells, using two different strategies. HIF-1α inhibition was achieved by siRNA targeting of HIF-1α or via chetomin, a disruptor of interactions between HIF-1α and p300. The inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway was monitored by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses of the expression levels of HIF-1α and CA9. CA9 expression was investigated as a potential indicator of the efficacy of HIF-1 inhibition and the resulting radiosensitivity of malignant glioma cell lines was determined by clonogenic assay after irradiation under normoxic (2-10 Gy or hypoxic (2-15 Gy conditions. Results Although siRNA and chetomin show distinct modes of action, both attenuated the hypoxia-induced radioresistance of malignant glioma cell lines U251MG (DMF10: 1.35 and 1.18 and U343MG (DMF10: 1.78 and 1.48. However, siRNA and chetomin showed diverse effects on radiosensitivity under normoxic conditions in U251MG (DMF10: 0.86 and 1.35 and U343MG (DMF10: 1.33 and 1.02 cells. Conclusions Results from this in vitro study suggest that inhibition of HIF-1α is a promising strategy to sensitize human malignant gliomas to radiotherapy and that CA9 could serve as an indicator of effective HIF-1-related radiosensitization.

  16. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlsson, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences

    1994-12-31

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

  17. Aspartate-β-hydroxylase (ASPH: A potential therapeutic target in human malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Sturla

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that increased ASPH expression could serve as a prognostic biomarker of gliomas and may assist in assigning tumor grade when biopsy specimens are scant. In addition, the findings suggest that GBM treatment strategies could be made more effective by including small molecule inhibitors of ASPH.

  18. Drug-Loaded Nanoparticle Systems And Adult Stem Cells: A Potential Marriage For The Treatment Of Malignant Glioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffinger, Brenda; Morshed, Ramin; Tobias, Alex; Cheng, Yu; Ahmed, Atique U; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Despite all recent advances in malignant glioma research, only modest progress has been achieved in improving patient prognosis and quality of life. Such a clinical scenario underscores the importance of investing in new therapeutic approaches that, when combined with conventional therapies, are able to effectively eradicate glioma infiltration and target distant tumor foci. Nanoparticle-loaded delivery systems have recently arisen as an exciting alternative to improve targeted anti-glioma drug delivery. As drug carriers, they are able to efficiently protect the therapeutic agent and allow for sustained drug release. In addition, their surface can be easily manipulated with the addition of special ligands, which are responsible for enhancing tumor-specific nanoparticle permeability. However, their inefficient intratumoral distribution and failure to target disseminated tumor burden still pose a big challenge for their implementation as a therapeutic option in the clinical setting. Stem cell-based delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles offers an interesting option to overcome such issues. Their ability to incorporate nanoparticles and migrate throughout interstitial barriers, together with their inherent tumor-tropic properties and synergistic anti-tumor effects make these stem cell carriers a good fit for such combined therapy. In this review, we will describe the main nanoparticle delivery systems that are presently available in preclinical and clinical studies. We will discuss their mechanisms of targeting, current delivery methods, attractive features and pitfalls. We will also debate the potential applications of stem cell carriers loaded with therapeutic nanoparticles in anticancer therapy and why such an attractive combined approach has not yet reached clinical trials. PMID:23594406

  19. Correlation between {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole PET and expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in newly diagnosed and recurrent malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Daisuke; Miyake, Keisuke; Tamiya, Takashi [Kagawa University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa (Japan); Lin, Wei [Kagawa University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa (Japan); Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China); Cao, Wei-Dong [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China); Haba, Reiji [Kagawa University, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa (Japan); Maeda, Yukito; Yamamoto, Yuka; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro [Kagawa University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Hypoxia and its consequences at the molecular level promote tumour progression and affect patient prognosis. One of the main early cellular events evoked by hypoxia is induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and subsequent upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study we sought to determine whether hypoxia detected by {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET accurately reflects the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in the tumour and can be used as a biomarker of antiangiogenic treatment and as a prognostic factor in newly diagnosed and recurrent malignant gliomas. Enrolled in this study were 32 patients with newly diagnosed glioma and 16 with recurrent glioma of grade III or grade IV. All the patients had undergone FMISO PET preoperatively. The maximum tumour-to-blood FMISO activity ratio (T/B{sub max}) was used to evaluate the degree of tumour hypoxia and the hypoxic volume (HV) was calculated using a tumour-to-blood FMISO uptake ratio of ≥1.2. Immunohistochemical expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF were evaluated semiquantitatively using the immunoreactivity score (IRS, scores 0 to 12) and the correlation was examined between IRS of HIF-1α or VEGF and FMISO uptake of the tumour (SUV{sub tumour}) using navigation-based sampling. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method in relation to the T/B{sub max} and the HV. The T/B{sub max} and the HV in grade IV gliomas were significantly higher than in grade III gliomas (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Moderate to strong HIF-1α and VEGF expression was observed in the majority of malignant gliomas. The IRS of HIF-1α and VEGF in the tumour were not significantly different between grade III and grade IV gliomas. The IRS of HIF-1α in the tumour did not correlate with the SUV{sub tumour} of FMISO in either newly diagnosed or recurrent glioma. There was a significant but weak correlation between the IRS of VEGF and the SUV{sub tumour} of FMISO in newly diagnosed glioma, but not

  20. Upregulation of miR-184 enhances the malignant biological behavior of human glioma cell line A172 by targeting FIH-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qinghua; Gao, Weida; Liu, Bo; Ye, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, miRNAs have been suggested to play key roles in the formation and development of human glioma. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-184 expression on the malignant behavior of human glioma cells. The relative quantity of miR-184 was determined in human glioma cell lines, and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) was explored using western blotting. The effects of miR-184 inhibition on cell viability and apoptosis were explored, and the miR-184 target gene was determined using a luciferase assay and western blotting. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to evaluate cell growth and apoptosis. Matrigel invasion and scratch assays were performed to measure the ability of cell invasion and migration. miR-184 and HIF-1α protein levels were significantly upregulated in human glioma cells. Downregulation of miR-184 inhibited cell viability and increased the HEB cell apoptotic rate. Luciferase and western blot assays verified that FIH-1 was the target gene of miR-184 and negatively controlled the protein level of HIF-1α. Inhibition of HIF-1α by siRNA facilitated the apoptosis of HEB cells and suppressed A172 cell invasion and migration. miR-184 upregulation enhanced the malignant phenotype of human glioma cancer cells by reducing FIH-1 protein expression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Selective accumulation and strong photodynamic effects of a new photosensitizer, ATX-S10.Na (II), in experimental malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Hirano, Toru; Li, Shaoyi; Koide, Masayo; Kohno, Eiji; Inenaga, Chikanori; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Yokota, Naoki; Yamamoto, Seiji; Terakawa, Susumu; Namba, Hiroki

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the feasibility of a novel photosensitizer, ATX-S10.Na (II), in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for glioma. First, PDT was performed in various brain tumor cell lines in vitro. Cytotoxicity depended upon both drug concentration and laser energy and the 50% inhibitory concentration ranged from 3.5 to 20 microg/ml. Next, PDT was performed in the subcutaneous and intracranial 9L tumor models in Fischer rats using ATX-S10.Na (II) and light from a 670-nm diode laser delivered by intratumoral insertion of an optical fiber. The effect of PDT on brain tumors was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Sequential changes of the ATX-S10.Na (II) concentrations were also measured quantitatively by fluorospectrometry up to 12 h after intravenous administration in rats with intracranial and subcutaneous tumors. The concentration of ATX-S10.Na (II) in the brain tumor reached a maximum at 2 h after administration and the tumor/normal brain concentration ratio was as high as 131 at 8 h. Intratumoral PDT for intracranial tumors irradiated at this timing showed an obvious anti-tumor effect without severe side effects. The present study demonstrated the highly selective accumulation of ATX-S10.Na (II) in tumor tissue and its potent photodynamic effect in an experimental malignant glioma model.

  2. Palliative benefits of the multimodality approach in the re-treatment of recurrent malignant glioma: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Arulponni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two young male patients treated seven and four years back, for malignant glioma, returned with recurrence at the same site, with a World Health Organization (WHO Performance Score of four and two. Both underwent resurgery and received postoperative reirradiation of 5040 cGy in 28 fractions and concurrent Temozolomide 75 mg/m 2 body surface area (BSA daily, and one patient received additional adjuvant Temozolomide 250 mg (150 mg/m 2 BSA. Both patients tolerated the treatment well with 16 and 14 months follow-up from the time of recurrence. They were symptom-free, with normal physical function and good mental state, and resumed their respective jobs.

  3. Metabolic Reprogramming in Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Marie; Stoll, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Many cancers have long been thought to primarily metabolize glucose for energy production—a phenomenon known as the Warburg Effect, after the classic studies of Otto Warburg in the early twentieth century. Yet cancer cells also utilize other substrates, such as amino acids and fatty acids, to produce raw materials for cellular maintenance and energetic currency to accomplish cellular tasks. The contribution of these substrates is increasingly appreciated in the context of glioma, the most common form of malignant brain tumor. Multiple catabolic pathways are used for energy production within glioma cells, and are linked in many ways to anabolic pathways supporting cellular function. For example: glycolysis both supports energy production and provides carbon skeletons for the synthesis of nucleic acids; meanwhile fatty acids are used both as energetic substrates and as raw materials for lipid membranes. Furthermore, bio-energetic pathways are connected to pro-oncogenic signaling within glioma cells. For example: AMPK signaling links catabolism with cell cycle progression; mTOR signaling contributes to metabolic flexibility and cancer cell survival; the electron transport chain produces ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which act as signaling molecules; Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) mediate interactions with cells and vasculature within the tumor environment. Mutations in the tumor suppressor p53, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 have been implicated in oncogenic signaling as well as establishing metabolic phenotypes in genetically-defined subsets of malignant glioma. These pathways critically contribute to tumor biology. The aim of this review is two-fold. Firstly, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the metabolic strategies employed by malignant glioma cells, including aerobic glycolysis; the pentose phosphate pathway; one-carbon metabolism; the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is central to amino acid

  4. Studying the MicroRNA role as a survival predictor and revealing its part in malignancy level determination in patients with supratentorial gliomas of brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupak, E. V.; Veryaskina, Yu. A.; Titov, S. E.; Achmerova, L. G.; Stupak, V. V.; Dolzhenko, D. A.; Rabinovich, S. S.; Narodov, A. A.; Ivanov, M. K.; Zhimulev, I. F.; Kolesnikov, N. N.

    2017-09-01

    The numerous data show, that microRNA (miRNA) are direct participants of carcinogenesis. Also miRNA plays the role of a diagnostic and prognostic marker for different types of cancer, including gliomas. The aim of this research is to make the comparative analysis of 10 micro RNA (miR-124, -125b, -16, -181b, -191, -21, -221, -223, -31 and -451) expression profiles. The analysis was made for gliomas with different malignancy degree, then compared with the samples of the adjacent not changed tissues (n = 90). During the study the specific profiles of miRNA expression for various histotypes of tumors were revealed. It was determined, that miRNA acts as a predictor of patient survival in the cases with malignant supratentorial brain tumors. The diagnostic approaches based on miRNA expression profile were designed. It will help to determine the malignancy level and to predict the course of the disease.

  5. Enhanced immunity in a mouse model of malignant glioma is mediated by a therapeutic ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Danielle M; Woolf, Eric C; Johnson, John L; Brooks, Kenneth S; Blattman, Joseph N; Scheck, Adrienne C

    2016-05-13

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a poor prognosis, and advances in treatment have led to only marginal increases in overall survival. We and others have shown previously that the therapeutic ketogenic diet (KD) prolongs survival in mouse models of glioma, explained by both direct tumor growth inhibition and suppression of pro-inflammatory microenvironment conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of the KD on the glioma reactive immune response. The GL261-Luc2 intracranial mouse model of glioma was used to investigate the effects of the KD on the tumor-specific immune response. Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of immune inhibitory receptors cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) on CD8+ T cells were also analyzed by flow cytometry. Analysis of intracellular cytokine production was used to determine production of IFN, IL-2 and IFN- in tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T and natural killer (NK) cells and IL-10 production by T regulatory cells. We demonstrate that mice fed the KD had increased tumor-reactive innate and adaptive immune responses, including increased cytokine production and cytolysis via tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells. Additionally, we saw that mice maintained on the KD had increased CD4 infiltration, while T regulatory cell numbers stayed consistent. Lastly, mice fed the KD had a significant reduction in immune inhibitory receptor expression as well as decreased inhibitory ligand expression on glioma cells. The KD may work in part as an immune adjuvant, boosting tumor-reactive immune responses in the microenvironment by alleviating immune suppression. This evidence suggests that the KD increases tumor-reactive immune responses, and may have implications in combinational treatment approaches.

  6. Focused Ultrasound Enhances Central Nervous System Delivery of Bevacizumab for Malignant Glioma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsu, Po-Hung; Lin, Chung-Yin; Huang, Chiun-Wei; Chai, Wen-Yen; Chu, Po-Chun; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Kuo, John S; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-monitored transcranial focused ultrasound can enhance the delivery of the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab into the central nervous system (CNS) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. Materials and Methods All animal experiments were approved by the animal committee and adhered to experimental animal care guidelines. Transcranial focused ultrasound exposure in the presence of microbubbles was used to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enhance bevacizumab penetration into the CNS in healthy and glioma-bearing mice. Bevacizumab concentration was quantitated with high-performance liquid chromatography, and Western blot testing was performed to confirm the specific biologic form in the CNS. Penetration of bevacizumab into brain tissue was estimated in vivo by means of contrast material-enhanced MR imaging and quantitative gallium 68 ((68)Ga)-bevacizumab micro-positron emission tomography, and glioma progression was longitudinally followed with T2-weighted MR imaging. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and cluster of differentiation 31 immunostaining were used to assess morphologic changes and vascular inhibition at histologic examination. The two-tailed Student t test and the Mantel-Cox log-rank test were used for statistical analyses, with a significance level of .05. Results Focused ultrasound significantly enhanced bevacizumab penetration into the CNS by 5.7- to 56.7-fold compared with that in nonexposed brain (both P Focused ultrasound-enhanced bevacizumab delivery significantly retarded glioma progression, with a significantly increased median survival (median increase in survival time = 135% in the group treated with bevacizumab and focused ultrasound, P Focused ultrasound-enhanced bevacizumab delivery can provide an antivascularization normalization effect to suppress glioma. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  7. Astroglial c-Myc overexpression predisposes mice to primary malignant gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Aagaard; Pedersen, Karen-Marie; Lihme, Frederikke

    2003-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are common human primary brain tumors that result from neoplastic transformation of astroglia or their progenitors. Here we show that deregulation of the c-Myc pathway in developing astroglia predisposes mice to malignant astrocytomas within 2-3 weeks of age. The genetically...

  8. The value of intraoperative ultrasonography during the resection of relapsed irradiated malignant gliomas in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mursch, Kay; Mursch, Julianne Behnke [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Zentralklinik, Bad Berka (Germany); Scholz, Martin [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Duisburg, Duisburg (Germany); Brueck, Wolfgang [Dept. of Neuropathology, Georg August Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) helped the surgeon navigate towards the tumor as seen in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and whether IOUS was able to distinguish between tumor margins and the surrounding tissue. Twenty-five patients suffering from high-grade gliomas who were previously treated by surgery and radiotherapy were included. Intraoperatively, two histopathologic samples were obtained a sample of unequivocal tumor tissue (according to anatomical landmarks and the surgeon's visual and tactile impressions) and a small tissue sample obtained using a navigated needle when the surgeon decided to stop the resection. This specimen was considered to be a boundary specimen, where no tumor tissue was apparent. The decision to take the second sample was not influenced by IOUS. The effect of IOUS was analyzed semi-quantitatively. All 25 samples of unequivocal tumor tissue were histopathologically classified as tumor tissue and were hyperechoic on IOUS. Of the boundary specimens, eight were hypoechoic. Only one harbored tumor tissue (P=0.150). Seventeen boundaries were moderately hyperechoic, and these samples contained all possible histological results (i.e., tumor, infiltration, or no tumor). During surgery performed on relapsed, irradiated, high-grade gliomas, IOUS provided a reliable method of navigating towards the core of the tumor. At borders, it did not reliably distinguish between remnants or tumor-free tissue, but hypoechoic areas seldom contained tumor tissue.

  9. Stratification according to HGG-IMMUNO RPA model predicts outcome in a large group of patients with relapsed malignant glioma treated by adjuvant postoperative dendritic cell vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Ardon, Hilko; Van Calenbergh, Frank; Sciot, Raf; Wilms, Guido; van Loon, Johannes; Goffin, Jan; Van Gool, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Adult patients with relapsed high-grade glioma are a very heterogenous group with, however, an invariably dismal prognosis. We stratified patients with relapsed high-grade glioma treated with re-operation and postoperative dendritic cell (DC) vaccination according to a simple recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) model to predict outcome. Based on age, pathology, Karnofsky performance score, and mental status, 117 adult patients with relapsed malignant glioma, undergoing re-operation, and postoperative adjuvant dendritic cell (DC) vaccination were stratified into 4 classes. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were generated for each class of this HGG-IMMUNO RPA model. Extent of resection was documented but not included in the prognostic model. Kaplan-Meier overall survival estimates revealed significant (p < 0.0001) differences among the 4 HGG-IMMUNO RPA classes. Long-term survivors, surviving more than 24 months after the re-operation and vaccination, are seen in 54.5, 26.7, 11.5, and 0 % for the classes I, II, III, and IV respectively. This HGG-IMMUNO RPA classification is able to predict overall survival in a large group of adult patients with a relapsed malignant glioma, treated with re-operation and postoperative adjuvant DC vaccination in the HGG-IMMUNO-2003 cohort comparison trial. The model appears useful for prognostic patient counseling for patients participating in DC vaccination trials. A substantial number of long-term survivors after relapse are seen in class I to III, but not in class IV patients.

  10. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several can...

  11. CECR1-mediated cross talk between macrophages and vascular mural cells promotes neovascularization in malignant glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Zhu (Changbin); I. Chrifi (Ihsan); D.A.M. Mustafa (Dana); M.M. van der Weiden (Marcel); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); J.M. Kros (Johan); C. Cheng (Caroline)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGlioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) are most malignant brain tumors characterized by profound vascularization. The activation of macrophages strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis during GBM development. Previously, we showed that extracellular adenosine deaminase protein

  12. Health care professionals' perspectives of living and dying with primary malignant glioma: Implications for a unique cancer trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jennifer; Collins, Anna; Brand, Caroline A; Gold, Michelle; Moore, Gaye; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Murphy, Michael A; Lethborg, Carrie

    2015-12-01

    Health care professionals (HCPs) caring for people with primary malignant glioma (PMG) and their carers see many of the profound challenges facing this group, yet their perspectives are not documented. This study aimed to understand and document the unique perspective of HCPs in relation to the supportive and palliative care needs of patients with PMG and their carers, with a view to developing a model of care. Qualitative study involving semi-structured focus groups and interviews with 35 medical, nursing and allied health staff actively engaged in providing care for this patient group. Purposive and theoretical sampling from two major metropolitan hospitals and one community palliative care service in Australia was utilised to seek perspectives from a variety of disciplines and health care settings. Thematic analysis was conducted by three independent researchers, using a constant comparative method influenced by grounded theory. Key themes relating to the needs of people with PMG which were apparent from the HCPs included: The difference in the illness course of glioma compared to other cancers; Limitations of current medical care; Challenges in balancing hope with reality of the illness; and Recommendations to improve care, including recognising the role of family and moving from a model where services are offered in response to demonstrated needs. Significance of the results: Current models of care based upon the classic cancer trajectory are unresponsive to the needs of people with PMG. Care may be enhanced by moving towards a proactive approach, extending the goals of care beyond medical needs and broadening the focus of care to include family needs.

  13. YB-1 dependent virotherapy in combination with temozolomide as a multimodal therapy approach to eradicate malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmüller, Regina; Mantwill, Klaus; Haczek, Cornelia; Rognoni, Emanuel; Anton, Martina; Kasajima, Atsuko; Weichert, Wilko; Treue, Denise; Lage, Hermann; Schuster, Tibor; Schlegel, Jürgen; Gänsbacher, Bernd; Holm, Per S

    2011-09-01

    The human Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is known to be a promising target for cancer therapy. We have demonstrated that YB-1 plays an important role in the adenoviral life cycle by regulating the adenoviral E2-gene expression. Thus, we studied the oncolytic effect of the recombinant adenovirus Ad-Delo3-RGD, in which the transactivation domain CR3 of the E1A protein is ablated to enable viral replication only in YB-1 positive cancer cells. In vitro Southern Blot analysis and cytopathic effect assays demonstrate high anti-glioma potency, which was significantly increased in combination with temozolomide (TMZ), daunorubicin and cisplatin. Since vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to promote the hypervascular phenotype of primary, malignant brain tumors, we also tested Ad-Delo3-RGD in regard to the inhibition of VEGF expression. Indeed, we found that Ad-Delo3-RGD induced VEGF down regulation, which was even amplified under hypoxic conditions. Tumor-bearing nudemice treated with the YB-1 dependent oncolytic adenovirus showed significantly smaller tumors than untreated controls. Furthermore, combination therapy with TMZ led to a regression in all treated animals with complete tumor regression in 33 % of analyzed mice, which was verified by bioluminescence imaging and histological studies. In addition, histopathological evaluation revealed enhanced apoptosis and a reduction in tumor vessel formation, indicating that Ad-Delo3-RGD has an anti-angiogenic effect in addition to its oncolytic capacity in vivo. Hence, our results demonstrate that the combination therapy of YB-1 dependent virotherapy and TMZ is effective in a xenograft glioma mouse model and might be useful in a YB-1 based clinical setting. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  14. A phase II trial of thymidine and carboplatin for recurrent malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, H. Ian; Chang, Susan M.; Prados, Michael D.; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Hess, Kenneth; Schiff, David; Greenberg, Harry; Fink, Karen; Nicolas, Kelly; Kuhn, John G.; Cloughesy, Timothy; Junck, Larry; Mehta, Minesh

    2002-01-01

    collectively, however, results are consistent with continued investigation of thymidine in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for high-grade glioma and other malignant diseases. The significant myeloprotection afforded by thymidine may have particular relevance to polychemotherapeutic regimens. PMID:11916502

  15. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  16. Neutrophil-mediated anticancer drug delivery for suppression of postoperative malignant glioma recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingwei; Zhao, Zekai; Zhang, Lei; Xue, Lingjing; Shen, Shiyang; Wen, Yajing; Wei, Zhuoyuan; Wang, Lu; Kong, Lingyi; Sun, Hongbin; Ping, Qineng; Mo, Ran; Zhang, Can

    2017-07-01

    Cell-mediated drug-delivery systems have received considerable attention for their enhanced therapeutic specificity and efficacy in cancer treatment. Neutrophils (NEs), the most abundant type of immune cells, are known to penetrate inflamed brain tumours. Here we show that NEs carrying liposomes that contain paclitaxel (PTX) can penetrate the brain and suppress the recurrence of glioma in mice whose tumour has been resected surgically. Inflammatory factors released after tumour resection guide the movement of the NEs into the inflamed brain. The highly concentrated inflammatory signals in the brain trigger the release of liposomal PTX from the NEs, which allows delivery of PTX into the remaining invading tumour cells. We show that this NE-mediated delivery of drugs efficiently slows the recurrent growth of tumours, with significantly improved survival rates, but does not completely inhibit the regrowth of tumours.

  17. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Ake; Armstrong, Georgina N; Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Lai, Rose; Il'yasova, Dora; Houlston, Richard S; Schildkraut, Joellen; Bernstein, Jonine L; Olson, Sara H; Jenkins, Robert B; Lachance, Daniel H; Wrensch, Margaret; Davis, Faith G; Merrell, Ryan; Johansen, Christoffer; Sadetzki, Siegal; Bondy, Melissa L; Melin, Beatrice S

    2014-10-01

    Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers. Germline rearrangements in 146 glioma families (from the Gliogene Consortium; http://www.gliogene.org/) were examined using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1, and MSH2 were selected because these genes have been previously reported to be associated with cancer pedigrees known to include glioma. We detected a single structural rearrangement, a deletion of exons 1-6 in MSH2, in the proband of one family with 3 cases with glioma and one relative with colon cancer. Large deletions and duplications are rare events in familial glioma cases, even in families with a strong family history of cancers that may be involved in known cancer syndromes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology.

  18. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C.; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Lai, Rose; Il'yasova, Dora; Houlston, Richard S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Wrensch, Margaret; Davis, Faith G.; Merrell, Ryan; Johansen, Christoffer; Sadetzki, Siegal; Bondy, Melissa L.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Adatto, Phyllis; Morice, Fabian; Payen, Sam; McQuinn, Lacey; McGaha, Rebecca; Guerra, Sandra; Paith, Leslie; Roth, Katherine; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Yung, Alfred; Aldape, Kenneth; Gilbert, Mark; Weinberger, Jeffrey; Colman, Howard; Conrad, Charles; de Groot, John; Forman, Arthur; Groves, Morris; Levin, Victor; Loghin, Monica; Puduvalli, Vinay; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy; Lang, Frederick; Levine, Nicholas; Tolentino, Lori; Saunders, Kate; Thach, Thu-Trang; Iacono, Donna Dello; Sloan, Andrew; Gerson, Stanton; Selman, Warren; Bambakidis, Nicholas; Hart, David; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Alan; Cohen, Mark; Rogers, Lisa; Nock, Charles J; Wolinsky, Yingli; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Barrett, Wendi; Shimmel, Kristen; Ostrom, Quinn; Barnett, Gene; Rosenfeld, Steven; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weil, Robert; Ahluwalia, Manmeet; Peereboom, David; Staugaitis, Susan; Schilero, Cathy; Brewer, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; McGraw, Mary; Naska, Theresa; Rosenfeld, Steven; Ram, Zvi; Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix; Umansky, Felix; Zaaroor, Menashe; Cohen, Avi; Tzuk-Shina, Tzeela; Voldby, Bo; Laursen, René; Andersen, Claus; Brennum, Jannick; Henriksen, Matilde Bille; Marzouk, Maya; Davis, Mary Elizabeth; Boland, Eamon; Smith, Marcel; Eze, Ogechukwu; Way, Mahalia; Lada, Pat; Miedzianowski, Nancy; Frechette, Michelle; Paleologos, Nina; Byström, Gudrun; Svedberg, Eva; Huggert, Sara; Kimdal, Mikael; Sandström, Monica; Brännström, Nikolina; Hayat, Amina; Tihan, Tarik; Zheng, Shichun; Berger, Mitchel; Butowski, Nicholas; Chang, Susan; Clarke, Jennifer; Prados, Michael; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jeannette; Kivett, Valerie; Duo, Xiaoqin; Hansen, Helen; Hsuang, George; Lamela, Rosito; Ramos, Christian; Patoka, Joe; Wagenman, Katherine; Zhou, Mi; Klein, Adam; McGee, Nora; Pfefferle, Jon; Wilson, Callie; Morris, Pagan; Hughes, Mary; Britt-Williams, Marlin; Foft, Jessica; Madsen, Julia; Polony, Csaba; McCarthy, Bridget; Zahora, Candice; Villano, John; Engelhard, Herbert; Borg, Ake; Chanock, Stephen K; Collins, Peter; Elston, Robert; Kleihues, Paul; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Gloria; Plon, Sharon; Thompson, Patricia; Johansen, C.; Sadetzki, S.; Melin, B.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Lau, Ching C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Yu, Robert K.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Houlston, Richard S.; Hosking, Fay J.; Robertson, Lindsay; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Sloan, Andrew E.; Barnett, Gene; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Lai, Rose; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Sadetzki, Siegal; Yechezkel, Galit Hirsh; Bruchim, Revital Bar-Sade; Aslanov, Lili; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Broholm, Helle; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Schubert, Erica; DeAngelis, Lisa; Jenkins, Robert B.; Yang, Ping; Rynearson, Amanda; Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Henriksson, Roger; Melin, Beatrice S.; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Merrell, Ryan; Lada, Patricia; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Wiemels, Joe; McCoy, Lucie; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Davis, Faith G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers. Methods Germline rearrangements in 146 glioma families (from the Gliogene Consortium; http://www.gliogene.org/) were examined using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1, and MSH2 were selected because these genes have been previously reported to be associated with cancer pedigrees known to include glioma. Results We detected a single structural rearrangement, a deletion of exons 1-6 in MSH2, in the proband of one family with 3 cases with glioma and one relative with colon cancer. Conclusions Large deletions and duplications are rare events in familial glioma cases, even in families with a strong family history of cancers that may be involved in known cancer syndromes. PMID:24723567

  19. Radiation injury of boron neutron capture therapy using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageji, T. E-mail: kageji@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Nagahiro, S.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Toi, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the radiation injury in acute or delayed stage after boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma. Eighteen patients with malignant glioma underwent mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beam and sodium borocaptate between 1998 and 2004. The radiation dose (i.e. physical dose of boron n-alpha reaction) in the protocol used between 1998 and 2000 (Protocol A, n=8) prescribed a maximum tumor volume dose of 15 Gy. In 2001, a new dose-escalated protocol was introduced (Protocol B, n=4); it prescribes a minimum tumor volume dose of 18 Gy or, alternatively, a minimum target volume dose of 15 Gy. Since 2002, the radiation dose was reduced to 80-90% dose of Protocol B because of acute radiation injury. A new Protocol was applied to 6 glioblastoma patients (Protocol C, n=6). The average values of the maximum vascular dose of brain surface in Protocol A, B and C were 11.4{+-}4.2 Gy, 15.7{+-}1.2 and 13.9{+-}3.6 Gy, respectively. Acute radiation injury such as a generalized convulsion within 1 week after BNCT was recognized in three patients of Protocol B. Delayed radiation injury such as a neurological deterioration appeared 3-6 months after BNCT, and it was recognized in 1 patient in Protocol A, 5 patients in Protocol B. According to acute radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 15.8{+-}1.3 Gy in positive and was 12.6{+-}4.3 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. According to the delayed radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 13.8{+-}3.8 Gy in positive and was 13.6{+-}4.9 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. The dose escalation is limited because most patients in Protocol B suffered from acute radiation injury. We conclude that the maximum vascular dose does not exceed over 12 Gy to avoid the delayed radiation injury, especially, it should be limited under 10 Gy in the case that tumor

  20. Changes in tumor blood flow in postoperative malignant glioma during radiotherapy. Evaluation by SPECT and dynamic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Sugo, Nobuo; Kuroki, Takao; Onagi, Atsuo; Shibata, Iekado [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Machida, Keiichi; Tachiki, Kazuhiro [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Omori Hospital

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to use SPECT ({sup 123}I-iofetamine (IMP) and {sup 201}TlCl) and dynamic CT to examine changes in blood flow and metabolism caused by radiotherapy utilized as an adjunct to postoperative chemotherapy for malignant gliomas. SPECT was performed on 7 patients (4 with glioblastoma and 3 with anaplastic astrocytoma), and dynamic CT was used to evaluate 10 patients (8 with glioblastoma and 2 with anaplastic astrocytoma) before irradiation, and after receiving 10-20 Gy and 20-60 Gy total radiation. A region of interest (ROI) was selected in each tumor and in the ipsilateral cerebellum. The radioactivity in each ROI was calculated by dynamic SPECT from 0 to 5 minutes. The mean counts/pixel in the tumor ROI was then divided by the mean counts/pixel in the ROI of the ipsilateral cerebellum and the resulting value was designated as the count ratio (CR). Assuming the pre-treatment CR to be 100%, we next investigated relative changes in the post-irradiation CRs (rCR). The rCR in the tumor did not significantly differ after radiotherapy (106.8{+-}16.5% at 10-20 Gy and 91.6{+-}23.6% at 20-60 Gy). The accumulation of {sup 201}TlCl in the tumor significantly decreased [82.3{+-}3.1% at 10-20 Gy (p<0.05) and 62.1{+-}13.5% at 20-60 Gy (p<0.05)]. On dynamic CT, the peak time clearly decreased [10.85{+-}2.01 sec. at pre-irradiation vs. 7.79{+-}1.56 sec. at 10-20 Gy (p<0.05) and 8.25{+-}2.70 sec. at 20-60 Gy], and the peak value increased [4.89{+-}2.75 HU at pre-irradiation vs. 9.87{+-}3.75 at 10-20 Gy (p<0.05) and 6.08{+-}2.78 at 20-60 Gy]. These data indicate that postoperative changes in blood flow in malignant glioma occurring at doses of 10-20 Gy during radiotherapy are mainly due to increased permeability of the vascular wall within the tumor. (author)

  1. Expression of LOC285758, a potential long non-coding biomarker, is methylation-dependent and correlates with glioma malignancy grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjasic Alenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the early genetic drivers can help diagnose glioma tumours in their early stages, before becoming malignant. However, there is emerging evidence that disturbance of epigenetic mechanisms also contributes to cell’s malignant transformation and cancer progression. Long non-coding RNAs are one of key epigenetic modulators of signalling pathways, since gene expression regulation is one of their canonical mechanisms. The aim of our study was to search new gliomagenesis-specific candidate lncRNAs involved in epigenetic regulation.

  2. Induction of reactive oxygen intermediates-dependent programmed cell death in human malignant ex vivo glioma cells and inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor production by taurolidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, Roksana; Kubota, Hisashi; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Eugster, Hans-Pietro; Könü, Dilek; Möhler, Hanns; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Frei, Karl

    2005-06-01

    Taurolidine, a derivative of the amino acid taurin, was recently found to display a potent antineoplastic effect both in vitro and in vivo. The authors therefore initiated studies to assess the potential antineoplastic activity of taurolidine in human glioma cell lines and in ex vivo malignant cell cultures. They also studied the mechanisms that induce cell death and the impact of taurolidine on tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Cytotoxicity and clonogenic assays were performed using crystal violet staining. In the cytotoxicity assay 100% of glioma cell lines (eight of eight) and 74% of ex vivo glioma cultures (14 of 19) demonstrated sensitivity to taurolidine, with a mean median effective concentration (EC50) of 51 +/- 28 microg/ml and 56 +/- 23 microg/ml, respectively. Colony formation was inhibited by taurolidine, with a mean EC50 of 7 +/- 3 microg/ml for the cell lines and a mean EC50 of 3.5 +/- 1.7 microg/ml for the ex vivo glioma cultures. On observing this high activity of taurolidine in both assays, the authors decided to evaluate its cell death mechanisms. Fragmentation of DNA, externalization of phosphatidylserine, activation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential followed by a release of apoptosis-inducing factor, and typical apoptotic features were found after taurolidine treatment. Cell death was preceded by the generation of reactive O2 intermediates, which was abrogated by N-acetylcysteine but not by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone. Moreover, taurolidine also induced suppression of VEGF production on the protein and messenger RNA level, as shown by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Given all these findings, taurolidine may be a promising new agent in the treatment of malignant gliomas; it displays a combination of antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities, inducing tumor cell

  3. [Establishment and Management of Multicentral Collection Bio-sample Banks of Malignant Tumors from Digestive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Si; Shen, Junwei; Zhu, Liang; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Dongliang; Yu, Hongyu; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yi

    2015-11-01

    To establish and manage of multicentral collection bio-sample banks of malignant tumors from digestive system, the paper designed a multicentral management system, established the standard operation procedures (SOPs) and leaded ten hospitals nationwide to collect tumor samples. The biobank has been established for half a year, and has collected 695 samples from patients with digestive system malignant tumor. The clinical data is full and complete, labeled in a unified way and classified to be managed. The clinical and molecular biology researches were based on the biobank, and obtained achievements. The biobank provides a research platform for malignant tumor of digestive system from different regions and of different types.

  4. Preliminary results from a phase I/II study of perillyl alcohol intranasal administration in adults with recurrent malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Clovis Orlando; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Fischer, Juliana; Nagel, Janaína; Futuro, Débora; Quirico-Santos, Thereza; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2008-09-01

    Activation of the p21-ras signaling pathway from aberrantly expressed receptors promotes the growth of malignant human astrocytomas. Perillyl alcohol has shown to have both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. The underlying action mechanism(s) of POH has yet to be delineated but may involve effects on the TGF-beta and/or the Ras signaling pathways. The intranasal delivery allows drugs that do not cross the BBB to enter the CNS; moreover, it eliminates the need for systemic delivery, thereby reducing unwanted systemic side effects. We are conducting a phase I/II study to evaluate the antitumoral activity of POH intranasal delivery in a 4x daily schedule in patients with recurrent MG. The objective was to determine PFS at 6 months and the safety for POH in adult patients who failed conventional treatment. Assessments were performed every 27 days. Thirty-seven patients with progressive disease after prior surgery, radiotherapy, and at least temozolomide-based chemotherapy were enrolled, 29 of whom had GBM, 5 who had anaplastic astrocytoma, and 3 had AO. One patient (3.4%) with GBM and 1 patient (33.3%) with AO achieved partial response; 13 patients (44.8%) with GBM, 3 patients (60%) with AA, and 1 (33.3%) with AO achieved stable disease; 15 (51.7%) patients with GBM, 2 (40%) patients with AA, and 1 (33.3%) with AO showed progressive disease. Progression-free survival (partial response and stable disease) was 48.2% for patients with GBM, 60% for patients with AA, and 66.6% for patients with AO. There were no toxicity events. Perillyl alcohol is well tolerated and regression of tumor size in some patients is suggestive of antitumor activity. This work discusses POH intranasal delivery as a potential adjuvant therapeutic strategy for patients with malignant gliomas.

  5. The Role of Bcl-2 Family Proteins in Therapy Responses of Malignant Astrocytic Gliomas: Bcl2L12 and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini M. Kouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is a highly aggressive and lethal brain cancer with a median survival of less than two years after diagnosis. Hallmarks of GBM tumors include soaring proliferative indices, high levels of angiogenesis, diffuse invasion into normal brain parenchyma, resistance toward therapy-induced apoptosis, and pseudopallisading necrosis. Despite the recent advances in neurosurgery, radiation therapy, and the development of targeted chemotherapeutic regimes, GBM remains one of the deadliest types of cancer. Particularly, the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ in combination with radiation therapy prolonged patient survival only marginally, and clinical studies assessing efficacies of targeted therapies, foremost ATP mimetics inhibiting the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, revealed only few initial responders; tumor recurrence is nearly universal, and salvage therapies to combat such progression remain ineffective. Consequently, myriad preclinical and clinical studies began to define the molecular mechanisms underlying therapy resistance of GBM tumors, and pointed to the Bcl-2 protein family, in particular the atypical member Bcl2-Like 12 (Bcl2L12, as important regulators of therapy-induced cell death. This review will discuss the multi-faceted modi operandi of Bcl-2 family proteins, describe their roles in therapy resistance of malignant glioma, and outline current and future drug development efforts to therapeutically target Bcl-2 proteins.

  6. Comparative Effect of Oncolytic Adenoviruses with E1 A or E113-55 kDa Deletions in Malignant Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Replication-competent oncolytic adenoviruses hold considerable promise for treating malignant gliomas. The toxicity of the clinically tested Ell B-55 kDa mutant virus is negligible; however, its full clinical potential is still being evaluated. The purpose of the present study is to compare the antiglioma activity in vitro and in vivo between Delta-24, an Ei A mutant adenovirus, and RA55, an Ell B-55 kDa mutant adenovirus. We selected human glioma cell lines that were tumorigenic in nude mice and express wild-type p53 (U-87 MG, D54 MG or mutant p53 (U-251 MG, U-373 MG protein. Our studies demonstrated that Delta-24 induced a more potent antiglioma effect in vitro than RA55. Moreover, Delta-24 replicated markedly more efficiently than RA55 in both wild-type and mutant-p53 scenarios. Importantly, direct intratumoral injection of Delta-24, but not RA55, significantly suppresses tumor growth in intracranial (U-87 MG, U-251 MG or subcutaneous (D54 MG animal models. Staining for hexon protein detected replicating adenoviruses in xenografts infected with Delta-24, but not with RA55. Collectively, these data indicate that E1A mutant adenoviruses targeting the Rb pathway are more powerful putative agents for antiglioma therapy than E113 mutant adenoviruses, and suggest that E1A mutant adenoviruses should be tested in the clinical setting for patients with malignant gliomas.

  7. The differential diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma with atypical features and malignant glioma: an analysis of 16 cases with emphasis on distinguishing molecular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Allen, Richard A; Kanaly, Angela C; Fung, Kar-Ming; Marshall, Roxanne; Perry, Arie; Stolzenberg, Ethan D; Dunn, S Terence

    2013-12-01

    Rare pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) have atypical histologic and clinicoradiologic features that raise the differential diagnosis of glioblastoma. Whether ancillary studies can supplement histopathologic examination in placing these cases accurately on the spectrum of WHO Grade I PA to higher-grade glioma is not always clear, partly because these cases are not common. Here, ten PAs with atypical clinicoradiologic and histologic features and six pediatric glioblastoma multiforme (pGBMs) were analyzed for BRAF V600E, IDH1, IDH2, and TP53 mutations. Ki-67, p53, and p16 protein expression were also examined by immunohistochemistry. BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion status was assessed in the PA subgroup. The rate of BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion was high in these PAs (5/7 tumors) including four extracerebellar examples. A single BRAF V600E mutation was identified in the fusion-negative extracerebellar PA of a very young child who succumbed to the disease. TP53 mutations were present only in malignant gliomas, including three pGBMs and one case designated as PA with anaplastic features (with consultation opinion of pGBM). IDH1 and IDH2 were wild type in all cases, consistent with earlier findings that IDH mutations are not typical in high-grade gliomas of patients ≤14 years of age. Immunohistochemical studies showed substantial overlap in Ki-67 labeling indices, an imperfect correlation between p53 labeling and TP53 mutation status, and complete p16 loss in only two pGBMs but in no PAs. These results suggest that (a) BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion may be common in PAs with atypical clinicoradiologic and histologic features, including those at extracerebellar sites, (b) BRAF V600E mutation is uncommon in extracerebellar PAs, and (c) TP53 mutation analysis remains a valuable tool in identifying childhood gliomas that will likely behave in a malignant fashion.

  8. Coordinated Splicing of Regulatory Detained Introns within Oncogenic Transcripts Creates an Exploitable Vulnerability in Malignant Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christian J; Stanciu, Monica; Boutz, Paul L; Patterson, Jesse C; Calligaris, David; Higuchi, Fumi; Neupane, Rachit; Fenoglio, Silvia; Cahill, Daniel P; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Yaffe, Michael B; Sharp, Phillip A; Hemann, Michael T; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2017-10-09

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating malignancy with few therapeutic options. We identify PRMT5 in an in vivo GBM shRNA screen and show that PRMT5 knockdown or inhibition potently suppresses in vivo GBM tumors, including patient-derived xenografts. Pathway analysis implicates splicing in cellular PRMT5 dependency, and we identify a biomarker that predicts sensitivity to PRMT5 inhibition. We find that PRMT5 deficiency primarily disrupts the removal of detained introns (DIs). This impaired DI splicing affects proliferation genes, whose downregulation coincides with cell cycle defects, senescence and/or apoptosis. We further show that DI programs are evolutionarily conserved and operate during neurogenesis, suggesting that they represent a physiological regulatory mechanism. Collectively, these findings reveal a PRMT5-regulated DI-splicing program as an exploitable cancer vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. "I'm just waiting…": an exploration of the experience of living and dying with primary malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jennifer; Collins, Anna; Brand, Caroline A; Moore, Gaye; Lethborg, Carrie; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Murphy, Michael A; Gold, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    Referral to supportive and palliative care services for people with high-grade primary malignant glioma (PMG) often occurs late in the illness course, despite significant care needs and overall poor prognosis. This study aimed to understand patient experience at the end of life and document supportive and palliative care needs. A qualitative study was conducted involving ten PMG patients who were at different stages in the illness course including the end of life and had varying levels of physical and cognitive function. Consecutive, eligible patients attending neurosurgery, oncology, and palliative care services of two metropolitan hospitals were recruited. In-depth interviews explored supportive and palliative care needs across the disease trajectory. Interviews were analysed independently by three investigators consistent with a grounded theory approach, and emerging ideas were compared and refined to define key patient experiences. Despite the medical treatment and supportive care available, there remains a gap in services addressing complex existential and psychosocial needs that were markedly valued by patients. Patient experience was characterised by a pervasive loss of all that encompassed their former sense of self and a focus on immediate needs. Patients in this study had substantial needs, which were often not shared and not addressed by the current medical system of care. An improved multidisciplinary care model is indicated, which proactively (1) engages care coordination and advocacy; (2) minimises patients' sense of waiting and uncertainty through mapping out a plan, including involvement of palliative care in a timely fashion; and (3) actively invites discussion around goals and preferences for care to promote patients' sense of self.

  10. Inference of Low and High-Grade Glioma Gene Regulatory Networks Delineates the Role of Rnd3 in Establishing Multiple Hallmarks of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Nil; Soulet, Fabienne; Mohd Zahari, Maihafizah; Ryan, Katie R.; Durant, Sarah; He, Shan; Herbert, John; Ankers, John; Heath, John K.; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Bicknell, Roy; Hotchin, Neil A.; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Falciani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Gliomas are a highly heterogeneous group of brain tumours that are refractory to treatment, highly invasive and pro-angiogenic. Glioblastoma patients have an average survival time of less than 15 months. Understanding the molecular basis of different grades of glioma, from well differentiated, low-grade tumours to high-grade tumours, is a key step in defining new therapeutic targets. Here we use a data-driven approach to learn the structure of gene regulatory networks from observational data and use the resulting models to formulate hypothesis on the molecular determinants of glioma stage. Remarkably, integration of available knowledge with functional genomics datasets representing clinical and pre-clinical studies reveals important properties within the regulatory circuits controlling low and high-grade glioma. Our analyses first show that low and high-grade gliomas are characterised by a switch in activity of two subsets of Rho GTPases. The first one is involved in maintaining normal glial cell function, while the second is linked to the establishment of multiple hallmarks of cancer. Next, the development and application of a novel data integration methodology reveals novel functions of RND3 in controlling glioma cell migration, invasion, proliferation, angiogenesis and clinical outcome. PMID:26132659

  11. Inference of Low and High-Grade Glioma Gene Regulatory Networks Delineates the Role of Rnd3 in Establishing Multiple Hallmarks of Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Clarke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are a highly heterogeneous group of brain tumours that are refractory to treatment, highly invasive and pro-angiogenic. Glioblastoma patients have an average survival time of less than 15 months. Understanding the molecular basis of different grades of glioma, from well differentiated, low-grade tumours to high-grade tumours, is a key step in defining new therapeutic targets. Here we use a data-driven approach to learn the structure of gene regulatory networks from observational data and use the resulting models to formulate hypothesis on the molecular determinants of glioma stage. Remarkably, integration of available knowledge with functional genomics datasets representing clinical and pre-clinical studies reveals important properties within the regulatory circuits controlling low and high-grade glioma. Our analyses first show that low and high-grade gliomas are characterised by a switch in activity of two subsets of Rho GTPases. The first one is involved in maintaining normal glial cell function, while the second is linked to the establishment of multiple hallmarks of cancer. Next, the development and application of a novel data integration methodology reveals novel functions of RND3 in controlling glioma cell migration, invasion, proliferation, angiogenesis and clinical outcome.

  12. O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT mRNA expression predicts outcome in malignant glioma independent of MGMT promoter methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kreth

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed prospectively whether MGMT (O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase mRNA expression gains prognostic/predictive impact independent of MGMT promoter methylation in malignant glioma patients undergoing radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide or temozolomide alone. As DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs are the enzymes responsible for setting up and maintaining DNA methylation patterns in eukaryotic cells, we analyzed further, whether MGMT promoter methylation is associated with upregulation of DNMT expression.ADULT PATIENTS WITH A HISTOLOGICALLY PROVEN MALIGNANT ASTROCYTOMA (GLIOBLASTOMA: N = 53, anaplastic astrocytoma: N = 10 were included. MGMT promoter methylation was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP and sequencing analysis. Expression of MGMT and DNMTs mRNA were analysed by real-time qPCR. Prognostic factors were obtained from proportional hazards models. Correlation between MGMT mRNA expression and MGMT methylation status was validated using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA database (N = 229 glioblastomas. Low MGMT mRNA expression was strongly predictive for prolonged time to progression, treatment response, and length of survival in univariate and multivariate models (p<0.0001; the degree of MGMT mRNA expression was highly correlated with the MGMT promoter methylation status (p<0.0001; however, discordant findings were seen in 12 glioblastoma patients: Patients with methylated tumors with high MGMT mRNA expression (N = 6 did significantly worse than those with low transcriptional activity (p<0.01. Conversely, unmethylated tumors with low MGMT mRNA expression (N = 6 did better than their counterparts. A nearly identical frequency of concordant and discordant findings was obtained by analyzing the TCGA database (p<0.0001. Expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was strongly upregulated in tumor tissue, but not correlated with MGMT promoter methylation and MGMT mRNA expression.MGMT mRNA expression plays a direct

  13. CD8 T Cell-Independent Antitumor Response and Its Potential for Treatment of Malignant Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Katherine A; Griffith, Thomas S

    2016-07-27

    Malignant brain tumors continue to represent a devastating diagnosis with no real chance for cure. Despite an increasing list of potential salvage therapies, standard-of-care for these patients has not changed in over a decade. Immunotherapy has been seen as an exciting option, with the potential to offer specific and long lasting tumor clearance. The "gold standard" in immunotherapy has been the development of a tumor-specific CD8 T cell response to potentiate tumor clearance and immunological memory. While many advances have been made in the field of immunotherapy, few therapies have seen true success. Many of the same principles used to develop immunotherapy in tumors of the peripheral organs have been applied to brain tumor immunotherapy. The immune-specialized nature of the brain should call into question whether this approach is appropriate. Recent results from our own experiments require a rethinking of current dogma. Perhaps a CD8 T cell response is not sufficient for an organ as immunologically unique as the brain. Examination of previously elucidated principles of the brain's immune-specialized status and known immunological preferences should generate discussion and experimentation to address the failure of current therapies.

  14. Imaging of Non— or Very Subtle Contrast-Enhancing Malignant Gliomas with [11C]-Methionine Positron Emission Tomography

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    Norbert Galldiks

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In patients with World Health Organization (WHO grade III glioma with a lack of or minimal (2 lesion and reached beyond it (in 10 of 12 MRIs/MET-PET scans. The present data suggest that in patients with WHO grade III glioma with minimal or a lack of contrast enhancement, MET-PET delineates metabolically active tumor tissue. These findings support the use of combined PET-MRI with radiolabeled amino acids (eg, MET for the delineating of the true extent of active tumor in the diagnosis and treatment planning of patients with gliomas.

  15. CECR1-mediated cross talk between macrophages and vascular mural cells promotes neovascularization in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Chrifi, I; Mustafa, D; van der Weiden, M; Leenen, P J M; Duncker, D J; Kros, J M; Cheng, C

    2017-09-21

    Glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) are most malignant brain tumors characterized by profound vascularization. The activation of macrophages strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis during GBM development. Previously, we showed that extracellular adenosine deaminase protein Cat Eye Syndrome Critical Region Protein 1 (CECR1) is highly expressed by M2-like macrophages in GBM where it defines macrophage M2 polarization and contributes to tumor expansion. In this study, the effect of CECR1 in macrophages on tumor angiogenesis was investigated. Immunohistochemical evaluation of GBM tissue samples showed that the expression of CECR1 correlates with microvascular density in the tumors, confirming data from the TCGA set. In a three-dimensional co-culture system consisting of human pericytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and THP1-derived macrophages, CECR1 knockdown by siRNA and CECR1 stimulation of macrophages inhibited and promoted new vessel formation, respectively. Loss and gain of function studies demonstrated that PDGFB mRNA and protein levels in macrophages are modulated by CECR1. The proangiogenic properties of CECR1 in macrophages were partially mediated via paracrine activation of pericytes by PDGFB-PDGFRβ signaling. CECR1-PDGFB-PDGFRβ cross-activation between macrophages and pericytes promoted pericyte migration, shown by transwell migration assay, and enhanced expression and deposition of periostin, a matrix component with proangiogenic properties. CECR1 function in (M2-like) macrophages mediates cross talk between macrophages and pericytes in GBM via paracrine PDGFB-PDGFRβ signaling, promoting pericyte recruitment and migration, and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, CECR1 offers a new portent target for anti-angiogenic therapy in GBM via immune modulation.

  16. Correlations of polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, and -7 promoters to susceptibility to malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawal, Priyanka; Chandra, Anil; Rajkumar; Dhole, Tapan N; Ojha, Balkrishna

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas are infiltrative astrocytic tumors. They constitute about 1-5% of intracranial tumors. These have been graded into benign and malignant grades. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of MMP genes may influence tumor development and progression. This study was done to explore the correlations of the promoter SNPs in MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-7 genes susceptibility in development and progression of oligodendrogliomas. We aimed to investigate the association of MMP1 (-1607A > G), MMP-2 (-1306 C/T) and MMP-7(-181A > G) gene polymorphism in oligodendrogliomas (grade I, II, III). In the present case control study, we enrolled a total of 30 cases of oligodendrogliomas (grade I to III) confirmed by histopathology and 30 healthy cases as control. Polymorphism for MMP-1 gene (-1607A > G), MMP-2 (-1306 C/T), MMP-7(-181A > G) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequencies of MMP-1 (-1607A > G) genotypes and 2G alleles were significantly associated with the cases of oligodendrogliomas (30%) in relation to healthy controls (13%). [OR = 6.89; P = 0.02; 95%CI= (1.33-35.62)] and [OR = 2.66; P =0.01; 95% CI= (1.26-5.64)]. A significant association of MMP-2 (-1306C/T) polymorphism with oligodendroglioma (P = 0.54) was not found, suggesting that MMP-2 (-1306C/T) polymorphism is not associated with increased oligodendroglioma susceptibility. Frequencies of MMP-7(-181A > G) genotypes and 2G alleles were significantly associated with the cases of oligodendrogliomas (33.33%) in relation to healthy controls (13.33%). [OR = 5.65; P = 0.02; 95%CI= (1.26-25.36)] and [OR = 2.49; P =0.01; 95% CI= (1.17-5.27)]. MMP-1 (-1607 A > G), MMP-7(-181A > G) genotypes and 2G alleles were significantly associated with oligodendroglioma (grade I, II, III), but MMP-2 (-1306C/T) polymorphism is not associated with increased oligodendroglioma susceptibility.

  17. The p75 neurotrophin receptor is a central regulator of glioma invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L M Johnston

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The invasive nature of cancers in general, and malignant gliomas in particular, is a major clinical problem rendering tumors incurable by conventional therapies. Using a novel invasive glioma mouse model established by serial in vivo selection, we identified the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR as a critical regulator of glioma invasion. Through a series of functional, biochemical, and clinical studies, we found that p75(NTR dramatically enhanced migration and invasion of genetically distinct glioma and frequently exhibited robust expression in highly invasive glioblastoma patient specimens. Moreover, we found that p75(NTR-mediated invasion was neurotrophin dependent, resulting in the activation of downstream pathways and producing striking cytoskeletal changes of the invading cells. These results provide the first evidence for p75(NTR as a major contributor to the highly invasive nature of malignant gliomas and identify a novel therapeutic target.

  18. Differential effects of combined Ad5- delta 24RGD and radiation therapy in in vitro versus in vivo models of malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamfers, Martine L M; Idema, Sander; Bosscher, Lisette; Heukelom, Stan; Moeniralm, Sharif; van der Meulen-Muileman, Ida H; Overmeer, Renée M; van der Valk, Paul; van Beusechem, Victor W; Gerritsen, Winald R; Vandertop, W Peter; Dirven, Clemens M F

    2007-12-15

    The integrin-targeted conditionally replicating adenovirus Ad5-delta 24RGD has been shown to possess strong oncolytic activity in experimental tumors and is currently being developed toward phase I clinical evaluation for ovarian cancer and malignant glioma. Previously, we reported that combination therapy of Ad5-delta 24RGD with irradiation led to synergistic antitumor activity in s.c. glioma xenografts. In the current study, the underlying mechanism of action to this synergy was studied and the effects of combined therapy were assessed in an orthotopic glioma model. Sequencing studies in U-87 monolayers showed that delivery of irradiation before Ad5-delta 24RGD infection led to a greater oncolytic effect than simultaneous delivery or infection before irradiation. This effect was not due to enhanced virus production or release. Experiments using a luciferase-encoding vector revealed a small increase in transgene expression in irradiated cells. In tumor spheroids, combination therapy was more effective than Ad5-delta 24RGD or irradiation alone. Staining of spheroid sections showed improved penetration of virus to the core of irradiated spheroids. Mice bearing intracranial tumors received a combination of Ad5-delta 24RGD with 1 x 5 Gy total body irradiation or with 2 x 6 Gy whole brain irradiation. In contrast to the in vitro data and reported results in s.c. tumors, addition of radiotherapy did not significantly enhance the antitumor effect of Ad5-delta 24RGD. Combined treatment with Ad5-delta 24RGD and irradiation shows enhanced antitumor activity in vitro and in s.c. tumors, but not in an orthotopic glioma model. These differential results underscore the significance of the selected tumor model in assessing the effects of combination therapies with oncolytic adenoviruses.

  19. Polifeprosan 20, 3.85% carmustine slow release wafer in malignant glioma: patient selection and perspectives on a low-burden therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinberg L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Kleinberg Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Polifeprosan 20 with carmustine (GLIADEL® polymer implant wafer is a biodegradable compound containing 3.85% carmustine (BCNU, bischloroethylnitrosourea implanted in the brain at the time of planned tumor surgery, which then slowly degrades to release the BCNU chemotherapy directly into the brain thereby bypassing the blood–brain barrier. Carmustine implant wafers were demonstrated to improve survival in randomized placebo-controlled trials in patients undergoing a near total resection of newly diagnosed or recurrent malignant glioma. Based on these trials and other supporting data, carmustine wafer therapy was approved for use for newly diagnosed and recurrent malignant glioma in the United States and the European Union. Adverse events are uncommon, and as this therapy is placed at the time of surgery, it does not add to patient treatment burden. Nevertheless, this therapy appears to be underutilized. This article reviews the evidence for a favorable therapeutic ratio for the patient and the potential barriers. Consideration of these issues is important for optimal use of this therapeutic approach and may be important as this technology and other local therapies are further developed in the future. Keywords: carmustine, wafer, gliadel, glioblastoma

  20. Establishment of a mathematic model for predicting malignancy in solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Zhuo, Na; Guo, Zhanlin; Zhang, Xingguang; Liang, Wenhua; Zhao, Sheng; He, Jianxing

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a model for predicting the probability of malignancy in solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) and provide guidance for the diagnosis and follow-up intervention of SPNs. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and computed tomography (CT) images of 294 patients with a clear pathological diagnosis of SPN. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to screen independent predictors of the probability of malignancy in the SPN and to establish a model for predicting malignancy in SPNs. Then, another 120 SPN patients who did not participate in the model establishment were chosen as group B and used to verify the accuracy of the prediction model. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that there were significant differences in age, smoking history, maximum diameter of nodules, spiculation, clear borders, and Cyfra21-1 levels between subgroups with benign and malignant SPNs (P<0.05). These factors were identified as independent predictors of malignancy in SPNs. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.910 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.857-0.963] in model with Cyfra21-1 significantly better than 0.812 (95% CI, 0.763-0.861) in model without Cyfra21-1 (P=0.008). The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of our model is significantly higher than the Mayo model, VA model and Peking University People's (PKUPH) model. Our model (AUC =0.910) compared with Brock model (AUC =0.878, P=0.350), the difference was not statistically significant. The model added Cyfra21-1 could improve prediction. The prediction model established in this study can be used to assess the probability of malignancy in SPNs, thereby providing help for the diagnosis of SPNs and the selection of follow-up interventions.

  1. Low c-Met expression levels are prognostic for and predict the benefits of temozolomide chemotherapy in malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yang; Yang, Pei; Liu, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Chuan-Bao; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Yin-Yan; Yao, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Xiao-Guang; Li, Wen-Bin; Peng, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Jiang, Tao

    2016-02-16

    Aberrant c-Met has been implicated in the development of many cancers. The objective of this study was to identify an unfavorable prognostic marker that might guide decisions regarding clinical treatment strategies for high-grade gliomas. C-Met expression was measured using immunohistochemistry in 783 gliomas, and we further analyzed c-Met mRNA levels using the Agilent Whole Genome mRNA Microarray in 286 frozen samples. In vitro, we performed cell migration and invasion assays. Cell sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy was determined using MTT assays. Both mRNA and protein levels of c-Met were significantly associated with tumor grade progression and inversely correlated with overall and progression-free survival in high-grade gliomas (all P DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status. Further analysis in vitro revealed that downregulating the expression of c-Met dramatically inhibited cell migration and invasion capacities, enhanced sensitivity to TMZ chemotherapy in H4 and U87 glioma cells. Our results suggest that c-Met may serve as a potential predictive maker for clinical decision making.

  2. IT-20OVEREXPRESSION OF IL13Ra2: ASSESSMENT OF PRO-AGGRESSIVE AND PRO-INVASIVE PHENOTYPES OF MALIGNANT GLIOMA IN A SYNGENEIC ANIMAL MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangraviti, Antonella; Sengupta, Sadhak; Paldor, Iddo; Rowshanshad, David; Sampath, Prakash; Olivi, Alessandro; Tyler, Betty; Brem, Henry

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IL13Rα2 is a promising target for novel therapies in glioblastoma (GBM) due to its overexpression in tumor cells as well as glioma-initiating cells, which are responsible for the growth and recurrence of GBM. The role of IL13Ra2, found heterogeneously expressed in GBMs, is not fully understood and better targeting strategies are necessary for its clinical application. This study investigated the effectiveness of different patterns of IL13Rα2 expression on the survival of syngeneic rodent glioma models. This study also aims to act as a blueprint for further tests of the level of immune response to the target immunotherapy in immunocompetent mice bearing GBMs with different levels of IL13Rα2 expression. METHODS: G26 murine glioma cell line, with transfected to express hIL13Rα2 (G26-H2) and vector control (G26-V2) were intracranially injected in two groups of C57Bl/6 mice respectively. The metric analyzed for outcome was survival. Histological analysis were used to evaluate the level of IL13Ra2 expression in primary tissue obtained from patients with high gliomas. RESULTS: Two populations of G26 glioma cell lines were established per hIL13Rα2 expression: the hIL13Rα2+ and the hIL13Rα2−. In vivo, the cell lines showed a significant difference in survival: the group that received intracranial injection of G26-H2 cells (100% positive for hIL13Rα2) had a median survival of 29.5 days compared to 49 days for group receiving G26-V2 cells (100% negative for h IL13Rα2), p <0.0172. CONCLUSION: We assessed two different populations of G26 glioma cell lines: h IL13Rα2+ and h IL13Rα2−. In vivo, after intracranial implantation, the two populations showed a significant difference in survival. These results confirm the role of hIL13Rα2 overexpression in specific subtypes of GBMs, and most likely the most aggressive ones.

  3. (18F-Fluorothymidine PET-CT for resected malignant gliomas before radiotherapy: tumor extent according to proliferative activity compared with MRI.

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    Fen Zhao

    Full Text Available To compare the presence of post-operative residual disease by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and [18F]fluorothymidine (FLT-positron emission tomography (PET-computer tomography (CT in patients with malignant glioma and to estimate the impact of 18F-FLT PET on the delineation of post-operative target volumes for radiotherapy (RT planning.Nineteen patients with post-operative residual malignant gliomas were enrolled in this study. For each patient, 18F- FLT PET-CT and MRI were acquired in the same week, within 4 weeks after surgery but before the initiation of RT. The PET-CT and MRI data were co-registered based on mutual information. The residual tumor volume defined on the 18F-FLT PET (Vol-PET was compared with that of gadolinium [Gd] enhancement on T1-weighted MRI (Vol-T1 and areas of hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI (Vol-T2.The mean Vol-PET (14.61 cm3 and Vol-T1 (13.60 cm3 were comparable and smaller than the mean Vol-T2 (32.93 cm3. The regions of 18F-FLT uptake exceeded the contrast enhancement and the hyperintense area on the MRI in 14 (73.68% and 8 patients (42.11%, respectively. In 5 (26.32% of the 19 patients, Vol-PET extended beyond 25 mm from the margin of Vol-T1; in 2 (10.53% patients, Vol-PET extended 20 mm from the margin of Vol-T2. Vol-PET was detected up to 35 mm away from the edge of Vol-T1 and 24 mm away from the edge of Vol-T2. In 16 (84.21% of the 19 patients, the Vol-T1 extended beyond the Vol-PET. In all of the patients, at least some of the Vol-T2 was located outside of the Vol-PET.The volumes of post-operative residual tumor in patients with malignant glioma defined by 18F-FLT uptake on PET are not always consistent with the abnormalities shown on post-operative MRI. Incorporation of 18F-FLT-PET in tumor delineation may have the potential to improve the definition of target volume in post-operative radiotherapy.

  4. CCR7 Mediates TGF-β1-Induced Human Malignant Glioma Invasion, Migration, and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Activating MMP2/9 Through the Nuclear Factor KappaB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Miu, Yiting; Yang, Xiaokai; Yang, Xiaoguo; Zhu, Meijia

    2017-10-01

    Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) has emerged as an inducer of invasion, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer. In this research, human malignant glioma cells were stimulated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and siCCR7. The data show that CCR7 mediates TGF-β1-induced EMT, migration, and invasion in U251 and U87 cells and that these effects of TGF-β1 were reversed by treatment with siCCR7 or a CCR7 neutralizing antibody. Importantly, the TGF-β1-mediated increase in nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity in human glioma cells was reduced by treatment with siCCR7 or a CCR7 neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, CCR7 was shown to mediate TGF-β1-induced glioma cancer cell migration by activating matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)/9. Our results indicate that CCR7 mediates TGF-β1-induced MMP2/9 expression through NF-κB signaling, thus facilitating glioma cell migration, invasion, and EMT, all of which progressively increase with glioblastoma progression. These findings indicate that CCR7 is a potential therapeutic target for malignant glioma.

  5. Expression of 58-kD Microspherule Protein (MSP58 is Highly Correlated with PET Imaging of Tumor Malignancy and Cell Proliferation in Glioma Patients

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    Wei Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The nucleolar 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58 has important transcriptional regulation functions and plays a crucial role in the tumorigenesis and progression of cancers. 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine (FLT has emerged as a promising positron emission tomography (PET tracer for evaluating tumor malignancy and cell proliferation. Methods: In the present study, the expression of MSP58 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and the corresponding PET image was examined using FLT-PET in 55 patients with various grades of gliomas. Results: The immunoreactivity score (IRS of MSP58 increased with tumor grade with grade IV gliomas exhibiting the highest expression and showed a highly significant positive correlation with the Ki-67 index (r = 0.65, P r = 0.61, P r = 0.59, P Conclusion: These results indicate that MSP58 plays an important role in cell proliferation and will be one of the potential candidates of molecular therapy targeting proliferation. FLT-PET might be used as an early measure of treatment response in the proliferation-targeted therapy.

  6. Wavelength-specific lighted suction instrument for 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence-guided resection of deep-seated malignant glioma: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Ramin A; Han, Seunggu J; Lau, Darryl; Berger, Mitchel S

    2017-06-30

    Surgery guided by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) fluorescence has become a valuable adjunct in the resection of malignant intracranial gliomas. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity of biopsied areas of a resection cavity correlates with histological identification of tumor cells. However, in the case of lesions deep within a resection cavity, light penetration may be suboptimal, resulting in less excitation of 5-ALA metabolites, leading to decreased fluorescence emission. To address this obstacle, the authors report on the use of a 400-nm wavelength fiber-optic lighted suction instrument that can be used both during resection of a tumor and to provide direct light to deeper areas of a resection cavity. In the presented case, this wavelength-specific lighted suction instrument improved the fluorescence intensity of patches of malignant tissue within the resection cavity. This technique may further improve the utility of 5-ALA in identifying tumor-infiltrated tissue for deep-seated lesions. Additionally, this tool may have implications for scoring systems that correlate 5-ALA fluorescence intensity with histological identification of malignant cells.

  7. Evaluation of the risk of liver damage from the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid for intra-operative identification and resection in patients with malignant gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Cecilie Mørck; Skjoeth-Rasmussen, Jane

    2017-01-01

    of the present study was to assess the potential risk of liver damage and investigate liver enzyme reactions of patients going through 5-ALA-guided operations to improve the monitoring of their operations. METHODS: A retrospective study of all patients undergoing 5-ALA-guided surgery during a 2-year period......BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for fluorescence-guided surgery of malignant gliomas is evident from several studies; however, as post-operative elevations of liver enzymes have been seen, there is a potential risk of liver damage upon administration. The aim...... (September 2012-September 2014) at the University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, was conducted. All patients received a pre-operative dose of 20 mg/kg bodyweight 5-ALA. The pre- and post-operative enzyme levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase...

  8. Expression analysis of the autosomal recessive primary microcephaly genes MCPH1 (microcephalin) and MCPH5 (ASPM, abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly associated) in human malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Carsten; Anacker, Jelena; Gerngras, Stefanie; Kühnel, Siglinde; Said, Harun M; Patel, Rajnikant; Kämmerer, Ulrike; Vordermark, Dirk; Roosen, Klaus; Vince, Giles Hamilton

    2008-08-01

    Patients with autosomal recessive primary microcephaly have a small but architecturally normal brain containing a reduced number of neurons. Microcephalin and ASPM are two of the genes causing this disease. Both are centrosomal proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. Whereas microcephalin is a component of the DNA damage response and a repressor of telomerase function, ASPM is required for the proper formation of a central mitotic spindle and ensures symmetric, proliferative divisions of neuro-epithelial cells. Both proteins are also involved in the regulation of tumor growth. Microcephalin expression is reduced in breast cancer cell lines and human tumors of the ovary and prostate. Reduction in microcephalin mRNA expression correlates with increased chromosomal instability. ASPM mRNA is overexpressed in transformed human cell lines and tumors, and its increased expression is positively associated with proliferation of glioblastoma cells. Glioblastomas are the most prevalent malignant brain tumors in adults, characterized by increased invasiveness, an aggressive local growth pattern and short survival periods of patients. In this study, we analysed the expression of microcephalin mRNA and ASPM mRNA and protein in a panel of 15 glioblastomas and 15 astrocytoma WHO grade II by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Whereas microcephalin expression did not seem to be altered during glioma development, there was a clear increase in ASPM mRNA and protein expression that corresponded with the WHO grade of the tumor. Our findings are significant as the expression of ASPM may be used as a marker for glioma malignancy and represents a potential therapeutic target.

  9. SEMI–MATURE DENDRITIC CELLS AS A POTENTIAL BASIS FOR THE INDUCTION OF ANTI–TUMOR RESPONSE IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Leplina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The comparative analysis of phenotypical and functional features of dendritic cells (DCs, generated in presence of GM–CSF and IFNα from blood monocytes of patients with malignant gliomas (MG and healthy donors, was carried out in this research. The potential value of the DC–based immunotherapy in the induction of anti–tumor response in patients with MG was also examined. Our results show that within generated DCs of healthy donors 90 and 52% cells expressed correspondingly HLA–DR and CD86, only 17–18% cells were CD14+monocytes, whereas 38% cells exhibited the phenotype of mature CD83+ dendritic cells. The both monocyte conditioned medium (MCM, 30% v/v and Leukinferon® (250 IU of IFNα were comparably efficient as maturation–induced stimuli. Despite monocyte’s disturbances in malignant gliomas, the analogous population of DCs was efficiently generated in all examined patients with MG. However, the percentage of mature CD83+DCs was significantly decreased compared to that in healthy donors (24 vs 38%, and these data strongly suggest the delay maturation of DCs in MG. Nevertheless the patient’s DCs showed the allostimulatory activity, comparable with healthy donor’s DCs, and 52–62% cells maintained the ability for the receptor–dependent en–docytosis. Moreover, the patient’s DCs effectively presented bacterial and tumor–associated antigens (TAA. Immunotherapy with autologous DCs allowed to induce the TAA–specific immune reactions, both in skin test in vivo and in vitro, in 50% patients with MG. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 4, pp. 365–374

  10. [Establishment of nude mice liver metastatic model of human primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Shuai; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Qiu-Zhen

    2008-07-01

    To provide ideal animal models for exploring pathogenesis and experimental therapy of primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine. The histologically intact primary and liver metastatic fragments derived from surgical specimens of one patient with metastatic malignant melanoma of the small intestine were orthotopically implanted in the small intestinal mucous layer of nude mice. The take rate, invasion and liver metastasis were observed. Morphology (light microscopy, electron microscopy), immunophenotype analysis, flow cytometry and karyotype analysis were applied for the original human tumors and the transplanted tumors. The primary and liver metastatic fragments of malignant melanoma of the small intestine were successfully implanted in nude mice. After continuous passages in nude mice,an orthotopic model of human primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine(from the primary focus)in nude mice (termed HSIM-0501) and a liver metastatic model of human primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine (from the liver metastatic focus) in nude mice (termed HSIM-0502) were established. Histological examination of transplanted tumors revealed high-grade melanoma. S-100 protein and HMB45 were positive. Massive melanin granules and melanin complex were seen in cytoplasm of tumor cells.Chromosomal modal number was between 55 and 59. DNA index (DI) was 1.49-1.61, representing heteroploid. HSIM-0501 and HSIM-0502 were maintained for 25 and 27 passages in nude mice respectively. Three hundred and seventeen nude mice were used for transplantation. Both the take rate after transplantation and resuscitation rate of liquid nitrogen cryopreservation were 100%. HSIM-0501 exhibited 46.2% liver metastasis and 36.7% lymph node metastases. In HSIM-0502, both liver and lymph node metastases were 100%.The transplanted tumors autonomically and invasively grew in the small intestines of nude mice and hematogenous metastasis, lymph node metastasis and celiac planting metastasis

  11. Glioma epidemiology in the central Tunisian population: 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Saoussen; Brahim, Dorra H'mida-Ben; Ladib, Mohamed; Mama, Nadia; Harrabi, Imed; Tlili, Kalthoum; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Krifa, Hedi; Hmissa, Sihem; Saad, Ali; Mokni, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is a heterogeneous central nervous system (CNS) tumor group that encompasses different histological subtypes with high variability in prognosis. The lesions account for almost 80% of primary malignant brain tumors. The aim of this study is to extend our understanding of the glioma epidemiology in the central Tunisian region. We analyzed 393 gliomas recorded in cancer registry of central Tunisia from 1993 to 2012. Crude incidence rates (CR) and world age-standardized rates (ASR) were estimated using annual population data size and age structure. Statistic correlations were established using Chi-square and Kaplan-Meier test. Tunisian glioma patients were identified with a mean age at diagnosis of 48 years and 1.5 sex ratio (male/female). During the 19 years period of study the highest incidence value was observed in male group between 1998 and 2002 (CR: 0.28, ASR: 0.3). Incidence results underline increasing high grade glioma occurring in the adulthood in the last period (2007-2012). Median survival was 27 months, with 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates of 42%, 30% and 26%, respectively. Survival was greater in patients with younger age, lower tumor grade, infratentrial tumor location and undergoing a palliative treatment. This central Tunisia gliomas registry study provides important information that could improve glioma management and healthcare practice.

  12. Tricyclic Neovibsanin Scaffold Inhibits Glioma by Targeting Glioma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TCNS may be of therapeutic importance in the treatment of malignant glioma. REFERENCES. 1. Ng SS, Gao Y, Chau DH. A novel glioblastoma cancer gene therapy using AAV-mediated long-term expression of human TERT C-terminal polypeptide. Cancer Gene. Ther 2007; 14: 561-572. 2. Stiles CD, Rowitch DH. Glioma ...

  13. Role of O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET as a diagnostic tool for detection of malignant progression in patients with low-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galldiks, Norbert; Stoffels, Gabriele; Ruge, Maximilian I; Rapp, Marion; Sabel, Michael; Reifenberger, Guido; Erdem, Zuhal; Shah, Nadim J; Fink, Gereon R; Coenen, Heinz H; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2013-12-01

    In patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, early detection of progression to WHO grade III or IV is of high clinical importance because the initiation of a specific treatment depends mainly on the WHO grade. In a significant number of patients with LGG, however, information on tumor activity and malignant progression cannot be obtained on the basis of clinical or conventional MR imaging findings only. We here investigated the potential of O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET to noninvasively detect malignant progression in patients with LGG. Twenty-seven patients (mean age ± SD, 44 ± 15 y) with histologically proven LGG (WHO grade II) were investigated longitudinally twice using dynamic (18)F-FET PET and routine MR imaging. Initially, MR imaging and PET scans were performed, and diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of biopsy. Subsequently, PET scans were obtained when clinical findings or contrast-enhanced MR imaging suggested malignant progression. Maximum and mean tumor-to-brain ratios (20-40 min after injection) (TBRmax and TBRmean, respectively) of (18)F-FET uptake as well as tracer uptake kinetics (i.e., time to peak [TTP] and patterns of the time-activity curves) were determined. The diagnostic accuracy of imaging parameters for the detection of malignant progression was evaluated by receiver-operating-characteristic analyses and by Fisher exact test for 2 × 2 contingency tables. In patients with histologically proven malignant progression toward WHO grade III or IV (n = 18), TBRmax and TBRmean increased significantly, compared with baseline (TBRmax, 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 2.4 ± 1.0; TBRmean, 2.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6; both P PET parameters (i.e., changes of TBRmax, TTP, or time-activity curve pattern) yielded a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy for the detection of malignant progression than changes of contrast enhancement in MR imaging (accuracy, 81% vs. 63%; P = 0.003). Both tumor-to-brain ratio

  14. Tumor resection cavity administered iodine-131-labeled antitenascin 81C6 radioimmunotherapy in patients with malignant glioma: neuropathology aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, Roger E. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)]. E-mail: mclen001@mc.duke.edu; Akabani, Gamal [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Reardon, David A. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Cleveland, Linda [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Cokgor, Ilkcan [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Herndon, James E. [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Wikstrand, Carol [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Boulton, Susan T. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Friedman, Allan H. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Introduction: The neurohistological findings in patients treated with targeted {beta} emitters such as {sup 131}I are poorly described. We report a histopathologic analysis from patients treated with combined external beam therapy and a brachytherapy consisting of a {sup 131}I-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) injected into surgically created resection cavities during brain tumor resections. Methods: Directed tissue samples of the cavity walls were obtained because of suspected tumor recurrence from 28 patients. Samples and clinical follow-up were evaluated on all patients (Group A) based on total radiation dose received and a subset of these (n=18; Group B, proximal therapy subset) who had received external beam therapy within {<=}3 months of mAb therapy and undergoing 26 biopsies over 37 months. Histologic outcomes were 'proliferative glioma,' 'quiescent glioma' and negative for neoplasm. Statistical analysis was used to assess the casual relation between total absorbed dose ({sup 131}I-mAb+external beam) and histologic diagnosis. Results: The lesions observed after {sup 131}I-mAb therapy were qualitatively similar to those reported for other types of radiation therapy; however, the high localized dose rate and absorbed doses produced by the short range of {sup 131}I {beta} particles seem to have resulted in an earlier necrotic reaction in the tumor bed. Among all 28 (Group A) patients, median survival from tissue analysis after mAb therapy depended on histopathology and total radiation absorbed dose. Median survival for patients with tissue classified as proliferative glioma, quiescent glioma and negative for neoplasm were 3.5, 15 and 27.5 months, respectively. Without categorization, total dose was a significant predictor of survival (P<.002) where patients with higher doses had better prognoses. For example, median survival in patients receiving a total radiation dose greater than 86 Gy was 19 months compared with 7 months for those

  15. Sterile alpha motif containing domain 9 is involved in death signaling of malignant glioma treated with inactivated Sendai virus particle (HVJ-E) or type I interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiko; Shimbo, Takashi; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Matsuda, Masahide; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2010-04-15

    Malignant glioma is one of the most aggressive cancers. For the development of effective therapeutic strategies against such malignant diseases, elucidation of molecular targets is necessary. We found that inactivated Sendai virus particle (HVJ-E) induced extensive cell death in the human glioblastoma cell line U251MG. Intradermal U251MG tumors were more effectively suppressed by HVJ-E than interferon (IFN)-beta. From microarray analysis of gene expression in U251MG cells treated with HVJ-E, we focused on the up-regulation of sterile alpha motif containing domain 9 (SAMD9) gene. The expression of the SAMD9 gene was induced by administration of recombinant human IFN-alpha, -beta or -gamma. The up-regulation of the SAMD9 gene by HVJ-E treatment was abrogated by IFN receptor blocking antibody or JAK inhibitor treatment. When SAMD9 expression was knocked down by RNA interference, apoptotic cell death induced by HVJ-E was blocked in U251MG cells. Suppression of SAMD9 using SAMD9 siRNA also inhibited IFN-beta-induced death in U251MG cells with a small, but significant, difference to control groups. However, overexpression of the SAMD9 gene failed to induce significant cell death in U251MG cells. Thus, SAMD9 could be a key molecule to control cancer cell death by HVJ-E or IFN-beta treatment.

  16. Combination of Curcumin with an Anti-Transferrin Receptor Antibody Suppressed the Growth of Malignant Gliomas In vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xue; Cheng, Xiaoping; Hu, Dahai; Li, Wenmin; Ha, Jianli; Kang, Zhaochang; Zhang, Mingjun; Huang, Yinghao; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TfR) has been used as a target for the molecular cancer therapy due to its higher expression in a variety of tumors. Anti-TfR antibodies combined with chemotherapeutic drugs has showed great potential as a possible cancer therapeutic strategy. In our study, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of anti-TfR monoclonal antibody (mAb) alone or in combination with curcumin in vitro. We detected the apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle of glioma cells after treated with anti-TfR mAb and curcumin alone or the combinations by flow cytometer. Anti-TfR mAb or curcumin could inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. Anti-TfR mAb marked S phase arrest and curcumin induced G2/M arrest in tumor cells. When anti-TfR mAb and curcumin were used simultaneously, a synergistic effect was detected in relation to tumor growth inhibition and the induction of cells necrosis. These results provided a potential role of anti-TfR mAb-containing curcumin in the treatment for gliomas.

  17. A phase 2 trial of irinotecan (CPT-11) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma: A North American Brain Tumor Consortium study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Michael D.; Lamborn, Kathleen; Yung, W.K.A.; Jaeckle, Kurt; Robins, H. Ian; Mehta, Minesh; Fine, Howard A.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Cloughesy, Timothy; Chang, Susan; Nicholas, M. Kelly; Schiff, David; Greenberg, Harry; Junck, Larry; Fink, Karen; Hess, Ken; Kuhn, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the response to CPT-11 administered every three weeks to adults with progressive malignant glioma, treated with or without enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug (EIAED) therapy, at the recommended phase 2 dose determined from a previous phase 1 study. Adult patients age 18 or older with a KPS of 60 or higher who had measurable recurrent grade III anaplastic glioma (AG) or grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) were eligible. No more than one prior chemotherapy was allowed, either as adjuvant therapy or for recurrent disease. The CPT-11 dose was 350 mg/m2 i.v. every three weeks in patients not on EIAED and 750 mg/m2 in patients on EIAED therapy. Patients with stable or responding disease could be treated until tumor progression or a total of 12 months of therapy. The primary end point of the study was to determine whether CPT-11 could significantly delay tumor progression, using the rate of six-month progression-free survival (PFS-6). The trial was sized to be able to discriminate between a 15% and 35% rate for the GBM group alone and between a 20% and 40% rate for the entire cohort. There were 51 eligible patients, including 38 GBM and 13 AG patients, enrolled. The median age was 52 and 42 years, respectively. PFS-6 for the entire cohort was 17.6%. PFS-6 was 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07–0.31) for the GBM patients and 23% (95% CI, 0.07–0.52) for AG patients. Toxicity for the group included diarrhea and myelosuppression. We conclude that the recommended phase 2 dose of CPT-11 for patients with or without EIAED was ineffective on this schedule, in this patient population. PMID:16533878

  18. Phase 1 trial of irinotecan (CPT-11) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma: A North American Brain Tumor Consortium study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Michael D.; Yung, W.K.A.; Jaeckle, Kurt A.; Robins, H. Ian; Mehta, Minesh P.; Fine, Howard A.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Chang, Susan M.; Nicholas, M. Kelly; Schiff, David; Greenberg, Harry S.; Junck, Larry; Fink, Karen L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kuhn, John

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicity of irinotecan (CPT-11) administered every 3 weeks to adults with progressive malignant glioma who were treated with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug (EIAED) therapy, and to compare the pharmacokinetics with those in patients not on EIAED therapy treated at the recommended phase 2 dose for other cancers. The CPT-11 dose was 350 mg/m2 i.v. every 3 weeks and remained fixed in patients not on EIAED therapy, but the dose was escalated by 50-mg/m2 increments in patients on EIAED therapy. CPT-11 and its metabo-lites SN-38, SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G), and APC (7-ethyl-10[4-N-(5 aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidine]-carbonyloxycamptothecin) were characterized in both groups. Patients on EIAEDs received 350 to 800 mg/m2 of CPT-11. Dose-limiting toxicity was due to grade 3 diarrhea despite maximal doses of loperamide. The systemic levels of CPT-11, APC, SN-38G, and SN-38 were all lower in the EIAED group. There was a moderate-to-fair relationship between CPT-11 dose and the area under the curve (AUC) for CPT-11 and APC over the dosage range of 350 to 800 mg/m2, but no relationship between CPT-11 dose and the AUC for SN-38 or SN-38G. At the 750-mg/m2 dose, the AUC for CPT-11 (21.6 μg × h/ml) matched the AUC (21.6 μg × h/ml) in the non-EIAED group treated with 350 mg/m2 of CPT-11. We conclude that the recommended phase 2 dose of CPT-11 for patients on EIAEDs is 750 mg/m2 when given every 3 weeks. A phase 2 study of patients with recurrent malignant glioma is ongoing to assess the efficacy of CPT-11 when the dose is stratified according to the use of EIAEDs. PMID:14769140

  19. Angiogenesis in gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Czykier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain gliomas are characterized by invasive growth and neovascularisation potential. Angiogenesis plays a major role in the progression of gliomas and its determination has a great prognostic value. The aim of the study was to assess the vascularisation of chosen brain gliomas and to estimate how it is correlated with tumour histological type, malignancy grade, location and size, and with age and sex of patients. Tumour vascularisation analysis was based on the determination of microvascular proliferation (MVP and microvessel density (MVD. Microvascular proliferation was measured with immunohistochemical methods using mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect cell proliferation antigens. The following antibodies were used Ki-67 and PCNA (DAKO. Identification of vessels was performed by CD31 antibody and anti-human von Willebrand factor (DAKO. The highest microvascular proliferation and microvascular density were observed in multiform glioblastomas and the lowest in oligodendrogliomas. Significant correlation was observed between the vascularisation and malignancy grade.

  20. ACE I/D sequence variants but not MTHFR C677T, is strongly linked to malignant glioma risk and its variant DD genotype may act as a promising predictive biomarker for overall survival of glioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Arshad A; Qasim, Iqbal; Zahoor, Wani; Shah, Parveen; Bhat, Abdul R

    2018-01-10

    ACE I/D and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphisms can be seen as candidate genes for glioma on the basis of their biological functions and their involvement in different cancers. The aim of this study was to analyze potential association and overall survival between MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D polymorphism in glioma patients in our population. We tested genotype distribution of 112 glioma patients against 141 cancer-free controls from the same region. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to evaluate overall survival of patients for both genes. No significant differences were found among MTHFR C677T wild type C and variant genotypes CT/TT with glioma patients. In ACE, the distribution of variant ID and DD was found to be significantly higher in glioma cases as compared to controls (pDD genotypes were highly presented in glioma cases 26.8% versus 10.6% in controls (pDD genotypes had the least estimated overall survival of 13.4months in comparison to 21. 7 and 17.6months for ACE II and I/D genotypes respectively. We conclude ACE I/D polymorphism plays a vital role in predisposition of higher risk for glioma. We also suggest that ACE DD genotypes may act as an important predictive biomarker for overall survival of glioma patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Combinatorial therapy with adenoviral-mediated PTEN and a PI3K inhibitor suppresses malignant glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yang; Guo, Liyun; Song, Yunpeng; Wang, Le; Yu, Kai; Huang, Qiang; Zhong, Yue

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly invasive and challenging tumor of the central nervous system. The mutation/deletion of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene is the main genetic change identified in glioblastomas. PTEN plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and has been shown to be an important therapeutic target. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 is commonly used to inhibit glioma cell growth via regulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the growth inhibitory effects of a combinatorial therapy of adenoviral-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) and LY294002 on LN229 and U251 glioma cells in vitro and on tumor xenografts in vivo. In vitro, LN229 and U251 glioma cells were treated by combinatorial therapy with Ad-PTEN and LY294002. The growth ability was determined by MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell invasive ability was analyzed by transwell invasion assay and cell apoptosis analysis via FITC-Annexin V analysis. In vivo, U251 subcutaneous glioblastoma xenograft was used to assay anti-tumor effect of combinatorial therapy with Ad-PTEN and LY294002 by mean volume of tumors, immunohistochemistry and TUNEL method. The combinatorial treatment clearly suppressed cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, reduced cell invasion and promoted cell apoptosis compared with the Ad-PTEN or LY294002 treatment alone. The treatment worked by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway. In addition, the growth of U251 glioma xenografts treated with the combination of Ad-PTEN and LY294002 was significantly inhibited compared with those treated with Ad-PTEN or LY294002 alone. Our data indicated that the combination of Ad-PTEN and LY294002 effectively suppressed the malignant growth of human glioma cells in vitro and in tumor xenografts, suggesting a promising new approach for glioma gene therapy that warrants further investigation.

  2. The challenges and suffering of caring for people with primary malignant glioma: qualitative perspectives on improving current supportive and palliative care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Lethborg, Carrie; Brand, Caroline; Gold, Michelle; Moore, Gaye; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Murphy, Michael; Philip, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Carers of patients with high-grade primary malignant glioma (PMG) are known to face extraordinary challenges, as they care for patients with multiple profound and often devastating physical, cognitive and behavioural changes. This study aimed to understand the supportive and palliative care needs in this setting, with a particular focus upon care at the end-of-life, which has hitherto been neglected. This prospective qualitative study undertook in-depth interviews with 23 current and bereaved carers of adults with PMG. Carers were recruited from outpatient and inpatient services of two Australian metropolitan hospitals, including neurosurgery, oncology and palliative care. Thematic analysis was conducted by three independent researchers, using methods informed by grounded theory. Carers described significant needs in relation to three distinct domains: the challenge of caring; the lack of support available to carers and the suffering of caring. The need for care coordination was highlighted as it may enable a series of recommendations for improved care, including: navigation between health providers, individualised, staged information; routine, proactive telephone needs-assessment and emotional support; and early routine integration of palliative care services. The results of this study shed new light on providing timely information and palliative care to support carers. We call for health services to reconsider the current medical model for this patient group, where patients are the centre of care, information and support, towards a more collaborative model which places carers and patients into a partnership.

  3. Fluorine F 18 Fluorodopa-Labeled PET Scan in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed High- or Low-Grade Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-14

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  4. MicroRNA in Human Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengfeng, E-mail: limf@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Li, Jun [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Biochemistry, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Liu, Lei; Li, Wei [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yuan, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Molecules from Oceanic Microorganisms (Sun Yat-sen University), Department of Education of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2013-10-23

    Glioma represents a serious health problem worldwide. Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeting therapy, the disease remains one of the most lethal malignancies in humans, and new approaches to improvement of the efficacy of anti-glioma treatments are urgently needed. Thus, new therapeutic targets and tools should be developed based on a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of glioma. In this context, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in the development of the malignant phenotype of glioma cells, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, tumor angiogenesis, and stem cell generation. This review will discuss the biological functions of miRNAs in human glioma and their implications in improving clinical diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and anti-glioma therapy.

  5. AMOG/beta2 and glioma invasion: does loss of AMOG make tumour cells run amok?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senner, V; Schmidtpeter, S; Braune, S; Püttmann, S; Thanos, S; Bartsch, U; Schachner, M; Paulus, W

    2003-08-01

    The beta2 subunit of Na,K-ATPase, initially described as adhesion molecule on glia (AMOG), has been shown to mediate neurone-astrocyte adhesion as well as neural cell migration in vitro. We have investigated the expression of AMOG/beta2 in human gliomas and its effect on glioma cell adhesion and migration. Compared to normal astrocytes of human brain, AMOG/beta2 expression levels of neoplastic astrocytes were down-regulated in biopsy specimens and inversely related to the grade of malignancy. One rat and four human glioma cell lines showed complete loss of AMOG. To investigate the function of AMOG/beta2, its expression was re-established by transfecting an expression plasmid into AMOG/beta2-negative C6 rat glioma cells. In vitro assays revealed increased adhesion and decreased migration on matrigel of AMOG/beta2-positive cells as compared to their AMOG/beta2-negative counterparts. We conclude that increasing loss of AMOG/beta2 during malignant progression parallels and may underlie the extensive invasion pattern of malignant gliomas.

  6. Molecular Neuropathology of Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Reifenberger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary human brain tumors. They comprise a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms that are histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of tumors of the nervous system. Over the past 20 years the cytogenetic and molecular genetic alterations associated with glioma formation and progression have been intensely studied and genetic profiles as additional aids to the definition of brain tumors have been incorporated in the WHO classification. In fact, first steps have been undertaken in supplementing classical histopathological diagnosis by the use of molecular tests, such as MGMT promoter hypermethylation in glioblastomas or detection of losses of chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors. The tremendous progress that has been made in the use of array-based profiling techniques will likely contribute to a further molecular refinement of glioma classification and lead to the identification of glioma core pathways that can be specifically targeted by more individualized glioma therapies.

  7. Use of EF5 to Measure the Oxygen Level in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  8. Targeting ανβ3 and ανβ5 inhibits photon-induced hypermigration of malignant glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sublethal photon irradiation was recently suspected to increase tumor cell motility and promote locoregional recurrence of disease. This study was set up to describe mechanisms underlying increased glioma cell migration through photon irradiation and to analyse the modifiability of photon-altered glioma cell motility by integrin inhibition. Methods Eight μm pore size membranes were coated with vitronectin (VN, collagen I and collagen IV. U87 and Ln229 glioma cells were analysed in migration experiments with and without radiotherapy (RT, serum stimulation and addition of monoclonal antibodies directed to human integrins ανβ3 and ανβ5. Quantitative FACS analysis of integrins was performed in U87 and Ln229 glioma cells following RT. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. Results Glioma cell migration is serum-dependent and can be increased by photon RT which leads to enhanced expression of Vn receptor integrins. Blocking of either ανβ3 or ανβ5 integrins by antibodies inhibits Vn-based migration of both untreated and photon-irradiated glioma cells. Conclusions Peripheral glioma cells are at risk of attraction into the adjacent healthy brain by serum components leaking through the blood brain barrier (BBB. Radiation therapy is associated with upregulation of Vn receptor integrins and enhanced glioma cell migration at sublethal doses. This effect can be inhibited by specific integrin blockade. Future therapeutical benefit may be derived from pharmacological integrin inhibition in combination with photon irradiation.

  9. Magnetohyperthermia for treatment of gliomas: experimental and clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André César da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas comprise a group of heterogeneous primary tumors of thecentral nervous system that originate from glial cells. Malignantgliomas account for the majority of primary malignant CNS tumorsand are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Glioblastoma isthe most frequent malignant glioma, and despite recent advances indiagnosis and new treatment options, its prognosis remains dismal.New opportunities for the development of effective therapies formalignant gliomas are urgently needed. Magnetohyperthermia consistsof heat generation in the region of the tumor through the application of magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field and has shown positive results in both preclinical and clinical assays. The aim of this review was to assess the relevance of hyperthermia induced by magnetic nanoparticles in treating gliomas and to describe possible variations of the technique and its implication in the effectiveness of treatment. An electronic search in the literature of articles published from January 1990 to November 2009 was performed, in databases ISI Web of Science and PubMed, and after screening according to the inclusion criteria, 11 articles were selected. Animal models showed that magnetohyperthermia was effective in promoting tumor cell death and reducing tumor mass or increasing survival of the animals. One clinical study demonstrated that magnetohyperthermia could be applied safely and with few adverse effects. Some studies suggested that mechanisms of cell death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, and antitumor immune response were triggered by magnetohyperthermia. Based on these data, it was concluded that the technique proved to be effective in most experiments, and improvement of the nanocomposites, as well as of the alternating magnetic field equipment, can contribute towards establishing magnetohyperthermia as a promising tool to treat malignant gliomas.

  10. Treg infiltration in glioma: a hurdle for antiglioma immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberk, Lien; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2012-07-01

    Tregs play a crucial role in glioma-mediated immunosuppression; hence, tackling the Treg population in patients with malignant glioma could improve the clinical success rate of antiglioma immunotherapy. Therefore, it is of high importance to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for Treg recruitment and retention within the glioma microenvironment. The current paper demonstrates that, in addition to preferential chemoattraction, glioma-derived soluble factors can also induce preferential Treg proliferation and survival. These data identify new targets for Treg modulating strategies.

  11. Live attenuated measles virus vaccine therapy for locally established malignant glioblastoma tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shammari AM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Al-Shammari,1 Farah E Ismaeel,2 Shahlaa M Salih,2 Nahi Y Yaseen11Experimental Therapy Department, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Researches, Mustansiriya University, 2Departments of Biotechnology, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, with poor prognosis. A new glioblastoma cell line (ANGM5 was established from a cerebral glioblastoma multiforme in a 72-year-old Iraqi man who underwent surgery for an intracranial tumor. This study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor effect of live attenuated measles virus (MV Schwarz vaccine strain on glioblastoma multiforme tumor cell lines in vitro. Live attenuated MV Schwarz strain was propagated on Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and human glioblastoma-multiform (ANGM5 cell lines. The infected confluent monolayer appeared to be covered with syncytia with granulation and vacuolation, as well as cell rounding, shrinkage, and large empty space with cell debris as a result of cell lysis and death. Cell lines infected with virus have the ability for hemadsorption to human red blood cells after 72 hours of infection, whereas no hemadsorption of uninfected cells is seen. Detection of MV hemagglutinin protein by monoclonal antibodies in infected cells of all cell lines by immunocytochemistry assay gave positive results (brown color in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Cell viability was measured after 72 hours of infection by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results showed a significant cytotoxic effect for MV (P≤0.05 on growth of ANGM5 and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines after 72 hours of infection. Induction of apoptosis by MV was assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potentials in tumor cells after 48, 72, and 120 hours of infection. Apoptotic cells were counted, and the mean percentage of dead cells was significantly higher after 48, 72

  12. Establishment and characterization of human uveal malignant melanoma xenografts in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S; Spang-Thomsen, M; Prause, J U

    2003-01-01

    model. Tumour tissue blocks (2 x 2 x 2 mm) from enucleated eyes with choroidal malignant melanoma were transplanted subcutaneously into the flanks of nude mice. The growing tumours were measured and serially transplanted. The tumour samples were investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry...

  13. Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Bela, E-mail: purohitbela@yahoo.co.in; Kamli, Ali A.; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •BSG are classified on MRI into diffuse low-grade, malignant, focal tectal and exophytic subtypes. •Their prognosis and treatment is variable and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. •This article illustrates the imaging of adult BSGs on MRI and FET-PET. •We also describe prognostic factors and the treatment options of these tumours. -- Abstract: Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other subtypes. The prognosis and treatment is variable for the different types and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. Radiotherapy (RT) with adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment of diffuse low-grade and malignant BSGs, whereas, surgical resection is limited to the exophytic subtypes. Review of previous literature shows that the detailed imaging of adult BSGs has not received significant attention. This review illustrates in detail the imaging features of adult BSGs using conventional and advanced MR techniques like diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), as well as {sup 18}F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FET/PET). We have discussed the pertinent differences between childhood and adult BSGs, imaging mimics, prognostic factors and briefly reviewed the treatment options of these tumours.

  14. Analysis of Breast Thermography Using Fractal Dimension to Establish Possible Difference between Malignant and Benign Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Etehad Tavakol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of breast cancer by means of thermal imaging has a long and extremely controversial history. Recently, the availability of highly sensitive infrared (IR cameras which can produce high-resolution diagnostic images of the temperature and vascular changes of breasts, as well as a better knowledge of advanced image processing techniques, has generated a renewed interest. The objective of this study is to investigate fractal analysis of breast thermal images and to develop an algorithm for detecting benignity and malignancy of breast diseases. The study is based on IR images captured by thermal camera, in which the resolution of the results is within the state of the art of IR camera. A total of 7 malignant cases and 8 benign cases have been considered. The breast images were first segmented by fuzzy c-means clustering. Then the first hottest regions for each image were identified and the fractal dimension of those regions was computed. It is shown that the fractal dimension results significantly differ between malignant and benign patterns, suggesting that fractal analysis may potentially improve the reliability of thermography in breast tumor detection.

  15. Photon and proton therapy planning comparison for malignant glioma based on CT, FDG-PET, DTI-MRI and fiber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Engelholm, Silke; Ohlhues, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare treatment plans generated using fixed beam Intensity Modulated photon Radiation Therapy (IMRT), inversely optimized arc therapy (RapidArc(R), RA) with spot-scanned Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) for high-grade glioma patients. Plans were compared...

  16. Photon and proton therapy planning comparison for malignant glioma based on CT, FDG-PET, DTI-MRI and fiber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Engelholm, Silke; Ohlhues, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare treatment plans generated using fixed beam Intensity Modulated photon Radiation Therapy (IMRT), inversely optimized arc therapy (RapidArc(R), RA) with spot-scanned Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) for high-grade glioma patients. Plans were compare...

  17. NUMB does not impair growth and differentiation status of experimental gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euskirchen, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.euskirchen@charite.de [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Laboratory for Gene Therapy and Molecular Imaging, Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne (Germany); Skaftnesmo, Kai-Ove; Huszthy, Peter C.; Brekka, Narve [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Bjerkvig, Rolf [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); NorLux Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, Centre de Public de la Sante, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Jacobs, Andreas H. [Laboratory for Gene Therapy and Molecular Imaging, Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne (Germany); European Institute for Molecular Imaging, Muenster (Germany); Miletic, Hrvoje [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Department of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2011-12-10

    The cell fate determinant NUMB orchestrates asymmetric cell division in flies and mammals and has lately been suggested to have a tumor suppressor function in breast and lung cancer. Here, we studied NUMB in the context of malignant gliomas. We used ectopic expression of NUMB in order to inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation in glioma cells by alteration of Notch, Hedgehog and p53 signaling. We found that NUMB is consistently expressed in glioma biopsies with predominance of NUMB2/4 isoforms as determined by isoform-specific real-time PCR and Western blotting. Upon lentiviral overexpression, in vitro proliferation rate and the grade of differentiation as assessed by morphology and expression of neural and glial markers remained unchanged. Orthotopic xenografts of NUMB-transduced human U87 glioma cells could be established in nude rats without impairing engraftment or causing significant changes in morphology based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The previously reported alteration of Hedgehog and p53 signaling by NUMB could not be recapitulated in glioma cells. We thus show that in experimental gliomas, NUMB overexpression most likely does not exert a tumor suppressor function such as seen in epithelial cancers.

  18. Distinct population of highly malignant cells in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line established by xenograft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Chia-Ing

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The progression and metastasis of solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC, have been related to the behavior of a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells. Here, we have established a highly malignant HNSCC cell line, SASVO3, from primary tumors using three sequential rounds of xenotransplantation. SASVO3 possesses enhanced tumorigenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SASVO3 exhibits properties of cancer stem cells, including that increased the abilities of sphere-forming, the number of side population cells, the potential of transplanted tumor growth and elevated expression of the stem cell marker Bmi1. Injection of SASVO3 into the tail vein of nude mice resulted in lung metastases. These results are consistent with the postulate that the malignant and/or metastasis potential of HNSCC cells may reside in a stem-like subpopulation.

  19. miR-21 Is Linked to Glioma Angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently over-expressed microRNA (miRNA) in malignant gliomas. We have previously reported that miR-21 is upregulated in glioma vessels and subsets of glioma cells. To better understand the role of miR-21 in glioma angiogenesis and to characterize miR-21-posit...... with the six markers. These findings suggest that miR-21 is linked to glioma angiogenesis, that miR-21 is unlikely to regulate PTEN, and that miR-21-positive tumor cells do not possess stem cell characteristics....

  20. Microarray Analysis in a Cell Death Resistant Glioma Cell Line to Identify Signaling Pathways and Novel Genes Controlling Resistance and Malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seznec, Janina; Naumann, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.naumann@uni-tuebingen.de [Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Department of General Neurology, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research and Center Neurology, University of Tuebingen, Otfried-Mueller-Str. 27, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany)

    2011-06-27

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal type of cancer mainly resistant to radio- and chemotherapy. Since the tumor suppressor p53 functions as a transcription factor regulating the expression of genes involved in growth inhibition, DNA repair and apoptosis, we previously assessed whether specific differences in the modulation of gene expression are responsible for the anti-tumor properties of a dominant positive p53, chimeric tumor suppressor (CTS)-1. CTS-1 is based on the sequence of p53 and designed to resist various mechanisms of inactivation which limit the activity of p53. To identify CTS-1-regulated cell death-inducing genes, we generated a CTS-1-resistant glioma cell line (229R). We used Affymetrix whole-genome microarray expression analysis to analyze alterations in gene expression and identified a variety of CTS-1 regulated genes involved in cancer-linked processes. 313 genes were differentially expressed in Adeno-CTS-1 (Ad-CTS-1)-infected and 700 genes in uninfected 229R cells compared to matching parental cells. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) determined a variety of differentially expressed genes in Ad-CTS-1-infected cells that were members of the intracellular networks with central tumor-involved players such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Differentially regulated genes include secreted factors as well as intracellular proteins and transcription factors regulating not only cell death, but also processes such as tumor cell motility and immunity. This work gives an overview of the pathways differentially regulated in the resistant versus parental glioma cells and might be helpful to identify candidate genes which could serve as targets to develop novel glioma specific therapy strategies.

  1. Target definition for malignant gliomas: no difference in radiation treatment volumes between 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaschelli, Jess N; Vagal, Achala S; McKenzie, Joshua T; McPherson, Christopher M; Warnick, Ronald E; Batra, Vivek; Breneman, John C; Lamba, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Currently, most high-grade glioma patients undergo a 1.5T brain magnetic resonance (MR) for radiation treatment planning. We hypothesized that 3T MR imaging (MRI) scanning is superior to 1.5T due to higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and thus will result in more accurate quantification of tumor volumes. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine differences in radiation planning volumes for high-grade gliomas when scanned on 3T MR versus 1.5T MR. In this prospective controlled trial, 23 patients with high-grade gliomas underwent brain MRI scanning in both 1.5T and 3T field strengths within a 24-hour period; no steroids or treatment changes were made in-between scans. After 3 investigators contoured the T2 fast low-angle inversion recovery (FLAIR) abnormality (gross tumor volumes or [GTV]) for all patients, clinical target volume (CTV) and planning treatment volumes (PTV) were defined. Calculations by an independent investigator included volumes, standard deviations, SNRs, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs); statistical analysis was performed on raw data. Planning treatment volume ratios (3T:1.5T) for each investigator were 0.95 ± 0.12 (range, 0.64-1.10), 0.98 ± 0.10 (range, 0.64-1.16), and 0.99 ± 0.06 (range, 0.86-1.13). By paired 2-tailed t test, these volumes were not statistically different (P = .051), although there is a trend to 3T producing smaller volumes than 1.5T. Dice similarity coefficients were 0.90 ± 0.05, 0.90 ± 0.06, and 0.91 ± 0.05 for the investigators. Planning target volumes for high-grade gliomas were similar at 3T and 1.5T MR using our standard imaging protocols. However, in some patients, the 3T MR may reveal substantially smaller tumor volume due to inferior conspicuity of the lesion. These findings imply that while overall the radiation target volumes are comparable, there are differences in CNR and SNR that lead to differences in individual patients. The 1.5T may be better for gaining conspicuity of the tumor. Copyright

  2. Establishment of a green fluorescent protein tracing murine model focused on the functions of host components in necrosis repair and the niche of subcutaneously implanted glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhao-Hui; Lv, Ke; Zhang, Jin-Shi; Dai, Chun-Gang; Liu, Bin; Ma, Xiao-Yu; He, Lin-Ming; Jia, Jing-Yun; Chen, Yan-Ming; Dai, Xing-Liang; Wang, Ai-Dong; Dong, Jun; Zhang, Quan-Bin; Lan, Qing; Huang, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Due to progress in the research of glioma stem cells and the glioma niche, development of an animal model that facilitates the elucidation of the roles of the host tissue and cells is necessary. The aim of the present study was to develop a subcutaneous xenograft green fluorescent protein nude mouse model and use this model to analyze the roles of host cells in tumor necrosis repair. Tumors derived from the human glioma stem/progenitor cell line SU3 were subcutaneously implanted in green fluorescent protein nude mice. The implanted tumors were then passed from animal to animal for 10 generations. Finally, subcutaneous xenografts were assayed with traditional pathology, immunopathological techniques and fluorescence photography. For each generation, the tumorigenicity rate was 100%. Subcutaneous xenografts were rich in blood vessels, and necrotic and hemorrhagic foci, which highly expressed hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, tumor necrosis factor, Ki-67, CD68 and CD11b. In the interstitial tissue, particularly in old hemorrhagic foci, there were numerous cells expressing green fluorescent protein, CD68 and CD11b. Green fluorescent protein nude mouse subcutaneous xenografts not only consistently maintained the high invasiveness and tumorigenicity of glioma stem/progenitor cells, but also consisted of a high concentration of tumor blood vessels and necrotic and hemorrhagic foci. Subcutaneous xenografts also expressed high levels of tumor microenvironment-related proteins and host-derived tumor interstitial molecules. The model has significant potential for further research on tumor tissue remodeling and the tumor microenvironment.

  3. Deregulated expression of the Per1 and Per2 in human gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, He-chun; Niu, Zhan-feng; Ma, Hui; Cao, Shuan-zhu; Hao, Shao-cai; Liu, Zhong-tao; Wang, Fan

    2010-05-01

    Growing evidence shows that the deregulation of the circadian clock plays an important role in the development of malignant tumors, including gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms of genes controlling circadian rhythm in glioma cells have not been explored. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques, we examined the expression of two important clock genes, Per1 and Per2, in 33 gliomas. In this study, out of 33 gliomas, 28 were Per1-positive, and 23 were Per2-positive. The expression levels of Per1 and Per2 in glioma cells were significantly different from the surrounding non-glioma cells (P0.05). While there was no difference in the intensity of immunoactivity for Per2 between high-grade gliomas and low-grade gliomas (r=-0.330, P=0.061), the expression level of Per1 in high-grade gliomas was significantly lower than that in low-grade gliomas(r=-0.433, P=0.012). In this study, we found that the expression of Per1 and Per2 in glioma cells was much lower than in the surrounding non-glioma cells. Therefore, we suggest that disturbances in Per1 and Per2 expression may result in the disruption of the control of normal circadian rhythm, thus benefiting the survival of glioma cells. Differential expression of circadian clock genes in glioma and non-glioma cells may provide a molecular basis for the chemotherapy of gliomas.

  4. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  5. The functional role of Notch signaling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2010-01-01

    Gliomas are among the most devastating adult tumors for which there is currently no cure. The tumors are derived from brain glial tissue and comprise several diverse tumor forms and grades. Recent reports highlight the importance of cancer-initiating cells in the malignancy of gliomas. These cells...

  6. Epigenetic modification in gliomas: role of the histone methyltransferase EZH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Er-Bao; Li, Jia; He, Xiao-Jun; Zong, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Jun; Zhao, Bing

    2014-10-01

    Gliomas are characterized by increased anaplasia, malignization, proliferation and invasion. They exhibit high resistance to standard treatment with combinations of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. They are currently the most common primary malignancy tumors in the brain that is related to a high mortality rate. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that EZH2 is involved in a number of glioma cell processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and angiogenesis. In this review, we emphasize the role of EZH2 in gliomas. We also address that EZH2 interacting with DNA methylation mediates transcriptional repression of specific genes in gliomas, and the regulation of EZH2 by microRNAs in gliomas. Although the exact role of EZH2 in gliomas has not been fully elucidated, to understand the role of EZH2 proteins in epigenetic modification will provide valuable insights into the causes of gliomas, and pave the way to the potential future applications of EZH2 in the treatment of gliomas.

  7. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...

  8. Myxoma Virus Is a Novel Oncolytic Virus with Significant Antitumor Activity against Experimental Human Gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Lun, Xueqing; Yang, Wenqing; Alain, Tommy; Shi, Zhong-Qiao; Muzik, Huong; Barrett, John W.; McFadden, Grant; Bell, John; Hamilton, Mark G.; Senger, Donna L.; Forsyth, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    Myxoma virus, a poxvirus previously considered rabbit specific, can replicate productively in a variety of human tumor cells in culture. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was efficacy or toxicities of this oncolytic virus against experimental models of human malignant gliomas in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo in malignant glioma specimens. In vitro, the majority of glioma cell lines tested (7 of 8, 87.5%) were fully permissive for myxoma virus replication and killed by infectio...

  9. TWIST is Expressed in Human Gliomas, Promotes Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Elias

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available TWIST is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor that regulates mesodermal development, promotes tumor cell metastasis, and, in response to cytotoxic stress, enhances cell survival. Our screen for bHLH gene expression in rat C6 glioma revealed TWIST. To delineate a possible oncogenic role for TWIST in the human central nervous system (CNS, we analyzed TWIST message, protein expression in gliomas, normal brain. TWIST was detected in the large majority of human glioma-derived cell lines, human gliomas examined. Increased TWIST mRNA levels were associated with the highest grade gliomas, increased TWIST expression accompanied transition from low grade to high grade in vivo, suggesting a role for TWIST in promoting malignant progression. In accord, elevated TWIST mRNA abundance preceded the spontaneous malignant transformation of cultured mouse astrocytes hemizygous for p53. Overexpression of TWIST protein in a human glioma cell line significantly enhanced tumor cell invasion, a hallmark of high-grade gliomas. These findings support roles for TWIST both in early glial tumorigenesis, subsequent malignant progression. TWIST was also expressed in embryonic, fetal human brain, in neurons, but not glia, of mature brain, indicating that, in gliomas, TWIST may promote the functions also critical for CNS development or normal neuronal physiology.

  10. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is

  11. Apparent transverse relaxation (R2∗) on MRI as a method to differentiate treatment effect (pseudoprogression) versus progressive disease in chemoradiation for malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliveau, Jean-Guy; Bauman, Glenn S; Macdonald, David; Macdonald, Maria; Klassen, L Martyn; Menon, Ravi S

    2017-11-30

    Pseudoprogression (psPD) is a transient post-treatment imaging change that is commonly seen when treating glioma with chemotherapy and radiation. The use of apparent transverse relaxation rate (R2∗), which is calculated from a contrast-free multi-echo gradient echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, may allow for quantitative identification of patients with suspected psPD. We acquired a multi-echo gradient echo sequence using a 3T-Siemens Prisma MRI. The signal decay through the echoes was fitted to provide the R2∗ coefficient. We segmented the T1 -gadolinium enhancing the image to provide a contrast enhancing lesion (CEL) and the FLAIR hyperintensity to provide a non-enhancing lesion (NEL). These regions of interest were applied to the multi-echo gradient echo to acquire a mean R2∗ within the CEL and NEL. We additionally acquired ADC data to attempt to corroborate our findings. We found that patients who later exhibited PD exhibited a higher R2∗ within the CEL as well as a higher ratio of CEL to NEL. Our data correctly distinguished pseudoprogression from treatment effect in 9/9 patients, while ADC corrected identified 7/9 patients using an absolute ADC of 1200 × 10-6  mm2 /s. Our method seems promising for the accurate identification of psPD, and the technique is amenable to evaluation in larger, multi-centre patient cohorts. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  12. The Sequence of Delta24-RGD and TMZ Administration in Malignant Glioma Affects the Role of CD8+T Cell Anti-tumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kleijn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditionally replicating oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD (Ad is currently under investigation in clinical trials for glioblastoma, including in combination with temozolomide (TMZ, the standard chemotherapy for this tumor. Previously, we showed that the efficacy of Delta24-RGD in a murine model is primarily dependent on the virus-induced anti-tumor immune response. As observed with most chemotherapies, TMZ has pronounced immune-modulating effects. Here, we studied the combined effects of these treatments in a murine glioma model. In vitro, we observed a synergistic activity between Delta24-RGD and TMZ. In vivo, C57BL/6 mice bearing intracranial GL261 tumors were treated with TMZ for 5 days either prior to intratumoral Delta24-RGD injection (TMZ/Ad or post virus injection (Ad/TMZ. Notably, the Ad/TMZ regimen led to similar tumoral CD8+ T cell influx as the virus-only treatment, but increased the ability of CD8+ T cells to specifically recognize the tumor cells. This was accompanied by improved survival. The TMZ/Ad regimen also improved survival significantly compared to controls, but not compared to virus alone. In this group, the influx of dendritic cells is impaired, followed by a significantly lower number of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and no recognition of tumor cells. Depletion of either CD4+ T cells or CD8+ T cells impaired the efficacy of Delta24-RGD, underscoring the role of these cells in therapeutic activity of the virus. Overall, we show that the addition of TMZ to Delta24-RGD treatment leads to a significant increase in survival and that the order of sequence of these treatments affects the CD8+T cell anti-tumor activity.

  13. Deregulated expression of cry1 and cry2 in human gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Wang, Fan; Chen, Lv-An; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Ping-Fei; li, Fen-Fen; Li, Cai-Yan; Liang, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that deregulation of the circadian clock plays an important role in the development of malignant tumors, including gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms of gene chnages controlling circadian rhythm in glioma cells have not been explored. Using real time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques, we examined the expression of two important clock genes, cry1 and cry2, in 69 gliomas. In this study, out of 69 gliomas, 38 were cry1-positive, and 51 were cry2-positive. The expression levels of cry1 and cry2 in glioma cells were significantly different from the surrounding non-glioma cells (P0.05) but there was a difference in the intensity of immunoactivity for cry 2 between high-grade gliomas and low-grade gliomas (r=-0.384, P=0.021). In this study, we found that the expression of cry1 and cry2 in glioma cells was much lower than in the surrounding non-glioma cells. Therefore, we suggest that disturbances in cry1 and cry2 expression may result in the disruption of the control of normal circadian rhythm, thus benefiting the survival of glioma cells. Differential expression of circadian clock genes in glioma and non-glioma cells may provide a molecular basis for the chemotherapy of gliomas.

  14. Overexpressed KDM5B is associated with the progression of glioma and promotes glioma cell growth via downregulating p21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Bin [Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038 (China); Hu, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zhiqhutg@126.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038 (China); Huang, Hui; Zhu, Guangtong; Xiao, Zhiyong [Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038 (China); Wan, Weiqing; Zhang, Peng; Jia, Wang; Zhang, Liwei [Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • KDM5B is overexpressed in glioma samples. • KDM5B stimulated proliferation of glioma cells. • Inhibition of p21contributes to KDM5B-induced proliferation. - Abstract: Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Upregulation of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B (KDM5B) has been reported in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the impact of KDM5B in glioma remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of KDM5B in glioma. In clinical glioma samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with normal brain tissues. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with glioma and higher KDM5B expression tend to have shorter overall survival time. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in glioma cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted glioma proliferation partly via regulation of the expression of p21. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in glioma and may be a potential therapeutic target for glioma management.

  15. Exploring the therapeutic efficacy of glioma vaccines based on allo- and syngeneic antigens and distinct immunological costimulation activators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stathopoulos, A.; Pretto, C.; Devillers, L.; Pierre, D.; Hofman, F.M.; Epstein, A.L.; Farghadani, H.; Kruse, C.A.; Jadus, M.R.; Chen, T.C.; Schijns, V.E.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of a various immunotherapeutic immunisation strategies for malignant glioma brain cancer was evaluated in the syngeneic CNS-1 Lewis rat glioma model. A prototype glioma cancer vaccine, which was composed of multivalent antigens derived from allogeneic and syngeneic cells and lysates,

  16. Molecular Therapeutic Targets for Glioma Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Takano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent angiogenesis that occurs in malignant glioma, antiangiogenic therapy has been attempted. There have been several molecular targets that are specific to malignant gliomas, as well as more broadly in systemic cancers. In this review, I will focus on some topics related to molecular therapeutic targets for glioma angiogenesis. First, important angiogenic factors that could be considered molecular targets are VEGF, VEGF-induced proteins on endothelial cells, tissue factor, osteopontin, v3 integrin, and thymidine phosphorylase as well as endogenous inhibitors, soluble Flt1, and thrombospondin 1. Second, hypoxic areas are also decreased by metronomic CPT11 treatment as well as temozolomide. Third, glioma-derived endothelial cells that are genetically and functionally distinct from normal endothelial cells should be targeted, for example, with SDF-1 and CXCR7 chemokine. Fourth, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs likely contribute towards glioma angiogenesis in the brain and could be useful as a drug delivery tool. Finally, blockade of delta-like 4 (Dll4 results in a nonfunctioning vasculature and could be another important target distinct from VEGF.

  17. Response assessment of bevacizumab in patients with recurrent malignant glioma using [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine PET in comparison to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galldiks, Norbert; Fink, Gereon R. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Rapp, Marion; Sabel, Michael [University of Duesseldorf, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Stoffels, Gabriele; Shah, Nadim J.; Coenen, Heinz H.; Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    To investigate prospectively the potential of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) PET in comparison to MRI for the assessment of the response of patients with recurrent high-grade glioma (rHGG) to antiangiogenic treatment. Ten patients with rHGG were treated biweekly with bevacizumab/irinotecan (BEV/IR). MR images and dynamic {sup 18}F-FET PET scans were obtained at baseline and at follow-up after the start of treatment (median 4.9 weeks). Using MRI treatment response was evaluated according to RANO (Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology) criteria. For {sup 18}F-FET PET evaluation, a reduction >45 % of the metabolically active tumour volume was considered as a treatment response, with the metabolically active tumour being defined as a tumour-to-brain ratio (TBR) of {>=}1.6. The results of the treatment assessments were related to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). For further evaluation of PET data, maximum and mean TBR were calculated using region-of-interest analysis at baseline and at follow-up. Additionally, {sup 18}F-FET uptake kinetic studies were performed at baseline and at follow-up in all patients. Time-activity curves were generated and the times to peak (TTP) uptake (in minutes from the beginning of the dynamic acquisition to the maximum uptake) were calculated. At follow-up, MRI showed a complete response according to RANO criteria in one of the ten patients (10 %), a partial response in five patients (50 %), and stable disease in four patients (40 %). Thus, MRI did not detect tumour progression. In contrast, {sup 18}F-FET PET revealed six metabolic responders (60 %) and four nonresponders (40 %). In the univariate survival analyses, a response detected by {sup 18}F-FET PET predicted a significantly longer PFS (median PFS, 9 vs. 3 months; P = 0.001) and OS (median OS 23.0 months vs. 3.5 months; P = 0.001). Furthermore, in four patients (40 %), diagnosis according to RANO criteria and by {sup 18}F-FET PET was

  18. Deregulated expression of the clock genes in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Liu, P; Li, C; Luo, Y; Chen, I; Liang, W; Chen, X; Feng, Y; Xia, H; Wang, F

    2013-02-01

    Growing evidence shows that the deregulation of the circadian clock plays an important role in the development of malignant tumors, including gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms of genes controlling circadian rhythm in glioma cells have not been explored. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques, we examined the expression of the most important clock genes, clock, in 67 gliomas.Our results revealed that asynchronized expression of the clock gene was found in cancerous tissues in comparison with paired non-cancerous tissues. The expression levels of clock mRNA in grade III or IV glioma was significantly different from the surrounding non-tumor tissues (P  0.05). The intensity of immunoactivity for Clock in highgrade gliomas was significantly higher than that of low-grade gliomas (r = -0.403, P 5 0.012 ,  0.05). The expression of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) protein in highgrade gliomas was significantly higher than that of low-grade gliomas (P control of normal circadian rhythm, thus benefiting the survival of glioma cells and promoting carcinogenesis.

  19. Molecular and Genetic Determinants of Glioma Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Masui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A diffusely invasive nature is a major obstacle in treating a malignant brain tumor, “diffuse glioma”, which prevents neurooncologists from surgically removing the tumor cells even in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. Recently updated classification of diffuse gliomas based on distinct genetic and epigenetic features has culminated in a multilayered diagnostic approach to combine histologic phenotypes and molecular genotypes in an integrated diagnosis. However, it is still a work in progress to decipher how the genetic aberrations contribute to the aggressive nature of gliomas including their highly invasive capacity. Here we depict a set of recent discoveries involving molecular genetic determinants of the infiltrating nature of glioma cells, especially focusing on genetic mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase pathways and metabolic reprogramming downstream of common cancer mutations. The specific biology of glioma cell invasion provides an opportunity to explore the genotype-phenotype correlation in cancer and develop novel glioma-specific therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease.

  20. Functional roles of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yatao; Qiu, Shuwei; Peng, Ying

    2016-01-15

    Gliomas are the most common and lethal type of primary malignant brain tumor. Due to the infiltrative nature and high resistance to standard first line treatment with combinations of radiation and chemotherapy, the prognosis of patient is very poor. Recently, accumulated evidence suggests that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) serves as an oncogene and is involved in multiple glioma cell processes, including cell cycle, invasion, glioma stem cell maintenance, drug and radiotherapy resistance and so on. In this review, we will focus on updating current knowledge of EZH2 in gliomas. Moreover, the regulation of EZH2 by microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs and the therapeutic strategies targeting EZH2 for gliomas will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates STAT3 activity and its expression dictates the responsiveness to SR141716 treatment in human glioma patients' cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaglia, Elena; Torelli, Giovanni; Pisanti, Simona; Picardi, Paola; D'Alessandro, Alba; Laezza, Chiara; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Fiore, Donatella; Zottola, Antonio Christian Pagano; Proto, Maria Chiara; Catapano, Giuseppe; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Bifulco, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Herein we show that a majority of human brain tumor samples and cell lines over-expressed cannabinoid receptor CB1 as compared to normal human astrocytes (NHA), while uniformly expressed low levels of CB2. This finding prompted us to investigate the therapeutic exploitation of CB1 inactivation by SR141716 treatment, with regard to its direct and indirect cell-mediated effects against gliomas. Functional studies, using U251MG glioma cells and primary tumor cell lines derived from glioma patients expressing different levels of CB1, highlighted SR141716 efficacy in inducing apoptosis via G1 phase stasis and block of TGF-β1 secretion through a mechanism that involves STAT3 inhibition. According to the multivariate role of STAT3 in the immune escape too, interestingly SR141716 lead also to the functional and selective expression of MICA/B on the surface of responsive malignant glioma cells, but not on NHA. This makes SR141716 treated-glioma cells potent targets for allogeneic NK cell-mediated recognition through a NKG2D restricted mechanism, thus priming them for NK cell antitumor reactivity. These results indicate that CB1 and STAT3 participate in a new oncogenic network in the complex biology of glioma and their expression levels in patients dictate the efficacy of the CB1 antagonist SR141716 in multimodal glioma destruction. SIGNIFICANCE CB1 is implicated in the regulation of cellular processes linked to survival, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in several physio-pathological conditions. We shed light on previously unrecognized molecular mechanism of CB1-mediated modulation of human glioma progression and provide the first and original demonstration of CB1-STAT3 axis as a new target and predictor biomarkers of the benefit from specific therapies. Indeed CB1 antagonism capable of tumoral cell division' control while making the glioma immunovisible and engaging the immune system to fight it may represent a hopeful alternative to other established

  2. Expression of metastasis-associated protein 3 in human brain glioma related to tumor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shouqin; Hui, Guangyan; Hou, Fanggao; Shi, Hua; Zhou, Guoqing; Yan, Han; Wang, Lu; Liu, Jinfeng

    2015-10-01

    Glioma represents a disparate group of tumors characterized by high invasion ability, and therefore it is of clinical significance to identify molecular markers and therapeutic targets for better clinical management. Previously, metastasis-associated protein family (MTA) is considered to promote tumor cell invasion and metastasis of human malignancies. Recently, the newly identified MTA3 has been shown to play conflicting roles in human malignancies, while the expression pattern and potential clinical significance of MTA3 in human glioma have not been addressed yet. In the present study, we investigated the protein expression of MTA3 by immunohistochemistry assay and analyzed its association with glioma prognosis in 186 cases of patients. Results showed that MTA3 expression was decreased in glioma compared with that in normal brain (P human glioma and negatively associated with prognosis of patients, suggesting that MTA3 may play a tumor suppressor role in glioma.

  3. Fasting enhances the response of glioma to chemo- and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdie, Fernando; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Wei, Min; Wang, Weijun; Lee, Changhan; Hwang, Saewon; Conti, Peter S; Chen, Thomas C; Longo, Valter D

    2012-01-01

    Glioma, including anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are among the most commonly diagnosed malignant adult brain tumors. GBM is a highly invasive and angiogenic tumor, resulting in a 12 to 15 months median survival. The treatment of GBM is multimodal and includes surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radio-and chemotherapy. We have previously reported that short-term starvation (STS) enhances the therapeutic index of chemo-treatments by differentially protecting normal cells against and/or sensitizing tumor cells to chemotoxicity. To test the effect of starvation on glioma cells in vitro, we treated primary mouse glia, murine GL26, rat C6 and human U251, LN229 and A172 glioma cells with Temozolomide in ad lib and STS mimicking conditions. In vivo, mice with subcutaneous or intracranial models of GL26 glioma were starved for 48 hours prior to radio- or chemotherapy and the effects on tumor progression and survival were measured. Starvation-mimicking conditions sensitized murine, rat and human glioma cells, but not primary mixed glia, to chemotherapy. In vivo, starvation for 48 hours, which causes a significant reduction in blood glucose and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, sensitized both subcutaneous and intracranial glioma models to radio-and chemotherapy. Starvation-induced cancer sensitization to radio- or chemotherapy leads to extended survival in the in vivo glioma models tested. These results indicate that fasting and fasting-mimicking interventions could enhance the efficacy of existing cancer treatments against aggressive glioma in patients.

  4. Molecular Diagnostics of Gliomas Using Next Generation Sequencing of a Glioma-Tailored Gene Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Angela; Kaulich, Kerstin; Stepanow, Stefanie; Wolter, Marietta; Köhrer, Karl; Felsberg, Jörg; Malzkorn, Bastian; Reifenberger, Guido

    2017-03-01

    Current classification of gliomas is based on histological criteria according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system. Over the past years, characteristic genetic profiles have been identified in various glioma types. These can refine tumor diagnostics and provide important prognostic and predictive information. We report on the establishment and validation of gene panel next generation sequencing (NGS) for the molecular diagnostics of gliomas. We designed a glioma-tailored gene panel covering 660 amplicons derived from 20 genes frequently aberrant in different glioma types. Sensitivity and specificity of glioma gene panel NGS for detection of DNA sequence variants and copy number changes were validated by single gene analyses. NGS-based mutation detection was optimized for application on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens including small stereotactic biopsy samples. NGS data obtained in a retrospective analysis of 121 gliomas allowed for their molecular classification into distinct biological groups, including (i) isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH) 1 or 2 mutant astrocytic gliomas with frequent α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene mutations, (ii) IDH mutant oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q codeletion, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation and frequent Drosophila homolog of capicua (CIC) gene mutation, as well as (iii) IDH wildtype glioblastomas with frequent TERT promoter mutation, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutation and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification. Oligoastrocytic gliomas were genetically assigned to either of these groups. Our findings implicate gene panel NGS as a promising diagnostic technique that may facilitate integrated histological and molecular glioma classification. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  5. Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1): a novel target for human glioma therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdad, Luni; Sarkar, Devanand; Lee, Seok-Geun; Su, Zhao Zhong; Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Dash, Rupesh; Yacoub, Adly; Fuller, Christine E.; Shah, Khalid; Dent, Paul; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Fisher, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite multimodal treatment including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, median survival for patients with GBMs is only 12–15 months. Identifying molecules critical for glioma progression is crucial for devising effective targeted therapy. In the present study, we investigated the potential contribution of Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) in gliomagenesis and explored the possibility of AEG-1 as a therapeutic target for malignant glioma. We analyzed the expression levels of AEG-1 in 9 normal brain tissues and 98 brain tumor patient samples by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. AEG-1 expression was significantly elevated in > 90% of diverse human brain tumor samples including GBMs and astrocytic tumors, and also in human glioma cell lines as compared to normal brain tissues and normal astrocytes. Knockdown of AEG-1 by siRNA inhibited cell viability, cloning efficiency, invasive ability of U87 human glioma cells and 9L rat gliosarcoma cells. We also found that matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) are involved in AEG-1-mediated invasion of glioma cells. In an orthotopic nude mouse brain tumor model using primary human GBM12 tumor cells, AEG-1 siRNA significantly suppressed glioma cell growth in vivo. Taken together these provocative results indicate that AEG-1 may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of glioma and that AEG-1 could represent a viable potential target for malignant glioma therapy. PMID:20053777

  6. 18 F-FDG PET standard uptake values of the normal pons in children: establishing a reference value for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marc H A; Kloet, Reina W; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Sophie Em; Witte, Birgit I; Goldman, Serge; Vandertop, W Peter; Comans, Emile Fi; Hoekstra, Otto S; Boellaard, Ronald; Kaspers, Gert-Jan Jl

    2014-01-28

    Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) is a useful diagnostic and prediction tool in brain tumors, but its value in childhood diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is still unclear. For interpretation of 18 F-FDG PET results in DIPG, uptake values of the normal pons of children of increasing ages are mandatory. The aim of this study was to determine 18 F-FDG standard uptake value ratios (SUVr) of the normal pons and to compare these to those of DIPG. We studied 36 subjects with a normal, non-affected pons (aged 5 to 23 years) and 6 patients with DIPG (aged 4 to 17 years) who underwent 18 F-FDG PET scanning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was co-registered to define the regions of interest. SUVr and SUVrmax for the pons/cerebellum (SUVrp/c) and the pons/occipital lobe (SUVrp/o) were calculated. Independent-samples t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the mean SUVr and Pearson's test for correlations. For the normal pons, mean SUVrp/c and SUVrp/o were 0.65 (±0.054) and 0.51 (±0.056), respectively. No significant correlations were found between the SUVr of the normal pons and sex, age, nor pontine volume. A modest but statistically significant correlation was found between SUVr and post-injection time acquisition timing. For DIPG, mean SUVrp/c and SUVrp/o were 0.74 (±0.20) and 0.65 (±0.30), respectively, while mean SUVrp(max)/c and SUVrp(max)/o were 1.95 (±0.48) and 1.81 (±0.20), respectively. The SUVr of the unaffected pons are strikingly constant between children, irrespective of sex and age, and can therefore be well used as a reference value for 18 F-FDG PET studies in DIPG.

  7. Radiosensitizing potential of the selective cyclooygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor meloxicam on human glioma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnsdorp, Irene; Kuipers, Gitta; Lafleur, M.; Slotman, Ben; Sminia, Peter; Berg, van de Jaap; Rijn, van Johannes; Wedekind, Laurine

    2007-01-01

    The COX-2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human malignant gliomas. This expression has been associated with their aggressive growth characteristics and poor prognosis for patients. Targeting the COX-2 pathway might improve glioma therapy. In this study, the effects of the selective COX-2

  8. Characterization of infectivity of knob-modified adenoviral vectors in glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.L. Paul (C. P L); M. Everts (M.); J.N. Glasgow (J.); P. Dent (P.); P.B. Fisher (P.); I.V. Ulasov (I.); M.S. Lesniak (M.); M.A. Stoff-Khalili (M.); J.C. Roth (J.); M. Preuss (Michael); C.M.F. Dirven (Clemens); M.L.M. Lamfers (Martine); T. Siegal (Tali); Z.B. Zhu (Z.); R.E. Curiel (Rafael E.)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMalignant glioma continues to be a major target for gene therapy and virotherapy due to its aggressive growth and the current lack of effective treatment. However, these approaches have been hampered by inefficient infection of glioma cells by viral vectors, particularly vectors derived

  9. Establishment of a new OSCC cell line derived from OLK and identification of malignant transformation-related proteins by differential proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Zhao, Qun; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ma, Guowu; Liu, Caiyun; Chen, Zhuwen; Yu, Liyuan; Liu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yanguang; Shao, Shujuan; Xiao, Jing; Li, Jia; Zhang, Weimin; Fu, Ming; Dong, Lijia; Yang, Xiandong; Guo, Xu; Xue, Liyan; Fang, Fei; Zhan, Qimin; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-08-03

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is usually preceded by the oral premalignant lesions, mainly oral leukoplakia (OLK) after repeated insults of carcinogens, tobacco. B(a)P and DMBA are key carcinogens in tobacco smoke. In the present study, for the first time we established the cancerous cell line OSCC-BD induced by B(a)P/DMBA mixture and transformed from dysplastic oral leukoplakia cell line DOK. Cell morphology, proliferation ability, migration ability, colony formation, and tumorigenicity were studied and confirmed the malignant characteristics of OSCC-BD cells. We further identified the differential proteins between DOK and OSCC-BD cells by stable isotope dimethyl labeling based quantitative proteomic method, which showed 18 proteins up-regulated and 16 proteins down-regulated with RSD < 8%. Differential proteins are mainly related to cell cycle, cell proliferation, DNA replication, RNA splicing and apoptosis. Abberant binding function, catalysis activity and transportor activity of differential proteins might contribute to the malignant transformation of OLK. Of the 34 identified differential proteins with RSD < 8%, 13 novel cancer-related proteins were reported in the present study. This study might provide a new insight into the mechanism of OLK malignant transformation and the potent biomarkers for early diagnosis, meanwhile further facilitate the application of the quantification proteomics to carcinogenesis research.

  10. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabova, A. I., E-mail: ranigor@mail.ru; Novikov, V. A.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Bober, E. E.; Frolova, I. G. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Choinzonov, E. L. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gribova, O. V. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Baranova, A. V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: complete regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

  11. Selective Targeting to Glioma with Nucleic Acid Aptamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Aptekar

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma is characterised by a rapid growth rate and high capacity for invasive infiltration to surrounding brain tissue; hence, diagnosis and treatment is difficult and patient survival is poor. Aptamers contribute a promising and unique technology for the in vitro imaging of live cells and tissues, with a potentially bright future in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics for malignant glioma. The binding selectivity, uptake capacity and binding target of two DNA aptamers, SA43 and SA44, were investigated in glioma cells and patient tissues. The binding assay showed that SA43 and SA44 bound with strong affinity (Kd, 21.56 ± 4.60 nM and Kd, 21.11 ± 3.30 nM respectively to the target U87MG cells. Quantitative analysis by flow cytometry showed that the aptamers were able to actively internalise in U87MG and 1321N1 glioma cells compared to the non-cancerous and non-glioma cell types. Confocal microscopy confirmed staining in the cytoplasm, and co-localisation studies with endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and lysosomal markers suggested internalisation and compartmentalisation within the endomembrane system. Both aptamers selectively bound to Ku 70 and Ku 80 DNA repair proteins as determined by aptoprecipitation (AP followed by mass spectrometry analysis and confirmation by Western blot. In addition, aptohistochemical (AHC staining on paraffin embedded, formalin fixed patient tissues revealed that the binding selectivity was significantly higher for SA43 aptamer in glioma tissues (grade I, II, III and IV compared to the non-cancerous tissues, whereas SA44 did not show selectivity towards glioma tissues. The results indicate that SA43 aptamer can differentiate between glioma and non-cancerous cells and tissues and therefore, shows promise for histological diagnosis of glioma.

  12. Nanomedicines and the future of glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Lalatsa, Aikaterini; Moreira Leite, Diana; Pilkington, Geoffrey John

    2015-01-01

    There is a higher incidence of brain tumours in the UK than the world average for both men (8.1 per 100,000), and women (5.3 per 100,000). Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumours of which glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent. GBM is also known to be the most biologically aggressive and cellularly heterogeneous and is highly diffusively infiltrative in nature which renders surgical excision impossible without causing significant neurological deficit. Typically, followin...

  13. EPID-28. PROGNOSTIC AND PREDICTIVE BIOMARKERS IN RECURRENT WHO GRADE 3 GLIOMA PATIENTS TREATED WITH BEVACIZUMAB AND IRINOTECAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anders; Urup, Thomas; Grunnet, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) has shown activity in the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma. Predictive markers and prognostic models are required in order to individualize treatment for grade 3 glioma patients. The prim......BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) has shown activity in the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma. Predictive markers and prognostic models are required in order to individualize treatment for grade 3 glioma patients...

  14. Focal brainstem gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J.; Alaqeel, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved neuronavigation guidance as well as intraoperative imaging and neurophysiologic monitoring technologies have enhanced the ability of neurosurgeons to resect focal brainstem gliomas. In contrast, diffuse brainstem gliomas are considered to be inoperable lesions. This article is a continuation of an article that discussed brainstem glioma diagnostics, imaging, and classification. Here, we address open surgical treatment of and approaches to focal, dorsally exophytic, and cervicomedullary brainstem gliomas. Intraoperative neuronavigation, intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring, as well as intraoperative imaging are discussed as adjunctive measures to help render these procedures safer, more acute, and closer to achieving surgical goals. PMID:25864061

  15. Slit2 inhibits glioma cell invasion in the brain by suppression of Cdc42 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiin, Jia-Jean; Hu, Bo; Jarzynka, Michael J; Feng, Haizhong; Liu, Kui-Wei; Wu, Jane Y; Ma, Hsin-I; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    Acquisition of insidious invasiveness by malignant glioma cells involves multiple genetic alterations in signaling pathways. Slit2, a chemorepulsive factor, controls cell migration of neuronal and glial cells during development and inhibits chemotaxic migration of various types of cells in vitro. However, the role of Slit2 in vitro remains controversial, and the biological significance of Slit2 expression in cancer cell invasion in vivo has not yet been determined. In the present study, we characterized the effects of Slit2 expression on the migration and invasion of invasive glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. By reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, Slit2 was found to be expressed at lower levels in primary glioma specimens and invasive glioma cells compared with normal human brain cells and astrocytes. Ectopic expression of Slit2 or treatment with recombinant Slit2 on glioma cells attenuates cell migration and invasion through inhibition of Cdc42 activity in vitro. Cellular depletion of Robo1, a cognate receptor for Slit2, prevented Slit2 inhibition of Cdc42 activity and glioma cell migration. In vivo, expression of Slit2 by invasive SNB19 glioma cells markedly inhibited glioma cell infiltration into the brain of mice. Moreover, impediment of glioma cell invasion by Slit2 did not affect the expression of N-cadherin and beta-catenin in glioma cells. These results provide the first evidence demonstrating that Slit2-Robo1 inhibits glioma invasion through attenuating Cdc42 activity in vitro and in the brain. Understanding the mechanisms of Slit2-Robo1 inhibition of glioma cell invasion will foster new treatments for malignant gliomas.

  16. Glioma initiating cells form a differentiation niche via the induction of extracellular matrices and integrin αV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Niibori-Nambu

    Full Text Available Glioma initiating cells (GICs are considered responsible for the therapeutic resistance and recurrence of malignant glioma. To clarify the molecular mechanism of GIC maintenance/differentiation, we established GIC clones having the potential to differentiate into malignant gliomas, and subjected to DNA microarray/iTRAQ based integrated proteomics. 21,857 mRNAs and 8,471 proteins were identified and integrated into a gene/protein expression analysis chart. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the expression of cell adhesion molecules, including integrin subfamilies, such as α2 and αV, and extracellular matrices (ECMs, such as collagen IV (COL4, laminin α2 (LAMA2, and fibronectin 1 (FN, was significantly upregulated during serum-induced GIC differentiation. This differentiation process, accompanied by the upregulation of MAPK as well as glioma specific proteins in GICs, was dramatically accelerated in these ECM (especially FN-coated dishes. Integrin αV blocking antibody and RGD peptide significantly suppressed early events in GIC differentiation, suggesting that the coupling of ECMs to integrin αV is necessary for GIC differentiation. In addition, the expression of integrin αV and its strong ligand FN was prominently increased in glioblastomas developed from mouse intracranial GIC xenografts. Interestingly, during the initial phase of GIC differentiation, the RGD treatment significantly inhibited GIC proliferation and raised their sensitivity against anti-cancer drug temozolomide (TMZ. We also found that combination treatments of TMZ and RGD inhibit glioma progression and lead the longer survival of mouse intracranial GIC xenograft model. These results indicate that GICs induce/secrete ECMs to develop microenvironments with serum factors, namely differentiation niches that further stimulate GIC differentiation and proliferation via the integrin recognition motif RGD. A combination of RGD treatment with TMZ could have the higher inhibitory

  17. 替莫唑胺联合贝伐单抗治疗老年患者恶性脑胶质瘤的临床疗效分析%Effect of bevacizumab combined with temozolomide on malignant glioma in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 张全华; 高凌宜; 田立桩; 荔志云; 高晨

    2017-01-01

    目的:探讨替莫唑胺联合贝伐单抗治疗老年患者恶性脑胶质瘤的临床效果及安全性.方法:选取2013~2015年我院收治的恶性脑胶质瘤老年患者55例,依据不同的治疗方案分为治疗组(n=30,采用放疗+替莫唑胺化疗+贝伐单抗治疗)和对照组(n=25,采用放疗+替莫唑胺治疗).治疗6个月及12个月后,比较两组患者的临床疗效及不良反应的发生情况.结果:治疗组的有效率和疾病控制率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组不良反应发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:替莫唑胺联合贝伐单抗同步放疗治疗恶性脑胶质瘤的疗效优于单纯替莫唑胺放疗,且贝伐单抗安全性较高、副作用小,是一种可优先选择的治疗方法,值得临床推广.%Objective:To evaluate the effect and safety of bevacizumab combined with temozolomide on malignant glioma in the elderly.Methods:Fifty-five cases of elderly patients with malignant brain glioma from 2012 to 2015 were divided into treatment group (n-=30,temozolomide+ chemotherapy + bevacizumab) and control group (n =25,radiotherapy + temozolomide) according to the postoperative treatment.The occurrence of clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of two groups were analyzed after treatment for six and twelve months.Results:The effective rate and disease control rate in treatment group were higher than those in control group,the difference were statistically significant (P <0.05),there were no significant differences in adverse reaction rate between two groups (P > 0.05).Conclusion:Bevacizumab combined with temozolomide and radiotherpy is safe and effective in elderly patients with malignant glioma,and is a priority choice of treatment method,is worthy of clinical promotion.

  18. miR-218 inhibits the migration and invasion of glioma U87 cells through the Slit2-Robo1 pathway

    OpenAIRE

    GU, JIAN-JUN; GAO, GUANG-ZHONG; ZHANG, SHI-MING

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults and are associated with the highest mortality rate. Glioma invasion is one of the most notable causes of the poor prognosis of this cancer. Preventing the invasive behavior of malignant glioma cells by altering effector molecules can significantly improve the prognosis of a patient. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, ~22 nucleotides in length, that are able to function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human can...

  19. Molecular Alterations of KIT Oncogene in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117 immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179 of cases, namely in 25% (1/4 of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20 of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5 of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77 of glioblastomas and one third (3/9 of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35 of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0–22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24 of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK

  20. Nasal glioma with psammomatous calcification- An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Sherwani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital midline swellings of nose are encountered rarely, and nasal gliomas constitute about 5% of such lesions. Various theories have been suggested to explain the pathogenesis. Imaging preferably by MRI is mandated to study the extent and to rule out intracranial extension. Clinically, these masses are firm and incompressible. Histologically, they are made up of astrocytes and neuroglial cells, embedded in fibrous and vascular connective tissue. The mainstay of treatment is conservative surgical excision because nasal gliomas are slow-growing, rarely recurrent, and have no malignant potential. We present a case of congenital extranasal glioma with psammomatous calcification and without any intracranial extension in an eighteen month old boy.--------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Sherwani RK, Akhtar K, Ray PS, Ahmad SS. Nasal glioma with psammomatous calcification- An unusual presentation. Int J  Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:02027. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.7

  1. Epidemiology of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Laursen, René J

    2017-01-01

    In this national population-based study of glioma, we present epidemiologic data on incidence, demographics, survival, clinical characteristics and symptoms, and evaluate the association of specific indicators with the grade of glioma. We included 1930 patients registered in the Danish Neuro...

  2. Genetic alterations in Glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); P.J. French (Pim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have

  3. Molecular Biology in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma: Impact on Prognosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rizzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-grade gliomas are the main cause of death in children with brain tumours. Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, their prognosis remains poor and the treatment is still challenging. To date, surgery followed by radiotherapy and temozolomide is the standard therapy. However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact drug development towards targeted therapies. The identification of agents directed against molecular targets aims at going beyond the traditional therapeutic approach in order to develop a personalized therapy and improve the outcome of pediatric high-grade gliomas. In this paper, we critically review the literature regarding the genetic abnormalities implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric malignant gliomas and the current development of molecularly targeted therapies. In particular, we analyse the impact of molecular biology on the prognosis and treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma, comparing it to that of adult gliomas.

  4. An integrated transcriptomic and computational analysis for biomarker identification in human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wenli; Zeng, Chun

    2016-06-01

    Malignant glioma is one of the most common primary brain tumors and is among the deadliest of human cancers. The molecular mechanism for human glioma is poorly understood. Early prognosis of this disease and early treatment are vital. Thus, it is crucial to target the key genes controlling pathogenesis in the early stage of glioma. In this study, differentially expressed genes in human glioma and paired peritumoral tissues were detected by transcriptome microarray analysis. Following gene microarray analysis, the gene expression profile in the differential grade glioma was further validated by bioinformatic analyses, co-expression network construction. Microarray analysis revealed that 1725 genes were differentially expressed and classified into different glioma stage. The analysis revealed 14 genes that were significantly associated with survival with a false discovery rate. Among these genes, macrophage capping protein (CAPG), a member of the actin-regulatory protein, was the key gene in a 20-gene network that modulates cell motility by interacting with the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the prognostic impact of CAPG was validated by use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry on human glioma tissue. CAPG protein was significantly upregulated in clinical high-grade glioblastoma as compared with normal brain tissues. Overexpression of CAPG levels also predict shorter overall survival of glioma patients. These data demonstrated CAPG protein expression in human glioma was associated with tumorigenesis and may be a biomarker for identification of the pathological grade of glioma.

  5. LncRNAs: new players in gliomas, with special emphasis on the interaction of lncRNAs With EZH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Er-Bao; Li, Jia; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Zong, Gang; Li, Jun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-03-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary malignancy in the brain, accounting for 50-60%. Despite all the efforts of cytoreductive surgery in combination with intense chemoradiotherapy, glioma remains an incurable disease. Recent studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathology of gliomas. LncRNAs are involved in many cellular processes, such as angiogenesis, invasion, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. In this review we focus on the dysregulation of lncRNAs in gliomas. We also address that epigenetic modification such as DNA methylation and microRNAs interact with lncRNAs in gliomas. In addition, the interaction of lncRNAs with signaling pathways in gliomas is discussed systematically, with particular emphasis on the interaction of lncRNAs with EZH2. Such approaches provide valuable insights into the potential future applications of lncRNAs in the treatment of gliomas. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Mitsutoshi, E-mail: nakada@ns.m.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan); Teng, Lei [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Clinical College of Harbin Medical University, Nangang, Harbin 150001 (China); Pyko, Ilya V.; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan)

    2011-08-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies.

  7. FasL and FADD delivery by a glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon virus enhanced apoptosis in primary human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Paula Y

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant cancer of the brain and is notoriously difficult to treat due to the highly proliferative and infiltrative nature of the cells. Herein, we explored the combination treatment of pre-established human glioma xenograft using multiple therapeutic genes whereby the gene expression is regulated by both cell-type and cell cycle-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanism conferred by recombinant HSV-1 amplicon vectors. Results We demonstrated for the first time that Ki67-positive proliferating primary human glioma cells cultured from biopsy samples were effectively induced into cell death by the dual-specific function of the pG8-FasL amplicon vectors. These vectors were relatively stable and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity in vivo. Intracranial implantation of pre-transduced glioma cells resulted in better survival outcome when compared with viral vectors inoculated one week post-implantation of tumor cells, indicating that therapeutic efficacy is dependent on the viral spread and mode of viral vectors administration. We further showed that pG8-FasL amplicon vectors are functional in the presence of commonly used treatment regimens for human brain cancer. In fact, the combined therapies of pG8-FasL and pG8-FADD in the presence of temozolomide significantly improved the survival of mice bearing intracranial high-grade gliomas. Conclusion Taken together, our results showed that the glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon vector is potentially useful as an adjuvant therapy to complement the current gene therapy strategy for gliomas.

  8. The Glioma International Case-Control Study: A Report From the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, E Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke; Lau, Ching C; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S; Jenkins, Robert B; Lachance, Daniel; Olson, Sara H; Bernstein, Jonine L; Merrell, Ryan T; Wrensch, Margaret R; Davis, Faith G; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I; Scheurer, Michael E; Aldape, Kenneth; Alafuzoff, Irina; Brännström, Thomas; Broholm, Helle; Collins, Peter; Giannini, Caterina; Rosenblum, Marc; Tihan, Tarik; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L

    2016-01-15

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Upregulation of B23 promotes tumor cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis in glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianguo [Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 1055 Sanxiang Road, Suzhou, 215004, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Jie; Yang, Liu; Yan, Yaohua; Shi, Wei; Shi, Jinlong; Huang, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian [Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Lan, Qing, E-mail: lanqingsj@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 1055 Sanxiang Road, Suzhou, 215004, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-10-09

    B23 (also known as Nucleophosmin, NPM, numatrin or NO38) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein belonging to the nucleoplasmin family of chaperones. In this study we intended to investigate the clinical significance of B23 expression in human glioma and its biological function in glioma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that B23 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. In addition, the expression level of B23 was positively correlated with glioma pathological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that a higher B23 expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. In vitro, after the release of glioma cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of B23 was upregulated, as well as PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) and cyclin A. In addition, knockdown of B23 by small interfering RNA transfection diminished the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and arrested cell growth at G1 phase. Taken together, our results implied that B23 could be a candidate prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutical target of glioma. - Highlights: • B23 expression increased as the malignant degree of glioma increased, which was consistent with Ki-67 expression. • High expression of B23 could be a strong determinant of poor prognosis in glioma. • B23 may be involved in the proliferation of glioma in a cell-cycle-dependent pathway. • Knockdown of B23 expression by siRNA could affect the progression of glioma. • B23 may be a potential prognosis biomarker and a possible therapeutic target for glioma.

  10. Genome-wide high-density SNP linkage search for glioma susceptibility loci: results from the Gliogene Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C; Houlston, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas, which generally have a poor prognosis, are the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults. Recent genome-wide association studies have shown that inherited susceptibility plays a role in the development of glioma. Although first-degree relatives of patients exhibit a two-fold i...

  11. Establishment of a new human pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma cell line, FU-MFH-2: molecular cytogenetic characterization by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isayama Teruto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH is one of the most frequent malignant soft tissue tumors in adults. Despite the considerable amount of research on MFH cell lines, their characterization at a molecular cytogenetic level has not been extensively analyzed. Methods and results We established a new permanent human cell line, FU-MFH-2, from a metastatic pleomorphic MFH of a 72-year-old Japanese man, and applied multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH, Urovysion™ FISH, and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH for the characterization of chromosomal aberrations. FU-MFH-2 cells were spindle or polygonal in shape with oval nuclei, and were successfully maintained in vitro for over 80 passages. The histological features of heterotransplanted tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency mice were essentially the same as those of the original tumor. Cytogenetic and M-FISH analyses displayed a hypotriploid karyotype with numerous structural aberrations. Urovysion™ FISH revealed a homozygous deletion of the p16INK4A locus on chromosome band 9p21. CGH analysis showed a high-level amplification of 9q31-q34, gains of 1p12-p34.3, 2p21, 2q11.2-q21, 3p, 4p, 6q22-qter, 8p11.2, 8q11.2-q21.1, 9q21-qter, 11q13, 12q24, 15q21-qter, 16p13, 17, 20, and X, and losses of 1q43-qter, 4q32-qter, 5q14-q23, 7q32-qter, 8p21-pter, 8q23, 9p21-pter, 10p11.2-p13, and 10q11.2-q22. Conclusion The FU-MFH-2 cell line will be a particularly useful model for studying molecular pathogenesis of human pleomorphic MFH.

  12. Lysyl oxidase genetic variants and the prognosis of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song; Feng, Sizhe; Yuan, Guanqian; Dong, Tao; Gao, Dandan; Liang, Guobiao; Wei, Xuezhong

    2014-03-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent amine oxidase that plays important roles in the development and homeostasis of primary brain tumors such as glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the LOX gene were associated with susceptibility to glioma. We tested two functional polymorphisms of LOX, -22G/C and 473G/A, and compared them between 466 glioma cases and 502 healthy controls in the Chinese population. Results showed that the prevalence of 473AA genotype was significantly increased in cases than in controls (p = 0.001). Individuals who carried 473A allele had a 1.44-fold of increased risk for glioma than those with 473G allele (p = 0.002). In addition, when analyzing the survival time of glioma patients with LOX 473G/A polymorphism, cases with AA genotype had significantly shorter survival time compared to the patients carrying G allele (25.0 months vs 43.0 months, p = 0.0009). These results suggested that polymorphism in LOX gene was associated with increased susceptibility to glioma and could be used as prognostic factor for this malignancy. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. MiR-218 inhibits the tumorgenesis and proliferation of glioma cells by targeting Robo1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian-Jun; Gao, Guang-Zhong; Zhang, Shi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain tumors directly correlated with the high mortality and poor prognosis in clinical practice. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) influence numerous cancer-relevant processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. However, the role of microRNA in malignant glioma is largely unknown. This study aimed to study the role of miR-218, a tumor-suppressive microRNA, in glioma development both in vivo and in vitro. The expression level of miR-218, Slit2 and Robo1 was examined by either quantitative (polymerase chain reaction) or western-blotting from both human glioma tissue and glioma cell lines. U87 cells were transfected with miR-218 and then the expression levels of Slit2 and Robo1 were quantified. Cell proliferation was measured both by the in vitro proliferation assay and in vivo graft studies. The luciferase reporter assay was employed to validate the downstream target of miR-218. The expression of miR-218 was lower in glioma cell lines and glioma tissues from the patients with decreased Slit2 and increased Robo1 protein levels. The over-expression of miR-218 inhibited the tumorgenesis and proliferation of glioma cells remarkably. Furthermore, the over-expressing miR-218 in glioma cells results in the downregulation of Robo1 and upregulation of Slit2. Using luciferase reporter assays, we found that Robo1 was a direct downstream target of miR-218. Over-expression of miR-218 in glioma cells may inhibit the proliferation and tumorigenicity through targeting Robo1, suggesting that miR-218 could be a potential target for developing therapies in treating glioma.

  14. Human cytomegalovirus infection contributes to glioma disease progression via upregulating endocan expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Wang, Yisong; Wang, Shijie; Wang, Xin; Fan, Dongying; Zhou, Dabiao; An, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The etiology of malignant glioma remains unclear. To examine the association between glioma and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and the possible mechanism through which HCMV contributes to malignant glioma, we investigated the expression of HCMV components and an angiogenesis marker, endocan, in 79 glioma specimens and 8 control brain samples. HCMV pp65 protein and DNA were detected in 65.8% (52 of 79) and 54.4% (43 of 79) of glioma specimens, respectively. The positive rate and expression levels of pp65 were significantly correlated with the glioma grades. The endocan expression was detected in 78.5% (62 of 79) of glioma specimens, and elevated endocan immunoreactivity was also significantly associated with high-grade glioma. The pp65 was predominantly detected and colocalized with endocan in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Importantly, there was a significant positive correlation in detection rates between those 2 proteins. In control samples, neither HCMV pp65 nor endocan expression was detected. Moreover, the serum endocan levels in glioma patients were markedly higher than that in healthy subjects. In in vitro study, HCMV infection induced the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in human glioblastoma U87 MG (U87) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, elevated endocan levels were also observed in HCMV-infected U87 cells and HUVECs and antiviral treatment with ganciclovir reduced the endocan expression. These results suggest HCMV infection leads to glioma progression through an upregulation of endocan and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Thus, anti-HCMV treatment may represent a potentially novel therapeutic strategy for glioma. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevation of Urinary 2-Hydroxyglutarate in IDH-Mutant Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Amir T; Nahed, Brian V; Wander, Seth A; Iafrate, A John; Borger, Darrell R; Hu, Ranliang; Thabet, Ashraf; Cahill, Daniel P; Perry, Ashley M; Joseph, Christelle P; Muzikansky, Alona; Chi, Andrew S

    2016-02-01

    Recurrent mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 genes, which are frequent in gliomas, result in marked accumulation of the metabolic by-product 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) within tumors. In other malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia, presence of IDH mutation is associated with elevated 2-HG levels in serum or urine compartments. Circulating 2-HG in patients with glial malignancies has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we analyzed 2-HG levels in the serum and urine of a large set of patients with IDH-mutant and IDH-wild-type glioma, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a subset of this cohort. We found that 2-HG was elevated in the urine of patients with IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild-type glioma, although no significant differences in 2-HG levels were observed in the serum or the small set of CSF samples obtained. Among patients with IDH-mutant glioma, 2-HG levels did not differ based on the histopathologic grade, genetic subtype (TP53 mutant or 1p/19q codeleted), presence of a canonical (IDH1 R132H) or noncanonical (any other IDH variant) mutation, or treatment type. Our finding suggests that urinary 2-HG is increased among patients with IDH-mutant gliomas, and may represent a future surrogate, noninvasive biomarker to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Patients with glioma who harbor mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase genes showed selective elevation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate in the urine. Similar elevations were not identified in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid. 2-Hydroxyglutarate may serve as a useful, noninvasive biomarker to stratify patients newly diagnosed with glioma with regard to prognosis and management. ©AlphaMed Press.

  16. Phase I Study of Cellular Immunotherapy for Recurrent/Refractory Malignant Glioma Using Intratumoral Infusions of GRm13Z40-2, An Allogeneic CD8+ Cytolitic T-Cell Line Genetically Modified to Express the IL 13-Zetakine and HyTK and to be Resistant to Glucocorticoids, in Combination With Interleukin-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-03

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Anaplastic Meningioma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brain Stem Glioma; Ependymoblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Grade III Meningioma; Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Mixed Glioma; Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Brain Tumor

  17. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy T. Efird

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive.

  18. Quantitative analysis of mitotic Olig2 cells in adult human brain and gliomas: implications for glioma histogenesis and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Wootack; Ray, Sutapa; Yokoo, Hideaki; Hoane, Megan E; Lee, Chong C; Mikheev, Andrei M; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2009-04-01

    The capacity of adult human glial progenitor cells (AGPs), to proliferate and undergo multipotent differentiation, positions them as ideal candidate cells of origin for human gliomas. To investigate this potential role we identified AGPs as mitotically active Olig2 cells in nonneoplastic adult human brain and gliomas. We conservatively estimated that one in 5,000 human temporal lobe neocortical gray or subcortical white matter cells is mitotic. Extrapolating from a mean Olig2/Mib-1 labeling index (LI) of 52% and total cell number of 100 billion, we estimated the overall prevalence of mitotic Olig2 AGPs in nonneoplastic human brain parenchyma at 10 million. These data identify a large reservoir of Olig2 AGPs which could be potential targets for human gliomagenesis. The vast majority of mitotic cells in Grade II and Grade III gliomas of all histologic subtypes expressed Olig2 (mean LI 75%) but rarely S100B (LI 0.6%), identifying the Olig2 cell as a distinct contributor to the proliferating cell population of human gliomas of both oligodendroglial and astrocytic lineages. In the most malignant Grade IV glioma, or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the prevalence of Olig2/Mib-1 cells was significantly decreased (24.5%). The significantly lower Olig2/Mib-1 LI in GBMs suggests that a decrease in the prevalence of Olig2 cells to the total mitotic cell pool accompanies increasing malignancy. The novel framework provided by this quantitative and comparative analysis supports future studies to examine the histogenetic role of Olig2 AGPs in adult gliomas, their potential contribution to the tumor stroma and the molecular role of Olig2 in glioma pathogenesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Gadobutrol Versus Gadopentetate Dimeglumine or Gadobenate Dimeglumine Before DCE-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Multiple Sclerosis, Grade II-IV Glioma, or Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Brain; Multiple Sclerosis; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm

  20. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for brain stem glioma include: Having certain genetic disorders , such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The signs and symptoms of brain stem glioma are not the same in every child. Signs ...

  1. Pancreatic metastases from ocular malignant melanoma: the use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration to establish a definitive cytologic diagnosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Turiani Hourneaux De Moura

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When encountering solid pancreatic lesions, nonpancreatic primary metastases are rare and differentiating a metastasis from a primary neoplastic lesion is challenging. The clinical presentation and radiologic features can be similar and the possibility of a pancreatic metastasis should be considered when the patient refers to a history of a different primary cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound offers a key anatomical advantage in accessing the pancreas and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration has become the gold standard method for diagnosing pancreatic lesions. Case presentation A 58-year-old white Hispanic woman with a history of uveal malignant melanoma, presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. On admission, laboratory tests were performed (her total bilirubin was 6.37 mg/dL with a direct fraction of 5.30 mg/dL. Cross-sectional, abdominal computed tomography with contrast, showed a low-attenuating lesion localized in the pancreatic head (measuring 4 × 3 cm and a thinner section of the distal bile duct suspicious for compression. Our patient was scheduled for an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration to establish a diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasound showed a solid, hypoechoic, well-defined lesion with regular contours (measuring 3.17 × 2.61 cm, localized between the head and neck of the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed with a 22G needle and cytology confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. Our patient subsequently underwent right orbital exenteration, followed by duodenopancreatectomy without complications. At the moment our patient is receiving adjuvant chemotherapy at an outside oncology clinic. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is a very rare presentation of an ocular malignant melanoma with an isolated pancreatic metastasis causing symptomatic biliary obstruction. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration has

  2. Use of telomerase promoter mutations to mark specific molecular subsets with reciprocal clinical behavior in IDH mutant and IDH wild-type diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyerli, Cemaliye B; Yüksel, Şirin; Can, Özge; Erson-Omay, E Zeynep; Oktay, Yavuz; Coşgun, Erdal; Ülgen, Ege; Erdemgil, Yiğit; Sav, Aydın; von Deimling, Andreas; Günel, Murat; Yakıcıer, M Cengiz; Pamir, M Necmettin; Özduman, Koray

    2017-06-16

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have established that hemispheric diffuse gliomas may be grouped into subsets on the basis of molecular markers; these subsets are loosely correlated with the histopathological diagnosis but are strong predictors of clinical tumor behavior. Based on an analysis of molecular and clinical parameters, the authors hypothesized that mutations of the telomerase promoter (TERTp-mut) mark separate oncogenic programs among isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and/or 2 (IDH) mutant (IDH-mut) and IDH wild-type (IDH-wt) diffuse gliomas independent of histopathology or WHO grade. METHODS Four molecular subsets of the combined statuses of IDH and TERT-promoter mutations (double mutant, IDH only, TERT only, and double negative) were defined. Differences in age, anatomical location, molecular genetics, and survival rates in a surgical cohort of 299 patients with a total of 356 hemispheric diffuse gliomas (WHO Grade II, III, or IV) were analyzed. RESULTS TERTp-mut were present in 38.8% of IDH-mut and 70.2% of IDH-wt gliomas. The mutational status was stable in each patient at 57 recurrence events over a 2645-month cumulative follow-up period. Among patients with IDH-mut gliomas, those in the double-mutant subset had better survival and a lower incidence of malignant degeneration than those in the IDH-only subset. Of patients in the double-mutant subset, 96.3% were also positive for 1p/19q codeletions. All patients with 1p/19q codeletions had TERTp-mut. In patients with IDH-mut glioma, epidermal growth factor receptor or phosphatase and tensin homolog mutations were not observed, and copy-number variations were uncommon. Among IDH-wt gliomas, the TERT-only subset was associated with significantly higher age, higher Ki-67 labeling index, primary glioblastoma-specific oncogenic changes, and poor survival. The double-negative subset was genetically and biologically heterogeneous. Survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier, multivariate, and regression-tree analyses) confirmed that

  3. Surgical strategies for nonenhancing slow-growing gliomas with special reference to functional reorganization: review with own experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yutaka; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kinoshita, Masashi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Nonenhancing intrinsic brain tumors have been empirically treated with a strategy that has been adopted for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II gliomas (low-grade gliomas: LGGs), even though small parts of the tumors might have been diagnosed as WHO grade III gliomas after surgery. However, the best surgical strategy for nonenhancing gliomas, including LGGs, is still debatable. LGGs have the following features: slow growth, high possibility of histologically malignant transformation, and no clear border between the tumor and adjacent normal brain. We retrospectively examined 26 consecutive patients with nonenhancing gliomas who were surgically treated at Kanazawa University Hospital between January 2006 and May 2012, with special reference to functional reorganization, extent of resection (EOR), and functional mapping during awake surgery. These categories are closely related with the features of LGG, i.e. functional reorganization due to slow-growing nature, EOR with related malignant transformation, and functional mapping for delineating the unclear tumor border. Finally, we discuss surgical strategies for slow-growing gliomas that are represented by LGGs and nonenhancing gliomas. In conclusion, slow-growing gliomas tend to undergo functional reorganization, and the functional reorganization affects the presurgical evaluation for resectability based on tumor location related to eloquence. In the clinical setting, to definitely identify the reorganized functional regions, awake surgery is recommended. Therefore, awake surgery could increase the extent of the resection of the tumor without deficits, resulting in the delay of malignant transformation and increase in overall survival.

  4. Gamma-secretase represents a therapeutic target for the treatment of invasive glioma mediated by the p75 neurotrophin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMei Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The multifunctional signaling protein p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR is a central regulator and major contributor to the highly invasive nature of malignant gliomas. Here, we show that neurotrophin-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP of p75(NTR is required for p75(NTR-mediated glioma invasion, and identify a previously unnamed process for targeted glioma therapy. Expression of cleavage-resistant chimeras of p75(NTR or treatment of animals bearing p75(NTR-positive intracranial tumors with clinically applicable gamma-secretase inhibitors resulted in dramatically decreased glioma invasion and prolonged survival. Importantly, proteolytic processing of p75(NTR was observed in p75(NTR-positive patient tumor specimens and brain tumor initiating cells. This work highlights the importance of p75(NTR as a therapeutic target, suggesting that gamma-secretase inhibitors may have direct clinical application for the treatment of malignant glioma.

  5. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  6. Nasal Glioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital tumors that are thought to be result of abnormality in embryonic development. Three types of clinical presentations have been recognized; extranasal, intranasal and combined. Clinically, these masses are non-pulsatile, gray or purple lesions that obstruct the nasal cavity and cause deformity extranasaly. Histologically, they are made up of astrocytic cells, fibrous and vascular connective tissue that is covered with nasal respiratory mucosa. Treatment of the nasal glioma requires a multidisciplinary approach including an radiologist, neurosurgeon and otorhinolaryngologist. Radiological investigation should be performed to describe intracranial extension. In this case, a 2 years old boy with nasal mass that was diagnosed as nasal glioma is reported. . [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1.000: 34-36

  7. Glioma virus therapies between bench and bedside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Johanna K.; Chiocca, E. Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research, current glioma therapies are still unsatisfactory, and novel approaches are pressingly needed. In recent years, both nonreplicative viral vectors and replicating oncolytic viruses have been developed for brain cancer treatment, and the mechanistic background of their cytotoxicity has been unveiled. A growing number of clinical trials have convincingly established viral therapies to be safe in glioma patients, and maximum tolerated doses have generally not been reached. However, evidence for therapeutic benefit has been limited: new generations of therapeutic vectors need to be developed in order to target not only tumor cells but also the complex surrounding microenvironment. Such therapies could also direct long-lasting immune responses toward the tumor while reducing early antiviral reactions. Furthermore, viral delivery methods are to be improved and viral spread within the tumor will have to be enhanced. Here, we will review the outcome of completed glioma virus therapy trials as well as highlight the ongoing clinical activities. On this basis, we will give an overview of the numerous strategies to enhance therapeutic efficacy of new-generation viruses and novel treatment regimens. Finally, we will conclude with approaches that may be crucial to the development of successful glioma therapies in the future. PMID:24470549

  8. Diffusion kurtosis imaging of gliomas grades II and III - a study of perilesional tumor infiltration, tumor grades and subtypes at clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Anna F.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI allows for assessment of diffusion influenced by microcellular structures. We analyzed DKI in suspected low-grade gliomas prior to histopathological diagnosis. The aim was to investigate if diffusion parameters in the perilesional normal-appearing white matter (NAWM differed from contralesional white matter, and to investigate differences between glioma malignancy grades II and III and glioma subtypes (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.

  9. An immuno-wall microdevice exhibits rapid and sensitive detection of IDH1-R132H mutation specific to grade II and III gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Akane; Kasama, Toshihiro; Ohka, Fumiharu; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kato, Akira; Motomura, Kazuya; Hirano, Masaki; Ranjit, Melissa; Chalise, Lushun; Kurimoto, Michihiro; Kondo, Goro; Aoki, Kosuke; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Matsubara, Toshio; Senga, Takeshi; Kaneko, Mika K; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hara, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kato, Yukinari; Natsume, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas most frequently occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Gliomas are not circumscribed; tumor edges are irregular and consist of tumor cells, normal brain tissue, and hyperplastic reactive glial cells. Therefore, the tumors are not fully resectable, resulting in recurrence, malignant progression, and eventual death. Approximately 69-80% of grade II and III gliomas harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), of which 83-90% are found to be the IDH1-R132H mutation. Detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation should help in the differential diagnosis of grade II and III gliomas from other types of CNS tumors and help determine the boundary between the tumor and normal brain tissue. In this study, we established a highly sensitive antibody-based device, referred to as the immuno-wall, to detect the IDH1-R132H mutation in gliomas. The immuno-wall causes an immunoreaction in microchannels fabricated using a photo-polymerizing polymer. This microdevice enables the analysis of the IDH1 status with a small sample within 15 min with substantially high sensitivity. Our results suggested that 10% content of the IDH1-R132H mutation in a sample of 0.33 μl volume, with 500 ng protein, or from 500 cells is theoretically sufficient for the analysis. The immuno-wall device will enable the rapid and highly sensitive detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation in routine clinical practice.

  10. High expression of B7-H6 in human glioma tissues promotes tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianwei; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Huasheng; Zhang, Xiangsheng; Zhang, Dingding; Wang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Wang, Ye; Hang, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    B7-H6, a new member of B7-family ligand, also known as NCR3LG1, plays an important role in NK cells mediated immune responses. Many studies have shown that it is highly expressed in various human cancers, and its expression levels are significantly associated with cancer patients’ clinicopathological parameters and postoperative prognoses. But, still the exact role of B7-H6 expression in human glioma remains elusive. In the present study, we have characterized the B7-H6 expression in the human glioma tissues as well as glioma cell lines, U87 and U251. We observed that B7-H6 was highly expressed in the human glioma tissues, and its expression was significantly associated with cancer progression. By using the RNA interference technology, we successfully ablated B7-H6 expression in human glioma cell lines to further study its contribution towards various biological features of this malignancy. Our study identified that the B7-H6 knockdown in U87 and U251 glioma cells significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and enhanced apoptosis along with induction of cell cycle arrest. It thus suggested that B7-H6 play an important role in the regulation of the biological behavior of these glioma cells. However, the detailed mechanism of B7-H6 mediated regulation of glioma cancer cell transformation and its prognostic value merits further investigation. PMID:28415577

  11. The value of glioma extent of resection in the modern neurosurgical era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Douglas A; Sanai, Nader

    2012-01-01

    There remains no general consensus in the neurosurgical oncology literature regarding the role of extent of glioma resection in improving patient outcome. Although the value of resection in establishing a diagnosis and alleviating mass effect is clear, there is less certainty in ascertaining the influence of extent of resection (EOR). Here, we review the recent literature to synthesize a comprehensive review of the value of extent of resection for gliomas in the modern neurosurgical era. We reviewed every major peer-reviewed clinical publication since 1990 on the role of EOR in glioma outcome. Thirty-two high-grade glioma articles and 11 low-grade glioma articles were examined in terms of quality of evidence, expected EOR, and survival benefit. Despite limitations in the quality of data, mounting evidence suggests that more extensive surgical resection is associated with longer life expectancy for both low- and high-grade newly diagnosed gliomas.

  12. Pediatric glioma stem cells: biologic strategies for oncolytic HSV virotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K Friedman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available While glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common adult malignant brain tumor, GBMs in childhood represent less than 10% of pediatric malignant brain tumors and are phenotypically and molecularly distinct from adult GBMs. Similar to adult patients, outcomes for children with high-grade gliomas (HGGs remain poor. Furthermore, the significant morbidity and mortality yielded by pediatric GBM is compounded by neurotoxicity for the developing brain caused by current therapies. Poor outcomes have been attributed to a subpopulation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant cells, termed ‘glioma stem cells’ (GSCs, ‘glioma progenitor cells’, or ‘glioma-initiating cells', which have the ability to initiate and maintain the tumor and to repopulate the recurring tumor after conventional therapy. Future innovative therapies for pediatric HGGs must be able to eradicate these therapy-resistant GSCs. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses, genetically engineered to be safe for normal cells and to express diverse foreign anti-tumor therapeutic genes, have been demonstrated in preclinical studies to infect and kill GSCs and tumor cells equally while sparing normal brain cells. In this review, we discuss the unique aspects of pediatric GSCs, including markers to identify them, the microenvironment they reside in, signaling pathways that regulate them, mechanisms of cellular resistance, and approaches to target GSCs, with a focus on the promising therapeutic, genetically engineered oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV.

  13. Pediatric glioma stem cells: biologic strategies for oncolytic HSV virotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gregory K; Raborn, Joel; Kelly, Virginia M; Cassady, Kevin A; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2013-01-01

    While glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common adult malignant brain tumor, GBMs in childhood represent less than 10% of pediatric malignant brain tumors and are phenotypically and molecularly distinct from adult GBMs. Similar to adult patients, outcomes for children with high-grade gliomas (HGGs) remain poor. Furthermore, the significant morbidity and mortality yielded by pediatric GBM is compounded by neurotoxicity for the developing brain caused by current therapies. Poor outcomes have been attributed to a subpopulation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant cells, termed "glioma stem cells" (GSCs), "glioma progenitor cells," or "glioma-initiating cells," which have the ability to initiate and maintain the tumor and to repopulate the recurring tumor after conventional therapy. Future innovative therapies for pediatric HGG must be able to eradicate these therapy-resistant GSCs. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSV), genetically engineered to be safe for normal cells and to express diverse foreign anti-tumor therapeutic genes, have been demonstrated in preclinical studies to infect and kill GSCs and tumor cells equally while sparing normal brain cells. In this review, we discuss the unique aspects of pediatric GSCs, including markers to identify them, the microenvironment they reside in, signaling pathways that regulate them, mechanisms of cellular resistance, and approaches to target GSCs, with a focus on the promising therapeutic, genetically engineered oHSV.

  14. Dynamic stroma reorganization drives blood vessel dysmorphia during glioma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivet, Thomas; Bouleti, Claire; Van Woensel, Matthias; Stanchi, Fabio; Verschuere, Tina; Phng, Li-Kun; Dejaegher, Joost; Balcer, Marly; Matsumoto, Ken; Georgieva, Petya B; Belmans, Jochen; Sciot, Raf; Stockmann, Christian; Mazzone, Massimiliano; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Gerhardt, Holger

    2017-10-16

    Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages. This vascular phenotype transition was accompanied by recruitment of predominantly pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in the early stages, followed by in situ repolarization to M2-like macrophages, which produced VEGF-A and relocate to perivascular areas. A similar enrichment and perivascular accumulation of M2 versus M1 macrophages correlated with vessel dilation and malignancy in human glioma samples of different WHO malignancy grade. Targeting macrophages using anti-CSF1 treatment restored normal blood vessel patterning and function. Combination treatment with chemotherapy showed survival benefit, suggesting that targeting macrophages as the key driver of blood vessel dysmorphia in glioma progression presents opportunities to improve efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that vessel dysfunction is not simply a general feature of tumor vessel formation, but rather an emergent property resulting from a dynamic and functional reorganization of the tumor stroma and its angiogenic influences. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. A Phase I Study of Mebendazole for the Treatment of Pediatric Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Glioma, Astrocytic; Optic Nerve Glioma; Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Gliosarcoma; Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; DIPG; Low-grade Glioma; Brainstem Glioma

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Gliomas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Anni, H.; Dráber, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 216-227 ISSN 1071-9091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12050 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gliomas * mitochondrial dysfunction * microtubule proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2013

  17. Beyond Genetics in Glioma Pathways: The Ever-Increasing Crosstalk between Epigenomic and Genomic Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse gliomas are the most frequent brain tumor in adults. This group of brain neoplasms, ranging from histologically benign to aggressive malignant forms, represents a challenge in modern neurooncology because of the diffuse infiltrative growth pattern and the inherent tendency to relapse as a more malignant tumor. Once the disease achieves the stage of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the prognosis of patients is dismal and the median survival time is 15 months. Exhaustive genetic analyses have revealed a variety of deregulated genetic pathways involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, cell migration/adhesion, and cell cycle. Recently, investigation of epigenetic alterations in gliomas has contributed to depict the complexity of the molecular lesions leading to these malignancies. Even though, the efficacy of the state-of-the-art form of chemotherapy in malignant gliomas with temozolomide is based on the methylation-associated silencing of the DNA repair gene MGMT. Nevertheless, the whole scenario including global DNA hypomethylation, aberrant promoter hypermethylation, histone modification, chromatin states, and the role of noncoding RNAs in gliomas has only been partially revealed. We discuss the repercussion of epigenetic alterations underlying deregulated molecular pathways in the pathogenesis and evolution of gliomas and their impact on management of patients.

  18. PAR1 inhibition suppresses the self-renewal and growth of A2B5-defined glioma progenitor cells and their derived gliomas in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auvergne, R.; Wu, C.; Connell, A.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most common and lethal intracranial tumor. In a comparison of gene expression by A2B5-defined tumor-initiating progenitor cells (TPCs) to glial progenitor cells derived from normal adult human brain, we found that the F2R gene encoding PAR1 was differentially...... the importance of PAR1 to the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of A2B5-defined glioma TPCs; as such, the abrogation of PAR1-dependent signaling pathways may prove a promising strategy for gliomas.[on SciFinder (R)]...... overexpressed by A2B5-sorted TPCs isolated from gliomas at all stages of malignant development. In this study, we asked if PAR1 is causally associated with glioma progression. Lentiviral knockdown of PAR1 inhibited the expansion and self-renewal of human GBM-derived A2B5(+) TPCs in vitro, while pharmacological...

  19. Molecular pathology in adult gliomas: diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jansen, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been an increasing use of molecular markers in the assessment and management of adult malignant gliomas. Some molecular signatures are used diagnostically to help pathologists classify tumours, whereas others are used to estimate prognosis for patients. Most crucial, however, are those markers that are used to predict response to certain therapies, thereby directing clinicians to a particular treatment while avoiding other potentially deleterious therapies. Recently, large-scale genome-wide surveys have been used to identify new biomarkers that have been rapidly developed as diagnostic and prognostic tools. Given these developments, the pace of discovery of new molecular assays will quicken to facilitate personalised medicine in the setting of malignant glioma.

  20. Meningioma maligno Malignant meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvei González Orlandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los meningiomas intracraneales son tumores por lo general benignos, de crecimiento lento, y se originan en la capa de células aracnoideas, especialmente en las granulaciones aracnoideas. Los meningiomas anaplásicos o malignos representen solo el 1-3 %. En ocasiones simulan lesiones tumorales neuroepiteliales malignas, por su crecimiento rápido y la frecuente invasión al tejido cerebral vecino; suelen recidivar con mayor frecuencia y muchas veces requieren terapia coadyuvante. Las imágenes topográficas de este tipo de tumores suelen ser hiperdensas, con muy buena captación del contraste, regulares y bien delimitadas con poco o ningún edema asociado, todo lo contrario a lo visto en el caso que se presenta, en el cual las imágenes parecían corresponder a las de un glioma maligno (glioblastoma multiforme.The intracranial meningiomas are tumors in general of benign type of a slow growth originating in the arachnoid cells layer, especially in arachnoid granulations. The anaplastic or malignant meningiomas accounted for only the 1-3%. Sometimes they simulate malignant neuroepithelial lesions due to its fast growth and the frequent invasion of surrounding cerebral tissue with very frequent relapses and many times they required adjuvant therapy. The topographic images of this type of tumor are hyper-denses with a good contrast capture, regular and well defined with not much or not associated edema, quite the contrary that observed in present case where images seems to correspond with those of a malignant glioma (multiforme glioblastoma.

  1. Effects of intravenously administered recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV(deltaM51)) on multifocal and invasive gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, XueQing; Senger, Donna L; Alain, Tommy; Oprea, Andra; Parato, Kelley; Stojdl, Dave; Lichty, Brian; Power, Anthony; Johnston, Randal N; Hamilton, Mark; Parney, Ian; Bell, John C; Forsyth, Peter A

    2006-11-01

    An ideal virus for the treatment of cancer should have effective delivery into multiple sites within the tumor, evade immune responses, produce rapid viral replication, spread within the tumor, and infect multiple tumors. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been shown to be an effective oncolytic virus in a variety of tumor models, and mutations in the matrix (M) protein enhance VSV's effectiveness in animal models. We evaluated the susceptibility of 14 glioma cell lines to infection and killing by mutant strain VSV(deltaM51), which contains a single-amino acid deletion in the M protein. We also examined the activity and safety of this strain against the U87 and U118 experimental models of human malignant glioma in nude mice and analyzed the distribution of the virus in the brains of U87 tumor-bearing mice using fluorescence labeling. Finally, we examined the effect of VSV(deltaM51) on 15 primary human gliomas cultured from surgical specimens. All statistical tests were two-sided. All 14 glioma cell lines were susceptible to VSV(deltaM51) infection and killing. Intratumoral administration of VSV(deltaM51) produced marked regression of malignant gliomas in nude mice. When administered systemically, live VSV(deltaM51) virus, as compared with dead virus, statistically significantly prolonged survival of mice with unilateral U87 tumors (median survival: 113 versus 46 days, P = .0001) and bilateral U87 tumors (median survival: 73 versus 46 days, P = .0025). VSV(deltaM51) infected multifocal gliomas, invasive glioma cells that migrated beyond the main glioma, and all 15 primary human gliomas. There was no evidence of toxicity. Systemically delivered VSV(deltaM51) was an effective and safe oncolytic agent against laboratory models of multifocal and invasive malignant gliomas, the most challenging clinical manifestations of this disease.

  2. Association of BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism with glioma risk in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qian, Chunfa; Wang, Linxiong; Teng, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2014-03-01

    Glioma is the most common type of primary brain malignancy in adults. The anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of glioma. This study aimed to evaluate the potential association between BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism and glioma susceptibility. This case-control study was conducted in Chinese Han populations consisting of 248 glioma cases and 252 cancer-free controls. The BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and verified using DNA sequencing methods. Our data suggested that the genotype/allele of BCL2-938C>A polymorphism were statistically associated with the increased risk of glioma where the risk of glioma for genotype AA or allele A is significantly higher than wild genotype CC (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-4.10, p = 0.009) or allele C (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.06-1.82, p = 0.016), respectively. In addition, the BCL2-938AA genotype was significantly more common in patients with glioblastoma and in patients with grade IV glioma. Our findings indicate that the BCL2-938C>A polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to glioma in Chinese Han populations and might be used as molecular markers for evaluating glioma risk.

  3. Microarray data analysis to identify crucial genes regulated by CEBPB in human SNB19 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chenghua; Pan, Pan; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Qiuli; Bao, Jinsuo; Liu, Chang

    2016-10-06

    Glioma is one of the most common primary malignancies in the brain or spine. The transcription factor (TF) CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB) is important for maintaining the tumor initiating capacity and invasion ability. To investigate the regulation mechanism of CEBPB in glioma, microarray data GSE47352 was analyzed. GSE47352 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including three samples of SNB19 human glioma cells transduced with non-target control small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral vectors for 72 h (normal glioma cells) and three samples of SNB19 human glioma cells transduced with CEBPB shRNA lentiviral vectors for 72 h (CEBPB-silenced glioma cells). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using limma package and then annotated. Afterwards, the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) software was applied to perform enrichment analysis for the DEGs. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and transcriptional regulatory network were constructed using Cytoscape software. Total 529 DEGs were identified in the normal glioma cells compared with the CEBPB-silenced glioma cells, including 336 up-regulated and 193 down-regulated genes. The significantly enriched pathways included chemokine signaling pathway (which involved CCL2), focal adhesion (which involved THBS1 and THBS2), TGF-beta signaling pathway (which involved THBS1, THBS2, SMAD5, and SMAD6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (which involved TGFBR2 and CCND1). In the PPI network, CCND1 (degree = 29) and CCL2 (degree = 12) were hub nodes. Additionally, CEBPB and TCF12 might function in glioma through targeting others (CEBPB → TCF12, CEBPB → TGFBR2, and TCF12 → TGFBR2). CEBPB might act in glioma by regulating CCL2, CCND1, THBS1, THBS2, SMAD5, SMAD6, TGFBR2, and TCF12.

  4. Prognostic value of O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET and MRI in low-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeth, Frank W; Pauleit, Dirk; Sabel, Michael; Stoffels, Gabriele; Reifenberger, Guido; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Jansen, Paul; Coenen, Heinz H; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2007-04-01

    In glioma of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low-grade glioma), the natural course of a particular patient is not predictable and the treatment strategy is controversial. We determined prognostic factors in adult patients with untreated, nonenhancing, supratentorial low-grade glioma with special regard to PET using the amino acid O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) and MRI. In a prospective study, baseline (18)F-FET PET and MRI analyses were performed on 33 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed low-grade glioma. None of the patients had radiation or chemotherapy. Clinical, histologic, therapeutic (initial cytoreduction vs. biopsy), (18)F-FET uptake, and MRI morphologic parameters were analyzed for their prognostic significance. Statistical endpoints were clinical or radiologic tumor progression, malignant transformation to glioma of WHO grade III or IV (high-grade glioma), and death. Baseline (18)F-FET uptake and a diffuse versus circumscribed tumor pattern on MRI were highly significant predictors of prognosis (P < 0.01). By the combination of these prognostically significant variables, 3 major prognostic subgroups of low-grade glioma patients could be identified. The first of these subgroups was patients with circumscribed low-grade glioma on MRI without (18)F-FET uptake (n = 11 patients, progression in 18%, no malignant transformation and no death). The second subgroup was patients with circumscribed low-grade glioma with (18)F-FET uptake (n = 13 patients, progression in 46%, malignant transformation to a high-grade glioma in 15%, and death in 8%). The third subgroup was patients with diffuse low-grade glioma with (18)F-FET uptake (n = 9 patients, progression in 100%, malignant transformation to a high-grade glioma in 78%, and death in 56%). We conclude that baseline amino acid uptake on (18)F-FET PET and a diffuse versus circumscribed tumor pattern on MRI are strong predictors for the outcome of patients with low-grade glioma.

  5. Clinical utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid HCl to better visualize and more completely remove gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halani SH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sameer H Halani,1 D Cory Adamson1,2 1Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Neurosurgery Section, Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA Abstract: Surgical resection is typically the first line of treatment for gliomas. However, the neurosurgeon faces a major challenge in achieving maximal resection in high-grade gliomas as these infiltrative tumors make it difficult to discern tumor margins from normal brain with conventional white-light microscopy alone. To aid in resection of these infiltrative tumors, fluorescence-guided surgery has gained much popularity in intraoperative visualization of malignant gliomas, with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA leading the way. First introduced in an article in Neurosurgery, 5-ALA has since become a safe, effective, and inexpensive method to visualize and improve resection of gliomas. This has undoubtedly led to improvements in the clinical course of patients as demonstrated by the increased overall and progression-free survival in patients with such devastating disease. This literature review aims to discuss the major studies and trials demonstrating the clinical utility of 5-ALA and its ability to aid in complete resection of malignant gliomas. Keywords: aminolevulinic acid, 5-ALA, fluorescence, glioblastoma multiforme, high-grade glioma, resection

  6. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  7. Canine spinal cord glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Daniel R; Barber, Renee; Burnum, Annabelle; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord. All dogs had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of intraparenchymal neoplasia or myelitis based on history, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Euthanasia was elected in all cases because of poor outcome despite anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive treatment or because of poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Tumor location during autopsy ranged from C1 to L6, with no clear predilection for a specific spinal cord segment. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the immunohistochemistry expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Diagnoses consisted of 4 cases of oligodendroglioma, 2 cases of gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 astrocytoma. This case series further defines the clinicopathologic features of canine spinal glioma and highlights the need for comprehensive immunohistochemistry in addition to routine histopathology to confirm the diagnosis of these tumors.

  8. Ketamine suppresses the proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hidetomo; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Seya, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine, on the growth of gliomas. To analyze the effects of ketamine treatment, rat C6 glioma cells arising from astrocytes, and RNB cells representing non-malignant astrocytes, were examined. In ketamine-treated C6 cells, the gene expression changes associated with cell proliferation following ketamine treatment were evaluated using a cDNA microarray. A cell proliferation assay was performed to analyze the dose-dependent proliferation of C6 glioma and RNB cells following culture (72 h) with ketamine treatment (0-100 µM). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed following cell incubation with/without ketamine, to confirm if the ketamine-induced cell death of C6 glioma and RNB cells were due to apoptosis. In addition, cell proliferation and TUNEL assays were performed following cell incubations with a selective NMDAR antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-AP5). Analysis of the cDNA microarray indicated that the growth of C6 glioma cells were suppressed by the effects of ketamine. Furthermore, results of the proliferation assay confirmed that ketamine treatment inhibited C6 cell proliferation, most notably at a dose of 30 µM (n=7, 66.4%; Pcells, with a significant effect on the rate of death observed at all tested concentrations (3, 10, 30 and 100 µM). Results of the aforementioned proliferation and TUNEL assay experiments were reproduced when ketamine was replaced with a selective NMDAR antagonist, D-AP5. However, the NMDARantagonist-induced effects were not observed in RNB cell cultures. Although it would be premature to apply the results from the present study to human cases, these results indicated that ketamine is an anesthetic candidate providing potential benefit for glioma resection.

  9. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Cheng-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Yu-Hsiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri [Division of Urology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Cheng [Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Financial and Computational Mathematics, Providence University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Pan, Pin-Ho [Department of Pediatrics, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung 435, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Ying [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsuan-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Jung, E-mail: cjchen@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Nursing, HungKuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-10

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and genetic silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK.

  10. Molecular subtypes of glioblastoma are relevant to lower grade glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Guan

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with great heterogeneity in histopathology and clinical course. The intent was to evaluate the relevance of known glioblastoma (GBM expression and methylation based subtypes to grade II and III gliomas (ie. lower grade gliomas.Gene expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and clinical data were obtained for 228 GBMs and 176 grade II/II gliomas (GII/III from the publically available Rembrandt dataset. Two additional datasets with IDH1 mutation status were utilized as validation datasets (one publicly available dataset and one newly generated dataset from MD Anderson. Unsupervised clustering was performed and compared to gene expression subtypes assigned using the Verhaak et al 840-gene classifier. The glioma-CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP was assigned using prediction models by Fine et al.Unsupervised clustering by gene expression aligned with the Verhaak 840-gene subtype group assignments. GII/IIIs were preferentially assigned to the proneural subtype with IDH1 mutation and G-CIMP. GBMs were evenly distributed among the four subtypes. Proneural, IDH1 mutant, G-CIMP GII/III s had significantly better survival than other molecular subtypes. Only 6% of GBMs were proneural and had either IDH1 mutation or G-CIMP but these tumors had significantly better survival than other GBMs. Copy number changes in chromosomes 1p and 19q were associated with GII/IIIs, while these changes in CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR were more commonly associated with GBMs.GBM gene-expression and methylation based subtypes are relevant for GII/III s and associate with overall survival differences. A better understanding of the association between these subtypes and GII/IIIs could further knowledge regarding prognosis and mechanisms of glioma progression.

  11. NOS2 expression in glioma cell lines and glioma primary cell cultures: correlation with neurosphere generation and SOX-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Paola; Miconi, Gianfranca; Cinque, Benedetta; Lombardi, Francesca; La Torre, Cristina; Dehcordi, Soheila Raysi; Galzio, Renato; Cimini, Annamaria; Giordano, Antonio; Cifone, Maria Grazia

    2017-04-11

    Nitric oxide has been implicated in biology and progression of glioblastoma (GBM) being able to influence the cellular signal depending on the concentration and duration of cell exposure. NOS2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase) have been proposed as a component of molecular profile of several tumors, including glioma, one of the most aggressive primary brain tumor featuring local cancer stem cells responsible for enhanced resistance to therapies and for tumor recurrence. Here, we investigated the NOS2 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-PCR in human glioma primary cultures at several grade of malignancy and glioma stem cell (GSC) derived neurospheres. Glioma cell lines were used as positive controls both in terms of stemness marker expression that of capacity of generating neurospheres. NOS2 expression was detected at basal levels in cell lines and primary cultures and appeared significantly up-regulated in cultures kept in the specific medium for neurospheres. The immunofluorescence analysis of all cell cultures to evaluate the levels of SOX-2, a stemness marker aberrantly up-regulated in GBM, was also performed. The potential correlation between NOS2 expression and ability to generate neurospheres and between NOS2 and SOX-2 levels was also verified. The results show that the higher NOS2 expression is detected in all primary cultures able to arise neurosphere. A high and significant correlation between NOS2 expression and SOX-2 positive cells (%) in all cell cultures maintained in standard conditions has been observed. The results shed light on the potential relevance of NOS2 as a prognostic factor for glioma malignancy and recurrence.

  12. miR-218 inhibits the migration and invasion of glioma U87 cells through the Slit2-Robo1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian-Jun; Gao, Guang-Zhong; Zhang, Shi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults and are associated with the highest mortality rate. Glioma invasion is one of the most notable causes of the poor prognosis of this cancer. Preventing the invasive behavior of malignant glioma cells by altering effector molecules can significantly improve the prognosis of a patient. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, ~22 nucleotides in length, that are able to function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human cancer. In the present study, the expression level of miRNA 218 (miR-218) was found to be markedly downregulated in glioma cell lines and human primary glioma tissues. miR-218 upregulation was found to dramatically reduce the migratory speed and invasive ability of glioma cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-218 in glioma cells resulted in the downregulation of roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 1 (Robo1), upregulation of Slit homolog 2 (Slit2) and the expression of associated proteins following Robo1 knockdown by small interfering RNA. In addition, it was demonstrated that miR-218 inactivated the Slit2-Robo1 pathway through downregulating Robo1 expression by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Robo1. The present results indicate that miR-218 plays important roles in preventing the invasiveness of glioma cells, and reveals a novel mechanism of miRNA-mediated direct suppression of the Slit2-Robo1 pathway in glioma.

  13. Chronic inflammation drives glioma growth: cellular and molecular factors responsible for an immunosuppressive microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Antonios

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review examines glioma disease initiation, promotion, and progression with a focus on the cell types present within the tumor mass and the molecules responsible for the immunosuppressive microenvironment that are present at each step of the disease. The cell types and molecules present also correlate with the grade of malignancy. An overall "type 2" chronic inflammatory microenvironment develops that facilitates glioma promotion and contributes to the neo-vascularization characteristic of gliomas. An immunosuppressive microenvironment shields the tumor mass from clearance by the patient's own immune system. Here, we provide suggestions to deal with a chronically-inflamed tumor microenvironment and provide recommendations to help optimize adjuvant immune- and gene therapies currently offered to glioma patients.

  14. Prognostic value of free DNA quantification in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in glioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Lv, Chenglin; Qi, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Xiujie; Jing, Rongrong; Wu, Xinhua; Ju, Shaoqing; Chen, Jian

    2012-03-01

    Unlike uniformly truncated DNA released from apoptotic nondiseased cells, free DNA released from dead tumor cells varies in size. Free DNA has been considered as a candidate biomarker for malignant tumors. We obtained serum samples from 70 patients with glioma and 22 healthy volunteers as control and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 20 patients with glioma and eight nonneoplastic controls with hydrocephalus or arachnoid cyst and performed preoperative analysis of free DNA concentration and integrity by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. With two primers sets amplifying short and long free DNA fragments (ALU115 and ALU247), free DNA integrity was determined by ratio of the concentration of ALU247 over ALU115 (ALU247/115). Our results indicate that free DNA integrity and the ratio of long fragments to short fragments may be a useful diagnostic assay for glioma. In summary, the CSF-free DNA concentration and integrity may serve as a new marker for the diagnosis of glioma.

  15. Classification and documentation of diffuse gliomas; Klassifikation und Dokumentation diffuser Gliome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeike, B.F.M. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuropathologie; Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Most current grading systems of diffuse gliomas are bases solely on the microscopic evaluation of surgical specimens and the TNM classification does not have a value for brain tumors. Here additional parameters are presented, which are suitable for a classification and documentation of diffuse gliomas. As additional parameters to the WHO typing and grading we discuss age groups, different tumor devolutions, circumstances such as a second malignant neoplasm or hereditary tumors, tumor expansion based on anatomically defined brain regions, Karnofsky Scale, eloquence of the brain regions, diagnostic certainty and informativity of tissue samples. This work shows that clinical data and imaging studies can contribute substantially to the classification of diffuse gliomas. The additional parameters presented here constitute a significant improvement of glioma documentation. Especially complex courses of long duration and repeated therapeutic interventions can be better surveyed and digitally processed. (orig.)

  16. A drosophila model for EGFR-Ras and PI3K-dependent human glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee D Read

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas, the most common malignant tumors of the nervous system, frequently harbor mutations that activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K signaling pathways. To investigate the genetic basis of this disease, we developed a glioma model in Drosophila. We found that constitutive coactivation of EGFR-Ras and PI3K pathways in Drosophila glia and glial precursors gives rise to neoplastic, invasive glial cells that create transplantable tumor-like growths, mimicking human glioma. Our model represents a robust organotypic and cell-type-specific Drosophila cancer model in which malignant cells are created by mutations in signature genes and pathways thought to be driving forces in a homologous human cancer. Genetic analyses demonstrated that EGFR and PI3K initiate malignant neoplastic transformation via a combinatorial genetic network composed primarily of other pathways commonly mutated or activated in human glioma, including the Tor, Myc, G1 Cyclins-Cdks, and Rb-E2F pathways. This network acts synergistically to coordinately stimulate cell cycle entry and progression, protein translation, and inappropriate cellular growth and migration. In particular, we found that the fly orthologs of CyclinE, Cdc25, and Myc are key rate-limiting genes required for glial neoplasia. Moreover, orthologs of Sin1, Rictor, and Cdk4 are genes required only for abnormal neoplastic glial proliferation but not for glial development. These and other genes within this network may represent important therapeutic targets in human glioma.

  17. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller-Klieser Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. Methods To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. Results The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2, 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1 and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1 were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. Conclusion In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic

  18. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-07-26

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways.

  19. Silencing Nrf2 impairs glioma cell proliferation via AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Yue [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Handong, E-mail: njhdwang@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Qiang [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Ding, Hui [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Southern Medical University (Guangzhou), 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Wu, Heming [Department of Neurosurgery, Nanjing Jingdu Hospital, No. 34, Biao 34, Yanggongjing Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Pan, Hao [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-01-15

    Gliomas are the leading cause of death among adults with primary brain malignancies. Treatment for malignant gliomas remains limited, and targeted therapies have been incompletely explored. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription regulator for antioxidant and detoxification enzymes, is abundantly expressed in cancer cells. In this study, the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in cancer cell proliferation was investigated in multiple glioma cell lines. We first evaluated the expression patterns of Nrf2 in four glioma cell lines and found all four cell lines expressed Nrf2, but the highest level was observed in U251 cells. We further evaluated the biological functions of Nrf2 in U251 glioma cell proliferation by specific inhibition of Nrf2 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We found that Nrf2 depletion inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Nrf2 depletion also decreased colony formation in U251 cells stably expressing Nrf2 shRNA compared to scrambled control shRNA. Moreover, suppression of Nrf2 expression could lead to ATP depletion (with concomitant rise in AMP/ATP ratio) and consequently to AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition. Finally, activation of adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) by treated with phenformin, an AMPK agonist, can mimic the inhibitory effect of Nrf2 knockdown in U251 cells. In conclusion, our findings will shed light to the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in regulating glioma proliferation via ATP-depletion-induced AMPK activation and consequent mTOR inhibition, a novel insight into our understanding the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in glioma pathoetiology. To our knowledge, this is also the first report to provide a rationale for the implication of cross-linking between Nrf2 and mTOR signaling.

  20. Estradiol Receptors Regulate Differential Connexin 43 Expression in F98 and C6 Glioma Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Moinfar

    Full Text Available Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumour with male preponderance and poor prognosis. Glioma cells express variable amounts of connexin 43 (Cx43 and estrogen receptors (ERs. Both, Cx43 and ERs, play important roles in cell proliferation and migration. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 17-ß estradiol (E2 on Cx43 expression in two glioma cell lines with variable native expression of Cx43.F98 and C6 rat glioma cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of 10 nM or 100 nM E2, and the E2-antagonist, Fulvestrant. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. ERα, ERβ and Cx43 protein expressions were analysed by western blotting and Cx43 mRNA expression was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To quantify cell migration, an exclusive zone migration assay was used. Functional coupling of cells via gap junctions was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp technique.E2 reduced Cx43 expression in C6 cells, but increased Cx43 expression in F98 cultures. These effects were mediated via ERs. Moreover, E2 promoted C6 cell migration, but it did not affect F98 cell migration. The expression level of ERα was found to be high in C6, but low in F98 cells. ERβ was exclusively expressed in C6 cells. In addition, E2 treatment induced a significant decrease of ERβ in C6 cultures, while it decreased ERα expression in F98 glioma cells.These findings show that E2 differentially modulates Cx43 expression in F98 and C6 glioma cells, likely due to the differential expression of ERs in each of these cell lines. Our findings point to the molecular mechanisms that might contribute to the gender-specific differences in the malignancy of glioma and could have implications for therapeutic strategies against glioma.

  1. [Effects of myxoma virus on gliomas of rats models in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Liang, Shi-Jie; Lin, Heng-Zhou; Ji, Tao; Li, Wei-Ping

    2012-04-01

    To explore the in vivo effects of myxoma virus (MV) on gliomas of rat model. Methods C6 glioma cells were implanted into the frontal lobe of SD rats using stereotactic methods to establish animal models of glioma. C6 glioma cells were implanted into the frontal lobe of SD rats using stereotactic methods to establish animal models of glioma. Models were divided into 4 groups randomly after tumor growth was affirmed, and MV, 5-FU, MV + 5-FU, and denatured myxoma virus (DV) were implanted into the tumors using stereotactic methods, bodyweight, tumor size, expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Akt of each model were observed. The gliomas in all SD rats were established successfully. And tumor growth in MV, 5-FU, MV + 5-FU were significantly decreased as compared with DV group after injection, sizes of some tumors were lessened, and GFAP expression decreased in MV, 5-FU and MV +5-FU groups. The expression of PI3k, Akt and mTOR were decreased in MV and MV +5-FU groups. C6 glioma SD rat models could be established successfully using stereotactic methods. MV may enhance biological activity of chemotherapeutic drugs on tumor cells of animal models in vivo by regulating some genes of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal pathway.

  2. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Rie [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nakano, Ichiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1824 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Seimiya, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hseimiya@jfcr.or.jp [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.

  3. miR-21 Is Linked to Glioma Angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently over-expressed microRNA (miRNA) in malignant gliomas. We have previously reported that miR-21 is upregulated in glioma vessels and subsets of glioma cells. To better understand the role of miR-21 in glioma angiogenesis and to characterize miR-21......-positive tumor cells, we systematically stained consecutive serial sections from ten astrocytomas for miR-21, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), sex-determining region Y box 2...... (Sox2) and CD133. We developed an image analysis-based co-localization approach allowing global alignment and quantitation of the individual markers, and measured the miR-21 in situ hybridization signal against the immunohistochemical staining of the six different markers. miR-21 significantly co...

  4. Notch Signaling Enhances Nestin Expression in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Shih

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that Notch signaling is active in brain tumors and stem cells, and that stem cells or cells with progenitor characteristics contribute to brain tumor formation. These stem cells are marked by expression of several markers, including nestin, an intermediate filament protein. We have studied how the Notch signaling pathway affects nestin expression in brain tumors. We find that Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in vitro and in human samples of glioblastomas, the highest grade of malignant gliomas. In culture, Notch activity activates the nestin promoter. Activation of the Notch pathway also occurs in a glioblastoma multiforme mouse model induced by Kras, with translational regulation playing a role in Notch expression. Combined activation of Notch and Kras in wild-type nestin-expressing cells leads to their expansion within the subventricular zone and retention of proliferation and nestin expression. However, activation of Notch alone is unable to induce this cellular expansion. These data suggest that Notch may have a contributing role in the stem-like character of glioma cells.

  5. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; CHENG, XIAOJIANG; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphen...

  6. Molecularly-Driven Doublet Therapy for Recurrent CNS Malignant Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-20

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Anaplastic Ganglioglioma; Anaplastic Meningioma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma, Anaplastic; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Brain Cancer; Brain Tumor; Central Nervous System Neoplasms; Choroid Plexus Carcinoma; CNS Embryonal Tumor With Rhabdoid Features; Ganglioneuroblastoma of Central Nervous System; CNS Tumor; Embryonal Tumor of CNS; Ependymoma; Glioblastoma; Glioma; Glioma, Malignant; Medulloblastoma; Medulloblastoma; Unspecified Site; Medulloepithelioma; Neuroepithelial Tumor; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial; Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region (High-grade Only); Pediatric Brain Tumor; Pineal Parenchymal Tumor of Intermediate Differentiation (High-grade Only); Pineoblastoma; Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Medulloblastoma; Refractory Brain Tumor; Neuroblastoma. CNS; Glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype; Medulloblastoma, Group 3; Medulloblastoma, Group 4; Glioma, High Grade; Neuroepithelial Tumor, High Grade; Medulloblastoma, SHH-activated and TP53 Mutant; Medulloblastoma, SHH-activated and TP53 Wildtype; Medulloblastoma, Chromosome 9q Loss; Medulloblastoma, Non-WNT Non-SHH, NOS; Medulloblastoma, Non-WNT/Non-SHH; Medulloblastoma, PTCH1 Mutation; Medulloblastoma, WNT-activated; Ependymoma, Recurrent; Glioma, Recurrent High Grade; Glioma, Recurrent Malignant; Embryonal Tumor, NOS; Glioma, Diffuse Midline, H3K27M-mutant; Embryonal Tumor With Multilayered Rosettes (ETMR); Ependymoma, NOS, WHO Grade III; Ependymoma, NOS, WHO Grade II; Medulloblastoma, G3/G4; Ependymoma, RELA Fusion Positive

  7. Recruited Cells Can Become Transformed and Overtake PDGF-Induced Murine Gliomas In Vivo during Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomchenko, Elena I.; Dougherty, Joseph D.; Helmy, Karim Y.; Katz, Amanda M.; Pietras, Alexander; Brennan, Cameron; Huse, Jason T.; Milosevic, Ana; Holland, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Gliomas are thought to form by clonal expansion from a single cell-of-origin, and progression-associated mutations to occur in its progeny cells. Glioma progression is associated with elevated growth factor signaling and loss of function of tumor suppressors Ink4a, Arf and Pten. Yet, gliomas are cellularly heterogeneous; they recruit and trap normal cells during infiltration. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed lineage tracing in a retrovirally mediated, molecularly and histologically accurate mouse model of hPDGFb-driven gliomagenesis. We were able to distinguish cells in the tumor that were derived from the cell-of-origin from those that were not. Phenotypic, tumorigenic and expression analyses were performed on both populations of these cells. Here we show that during progression of hPDGFb-induced murine gliomas, tumor suppressor loss can expand the recruited cell population not derived from the cell-of-origin within glioma microenvironment to dominate regions of the tumor, with essentially no contribution from the progeny of glioma cell-of-origin. Moreover, the recruited cells can give rise to gliomas upon transplantation and passaging, acquire polysomal expression profiles and genetic aberrations typically present in glioma cells rather than normal progenitors, aid progeny cells in glioma initiation upon transplantation, and become independent of PDGFR signaling. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that non-cell-of-origin derived cells within glioma environment in the mouse can be corrupted to become bona fide tumor, and deviate from the generally established view of gliomagenesis. PMID:21754979

  8. Recruited cells can become transformed and overtake PDGF-induced murine gliomas in vivo during tumor progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I Fomchenko

    Full Text Available Gliomas are thought to form by clonal expansion from a single cell-of-origin, and progression-associated mutations to occur in its progeny cells. Glioma progression is associated with elevated growth factor signaling and loss of function of tumor suppressors Ink4a, Arf and Pten. Yet, gliomas are cellularly heterogeneous; they recruit and trap normal cells during infiltration.We performed lineage tracing in a retrovirally mediated, molecularly and histologically accurate mouse model of hPDGFb-driven gliomagenesis. We were able to distinguish cells in the tumor that were derived from the cell-of-origin from those that were not. Phenotypic, tumorigenic and expression analyses were performed on both populations of these cells. Here we show that during progression of hPDGFb-induced murine gliomas, tumor suppressor loss can expand the recruited cell population not derived from the cell-of-origin within glioma microenvironment to dominate regions of the tumor, with essentially no contribution from the progeny of glioma cell-of-origin. Moreover, the recruited cells can give rise to gliomas upon transplantation and passaging, acquire polysomal expression profiles and genetic aberrations typically present in glioma cells rather than normal progenitors, aid progeny cells in glioma initiation upon transplantation, and become independent of PDGFR signaling.These results indicate that non-cell-of-origin derived cells within glioma environment in the mouse can be corrupted to become bona fide tumor, and deviate from the generally established view of gliomagenesis.

  9. Alterations in tumour suppressor gene p53 in human gliomas from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. *Manipal Institute for Neurological ... The prognosis is even worse in children with brain stem malignant gliomas, the death occurring ... therapy act in part by triggering programmed cell death in response to DNA damage.

  10. Cancer and glioma : an integrated approach of gene therapy and bioluminescence imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, Maria Sarah Sophie; Degeling, Marja Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant variant of glioma. This tumor does not only display an extremely aggressive, invasive growth pattern, but is also very difficult to treat. With a two-year survival rate of 40% and a median survival of 12-18 months after treatment, prognosis is

  11. Improved Adeno-associated Viral Gene Transfer to Murine Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, I; Luo, D; Gorbatyuk, Os; Hoffman, Be; Warrington, Kh; Herzog, Rw; Harrison, Jk; Cao, O

    2013-04-29

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly primary brain tumor. Current treatment, consisting of surgical removal of the tumor mass followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, does not significantly prolong survival. Gene therapies for GBM are being developed in clinical trials, for example using adenoviral vectors. While adeno-associated virus (AAV) represents an alternative vector system, limited gene transfer to glioma cells has hampered its use. Here, we evaluated newly emerged variants of AAV capsid for gene delivery to murine glioma. We tested a mutant AAV2 capsid devoid of 3 surface-exposed tyrosine residues, AAV2 (Y444-500-730F), and a "shuffed" capsid (ShH19, containing sequences from several serotypes) that had previously been selected for enhanced glial gene delivery. AAV2 (Y-F) and ShH19 showed improved transduction of murine glioma GL261 cells in vitro by 2- to 6-fold, respectively, over AAV2. While AAV2 gene transfer to GL261 cells in established tumors in brains of syngeneic mice was undetectable, intratumoral injection of AAV2 (Y-F) or ShH19 resulted in local transduction of approximately 10% of tumor cells. In addition, gene transfer to neurons adjacent to the tumor was observed, while microglia were rarely transduced. Use of self-complementary vectors further increased transduction of glioma cells. Together, the data demonstrate the potential for improved AAV-based gene therapy for glioma using recently developed capsid variants.

  12. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Rok Razpotnik; Neža Novak; Vladka Čurin Šerbec; Uros Rajcevic

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB) makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain deli...

  13. Cannabinoids and gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Guillermo; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Blázquez, Cristina; Lorente, Mar; Aguado, Tania; Haro, Amador; Sánchez, Cristina; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Guzmán, Manuel

    2007-08-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa L., act in the body by mimicking endogenous substances--the endocannabinoids--that activate specific cell surface receptors. Cannabinoids exert various palliative effects in cancer patients. In addition, cannabinoids inhibit the growth of different types of tumor cells, including glioma cells, in laboratory animals. They do so by modulating key cell signaling pathways, mostly the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, thereby inducing antitumoral actions such as the apoptotic death of tumor cells and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Of interest, cannabinoids seem to be selective antitumoral compounds, as they kill glioma cells, but not their non-transformed astroglial counterparts. On the basis of these preclinical findings, a pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme has been recently run. The good safety profile of THC, together with its possible growth-inhibiting action on tumor cells, justifies the setting up of future trials aimed at evaluating the potential antitumoral activity of cannabinoids.

  14. Cerebral Connectivity and High-grade Gliomas: Evolving Concepts of Eloquent Brain in Surgery for Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Konakondla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in imaging the human brain help us map and understand the intricacies of cerebral connectivity. Current techniques and specific imaging sequences, however, do come with limitations. Image resolution, variability of techniques and interpretation of images across institutions are just a few concerns. In the setting of high-grade gliomas, understanding how these pathways are affected during tumor growth, surgical resection, and in the brain plasticity presents an even greater challenge. Clinical symptoms, tumor growth, and intraoperative electrical stimulation are important peri-operative considerations to assist in determining neuronal re-wiring and establish a basis of anatomic and functional correlation. The application of functional mapping coupled with the understanding of the natural history of gliomas and implications of neural plasticity, is critical in achieving the goals of maximal tumor resection while minimizing post operative deficits and improving quality of life.

  15. Innate immune functions of microglia isolated from human glioma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innate immunity is considered the first line of host defense and microglia presumably play a critical role in mediating potent innate immune responses to traumatic and infectious challenges in the human brain. Fundamental impairments of the adaptive immune system in glioma patients have been investigated; however, it is unknown whether microglia are capable of innate immunity and subsequent adaptive anti-tumor immune responses within the immunosuppressive tumor micro-environment of human glioma patients. We therefore undertook a novel characterization of the innate immune phenotype and function of freshly isolated human glioma-infiltrating microglia (GIM. Methods GIM were isolated by sequential Percoll purification from patient tumors immediately after surgical resection. Flow cytometry, phagocytosis and tumor cytotoxicity assays were used to analyze the phenotype and function of these cells. Results GIM expressed significant levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, however they do not secrete any of the cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α critical in developing effective innate immune responses. Similar to innate macrophage functions, GIM can mediate phagocytosis and non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity. However, they were statistically less able to mediate tumor cytotoxicity compared to microglia isolated from normal brain. In addition, the expression of Fas ligand (FasL was low to absent, indicating that apoptosis of the incoming lymphocyte population may not be a predominant mode of immunosuppression by microglia. Conclusion We show for the first time that despite the immunosuppressive environment of human gliomas, GIM are capable of innate immune responses such as phagocytosis, cytotoxicity and TLR expression but yet are not competent in secreting key cytokines. Further understanding of these innate immune functions could play a critical role in understanding and developing effective immunotherapies to malignant human gliomas.

  16. Multimodal imaging in cerebral gliomas and its neuropathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gempt, Jens, E-mail: jens.gempt@lrz.tum.de [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Soehngen, Eric [Abteilung für Neuroradiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Abteilung für Neuropathologie des Instituts für Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Förster, Stefan [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Ryang, Yu-Mi [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Schlegel, Jürgen [Abteilung für Neuropathologie des Instituts für Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); and others

    2014-05-15

    Introduction: Concerning the preoperative clinical diagnostic work-up of glioma patients, tumor heterogeneity challenges the oncological therapy. The current study assesses the performance of a multimodal imaging approach to differentiate between areas in malignant gliomas and to investigate the extent to which such a combinatorial imaging approach might predict the underlying histology. Methods: Prior to surgical resection, patients harboring intracranial gliomas underwent MRIs (MR-S, PWI) and {sup 18}F-FET-PETs. Intratumoral and peritumoral biopsy targets were defined, by MRI only, by FET-PET only, and by MRI and FET-PET combined, and biopsied prior to surgical resection and which then received separate histopathological examinations. Results: In total, 38 tissue samples were acquired (seven glioblastomas, one anaplastic astrocytoma, one anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, one diffuse astrocytoma, and one oligoastrocytoma) and underwent histopathological analysis. The highest mean values of Mib1 and CD31 were found in the target point “T’ defined by MRI and FET-PET combined. A significant correlation between NAA/Cr and PET tracer uptake (−0.845, p < 0.05) as well as Cho/Cr ratio and cell density (0.742, p < 0.05) and NAA/Cr ratio and MIB-1 (−0761, p < 0.05) was disclosed for this target point, though not for target points defined by MRI and FET-PET alone. Conclusion: Multimodal-imaging-guided stereotactic biopsy correlated more with histological malignancy indices, such as cell density and MIB-1 labeling, than targets that were based solely on the highest amino acid uptake or contrast enhancement on MRI. The results of our study indicate that a combined PET-MR multimodal imaging approach bears potential benefits in detecting glioma heterogeneity.

  17. CRAdRGDflt-IL24 virotherapy in combination with chemotherapy of experimental glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliberova, L N; Krendelchtchikova, V; Harmon, D K; Stockard, C R; Petersen, A S; Markert, J M; Gillespie, G Y; Grizzle, W E; Buchsbaum, D J; Kaliberov, S A

    2009-10-01

    Malignant forms of glioma, the most common primary brain tumors, remain poorly responsive to multimodality therapeutic interventions, including chemotherapy. Suppressed apoptosis and extraordinary invasiveness are important distinctive features that contribute to the malignant phenotype of glioma. We have developed the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1/flt-1) conditional replicating adenoviral vector (CRAdRGDflt-IL24) encoding the interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene. We investigated whether a combination of CRAdRGDflt-IL24-mediated oncolytic virotherapy and chemotherapy using temozolomide (TMZ) produces increased cytotoxicity against human glioma cells in comparison with these agents alone. Combination of CRAdRGDflt-IL24 and TMZ significantly enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibited D54MG tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice harboring intracranial human glioma xenografts in comparison with CRAdRGDflt-IL24 or TMZ alone. These data indicate that combined treatment with CRAdRGDflt-IL24-mediated oncolytic virotherapy and TMZ chemotherapy provides a promising approach for glioma therapy.

  18. MicroRNA-326 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Glioma by Targeting the Nin One Binding Protein (NOB1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Qin, Rong; Wang, Hongxiang; Zhang, Xiaoping; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yuhai; Lu, Yicheng; Fu, Da; Chen, Juxiang

    2013-01-01

    Malignant glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults, characterized by rapid tumor growth and infiltration of tumor cells throughout the brain. Alterations in the activity of the 26S proteasome have been associated with malignant glioma cells, although the specific defects have not been identified. Recently, microRNA-326 (miR-326) was shown to play an important role in glioblastoma and breast cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the human Nin one binding protein (NOB1) was identified as a direct target of miR-326 and a potential oncogene in human glioma. Similar to NOB1 silencing by shRNA, overexpression of miR-326 in human glioma cell lines (A172 and U373) caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, delayed cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. MiR-326 inhibited colony formation in soft agar and decreased growth of a xenograft tumor model, suggesting that miR-326 and NOB1 are required for tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these processes were shown to involve the MAPK pathway. NOB1 overexpression in human glioma samples was detected by Affymetrix array analysis, and NOB1 mRNA and protein levels were shown to be increased in high-grade glioma compared to low-grade glioma and normal brain tissue. Furthermore, high levels of NOB1 were associated with unfavorable prognosis of glioma patients. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-326 and NOB1 may play an important role in the development of glioma. PMID:23869222

  19. Retinoids in the treatment of glioma: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawson AR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony R MawsonDepartment of Health Policy and Management, School of Health Sciences, College of Public Service, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Primary brain tumors are among the top ten causes of cancer-related deaths in the US. Malignant gliomas account for approximately 70% of the 22,500 new cases of malignant primary brain tumors diagnosed in adults each year and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite optimal treatment, the prognosis for patients with gliomas remains poor. The use of retinoids (vitamin A and its congeners in the treatment of certain tumors was originally based on the assumption that these conditions were associated with an underlying deficiency of vitamin A and that supplementation with pharmacological doses would correct the deficiency. Yet the results of retinoid treatment have been only modestly beneficial and usually short-lived. Studies also indicate that vitamin A excess and supplementation have pro-oxidant effects and are associated with increased risks of mortality from cancer and other diseases. The therapeutic role of vitamin A in cancer thus remains uncertain and a new perspective on the facts is needed. The modest and temporary benefits of retinoid treatment could result from a process of feedback inhibition, whereby exogenous retinoid temporarily inhibits the endogenous synthesis of these compounds. In fact, repeated and/or excessive exposure of the tissues to endogenous retinoic acid may contribute to carcinogenesis. Gliomas, in particular, may result from an imbalance in retinoid receptor expression initiated by environmental factors that increase the endogenous production of retinoic acid in glia. At the receptor level, it is proposed that this imbalance is characterized by excessive expression of retinoic acid receptor-α(RARα and reduced expression of retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ. This suggests a potential new treatment strategy for gliomas, possibly even at a

  20. The role of myosin II in glioma invasion: A mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanho Lee

    Full Text Available Gliomas are malignant tumors that are commonly observed in primary brain cancer. Glioma cells migrate through a dense network of normal cells in microenvironment and spread long distances within brain. In this paper we present a two-dimensional multiscale model in which a glioma cell is surrounded by normal cells and its migration is controlled by cell-mechanical components in the microenvironment via the regulation of myosin II in response to chemoattractants. Our simulation results show that the myosin II plays a key role in the deformation of the cell nucleus as the glioma cell passes through the narrow intercellular space smaller than its nuclear diameter. We also demonstrate that the coordination of biochemical and mechanical components within the cell enables a glioma cell to take the mode of amoeboid migration. This study sheds lights on the understanding of glioma infiltration through the narrow intercellular spaces and may provide a potential approach for the development of anti-invasion strategies via the injection of chemoattractants for localization.

  1. Paradoxical role of high mobility group box 1 in glioma: a suppressor or a promoter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Seidu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas represent 60% of primary intracranial brain tumors and 80% of all malignant types, with highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although glioma has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathology remain poorly understood. Clarification of the molecular mechanisms involved in their development and/or treatment resistance is highly required. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1 is a nuclear protein that can also act as an extracellular trigger of inflammation, proliferation and migration, through receptor for advanced glycation end products and toll like receptors in a number of cancers including gliomas. It is known that excessive release of HMGB1 in cancer leads to unlimited replicative potential, ability to develop blood vessels (angiogenesis, evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis, self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to inhibitors of growth, inflammation, tissue invasion and metastasis. In this review we explore the mechanisms by which HMGB1 regulates apoptosis and autophagy in glioma. We also looked at how HMGB1 mediates glioma regression and promotes angiogenesis as well as possible signaling pathways with an attempt to provide potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of glioma.

  2. Fractal analysis: fractal dimension and lacunarity from MR images for differentiating the grades of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K A; Gupta, A K; Jayasree, R S

    2015-09-07

    Glioma, the heterogeneous tumors originating from glial cells, generally exhibit varied grades and are difficult to differentiate using conventional MR imaging techniques. When this differentiation is crucial in the disease prognosis and treatment, even the advanced MR imaging techniques fail to provide a higher discriminative power for the differentiation of malignant tumor from benign ones. A powerful image processing technique applied to the imaging techniques is expected to provide a better differentiation. The present study focuses on the fractal analysis of fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images, for the differentiation of glioma. For this, we have considered the most important parameters of fractal analysis, fractal dimension and lacunarity. While fractal analysis assesses the malignancy and complexity of a fractal object, lacunarity gives an indication on the empty space and the degree of inhomogeneity in the fractal objects. Box counting method with the preprocessing steps namely binarization, dilation and outlining was used to obtain the fractal dimension and lacunarity in glioma. Statistical analysis such as one-way analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis helped to compare the mean and to find discriminative sensitivity of the results. It was found that the lacunarity of low and high grade gliomas vary significantly. ROC curve analysis between low and high grade glioma for fractal dimension and lacunarity yielded 70.3% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity and 70.3% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity, respectively. The study observes that fractal dimension and lacunarity increases with an increase in the grade of glioma and lacunarity is helpful in identifying most malignant grades.

  3. Expression and prognostic value of the WEE1 kinase in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Darija; Dahlrot, Rikke Hedegaard; Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Hjelmborg, Jacob; de Stricker, Karin; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2016-04-01

    High-grade gliomas have an aggressive clinical course and new clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets are highly needed. WEE1 is a regulator of the G2 checkpoint in glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Inhibition of this kinase has, in experimental glioma studies, been suggested to enhance sensitivity to irradiation and temozolomide. However, expression level and prognostic potential of WEE1 protein in gliomas remain uninvestigated. In this study, glioma samples from 235 patients across all four WHO grades were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Using image analysis, we calculated the area fraction of WEE1 positive nuclei. We found that WEE1 protein was localized in tumor cell nuclei and expressed in all glioma types and grades. Although WEE1 protein levels are higher in GBMs (mean 24.5%) relative to grade III (mean 14,0%, p < 0.05) and grade II (mean 6.8%, p < 0.001) gliomas, high WEE1 protein was associated with better survival in GBMs (p = 0.002). This was confirmed in multivariate analysis (HR 0.60, p = 0.003) even when adjusted for MGMT status (HR 0.60, p = 0.005). In conclusion, we report a nuclear expression of WEE1 protein in all glioma grades and types. The WEE1 positive nuclear area was correlated with malignancy grade but it was inversely associated with prognosis in GBM. Although WEE1 is a frequently occurring protein and has been proposed as a novel target in GBM, the role of WEE1 in glioma patient survival appears to be connected to the MGMT status and is more complex than previously anticipated.

  4. Differential activation of catalase expression and activity by PPAR agonists: Implications for astrocyte protection in anti-glioma therapy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Nicholas K.H.; Hebbar, Sachin; Zhao, Weiling; Moore, Steven A.; Domann, Frederick E.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2013-01-01

    Glioma survival is dismal, in part, due to an imbalance in antioxidant expression and activity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists have antineoplastic properties which present new redox-dependent targets for glioma anticancer therapies. Herein, we demonstrate that treatment of primary cultures of normal rat astrocytes with PPAR agonists increased the expression of catalase mRNA protein, and enzymatic activity. In contrast, these same agonists had no effect on catalase expression and activity in malignant rat glioma cells. The increase in steady-state catalase mRNA observed in normal rat astrocytes was due, in part, to de novo mRNA synthesis as opposed to increased catalase mRNA stability. Moreover, pioglitazone-mediated induction of catalase activity in normal rat astrocytes was completely blocked by transfection with a PPARγ-dominant negative plasmid. These data suggest that defects in PPAR-mediated signaling and gene expression may represent a block to normal catalase expression and induction in malignant glioma. The ability of PPAR agonists to differentially increase catalase expression and activity in normal astrocytes but not glioma cells suggests that these compounds might represent novel adjuvant therapeutic agents for the treatment of gliomas. PMID:24024139

  5. Pleural malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dobesilate diminishes activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, P; Díaz-González, Diana; García-Martín-Córdova, C; Sánchez, I; Lozano, Rosa María; Giménez-Gallego, G; Dujovny, M

    2006-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors, regularly expressed at high levels in gliomas, are further upregulated during the transition of the tumor from low- to high-grade malignancy, and are essential for glioma progression. FGFs induce upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in cultured glioma cells, which suggests that MAPK pathway participates in the FGF-dependent glioma development. Recently, it has been shown that dobesilate, an inhibitor of FGF mitogenic activity, shows antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in glioma cell cultures. Accordingly, it should be expected this new synthetic FGF inhibitor to affect the activation levels of MAPK. Here we report that immunocytochemical and Western blot data unequivocally show that treatment of cell cultures with dobesilate causes a significant decrease of the intracellular levels of ERK1/2 activation, one of the components of the MAPK signalling cascade. This finding supports an important role for dobesilate in glioma growth, suggesting that dobesilate should be a treatment to be born in mind for glioma management.

  7. Glioma progression through the prism of heat shock protein mediated extracellular matrix remodeling and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Y; Biswas, Angana; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2017-10-15

    Glial tumor is one of the intrinsic brain tumors with high migratory and infiltrative potential. This essentially contributes to the overall poor prognosis by circumvention of conventional treatment regimen in glioma. The underlying mechanism in gliomagenesis is bestowed by two processes- Extracellular matrix (ECM) Remodeling and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Heat Shock Family of proteins (HSPs), commonly known as "molecular chaperons" are documented to be upregulated in glioma. A positive correlation also exists between elevated expression of HSPs and invasive capacity of glial tumor. HSPs overexpression leads to mutational changes in glioma, which ultimately drive cells towards EMT, ECM modification, malignancy and invasion. Differential expression of HSPs - a factor providing cytoprotection to glioma cells, also contributes towards its radioresistance /chemoresistance. Various evidences also display upregulation of EMT and ECM markers by various heat shock inducing proteins e.g. HSF-1. The aim of this review is to study in detail the role of HSPs in EMT and ECM leading to radioresistance/chemoresistance of glioma cells. The existing treatment regimen for glioma could be enhanced by targeting HSPs through immunotherapy, miRNA and exosome mediated strategies. This could be envisaged by better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying glial tumorigenesis in relation to EMT and ECM remodeling under HSPs influence. Our review might showcase fresh potential for the development of next generation therapeutics for effective glioma management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiproliferative activity of Juglone derivatives on rat glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Valeria; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Zorzan, Maira; Redaelli, Marco; Pezzani, Raffaele; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Malignant gliomas are aggressive and life-threatening tumours that still show a poor prognosis: the current therapeutic approach based on surgical resection and chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy does not provide a satisfactory chance of long-term survival to patients. Natural bioactive compounds represent a precious source of molecules with antiproliferative activity, potentially effective also against glioma cells. Among these, Juglone is a known allelopathic compound extracted from the eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) whose antimitotic effect has been extensively described in mammalian cells. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of a synthetic derivative of this natural compound, 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DiNAF), in rat glioma cells. We compared this molecule and its effect with the natural reference compound and with newly synthesised derivatives to build a preliminar structure-activity relationship. Biological assays and NMR-based redox experiments confirmed that DiNAF is a promising lead and supported the hypothesis of a redox mechanism underlying its cytotoxic activity.

  9. Frequent Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jun [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Cai, Yu, E-mail: aihaozuqiu22@163.com [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Pin [Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Weiguo [Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2016-08-05

    Never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase 1 (Nek1) regulates cell cycle progression to mitosis. Its expression and potential functions in human gliomas have not been studied. Here, our immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay and Western blot assay results showed that Nek1 expression was significantly upregulated in fresh and paraffin-embedded human glioma tissues. Its level in normal brain tissues was low. Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas was correlated with the proliferation marker (Ki-67), tumor grade, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) and more importantly, patients’ poor survival. Further studies showed that Nek1 expression level was also increased in multiple human glioma cell lines (U251-MG, U87-MG, U118, H4 and U373). Significantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nek1 inhibited glioma cell (U87-MG/U251-MG) growth. Nek1 siRNA also sensitized U87-MG/U251-MG cells to temozolomide (TMZ), causing a profound apoptosis induction and growth inhibition. The current study indicates Nek1 might be a novel and valuable oncotarget of glioma, it is important for glioma cell growth and TMZ-resistance. - Highlights: • Nek1 is upregulated in multiple human glioma tissues and cell lines. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with glioma grades and patients’ KPS score. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with patients’ poor overall survival. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 inhibits glioma cell growth. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 sensitizes human glioma cells to temozolomide.

  10. Clinical features, mechanisms, and management of pseudoprogression in malignant gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Dieta; Stalpers, Lukas; Taal, Walter; Sminia, Peter; van den Bent, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide as the new standard of care for patients with glioblastoma, there has been an increasing awareness of progressive and enhancing lesions on MRI, noted immediately after the end of treatment, which are not related to tumour progression, but

  11. The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates mesenchymal differentiation in malignant glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhat, Krishna P. L.; Salazar, Katrina L.; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Wani, Khalida; Heathcock, Lindsey; Hollingsworth, Faith; James, Johanna D.; Gumin, Joy; Diefes, Kristin L.; Kim, Se Hoon; Turski, Alice; Azodi, Yasaman; Yang, Yuhui; Doucette, Tiffany; Colman, Howard; Sulman, Erik P.; Lang, Frederick F.; Rao, Ganesh; Copray, Sjef; Vaillant, Brian D.; Aldape, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent molecular classification of glioblastoma (GBM) has shown that patients with a mesenchymal (MES) gene expression signature exhibit poor overall survival and treatment resistance. Using regulatory network analysis of available expression microarray data sets of GBM, including The Cancer Genome

  12. Mesothelioma - malignant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 82. National Cancer Institute. PDQ malignant mesothelioma treatment. Updated August 5, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/mesothelioma/hp/mesothelioma-treatment-pdq#section/29 . Accessed July 8, 2016. National ...

  13. Quinacrine synergistically enhances the antivascular and antitumor efficacy of cediranib in intracranial mouse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Merryl R; Green, Sarah C; Schabel, Matthias C; Gillespie, G Yancey; Woltjer, Randall L; Pike, Martin M

    2013-12-01

    Despite malignant glioma vascularity, anti-angiogenic therapy is largely ineffective. We hypothesize that efficacy of the antiangiogenic agent cediranib is synergistically enhanced in intracranial glioma via combination with the late-stage autophagy inhibitor quinacrine. Relative cerebral blood flow and volume (rCBF, rCBV), vascular permeability (K(trans)), and tumor volume were assessed in intracranial 4C8 mouse glioma using a dual-bolus perfusion MRI approach. Tumor necrosis and tumor mean vessel density (MVD) were assessed immunohistologically. Autophagic vacuole accumulation and apoptosis were assessed via Western blot in 4C8 glioma in vitro. Cediranib or quinacrine treatment alone did not alter tumor growth. Survival was only marginally improved by cediranib and unchanged by quinacrine. In contrast, combined cediranib/quinacrine reduced tumor growth by >2-fold (P 2-fold, compared with untreated controls (P < .05). Cediranib or quinacrine treatment alone did not significantly alter mean tumor rCBF or K(trans) compared with untreated controls, while combined cediranib/quinacrine substantially reduced both (P < .05), indicating potent tumor devascularization. MVD and necrosis were unchanged by cediranib or quinacrine treatment. In contrast, MVD was reduced by nearly 2-fold (P < .01), and necrosis increased by 3-fold (P < .05, one-tailed), in cediranib + quinacrine treated vs untreated groups. Autophagic vacuole accumulation was induced by cediranib and quinacrine in vitro. Combined cediranib/quinacrine treatment under hypoxic conditions induced further accumulation and apoptosis. Combined cediranib/quinacrine treatment synergistically increased antivascular/antitumor efficacy in intracranial 4C8 mouse glioma, suggesting a promising and facile treatment strategy for malignant glioma. Modulations in the autophagic pathway may play a role in the increased efficacy.

  14. Differential Signature of the Centrosomal MARK4 Isoforms in Glioma

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    Ivana Magnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4 is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. Methods: We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the MARK4L and MARK4S expression profile in 21 glioma cell lines and 36 tissues of different malignancy grades, glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells (GBM CSCs and mouse neural stem cells (NSCs by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the sub-cellular localisation of MARK4 isoforms in glioma and normal cell lines by immunofluorescence. Results: Mutation analysis rules out sequence variations as the cause of the altered MARK4 expression in glioma. Expression profiling confirms that MARK4L is the predominant isoform, whereas MARK4S levels are significantly decreased in comparison and show an inverse correlation with tumour grade. A high MARK4L/MARK4S ratio also characterizes undifferentiated cells, such as GBM CSCs and NSCs. Accordingly, only MARK4L is expressed in brain neurogenic regions. Moreover, while both MARK4 isoforms are localised to the centrosome and midbody in glioma and normal cells, the L isoform exhibits an additional nucleolar localisation in tumour cells. Conclusions: The observed switch towards MARK4L suggests that the balance between the MARK4 isoforms is carefully guarded during neural differentiation but may be subverted in gliomagenesis. Moreover, the MARK4L nucleolar localisation in tumour cells features this MARK4 isoform as a nucleolus-associated tumour marker.

  15. A super gene expression system enhances the anti-glioma effects of adenovirus-mediated REIC/Dkk-3 gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Ishida, Joji; Otani, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Watanabe, Masami; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Date, Isao

    2016-09-01

    Reduced expression in immortalized cells/Dickkopf-3 (REIC/Dkk-3) is a tumor suppressor and therapeutic gene in many human cancers. Recently, an adenovirus REIC vector with the super gene expression system (Ad-SGE-REIC) was developed to increase REIC/Dkk-3 expression and enhance therapeutic effects compared with the conventional adenoviral vector (Ad-CAG-REIC). In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of Ad-SGE-REIC on malignant glioma. In U87ΔEGFR and GL261 glioma cells, western blotting confirmed that robust upregulation of REIC/Dkk-3 expression occurred in Ad-SGE-REIC-transduced cells, most notably after transduction at a multiplicity of infection of 10. Cytotoxicity assays showed that Ad-SGE-REIC resulted in a time-dependent and significant reduction in the number of malignant glioma cells attaching to the bottom of culture wells. Xenograft and syngeneic mouse intracranial glioma models treated with Ad-SGE-REIC had significantly longer survival than those treated with the control vector Ad-LacZ or with Ad-CAG-REIC. This study demonstrated the anti-glioma effect of Ad-SGE-REIC, which may represent a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant glioma.

  16. Tricyclic Neovibsanin Scaffold Inhibits Glioma by Targeting Glioma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of tricyclic neovibsanin scaffold (TCNS) on cell viability, colony formation capacity and induction of apoptosis in glioma cells. Methods: 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphe¬nyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to analyze the effect of TCNS on cell proliferation. Light microscopic ...

  17. A novel brain tumour model in zebrafish reveals the role of YAP activation in MAPK- and PI3K-induced malignant growth

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    Marie Mayrhofer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations activating MAPK and PI3K signalling play a pivotal role in both tumours and brain developmental disorders. We developed a zebrafish model of brain tumours based on somatic expression of oncogenes that activate MAPK and PI3K signalling in neural progenitor cells and found that HRASV12 was the most effective in inducing both heterotopia and invasive tumours. Tumours, but not heterotopias, require persistent activation of phospho (p-ERK and express a gene signature similar to the mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype, with a strong YAP component. Application of an eight-gene signature to human brain tumours establishes that YAP activation distinguishes between mesenchymal glioblastoma and low grade glioma in a wide The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA sample set including gliomas and glioblastomas (GBMs. This suggests that the activation of YAP might be an important event in brain tumour development, promoting malignant versus benign brain lesions. Indeed, co-expression of dominant-active YAP (YAPS5A and HRASV12 abolishes the development of heterotopias and leads to the sole development of aggressive tumours. Thus, we have developed a model proving that neurodevelopmental disorders and brain tumours might originate from the same activation of oncogenes through somatic mutations, and established that YAP activation is a hallmark of malignant brain tumours.

  18. Key rates for the grades and transformation ability of glioma: model simulations and clinical cases.

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    Scribner, Elizabeth; Hackney, James R; Machemehl, Hannah C; Afiouni, Reina; Patel, Krishna R; Fathallah-Shaykh, Hassan M

    2017-06-01

    Tumor progression to higher grade is a fundamental property of cancer. The malignant advancement of the pathological features may either develop during the later stages of cancer growth (natural evolution) or it may necessitate new mutations or molecular events that alter the rates of growth, dispersion, or neovascularization (transformation). Here, we model the pathological and radiological features of grades 2-4 gliomas at the times of diagnosis and death and study grade development and the progression to higher grades. We perform a retrospective review of clinical cases based on model predictions. Simulations uncover two unusual patterns of glioma progression, which are supported by clinical cases: (1) some grades 2 and 3 gliomas lack the ability of progression to higher grades, and (2) grade 3 glioma may evolve to GBM in a few weeks. All 13 gliomas that recurred at the same grade carry either the IDH1-R132H or the ATRX mutation. All (five of five) grade 3 tumors are 1p/19q co-deleted, IDH1-R132H mutated and ATRX wt. Furthermore, three of seven grade 2 gliomas are both IDH1-R132H mutated and ATRX mutated. Simulations replicate the good prognosis of secondary GBM. The results support the hypothesis that constant rates of dispersion, proliferation, and angiogenesis prescribe either a natural evolution or the inability to progress to higher grades. Furthermore, the accrual of molecular events that change a tumor's ability to infiltrate, proliferate or neovascularize may transform the glioma either into a more aggressive tumor at the same grade or elevate its grade.

  19. IDH mutation and neuroglial developmental features define clinically distinct subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovets, Daniel; Kannan, Kasthuri; Shen, Ronglai; Kastenhuber, Edward R; Islamdoust, Nasrin; Campos, Carl; Pentsova, Elena; Heguy, Adriana; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Chan, Timothy A; Huse, Jason T

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse gliomas represent the most prevalent class of primary brain tumor. Despite significant recent advances in the understanding of glioblastoma [World Health Organization (WHO) IV], its most malignant subtype, lower grade (WHO II and III) glioma variants remain comparatively understudied, especially in light of their notable clinical heterogeneity. Accordingly, we sought to identify and characterize clinically relevant molecular subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas. We conducted multidimensional molecular profiling, including global transcriptional analysis, on 101 lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas collected at our own institution and validated our findings using publically available gene expression and copy number data from large independent patient cohorts. We found that IDH mutational status delineated molecularly and clinically distinct glioma subsets, with IDH mutant (IDH mt) tumors exhibiting TP53 mutations, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)A overexpression, and prolonged survival, and IDH wild-type (IDH wt) tumors exhibiting EGFR amplification, PTEN loss, and unfavorable disease outcome. Furthermore, global expression profiling revealed three robust molecular subclasses within lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas, two of which were predominantly IDH mt and one almost entirely IDH wt. IDH mt subclasses were distinguished from each other on the basis of TP53 mutations, DNA copy number abnormalities, and links to distinct stages of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone. This latter finding implicates discrete pools of neuroglial progenitors as cells of origin for the different subclasses of IDH mt tumors. We have elucidated molecularly distinct subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic glioma that dictate clinical behavior and show fundamental associations with both IDH mutational status and neuroglial developmental stage. ©2012 AACR.

  20. Influence of rat progenitor neurogenic cells supernatant on glioma 101.8 cells in vitro

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    Liubich L. D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of the rat progenitor neurogenic cells supernatant (RPNS on the transplantable rat malignant brain glioma cells (strain 101.8 under conditions of cultivation. Methods. Primary cultures were obtained from glioma 101.8 fragments (n = 12 and intact brain of newborn rats (n = 9. RPNS was received from neurogenic cell suspensions of fetal rat brain on 8–11th (E8-11 and 12–16th (E12-16 days of gestation. Results: RPNS (E8-11 as well as RPNS (E12-16 showed a cytotoxic effect on the glioma 101.8 cells in short-term cultures, the level of which was dose-dependent and intensified with increasing duration of incubation. RPNS (E12-16 had a more pronounced cytotoxic action on the cells of glioma 101.8 compared with RPNS (E8-11. The cytotoxic index (CI of RPNS (E12-16 on the glioma 101.8 cells was significantly higher than CI determined in cell suspensions of normal rat brain (CI was (91.99 ± 2.37 % and (22.9 ± 4.97 % respectively over 48 h incubation with RPNS. After RPNS (E8-11 influence on the glioma 101.8 primary cultures the signs of dose-dependent cytotoxic effects were observed: the thinning of growth areas, appearance of dystrophic and necrobiotic changes in tumor cells and decreasing of a mitotic index. These features were strengthened under the RPNS (E12-16 influence. Conclusions. Fetal RPNS showed dose-dependent cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects on the cultivated glioma 101.8 cells, which were intensified with the increasing of rat brain gestational age and lengthening of the incubation duration. A prerequisite for such effects is likely the NPC ability to produce the substances with antitumor activity.

  1. The combination of novel targeted molecular agents and radiation in the treatment of pediatric gliomas

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    Tina eDasgupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors are the most common solid pediatric malignancy. For high-grade, recurrent or refractory pediatric brain tumors, radiation therapy (XRT is an integral treatment modality. In the era of personalized cancer therapy, molecularly targeted agents have been designed to inhibit pathways critical to tumorigenesis. Our evolving knowledge of genetic aberrations in low-grade gliomas is being exploited with targeted inhibitors. These agents are also being combined with XRT to increase their efficacy. In this review, we discuss novel agents targeting three different pathways in low-grade gliomas, and their potential combination with XRT. B-Raf is a kinase in the Ras/Raf/MAPK kinase pathway, which is integral to cellular division, survival and metabolism. In low-grade pediatric gliomas, point mutations in BRAF (BRAF V600E or a BRAF fusion mutation (KIAA1549:BRAF causes overactivation of the MEK/MAPK pathway. Pre-clinical data shows cooperation between XRT and tagrgeted inhibitors of BRAF V600E, and MEK and mTOR inhibitors in the gliomas with the BRAF fusion. A second important signaling cascade in pediatric glioma pathogenesis is the PI3 kinase (PI3K/mTOR pathway. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors are poised to enter studies of pediatric tumors. Finally, many brain tumors express potent stimulators of angiogenesis. Several inhibitors of immunomodulators are currently being evaluated in in clinical trials for the treatment of recurrent or refractory pediatric central nervous system (CNS tumors. In summary, combinations of these targeted inhibitors with radiation are currently under investigation in both translational bench research and early clinical trials. We summarize the molecular rationale for, and the pre-clinical data supporting the combinations of these targeted agents with other anti-cancer agents and XRT in pediatric gliomas. Parallels are drawn to adult gliomas, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the efficacy of these agents is discussed

  2. Myxoma virus is a novel oncolytic virus with significant antitumor activity against experimental human gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Xueqing; Yang, Wenqing; Alain, Tommy; Shi, Zhong-Qiao; Muzik, Huong; Barrett, John W; McFadden, Grant; Bell, John; Hamilton, Mark G; Senger, Donna L; Forsyth, Peter A

    2005-11-01

    Myxoma virus, a poxvirus previously considered rabbit specific, can replicate productively in a variety of human tumor cells in culture. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was efficacy or toxicities of this oncolytic virus against experimental models of human malignant gliomas in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo in malignant glioma specimens. In vitro, the majority of glioma cell lines tested (7 of 8, 87.5%) were fully permissive for myxoma virus replication and killed by infection. In vivo, intracerebral (i.c.) myxoma virus inoculation was well tolerated and produced only minimal focal inflammatory changes at the site of viral inoculation. U87 and U251 orthotopic xenograft models were used to assess myxoma virus efficacy in vivo. A single intratumoral injection of myxoma virus dramatically prolonged median survival compared with treatment with UV-inactivated myxoma virus. Median survival was not reached in myxoma virus-treated groups versus 47.3 days (U87; P = 0.0002) and 50.7 days (U251; P = 0.0027) in UV-inactivated myxoma virus-treated groups. Most myxoma virus-treated animals (12 of 13, 92%) were alive and apparently "cured" when the experiment was finished (>130 days). Interestingly, we found a selective and long-lived myxoma virus infection in gliomas in vivo. This is the first demonstration of the oncolytic activity of myxoma virus in vivo. The nonpathogenic nature of myxoma virus outside of the rabbit host, its capacity to be genetically modified, its ability to produce a long-lived infection in human tumor cells, and the lack of preexisting antibodies in the human population suggest that myxoma virus may be an attractive oncolytic agent against human malignant glioma.

  3. Caffeine inhibits migration in glioma cells through the ROCK-FAK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Chou, Wei-Chung; Ding, You-Ming; Wu, Ya-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is the most malignant brain tumor that has the ability to migrate and invade the CNS. In this study, we investigated the signaling mechanism of caffeine on the migration of glioma cells. The effect of caffeine on cell migration was evaluated using Transwell and wound healing assays. The expression of the focal adhesion complex as it related to cell migration was assayed using Western blotting and immunostaining. Caffeine decreased the migration of rat C6 and human U87MG glioma cells and down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and p-paxillin. Caffeine also decreased p-FAK staining at the edge of glioma cells and disassembled actin stress fibers. Additionally, caffeine elevated expression of phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC), an effect that could be blocked by Y27632, a rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, but not myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7. Y27632 also inhibited the caffeine-reduced expression of p-FAK and p-paxillin as well as cell migration. Caffeine decreased the migration of glioma cell through the ROCK-focal adhesion complex pathway; this mechanism may be useful as part of clinical therapy in the future. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Clinical Applications of Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MRI Techniques in Gliomas: Recent Advances and Current Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Liu, Heng; Tong, Haipeng; Wang, Sumei; Yang, Yizeng; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas possess complex and heterogeneous vasculatures with abnormal hemodynamics. Despite considerable advances in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for improving tumor management and patient care in recent years, the prognosis of malignant gliomas remains dismal. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques that could noninvasively provide superior information on vascular functionality have attracted much attention for evaluating brain tumors. However, nonconsensus imaging protocols and postprocessing analysis among different institutions impede their integration into standard-of-care imaging in clinic. And there have been very few studies providing a comprehensive evidence-based and systematic summary. This review first outlines the status of glioma theranostics and tumor-associated vascular pathology and then presents an overview of the principles of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast-MRI (DSC-MRI), with emphasis on their recent clinical applications in gliomas including tumor grading, identification of molecular characteristics, differentiation of glioma from other brain tumors, treatment response assessment, and predicting prognosis. Current challenges and future perspectives are also highlighted.

  5. Tumor Restrictive Suicide Gene Therapy for Glioma Controlled by the FOS Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianqing; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xinmin; Hu, Jiliang; Song, Weijian; Luo, Jie; Jiang, Shan; Yan, Fei; Zhai, Baojin

    2015-01-01

    Effective suicide gene delivery and expression are crucial to achieving successful effects in gene therapy. An ideal tumor-specific promoter expresses therapeutic genes in tumor cells with minimal normal tissue expression. We compared the activity of the FOS (FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog) promoter with five alternative tumor-specific promoters in glioma cells and non-malignant astrocytes. The FOS promoter caused significantly higher transcriptional activity in glioma cell lines than all alternative promoters with the exception of CMV. The FOS promoter showed 13.9%, 32.4%, and 70.8% of the transcriptional activity of CMV in three glioma cell lines (U87, U251, and U373). Importantly, however, the FOS promoter showed only 1.6% of the transcriptional activity of CMV in normal astrocytes. We also tested the biologic activity of recombinant adenovirus containing the suicide gene herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) driven by the FOS promoter, including selective killing efficacy in vitro and tumor inhibition rate in vivo. Adenoviral-mediated delivery of the HSV-tk gene controlled by the FOS promoter conferred a cytotoxic effect on human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests that use of the FOS-tk adenovirus system is a promising strategy for glioma-specific gene therapy but still much left for improvement.

  6. Caffeine Inhibits Migration in Glioma Cells through the ROCK-FAK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Glioma is the most malignant brain tumor that has the ability to migrate and invade the CNS. In this study, we investigated the signaling mechanism of caffeine on the migration of glioma cells. Methods: The effect of caffeine on cell migration was evaluated using Transwell and wound healing assays. The expression of the focal adhesion complex as it related to cell migration was assayed using Western blotting and immunostaining. Results: Caffeine decreased the migration of rat C6 and human U87MG glioma cells and down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK and p-paxillin. Caffeine also decreased p-FAK staining at the edge of glioma cells and disassembled actin stress fibers. Additionally, caffeine elevated expression of phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC, an effect that could be blocked by Y27632, a rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK inhibitor, but not myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7. Y27632 also inhibited the caffeine-reduced expression of p-FAK and p-paxillin as well as cell migration. Conclusion: Caffeine decreased the migration of glioma cell through the ROCK-focal adhesion complex pathway; this mechanism may be useful as part of clinical therapy in the future.

  7. Tumor Restrictive Suicide Gene Therapy for Glioma Controlled by the FOS Promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqing Pan

    Full Text Available Effective suicide gene delivery and expression are crucial to achieving successful effects in gene therapy. An ideal tumor-specific promoter expresses therapeutic genes in tumor cells with minimal normal tissue expression. We compared the activity of the FOS (FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog promoter with five alternative tumor-specific promoters in glioma cells and non-malignant astrocytes. The FOS promoter caused significantly higher transcriptional activity in glioma cell lines than all alternative promoters with the exception of CMV. The FOS promoter showed 13.9%, 32.4%, and 70.8% of the transcriptional activity of CMV in three glioma cell lines (U87, U251, and U373. Importantly, however, the FOS promoter showed only 1.6% of the transcriptional activity of CMV in normal astrocytes. We also tested the biologic activity of recombinant adenovirus containing the suicide gene herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk driven by the FOS promoter, including selective killing efficacy in vitro and tumor inhibition rate in vivo. Adenoviral-mediated delivery of the HSV-tk gene controlled by the FOS promoter conferred a cytotoxic effect on human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests that use of the FOS-tk adenovirus system is a promising strategy for glioma-specific gene therapy but still much left for improvement.

  8. Identifying Novel Glioma-Associated Noncoding RNAs by Their Expression Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Matjašič

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs play a significant role in cancer development as regulators of protein-coding genes. Their dysregulation was in some extent already associated with glioma, the most aggressive primary brain tumours in adults. The correct diagnosis and treatment selection due to high tumour heterogeneity might be difficult and inadequate, resulting in poor prognosis. Studies of expression patterns of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs could provide useful insight in glioma molecular development. We used the qPCR approach to screen and investigate the expression of lncRNAs that were previously deregulated in other cancer types. The study showed altered expression levels for numerous lncRNAs across histologically different glioma samples. Validation of few lncRNAs showed association of expression levels with histological subtype and/or malignancy grade. We also observed deregulated and subtype-distinctive expression for four lncRNA-associated miRNAs. Expression of few lncRNAs and miRNA was also associated with patients’ survival, showing potential prognostic value. Several ncRNAs, some already related to glioma and some, to the best of our knowledge, investigated for the first time, might be of greater importance in glioma molecular development and progression. Finding the subtype-specific lncRNA and/or miRNA expression patterns may contribute additional information for a more objective classification.

  9. Boronophenylalanine uptake in C6 glioma model is dramatically increased by L-DOPA preloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuani, S. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: silvia.capuani@roma1.infn.it; Gili, T. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Bozzali, M. [Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Russo, S. [Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London (United Kingdom); Porcari, P. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Cametti, C. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Muolo, M. [Department of Biological Science, University ' Rome III' , Viale G. Marconi 446, Rome (Italy); D' Amore, E. [Serv. Qual./Sicurezza Sperim. Anim., Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Maraviglia, B. [Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Lazzarino, G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, Catania (Italy); Pastore, F.S. [Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Neurosurgery, University ' Tor Vergata' , Via Montpellier 1, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    One of the main limitations for BNCT effectiveness is the insufficient intake of {sup 10}B nuclei within tumour cells. This work was aimed at investigating the use of L-DOPA as enhancer for boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in the C6 glioma model. The investigation was first performed in vitro, and then extended in vivo to the animal model. BPA accumulation in C6 glioma cells was assessed, using radiowave dielectric spectroscopy (RDS), with and without L-DOPA preloading. C6 glioma cells were also implanted in the brain of 25 rats, randomly assigned to two experimental branches: (1) intra-carotid BPA infusion; (2) intra-carotid BPA infusion after pre-treatment with L-DOPA, administrated 24 h before BPA infusion. All animals were sacrificed, and assessment of BPA concentrations in tumour tissue, normal brain, and blood samples was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). L-DOPA preloading induced a massive increase of BPA concentration either in vitro on C6 glioma cells or in vivo in the animal model tumour. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the normal brain and blood samples between the two animal groups. This study suggests the potential use of L-DOPA as enhancer for BPA accumulation in malignant gliomas eligible for BNCT.

  10. Fibulin-3 promotes glioma growth and resistance through a novel paracrine regulation of Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Nandhu, Mohan S; Sim, Hosung; Agudelo-Garcia, Paula A; Saldivar, Joshua C; Dolan, Claire E; Mora, Maria E; Nuovo, Gerard J; Cole, Susan E; Viapiano, Mariano S

    2012-08-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly invasive and chemoresistant brain tumors with extremely poor prognosis. Targeting of the soluble factors that trigger invasion and resistance, therefore, could have a significant impact against the infiltrative glioma cells that are a major source of recurrence. Fibulin-3 is a matrix protein that is absent in normal brain but upregulated in gliomas and promotes tumor invasion by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that fibulin-3 is a novel soluble activator of Notch signaling that antagonizes DLL3, an autocrine inhibitor or Notch, and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in a Notch-dependent manner. Using a strategy for inducible knockdown, we found that controlled downregulation of fibulin-3 reduced Notch signaling and led to increased apoptosis, reduced self-renewal of glioblastoma-initiating cells, and impaired growth and dispersion of intracranial tumors. In addition, fibulin-3 expression correlated with expression levels of Notch-dependent genes and was a marker of Notch activation in patient-derived glioma samples. These findings underscore a major role for the tumor extracellular matrix in regulating glioma invasion and resistance to apoptosis via activation of the key Notch pathway. More importantly, this work describes a noncanonical, soluble activator of Notch in a cancer model and shows how Notch signaling can be reduced by targeting tumor-specific accessible molecules in the tumor microenvironment. ©2012 AACR.

  11. MicroRNA 21 promotes glioma invasion by targeting matrix metalloproteinase regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriely, Galina; Wurdinger, Thomas; Kesari, Santosh; Esau, Christine C; Burchard, Julja; Linsley, Peter S; Krichevsky, Anna M

    2008-09-01

    Substantial data indicate that microRNA 21 (miR-21) is significantly elevated in glioblastoma (GBM) and in many other tumors of various origins. This microRNA has been implicated in various aspects of carcinogenesis, including cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. We demonstrate that miR-21 regulates multiple genes associated with glioma cell apoptosis, migration, and invasiveness, including the RECK and TIMP3 genes, which are suppressors of malignancy and inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Specific inhibition of miR-21 with antisense oligonucleotides leads to elevated levels of RECK and TIMP3 and therefore reduces MMP activities in vitro and in a human model of gliomas in nude mice. Moreover, downregulation of miR-21 in glioma cells leads to decreases of their migratory and invasion abilities. Our data suggest that miR-21 contributes to glioma malignancy by downregulation of MMP inhibitors, which leads to activation of MMPs, thus promoting invasiveness of cancer cells. Our results also indicate that inhibition of a single oncomir, like miR-21, with specific antisense molecules can provide a novel therapeutic approach for "physiological" modulation of multiple proteins whose expression is deregulated in cancer.

  12. [Rule induction algorithm for brain glioma using support vector machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozheng; Yang, Jie; Wang, Jiaju; Geng, Daoying

    2006-04-01

    A new proposed data mining technique, support vector machine (SVM), is used to predict the degree of malignancy in brain glioma. Based on statistical learning theory, SVM realizes the principle of data dependent structure risk minimization, so it can depress the overfitting with better generalization performance, since the prediction in medical diagnosis often deals with a small sample. SVM based rule induction algorithm is implemented in comparison with other data mining techniques such as artificial neural networks, rule induction algorithm and fuzzy rule extraction algorithm based on fuzzy max-min neural networks (FRE-FMMNN) proposed recently. Computation results by 10 fold cross validation method show that SVM can get higher prediction accuracy than artificial neural networks and FRE-FMMNN, which implies SVM can get higher accuracy and more reliability. On the whole data sets, SVM gets one rule with the classification accuracy of 89.29%, while FRE-FMMNN gets two rules of 84. 64%, in which the rule got by SVM is of quantity relation and contains more information than the two rules by FRE-FMMNN. All the above show SVM is a potential algorithm for the medical diagnosis such as the prediction of the degree of malignancy in brain glioma.

  13. Immune-Checkpoint Blockade and Active Immunotherapy for Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Brian J. [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Pollack, Ian F. [Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Okada, Hideho, E-mail: okadah@upmc.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has made tremendous progress, including promising results in patients with malignant gliomas. Nonetheless, the immunological microenvironment of the brain and tumors arising therein is still believed to be suboptimal for sufficient antitumor immune responses for a variety of reasons, including the operation of “immune-checkpoint” mechanisms. While these mechanisms prevent autoimmunity in physiological conditions, malignant tumors, including brain tumors, actively employ these mechanisms to evade from immunological attacks. Development of agents designed to unblock these checkpoint steps is currently one of the most active areas of cancer research. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the field of brain tumor immunology with particular foci in the area of immune-checkpoint mechanisms and development of active immunotherapy strategies. In the last decade, a number of specific monoclonal antibodies designed to block immune-checkpoint mechanisms have been developed and show efficacy in other cancers, such as melanoma. On the other hand, active immunotherapy approaches, such as vaccines, have shown encouraging outcomes. We believe that development of effective immunotherapy approaches should ultimately integrate those checkpoint-blockade agents to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. With these agents available, it is going to be quite an exciting time in the field. The eventual success of immunotherapies for brain tumors will be dependent upon not only an in-depth understanding of immunology behind the brain and brain tumors, but also collaboration and teamwork for the development of novel trials that address multiple layers of immunological challenges in gliomas.

  14. A comprehensive approach in high-grade glioma management: position statement from the Neuro-Oncology Scientific Club (NOSC, Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari, Mansour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a robust teamwork model in the practice of neuro-oncology requires continued interdisciplinary efforts. The Neuro-Oncology Scientific Club (NOSC initiative is an interdisciplinary clinical forum promoting the comprehensive approach across involved disciplines in the management of central nervous system (CNS malignancies. With its provincial founding panels and national steering board, NOSC has been operational in Iran since 2011. This initiative has pursued its mission through interval strategic meetings, tumor boards, case discussions as well as publishing neuro-oncology updates, case study periodicals, and newsletters. A provincial meeting of NOSC in Shiraz put together insights from international practice guidelines, emerging evidence, and expert opinions to draw a position statement on high-grade glioma management in adults. The present report summarizes key highlights from the above clinical forum.

  15. A comprehensive approach in high-grade glioma management: position statement from the Neuro-Oncology Scientific Club (NOSC), Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mansour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ahmadloo, Niloufar; Rasekhi, Alireza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Razmkon, Ali; Anvari, Kazem; Afarid, Mohammad; Dadras, Ali; Nafarieh, Leila; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Nasrolahi, Hamid; Hamedi, Seyed Hasan; Omidvari, Shapour; Nami, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a robust teamwork model in the practice of neuro-oncology requires continued interdisciplinary efforts. The Neuro-Oncology Scientific Club (NOSC) initiative is an interdisciplinary clinical forum promoting the comprehensive approach across involved disciplines in the management of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. With its provincial founding panels and national steering board, NOSC has been operational in Iran since 2011. This initiative has pursued its mission through interval strategic meetings, tumor boards, case discussions as well as publishing neuro-oncology updates, case study periodicals, and newsletters. A provincial meeting of NOSC in Shiraz put together insights from international practice guidelines, emerging evidence, and expert opinions to draw a position statement on high-grade glioma management in adults. The present report summarizes key highlights from the above clinical forum.

  16. Survival and low grade glioma: the emergence of genetic information

    OpenAIRE

    Claus, Elizabeth B.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Wiencke, John; Molinaro, Annette M.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Berger, Mitchel; Jenkins, Robert; Wrensch, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Significant gaps exist in our understanding of the causes and clinical management of glioma. One of the biggest gaps is how best to manage low grade (World Health Organization (WHO) grade II) glioma patients. Low grade glioma is a uniformly fatal disease of young adults (mean age 41 years) with survival averaging approximately 7 years. Although low grade glioma patients have better survival than patients with high grade (WHO grade III/IV) glioma, all low grade gliomas eventually progress to h...

  17. Malignant Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Ozkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, immobility, negativism, stereotypy, mannerisms, echophenomena, perseveration and passive obedience. The underlying causes can be psychiatric or may be associated with general medical status or neurological diseases. Additionally catatonia has two subtypes as malignant and nonmalignant catatonia. Main symptoms of malignant catatonia are hyperthermia and autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnea and hyperhidrosis. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible for an appropriate medical treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the fatal outcome of the disease.

  18. CD133 Expression Is Not Synonymous to Immunoreactivity for AC133 and Fluctuates throughout the Cell Cycle in Glioma Stem-Like Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Barrantes-Freer

    Full Text Available A transmembrane protein CD133 has been implicated as a marker of stem-like glioma cells and predictor for therapeutic response in malignant brain tumours. CD133 expression is commonly evaluated by using antibodies specific for the AC133 epitope located in one of the extracellular domains of membrane-bound CD133. There is conflicting evidence regarding the significance of the AC133 epitope as a marker for identifying stem-like glioma cells and predicting the degree of malignancy in glioma cells. The reasons for discrepant results between different studies addressing the role of CD133/AC133 in gliomas are unclear. A possible source for controversies about CD133/AC133 is the widespread assumption that expression patterns of the AC133 epitope reflect linearly those of the CD133 protein. Consequently, the readouts from AC133 assessments are often interpreted in terms of the CD133 protein. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and to what extent do the readouts obtained with anti-AC133 antibody correspond to the level of CD133 protein expressed in stem-like glioma cells. Our study reveals for the first time that CD133 expressed on the surface of glioma cells is poorly immunoreactive for AC133. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the level of CD133 occupancy on the surface of glioma cells fluctuates during the cell cycle. Our results offer a new explanation for numerous inconsistencies regarding the biological and clinical significance of CD133/AC133 in human gliomas and call for caution in interpreting the lack or presence of AC133 epitope in glioma cells.

  19. CD133 Expression Is Not Synonymous to Immunoreactivity for AC133 and Fluctuates throughout the Cell Cycle in Glioma Stem-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Renovanz, Mirjam; Eich, Marcus; Braukmann, Alina; Sprang, Bettina; Spirin, Pavel; Pardo, Luis A; Giese, Alf; Kim, Ella L

    2015-01-01

    A transmembrane protein CD133 has been implicated as a marker of stem-like glioma cells and predictor for therapeutic response in malignant brain tumours. CD133 expression is commonly evaluated by using antibodies specific for the AC133 epitope located in one of the extracellular domains of membrane-bound CD133. There is conflicting evidence regarding the significance of the AC133 epitope as a marker for identifying stem-like glioma cells and predicting the degree of malignancy in glioma cells. The reasons for discrepant results between different studies addressing the role of CD133/AC133 in gliomas are unclear. A possible source for controversies about CD133/AC133 is the widespread assumption that expression patterns of the AC133 epitope reflect linearly those of the CD133 protein. Consequently, the readouts from AC133 assessments are often interpreted in terms of the CD133 protein. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and to what extent do the readouts obtained with anti-AC133 antibody correspond to the level of CD133 protein expressed in stem-like glioma cells. Our study reveals for the first time that CD133 expressed on the surface of glioma cells is poorly immunoreactive for AC133. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the level of CD133 occupancy on the surface of glioma cells fluctuates during the cell cycle. Our results offer a new explanation for numerous inconsistencies regarding the biological and clinical significance of CD133/AC133 in human gliomas and call for caution in interpreting the lack or presence of AC133 epitope in glioma cells.

  20. Simulants of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential. In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas, and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present.

  1. Slit2 inhibits glioma cell invasion in the brain by suppression of Cdc42 activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yiin, Jia-Jean; Hu, Bo; Jarzynka, Michael J.; Feng, Haizhong; Liu, Kui-Wei; Wu, Jane Y.; Ma, Hsin-I; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition of insidious invasiveness by malignant glioma cells involves multiple genetic alterations in signaling pathways. Slit2, a chemorepulsive factor, controls cell migration of neuronal and glial cells during development and inhibits chemotaxic migration of various types of cells in vitro. However, the role of Slit2 in vitro remains controversial, and the biological significance of Slit2 expression in cancer cell invasion in vivo has not yet been determined. In the present study, we ch...

  2. Acute and fractionated irradiation differentially modulate glioma stem cell division kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xuefeng; McDonald, J. Tyson; Hlatky, Lynn; Enderling, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with a poor patient prognosis. Ionizing radiation (IR) either alone or adjuvant after surgery is part of standard treatment for GBM but remains primarily non-curative. The mechanisms underlying tumor radioresistance are manifold and, in part, accredited to a special subpopulation of tumorigenic cells. The so-called glioma stem cells (GSCs) are bestowed with the exclusive ability to self-renew and repopulate the tum...

  3. RUNX3 expression is lost in glioma and its restoration causes drastic suppression of tumor invasion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Peng-Jin; Bai, Jin; Liu, Hui; Li, Chen; Wu, Yong-Ping; Yu, Zheng-Quan; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression of RUNX3 is related to the development of glioma, and the role of RUNX3 in glioma cells growth, invasion and migration. We analyzed the protein expression of RUNX3 by immunohistochemistry in 188 glioma tissues, 8 normal brain tissues and 8 tumor adjacent normal brain tissues using tissue microarray technique. We studied whether RUNX3 restoration can suppress glioma cells growth, invasion and migration by performing MTT cell proliferation assay, matrigel cell invasion assay, wound-healing assay and migration assay. We also detected MMP-2 protein expression and enzyme activity by western blot analysis and gelatin zymography. We found that RUNX3 expression was decreased in benign tumor and malignant tumor compared with tumor adjacent normal brain tissue (P migration abilities. This reduced cell invasion and migration abilities were due to MMP-2 protein expression and enzyme activity suppression after RUNX3 restoration. Our data indicated that RUNX3 expression is significantly decreased in human glioma, and targeting of the RUNX3 pathway may constitute a potential treatment modality for glioma.

  4. Low Expression of CAPON in Glioma Contributes to Cell Proliferation via the Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available CAPON is an adapter protein for nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1. CAPON has two isoforms in the human brain: CAPON-L (long form of CAPON and CAPON-S (short form of CAPON. Recent studies have indicated the involvement of CAPON in tumorigenesis beyond its classical role in NOS1 activity regulation. In this study, we found that the protein levels of CAPON-S, but not than CAPON-L, were significantly decreased in glioma tissues. Therefore, we established lentivirus-mediated stable cell lines with CAPON-S overexpression or down-regulation, and investigated the role of CAPON-S in the proliferation of glioma cells by using CCK8, EdU, and flow cytometry assays. Overexpression of CAPON-S reduced the cell variability and the percentage of EdU-positive cells, and arrested the cells in the G1 phase in glioma cells. Silencing of CAPON by short-hairpin RNA showed the opposite effects. Furthermore, an intracellular signaling array revealed that overexpression of CAPON-S resulted in a remarkable reduction in the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein in glioma cells, which was further confirmed by Western blot. These findings suggest that CAPON may function as a tumor suppressor in human brain glioma and that the inactivation of the Akt signaling pathway caused by CAPON-S overexpression may provide insight into the underlying mechanism of CAPON in glioma cell proliferation.

  5. The Value of Glioma Extent of Resection in the Modern Neurosurgical Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Hardesty

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There remains no general consensus in the neurosurgical oncology literature regarding the role of extent of glioma resection in improving patient outcome. Although the value of resection in establishing a diagnosis and alleviating mass effect is clear, there is less certainty in ascertaining the influence of extent of resection. Here, we review the recent literature to synthesize a comprehensive review of the value of extent of resection for gliomas in the modern neurosurgical era.Methods: We reviewed every major peer-reviewed clinical publication since 1990 on the role of extent of resection in glioma outcome.Results: Thirty-two high-grade glioma articles and 11 low-grade glioma articles were examined in terms of quality of evidence, expected extent of resection, and survival benefit.Conclusions: Despite limitations in the quality of data, mounting evidence suggests that more extensive surgical resection is associated with longer life expectancy for both low- and high-grade newly-diagnosed gliomas.

  6. EZH2-, CHD4-, and IDH-linked epigenetic perturbation and its association with survival in glioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Liu, Ying; Wang, Mengning; Wu, Zhenhai; Li, Na; Zhang, Jinsong; Yang, Chuanwei

    2017-12-01

    Glioma is a complex disease with limited treatment options. Recent advances have identified isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations in up to 80% lower grade gliomas (LGG) and in 76% secondary glioblastomas (GBM). IDH mutations are also seen in 10%-20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In AML, it was determined that mutations of IDH and other genes involving epigenetic regulations are early events, emerging in the pre-leukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) stage, whereas mutations in genes propagating oncogenic signal are late events in leukemia. IDH mutations are also early events in glioma, occurring before TP53 mutation, 1p/19q deletion, etc. Despite these advances in glioma research, studies into other molecular alterations have lagged considerably. In this study, we analyzed currently available databases. We identified EZH2, KMT2C, and CHD4 as important genes in glioma in addition to the known gene IDH1/2. We also showed that genomic alterations of PIK3CA, CDKN2A, CDK4, FIP1L1, or FUBP1 collaborate with IDH mutations to negatively affect patients' survival in LGG. In LGG patients with TP53 mutations or IDH1/2 mutations, additional genomic alterations of EZH2, KMC2C, and CHD4 individually or in combination were associated with a markedly decreased disease-free survival than patients without such alterations. Alterations of EZH2, KMT2C, and CHD4 at genetic level or protein level could perturb epigenetic program, leading to malignant transformation in glioma. By reviewing current literature on both AML and glioma and performing bioinformatics analysis on available datasets, we developed a hypothetical model on the tumorigenesis from premalignant stem cells to glioma.

  7. Oncoprotein Bmi-1 Renders Apoptotic Resistance to Glioma Cells through Activation of the IKK-Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Gong, Li-Yun; Song, Li-Bing; Jiang, Li-Li; Liu, Li-Ping; Wu, Jueheng; Yuan, Jie; Cai, Jun-Chao; He, Mian; Wang, Lan; Zeng, Musheng; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Li, Mengfeng

    2010-01-01

    One of the features of malignant gliomas is their deviant resistance to cellular apoptosis induced by cytotoxic reagents. Bmi-1, an oncoprotein, has been linked to oncogenesis and cancer progression in various types of human cancers including gliomas. However, the mechanisms underlying Bmi-1 antiapoptotic function remain largely unknown. In this study, we report that Bmi-1 renders apoptotic resistance to glioma cells through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In glioma cells, ectopic expression of Bmi-1 significantly inhibits doxorubicin-, BCNU-, or UV irradiation- induced apoptosis through reduction of activated caspase-3 and PARP, and induction of Bcl-XL. Cellular depletion of Bmi-1 enhances the sensitivity of glioma cells to apoptosis induced by doxorubicin, BCNU, or UV irradiation. Bmi-1 activates NF-κB through stimulation of IκB phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activity of NF-κB and expression of downstream genes of NF-κB including caspase-3, PARP, Bcl-XL, and c-Myc. Inhibition of the IKK-NF-κB pathway abrogates the antiapoptotic effect of Bmi-1 on glioma cells. In high-grade gliomas, Bmi-1 and NF-κB are co-expressed in the cell nucleus. Up-regulation of Bmi-1 also correlates with tumor progression and poor survival of patients with gliomas. Together, our data demonstrate that Bmi-1 bestows apoptotic resistance to glioma cells through the IKK-NF-κB pathway and suggest Bmi-1 as a useful indicator for glioma prognosis. PMID:20035051

  8. A new anti-glioma therapy, AG119: pre-clinical assessment in a mouse GL261 glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Rheal A; Ihnat, Michael; Saunders, Debra; Bastian, Anja; Smith, Nataliya; Pavana, Roheeth Kumar; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-07-17

    High grade gliomas (HGGs; grades III and IV) are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, and their malignant nature ranks them fourth in incidence of cancer death. Standard treatment for glioblastomas (GBM), involving surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and the anti-angiogenic therapy bevacizumab, have not substantially improved overall survival. New therapeutic agents are desperately needed for this devastating disease. Here we study the potential therapeutic agent AG119 in a pre-clinical model for gliomas. AG119 possesses both anti-angiogenic (RTK inhibition) and antimicrotubule cytotoxic activity in a single molecule. GL261 glioma-bearing mice were either treated with AG119, anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) antibody, anti c-Met antibody or TMZ, and compared to untreated tumor-bearing mice. Animal survival was assessed, and tumor volumes and vascular alterations were monitored with morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion-weighted imaging, respectively. Percent survival of GL261 HGG-bearing mice treated with AG119 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to untreated tumors. Tumor volumes (21-31 days following intracerebral implantation of GL261 cells) were found to be significantly lower for AG119 (p < 0.001), anti-VEGF (p < 0.05) and anti-c-Met (p < 0.001) antibody treatments, and TMZ-treated (p < 0.05) mice, compared to untreated controls. Perfusion data indicated that both AG119 and TMZ were able to reduce the effect of decreasing perfusion rates significantly (p < 0.05 for both), when compared to untreated tumors. It was also found that IC50 values for AG119 were much lower than those for TMZ in T98G and U251 cells. These data support further exploration of the anticancer activity AG119 in HGG, as this compound was able to increase animal survival and decrease tumor volumes in a mouse GL261 glioma model, and that AG119 is also not subject to methyl guanine

  9. [Intraoperative diagnosis of cerebral gliomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, A N

    1980-01-01

    At the Burdenko Institute for Neurosurgery in Moscow, the following methods are used for the demarkation of cerebral gliomas: Beta-radiometry, rheometry = measurement of th electrical resistance of the cerebral tissue, staining of the tumour prior to the surgical intervention by means of a Serbinenko catheter, puncture biopsy as well as thermometry. The most frequently used techniques are beta-radiometry and rheometry. The methods are simple in application and the results are reliable. The accuracy of the localisation of a cerebral glioma by means of beta-radiometry is 98 per cent. For the impedance measurement a frequency of 1000 Hz is used. Liquids show the lowest and fibrous meningiomas the highest electrical resistance values. On an average the resistance of cerebral tumours is half as high as that of the average normal brain tissue. In almost all operations one tries to obtain an information about the extent and position of the glioma by means of brain puncture. A special needle probe has been designed to obtain tissue pieces for histological examinations. Experience has also been gained with ultrasonic probing and with temperature measurements of tumour and brain tissue. the interior of the tumours shows a 0.5 to 3 degrees C higher temperature.

  10. Glioma stem cell lines expanded in adherent culture have tumor-specific phenotypes and are suitable for chemical and genetic screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Steven M; Yoshikawa, Koichi; Clarke, Ian D; Danovi, Davide; Stricker, Stefan; Russell, Roslin; Bayani, Jane; Head, Renee; Lee, Marco; Bernstein, Mark; Squire, Jeremy A; Smith, Austin; Dirks, Peter

    2009-06-05

    Human brain tumors appear to have a hierarchical cellular organization suggestive of a stem cell foundation. In vitro expansion of the putative cancer stem cells as stable cell lines would provide a powerful model system to study their biology. Here, we demonstrate routine and efficient derivation of adherent cell lines from malignant glioma that display stem cell properties and initiate high-grade gliomas following xenotransplantation. Significantly, glioma neural stem (GNS) cell lines from different tumors exhibit divergent gene expression signatures and differentiation behavior that correlate with specific neural progenitor subtypes. The diversity of gliomas may, therefore, reflect distinct cancer stem cell phenotypes. The purity and stability of adherent GNS cell lines offer significant advantages compared to "sphere" cultures, enabling refined studies of cancer stem cell behavior. A proof-of-principle live cell imaging-based chemical screen (450 FDA-approved drugs) identifies both differential sensitivities of GNS cells and a common susceptibility to perturbation of serotonin signaling.

  11. CSF-1R inhibition alters macrophage polarization and blocks glioma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyonteck, Stephanie M; Akkari, Leila; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Bowman, Robert L; Sevenich, Lisa; Quail, Daniela F; Olson, Oakley C; Quick, Marsha L; Huse, Jason T; Teijeiro, Virginia; Setty, Manu; Leslie, Christina S; Oei, Yoko; Pedraza, Alicia; Zhang, Jianan; Brennan, Cameron W; Sutton, James C; Holland, Eric C; Daniel, Dylan; Joyce, Johanna A

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) comprises several molecular subtypes, including proneural GBM. Most therapeutic approaches targeting glioma cells have failed. An alternative strategy is to target cells in the glioma microenvironment, such as tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAMs). Macrophages depend on colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) for differentiation and survival. We used an inhibitor of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to target TAMs in a mouse proneural GBM model, which significantly increased survival and regressed established tumors. CSF-1R blockade additionally slowed intracranial growth of patient-derived glioma xenografts. Surprisingly, TAMs were not depleted in treated mice. Instead, glioma-secreted factors, including granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), facilitated TAM survival in the context of CSF-1R inhibition. Expression of alternatively activated M2 markers decreased in surviving TAMs, which is consistent with impaired tumor-promoting functions. These gene signatures were associated with enhanced survival in patients with proneural GBM. Our results identify TAMs as a promising therapeutic target for proneural gliomas and establish the translational potential of CSF-1R inhibition for GBM.

  12. Circular RNA profile in gliomas revealed by identification tool UROBORUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Naibo; Han, Ping; Moon, Byoung-San; Lai, Rose K.; Wang, Kai; Lu, Wange

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that many endogenous circular RNAs (circRNAs) may play roles in biological processes. However, the expression patterns and functions of circRNAs in human diseases are not well understood. Computationally identifying circRNAs from total RNA-seq data is a primary step in studying their expression pattern and biological roles. In this work, we have developed a computational pipeline named UROBORUS to detect circRNAs in total RNA-seq data. By applying UROBORUS to RNA-seq data from 46 gliomas and normal brain samples, we detected thousands of circRNAs supported by at least two read counts, followed by successful experimental validation on 24 circRNAs from the randomly selected 27 circRNAs. UROBORUS is an efficient tool that can detect circRNAs with low expression levels in total RNA-seq without RNase R treatment. The circRNAs expression profiling revealed more than 476 circular RNAs differentially expressed in control brain tissues and gliomas. Together with parental gene expression, we found that circRNA and its parental gene have diversified expression patterns in gliomas and control brain tissues. This study establishes an efficient and sensitive approach for predicting circRNAs using total RNA-seq data. The UROBORUS pipeline can be accessed freely for non-commercial purposes at http://uroborus.openbioinformatics.org/. PMID:26873924

  13. Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Hamerlik, P; Stockhausen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    , initially limiting cell proliferation (low Ki-67 index) and selecting for mutations of p53 and likely other genes that allow escape (higher Ki-67 index) from the checkpoint and facilitate tumor progression. Overall, these results support the potential role of the DDR machinery as a barrier to gliomagenesis......Malignant gliomas, the deadliest of brain neoplasms, show rampant genetic instability and resistance to genotoxic therapies, implicating potentially aberrant DNA damage response (DDR) in glioma pathogenesis and treatment failure. Here, we report on gross, aberrant constitutive activation of DNA...... that the DDR machinery is constitutively activated in gliomas, as documented by phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX), activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway, 53BP1 foci and other markers. Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxoguanine) was high in some GBM cell lines and many GBM tumors, while it was low in normal...

  14. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh

    Full Text Available The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR imaging (MRI were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105, a sensitivity of 79% (27/34, a specificity of 90% (64/71, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists' Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists' confidence rating.

  15. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lo, Chung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists' Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists' confidence rating.

  16. The potentials of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells in targeted therapy of experimental glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Cun-gang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. With current standard therapy which includes extensive microsurgical resection along with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ, the median survival of glioblastoma patients is only 14.60 months nowadays. Recent studies demonstrated that human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs possessed the glioma-trophic migratory capacity. The engineered hAT-MSCs expressing herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-tk, yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CDy:: UPRT, and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE could exert inhibitory effects on glioma when combined with prodrugs, such as ganciclovir (GCV, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and irinotecan (CPT-11, respectively. hAT-MSCs carrying the oncolytic virus or expressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL also could inhibit the growth of glioma. This paper summarizes the recent progress in this field to pave the way for hAT-MSCs based targeted therapy of glioma in future.

  17. Disruption of astrocyte-vascular coupling and the blood-brain barrier by invading glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Stacey; Robel, Stefanie; Kimbrough, Ian F.; Robert, Stephanie M.; Ellis-Davies, Graham; Sontheimer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic endfeet cover the entire cerebral vasculature and serve as exchange sites for ions, metabolites, and energy substrates from the blood to the brain. They maintain endothelial tight junctions that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and release vasoactive molecules that regulate vascular tone. Malignant gliomas are highly invasive tumors that use the perivascular space for invasion and co-opt existing vessels as satellite tumors form. Here we use a clinically relevant mouse model of glioma and find that glioma cells, as they populate the perivascular space of pre-existing vessels, displace astrocytic endfeet from endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cells. This causes a focal breach in the BBB. Furthermore, astrocyte-mediated gliovascular coupling is lost, and glioma cells seize control over regulation of vascular tone through Ca2+-dependent release of K+. These findings have important clinical implications regarding blood flow in the tumor-associated brain and the ability to locally deliver chemotherapeutic drugs in disease. PMID:24943270

  18. Neuronal markers are expressed in human gliomas and NSE knockdown sensitizes glioblastoma cells to radiotherapy and temozolomide

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    Yan Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of neuronal elements has been identified in various glial tumors, and glioblastomas (GBMs with neuronal differentiation patterns have reportedly been associated with longer survival. However, the neuronal class III β-tubulin has been linked to increasing malignancy in astrocytomas. Thus, the significance of neuronal markers in gliomas is not established. Methods The expressions of class III β-tubulin, neurofilament protein (NFP, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE were investigated in five GBM cell lines and two GBM biopsies with immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Moreover, the expression levels were quantified by real-time qPCR under different culture conditions. Following NSE siRNA treatment we used Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS to monitor cell growth and migration and MTS assays to study viability after irradiation and temozolomide treatment. Finally, we quantitated NSE expression in a series of human glioma biopsies with immunohistochemistry using a morphometry software, and collected survival data for the corresponding patients. The biopsies were then grouped according to expression in two halves which were compared by survival analysis. Results Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that all markers except NFP were expressed both in GBM cell lines and biopsies. Notably, qPCR demonstrated that NSE was upregulated in cellular stress conditions, such as serum-starvation and hypoxia, while we found no uniform pattern for the other markers. NSE knockdown reduced the migration of glioma cells, sensitized them to hypoxia, radio- and chemotherapy. Furthermore, we found that GBM patients in the group with the highest NSE expression lived significantly shorter than patients in the low-expression group. Conclusions Neuronal markers are aberrantly expressed in human GBMs, and NSE is consistently upregulated in different cellular stress conditions

  19. Ocular myiasis in a glioma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, David J; Selvin, Satheesh Solomon T; Kuruvilla, Shilpa E; Kuriakose, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Ocular myiasis though rare, is usually found in association with basal cell carcinoma. It is rarer still in tumors other than basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of ocular myiasis in a glioma which is hitherto unreported to the best of our knowledge. A 50 year old male presented with bleeding and maggots emanating from a tumourous outgrowth which had replaced his right eye. He complained of swelling and pain in his right eye for the last 2 years. Manual removal of maggots was carried out following which he underwent total excision of the mass and local debridement. Biopsy of the mass was consistent with astrocytoma. Myiasis though rare should be suspected in long standing neglected lesions with suggestive history. Infection, ischemic necrosis and malignancy coupled with overcrowding, poor living conditions, presence of excessive arthropods in the locality and low levels of hygiene drastically increase the risk of myiasis. © NEPjOPH.

  20. Mathematical modeling of glioma therapy using oncolytic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Baba Issa; Mokrani, Houda; Afenya, Evans K

    2013-06-01

    Diffuse infiltrative gliomas are adjudged to be the most common primary brain tumors in adults and they tend to blend in extensively in the brain micro-environment. This makes it difficult for medical practitioners to successfully plan effective treatments. In attempts to prolong the lengths of survival times for patients with malignant brain tumors, novel therapeutic alternatives such as gene therapy with oncolytic viruses are currently being explored. Based on such approaches and existing work, a spatio-temporal model that describes interaction between tumor cells and oncolytic viruses is developed. Conditions that lead to optimal therapy in minimizing cancer cell proliferation and otherwise are analytically demonstrated. Numerical simulations are conducted with the aim of showing the impact of virotherapy on proliferation or invasion of cancer cells and of estimating survival times.

  1. Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging of Gliomas Grades II and III - A Study of Perilesional Tumor Infiltration, Tumor Grades and Subtypes at Clinical Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anna F; Fahlström, Markus; Nilsson, Markus; Berntsson, Shala G; Zetterling, Maria; Libard, Sylwia; Alafuzoff, Irina; van Westen, Danielle; Lätt, Jimmy; Smits, Anja; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) allows for assessment of diffusion influenced by microcellular structures. We analyzed DKI in suspected low-grade gliomas prior to histopathological diagnosis. The aim was to investigate if diffusion parameters in the perilesional normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) differed from contralesional white matter, and to investigate differences between glioma malignancy grades II and III and glioma subtypes (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas). Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were prospectively recruited to this institutional review board-approved study and investigated with preoperative DKI at 3T after written informed consent. Patients with histologically proven glioma grades II or III were further analyzed (n=35). Regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated on T2FLAIR images and co-registered to diffusion MRI parameter maps. Mean DKI data were compared between perilesional and contralesional NAWM (student's t-test for dependent samples, Wilcoxon matched pairs test). Histogram DKI data were compared between glioma types and glioma grades (multiple comparisons of mean ranks for all groups). The discriminating potential for DKI in assessing glioma type and grade was assessed with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. There were significant differences in all mean DKI variables between perilesional and contralesional NAWM (p=grades II (n=23) and III (n=12) (p=0.003-0.048) and 10 variables differed significantly between ACs (n=18) and ODs (n=17) (p=0.011-0.050). ROC curves of the best discriminating variables had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.657-0.815. Mean DKI variables in perilesional NAWM differ significantly from contralesional NAWM, suggesting altered microstructure by tumor infiltration not depicted on morphological MRI. Histogram analysis of DKI data identifies differences between glioma grades and subtypes.

  2. The Ketogenic Diet Alters the Hypoxic Response and Affects Expression of Proteins Associated with Angiogenesis, Invasive Potential and Vascular Permeability in a Mouse Glioma Model.

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    Eric C Woolf

    Full Text Available The successful treatment of malignant gliomas remains a challenge despite the current standard of care, which consists of surgery, radiation and temozolomide. Advances in the survival of brain cancer patients require the design of new therapeutic approaches that take advantage of common phenotypes such as the altered metabolism found in cancer cells. It has therefore been postulated that the high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate protein ketogenic diet (KD may be useful in the treatment of brain tumors. We have demonstrated that the KD enhances survival and potentiates standard therapy in a mouse model of malignant glioma, yet the mechanisms are not fully understood.To explore the effects of the KD on various aspects of tumor growth and progression, we used the immunocompetent, syngeneic GL261-Luc2 mouse model of malignant glioma.Tumors from animals maintained on KD showed reduced expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9, hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha, and decreased activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Additionally, tumors from animals maintained on KD had reduced tumor microvasculature and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vimentin. Peritumoral edema was significantly reduced in animals fed the KD and protein analyses showed altered expression of zona occludens-1 and aquaporin-4.The KD directly or indirectly alters the expression of several proteins involved in malignant progression and may be a useful tool for the treatment of gliomas.

  3. The Ketogenic Diet Alters the Hypoxic Response and Affects Expression of Proteins Associated with Angiogenesis, Invasive Potential and Vascular Permeability in a Mouse Glioma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Eric C; Curley, Kara L; Liu, Qingwei; Turner, Gregory H; Charlton, Julie A; Preul, Mark C; Scheck, Adrienne C

    2015-01-01

    The successful treatment of malignant gliomas remains a challenge despite the current standard of care, which consists of surgery, radiation and temozolomide. Advances in the survival of brain cancer patients require the design of new therapeutic approaches that take advantage of common phenotypes such as the altered metabolism found in cancer cells. It has therefore been postulated that the high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate protein ketogenic diet (KD) may be useful in the treatment of brain tumors. We have demonstrated that the KD enhances survival and potentiates standard therapy in a mouse model of malignant glioma, yet the mechanisms are not fully understood. To explore the effects of the KD on various aspects of tumor growth and progression, we used the immunocompetent, syngeneic GL261-Luc2 mouse model of malignant glioma. Tumors from animals maintained on KD showed reduced expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9, hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha, and decreased activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Additionally, tumors from animals maintained on KD had reduced tumor microvasculature and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vimentin. Peritumoral edema was significantly reduced in animals fed the KD and protein analyses showed altered expression of zona occludens-1 and aquaporin-4. The KD directly or indirectly alters the expression of several proteins involved in malignant progression and may be a useful tool for the treatment of gliomas.

  4. A longitudinal, qualitative and quantitative exploration of daily life and need for rehabilitation among patients with high-grade gliomas and their caregivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, K; Jarden, Mary Ellen; Jakobsen, J

    2013-01-01

    High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are the most malignant type of brain tumours. The 5-year survival is 10% and a significant part of the ongoing research aims to increase survival through surgical and oncological treatments. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for investigating the HGG trajectory...

  5. Increased betulinic acid induced cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity in glioma cells under hypoxic conditions

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    Paschke Reinhard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betulinic acid (BA is a novel antineoplastic agent under evaluation for tumor therapy. Because of the selective cytotoxic effects of BA in tumor cells (including gliomas, the combination of this agent with conservative therapies (such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy may be useful. Previously, the combination of BA with irradiation under hypoxic conditions had never been studied. Methods In this study, the effects of 3 to 30 μM BA on cytotoxicity, migration, the protein expression of PARP, survivin and HIF-1α, as well as radiosensitivity under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were analyzed in the human malignant glioma cell lines U251MG and U343MG. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity were analyzed with clonogenic survival assays, migration was analyzed with Boyden chamber assays (or scratch assays and protein expression was examined with Western blot analyses. Results Under normoxic conditions, a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 23 μM was observed in U251MG cells and 24 μM was observed in U343MG cells. Under hypoxic conditions, 10 μM or 15 μM of BA showed a significantly increased cytotoxicity in U251MG cells (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01, respectively and U343MG cells (p Conclusion Our results suggest that BA is capable of improving the effects of tumor therapy in human malignant glioma cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Further investigations are necessary to characterize its potential as a radiosensitizer.

  6. Inactivation of NF1 in CNS causes increased glial progenitor proliferation and optic glioma formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Harada, Takayuki; Liu, Li; Lush, Mark E.; Guignard, Frantz; Harada, Chikako; Burns, Dennis K.; Bajenaru, M. Livia; Gutmann, David H.; Parada, Luis F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The gene responsible for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) encodes a tumor suppressor that functions as a negative regulator of the Ras proto-oncogene. Individuals with germline mutations in NF1 are predisposed to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS). Children with this disease suffer a high incidence of optic gliomas, a benign but potentially debilitating tumor of the optic nerve; and an increased incidence of malignant astrocytoma, reactive astrogliosis and intellectual deficits. In the present study, we have sought insight into the molecular and cellular basis of NF1-associated CNS pathologies. We show that mice genetically engineered to lack NF1 in CNS exhibit a variety of defects in glial cells. Primary among these is a developmental defect resulting in global reactive astrogliosis in the adult brain and increased proliferation of glial progenitor cells leading to enlarged optic nerves. As a consequence, all of the mutant optic nerves develop hyperplastic lesions, some of which progress to optic pathway gliomas. These data point to hyperproliferative glial progenitors as the source of the optic tumors and provide a genetic model for NF1-associated astrogliosis and optic glioma. PMID:16314489

  7. Mannose phosphate isomerase regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor family signaling and glioma radiosensitivity.

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    Aurélie Cazet

    Full Text Available Asparagine-linked glycosylation is an endoplasmic reticulum co- and post-translational modification that enables the transit and function of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK glycoproteins. To gain insight into the regulatory role of glycosylation enzymes on RTK function, we investigated shRNA and siRNA knockdown of mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI, an enzyme required for mature glycan precursor biosynthesis. Loss of MPI activity reduced phosphorylation of FGFR family receptors in U-251 and SKMG-3 malignant glioma cell lines and also resulted in significant decreases in FRS2, Akt, and MAPK signaling. However, MPI knockdown did not affect ligand-induced activation or signaling of EGFR or MET RTKs, suggesting that FGFRs are more susceptible to MPI inhibition. The reductions in FGFR signaling were not caused by loss of FGF ligands or receptors, but instead were caused by interference with receptor dimerization. Investigations into the cellular consequences of MPI knockdown showed that cellular programs driven by FGFR signaling, and integral to the clinical progression of malignant glioma, were impaired. In addition to a blockade of cellular migration, MPI knockdown also significantly reduced glioma cell clonogenic survival following ionizing radiation. Therefore our results suggest that targeted inhibition of enzymes required for cell surface receptor glycosylation can be manipulated to produce discrete and limited consequences for critical client glycoproteins expressed by tumor cells. Furthermore, this work identifies MPI as a potential enzymatic target for disrupting cell surface receptor-dependent survival signaling and as a novel approach for therapeutic radiosensitization.

  8. Combined efficacy of cediranib and quinacrine in glioma is enhanced by hypoxia and causally linked to autophagic vacuole accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Merryl R; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gillespie, G Yancey; Woltjer, Randall L; Pike, Martin M

    2014-01-01

    autophagic vacuole accumulation. These findings provide a rationale for a clinical evaluation of combined cediranib/quinacrine therapy for malignant glioma.

  9. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; Cheng, Xiaojiang; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Arctigenin exposure also induced a 60-75% reduction in colony formation compared with vehicle-treated control cells. However, arctigenin was not observed to affect the invasiveness of glioma cells. Arctigenin significantly increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase and reduced the number of cells in the S phase, as compared with the control group (Parctigenin increased the expression levels of p21, retinoblastoma and p53 proteins, and significantly decreased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 proteins. Additionally, arctigenin was able to induce apoptosis in glioma cells, coupled with increased expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein. Furthermore, arctigenin-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of cells with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, the results suggest that arctigenin is able to inhibit cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in glioma cells. These results warrant further investigation of the anticancer effects of arctigenin in animal models of gliomas.

  10. Internet-based guided self-help for glioma patients with depressive symptoms: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boele, Florien W; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Cuijpers, Pim; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Heimans, Jan J; Klein, Martin

    2014-04-10

    Among glioma patients, depression is estimated to be more prevalent than in both the general population and the cancer patient population. This can have negative consequences for both patients and their primary informal caregivers (e.g., a spouse, family member or close friend). At present, there is no evidence from randomized controlled trials for the effectiveness of psychological treatment for depression in glioma patients. Furthermore, the possibility of delivering mental health care through the internet has not yet been explored in this population. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial is warranted to evaluate the effects of an internet-based, guided self-help intervention for depressive symptoms in glioma patients. The intervention is based on problem-solving therapy. An existing 5-week course is adapted for use by adult glioma patients with mild to moderate depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale score ≥12). Sample size calculations yield 126 glioma patients to be included, who are randomly assigned to either the intervention group or a waiting list control group. In addition, we aim to include 63 patients with haematological cancer in a non-central nervous system malignancy control group. Assessments take place at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks, and after 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measure is the change in depressive symptoms. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, fatigue, costs and patient satisfaction. In addition, all patients are asked to assign a primary informal caregiver, who does not participate in the intervention but who is asked to complete similar assessments. Their mood, health-related quality of life and fatigue is evaluated as well. This is the first study to evaluate the effects of problem-solving therapy delivered through the internet as treatment for depressive symptoms in glioma patients. If proven effective, this treatment will contribute to the mental health care of

  11. The role of stem cells in glioma progression and therapy

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    Mateja Obrez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of tumour origin and stochastic nature of carcinogenesis are being challenged today by hierarchical models that predict the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which are postulated as unique cell population capable of infinite self renewal, multilineage differentiation and having a higher resistance to conventional cancer therapy thus facilitating malignant growth and therapy resistance. Accordingly, successful treatment of adult brain tumour–glioma and its most malignant stage–glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, would require the elimination of CSCs to avoid tumour relapse. Yet, with available therapy (i.e. surgery in GBMs this cannot be achieved, due to infiltrative growth of a subpopluation of GBM cells with highly expressed migratory genes (migratome into the normal brain tissue.Besides CSCs – a proven prerequisite for tumour development and progression, tumour bulk mass also comprises haematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. The role of these other types of stem cell was shown to largely depend on the tumour microenvironment, where their contradictory anti-tumour action was evidenced. Yet, the exact mechanisms and MSC’s role in cell-mediated modulation of tumour behaviour via paracrine and direct interactions with GBM (stem cells still remain unknown. Nevertheless these stem cells, particularly MSCs, may represent novel therapeutic vectors for enhanced target-site delivery of chemotherapeutics, which are urgently needed to improve efficiency of current glioma treatment. So far, cell therapy using MSCs appears promising, due to MSC’s selective tumour tropism and their immuno-modulatory potential regarding treatment of GBM, which will be discussed in this review.

  12. Impact of MTHFR polymorphisms on methylation of MGMT in glioma patients from Northeast China with different folate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N; Jiang, J; Song, Y J; Zhao, S G; Tong, Z G; Song, H S; Wu, H; Zhu, J Y; Gu, Y H; Sun, Y; Hua, W; Qi, J P

    2013-10-29

    Hypomethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter in glioma cells has been associated with temozolomide resistance. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is produced during folate metabolism, is the main source of methyl groups during DNA methylation. As a key enzyme during folate metabolism, polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may regulate folate end-products. We investigated the effect of typical polymorphisms of MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) on MGMT methylation based on different serum folate levels in patients with glioma from Northeast China. A total of 275 patients with glioma and 329 without malignant tumors were tested. Serum folate concentration was assayed by using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. MTHFR polymorphisms were detected by Taqman-Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methylation-specific PCR was used to assess MGMT methylation. The constituent ratio of glioma patients below the serum folate biological reference value was significantly higher than that of the control population (P A1298C mutation were found in higher frequency than homozygotes or wild types (oligodendroglioma, P methylation of MGMT (median, P < 0.001; biological reference value, P = 0.036). These data suggest that, in combination with a negative folate balance in glioma patients, T/T genotypes in MTHFR C677T may be associated with MGMT demethylation.

  13. Organotypic Glioma Spheroids for Screening of Experimental Therapies: How Many Spheroids and Sections are Required?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Leenstra, Sieger; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer spheroids are a valuable model for screening anticancer strategies. However, studies are published using various numbers of spheroids and sections per spheroid. Here, we establish the sample size requirements for valid screening strategies to treat glioma: how many spheroids per experimental

  14. A 12-week interdisciplinary rehabilitation trial in patients with gliomas - a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anders; Søgaard, Karen; Minet, Lisbeth Rosenbek; Jarden, Jens Ole

    2017-03-12

    This report aims to assess the safety and feasibility of using an interdisciplinary rehabilitation intervention for a future randomized controlled trial in patients with gliomas in the initial treatment phase. We conducted an outpatient two-part rehabilitation intervention that involved six weeks of therapeutic supervised training (part one) and six weeks of unsupervised training in a local gym following a training protocol (part two). Predefined feasibility objectives of safety (100%), consent rate (>80%), drop-out (80%) and patient satisfaction (>80%) was achieved at part one. However, the failure to meet predefined feasibility objectives of drop-out, adherence and patient satisfaction of the unsupervised intervention at part two have led to a protocol revision for a future randomized controlled trial. This study demonstrates that an intensive rehabilitation intervention of physical therapy and occupational therapy in the initial treatment phase of patients with gliomas whose Karnofsky performance status is ≥70 is safe and feasible, if relevant inclusion criteria and precautionary screening are made. With the revised protocol, we are confident that the foundation for conducting a successful randomized controlled trial among these vulnerable patients has been established. Implications for rehabilitation Brain tumors constitute some of the most challenging cancer diagnoses presenting for rehabilitation intervention. Patients with gliomas experiences limitations in physical functioning, cognition, and emotional wellbeing. In a relatively small sample this study shows that supervised physical- and occupational therapy in patients with gliomas is safe and feasible in the initial treatment phase. Patients with gliomas can potentially improve functioning through interdisciplinary rehabilitation.

  15. Family history of cancer in benign brain tumor subtypes versus gliomas

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    Quinn eOstrom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Family history is associated with gliomas, but this association has not ben established for benign brain tumors. Using information from newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients, we describe patterns of family cancer histories in patients with benign brain tumors and compare those to patients with gliomas. Methods: Newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients were identified as part of the Ohio Brain Tumor Study (OBTS. Each patient was asked to participate in a telephone interview about personal medical history, family history of cancer, and other exposures. Information was available from 33 acoustic neuroma (65%, 78 meningioma (65%, 49 pituitary adenoma (73.1% and 152 glioma patients (58.2%. The association between family history of cancer and each subtype was compared with gliomas using unconditional logistic regression models generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: There was no significant difference in family history of cancer between patients with glioma and benign subtypes. Conclusions: The results suggest that benign brain tumor may have an association with family history of cancer. More studies are warranted to disentangle the potential genetic and/or environmental causes for these diseases.

  16. IDH-1R132H mutation status in diffuse glioma patients: implications for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Ning; Song, Hong-Wang; Yao, Kun; Jiang, Tao; Li, Shou-Wei; Yan, Chang-Xiang

    2016-05-24

    WHO2007 grading of diffuse gliomas in adults is well-established. However, IDH mutations make classification of gliomas according to the WHO2007 edition controversial. Here, we characterized IDH-1R132H mut status in a cohort of 670 adult patients with different WHO2007 grades of diffuse glioma. Patient characteristics, clinical data and prognoses were obtained from medical records. Patients with IDH-1R132H mut were younger and had better clinical outcomes than those without mutations. Differences in age among patients with astrocytomas of different WHO2007 grades were eliminated after patients were grouped based on IDH-1R132H status. IDH-1R132H mut was present more often in patients with lower Ki-67 and MGMT protein levels and higher mutant p53 levels. Ki-67 was also strongly associated with WHO2007 grade independently of IDH-1R132H mut status. Moreover, patients with Ki-67IDH-1R132H mut status. Patients in the IDH-1R132H mut group with lower MGMT protein levels also had better clinical outcomes than those in other groups. Our results indicate that to better treat gliomas, IDH mutation status should be included when determining WHO2007 grade in glioma patients.

  17. Molecular and phenotypic characterisation of paediatric glioma cell lines as models for preclinical drug development.

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    Dorine A Bax

    Full Text Available Although paediatric high grade gliomas resemble their adult counterparts in many ways, there appear to be distinct clinical and biological differences. One important factor hampering the development of new targeted therapies is the relative lack of cell lines derived from childhood glioma patients, as it is unclear whether the well-established adult lines commonly used are representative of the underlying molecular genetics of childhood tumours. We have carried out a detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisation of a series of paediatric high grade glioma cell lines in comparison to routinely used adult lines.All lines proliferate as adherent monolayers and express glial markers. Copy number profiling revealed complex genomes including amplification and deletions of genes known to be pivotal in core glioblastoma signalling pathways. Expression profiling identified 93 differentially expressed genes which were able to distinguish between the adult and paediatric high grade cell lines, including a number of kinases and co-ordinated sets of genes associated with DNA integrity and the immune response.These data demonstrate that glioma cell lines derived from paediatric patients show key molecular differences to those from adults, some of which are well known, whilst others may provide novel targets for evaluation in primary tumours. We thus provide the rationale and demonstrate the practicability of using paediatric glioma cell lines for preclinical and mechanistic studies.

  18. Family History of Cancer in Benign Brain Tumor Subtypes Versus Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Quinn T.; McCulloh, Christopher; Chen, Yanwen; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Davitkov, Perica; Robbins, Sarah; Cherukuri, Rajesh; Patel, Ashokkumar; Gupta, Rajnish; Cohen, Mark; Barrios, Jaime Vengoechea; Brewer, Cathy; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; McGraw, Mary; Denk, Barbara; Naska, Theresa; Laube, Frances; Steele, Ruth; Greene, Dale; Kastl, Alison; Bell, Susan; Aziz, Dina; Chiocca, E. A.; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Barnett, Gene H.; Sloan, Andrew E.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Family history is associated with gliomas, but this association has not been established for benign brain tumors. Using information from newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients, we describe patterns of family cancer histories in patients with benign brain tumors and compare those to patients with gliomas. Methods: Newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients were identified as part of the Ohio Brain Tumor Study. Each patient was asked to participate in a telephone interview about personal medical history, family history of cancer, and other exposures. Information was available from 33 acoustic neuroma (65%), 78 meningioma (65%), 49 pituitary adenoma (73.1%), and 152 glioma patients (58.2%). The association between family history of cancer and each subtype was compared with gliomas using unconditional logistic regression models generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: There was no significant difference in family history of cancer between patients with glioma and benign subtypes. Conclusion: The results suggest that benign brain tumor may have an association with family history of cancer. More studies are warranted to disentangle the potential genetic and/or environmental causes for these diseases. PMID:22649779

  19. Assessment of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase mutational status in cerebral gliomas by in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietze, Anna; Oettingen, Gorm von; Sangill, Ryan

    Background: The identification of mutations in the Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) gene in gliomas has considerable prognostic value, as patients with IDH-mutated tumors have a better overall survival than those without [1]. The IDH mutational status is therefore an important marker in the clinics...... and has the potential to open up for more personalized treatment approaches. It is usually assessed by immunohistochemistry or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in tumor tissue obtained by surgical biopsies. IDH-mutated tumor cells accumulate 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) that is present in very low...... concentrations in normal tissue or in gliomas with wildtype IDH. It has recently been shown that 2-HG is detectable non-invasively by clinical Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) [2]. The aim of our study is to establish 2-HG MRS in patients suspected for cerebral gliomas on a clinical Magnetic Resonance (MR...

  20. Rare mutations of the DMBT1 gene in human astrocytic gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Wolf; Mollenhauer, Jan; Stockhammer, Florian

    2002-01-01

    The Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 gene (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor gene candidate in human brain tumors, based on the observation of homozygous deletions affecting the DMBT1 region or part of the gene. In order to support this hypothesis, we performed a mutational analysis...... of the entire coding region of DMBT1, employing SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing in a series of 79 astrocytic gliomas. Five somatic mutations were detected. Two mutations, one of which resulted in an amino acid exchange, occurred in glioblastomas. One pilocytic astrocytoma carried two missense mutations...... and another pilocytic astrocytoma contained a somatic mutation, not affecting the presumed protein. In addition, 21 of the 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in this study have not been recognized previously. The data indicate, that small mutations are not a frequent finding in gliomas....

  1. Daily Life Experiences of Patients With a High-Grade Glioma and Their Caregivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Karin; Juhler, Marianne; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge regarding the breadth of needs for rehabilitation and supportive care across the disease and treatment trajectory for patients with a high-grade glioma (HGG) and their caregivers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the experiences and needs...... for rehabilitation and supportive care in patients with HGG and their caregivers. METHODS: Patients with malignant glioma (N = 30) and their caregivers (N = 33) were interviewed five times during the first year of the HGG trajectory. A thematic analysis of interviews at five time points revealed five main themes...... describing the experiences related to the illness trajectory and needs for rehabilitation and supportive care. RESULTS: The five main themes identified were (a) individual strategy for acquiring prognostic information, (b) shared hope, (c) engagement in health promotion activities, (d) adjustment to symptom...

  2. Association of Rosacea With Risk for Glioma in a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter R; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Rosacea, a common facial skin disorder, has a poorly understood pathogenesis in which increased matrix metalloproteinase activity might play an important role. Glioma accounts for 80% of all primary malignant tumors in the central nervous system, and these tumors also show upregulation...... of certain matrix metalloproteinases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between rosacea and the risk for glioma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Nationwide cohort study of the Danish population from individual-level linkage of administrative registers. All Danish citizens 18 years or older from...... January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2011, were eligible for inclusion. A total of 5 484 910 individuals were eligible for analysis; of these, 68 372 had rosacea and 5 416 538 constituted the reference population. Data were analyzed from July 14 to August 10, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The outcome...

  3. Plasma specific miRNAs as predictive biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a highly malignant brain tumor with a poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, approximately 21–25 nucleotides in length. Recently, some researchers have demonstrated that plasma miRNAs are sensitive and specific biomarkers of various cancers. The primary aim of the study is to investigate whether miRNAs present in the plasma of GBM patients can be used as diagnostic biomarkers and are associated with glioma classification and clinical treatment. Materials and Methods Plasma samples were attained by venipuncture from 50 patients and 10 healthy donors. Plasma levels of miRNAs were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results The plasma levels of miR-21, miR-128 and miR-342-3p were significantly altered in GBM patients compared to normal controls and could discriminate glioma from healthy controls with high specificity and sensitivity. However, these three miRNAs were not significantly changed in patients with other brain tumors such as meningioma or pituitary adenoma. Furthermore, the plasma levels of these three miRNAs in GBM patients treated by operation and chemo-radiation almost revived to normal levels. Finally, we also demonstrated that miR-128 and miR-342-3p were positively correlated with histopathological grades of glioma. Conclusions These findings suggest that plasma specific miRNAs have potential use as novel biomarkers of glioma and may be useful in clinical management for glioma patients.

  4. Human glioma growth is controlled by microRNA-10b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriely, Galina; Yi, Ming; Narayan, Ravi S; Niers, Johanna M; Wurdinger, Thomas; Imitola, Jaime; Ligon, Keith L; Kesari, Santosh; Esau, Christine; Stephens, Robert M; Tannous, Bakhos A; Krichevsky, Anna M

    2011-05-15

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling studies revealed a number of miRNAs dysregulated in the malignant brain tumor glioblastoma. Molecular functions of these miRNAs in gliomagenesis are mainly unknown. We show that inhibition of miR-10b, a miRNA not expressed in human brain and strongly upregulated in both low-grade and high-grade gliomas, reduces glioma cell growth by cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. These cellular responses are mediated by augmented expression of the direct targets of miR-10b, including BCL2L11/Bim, TFAP2C/AP-2γ, CDKN1A/p21, and CDKN2A/p16, which normally protect cells from uncontrolled growth. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas expression data set reveals a strong positive correlation between numerous genes sustaining cellular growth and miR-10b levels in human glioblastomas, while proapoptotic genes anticorrelate with the expression of miR-10b. Furthermore, survival of glioblastoma patients expressing high levels of miR-10 family members is significantly reduced in comparison to patients with low miR-10 levels, indicating that miR-10 may contribute to glioma growth in vivo. Finally, inhibition of miR-10b in a mouse model of human glioma results in significant reduction of tumor growth. Altogether, our experiments validate an important role of miR-10b in gliomagenesis, reveal a novel mechanism of miR-10b-mediated regulation, and suggest the possibility of its future use as a therapeutic target in gliomas. ©2011 AACR

  5. Effect of brain- and tumor-derived connective tissue growth factor on glioma invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lincoln A; Woolard, Kevin; Son, Myung Jin; Li, Aiguo; Lee, Jeongwu; Ene, Chibawanye; Mantey, Samuel A; Maric, Dragan; Song, Hua; Belova, Galina; Jensen, Robert T; Zhang, Wei; Fine, Howard A

    2011-08-03

    Tumor cell invasion is the principal cause of treatment failure and death among patients with malignant gliomas. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been previously implicated in cancer metastasis and invasion in various tumors. We explored the mechanism of CTGF-mediated glioma cell infiltration and examined potential therapeutic targets. Highly infiltrative patient-derived glioma tumor-initiating or tumor stem cells (TIC/TSCs) were harvested and used to explore a CTGF-induced signal transduction pathway via luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting. Treatment of TIC/TSCs with small-molecule inhibitors targeting integrin β1 (ITGB1) and the tyrosine kinase receptor type A (TrkA), and short hairpin RNAs targeting CTGF directly were used to reduce the levels of key protein components of CTGF-induced cancer infiltration. TIC/TSC infiltration was examined in real-time cell migration and invasion assays in vitro and by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in TIC/TSC orthotopic xenograft mouse models (n = 30; six mice per group). All statistical tests were two-sided. Treatment of TIC/TSCs with CTGF resulted in CTGF binding to ITGB1-TrkA receptor complexes and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activation as measured by luciferase reporter assays (mean relative luciferase activity, untreated vs CTGF(200 ng/mL): 0.53 vs 1.87, difference = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69 to 2, P TIC/TSCs, thereby increasing the invasiveness of malignant gliomas.

  6. Cobalt chloride treatment induces autophagic apoptosis in human glioma cells via a p53-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bor-Chin; Chen, Jui-Tai; Yang, Shun-Tai; Chio, Chung-Ching; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Malignant glioma is the most aggressive brain tumor. Hypoxic condition has been explored for killing cancer stem cells or drug-resistant tumor cells. This study investigated the effects of hypoxia on autophagic death and the possible mechanisms. Exposure of human malignant glioma U87-MG cells to cobalt chloride (CoCl2) increased cellular hypoxia-inducible factor-1α levels and concurrently decreased cell viability concentration- and time-dependently. In parallel, treatment with CoCl2 suppressed proliferation of human U87-MG cells. Autophagic cells and levels of LC3-II were concentration- and time-dependently induced in human U87-MG cells after exposure to CoCl2. However, pretreatment with 3-mehyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine, inhibitors of cell autophagy, caused significant alleviations in CoCl2-induced cell autophagy. In contrast, exposure to rapamycin, an inducer of cell autophagy, synergistically induced hypoxia-induced autophagy of U87-MG cells. Administration of human U87-MG cells with CoCl2 triggered caspase-3 activation and cell apoptosis. Interestingly, pretreatment with 3-MA and chloroquine remarkably suppressed CoCl2-induced caspase-3 activation and cell apoptosis. Application of p53 small interference (si)RNA into human U87-MG cells downregulated levels of this protein and simultaneously lowered hypoxia- and 3-MA-induced alterations in cell autophagy, apoptosis, and death. The hypoxia-induced autophagy and apoptosis of DBTRG-05MG cells were significantly lowered by 3-MA pretreatment and p53 knockdown. Therefore, the present study shows that CoCl2 treatment can induce autophagy of human glioma cells and subsequent autophagic apoptosis via a p53-dependent pathway. Hypoxia-induced autophagic apoptosis may be applied as a therapeutic strategy for treatment of glioma patients.

  7. Hematuria and urologic malignancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lien, Yeong-Hau H

    2014-01-01

    ...% of total malignancies and 3.7% of malignancy-related mortality. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is the most common presenting sign of urologic malignancies that may lead to early diagnosis and cure of these cancers...

  8. Angiocentric Glioma: The Infiltrative Glioma with Ependymal Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersen, Ayca; Canda, M Serefettin; Men, Suleyman; Yucesoy, Kemal; Kalemci, Orhan; Canda, Tulay

    2017-01-01

    Angiocentric glioma is an epileptogenic, infiltrative, low grade glial tumor, with ependymal and astrocytic differentiation, most commonly seen in young adults and the pediatric age group. Herein we report a case of 21-year-old male patient who presented with fever and pharmaco-resistant seizures. Computed tomography revealed an iso-dense mass lesion in the gyrus rectus of the left frontal lobe. On magnetic resonance imaging the mass was hyperintense on both T1- and T2-weighted images with no contrast enhancement. Histopathological examination revealed monomorphous tumor cells diffusely infiltrating the neuropil with circumferential, radial, or longitudinal angiocentric alignment and subpial aggregation with perpendicular alignment of the cells to the pial surface. Among central nervous system tumors with ependymal differentiation, this distinct entity is the one with an infiltrating growth pattern. In spite of the infiltrating pattern, it does not seem to have a potential for aggressive behavior.

  9. DNA copy number analysis of Grade II-III and Grade IV gliomas reveals differences in molecular ontogeny including chromothripsis associated with IDH mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam; Sato, Mariko; Aldape, Kenneth; Mason, Clinton C; Alfaro-Munoz, Kristin; Heathcock, Lindsey; South, Sarah T; Abegglen, Lisa M; Schiffman, Joshua D; Colman, Howard

    2015-06-20

    findings that malignant progression of IDH (mut) gliomas to GBM involves increased genomic instability and genomic catastrophe, while IDH (wt) lower grade tumors are virtually identical to GBMs at the level of DNA copy number alterations.

  10. Improving Seroreactivity-Based Detection of Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ludwig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Seroreactivity profiling emerges as valuable technique for minimal invasive cancer detection. Recently, we provided first evidence for the applicability of serum profiling of glioma using a limited number of immunogenic antigens. Here, we screened 57 glioma and 60 healthy sera for autoantibodies against 1827 Escherichia coli expressed clones, including 509 in-frame peptide sequences. By a linear support vector machine approach, we calculated mean specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of 100 repetitive classifications. We were able to differentiate glioma sera from sera of the healthy controls with a specificity of 90.28%, a sensitivity of 87.31% and an accuracy of 88.84%. We were also able to differentiate World Health Organization grade IV glioma sera from healthy sera with a specificity of 98.45%, a sensitivity of 80.93%, and an accuracy of 92.88%. To rank the antigens according to their information content, we computed the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve value for each clone. Altogether, we found 46 immunogenic clones including 16 in-frame clones that were informative for the classification of glioma sera versus healthy sera. For the separation of glioblastoma versus healthy sera, we found 91 informative clones including 26 in-frame clones. The best-suited in-frame clone for the classification glioma sera versus healthy sera corresponded to the vimentin gene (VIM that was previously associated with glioma. In the future, autoantibody signatures in glioma not only may prove useful for diagnosis but also offer the prospect for a personalized immune-based therapy.

  11. Low grade glioma: An Update for Radiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, J; Wharton, S. B.; Romanowski, C.; McKevitt, F.M.; Bridgewater, C.; Zaki, H; Hoggard, N.

    2017-01-01

    With the recent publication of a new World Health Organization (WHO) brain tumour classification that reflects increased understanding of glioma tumour genetics there is a need for radiologists to understand the changes and their implications for patient management. There has also been an increasing trend for adopting earlier, more aggressive surgical approaches to low grade glioma treatment. We will summarise these changes, give some context to the increased role of tumour genetics and discu...

  12. BAFF, APRIL, TWEAK, BCMA, TACI and Fn14 proteins are related to human glioma tumor grade: immunohistochemistry and public microarray data meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Pelekanou

    Full Text Available Gliomas are common and lethal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS. Genetic alterations, inflammatory and angiogenic processes have been identified throughout tumor progression; however, treatment still remains palliative for most cases. Biological research on parameters influencing cell survival, invasion and tumor heterogeneity identified several cytokines interfering in CNS inflammation, oxidative stress and malignant transformation, including TNF-superfamily (TNFSF members. In this report we performed a meta-analysis of public gene-array data on the expression of a group of TNFSF ligands (BAFF, APRIL, TWEAK and their receptors (BAFF-R, TACI, BCMA, Fn14 in gliomas. In addition, we investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC the tumor cells' expression of these ligands and receptors in a series of 56 gliomas of different grade. We show that in IHC, BAFF and APRIL as well as their cognate receptors (BCMA, TACI and Fn14 expression correlate with tumor grade. This result was not evidenced in micro-arrays meta-analysis. Finally, we detected for the first time Fn14, BAFF, BCMA and TACI in glioma-related vascular endothelium. Our data, combined with our previous report in glioma cell lines, suggest a role for these receptors and ligands in glioma biology and advance these molecules as potential markers for the classification of these tumors to the proliferative, angiogenic or stem-like molecular subtype.

  13. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  14. Suppression of glioma progression by Egln3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Sciorra

    Full Text Available Grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma has a poor clinical outcome that can be linked to hypoxia, invasiveness and active vascular remodeling. It has recently been suggested that hypoxia-inducible factors, Hifs, increase glioma growth and aggressiveness [1], [2], [3]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Egl 9 homolog 3 (Egln3, a prolyl-hydroxylase that promotes Hif degradation, suppresses tumor progression of human and rodent glioma models. Through intracranial tumorigenesis and in vitro assays, we demonstrate for the first time that Egln3 was sufficient to decrease the kinetics of tumor progression and increase survival. We also find that Klf5, a transcription factor important to vascular remodeling, was regulated by hypoxia in glioma. An analysis of the tumor vasculature revealed that elevated Egln3 normalized glioma capillary architecture, consistent with a role for Egln3 in eliciting decreases in the production of Hif-regulated, angiogenic factors. We also find that the hydroxylase-deficient mutant, Egln3(H196A partially maintained tumor suppressive activity. These results highlight a bifurcation of Egln3 signaling and suggest that Egln3 has a non-hydroxylase-dependent function in glioma. We conclude that Egln3 is a critical determinant of glioma formation and tumor vascular functionality.

  15. GliomaPredict: a clinically useful tool for assigning glioma patients to specific molecular subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Howard A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in generating genome-wide gene expression data have accelerated the development of molecular-based tumor classification systems. Tools that allow the translation of such molecular classification schemas from research into clinical applications are still missing in the emerging era of personalized medicine. Results We developed GliomaPredict as a computational tool that allows the fast and reliable classification of glioma patients into one of six previously published stratified subtypes based on sets of extensively validated classifiers derived from hundreds of glioma transcriptomic profiles. Our tool utilizes a principle component analysis (PCA-based approach to generate a visual representation of the analyses, quantifies the confidence of the underlying subtype assessment and presents results as a printable PDF file. GliomaPredict tool is implemented as a plugin application for the widely-used GenePattern framework. Conclusions GliomaPredict provides a user-friendly, clinically applicable novel platform for instantly assigning gene expression-based subtype in patients with gliomas thereby aiding in clinical trial design and therapeutic decision-making. Implemented as a user-friendly diagnostic tool, we expect that in time GliomaPredict, and tools like it, will become routinely used in translational/clinical research and in the clinical care of patients with gliomas.

  16. Malignant hypercalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, U; Maruzzo, M; Roma, A; Camozzi, V; Luisetto, G; Lumachi, F

    2011-01-01

    Malignancy-associated hypercalcemia (MAH) is one of the clinical emergencies in medical oncology, arising early or, more often, during the late phases of disease. Prevalence cannot be estimated accurately because previous figures of 5-30% of all cancer patients have progressively reduced thanks to the widespread use of bisphosphonates for the prevention of skeletal events. The classic distinction of humoral vs. osteolytic hypercalcemia is still relevant from an etiological point of view, but should not be considered as a rigid alternative since both mechanisms may be active in the same patients and the activation of the RANKL pathway is a common pathogenetic mechanism. Parathyroid hormone-related protein mimics the effects of PTH on the bone and kidney (tubular calcium resorption) and may represent an attractive druggable target, but additional agents (cytokines or other mediators) as well as ectopic production of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ may give an important contribution to humoral hypercalcemia. Conversely, bone invasion by cancer cells determines massive bone reabsorption due to the release of proteolytic enzymes and pro-osteolytic agents with paracrine activity on adjacent bone and stromal cells. When cancer patients develop headache, confusion, de-hydration and tremors hypercalcemia should be suspected although slow rise of calcium levels may produce more indolent symptoms. Bisphosphonates (with or without hydration and diuretics) may efficiently control MAH but only if an active treatment for the underlying cancer is promptly started. The anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody denosumab represents a novel agent able to revert the vicious cycle of bone metastases and data from phase III studies are currently showing promising activity in reverting bone resorption with manageable toxicity.

  17. Perfusion MRI derived indices of microvascular shunting and flow control correlate with tumor grade and outcome in patients with cerebral glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietze, Anna; Mouridsen, Kim; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Deficient microvascular blood flow control is thought to cause tumor hypoxia and increase resistance to therapy. In glioma patients, we tested whether perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) based indices of microvascular flow control provide more information on tumor grade and patient outcome...... than does the established PWI angiogenesis marker, cerebral blood volume (CBV). Material and Methods: Seventy-two glioma patients (sixty high-grade, twelve low-grade gliomas) were included. Capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) and COV, its ratio to blood mean transit time, provide indices...

  18. Segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Julie D; Cohen, Philip R

    2010-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is an uncommon variant of neurofibromatosis type I characterized by neurofibromas and/or café-au-lait macules localized to one sector of the body. Although patients with neurofibromatosis type I have an associated increased risk of certain malignancies, malignancy has only occasionally been reported in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis. The published reports of patients with segmental neurofibromatosis who developed malignancy were reviewed and the characteristics of these patients and their cancers were summarized. Ten individuals (6 women and 4 men) with segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy have been reported. The malignancies include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (3), malignant melanoma (2), breast cancer (1), colon cancer (1), gastric cancer (1), lung cancer (1), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1). The most common malignancies in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis are derived from neural crest cells: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and malignant melanoma. The incidence of malignancy in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis may approach that of patients with neurofibromatosis type I.

  19. A clinical trial protocol for second line treatment of malignant brain tumors with BNCT at University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyama, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K., E-mail: knakai@Neurosurg-tsukuba.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyouku (Japan); Kumada, H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishikawa, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Isobe, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We have evaluated the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor using a new protocol. One of the two patients enrolled in this trial is a man with recurrent glioblastoma and the other is a woman with anaplastic meningioma. Both are still alive and no severe adverse events have been observed. Our findings suggest that NCT will be safe as a palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cases with recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic meningioma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No severe adverse events have been observed using BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT has a possibility of a safe palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors.

  20. Fighting fire with fire: the revival of thermotherapy for gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Titsworth, William; Murad, Greg J A; Hoh, Brian L; Rahman, Maryam

    2014-02-01

    In 1891, an orthopedic surgeon in New York noted the disappearance of an inoperable sarcoma in a patient after a febrile illness. This observation resulted in experiments assessing the utility of heat therapy or thermotherapy for the treatment of cancer. While it initially fell from favor, thermotherapy has recently made a resurgence, sparking investigations into its anticancer properties. This therapy is especially attractive for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is difficult to target due to the blood-brain barrier and recalcitrant to treatment. Here we briefly review the history of thermotherapy and then more methodically present the current literature as it relates to central nervous system malignancies. Recent developments show that heat is preferentially cytotoxic to tumor cells and induces cellular pathways which result in apoptotic and non-apoptotic death. Techniques to induce hyperthermia include regional hyperthermia by water bath, focused ultrasound, radiofrequency microwaves, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, and magnetic energy. The recent revival of these therapeutic approaches and their preliminary outcomes in the treatment of GBM is reviewed. From bacterial toxins to infusion of magnetic nanoparticles, hyperthermia has the potential to be an effective and easy-to-execute adjuvant therapy for GBM. Hyperthermia for GBM is a promising therapy as part of a growing armamentarium for malignant glioma treatment.

  1. Cognitive functioning early after surgery of gliomas in eloquent areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satoer, Djaina; Vork, Judith; Visch-Brink, Evy; Smits, Marion; Dirven, Clemens; Vincent, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    OBJECT: Patients with gliomas frequently have cognitive deficits, and surgery can exacerbate these deficits. Preoperative assessment is therefore crucial in patients undergoing surgery for glioma in eloquent areas, because the proximity of functional areas increases the risk of permanent

  2. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  3. Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ...

  4. Characteristics of gliomas in patients with somatic IDH mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Charlotte; Thomas, Laure; Psimaras, Dimitri; Bielle, Franck; Vauléon, Elodie; Loiseau, Hugues; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Dehais, Caroline; Honnorat, Jérôme; Sanson, Marc; Ducray, François

    2016-03-31

    IDH mutations are found in the majority of adult, diffuse, low-grade and anaplastic gliomas and are also frequently found in cartilaginous tumors. Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are two enchondromatosis syndromes characterized by the development of multiple benign cartilaginous tumors due to post-zygotic acquisition of IDH mutations. In addition to skeletal tumors, enchondromatosis patients sometimes develop gliomas. The aim of the present study was to determine whether gliomas in enchondromatosis patients might also result from somatic IDH mosaicism and whether their characteristics are similar to those of sporadic IDH-mutated gliomas. For this purpose, we analyzed the characteristics of 6 newly diagnosed and 32 previously reported cases of enchondromatosis patients who developed gliomas and compared them to those of a consecutive series of 159 patients with sporadic IDH-mutated gliomas. As was the case with sporadic IDH mutated gliomas, enchondromatosis gliomas were frequently located in the frontal lobe (54 %) and consisted of diffuse low-grade (73 %) or anaplastic gliomas (21 %). However, they were diagnosed at an earlier age (25.6 years versus 44 years, p IDH mutated gliomas (21 % versus 1 %, p IDH mutations and loss of ATRX expression. In two patients, the same IDH mutation was demonstrated in the glioma and in a cartilaginous tumor. In contrast to sporadic IDH mutated gliomas, no enchondromatosis glioma harbored a 1p/19q co-deletion (0/6 versus 59/123, p = 0.03). The characteristics of gliomas in patients with enchondromatosis suggest that these tumors, as cartilaginous tumors, result from somatic IDH mosaicism and that the timing of IDH mutation acquisition might affect the location and molecular characteristics of gliomas. Early acquisition of IDH mutations could shift gliomagenesis towards the brainstem thereby mimicking the regional preference of histone mutated gliomas.

  5. Oncolytic adenoviruses: A thorny path to glioma cure

    OpenAIRE

    Ulasov, I.V.; Borovjagin, A.V.; Schroeder, B.A.; Baryshnikov, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a rapidly progressing brain tumor. Despite the relatively low percentage of cancer patients with glioma diagnoses, recent statistics indicate that the number of glioma patients may have increased over the past decade. Current therapeutic options for glioma patients include tumor resection, chemotherapy, and concomitant radiation therapy with an average survival of approximately 16 months. The rapid progression of gliomas has spurred the development of novel tr...

  6. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  7. Classification based on mutations of TERT promoter and IDH characterizes subtypes in grade II/III gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei; Cai, Jinquan; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yinyan; Chen, Baoshi; Li, Guilin; Li, Shouwei; Wu, Chenxing; Yao, Kun; Li, Wenbin; Peng, Xiaoxia; You, Yongping; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Chuanlu; Qiu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Grade II and III gliomas have variable clinical behaviors, showing the distinct molecular genetic alterations from glioblastoma (GBM), many of which eventually transform into more aggressive tumors. Since the classifications of grade II/III gliomas based on the genetic alterations have been recently emerging, it is now a trend to include molecular data into the standard diagnostic algorithm of glioma. Here we sequenced TERT promoter mutational status (TERTp-mut) in the DNA of 377 grade II/III gliomas and analyzed the clinical factors, molecular aberrations, and transcriptome profiles. We found that TERTp-mut occurred in 145 of 377 grade II and III gliomas (38.5%), mutually exclusive with a TP53 mutation (TP53-mut; P IDH mutation (IDH-mut) subgroup (P = .018), but it has also been associated with a poor outcome in the IDH wild-type (IDH-wt) subgroup (P = .049). Combining TERTp-mut and IDH-mut allowed the grade II/III malignancies to be reclassified into IDH-mut/TERTp-mut, IDH-mut only, TERTp-mut only, and IDH-wt/TERTp-wt. 1p/19q co-deletion, TP53-muts, Ki-67 expression differences, and p-MET expression differences characterized IDH-mut/TERTp-mut, IDH-mut only, TERTp-mut only, and IDH-wt/TERTp-wt subtypes, respectively. Our results showed that TERTp-mut combined with IDH-mut allowed simple classification of grade II/III gliomas for stratifying patients and clarifying diagnostic accuracy by supplementing standard histopathological criteria. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Treatment Response Assessment in IDH-Mutant Glioma Patients by Noninvasive 3D Functional Spectroscopic Mapping of 2-Hydroxyglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Loebel, Franziska; Bogner, Wolfgang; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Iafrate, A John; Dietrich, Jorg; Batchelor, Tracy T; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Kaelin, William G; Chi, Andrew S; Rosen, Bruce R; Cahill, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of objective response rates are critical to evaluate new glioma therapies. The hallmark metabolic alteration in gliomas with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is the overproduction of oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which plays a key role in malignant transformation. 2HG represents an ideal biomarker to probe treatment response in IDH-mutant glioma patients, and we hypothesized a decrease in 2HG levels would be measureable by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a result of antitumor therapy. We report a prospective longitudinal imaging study performed in 25 IDH-mutant glioma patients receiving adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. A newly developed 3D MRS imaging was used to noninvasively image 2HG. Paired Student t test was used to compare pre- and posttreatment tumor 2HG values. Test-retest measurements were performed to determine the threshold for 2HG functional spectroscopic maps (fSM). Univariate and multivariate regression were performed to correlate 2HG changes with Karnofsky performance score (KPS). We found that mean 2HG (2HG/Cre) levels decreased significantly (median = 48.1%; 95% confidence interval = 27.3%-56.5%;P= 0.007) in the posttreatment scan. The volume of decreased 2HG correlates (R(2)= 0.88,P= 0.002) with clinical status evaluated by KPS. We demonstrate that dynamic measurements of 2HG are feasible by 3D fSM, and the decrease of 2HG levels can monitor treatment response in patients with IDH-mutant gliomas. Our results indicate that quantitative in vivo 2HG imaging may be used for precision medicine and early response assessment in clinical trials of therapies targeting IDH-mutant gliomas. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Culture conditions tailored to the cell of origin are critical for maintaining native properties and tumorigenicity of glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledur, Pítia F; Liu, Chong; He, Hua; Harris, Alexandra R; Minussi, Darlan C; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Shaffrey, Mark E; Asthagiri, Ashok; Lopes, Maria Beatriz S; Schiff, David; Lu, Yi-Cheng; Mandell, James W; Lenz, Guido; Zong, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Cell culture plays a pivotal role in cancer research. However, culture-induced changes in biological properties of tumor cells profoundly affect research reproducibility and translational potential. Establishing culture conditions tailored to the cancer cell of origin could resolve this problem. For glioma research, it has been previously shown that replacing serum with defined growth factors for neural stem cells (NSCs) greatly improved the retention of gene expression profile and tumorigenicity. However, among all molecular subtypes of glioma, our laboratory and others have previously shown that the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) rather than the NSC serves as the cell of origin for the proneural subtype, raising questions regarding the suitability of NSC-tailored media for culturing proneural glioma cells. OPC-originated mouse glioma cells were cultured in conditions for normal OPCs or NSCs, respectively, for multiple passages. Gene expression profiles, morphologies, tumorigenicity, and drug responsiveness of cultured cells were examined in comparison with freshly isolated tumor cells. OPC media-cultured glioma cells maintained tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles, and morphologies similar to freshly isolated tumor cells. In contrast, NSC-media cultured glioma cells gradually lost their OPC features and most tumor-initiating ability and acquired heightened sensitivity to temozolomide. To improve experimental reproducibility and translational potential of glioma research, it is important to identify the cell of origin, and subsequently apply this knowledge to establish culture conditions that allow the retention of native properties of tumor cells. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Bromelain Reversibly Inhibits Invasive Properties of Glioma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tysnes, Berit B; Maurer, H Rainer; Porwol, Torsten; Probst, Beatrice; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Hoover, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Bromelain is an aqueous extract from pineapple stem that contains proteinases and exhibits pleiotropic therapeutic effects, i.e., antiedematous, antiinflammatory, antimetastatic, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic activities. In this study, we tested bromelain's effects on glioma cells to assess whether bromelain could be a potential contributor to new antiinvasive strategies for gliomas. Several complementary assays demonstrated that bromelain significantly and reversibly reduced glioma cell a...

  11. Endothelial Cell Implantation and Survival within Experimental Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Bachchu; Indurti, Ravi R.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Goldstein, Gary W.; Laterra, John

    1994-10-01

    The delivery of therapeutic genes to primary brain neoplasms opens new opportunities for treating these frequently fatal tumors. Efficient gene delivery to tissues remains an important obstacle to therapy, and this problem has unique characteristics in brain tumors due to the blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers. The presence of endothelial mitogens and vessel proliferation within solid tumors suggests that genetically modified endothelial cells might efficiently transplant to brain tumors. Rat brain endothelial cells immortalized with the adenovirus E1A gene and further modified to express the β-galactosidase reporter were examined for their ability to survive implantation to experimental rat gliomas. Rats received 9L, F98, or C6 glioma cells in combination with endothelial cells intracranially to caudate/putamen or subcutaneously to flank. Implanted endothelial cells were identified by β-galactosidase histochemistry or by polymerase chain reaction in all tumors up to 35 days postimplantation, the latest time examined. Implanted endothelial cells appeared to cooperate in tumor vessel formation and expressed the brain-specific endothelial glucose transporter type 1 as identified by immunohistochemistry. The proliferation of implanted endothelial cells was supported by their increased number within tumors between postimplantation days 14 and 21 (P = 0.015) and by their expression of the proliferation antigen Ki67. These findings establish that genetically modified endothelial cells can be stably engrafted to growing gliomas and suggest that endothelial cell implantation may provide a means of delivering therapeutic genes to brain neoplasms and other solid tumors. In addition, endothelial implantation to brain may be useful for defining mechanisms of brain-specific endothelial differentiation.

  12. T11TS immunotherapy repairs PI3K-AKT signaling in T-cells: Clues toward enhanced T-cell survival in rat glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Singh, Manoj K; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Datta, Ankur; Hazra, Iman; Mondal, Somnath; Faruk Sk Md, Omar; Ronsard, Larance; Ghosh, Tushar K; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2018-02-01

    Malignant glioma is the most fatal of astrocytic lineage tumors despite therapeutic advances. Onset and progression of gliomas is accompanied by severe debilitation of T-cell defense and T-cell survival. One of the chief contributors to T-cell survival downstream of activation is the PI3K-AKT pathway. Our prior studies showed that the novel immunotherapeutic molecule T11-target structure (T11TS) blocks T-cell apoptosis in glioma. We also showed activation of immunological synapse components and calcineurin-NFAT pathway following T11TS immunotherapy of glioma-bearing rats. This lead to investigations whether such T-cell activation upon T11TS therapy translates into activation of downstream PI3K/AKT signals which may be related to observed blockade of T-cell apoptosis. For the purpose, we assessed by flowcytometry and immunoblotting, expressions of PI3K, PDK1, AKT, p-AKT, and PTEN in splenic T-cells of normal, experimentally-induced glioma-bearing rats and glioma-bearing rats receiving first, second and third doses of T11TS. We also determined comparative nuclear translocation of NF-κB across groups. We found significant increases in T-cell expressions of PDK1, PI3K, and p-AKT in T11TS-treated animal groups compared to sharp downregulations in glioma. AKT levels remained unchanged across groups. PTEN levels declined sharply after T11TS immunotherapy. T11TS also caused enhanced NF-κB translocation to the T-cell nucleus compared to glioma group. Results showed heightened activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway in glioma-bearing rats following T11TS immunotherapy. These results illustrate the novel role of T11TS immunotherapy in ameliorating the PI3K pathway in T-cells in glioma-bearing animals to enhance T-cell survival, according greater defense against glioma. The study thus has far-reaching clinical outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dendritic cell vaccines based on immunogenic cell death elicit danger signals and T cell-driven rejection of high-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhishek D; Vandenberk, Lien; Koks, Carolien; Verschuere, Tina; Boon, Louis; Van Gool, Stefaan W; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2016-03-02

    The promise of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has been established by two decades of translational research. Of the four malignancies most targeted with clinical DC immunotherapy, high-grade glioma (HGG) has shown the highest susceptibility. HGG-induced immunosuppression is a roadblock to immunotherapy, but may be overcome by the application of T helper 1 (T(H)1) immunity-biased, next-generation, DC immunotherapy. To this end, we combined DC immunotherapy with immunogenic cell death (ICD; a modality shown to induce T(H)1 immunity) induced by hypericin-based photodynamic therapy. In an orthotopic HGG mouse model involving prophylactic/curative setups, both biologically and clinically relevant versions of ICD-based DC vaccines provided strong anti-HGG survival benefit. We found that the ability of DC vaccines to elicit HGG rejection was significantly blunted if cancer cell-associated reactive oxygen species and emanating danger signals were blocked either singly or concomitantly, showing hierarchical effect on immunogenicity, or if DCs, DC-associated MyD88 signal, or the adaptive immune system (especially CD8(+) T cells) were depleted. In a curative setting, ICD-based DC vaccines synergized with standard-of-care chemotherapy (temozolomide) to increase survival of HGG-bearing mice by ~300%, resulting in ~50% long-term survivors. Additionally, DC vaccines also induced an immunostimulatory shift in the brain immune contexture from regulatory T cells to T(H)1/cytotoxic T lymphocyte/T(H)17 cells. Analysis of the The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma cohort confirmed that increased intratumor prevalence of T(H)1/cytotoxic T lymphocyte/T(H)17 cells linked genetic signatures was associated with good patient prognosis. Therefore, pending final preclinical checks, ICD-based vaccines can be clinically translated for glioma treatment. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. In vivo visualization of GL261-luc2 mouse glioma cells by use of Alexa Fluor-labeled TRP-2 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Kathryn E; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Abdelwahab, Mohammed G; Coons, Stephen W; Preul, Mark C; Scheck, Adrienne C

    2014-02-01

    For patients with glioblastoma multiforme, median survival time is approximately 14 months. Longer progression-free and overall survival times correlate with gross-total resection of tumor. The ability to identify tumor cells intraoperatively could result in an increased percentage of tumor resected and thus increased patient survival times. Available labeling methods rely on metabolic activity of tumor cells; thus, they are more robust in high-grade tumors, and their utility in low-grade tumors and metastatic tumors is not clear. The authors demonstrate intraoperative identification of tumor cells by using labeled tumor-specific antibodies. GL261 mouse glioma cells exhibit high expression of a membrane-bound protein called second tyrosinase-related protein (TRP-2). The authors used these cells to establish an intracranial, immunocompetent model of malignant glioma. Antibodies to TRP-2 were labeled by using Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent dye and injected into the tail vein of albino C57BL/6 mice. After 24 hours, a craniotomy was performed and the tissue was examined in vivo by using an Optiscan 5.1 handheld portable confocal fiber-optic microscope. Tissue was examined ex vivo by using a Pascal 5 scanning confocal microscope. Labeled tumor cells were visible in vivo and ex vivo under the respective microscopes. Fluorescently labeled tumor-specific antibodies are capable of binding and identifying tumor cells in vivo, accurately and specifically. The development of labeled markers for the identification of brain tumors will facilitate the use of intraoperative fluorescence microscopy as a tool for increasing the extent of resection of a broad variety of intracranial tumors.

  15. Tissue Proteome Analysis of Different Grades of Human Gliomas Provides Major Cues for Glioma Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapalli, Kishore; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Atak, Apurva; Rapole, Srikanth; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2017-05-01

    Gliomas are heterogeneous and most commonly occurring brain tumors. Blood-brain barrier restricts the entry of brain tumor proteins into blood stream thus limiting the usage of serum or plasma for proteomic analysis. Our study aimed at understanding the molecular basis of aggressiveness of various grades of brain tumors using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based mass spectrometry. Tissue proteomic analysis of various grades of gliomas was performed using four-plex iTRAQ. We labeled five sets (each set consists of control, grade-II, III, and IV tumor samples) of individual glioma patients using iTRAQ reagents. Significantly altered proteins were subjected to bioinformatics analysis using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Various metabolic pathways like glycolysis, TCA-cycle, electron transport chain, lactate metabolism, and blood coagulation pathways were majorly observed to be perturbed in gliomas. Most of the identified proteins involved in redox reactions, protein folding, pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, antiapoptosis, and blood coagulation were found to be upregulated in gliomas. Transcriptomics data of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and controls were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal and further analyzed using BRB-Array tools. Expression levels of a few significantly altered proteins like lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, fibrinogen alpha chain, nucleophosmin, annexin A5, thioredoxin, ferritin light chain, thymosin beta-4-like protein 3, superoxide dismutase-2, and peroxiredoxin-1 and 6 showed a positive correlation with increasing grade of gliomas thereby offering an insight into molecular basis behind their aggressive nature. Several proteins identified in different grades of gliomas are potential grade-specific markers, and perturbed pathways provide comprehensive overview of molecular cues involved in glioma

  16. Glioma cells on the run – the migratory transcriptome of 10 human glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holz David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary intracranial tumor and despite recent advances in treatment regimens, prognosis for affected patients remains poor. Active cell migration and invasion of GBM cells ultimately lead to ubiquitous tumor recurrence and patient death. To further understand the genetic mechanisms underlying the ability of glioma cells to migrate, we compared the matched transcriptional profiles of migratory and stationary populations of human glioma cells. Using a monolayer radial migration assay, motile and stationary cell populations from seven human long term glioma cell lines and three primary GBM cultures were isolated and prepared for expression analysis. Results Gene expression signatures of stationary and migratory populations across all cell lines were identified using a pattern recognition approach that integrates a priori knowledge with expression data. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed two discriminating patterns between migrating and stationary glioma cells: i global down-regulation and ii global up-regulation profiles that were used in a proband-based rule function implemented in GABRIEL to find subsets of genes having similar expression patterns. Genes with up-regulation pattern in migrating glioma cells were found to be overexpressed in 75% of human GBM biopsy specimens compared to normal brain. A 22 gene signature capable of classifying glioma cultures based on their migration rate was developed. Fidelity of this discovery algorithm was assessed by validation of the invasion candidate gene, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF. siRNA mediated knockdown yielded reduced in vitro migration and ex vivo invasion; immunohistochemistry on glioma invasion tissue microarray confirmed up-regulation of CTGF in invasive glioma cells. Conclusion Gene expression profiling of migratory glioma cells induced to disperse in vitro affords discovery of genomic signatures; selected

  17. Hedgehog Signaling in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Felley-Bosco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a cancer associated with exposure to asbestos fibers, which accumulate in the pleural space, damage tissue and stimulate regeneration. Hedgehog signaling is a pathway important during embryonic mesothelium development and is inactivated in adult mesothelium. The pathway is reactivated in some MPM patients with poor clinical outcome, mainly mediated by the expression of the ligands. Nevertheless, mutations in components of the pathway have been observed in a few cases. Data from different MPM animal models and primary culture suggest that both autocrine and paracrine Hedgehog signaling are important to maintain tumor growth. Drugs inhibiting the pathway at the level of the smoothened receptor (Smo or glioma-associated protein transcription factors (Gli have been used mostly in experimental models. For clinical development, biomarkers are necessary for the selection of patients who can benefit from Hedgehog signaling inhibition.

  18. Malignant diseases as suicidal motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide. It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method The analysis was performed using the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, during the period from 1990 to 2004. The reports on performed medico-legal autopsies were used, as well as history data obtained from the family members of suicidal persons, investigation reports and the available medical documents. Results In 1931 cases there was established suicidal nature of a violent death. Neoplasms were the suicidal motive in 37 persons (1.9%. The basic characteristics of the analyzed sample were predominance of males (26:11, ratio 2.4:1, the age of over 70 years and the highest incidence of malignant lung and breast tumors. Almost all cases were the persons who underwent treatment for malignant neoplasms over a longer period of time. During 19 autopsies (51.3% out of 37, a progressive phase of malignancy was established, i.e. metastases. The data on prior oral announcement of suicide intention were obtained for 70.3% (26 cases, and on previous suicidal attempts only for 13.5% (5 cases. In the majority of cases (78.4% the place of committed suicide was the person’s home. In 16 cases (43.2% the suicide was committed with a firearm. Hanging as a manner of destroying one’s own life was chosen by 12 persons (32.4%, while other ways were less frequently used. Conclusion Although malignancies were not present with high incidence as a suicidal motive in our analyzed sample, such cases require particular

  19. {sup 18}F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography for grading and estimation of prognosis in patients with intracranial gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gempt, Jens, E-mail: jens.gempt@tum.de [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Bette, Stefanie; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Buchmann, Niels; Peschke, Patrick [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Pyka, Thomas; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Förster, Stefan [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of {sup 18}F-FET-PET (FET-PET) for the grading and estimation of prognosis in newly diagnosed patients with intracranial gliomas in a clinical setting. • One hundred fifty-two patients (39 WHO II, 26 WHO III, 87 WHO IV) were included. The median T/N ratio of low-grade glioma patients was 1.65 (1.1–3.7), and 3.14 (1.61–8.1, p < 0.001) in high-grade glioma patients. • The test of the maximally selected log-rank statistic resulted in a T/N ratio of 1.88 as the cut-off value, with the greatest difference in overall survival between patients with longer and shorter survival. • Regarding the prognostic validity for overall survival ROC-curves display an AUC of 0.847 for the 48-month survival for T/N ratio and MRI contrast-enhancement. • Our study suggests that FET-PET can predict prognosis and survival in patients harboring intracranial gliomas. - Abstract: Introduction: Histopathological examination is the standard for grading and determination of diagnosis in intrinsic brain tumors though the possibility of malignization and tumor heterogeneity always bears the possibility of tumor under-grading or misjudgement regarding the estimation of prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of {sup 18}F-FET-PET (FET-PET) for the grading and estimation of prognosis in newly diagnosed patients with intracranial gliomas in a clinical setting. Methods: Patients who were treated for a newly diagnosed intracranial glioma between January 2007 and May 2012, and had a preoperative FET-PET and MRI scan between were included. The ratio of counts in a tumor VOI (volume of interest) with maximum uptake to the respective counts in a background VOI was calculated to provide the tumor-to-normal (T/N) ratio. The clinical and histopathological data (tumor grading, pre- and postoperative neurological status, Karnofsky Performance Status Scale scores, and overall survival rates) were recorded

  20. Extent of resection and survival in supratentorial infiltrative low-grade gliomas: analysis of and adjustment for treatment bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Simon, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Any correlation between the extent of resection and the prognosis of patients with supratentorial infiltrative low-grade gliomas may well be related to biased treatment allocation. Patients with an intrinsically better prognosis may undergo more aggressive resections, and better survival may then be falsely attributed to the surgery rather than the biology of the disease. The present study investigates the potential impact of this type of treatment bias on survival in a series of patients with low-grade gliomas treated at the authors' institution. We conducted a retrospective study of 148 patients with low-grade gliomas undergoing primary treatment at our institution from 1996-2011. Potential prognostic factors were studied in order to identify treatment bias and to adjust survival analyses accordingly. Eloquence of tumor location proved the most powerful predictor of the extent of resection, i.e., the principal source of treatment bias. Univariate as well as multivariate Cox regression analyses identified the extent of resection and the presence of a preoperative neurodeficit as the most important predictors of overall survival, tumor recurrence and malignant progression. After stratification for eloquence of tumor location in order to correct for treatment bias, Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a consistent association between the degree of resection and improved survival. Treatment bias was not responsible for the correlation between extent of resection and survival observed in the present series. Our data seem to provide further support for a strategy of maximum safe resections for low-grade gliomas.

  1. Textural analysis of pre-therapeutic [18F]-FET-PET and its correlation with tumor grade and patient survival in high-grade gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyka, Thomas; Hiob, Daniela; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Neurosurgic Department, Munich (Germany); Schlegel, Juergen [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Munich (Germany); Bette, Stefanie [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Neuroradiologic department, Munich (Germany); Foerster, Stefan [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (FET) is well established in the diagnostic work-up of malignant brain tumors. Analysis of FET-PET data using tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) has been shown to be highly valuable for the detection of viable hypermetabolic brain tumor tissue; however, it has not proven equally useful for tumor grading. Recently, textural features in 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET have been proposed as a method to quantify the heterogeneity of glucose metabolism in a variety of tumor entities. Herein we evaluate whether textural FET-PET features are of utility for grading and prognostication in patients with high-grade gliomas. One hundred thirteen patients (70 men, 43 women) with histologically proven high-grade gliomas were included in this retrospective study. All patients received static FET-PET scans prior to first-line therapy. TBR (max and mean), volumetric parameters and textural parameters based on gray-level neighborhood difference matrices were derived from static FET-PET images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and discriminant function analyses were used to assess the value for tumor grading. Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate and multivariate Cox regression were employed for analysis of progression-free and overall survival. All FET-PET textural parameters showed the ability to differentiate between World Health Organization (WHO) grade III and IV tumors (p < 0.001; AUC 0.775). Further improvement in discriminatory power was possible through a combination of texture and metabolic tumor volume, classifying 85 % of tumors correctly (AUC 0.830). TBR and volumetric parameters alone were correlated with tumor grade, but showed lower AUC values (0.644 and 0.710, respectively). Furthermore, a correlation of FET-PET texture but not TBR was shown with patient PFS and OS, proving significant in multivariate analysis as well. Volumetric parameters were predictive for OS, but this correlation did not

  2. Frequency of Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences in human gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fragelli Fonseca

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is also associated with several human tumors, including Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, some cases of gastric carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, among other neoplasms. The aim of this study was to screen 75 primary gliomas for the presence of specific EBV DNA sequences by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, with confirmation by direct sequencing. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prevalence study on EBV molecular genetics at a molecular pathology laboratory in a university hospital and at an applied genetics laboratory in a national institution. METHODS: A total of 75 primary glioma biopsies and 6 others from other tumors from the central nervous system were obtained. The tissues were immediately frozen for subsequent DNA extraction by means of traditional methods using proteinase K digestion and extraction with a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol mixture. DNA was precipitated with ethanol, resuspended in buffer and stored. The PCRs were carried out using primers for amplification of the EBV BamM region. Positive and negative controls were added to each reaction. The PCR products were used for direct sequencing for confirmation. RESULTS: The viral sequences were positive in 11/75 (14.7% of our samples. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of EBV DNA was 11/75 (14.7% in our glioma collection. Further molecular and epidemiological studies are needed to establish the possible role played by EBV in the tumorigenesis of gliomas.

  3. Bystander effect in glioma suicide gene therapy using bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoyi; Gu, Chunyu; Gao, Yun; Amano, Shinji; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

    2012-11-01

    An established rat intracranial glioma was successfully treated through the tumoricidal bystander effect generated by intratumoral injection of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transduced with the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene (BMSCtk cells) followed by systemic ganciclovir administration. In the present study, we tested the bystander effect of this treatment strategy when using human BMSCs as the vector cells. Human BMSCtk cells were mixed with various kinds of brain tumor cell lines (human and rat glioma cells) and examined in vitro and in vivo tumoricidal bystander effects, by co-culture study and co-implantation study in the nude mouse, respectively. A significant in vitro bystander effect was observed between human BMSCtk cells and any of the tumor cells examined in the ganciclovir-containing medium. A potent in vivo bystander effect against human and rat glioma cells was also demonstrated when ganciclovir was administered. Migratory activity of the human BMSCs toward the tumor cells was enhanced by the conditioned media obtained from both human and rat glioma cells compared to the fresh media. The results of this study have demonstrated that the bystander effect generated by BMSCtk cells and ganciclovir is not cell type-specific, suggesting that the strategy would be quite feasible for clinical use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Convection-Enhanced Delivery for Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Treatment.

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    Zhou, Zhiping; Singh, Ranjodh; Souweidane, Mark M

    2017-01-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a technique designed to deliver drugs directly into the brain or tumors. Its ability to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), one of the major hurdles in delivering drugs to the brain, has made it a promising drug delivery method for the treatment of primary brain tumors. A number of clinical trials utilizing CED of various therapeutic agents have been conducted to treat patients with supratentorial high-grade gliomas. Significant responses have been observed in certain patients in all of these trials. However, the insufficient ability to monitor drug distribution and pharmacokinetics hampers CED from achieving its potentials on a larger scale. Brainstem CED for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) treatment is appealing because this tumor is compact and has no definitive treatment. The safety of brainstem CED has been established in small and large animals, and recently in early stage clinical trials. There are a few current clinical trials of brainstem CED in treating DIPG patients using targeted macromolecules such as antibodies and immunotoxins. Future advances for CED in DIPG treatment will come from several directions including: choosing the right agents for infusion; developing better agents and regimen for DIPG infusion; improving instruments and technique for easier and accurate surgical targeting and for allowing multisession or prolonged infusion to implement optimal time sequence; and better understanding and control of drug distribution, clearance and time sequence. CED-based therapies for DIPG will continue to evolve with new understanding of the technique and the disease.

  5. [Guidelines for the radiotherapy of gliomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuvret, L; Antoni, D; Biau, J; Truc, G; Noël, G; Mazeron, J-J

    2016-09-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumours. Treating these tumours is difficult because of the proximity of organs at risk, infiltrating nature, and radioresistance. Clinical prognostic factors such as age, Karnofsky performance status, tumour location, and treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have long been recognized in the management of patients with gliomas. Molecular biomarkers are increasingly evolving as additional factors that facilitate diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. These practice guidelines aim at helping in choosing the best treatment, in particular radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. SOX2-RNAi attenuates S-phase entry and induces RhoA-dependent switch to protease-independent amoeboid migration in human glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppel Felix

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SOX2, a high mobility group (HMG-box containing transcription factor, is a key regulator during development of the nervous system and a persistent marker of neural stem cells. Recent studies suggested a role of SOX2 in tumor progression. In our previous work we detected SOX2 in glioma cells and glioblastoma specimens. Herein, we aim to explore the role of SOX2 for glioma malignancy in particular its role in cell proliferation and migration. Methods Retroviral shRNA-vectors were utilized to stably knockdown SOX2 in U343-MG and U373-MG cells. The resulting phenotype was investigated by Western blot, migration/invasion assays, RhoA G-LISA, time lapse video imaging, and orthotopic xenograft experiments. Results SOX2 depletion results in pleiotropic effects including attenuated cell proliferation caused by decreased levels of cyclinD1. Also an increased TCF/LEF-signaling and concomitant decrease in Oct4 and Nestin expression was noted. Furthermore, down-regulation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK signaling and of downstream proteins such as HEF1/NEDD9, matrix metalloproteinases pro-MMP-1 and -2 impaired invasive proteolysis-dependent migration. Yet, cells with knockdown of SOX2 switched to a RhoA-dependent amoeboid-like migration mode which could be blocked by the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 downstream of RhoA-signaling. Orthotopic xenograft experiments revealed a higher tumorigenicity of U343-MG glioma cells transduced with shRNA targeting SOX2 which was characterized by increased dissemination of glioma cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest that SOX2 plays a role in the maintenance of a less differentiated glioma cell phenotype. In addition, the results indicate a critical role of SOX2 in adhesion and migration of malignant gliomas.

  7. Local injection of the {sup 90}Y-labelled peptidic vector DOTATOC to control gliomas of WHO grades II and III: an extended pilot study

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    Schumacher, T.; Mueller-Brand, J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospitals, Basel (Switzerland); Hofer, S.; Wasner, M.; Zimmerer, S.; Gratzl, O.; Merlo, A. [Neurosurgical Clinic, University Hospitals, Spitalstrasse 21, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); Eichhorn, K. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospitals, Basel (Switzerland); Neurosurgical Clinic, University Hospitals, Spitalstrasse 21, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); Freitag, P. [Neuroradiology, University Hospitals, Basel (Switzerland); Probst, A. [Neuropathology, University Hospitals, Basel (Switzerland); Reubi, J.-C. [Institute of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Maecke, H.R. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospitals, Basel (Switzerland); Radiological Chemistry Unit, University Hospitals, Basel (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    We have previously presented preliminary observations on targeting somatostatin receptor-positive malignant gliomas of all grades by local injection of the radiolabelled peptidic vector {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC. We now report on our more thorough clinical experience with this novel compound, focussing on low-grade and anaplastic gliomas. Small peptidic vectors have the potential to target invisible infiltrative disease within normal surrounding brain tissue, thereby opening a window of opportunity for early intervention. Five progressive gliomas of WHO grades II and III and five extensively debulked low-grade gliomas were treated with varying fractions of {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC. The vectors were locally injected into the resection cavity or into solid tumour. The activity per single injection ranged from 555 to 1,875 MBq, and the cumulative activity from 555 to 7,030 MBq, according to tumour volumes and eloquence of the affected brain area, yielding dose estimates from 76{+-}15 to 312{+-}62 Gy. Response was assessed by the clinical status, by steroid dependence and, every 4-6 months, by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. In the five progressive gliomas, lasting responses were obtained for at least 13-45 months without the need for steroids. Radiopeptide brachytherapy had been the only modality applied to counter tumour progression. Interestingly, we observed the slow transformation of a solid, primarily inoperable anaplastic astrocytoma into a resectable multi-cystic lesion 2 years after radiopeptide brachytherapy. Based on these observations, we also assessed the feasibility of local radiotherapy following extensive debulking, which was well tolerated. Targeted beta-particle irradiation based on diffusible small peptidic vectors appears to be a promising modality for the treatment of malignant gliomas. (orig.)

  8. Brain pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir in rats with orthotopic BT4C glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynther, Mikko; Kääriäinen, Tiina M; Hakkarainen, Jenni J; Jalkanen, Aaro J; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Lehtonen, Marko; Peura, Lauri; Kurkipuro, Jere; Samaranayake, Haritha; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Rautio, Jarkko; Forsberg, Markus M

    2015-01-01

    Ganciclovir (GCV) is an essential part of the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene therapy of malignant gliomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain pharmacokinetics and tumor uptake of GCV in the BT4C rat glioma model. GCV's brain and tumor uptakes were investigated by in vivo microdialysis in rats with orthotopic BT4C glioma. In addition, the ability of GCV to cross the blood-brain barrier and tumor vasculature was assessed with in situ rat brain perfusion. Finally, the extent to which GCV could permeate across the BT4C glioma cell membrane was assessed in vitro. The areas under the concentration curve of unbound GCV in blood, brain extracellular fluid (ECF), and tumor ECF were 6157, 1658, and 4834 μM⋅min, respectively. The apparent maximum unbound concentrations achieved within 60 minutes were 46.9, 11.8, and 25.8 μM in blood, brain, and tumor, respectively. The unbound GCV concentrations in brain and tumor after in situ rat brain perfusion were 0.41 and 1.39 nmol/g, respectively. The highly polar GCV likely crosses the fenestrated tumor vasculature by paracellular diffusion. Thus, GCV is able to reach the extracellular space around the tumor at higher concentrations than that in healthy brain. However, GCV uptake into BT4C cells at 100 μM was only 2.1 pmol/mg of protein, and no active transporter-mediated disposition of GCV could be detected in vitro. In conclusion, the limited efficacy of HSV-tk/GCV gene therapy may be due to the poor cellular uptake and rapid elimination of GCV. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Glioma-associated protein CHI3L2 suppresses cells viability and induces G1/S transition arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdieiev S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the effect of the CHI3L2 protein on malignant and non-malignant cell viability, and determined the CHI3L2 impact on the cell cycle and signaling pathways involved in the cell cycle regulation. Methods. MTT-based cell proliferation assay, FACS, western blot analysis. Results. The CHI3L2 protein inhibits the glioma cells viability and potentiates the effect of anti-cancer cytotoxic agents. The CHI3L2 treatment results in the G1/S transition arrest. CHI3L2 provoked a dramatic reduction of pRB phosphorylation and a significant decrease in the cyclin D1 expression, whereas the p53 and