WorldWideScience

Sample records for established cardiovascular risk

  1. Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Prevalence of Nine Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Southern European Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Silva, Susana; Barros, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors across socioeconomic position (SEP) categories may unravel mechanisms involved in the development of coronary heart disease. Using a sample of 1704 community dwellers of a Portuguese urban center aged 40 years or older, assessed in 1999–2003, we quantified the age-standardized prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, sedentariness, abdominal obesity, poor diet, excessive alcohol intake and depression) across SEP and gender categories. Data on individual education and occupation were collected by questionnaire and used to characterize SEP. The prevalence of seven out of nine well-established risk factors was higher in men. Among women, the prevalence of most of the studied risk factors was higher in lower SEP groups. The main exception was smoking, which increased with education and occupation levels. Among men, socioeconomic gradients were less clear, but lower SEP was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, excessive alcohol intake and depression in a graded mode. The historical cultural beliefs and practices captured throughout the lifecourse frame the wide socioeconomic gradients discernible in our study conducted in an unequal European developed population. While men were more exposed to most risk factors, the clearer associations between SEP and risk factors among women support that their adoption of particular healthy behaviors is more dependent on material and symbolic conditions. To fully address the issue of health inequalities, interventions within the health systems should be complemented with population-based policies specifically designed to reduce socioeconomic gradients. PMID:22666343

  2. Using simulation to compare established and emerging interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Jack; Wile, Kristina; Yarnoff, Benjamin; Trogdon, Justin G; Hirsch, Gary; Cooper, Lawton; Soler, Robin; Orenstein, Diane

    2014-11-06

    Computer simulation offers the ability to compare diverse interventions for reducing cardiovascular disease risks in a controlled and systematic way that cannot be done in the real world. We used the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) to analyze the effect of 50 intervention levers, grouped into 6 (2 x 3) clusters on the basis of whether they were established or emerging and whether they acted in the policy domains of care (clinical, mental health, and behavioral services), air (smoking, secondhand smoke, and air pollution), or lifestyle (nutrition and physical activity). Uncertainty ranges were established through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results indicate that by 2040, all 6 intervention clusters combined could result in cumulative reductions of 49% to 54% in the cardiovascular risk-related death rate and of 13% to 21% in risk factor-attributable costs. A majority of the death reduction would come from Established interventions, but Emerging interventions would also contribute strongly. A slim majority of the cost reduction would come from Emerging interventions. PRISM allows public health officials to examine the potential influence of different types of interventions - both established and emerging - for reducing cardiovascular risks. Our modeling suggests that established interventions could still contribute much to reducing deaths and costs, especially through greater use of well-known approaches to preventive and acute clinical care, whereas emerging interventions have the potential to contribute significantly, especially through certain types of preventive care and improved nutrition.

  3. Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance: established cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott G; Goodman, Jack M; Burr, Jamie F

    2011-07-01

    Physical activity is an effective lifestyle therapy for patients at risk for, or with, documented cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current screening tools--the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) and the Physical Activity Readiness Medical Evaluation (PARmed-X)--require updating to align with risk/benefit evidence. We provide evidence-based recommendations to identify individuals with CVD at lower risk, intermediate risk, or higher risk of adverse events when participating in physical activity. Forms of exercise and the settings that will appropriately manage the risks are identified. A computer-assisted search of electronic databases, using search terms for CVD and physical activity risks and benefits, was employed. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation were applied to assess the evidence and assign a strength of evidence rating. A strength rating for the physical activity participation clearance recommendation was assigned on the basis of the evidence. Recommendations for physical activity clearance were made for specific CVD groups. Evidence indicates that those who are medically stable, who are involved with physical activity, and who have adequate physical ability can participate in physical activity of lower to moderate risk. Patients at higher risk can exercise in medically supervised programs. Systematic evaluation of evidence indicates that clinically stable individuals with CVD may participate in physical activity with little risk of adverse events. Therefore, changes in the PAR-Q should be undertaken and a process of assessment and consultation to replace the PARmed-X should be developed. Patients at lower risk may exercise at low to moderate intensities with minimal supervision. Those at intermediate risk should exercise with guidance from a qualified exercise professional. Patients at higher risk should exercise in medically supervised programs.

  4. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafarmand, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors

  5. Increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase level and development of established cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimba, Sachiyo; Nakagami, Tomoko; Oya, Junko; Wasada, Taro; Endo, Yasuhiro; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the predictive value of changes in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Japanese. A total of 1514 adult participants in a general health examination program were followed for 3 years until January, 2006. The subjects were divided into two groups according to whether their serum GGT level had decreased ( or =1 U/L) from the baseline level of GGT during the study period. The logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between increases in GGT levels and the incidence of diabetes (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), dyslipidemia, and hypertension (HT). The mean value of GGT level was significantly higher at baseline than the 3-year follow-up point (47 +/- 41 versus 41 +/- 51, P < 0.0001), and the average 3-year GGT change was -5.7 +/- 32.3 U/L. The subjects with an increased GGT over the 3 years had an increased risk of developing DM, IFG, high triglyceride (TG) levels, and HT, in comparison with that of the subjects with a decreased GGT level, with an odds ratios (OR) of 6.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.83-13.25), 2.70 (1.68-4.34), 2.65 (1.76-3.99), and 1.54 (1.12-2.13), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, and alcohol habits. Further adjustments for baseline GGT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), body mass index (BMI), and 3-year changes in BMI did not alter these associations. The increased change in GGT over 3 years was a significant and an independent risk factor for the development of high TG, HT, IFG, and DM in Japanese.

  6. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... Introduction. Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause in the majority of cardiovascular disease events. Traditional independent risk factors for car diovascular disease include age, abnormal lipid levels, elevated blood ...

  7. Cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z.; Jespersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Aim European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed the potential...

  8. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  9. Reaction Time and Established Risk Factors for Total and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Comparison of Effect Estimates in the Follow-Up of a Large, UK-Wide, General-Population Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Beverly A.; Der, Geoff; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, G. David

    2009-01-01

    Higher cognitive function is associated with faster choice reaction time (CRT), and both are associated with a reduced risk of mortality from all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, comparison of the predictive capacity of CRT, an emerging risk factor, with that for established "classic" risk factors for mortality, such as…

  10. Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: 'establishing normal and reference values'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum

    2010-01-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has become increasingly important for total cardiovascular (CV) risk estimation. Its application as a routine tool for clinical patient evaluation has been hampered by the absence of reference values. The aim of the ...

  11. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Scheel-Thomsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who...... subsequently suffered from CE; controls were DM patients with no history of CE after DM diagnosis. Using the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, we included DM patients with information on date of DM diagnosis, date of CE, and comorbidities. From the Central Region of Jutland, Denmark, medication use......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  12. Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk. 18. Vol 52 No 1. SA Fam Pract 2010. SA Fam Pract 2010;52(1): 18. Much evidence points towards inflammation as a key regulatory process linking cardiovascular risk factors for atherosclerosis and its complications to an altered arterial biology.1 Systemic inflammatory ...

  13. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Webster; Emma Heeley

    2010-01-01

    Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine hea...

  14. Lifetime Risks of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jarett D.; Dyer, Alan; Cai, Xuan; Garside, Daniel B.; Ning, Hongyan; Thomas, Avis; Greenland, Philip; Van Horn, Linda; Tracy, Russell P.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease have not been reported across the age spectrum in black adults and white adults. METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis at the individual level using data from 18 cohort studies involving a total of 257,384 black men and women and white men and women whose risk factors for cardiovascular disease were measured at the ages of 45, 55, 65, and 75 years. Blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking status, and diabetes status were used to stratify participants according to risk factors into five mutually exclusive categories. The remaining lifetime risks of cardiovascular events were estimated for participants in each category at each age, with death free of cardiovascular disease treated as a competing event. RESULTS We observed marked differences in the lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease across risk-factor strata. Among participants who were 55 years of age, those with an optimal risk-factor profile (total cholesterol level, risks of death from cardiovascular disease through the age of 80 years than participants with two or more major risk factors (4.7% vs. 29.6% among men, 6.4% vs. 20.5% among women). Those with an optimal risk-factor profile also had lower lifetime risks of fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.6% vs. 37.5% among men, risk-factor strata were observed among blacks and whites and across diverse birth cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Differences in risk-factor burden translate into marked differences in the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease, and these differences are consistent across race and birth cohorts. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.) PMID:22276822

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  16. Cardiovascular risk management in rheumatoid arthritis patients still suboptimal: the Implementation of Cardiovascular Risk Management in Rheumatoid Arthritis project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oever, Inge A. M.; Heslinga, Maaike; Griep, Ed N.; Griep-Wentink, Hanneke R. M.; Schotsman, Rob; Cambach, Walter; Dijkmans, Ben A. C.; Smulders, Yvo M.; Lems, Willem F.; Boers, Maarten; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Peters, Mike J. L.; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Nurmohamed, Micheal T.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk score and to identify treatment and undertreatment of CV risk factors in patients with established RA. Demographics, CV risk factors and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were assessed by questionnaire. To calculate the 10-year CV risk score

  17. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.Keywords: risk perception, cardiovascular disease, cardioprotective lifestyle

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  19. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  1. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...... reporting the intake of cheese and risk of CVD or risk factors of CVD represent four human intervention studies, nine prospective studies, one prospective case-cohort study, one prospective nested case-control study, five case-control studies, five cross-sectional studies and three correlation studies....... The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one...

  2. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  3. Cardiovascular risk in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaldi, Giorgio; Mancini, Tatiana; Polenta, Barbara; Boscaro, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Chronic cortisol hypersecretion causes central obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, protrombotic state, manifestations which form a metabolic syndrome in all patients with Cushing's syndrome. These associated abnormalities determine an increased cardiovascular risk not only during the active phase of the disease but also long after the "biomedical remission". Clinical management of these patients should be particularly careful in identifying global cardiovascular risk. Considering that remission from hypercortisolism is often difficult to achieve care and control of all cardiovascular risk factors should be one of the primary goals during the follow up of these patients. Extending the indications of the recent consensus on Cushing's syndrome, we suggest to carry out an OGTT to avoid underestimation of diabetes mellitus, an echocardiography and Doppler ultrasonography of the epiaortic vessels in all patients at diagnosis and during follow-up.

  4. Mediators of cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Cornelis Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remains challenging. Risk scores to predict cardiovascular risk are widely used, but are developed in the general population and tend to underestimate the cardiovascular risk of DM patients. Risk scores developed in diabetic

  5. Mediators of cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Cornelis Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remains challenging. Risk scores to predict cardiovascular risk are widely used, but are developed in the general population and tend to underestimate the cardiovascular risk of DM patients. Risk scores developed in diabetic populations to estimate cardiovascular risk have demonstrated good calibration and discriminations indices. However, external validation is still needed. A recent meta-analysis showed that the predicti...

  6. Cardiovascular risk assessment in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaberi, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    Research described in this thesis is based on clinical data obtained through diabetes cardiovascular risk management (DIACARM) project. A clinical protocol founded on the co-operation of the departments of endocrinology, cardiology, nephrology, radiology and nuclear medicine at the Leiden University

  7. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  8. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel.

  9. [Klinefelter syndrome and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, A; Knoblovits, P

    2018-02-02

    We present a 45-year-old patient with Klinefelter syndrome, with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and masked arterial hypertension. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients and to review the data in the literature on this risk. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of self-management of blood pressure in hypertensive patients over 70 years with suboptimal control and established cardiovascular disease or additional cardiovascular risk diseases (TASMIN-SR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaloza-Ramos, Maria Cristina; Jowett, Sue; Mant, Jonathan; Schwartz, Claire; Bray, Emma P; Sayeed Haque, M; Richard Hobbs, F D; Little, Paul; Bryan, Stirling; Williams, Bryan; McManus, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    A previous economic analysis of self-management, that is, self-monitoring with self-titration of antihypertensive medication evaluated cost-effectiveness among patients with uncomplicated hypertension. This study considered cost-effectiveness of self-management in those with raised blood pressure plus diabetes, chronic kidney disease and/or previous cardiovascular disease. A Markov model-based economic evaluation was undertaken to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of self-management of blood pressure in a cohort of 70-year-old 'high risk' patients, compared with usual care. The model used the results of the TASMIN-SR trial. A cost-utility analysis was undertaken from a UK health and social care perspective, taking into account lifetime costs of treatment, cardiovascular events and quality adjusted life years. A subgroup analysis ran the model separately for men and women. Deterministic sensitivity analyses examined the effect of different time horizons and reduced effectiveness of self-management. Base-case results indicated that self-management was cost-effective compared with usual care, resulting in more quality adjusted life years (0.21) and cost savings (-£830) per patient. There was a 99% chance of the intervention being cost-effective at a willingness to pay threshold of £20,000 per quality adjusted life year gained. Similar results were found for separate cohorts of men and women. The results were robust to sensitivity analyses, provided that the blood pressure lowering effect of self-management was maintained for more than a year. Self-management of blood pressure in high-risk people with poorly controlled hypertension not only reduces blood pressure, compared with usual care, but also represents a cost-effective use of healthcare resources. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  11. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Ruth; Heeley, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient's risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV) risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.

  12. Pregnancy disorders and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, KY

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of death in women in the Netherlands. Early identification of women at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and subsequent detection and treatment of risk factors contributes to the reduction of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. A

  13. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  14. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biologic memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. While the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes, and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...... lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should......-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM...

  16. Fatty acids and associated cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    LE GOFF, Caroline; Kaux, Jean-François; Leroy, Ludovic; Pincemail, Joël; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Background: A fatty acid (FA) is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Recently, the role of FA and particularly omega-3 and -6 has emerged as cardiovascular risk factor in the literature. The aim of our study was to establish reference values for these FA and to compare them with data obtained in a population of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Materials and methods: Hundred thirty five healthy subjects (59.38 ± 27.12 yo, 75 m...

  17. Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity and its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: several studies show a relationship between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and cardiovascular risk factors. However, finding new evidence to corroborate. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular reactivity and cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in a universe composed of the population aged 15 to 74 years in the urban area of Cienfuegos municipality. The sample included 644 people studied in 2010. The variables analyzed were: sex, skin color, age, height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. Chi-square and prevalence ratio with a 95 % confidence interval were calculated. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was 42.3 %. A prevalence ratio of 51.3 % in men and 36.8 % in women was observed and it exceeded 65 % in individuals older than 64 years. It increased with age. Highest percentage of hyperreactivity was found in obese and overweight individuals. Triglyceride levels associated with cardiovascular hyperreactivity were also significant. Conclusions: there is an association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in normotensive individuals, a situation still observed in non-obese individuals.

  18. Epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impaired fasting or glucose tolerance and/or diabetes can occur with hypertension, which theoretically predicts a worse cardiovascular risk profile, and consequently requires intensive cardiovasular risk management. Objectives. To characterise the frequency of the occurence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors ...

  19. Riesgo cardiovascular, una herramienta útil para la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares Cardiovascular risk, a useful tool for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vega Abascal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo cardiovascular se define como la probabilidad de padecer un evento cardiovascular en un determinado período. Mejorar la exactitud en la predicción del riesgo requiere la evaluación y el tratamiento de múltiples factores de riesgo cardiovascular, los que tienen un efecto sinérgico, más que aditivo, sobre el riesgo cardiovascular total. El cálculo utilizando métodos cuantitativos es más preciso que el obtenido con métodos cualitativos. La predicción del riesgo cardiovascular ha constituido, en los últimos años, la piedra angular en las guías clínicas de prevención cardiovascular, y deviene una herramienta útil del Médico de Familia para establecer prioridades en la atención primaria, mejorando la atención a los pacientes y eligiendo más eficazmente la terapéutica a seguir, con el objetivo de acercarnos más a la realidad multifactorial de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su prevención.The cardiovascular risk is defined like a probability of suffering a cardiovascular event in a determined period. To improve the accuracy in risk prediction requires the assessment and treatment of different cardiovascular risk factors, which have a synergistic effect more than additive on the total cardiovascular risk. The calculus using quantitative methods is more accurate than that obtained with qualitative methods. The prediction of cardiovascular risk has been in past years the cornerstone in clinical guidances of cardiovascular prevention and becomes an useful tool for Family Physician to establish priorities in the primary care, improving the patients care and selecting in a more effective way the therapy to be followed to bring closer more to multifactor reality of cardiovascular diseases and its prevention.

  20. Novel biomarkers with potential for cardiovascular risk reclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikethi-Reddy, Sagar; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Akintoye, Emmanuel; Afonso, Luis

    Precise estimation of the absolute risk for CVD events is necessary when making treatment recommendations for patients. A number of multivariate risk models have been developed for estimation of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic individuals based upon assessment of multiple variables. Due to the inherent limitation of risk models, several novel risk markers including serum biomarkers have been studied in an attempt to improve the cardiovascular risk prediction above and beyond the established risk factors. In this review, we discuss the role of underappreciated biomarkers such as red cell distribution width (RDW), cystatin C (cysC), and homocysteine (Hcy) as well as imaging biomarkers in cardiovascular risk reclassification, and highlight their utility as additional source of information in patients with intermediate risk.

  1. Vitamin D, Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested a possible protective role of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. The available evidence does not support either cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation. This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the current knowledge of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  2. Beyond the established risk factors of myocardial infarction : lifestyle factors and novel biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Age, male sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and obesity are considered as established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Several of these established cardiovascular risk factors are strongly influenced by lifestyle. Novel biomarkers from different mechanistic pathways have been associated with cardiovascular risk, but their clinical utility is still uncertain. The overall objective of the thesis was to evaluate the associations between certain lifestyle factors (phys...

  3. Egg consumption and cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes García, Antonio

    2016-07-12

    Diet, along with exercise, is the determining factor in primary prevention –and secondary– of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This disease remains the leading cause of death in our country, as well as neighboring countries. After the publication of the results of the study of the Seven Countries in 1980, egg consumption was discouraged because it was thought falsely that the consumption of it had the same harmful effect as saturated fats increasing CVD risk. This idea, that was proved wrong later, was in general accepted by the medical profession as much as the general population. Simultaneously numerous clinical studies were performed and they clearly contradict that belief, concluding that egg intake do not increase CVD risk. In conclusion, although the literature on this topic is abundant, we cite the works that seem most significant in this regard. Consequently and following the recommendations of the American Heart Association Guidelines, since 2000, we can conclude that intake of up to one egg a day does not modify the risk for CVD in healthy adults.

  4. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Family history of vascular disease and the risk of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, M.

    2015-01-01

    A positive family history of cardiovascular disease is an established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In clinical practice, this evident relation between the presence of cardiovascular disease in families and first cardiovascular events has resulted in family history being

  6. Hypertension, the kidney, and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sande, N.G.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413971244

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension and chronic kidney disease are both independent risk factors for first or subsequent cardiovascular events. Blood pressure-lowering therapy is recommended in patients with hypertension and chronic kidney disease, in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and kidney failure.

  7. Anxiety and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Harrison, Nathan J; Cheung, Peter; Cosh, Suzanne

    2016-12-01

    Unrecognized anxiety is a difficult clinical presentation in cardiology. Anxiety leads to recurring emergency department visits and the need for numerous diagnostic evaluations to rule out cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review focuses broadly on anxiety and its subtypes in relation to the onset and progression of CVD while describing helpful guidelines to better identify and treat anxiety. Potential mechanisms of cardiopathogenesis are also described. An emerging literature demonstrates that anxiety disorders increase the risk for incident CVD but a causal relationship has not been demonstrated. Anxiety portends adverse prognosis in persons with established CVD that is independent from depression. The level of clinical priority received by depression should be extended to research and clinical intervention efforts in anxiety. Anxiety holds direct relevance for uncovering mechanisms of cardiopathogenesis, developing novel therapeutic strategies, and initiating clinical interventions in the population at risk of developing heart disease, or those already diagnosed with CVD.

  8. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  9. Troponin I and cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Makarova, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    . The addition of troponin I information to a prognostic model for cardiovascular death constructed of ESC SCORE variables increased the C-index discrimination measure by 0.007 and yielded an NRI of 0.048, whereas the addition to prognostic models for cardiovascular disease and total mortality led to lesser C......-index discrimination and NRI increment. In individuals above 6 ng/L of troponin I, a concentration near the upper quintile in BiomarCaRE (5.9 ng/L) and JUPITER (5.8 ng/L), rosuvastatin therapy resulted in higher absolute risk reduction compared with individuals ... reduction was similar. Conclusion: In individuals free of cardiovascular disease, the addition of troponin I to variables of established risk score improves prediction of cardiovascular death and cardiovascular disease....

  10. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...... for risk discrimination, calibration and reclassification; and (ii) the economic costs and health benefits associated with measuring markers of subclinical organ damage....

  11. Cardiovascular risk age: concepts and practicalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2012-06-01

    A young person with many risk factors may have the same level of risk as an older person with no risk factors. Thus a high-risk 40-year-old may have a risk age of 60 years or more. The aim of the study was to derive a generic equation for risk age, construct risk age charts, and explore the hypothesis that risk age is similar regardless of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) end point used.

  12. Localized Scleroderma, Systemic Sclerosis and Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Kofoed, Kristian; Wu, Jashin J

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18......,962 patients with systemic sclerosis were identified and compared with 5,428,380 people in the reference population. In systemic sclerosis, the adjusted HR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.99-2.48). No association was seen between patients with localized scleroderma and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion......, systemic sclerosis is a significant cardiovascular disease risk factor, while patients with localized scleroderma are not at increased risk of cardiovascular disease....

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor‐23 and Incident Coronary Heart Disease, Heart Failure, and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Alonso, Alvaro; Selvin, Elizabeth; Pankow, James S; Michos, Erin D; Agarwal, Sunil K; Loehr, Laura R; Eckfeldt, John H; Coresh, Josef

    2014-01-01

    ... of cardiovascular disease, particularly independent of kidney function, is unclear. FGF‐23 may influence cardiovascular risk through the CKD or vitamin D pathways; CKD is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and accruing evidence suggests that low levels of vitamin D may increase cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, recent experime...

  14. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  15. Vitamin D, Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  16. A new paradigm of cardiovascular risk factor modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Firdaus1, Jeffery M Asbury2, Dwight W Reynolds21Donald W Reynolds Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Section, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death and disability in the United States. While multiple studies have demonstrated that modification of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs significantly reduces morbidity and mortality rates, clinical control of CVDs and CVRFs remains poor. By 2010, the American Heart Association seeks to reduce coronary heart disease, stroke, and risk by 25%. To meet this goal, clinical practitioners must establish new treatment paradigms for CVDs and CVRFs. This paper discusses one such treatment model – a comprehensive atherosclerosis program run by physician extenders (under physician supervision, which incorporates evidence-based CVD and CVRF interventions to achieve treatment goals.Keywords: atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk factors, prevention, modification

  17. Microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2000-01-01

    Microalbuminuria was originally considered to be an important new risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. More recently, it has been convincingly shown that microalbuminuria is also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients. Even...... in the non-diabetic background population, microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. What is the link between increased loss of albumin in urine and cardiovascular disease and mortality? As microalbuminuria is apparently associated with increased universal vascular sieving of albumin...

  18. Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Y. Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. In addition to skin and joint involvement, there is increasing evidence suggesting that patients with PsA also have an increase in risk of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular diseases, mostly due to accelerating atherosclerosis. Both conventional and nonconventional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in PsA. Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in PsA, acting independently and/or synergistically with the conventional risk factors. In this paper, we discuss the current literature indicating that patients with PsA are at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Amaral de Paula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess cardiovascular risk by means of the traditional Framingham score and the version modified through the incorporation of emerging risk factors, such as family history of acute myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. METHOD: participants were 50 hypertensive patients under outpatient treatment. The clinical data were collected through a semi-structured interview and the laboratory data from patients' histories. RESULTS: it was verified that the traditional Framingham score was predominantly low (74%, with 14% showing medium risk and 12% high risk. After the inclusion of emerging risk factors, the chance of a coronary event was low in 22% of the cases, medium in 56% and high in 22%. CONCLUSIONS: the comparison between the traditional Framingham risk score and the modified version demonstrated a significant difference in the cardiovascular risk classification, whose correlation shows discreet agreement between the two scales. Lifestyle elements seem to play a determinant role in the increase in cardiovascular risk levels.

  20. Cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Amaral de Paula

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess cardiovascular risk by means of the traditional Framingham score and the version modified through the incorporation of emerging risk factors, such as family history of acute myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. METHOD: participants were 50 hypertensive patients under outpatient treatment. The clinical data were collected through a semi-structured interview and the laboratory data from patients' histories. RESULTS: it was verified that the traditional Framingham score was predominantly low (74%, with 14% showing medium risk and 12% high risk. After the inclusion of emerging risk factors, the chance of a coronary event was low in 22% of the cases, medium in 56% and high in 22%. CONCLUSIONS: the comparison between the traditional Framingham risk score and the modified version demonstrated a significant difference in the cardiovascular risk classification, whose correlation shows discreet agreement between the two scales. Lifestyle elements seem to play a determinant role in the increase in cardiovascular risk levels.

  1. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and

  2. Depression: risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this

  3. Improving risk stratification for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Diederik F.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of: Heslop CL, Frohlich JJ, Hill JS. Myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein have combined utility for long-term prediction of cardiovascular mortality after coronary angiography. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55(11), 1102-1109 (2010). Identifying people at high risk of cardiovascular events is

  4. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the

  5. Cardiovascular risk in patients with hemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Patients with hemophilia, who have a life-long hypocoagulability, seem to have a lower cardiovascular mortality than the general population. Nevertheless, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with hemophilia is as prevalent as in the general population, and hypertension is even

  6. Preeclampsia : At risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraporti, Marisete Inês; Scherer Adami, Fernanda; Dutra Rosolen, Michele

    2017-10-01

    Systemic hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in childhood can potentially have a significant impact on future adverse outcomes. To investigate the relationship of diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) with anthropometric data and area of residence of children in municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of 709 children between six and nine years of age. Blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Statistical tests had a maximum significance level of 5% (p≤0.05) and the software used was SPSS version 13.0. Obesity was significantly associated with pre-hypertension, and stage 1 and 2 hypertension as assessed by DBP and SBP (≤0.05); high WC was significantly associated with a classification of pre-hypertension and stage 1 hypertension based on DBP and a classification of stage 1 and 2 hypertension based on SBP (≤0.01). Children living in urban areas had significantly higher mean SBP than those living in rural areas. Those with high WC presented higher SBP and DBP compared to children with normal WC. Obese children showed higher mean SBP and DBP compared to those who were overweight or normal weight and mean SBP and DBP also increased with older age and higher mean body mass index and WC. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel cardiovascular risk markers in women with ischaemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Dana; Dădârlat, Alexandra; Zdrenghea, D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women is lower than in men because of their hormonal protection. Angina pectoris occurs in women about 10 years later than in men. However, mortality from ischaemic heart disease remains higher in women than in men. Current studies are focusing on novel cardiovascular risk biomarkers because it seems that traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their assessment scores underestimate the risk in females. Increased plasma levels of these newly established biomarkers of risk have been found to worsen endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, both of which play a key role in the pathogenesis of microvascular angina, which is very common in women. These novel cardiovascular risk markers can be classified into three categories: inflammatory markers, markers of haemostasis, and other biomarkers.

  9. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël B van Schalkwijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (ΔAUC and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI. Two VLDL lipoprotein metabolism indicators (VLDLE and VLDLH improved cardiovascular risk prediction. We added these indicators to a multivariate model with the best performing conventional risk markers. Our method significantly improved both CVD prediction and risk reclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Two calculated VLDL metabolism indicators significantly improved cardiovascular risk prediction. These indicators may help to reduce prescription of unnecessary cholesterol-lowering medication, reducing costs and possible side-effects. For clinical application, further validation is required.

  10. Chronic kidney disease and 10-year risk of cardiovascular death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Martin J; Carlsson, Axel C; Hammar, Niklas; Ivert, Torbjörn; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Wändell, Per; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2016-07-01

    In recent clinical guidelines, individuals with chronic kidney disease are considered to have a similar 10-year absolute risk of cardiovascular death as individuals with diabetes or established cardiovascular disease. There is limited evidence to support this claim. We investigated the 10-year risk for cardiovascular death in individuals with moderate or severe chronic kidney disease (glomerular filtration rate of 30-60 or disease. The inclusion criteria, exposure, study outcome and follow-up period adhered strictly to the definitions of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. The absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular death was 3.9% and 14.0% in individuals with moderate and severe chronic kidney disease, respectively, but was substantially lower in women and in younger individuals. The risk in individuals with prevalent diabetes and cardiovascular disease was approximately two and three times higher compared to the risk estimate for moderate chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio (HR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8-4.5 and HR 6.2, 95% CI 5.7-6.7 vs. HR 2.3 95% CI 2.0-2.6, respectively) while the risk for individuals with severe chronic kidney disease appeared more congruent to that of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (HR 5.5, 95% CI 3.3-8.9). Although moderate chronic kidney disease is an independent predictor for an increased 10-year risk of cardiovascular death, only those with severe chronic kidney disease had similar risk to those with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  11. Cardiovascular risk prediction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dis, van S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In clinical practice, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk prediction functions and charts are used to identify persons at high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), who are considered eligible for drug treatment of elevated blood pressure and serum cholesterol. These

  12. Cardiovascular risk in rotogravure industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Gianfranco; Vitarelli, Antonio; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Pacchiarotti, Alessandro; Scala, Barbara; Schifano, Maria Pia; Scimitto, Lara; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Tomei, Francesco; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-05-01

    To verify whether the occupational hazards in the rotogravure industry can be associated with cardiovascular effects. We evaluated cardiovascular parameters and audiometric tests and analyzed noise, solvents, and shift work in 44 exposed and 44 unexposed workers. Unlike unexposed workers, the rotogravure workers showed significant increase of mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) values (P = 0.019; P = 0.003), higher frequency of hypertension (P = 0.002) and electrocardiographic abnormalities (P = 0.0001), significant reduction or no variation of BP response to orthostatism (P = 0.0001), and association between high levels of noise and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0067). Subjects with hearing loss showed high frequency of hypertension and a reduction or no variation of BP response to orthostatism (both P = 0.05). Data obtained suggest that these are the effects on the cardiovascular system of rotogravure workers who are exposed to noise.

  13. SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Vizir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a review article extensively discusses the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular diseases. Sleep loss is a common condition in developed countries, with evidence showing that people in Western countries are sleeping on average only 6.8 hour per night, 1.5 hour less than a century ago. Although the effect of sleep deprivation on the human body is not completely unexplained, recent epidemiological studies have revealed relationships between sleep deprivation and arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Increased sympathetic nervous system activity and changes in melatonin secretion are considered as the main pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with insufficient duration of nighttime sleep. Adequate sleep duration may be important for preventing cardiovascular diseases in modern society.

  14. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Tallinn, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Kaldmäe

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study established a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Estonian adults (20–65 years of age. Younger portion of the population and some extent ethnic considerations should be taken into account when designing future studies, health prevention activities and interventions.

  15. Relationship between sleep duration and Framingham cardiovascular risk score and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eui; Kim, Gwang-Sil

    2017-09-01

    Studies have shown sleep duration to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension. However, whether sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the prevalence of CVD irrespective of conventional CV-risk factor, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, has not been well established for the Korean population.A total of 23,878 individuals aged 18 years or older from the 2007-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. We evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and CV-event risk using the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS; ≥10% or ≥20%) and the prevalence of CVD.After adjusting for traditional risk factors of CVD, a short sleep duration (≤5 hours) yielded odds ratios (OR) of 1.344 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.200-1.505) for intermediate to high risk and 1.357 (95% CI, 1.140-1.614) for high risk. A long sleep duration (≥9 hours) was also associated with both intermediate to high (OR 1.142, 95% CI 1.011-1.322) and high cardiovascular FRS (OR 1.276, 95% CI 1.118-1.457).Both short and long sleep durations were related with high CVD risk, irrespective of established CVD risk, and a short sleep duration was associated with a higher prevalence of CVD than an optimal or long sleep duration.

  16. Relationship between sleep duration and Framingham cardiovascular risk score and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Eui; Kim, Gwang-Sil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown sleep duration to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension. However, whether sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the prevalence of CVD irrespective of conventional CV-risk factor, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, has not been well established for the Korean population. A total of 23,878 individuals aged 18 years or older from the 2007–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition ...

  17. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 18 and above to measure the prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors. Those risk factors are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, obesity index, blood glucose level, smoking, physical activity and mental stress. Overall prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors were higher, dominated by physical inactivity (65.7%, hypercholesterolemia – TC:HC (62.3%, mental stress (55.5% and obesity (53.7%. Smoking was also high at 49.9% especially among men. However systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and diabetes mellitus; although increased by age, its prevalence is relatively low at 23.7%, 19.2%, and 6.3% respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle are much evidenced as compared to risk factors related to the biological influence. Therefore, all initiatives in community health intervention should be mobilized specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 50-6Keywords: cardiovascular problem, community intervention, lifestyle-linked risk factors

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Cognitive Function in Young, Middle-Aged, and Elderly Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Hanneke; van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    Background and Purpose-Cognitive decline occurs earlier than previously realized and is already evident at the age of 45. Because cardiovascular risk factors are established risk factors for cognitive decline in old age, we investigated whether cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with

  19. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii......) investigated which and how many markers to measure and (iv) finally discussed whether measuring subclinical organ damage provided benefits beyond risk prediction. In conclusion, more studies and if possible randomized studies are needed to investigate (i) the importance of markers of subclinical organ damage...

  20. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk

  2. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in general practice: mismatch between cardiovascular risk and patients' risk perceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, T. van der; Steenkiste, B.C. van; Stoffers, H.E.; Timmermans, D.R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasize identifying high-risk patients for more intensive management, but patients' misconceptions of risk hamper implementation. Insight is needed into the type of patients that general practitioners (GPs) encounter in

  3. Bariatric surgery, lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailleux, Anne; Rouskas, Konstantinos; Pattou, François; Staels, Bart

    2015-08-01

    To summarize recent epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies on the effects of Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery on cardiovascular risk factors and the underlying mechanisms. Although RYGBP has mechanical effects on the gastrointestinal tract, the reduced gastric pouch and intestinal calorie absorption cannot fully explain the metabolic improvements. Obesity predisposes to cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. In contrast to the limited success of pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, RYGBP induces sustained weight loss, metabolic improvements and decreases morbidity/mortality. In line, RYGBP reduces cardiovascular risk factors. Although the mechanisms are not entirely understood, RYGBP induces complex changes in the gut affecting other organs through endocrine and metabolic signals from the intestine to all key metabolic organs, which can link RYGBP and decreased cardiovascular risk. Here, we discuss the roles of changes in lipid absorption and metabolism, bile acid metabolism, gut hormones and the microbiote as potential mechanisms in the decreased cardiovascular risk and metabolic improvement after RYGBP.

  4. Cardiovascular risk estimation in older persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooney, Marie Therese; Selmer, Randi; Lindman, Anja

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Estimation of cardiovascular disease risk, using SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation) is recommended by European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention. Risk estimation is inaccurate in older people. We hypothesized that this may be due to the assumption, inherent in current...... risk estimation systems, that risk factors function similarly in all age groups. We aimed to derive and validate a risk estimation function, SCORE O.P., solely from data from individuals aged 65 years and older. METHODS AND RESULTS: 20,704 men and 20,121 women, aged 65 and over and without pre.......73 to 0.75). Calibration was also reasonable, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test: 17.16 (men), 22.70 (women). Compared with the original SCORE function extrapolated to the ≥65 years age group discrimination improved, p = 0.05 (men), p risk charts were constructed. On simulated...

  5. Practicality of cardiovascular risk functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaume Marrugat; Roberto Elosua; Gloria Icaza; Alberto Morales-Salinas; Irene R. Dégano

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Las estrategias de prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares necesitan refinamiento porque su incidencia se reduce muy lentamente. Las funciones de riesgo incorporaron los factores de riesgo clásicos (edad, sexo, consumo de tabaco, diabetes, presión arterial, y perfil lipídico básico) en cohortes seguidas generalmente más de 10 años. Son razonablemente precisas para el cribado poblacional del riesgo de enfermedad coronaria exigido en las guías de práctica clínica. Clasifican ...

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Fernanda Camboim; Perla, Alexandre da Silveira; Perry, Ingrid D Schweigert; Chaves, Márcia L Fagundes

    2013-09-06

    Studies suggest a higher prevalence of unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors amongst migraineurs, but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and newly recognized risk factors as well as other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in obese and normal weight women with migraine. Fifty-nine adult female probands participated in this case-control study. The sample was divided into normal weight and obese migraineurs and age- and body mass index-matched control groups. The following cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed: serum levels of lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin; insulin resistance; blood pressure; smoking (categorized as current, past or never); Framingham 10-year risk of general cardiovascular disease score; C-reactive protein; family history of cardiovascular disease; physical activity; sleep disturbances; depression; and bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The means of continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test for independent samples or the Mann-Whitney U-test (for 2 groups) and ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test (for 4 groups) depending on the distribution of data. All migraineurs were sedentary irrespective of nutritional status. Migraineurs had higher depression scores and shorter sleep duration, and obese migraineurs, in particular, had worse sleep quality scores. Insulin resistance and insulinaemia were associated with obesity, and obese migraineurs had lower HDL-c than normal weight controls and migraineurs. Also, the Framingham risk score was higher in obese migraineurs. These findings suggest that female migraineurs experience marked inactivity, depression, and some sleep disturbance, that higher insulin resistance and insulinaemia are related to obesity, and that obesity and migraine probably exert overlapping effects on HDL-c levels and Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk.

  7. Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Sithu; Parakh, Kapil; Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Gottdiener, John S; Kop, Willem J

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressed older individuals have a higher mortality than older persons without depression. Depression is associated with physical inactivity, and low levels of physical activity have been shown in some cohorts to be a partial mediator of the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods A cohort of 5888 individuals (mean 72.8±5.6 years, 58% female, 16% African-American) from four US communities was followed for an average of 10.3 years. Self-reported depressive symptoms (10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were assessed annually and self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 7 years. To estimate how much of the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with depressive symptoms was due to physical inactivity, Cox regression with time-varying covariates was used to determine the percentage change in the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality after adding physical activity variables. Results At baseline, 20% of participants scored above the cut-off for depressive symptoms. There were 2915 deaths (49.8%), of which 1176 (20.1%) were from cardiovascular causes. Depressive symptoms and physical inactivity each independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality and were strongly associated with each other (all p<0.001). Individuals with both depressive symptoms and physical inactivity had greater cardiovascular mortality than those with either individually (p<0.001, log rank test). Physical inactivity reduced the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality by 26% after adjustment. This was similar for persons with (25%) and without (23%) established coronary heart disease. Conclusions Physical inactivity accounted for a significant proportion of the risk of cardiovascular mortality due to depressive symptoms in older adults, regardless of coronary heart disease status. PMID:21339320

  8. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Risk in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Rui; Jin, Hong-Fang; Du, Jun-Bao

    2017-09-22

    Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules that are structurally similar to steroids. Emerging data have led to the hypothesis that Vitamin D plays a role in the regulation of many physiological processes beyond calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. With this review, we aimed to summarize the changes in Vitamin D levels in children with cardiovascular diseases based on the literature. In addition, we also reviewed the potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases associated with Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. The articles in English were searched from PubMed (1968-2016) and EMBASE (1991-2016), with the keywords of "Vitamin D AND cardiovascular diseases" and "Vitamin D AND children." Original articles and critical reviews about Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk in children were selected for review. Researches focused on adults were excluded. Studies have shown that several pediatric cardiovascular diseases may be associated with Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, including hypertension, orthostatic intolerance, and Kawasaki disease. Vitamin D may play a role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. Further investigation would hopefully disclose the usefulness of Vitamin D as a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases in children.

  9. [Relevance of diabetes in high cardiovascular risk hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Julián; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Fernández, Sandra; Ruilope, Luis M

    2013-10-05

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of target organ damage (TOD) and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) against a group of hypertensives with type 2 diabetes. We included 4,725 hypertensive patients, 62% male, mean age 64 (SD 12) years, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, independently of the number of associated CVRF (N=2,608), or non-diabetics, in which case we required the presence of 3 CVRF (N=2,117). The prevalence of established CVD (clinical interview) and TOD (left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram, microalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate) were estimated. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes had an older age and more marked obesity. Furthermore, these patients showed a higher prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria, renal failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and CVD compared with nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of TOD or established CVD were associated independently with the presence of diabetes. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher prevalence of LOD and CVD compared to nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Although both situations are included in the high cardiovascular risk stratum, it would be expected an increased incidence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Indra; Manlhiot, Cedric; Davies-Shaw, Jolie; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W

    2012-11-20

    Evidence suggests that inadequate or disturbed sleep is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. There are limited data on sleep quality and associated cardiovascular risk in children. We obtained data on adolescents from the 2009/10 cycle of the Healthy Heart Schools' Program, a population-based cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario. Participants underwent measurements of cardiometabolic risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and blood pressure, and they completed questionnaires measuring sleeping habits and nutritional status. We assessed sleep disturbance using the sleep disturbance score derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We explored associations between sleeping habits and cardiovascular risk factors. Among 4104 adolescents (51% male), the mean hours of sleep per night (± standard deviation) were 7.9 ± 1.1 on weeknights and 9.4 ± 1.6 on weekends. In total, 19% of participants reported their sleep quality as fairly bad or very bad on weeknights and 10% reported it as fairly bad or very bad on weekends. In the multivariable regression models, a higher sleep disturbance score was associated with increased odds of being at high cardiovascular risk (highest v. lowest tertile odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.77], p < 0.001), increased odds of hypertension (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05], p = 0.05) and increased odds of elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.00-1.64], p = 0.05). The mean duration of sleep was not associated with these outcomes. In healthy adolescents, sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities. Intervention strategies to optimize sleep hygiene early in life may be important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Cardiovascular risk prediction in chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cedeño Mora

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The cardiovascular risk scores (FRS-CVD and ASCVD [AHA/ACC 2013] can estimate the probability of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with CKD regardless of renal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events.

  12. Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narang, Indra; Manlhiot, Cedric; Davies-Shaw, Jolie; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W

    2012-01-01

    .... There are limited data on sleep quality and associated cardiovascular risk in children. We obtained data on adolescents from the 2009/10 cycle of the Healthy Heart Schools' Program, a population-based cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario...

  13. CHANGING PATTERN OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    Method: One hundred and fourteen asymptomatic people living with diabetes mellitus were evaluated considering time at first diagnosis of DM irrespective of the initial care given. Cardiovascular risk factors were compared in two groups based on the median year duration of DM. A further 6 sub-grouping was done to look at.

  14. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  15. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a ... Key words: Cardiovascular disease, Risk factor, Aerobic Exercise. Introduction. There has always ... Oftentimes, problems appear to be more prevalent among the elderly. This may not be far.

  16. Practicality of cardiovascular risk functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Marrugat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las estrategias de prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares necesitan refinamiento porque su incidencia se reduce muy lentamente. Las funciones de riesgo incorporaron los factores de riesgo clásicos (edad, sexo, consumo de tabaco, diabetes, presión arterial, y perfil lipídico básico en cohortes seguidas generalmente más de 10 años. Son razonablemente precisas para el cribado poblacional del riesgo de enfermedad coronaria exigido en las guías de práctica clínica. Clasifican a los pacientes en niveles de riesgo para concentrar un mayor esfuerzo terapéutico y preventivo en los de mayor riesgo, y en los que el número necesario a tratar y el coste-efectividad son óptimos. Proporcionar el riesgo relativo y de la edad vascular al paciente, le motiva a cumplir seguir tratamientos y estilos de vida. Alrededor del 20% de la población de 35 a 74 años tiene riesgo intermedio y requiere reclasificación a alto o bajo riesgo porque concentra 35% de eventos poblacionales de enfermedad coronaria. Se ensayan nuevos biomarcadores (bioquímicos, genéticos o de imagen para mejorar la precisión de las predicciones. Si los equipos informáticos de los sistemas de salud incorporaran el cálculo automatizado del riesgo se facilitaría la tarea preventiva del personal asistencial.

  17. Contemporary protease inhibitors and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens; Mocroft, Amanda; Ryom, Lene

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the evidence linking use of HIV protease inhibitors with excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV+ populations. RECENT FINDINGS: For the two contemporary most frequently used protease inhibitors, darunavir and atazanavir [both pharmacologically boosted...... with ritonavir (/r)], darunavir/r has been shown to be associated with increased CVD risk. The effect is cumulative with longer exposure increasing risk and an effect size comparable to what has been observed for previously developed protease inhibitors. Biological mechanisms may be overlapping and include...... on individualization of care based on underlying risk of CVD....

  18. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Manu Raj

    2012-01-01

    The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including ...

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors among college students: Knowledge, perception, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Shurmur, Scott W; Pullen, Carol H; Yates, Bernice C

    2017-04-01

    To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience sampling. College students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular risk factors but did not perceive themselves at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors was correlated with the lifetime risk estimates (ρ = .17, p = .048), and perception of cardiovascular risk was positively associated with 30-year CVD risk estimates (ρ = .16, p = .048). More than 50% of the participants had 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. High knowledge level of cardiovascular risk factors was not sufficient to lower cardiovascular risks within this study population, but changing perception of cardiovascular risk factors may play a bigger role in reducing long-term cardiovascular risks.

  20. Cardiovascular risk in individuals with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Bivanco-Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression and cardiovascular diseases (CVD are both common illnesses. Several studies demonstrated that depressed individuals have higher mortality compared to age-and gender-matched population, with an excess of cardiovascular deaths. There is a bidirectional association between depression and CVD. Several factors can interact and influence this relationship: poverty and social inequality, reduced accessibility to health care, biological alterations (as reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, increased inflammation and platelet function, and hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, side effects of psychiatric medication, lower adherence to medical treatments, and higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (higher tobacco use, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes mellitus. This article aims to update the current evidence of the possible mechanisms involved in the association between depression and CVD.

  1. [Cardiovascular risk parameters, metabolic syndrome and alcohol consumption by workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; López González, Ángel Arturo; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Capdevila-García, Luisa; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of alcohol consumption is high in the general population and generates specific problems at the workplace. To establish benchmarks between levels of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk variables and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study of 7,644 workers of Spanish companies (2,828 females and 4,816 males). Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk was assessed using Framingham calibrated for the Spanish population (REGICOR) and SCORE, and metabolic syndrome was assessed using modified ATPIII and IDF criteria and Castelli and atherogenic index and triglycerides/HDL ratio. A multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression and odds ratios were estimated. Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean values of the different parameters studied in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes and with modified ATPIII, IDF and REGICOR and SCORE. The sex, age, alcohol, and smoking variables were associated to cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome. Physical exercise and stress are only associated to with some of them. The alcohol consumption affects all cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome, being more negative the result in high level drinkers. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Open Heart Surgery in a Newly Established Cardiovascular Department: The first 300 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of the results of open heart surgery in a newly established cardiovascular clinic: Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital. Material and Method: Between June 2012 and January 2014, 300 open heart surgeries were performed. Urgent operation was performed in 22 patients (7.3% because of ST-elevation myocardial infarction and in 1 patient because of left ventricular aneurysm rupture. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 211 (70.3% patients. The other patients underwent various complex operations such as valve repair, Tirone-David procedure and repair of atrioventricular canal defect. Results: In 3 patients (1% hospital mortality was seen. Reoperation was performed in 8 patients (2.6% because of pericardial tamponade and in 9 patients (3% because of bleeding. Atrial fibrillation was developed in 28 patients (9.3% in the postoperative period and normal sinus rhythm was established with medical cardioversion. Intra-aortic balloon pump(IABP was used in 4 patients preoperatively and in 11 patients postoperatively, including 15 patients(%5. Discussion: In the current era, the patients who are consulted to cardiovascular surgery clinics become more chronic, high risk and patients with additional co-morbid diseases because of the developments in interventional cardiology. Our newly established center aims to be a nationally and internationally successful clinic which was proved by low mortality and morbidity rates with a team who follows the developments and constantly educate and trained.

  3. [Elevated blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.

  4. Cardiovascular risk in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manali, Effrosyni D; Papadaki, Georgia; Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Schams, Andrea; Kagouridis, Konstantinos; Karakatsani, Anna; Orfanos, Stylianos; Griese, Matthias; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that cardiovascular events and/or indices of cardiac dysfunction may be increased in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, arrhythmias, pulmonary embolism, stroke and ischemic heart attack were reported. Patients underwent serum anti-GM-CSF antibodies, disease severity score (DSS), Doppler transthoracic echocardiograph, glucose, thyroid hormones, lipids, troponin and pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) examination. Thirteen patients (8 female) were studied, median age of 47. Pro-BNP inversely related to DLCO% and TLC%; troponin directly related to DSS, age, P(A-a)O2, left atrium-, left ventricle-end-diastole diameter and BMI. On multiple regression analysis DSS was the only parameter significantly and strongly related with troponin (R(2) = 0.776, p = 0.007). No cardiovascular event was reported during follow-up. In PAP cardiovascular risk indices relate to lung disease severity. Therefore, PAP patients could be at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Quantitation of its magnitude and potential links to lungs' physiologic derangement will be addressed in future studies.

  5. Resting heart rate and cardiovascular events: risk factor or risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Resting heart rate and cardiovascular events: risk factor or risk marker? 128. Vol 52 No 2. SA Fam Pract 2010. SA Fam Pract 2010;52(2): 128-129. Heart rate in epidemiological studies. Over the last 25 years numerous reports demonstrated a significant association between resting heart rate and all- cause mortality ...

  6. Preeclampsia: exposing future cardiovascular risk in mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cindy M

    2007-01-01

    There is an increased risk for future cardiovascular disease in women who have had preeclampsia. In infants born to mothers with preeclampsia, there is growing evidence of increased risk for both cardiovascular disease and preeclampsia. Epidemiologic and experimental data provide a strong link between intrauterine exposure to preeclampsia and subsequent risk for the development of cardiovascular disease in women.

  7. Genetic variation associated with cardiovascular risk in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotti, Pedro P; Aterido, Adrià; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Cañete, Juan D; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Tornero, Jesús; Gisbert, Javier P; Domènech, Eugeni; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Gomollón, Fernando; García-Planella, Esther; Fernández, Emilia; Sanmartí, Raimon; Gratacós, Jordi; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luís; Palau, Núria; Tortosa, Raül; Corbeto, Mireia L; Lasanta, María L; Marsal, Sara; Julià, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular events compared to the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in autoimmunity. We analyzed genome-wide genotyping data from 6,485 patients from six autoimmune diseases that are associated with a high socio-economic impact. First, for each disease, we tested the association of established CVD risk loci. Second, we analyzed the association of autoimmune disease susceptibility loci with CVD. Finally, to identify genetic patterns associated with CVD risk, we applied the cross-phenotype meta-analysis approach (CPMA) on the genome-wide data. A total of 17 established CVD risk loci were significantly associated with CVD in the autoimmune patient cohorts. From these, four loci were found to have significantly different genetic effects across autoimmune diseases. Six autoimmune susceptibility loci were also found to be associated with CVD risk. Genome-wide CPMA analysis identified 10 genetic clusters strongly associated with CVD risk across all autoimmune diseases. Two of these clusters are highly enriched in pathways previously associated with autoimmune disease etiology (TNFα and IFNγ cytokine pathways). The results of this study support the presence of specific genetic variation associated with the increase of CVD risk observed in autoimmunity.

  8. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in general practice: mismatch between cardiovascular risk and patients' risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, T; van Steenkiste, B; Stoffers, H E J H; Timmermans, D R M; Grol, R

    2007-01-01

    Guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasize identifying high-risk patients for more intensive management, but patients' misconceptions of risk hamper implementation. Insight is needed into the type of patients that general practitioners (GPs) encounter in their cardiovascular prevention activities. How appropriate are the risk perceptions and worries of patients with whom GPs discuss CVD risks? What determines inappropriate risk perception? Cross-sectional study in 34 general practices. The study included patients aged 40 to 70 years with whom CVD risk was discussed during consultation. After the consultation, the GPs completed a registration form, and patients completed a questionnaire. Correlations between patients' actual CVD risk and risk perceptions were analyzed. In total, 490 patients were included. In 17% of the consultations, patients were actually at high risk. Risk was perceived inappropriately by nearly 4 in 5 high-risk patients (incorrect optimism) and by 1 in 5 low-risk patients (incorrect pessimism). Smoking, hypertension, and obesity were determinants of perceiving CVD risk as high, whereas surprisingly, diabetic patients did not report any anxiety about their CVD risk. Men were more likely to perceive their CVD risk inappropriately than women. In communicating CVD risk, GPs must be aware that they mostly encounter low-risk patients and that the perceived risk and worry do not necessarily correspond with the actual risk. Incorrect perceptions of CVD risk among men and patients with diabetes were striking.

  9. Toxic urban waste's assault on cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. De Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiovascular health survey of 1203 persons in households located near the hazardous waste disposal sites and in a reference community, was conducted from 2009 until today to assess whether rates of adverse cardiovascular health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the sites. Data included medical records of reported cardiovascular disease certificates and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases from hospital database. The study areas appeared similar with respect to mortality, cancer incidence, and pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, rate ratios were greater than 1.5 for 2 of 19 reported diseases, i.e., angina pectoris, and strokes. The apparent broad-based elevation in reported diseases and symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by respondents living near the sites. Our study found that cardiovascular risk is associated only with PM2.5 concentrations, derived from uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste in particular sites of our country. Their analysis demonstrated a relationship between increased levels of eventual fine particulate pollution and higher rates of death and complications from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Management of solid waste releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Future community-based health studies should include medical and psychosocial assessment instruments sufficient to distinguish between changes in health status and effects of resident reporting tendency.

  10. Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2015-01-01

    participants experienced a CV event (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or CV death). RESULTS: Participants with increasing adiponectin had reduced risk of developing T2DM (p risk factors (including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol......) for each doubling of adiponectin 0.55 (95% CI 0.41-0.74; p risk of a CV event more than doubled. Increasing adiponectin (adjusted for the confounding risk factors mentioned) was associated with reduced risk of CV events: HR 0.34 (95% CI 0.16-0.72; p = 0...... prospective studies have consistently linked high adiponectin levels with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality, thus questioning the positive view on adiponectin. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin, incident T2DM and subsequently CV events. METHODS: We...

  11. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Impaired sleep has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are still unsettled. We sought to determine how onset of impaired sleep affects the risk of established physiological CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes......, and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation...... = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.29) in fully adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that onset of sleep disturbances rather than short or long sleep mark an increase in physiological risk factors, which may partly explain the higher risk of CVD observed among impaired sleepers....

  12. Novel Immune Mechanisms in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosalski, Ryszard; McGinnigle, Eilidh; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disorder with substantial impact on public health due to highly elevated cardiovascular risk. The mechanisms still remain unclear and treatments are not sufficient to reduce risk in majority of patients. Inflammatory mechanisms may provide an important mechanism linking hypertension and cardiovascular risk. We aim to review newly identified immune and inflammatory mechanisms of hypertension with focus on their potential therapeutic impact. In addition to the established role of the vasculature, kidneys and central nervous system in pathogenesis of hypertension, low-grade inflammation contributes to this disorder as indicated by experimental models and GWAS studies pointing to SH2B3 immune gene as top key driver of hypertension. Immune responses in hypertension are greatly driven by neoantigens generated by oxidative stress and modulated by chemokines such as RANTES, IP-10 and microRNAs including miR-21 and miR-155 with other molecules under investigation. Cells of both innate and adoptive immune system infiltrate vasculature and kidneys, affecting their function by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species. Immune and inflammatory mechanisms of hypertension provide a link between high blood pressure and increased cardiovascular risk, and reduction of blood pressure without attention to these underlying mechanisms is not sufficient to reduce risk.

  13. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  14. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Naira Lígia de Araújo; Lima, Luisa Helena de Oliveira; Carvalho, Elaine de Sousa; Vera, Paula Valentina de Sousa; Frota, Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Oliveira, Edina Araújo Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. Descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from May to September 2012, in the public schools of the city of Picos (Piaui State, Brazil). The sample consisted of 320 adolescents 10-19 years. As to gender, 60% were female. With regard to blood pressure values, 15.3% of participants had altered blood pressure values (6.9% with hypertension) and, in relation to nutritional status, 15.6% were overweight and 5.3% obese. None of the variables showed statistically significant differences according to sex. Correlation were found between the variables: family history of hypertension with arm circumference and triceps skinfold; maternal education with triceps skinfold thickness and diastolic blood pressure; uptime with body mass index, arm circumference, waist-hip ratio and heart rate; birth weight with body mass index and arm circumference. A significant proportion of adolescent respondents had risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Nursing should lead the adoption of interventions that promote the improvement of healthy lifestyle in adolescence, thus avoiding not only cardiovascular disease, but also other chronic diseases that can develop.

  15. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Modern obesity pharmacotherapy: weighing cardiovascular risk and benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jonathan W; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major correlate of cardiovascular disease. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors and has the potential to improve outcomes. Two drugs, phentermine plus topiramate and lorcaserin, have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the indication of obesity; a third, bupropion plus naltrexone, is under consideration for approval. In clinical trials, these drugs cause weight loss and improve glucose tolerance, lipid profile, and, with the exception of bupropion plus naltrexone, blood pressure. However, their effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In defining appropriate roles for these drugs in preventive cardiology, it is important to remember the checkered history of drugs for obesity. New weight-loss drugs share the serotonergic and sympathomimetic mechanisms that proved harmful in the cases of Fen-Phen and sibutramine, respectively, albeit with significant differences. Given these risks, randomized cardiovascular outcomes trials are needed to establish the safety, and potential benefit, of these drugs. This review will discuss the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity, existing efficacy and safety data for the novel weight-loss drugs, and issues in the design of postapproval clinical trials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  18. Determinants of cardiovascular risk in current rheumatic practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, I.L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study cardiovascular risk in arthritis: Firstly, how do different rheumatic diseases compare in the patients’ traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factor profiles, and does this justify the general focus on rheumatoid arthritis regarding cardiovascular complications in

  19. The paradox of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular risk | Webb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight loss to reduce cardiovascular risk is encouraged in both healthy overweight individuals and those at high cardiovascular risk, including patients with diabetes. However, a large body of studies suggest that, in comparison to overweight and even obese subjects, cardiovascular events may be more common among ...

  20. Metabolite Profiling and Cardiovascular Event Risk: A Prospective Study of Three Population-Based Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Soininen, Pasi; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Prieto-Merino, David; Tillin, Therese; Ghorbani, Anahita; Artati, Anna; Wang, Qin; Tiainen, Mika; Kangas, Antti J; Kettunen, Johannes; Kaikkonen, Jari; Mikkilä, Vera; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gaunt, Tom R; Hughes, Alun D; Sattar, Naveed; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Wang, Thomas J; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Raitakari, Olli T; Gerszten, Robert E; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Chaturvedi, Nish; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko

    2015-01-01

    Background High-throughput profiling of circulating metabolites may improve cardiovascular risk prediction over established risk factors. Methods and Results We applied quantitative NMR metabolomics to identify biomarkers for incident cardiovascular disease during long-term follow-up. Biomarker discovery was conducted in the FINRISK study (n=7256; 800 events). Replication and incremental risk prediction was assessed in the SABRE study (n=2622; 573 events) and British Women’s Health and Heart Study (n=3563; 368 events). In targeted analyses of 68 lipids and metabolites, 33 measures were associated with incident cardiovascular events at Pmetabolomics for biomarker discovery and improved risk assessment. PMID:25573147

  1. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Clare C.W.; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; McManus, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters ...

  2. Risk factors and assessment for cardiovascular disease among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in HIV-positive patients which places them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the risk factors and risk assessment for CVD in HIV-positive patients with and without antiretroviral therapy. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study of ...

  3. Critical appraisal of inflammatory markers in cardiovascular risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Kubica, Jacek; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-10-01

    Despite great progress in prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiovascular events still constitute the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the modern world. Traditional risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, and positive family history account for the occurrence of the majority of these events, but not all of them. Adequate risk assessment remains the most challenging in individuals classified into low or intermediate risk categories. Inflammation plays a key role in the initiation and promotion of atherosclerosis and may lead to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by the induction of plaque instability. For this reason, numerous inflammatory markers have been extensively investigated as potential candidates for the enhancement of cardiovascular risk assessment. This review aims to critically assess the clinical utility of well-established (C-reactive protein [CRP] and fibrinogen), newer (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [Lp-PLA2] and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and novel (growth differentiation factor-15 [GDF-15]) inflammatory markers which, reflect different pathophysiological pathways underlying CAD. Although according to the traditional approach all discussed inflammatory markers were shown to be associated with the risk of future cardiovascular events in individuals with and without CAD, their clear clinical utility remains not fully elucidated. Current recommendations of numerous scientific societies predominantly advocate routine assessment of CRP in healthy people with intermediate cardiovascular risk. However, these recommendations substantially vary in their strength among particular societies. These discrepancies have a multifactorial background, including: (i) the strong prognostic value of CRP supported by solid scientific evidence and proven to be comparable in magnitude with that of total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  4. Sortilin and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Bourbon, Mafalda; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a key determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is why many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathways that regulate its metabolism. Novel latest-generation sequencing techniques have identified a strong association between the 1p13 locus and the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by changes in plasma LDL-C levels. As expected for a complex phenotype, the effects of variation in this locus are only moderate. Even so, knowledge of the association is of major importance, since it has unveiled a new metabolic pathway regulating plasma cholesterol levels. Crucial to this discovery was the work of three independent teams seeking to clarify the biological basis of this association, who succeeded in proving that SORT1, encoding sortilin, was the gene in the 1p13 locus involved in LDL metabolism. SORT1 was the first gene identified as determining plasma LDL levels to be mechanistically evaluated and, although the three teams used different, though appropriate, experimental methods, their results were in some ways contradictory. Here we review all the experiments that led to the identification of the new pathway connecting sortilin with plasma LDL levels and risk of myocardial infarction. The regulatory mechanism underlying this association remains unclear, but its discovery has paved the way for considering previously unsuspected therapeutic targets and approaches. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum ghrelin level is associated with cardiovascular risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Dana; Peter, P; Dădârlat, Alexandra; Sitar-Tăut, Adela; Zdrenghea, D

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a newly discovered bioactive peptide, was originally reported to induce growth hormone release. Recent studies have shown beneficial hemodynamic effects of ghrelin in the cardiovascular system to support the wide distribution of its receptors in cardiovascular tissues. The aim of the study was to determine whether cardiovascular risk factors influence plasma ghrelin levels. We evaluated in the Rehabilitation Hospital Cluj-Napoca, Cardiology-Department 88 consecutive subjects, 65 (73.86%) being women, with mean age 61.7 +/- 10.33 years. We assessed the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, smoking and lipid fractions). Plasma ghrelin levels were determined with a commercial ELISA kit (pg/ml). After the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors, we found no statistically significant difference between ghrelin levels in the patients with vs those without cardiovascular risk factors (p>0.05). A negative correlation was found between ghrelin levels and age, r = -0.32 (p cardiovascular risk for each patient according to the risk score system (SCORE) for high cardiovascular risk countries. Statistically, the risk of fatal cardiovascular events in the next 10 years was indirectly correlated with the ghrelin levels in each patient-correlation between ghrelin levels and SCORE system r = -0.25, p=0.015. In conclusion, low serum ghrelin concentrations are associated with an increased global cardiovascular risk, calculated based on the European SCORE scale. However, we could not demonstrate a direct relationship between any of the major risk factors and ghrelin.

  6. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including elevated blood pressure (BP, atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac structural and functional changes and obstructive sleep apnea. Probable mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and altered vascular function. Adiposity promotes cardiovascular risk clustering during childhood and adolescence. Insulin resistance has a strong association with childhood obesity. A variety of proinflammatory mediators that are associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction are also known to be influenced by obesity levels. Obesity in early life promotes atherosclerotic disease in vascular structures such as the aorta and the coronary arteries. Childhood and adolescent adiposity has strong influences on the structure and function of the heart, predominantly of the left ventricle. Obesity compromises pulmonary function and increases the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. Neglecting childhood and adolescent obesity will compromise the cardiovascular health of the pediatric population and is likely to result in a serious public health crisis in future.

  7. Cardiovascular risk management in rheumatoid arthritis patients still suboptimal: the Implementation of Cardiovascular Risk Management in Rheumatoid Arthritis project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oever, Inge A M; Heslinga, Maaike; Griep, Ed N; Griep-Wentink, Hanneke R M; Schotsman, Rob; Cambach, Walter; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Smulders, Yvo M; Lems, Willem F; Boers, Maarten; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Peters, Mike J L; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Nurmohamed, Micheal T

    2017-09-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk score and to identify treatment and undertreatment of CV risk factors in patients with established RA. Demographics, CV risk factors and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were assessed by questionnaire. To calculate the 10-year CV risk score according to the Dutch CV risk management guideline, systolic blood pressure was measured and cholesterol levels were determined from fasting blood samples. Patients were categorized into four groups: indication for treatment but not treated; inadequately treated, so not meeting goals (systolic blood pressure ⩽140 mmHg and/or low-density lipoprotein ⩽2.5 mmol/l); adequately treated; or no treatment necessary. A total of 720 consecutive RA patients were included, 375 from Reade and 345 from the Antonius Hospital. The mean age of patients was 59 years (s.d. 12) and 73% were female. Seventeen per cent of the patients had a low 10-year CV risk (management remains a major challenge and better awareness and management are urgently needed to reduce the high risk of CVD in the RA population.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  9. Association of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K; Cushman, Mary; Næss, Inger Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Much controversy surrounds the association of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods: We performed an individual level random-effect meta-analysis including 9 prospective studies with measured baseline cardiovascular disease risk...... factors and validated VTE events. Definitions were harmonized across studies. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were modeled categorically and continuously using restricted cubic splines. Estimates were obtained for overall VTE, provoked VTE (ie, VTE occurring in the presence of 1 or more...... is potentially mediated through comorbid conditions such as cancer, the modifiable traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors are not associated with increased VTE risk. Higher systolic blood pressure showed an inverse association with VTE....

  10. Biomarkers for cardiovascular risk in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Jose A; Sweeten, Shawn; Balagopal, Prabhakaran Babu

    2013-03-01

    The magnitude of lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has radically increased along with the high prevalence of obesity in children. The spotlight is now on dysfunctional adiposity as a precursor for the development of premature CVD. As full-blown CVD is not present in childhood, there is a critical need for surrogate markers to best assess, predict, and treat the children who are vulnerable to developing CVD. Accumulation of excess fat mass can be conceived as a derangement in the balance between energy intake and expenditure. This appears to provoke various structural and metabolic alterations leading to adipocyte dysfunction, with important cardiovascular health consequences. Subclinical inflammation, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction appear to play important roles early in the clinical course of obesity. Associations between biomarkers and noninvasive measures of early atherosclerosis in children continue to emerge and several biomarkers appear to be promising. At present, there are no explicit data to recommend any of these biomarkers as a routine clinical marker of CVD in children. More work is needed to validate these biomarkers and to improve understanding of their role in CVD risk prediction in the pediatric population.

  11. [Smoking, vaping and cardiovascular risk : an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkou, Sofia; Clair, Carole

    2017-06-07

    It is well known that tobacco smoking increases cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity, however, smoking cessation is often neglected compared to other CV risk factors. Behavioral counseling as well as smoking cessation treatments are efficient and do not increase the risk of CV events when used for a defined duration. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) contain potentially cardiotoxic substances but in lower concentrations than in cigarettes. The CV effect of ENDS is to date difficult to assess and depends on the type of device used and its mode of consumption. For smokers with a known CV disease who have quit smoking using ENDS, it is recommended that they stop using them as soon as they have stabilized.

  12. Exogenous testosterone, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly men: a review of trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Culley C; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Increasing interest in the use of supplemental testosterone has led to a heightened focus on the safety of testosterone in elderly males, with a particular emphasis on cardiovascular risk. To evaluate, based on available clinical trial data, whether exogenous testosterone administration in middle-aged to elderly men increases cardiovascular risk, and to assess whether these effects differ in hypogonadal vs. eugonadal subjects. MEDLINE search from 2004 to present of all meta-analyses and randomized, controlled clinical trials of testosterone administration in male subjects ≥ 45 years old that included measurements of cardiovascular outcomes or known cardiovascular risk factors before and after treatment with testosterone. The effects of testosterone treatment on cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. In clinical trials where testosterone has been used in patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions, the effect on disease symptoms has typically been either neutral or beneficial. Based on clinical trial data, testosterone treatment has minimal effect on cardiovascular risk factors with the exception of an increase in hematocrit, which is consistently seen with testosterone treatment, and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is an inconsistent response. Responses of hypogonadal and eugonadal men to testosterone treatment in terms of cardiovascular risk are generally similar. Testosterone treatment has not been reported to increase the incidence of cardiovascular events with the possible exception of one trial in frail elderly men. Available clinical trial data indicate that the use of testosterone in middle-aged to elderly men does not increase cardiovascular risk nor does it unfavorably modify cardiovascular risk profile. Prospective data from large, well-designed, long-term trials of testosterone treatment are lacking and will be required to verify the cardiovascular efficacy/safety of chronic treatment.

  13. Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojevic Iva Perovic; Eror Tatjana; Pelivanovic Jovana; Jelic Svetlana; Kotur-Stevuljevic Jelena; Ignjatovic Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to analyse risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in PCOS, to define individual risk factors and assess their ability to predict risk.

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in White Collar Workers Under Shift Work

    OpenAIRE

    Vangelova K.

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is associated with circadian disruption, disturbs sleep and social life, and modifies disease risk factors, and thus can potentially contribute to various chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to follow cardiovascular risk in white collar workers under shift work. Cardiovascular risk was studied in sound-engineering staff in sound-recording production. The study encompassed 168 employees (46% males and 54% females) working under shift work of ...

  15. Understanding and Improving Modifiable Cardiovascular Risks within the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S. Atherosclerosis . 2011 Jun;216(2):489-95. Exercise during military training improves cardiovascular risk factors in young...Low-dose physical activity attenuates cardiovascular disease mortality in men and women with clustered metabolic risk factors. Heald AH, Knapman... Cardiovascular Risks Within the Air Force", Principal Investigator, LtCol. Jennifer Hatzfeld. Dear LTC Schlicher: Attached please find the Final Report for the

  16. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...... on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M.A. van der Slot (Wilma); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); C. Nieuwenhuijsen (Channah); M.P. Bergen (Michael); H.J. Stam (Henk); A. Burdorf (Alex); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To explore: (i) cardiovascular disease risk factors and the 10-year clustered risk of a fatal cardiovascular event in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy; and (ii) relationships between the 10-year risk and body fat, aerobic fitness and physical activity. Design:

  18. Counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Teunissen, Pim W.; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G.; Mol, Ben W.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Gynaecologists have an important role in the counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia. We aimed to assess the role of gynaecologists in informing women on interventions and risk

  19. Endothelial dysfunction: cardiovascular risk factors, therapy, and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi AR Hadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hadi AR Hadi, Cornelia S Carr, Jassim Al SuwaidiDepartment of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital – Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of QatarAbstract: Endothelial dysfunction is a well established response to cardiovascular risk factors and precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is involved in lesion formation by the promotion of both the early and late mechanisms of atherosclerosis including up-regulation of adhesion molecules, increased chemokine secretion and leukocyte adherence, increased cell permeability, enhanced low-density lipoprotein oxidation, platelet activation, cytokine elaboration, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Endothelial dysfunction is a term that covers diminished production/availability of nitric oxide and/or an imbalance in the relative contribution of endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors. Also, when cardiovascular risk factors are treated the endothelial dysfunction is reversed and it is an independent predictor of cardiac events. We review the literature concerning endothelial dysfunction in regard to its pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome.Keywords: endothelial dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Leslie G; Ogletree, Richard L

    2013-06-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) have an FDA indication for triglyceride lowering in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Some European agencies have also approved omega-3 fatty acids for cardiovascular risk modification. Several major societies in the US also recommend their use following myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review was to assimilate available evidence from randomized controlled trials into one systematic review to determine the association between omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes. Systematic review of randomized, controlled trials with meta-analysis PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (up to August 2012) were searched using a predefined algorithm. All randomized trials evaluating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in adults were considered. Trials selected were all randomized, controlled against another diet or placebo, and implemented in primary or secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention settings. Trials with duration less than 1 year were excluded. Outcomes eligible for review included all-cause mortality, cardiac death, sudden death, MI, and all types of stroke. Fatty acids could be given through diet or through supplements. Additionally, references listed in reviews were screened. Two investigators independently extracted data. Another investigator resolved discrepancies. After retrieving 3,625 citations, 20 studies involving 68,680 participants were included. Two trials used dietary counseling to provide omega-3 fatty acids. The rest used supplements. In the 2 trials using dietary fatty acids, all-cause mortality and cardiac death were assessed and showed associations in opposite directions; therefore, with these discrepancies, quantitative synthesis of these trials was not performed.

  1. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Young Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, Elsa-Grace V; Paul, Tracy K; Hayes, Dena; Sciacca, Robert R

    2016-11-01

    Although young women are presumed to have low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and mortality, the mortality benefits secondary to ischemic heart disease have plateaued among young women, tobacco use, hyperlipidemia, physical inactivity, and/or obesity. Anthropometrics (height, weight, waist circumference, and body mass index [BMI]); demographics; socioeconomic status, CVD risk factors, body size perception; knowledge and awareness of CV disease; and attitudes toward lifestyle perception were determined. Most were Hispanic (64.0%); non-Hispanic white (20.0%); or non-Hispanic black (8.7%), age = 35.9 ± 8.0 years. BMI was categorized as obese (≥30 kg/m2, 27.0%; 160/592); overweight (25.0-29.1 kg/m2, 29.1%; 172/592); normal weight (18.5-24.9, 41.7%; 247/592); and underweight (≤18.4; 2.2%; 13/592). More than half (57.9%; 337/582) had CVD risks: 45.9% (267/582) had >1 CVD risk factor exclusive of obesity, including physical inactivity (18.4%), hypertension (17.2%), hyperlipidemia (11.3%), current tobacco use (9.8%), and diabetes (5.6%). Regardless of CVD risk burden, most knew blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol. Women with increased CVD risk burden, however, were less likely to correctly identify body size (53.3% vs. 66.1%, p = 0.002). Obese and overweight women with CVD risk factors exclusive of obesity were more likely to cite cost (23.4% vs. 10.7%, p = 0.003) and fatigue (32.2% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.006) as barriers to weight loss. Among these young women, the majority had CVD risks and the CVD risk burden is high among young women, particularly among the overweight and obese and physically inactive. Strategies to encourage healthy lifestyles and reduce CVD risk factors among this vulnerable at-risk population are vital.

  2. A genetic risk score predicts cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Nyegaard, Mette; Larsen, Sanne Bøjet

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic risk scores (GRSs) may predict cardiovascular risk in community-based populations. However, studies investigating the association with recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) are conflicting. METHODS: We genotyped 879 patients...... Danish registries. The primary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 2.8 (2.4-3.8)years. The cumulative incidence proportions of the primary endpoint at 1 and 3years were 6...... GRS was observed on coronary revascularisations (adjusted HR 2.10 [95% CI 1.08-4.07]). Risks of cardiovascular death (adjusted HR 1.07 [95% CI 0.46-2.48]) and all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.15 [95% CI 0.65-2.03]) were unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: A GRS predicts recurrent cardiovascular events in high...

  3. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk reduction: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Costanzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The inverse relationship between low to moderate alcohol consumption and several favorable health outcomes has been well established in many epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. However, several questions still remain controversial.

    Aims: To discuss a number of open questions relating to the healthy effect of a moderate intake of alcohol (especially wine on cardiovascular disease and total mortality. This will be based on findings from the literature, with a particular emphasis on meta-analyses.

    Results and Conclusion: The role of different alcoholic beverages, age and sex, confounding, former drinkers and study design has been discussed. Whether wine is better than beer or spirits, though suggestive, remains to be established. Cardiovascular morbidity and total mortality is significantly reduced both in men and women who are regular drinkers of low amounts of alcohol; however, the predicted protection in women disappears at lower doses than in men. The primary protection of alcohol decreases after adjustment for known variables, thus confirming the importance of confounding in assessing drinking effects, but it remains significant and of undoubted public health value. As the cardiovascular protection by moderate alcohol consumption might have been unduly overestimated by inclusion in control groups of former drinkers, we compared studies that used as a reference group the category of no alcohol intake and/or formally excluded former drinkers with studies which did not: the protection was indeed somewhat lower in the former than in the latter studies, but was still statistically significant. We conclude that the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk or total mortality, consistently described by J-shaped curves, can be reasonably attributed to a combination of both real beneficial (at lower doses and harmful (at higher doses

  5. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Lucia; Nobili, Valerio; Anania, Caterina; Verdecchia, Paola; Chiesa, Claudio

    2011-07-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver histology severity and outcomes in the absence of chronic alcohol use. The mildest form is simple steatosis in which triglycerides accumulate within hepatocytes. A more advanced form of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, includes inflammation and liver cell injury, progressive to cryptogenic cirrhosis. NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity likely explains the NAFLD epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is strongly associated with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and most patients have evidence of insulin resistance. Thus, NAFLD shares many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a highly atherogenic condition, and this has stimulated interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with a significantly greater overall mortality than in the general population, as well as with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of classical atherosclerotic risk factors. Yet, several studies including the pediatric population have reported independent associations between NAFLD and impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation and increased carotid artery intimal medial thickness-two reliable markers of subclinical atherosclerosis-after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Therefore, the rising prevalence of obesity-related MetS and NAFLD in childhood may lead to a parallel increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In children, the cardiovascular system remains plastic and damage-reversible if early and appropriate interventions are established effectively. Therapeutic goals for NAFLD should address nutrition, physical activity, and avoidance of smoking to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also CVD.

  6. Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, M; Berneis, K.

    2017-01-01

    A predominance of small, dense low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been accepted as an emerging cardiovascular risk factor by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. LDL size seems to be an important predictor of cardiovascular events and progression of coronary heart disease and evidences suggests that both quality (particularly small, dense LDL) and quantity may increase cardiovascular risk. However, other authors have suggested that LDL size measurement does no...

  7. Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Research: Impact of Pets on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiner, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or ...

  8. Effectiveness and efficiency of a practice accreditation program on cardiovascular risk management in primary care: study protocol of a clustered randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, E.; Lieshout, J. van; Adang, E.M.; Bouma, M.; Braspenning, J.C.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk management is largely provided in primary healthcare, but not all patients with established cardiovascular diseases receive preventive treatment as recommended. Accreditation of healthcare organizations has been introduced across the world with a range of

  9. Dietary Fibre and Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slurink, Isabel A.L.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease
    compared to non-diabetic populations. Improved dietary quality is essential to
    control risk factors and can prevent or delay cardiovascular disease in diabetic
    patients. Higher dietary fibre intake was

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is limited population based data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Nigeria, and Abia state in particular. Aims: The purpose of this survey was to determine the burden of non-communicable diseases as well as associated cardiovascular risk factors in the ...

  11. Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...

  12. Gestational Age and Manifest Cardiovascular Risk Factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal pregnancy (PREG) is a hyper-physiological state with unique challenges to maternal cardiovascular physiology including alterations in dynamics of lipid metabolism and potential disposition towards cardiovascular disease (CAD) risk with a gestational age (GA) bias. Thus manifestation of known CAD risk factors ...

  13. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among Diabetic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma ...

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  15. Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Priests in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is reaching near epidemic proportions inAfrica.Achieving significant reduction in the CVD burden requires aggressive population-based lifestyle-related risk factorsmodification. No studies have been done in this developing country on the cardiovascular risk factor profile among ...

  16. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of cardiovascular risk factors in adults participating in the ...

  17. Counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Teunissen, Pim W.; Franx, Arie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157009939; Van Pampus, Maria G.; Mol, Ben W.; De Groot, Christianne J M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Gynaecologists have an important role in the counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia. We aimed to assess the role of gynaecologists in informing women on

  18. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  19. Gender/Sex as a Social Determinant of Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Adrienne; Scovelle, Anna J; Milner, Allison J; Kavanagh, Anne

    2018-02-20

    The social gradient for cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset and outcomes is well established. The American Heart Association's Social Determinants of Risk and Outcomes of Cardiovascular Disease Scientific Statement advocates looking beyond breakthroughs in biological science toward a social determinants approach that focuses on socioeconomic position, race and ethnicity, social support, culture and access to medical care, and residential environments to curb the burden of CVD going forward. Indeed, the benefits of this approach are likely to be far reaching, enhancing the positive effects of advances in CVD related to prevention and treatment while reducing health inequities that contribute to CVD onset and outcomes. It is disappointing that the role of gender has been largely neglected despite being a critical determinant of cardiovascular health. It is clear that trajectories and outcomes of CVD differ by biological sex, yet the tendency for sex and gender to be conflated has contributed to the idea that both are constant or fixed with little room for intervention. Rather, as distinct from biological sex, gender is socially produced. Overlaid on biological sex, gender is a broad term that shapes and interacts with one's cognition to guide norms, roles, behaviors, and social relations. It is a fluid construct that varies across time, place, and life stage. Gender can interact with biological sex and, indeed, other social determinants, such as ethnicity and socioeconomic position, to shape cardiovascular health from conception, through early life when health behaviors and risk factors are shaped, into adolescence and adulthood. This article will illustrate how gender shapes the early adoption of health behaviors in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood by focusing on physical activity, drinking, and smoking behaviors (including the influence of role modeling). We will also discuss the role of gender in psychosocial stress with a focus on trauma from life

  20. Cardiovascular risk prediction in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño Mora, Santiago; Goicoechea, Marian; Torres, Esther; Verdalles, Úrsula; Pérez de José, Ana; Verde, Eduardo; García de Vinuesa, Soledad; Luño, José

    Scores underestimate the prediction of cardiovascular risk (CVR) as they are not validated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two of the most commonly used scores are the Framingham Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the ASCVD (AHA/ACC 2013). The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of experiencing a cardiovascular event (CVE) via these 2scores in the CKD population. Prospective, observational study of 400 prevalent patients with CKD (stages 4 and 5 according the KDOQI; not on dialysis). Cardiovascular risk was calculated according to the 2scores and the predictive capacity of cardiovascular events (atherosclerotic events: myocardial infarction, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, peripheral vascular disease; and non-atherosclerotic events: heart failure) was analysed. Forty-nine atherosclerotic cardiovascular events occurred in 40.3±6.6 months of follow-up. Most of the patients were classified as high CVR by both scores (59% by the FRS-CVD and 75% by the ASCVD). All cardiovascular events occurred in the high CVR patients and both scores (FRS-CVD log-rank 12.2, Prenal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular risk scores (FRS-CVD and ASCVD [AHA/ACC 2013]) can estimate the probability of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with CKD regardless of renal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors in scholars (RIVACANGAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera-Gallego, Rocío; García-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Cordeiro, Marta; Rodríguez-Reneda, Ángeles; Vérez-Cotelo, Natalia; Andrés-Rodríguez, N Floro; Fornos-Pérez, J Antonio; Rica-Echevarría, Itxaso

    2016-12-01

    The current guidelines for treatment of high blood pressure do not include any section dedicated to hypertension in children and adolescents or to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention strategies in that age group. Our study was aimed at identifying cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in an adolescent sample. A cross-sectional study of a sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17years (n=630), conducted from October 2014 to February 2015 in four schools in Cangas do Morrazo (Pontevedra). Sociodemographic variables: age, sex, personal and family history of hypertension and diabetes (DM). Anthropometric variables: body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC, cm), waist/height index (WHI), blood pressure (mmHg). The study sample consisted of 295 female and 335 male adolescents (mean age: 13.8±1.4). CVR-related conditions: hypercholesterolemia (7.1%), CVD (1.7%), hypertension (0.8%) and diabetes (0.3%). BMI (22.0±3,8) was higher in males (22.4±3.8 vs. 21.0±3.2; PP90 and 23.7% had diastolic BP >P90. Waist circumference positively correlated with age (r=0.1669; PP75, and 7.5% >P90. Eighty-four (13.3%) adolescents had two CVRFs (overweight+another). Despite their young age, more than 10% of school children had two CVRFs. Abnormal SBP levels were seen in more than 50%, 20% were overweight, and only 75% had normal waist circumference values. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of four current risk algorithms in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, E.E.A.; Popa, C.; Broeder, A.A. den; Semb, A.G.; Toms, T.; Kitas, G.D.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Fransen, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the predictive ability of 4 established cardiovascular (CV) risk models for the 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal CV diseases in European patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from the Nijmegen early rheumatoid

  3. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Pblood pressure is an independent risk factor for blood pressure increase and incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores; Alonso-Hernández Angel; Fernández-Rivera Constantino; Seoane-Pillado Teresa; Seijo-Bestilleiro Rocío; Valdés-Cañedo Francisco; Pértega-Díaz Sonia; Pita-Fernández Salvador; López-Calviño Beatriz; López-Muñiz Andres

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framin...

  5. Cardiovascular risk assessment using high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandis-Cortes, Cristina; Martínez-Jabaloyas, José M; Díez-Calzadilla, Nelson A; Hernández-Medina, José A; Chuan-Nuez, Pascual

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular events. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a cardiovascular risk marker. The aim of this study is to determine whether hsCRP is useful in evaluating ED. In 121 patients with ED, age, ED type and severity, time since onset of ED, weight, height, BMI, body fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, hsCRP and hormone profile were studied. Patients were classified as low or moderate-high cardiovascular risk based on hsCRP levels. A descriptive and univariate study was performed. A logistic regression was used to establish factors associated with low versus moderate-high cardiovascular risk and hsCRP. Most patients had moderate-severe ED (70%). 74% had a moderate-high cardiovascular risk based on hsCRP levels, and 33.9 and 34.7% had hypogonadism according to total (TT) and free testosterone. In the univariate analysis, a relationship between hsCRP and TT and physical examination variables was observed (p cardiovascular risk was found in the hypogonadic group (OR: 5.51; 95% CI: 1.185-25.662) and waist- to-hip ratio (p = 0.008; OR: 1.361; 95% CI: 1.075-1.612). A majority of patients with ED have high cardiovascular risk based on hsCRP levels and there is an association with hypogonadism and obesity. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Fundamentals for establishing a risk communication program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K L; Hamby, D M

    1997-09-01

    This paper provides a suggested outline for developing a risk communication organizational plan that could be used by a variety of federal, state, or private agencies. Drawing on various techniques presented in the literature and on the authors' insights, suggestions are provided as to how to formulate and convey risk messages. First, the paper provides a few risk communication fundamentals including definitions, the goal of informing vs. influencing, the importance of public participation in risk management, building trust and credibility, the consideration of outrage, and the importance of oral and visual communications. Second, a stepwise approach synthesized by the authors is presented that can be applied in developing a risk communication program. The approach is a 13-step method based on the premise that the risk communication program should be dynamic, flexible, and involve interaction with the public at every possible step.

  7. Effects of contraceptive steroids on cardiovascular risk factors in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K R; Skouby, S O; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated established cardiovascular risk factors within lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and endothelial function in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were using oral contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five women with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes...... the cardiovascular risk profile in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, but our study indicates a risk of disturbances of the endothelial integrity, which needs further investigation....... evaluation. RESULTS: No statistical differences in the biochemical risk markers were noted between the two groups at the start of the study. In the treatment group serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased, whereas the concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein...

  8. Emerging risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient′s life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a, apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context.

  9. Emerging risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sushil; Gudapati, Ramesh; Gaurav, Kumar; Bhise, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient's life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context.

  10. Can machine-learning improve cardiovascular risk prediction using routine clinical data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Stephen F; Reps, Jenna; Kai, Joe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to predict cardiovascular risk fail to identify many people who would benefit from preventive treatment, while others receive unnecessary intervention. Machine-learning offers opportunity to improve accuracy by exploiting complex interactions between risk factors. We assessed whether machine-learning can improve cardiovascular risk prediction. Prospective cohort study using routine clinical data of 378,256 patients from UK family practices, free from cardiovascular disease at outset. Four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, logistic regression, gradient boosting machines, neural networks) were compared to an established algorithm (American College of Cardiology guidelines) to predict first cardiovascular event over 10-years. Predictive accuracy was assessed by area under the 'receiver operating curve' (AUC); and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) to predict 7.5% cardiovascular risk (threshold for initiating statins). 24,970 incident cardiovascular events (6.6%) occurred. Compared to the established risk prediction algorithm (AUC 0.728, 95% CI 0.723-0.735), machine-learning algorithms improved prediction: random forest +1.7% (AUC 0.745, 95% CI 0.739-0.750), logistic regression +3.2% (AUC 0.760, 95% CI 0.755-0.766), gradient boosting +3.3% (AUC 0.761, 95% CI 0.755-0.766), neural networks +3.6% (AUC 0.764, 95% CI 0.759-0.769). The highest achieving (neural networks) algorithm predicted 4,998/7,404 cases (sensitivity 67.5%, PPV 18.4%) and 53,458/75,585 non-cases (specificity 70.7%, NPV 95.7%), correctly predicting 355 (+7.6%) more patients who developed cardiovascular disease compared to the established algorithm. Machine-learning significantly improves accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction, increasing the number of patients identified who could benefit from preventive treatment, while avoiding unnecessary treatment of others.

  11. Recording of risk-factors and lifestyle counselling in patients at high risk for cardiovascular diseases in European primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludt, S.; Petek, D.; Laux, G.; Lieshout, J. van; Campbell, S.M.; Kunzi, B.; Glehr, M.; Wensing, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Detection and registration of high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by assessing individual's absolute cardiovascular risk is recommended in clinical guidelines. Effective interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk are available, but not optimally implemented. The aim of this

  12. Vegetarian diet, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, I L; Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Vandongen, R

    1984-08-01

    This paper reviews the association between a vegetarian diet and a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease investigated in a series of epidemiological and experimental studies. Ninety-eight Seventh-day Adventist "vegetarians" were similar to 113 Mormon omnivores for strength of religious affiliation, consumption of alcohol, tea and coffee and use of tobacco, but were significantly less obese and had significantly lower blood pressures adjusted for age, height and weight. A random sample of forty-seven Adventist vegetarians had significantly lower home blood pressures, serum cholesterol levels and blood pressure responses to a cold-pressor test than Mormon omnivores carefully matched for age, sex and Quetelet's index. In a controlled dietary intervention study mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum cholesterol fell significantly during feeding with a vegetarian diet--an effect unrelated to changes in other lifestyle factors. Dietary analysis indicated that a vegetarian diet provided more polyunsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium, calcium and potassium and significantly less total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol than an omnivore diet. There was no evidence for a difference between vegetarians and omnivores in levels of catecholamines, plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, cortisol or serum and urinary prostanoids.

  13. Impact of Gut Microbiota on Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Luca; Giorgio, Valentina; Alberelli, Maria Adele; De Candia, Erica; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Grieco, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Gut microbiota has been recently established to have a contributory role in the development of cardiometabolic disorders, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Growing interest has focused on the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed the impact of gut microbiota on metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease risk, focusing on the newest findings in this field.

  14. Risk factors of arterial cardiovascular complications in patients with prior venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, S.; Lijfering, W. M.; Coppens, M.; Hamulyák, K.; Prins, M. H.; Büller, H. R.; Middeldorp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The effect of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRs) and thrombophilic defects on the risk of arterial cardiovascular complications in patients with prior venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unclear. Objective. We investigated whether the risk of arterial cardiovascular complications is

  15. Risk factors of arterial cardiovascular complications in patients with prior venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, S.; Lijfering, W. M.; Coppens, M.; Hamulyak, K.; Prins, M. H.; Buller, H. R.; Middeldorp, S.

    Background. The effect of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRs) and thrombophilic defects on the risk of arterial cardiovascular complications in patients with prior venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unclear. Objective. We investigated whether the risk of arterial cardiovascular complications is

  16. A study of cardiovascular risk factors and its knowledge among school children of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mary George

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids, mercury, and selenium in fish and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyong; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2010-11-01

    Fish consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Some fish species also contain methylmercury, which may increase cardiovascular risk, as well as selenium, a trace element that could counter the effects of methylmercury or have beneficial effects itself. These potentially conflicting effects have created public confusion about the risks and benefits of fish consumption in adults. We examined the evidence for cardiovascular effects of fish consumption, particularly effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids, methylmercury, and selenium. Compelling evidence indicates that modest fish consumption substantially reduces cardiovascular risk, in particular cardiac mortality, related at least partly to benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. In contrast, observational studies and (for selenium) clinical trials demonstrate mixed and inconclusive results for cardiovascular effects of methylmercury and selenium. Net health benefits of overall fish consumption in adults are clear. Quantitative risk-benefit analyses of cardiovascular effects of consuming specific fish species, based on joint contents of fatty acids, methylmercury, and selenium, cannot currently be performed until the cardiovascular effects of methylmercury and selenium are established.

  18. Total cardiovascular risk profile of Taiwanese vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-W; Lin, Y-L; Lin, T-K; Lin, C-T; Chen, B-C; Lin, C-L

    2008-01-01

    Although the health benefits of vegetarian diets have been well documented among Western population, there are geographic differences of vegetarian diets and the health benefits of the Taiwanese vegetarian diet have not been studied extensively. In addition to conventional risk factors, homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels have been found to predict first atherothrombotic events. We undertook this study to examine the total risk profile of Taiwanese vegetarians. A total of 198 healthy subjects (99 vegetarians and 99 omnivores) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), white blood cell count, hs-CRP and homocysteine. There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, blood glucose, white blood cell count, triglyceride and HDL-C between the two groups. The vegetarian group had significantly more females (65.7 vs 46.5%); lower body weight (58.66+/-11.13 vs 62.88+/-12.24 kg); shorter height (159.14+/-7.88 vs 162.53 +/-8.14 cm); lower total cholesterol (184.74+/-33.23 vs 202.01+/-41.05 mg/dl); and lower LDL-C (119.63+/-31.59 vs 135.89+/-39.50 mg/dl). Hs-CRP was significantly lower (0.14+/-0.23 vs 0.23+/-0.44 mg/dl, P=0.025), whereas homocysteine was significantly higher (10.97+/-6.69 vs 8.44+/-2.50 micromol/l, P=0.001) in vegetarians than omnivores. Taiwanese vegetarians have lower total cholesterol, LDL-C and hs-CRP levels, and higher homocysteine levels than omnivores. Owing to different predictive value of each risk factor, the Taiwanese vegetarians had a better cardiovascular risk profile than omnivores. Whether the Taiwanese vegetarian diet should be supplemented with vitamin B(12) to lower serum homocysteine level remains to be addressed.

  19. Novel immune mechanisms in hypertension and cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Nosalski, Ryszard; McGinnigle, Eilidh; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Guzik, Tomasz J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: \\ud \\ud Hypertension is a common disorder with substantial impact on public health due to highly elevated cardiovascular risk. The mechanisms still remain unclear and treatments are not sufficient to reduce risk in majority of patients. Inflammatory mechanisms may provide an important mechanism linking hypertension and cardiovascular risk. We aim to review newly identified immune and inflammatory mechanisms of hypertension with focus on their potential therapeutic impact.\\u...

  20. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Morris; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, even after controlling for traditional risk factors. Shift workers frequently undergo circadian misalignment (i.e., misalignment between the endogenous circadian system and 24-h environmental/behavioral cycles). This misalignment has been proposed to explain, in part, why shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of circadian misalignment pe...

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, Wilma; Roebroeck, Marij; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah; Bergen, Michael; Stam, Henk; Burdorf, Alex; Berg-Emons, Rita

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To explore: (i) cardiovascular disease risk factors and the 10-year clustered risk of a fatal cardiovascular event in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy; and (ii) relationships between the 10-year risk and body fat, aerobic fitness and physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Forty-three adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy without severe cognitive impairment (mean age 36.6 years (standard deviation 6); 27 men). Methods: Biological a...

  2. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  3. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide--three new cardiovascular risk markers--do they improve risk prediction and influence treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Sehestedt, Thomas; Lyngbaek, Stig

    2010-01-01

    In order to prioritize limited health resources in a time of increasing demands optimal cardiovascular risk stratification is essential. We tested the additive prognostic value of 3 relatively new, but established cardiovascular risk markers: N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP), ......In order to prioritize limited health resources in a time of increasing demands optimal cardiovascular risk stratification is essential. We tested the additive prognostic value of 3 relatively new, but established cardiovascular risk markers: N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (Nt...... of 48% with extremely high cardiovascular risk who should be referred for specialist care to optimize treatment....

  4. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  5. Childhood BMI Trajectories Predicting Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Brittany P.; Nelson, Jackie A.; Holub, Shayla C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study compared growth parameters of girls’ and boys’ BMI trajectories from infancy to middle childhood, and evaluated these parameters as predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescence. Methods Using 657 children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), quadratic growth curve analyses were conducted to establish growth parameters (intercept, slope, quadratic term) for girls and boys from 15 months to age 10 ½. Parameters were compared across gender and evaluated as predictors of a CVD risk index at age 15, controlling for characteristics of the adiposity rebound (AR) including age at which it occurred and children’s BMI at the rebound. Results Boys had more extreme trajectories of growth compared to girls with higher initial BMI at 15 months (intercept), more rapid declines in BMI before the AR (slope), and sharper rebound growth in BMI after the rebound (quadratic term). For boys and girls, higher intercept, slope, and quadratic term values predicted higher CVD risk at age 15, controlling for characteristics of the AR. Conclusions Findings suggest that individuals at risk for developing CVD later in life may be identified before the AR by elevated BMI at 15 months and slow BMI declines. Due to the importance of early intervention in altering lifelong health trajectories, consistent BMI monitoring is essential in identifying high-risk children. PMID:25746172

  6. Childhood body mass index trajectories predicting cardiovascular risk in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Brittany P; Nelson, Jackie A; Holub, Shayla C

    2015-06-01

    The present study compared growth parameters of girls' and boys' body mass index (BMI) trajectories from infancy to middle childhood and evaluated these parameters as predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescence. Using 657 children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, quadratic growth curve analyses were conducted to establish growth parameters (intercept, slope, and quadratic term) for girls and boys from age 15 months to 10.5 years. Parameters were compared across gender and evaluated as predictors of a CVD risk index at the age of 15 years, controlling for characteristics of the adiposity rebound (AR) including age at which it occurred and children's BMI at the rebound. Boys had more extreme trajectories of growth than girls with higher initial BMI at age 15 months (intercept), more rapid declines in BMI before the AR (slope), and sharper rebound growth in BMI after the rebound (quadratic term). For boys and girls, higher intercept, slope, and quadratic term values predicted higher CVD risk at the age of 15 years, controlling for characteristics of the AR. Findings suggest that individuals at risk for developing CVD later in life may be identified before the AR by elevated BMI at 15 months and slow BMI declines. Because of the importance of early intervention in altering lifelong health trajectories, consistent BMI monitoring is essential in identifying high-risk children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A genetic risk score predicts cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Nyegaard, Mette; Larsen, Sanne Bøjet

    Background. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) may predict cardiovascular risk in community-based populations. However, studies investigating the association with recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) are conflicting. Methods. We genotyped 879 patients...... with high-risk stable CAD and created a GRS based on 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported to be associated with CAD in genome-wide association studies. Patients were categorised into high or low GRS according to the median GRS and followed for recurrent cardiovascular events using national...... Danish registries. The primary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, and cardiovascular death. Results. Median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 2.8 (2.4–3.8) years. The cumulative incidence proportions of the primary endpoint at 1 and 3 years were 6...

  8. Framingham risk score with cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Chen

    Full Text Available The Framingham Risk Score (FRS was developed to predict coronary heart disease in various populations, and it tended to under-estimate the risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Our objectives were to determine whether FRS was associated with cardiovascular events, and to evaluate the role of new risk markers and echocardiographic parameters when they were added to a FRS model. This study enrolled 439 CKD patients. The FRS is used to identify individuals categorically as "low" (4.7 cm, left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular ejection fraction<50% to the FRS model significantly improves the predictive values for cardiovascular events. In CKD patients, "high" risk categorized by FRS predicts cardiovascular events. Novel biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters provide additional predictive values for cardiovascular events. Future study is needed to assess whether risk assessment enhanced by using these biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters might contribute to more effective prediction and better care for patients.

  9. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  10. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk: epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansevoort, Ron T; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Jafar, Tazeen H; Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; Mann, Johannes F; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Wen, Chi Pang

    2013-07-27

    Since the first description of the association between chronic kidney disease and heart disease, many epidemiological studies have confirmed and extended this finding. As chronic kidney disease progresses, kidney-specific risk factors for cardiovascular events and disease come into play. As a result, the risk for cardiovascular disease is notably increased in individuals with chronic kidney disease. When adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, impaired kidney function and raised concentrations of albumin in urine increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by two to four times. Yet, cardiovascular disease is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated in patients with chronic kidney disease. This group of patients should, therefore, be acknowledged as having high cardiovascular risk that needs particular medical attention at an individual level. This view should be incorporated in the development of guidelines and when defining research priorities. Here, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease, and discuss methods of prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Antonia; Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Castro, José Miguel; Quesada-Charneco, Miguel; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernando; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP), even asymptomatic, have an increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on reversibility or improvement of cardiovascular disorders with surgery are controversial. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of classic cardiovascular risk factors in patients with asymptomatic PHP, to explore their relationship with calcium and PTH levels, and analyze the effect of parathyroidectomy on those cardiovascular risk factors. A retrospective, observational study of two groups of patients with asymptomatic PHP: 40 patients on observation and 33 patients who underwent surgery. Clinical and biochemical data related to PHP and various cardiovascular risk factors were collected from all patients at baseline and one year after surgery in the operated patients. A high prevalence of obesity (59.9%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (25%), high blood pressure (47.2%), and dyslipidemia (44.4%) was found in the total sample, with no difference between the study groups. Serum calcium and PTH levels positively correlated with BMI (r=.568, P=.011, and r=.509, P=.026 respectively) in non-operated patients. One year after parathyroidectomy, no improvement occurred in the cardiovascular risk factors considered. Our results confirm the high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in patients with asymptomatic PHP. However, parathyroidectomy did not improve these cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Education and hypertension: impact on global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2017-10-01

    Improving cardiovascular risk prediction continues to be a major challenge and effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, several studies have recently reported on the role of cardiovascular risk education. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of education on global cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. The study population consisted of 223 consecutive hypertensive outpatients. Their educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education (less than 10 years) and (2) medium-high education (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities, global cardiovascular risk and echocardiographic measurements were analysed. Less educated hypertensive subjects were characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (p higher consumption of antihypertensive drugs (p educated hypertensive subjects. In the same subjects, a significant increase in microalbuminuria (MA) (p education (r = -0.45; p Education was independently (p education may be considered the best predictor of global cardiovascular risk in hypertensives and thus has to be evaluated in the strategies of hypertension and cardiovascular risk management.

  13. Effect of early-onset preeclampsia on cardiovascular risk in the fifth decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokslag, Anouk; Teunissen, Pim W; Franssen, Constantijn; van Kesteren, Floortje; Kamp, Otto; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Paulus, Walter J; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2017-05-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, in particular early-onset preeclampsia, are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. These women have a more than 2-fold increased risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases. Most studies have focused on identification of risk factors shortly after pregnancy. Less is known on the prevalence of risk factors or actual signs of cardiovascular disease 5-20 years later. The presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome can be seen as an opportunity for preventive interventions to reduce the development of severe cardiovascular diseases like myocardial infarction and stroke. To assess cardiovascular risk factors and established cardiovascular disease in women after early-onset preeclampsia, in the fifth decade of life. As a consequence, we can assess whether there is still a window of opportunity for preventive measures and to establish in what proportion of women cardiovascular disease already has developed. In a prospective observational study, cardiovascular risk assessment was performed in women with early-onset preeclampsia (preeclampsia (n = 131) had significantly greater systolic and diastolic blood pressure, greater body mass index, more often had an abnormal lipid profile (lower high-density lipoprotein levels, higher triglycerides), greater glycated hemoglobin, and greater levels of albuminuria compared to controls (n = 56). None of the women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia was diagnosed with cardiovascular disease; 38.2% were diagnosed with hypertension; and 18.2% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A total of 42% met the criteria for the window of opportunity for preventive measures. In women with a history of an uncomplicated pregnancy, no women were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease; 14.3% were diagnosed with hypertension; 1.8% with metabolic syndrome. In this cohort, 14.3% met the criteria for the window of opportunity for preventive measures. A large

  14. Relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is increasing in most developing countries, especially in urban settings. Despite this increasing trend, there is limited data on the association between diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Tanzania. Objective: To assess the frequency of intake of various ...

  15. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As these statistics indicate, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. In South Africa, through urbanisation and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits, the prevalence of risk factors and, by extension, the resulting morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease in black people, are expected ...

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This is predominantly due to accelerated coronary artery and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors as well as extra articular disease have been associated with occurrence of myocardial ...

  17. Cardiovascular risk calculation | Ker | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause in the majority of cardiovascular disease events. Traditional independent risk factors for car diovascular disease include age, abnormal lipid levels, elevated blood pressure, smoking and elevated ...

  18. Imaging of atherosclerosis: study design and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.A.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341652326

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.1 The majority of cardiovascular disease events is caused by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a slow and progressive disease of the arterial wall that is on the pathway between the effects of exposure to risk

  19. Cardiovascular benefits and risks across the physical activity continuum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; George, K.P.; Thompson, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Habitual physical activity can reduce the risk of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review evaluates recent publications that have assessed the impact of the dose of physical (in)activity on cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Sedentary behavior,

  20. Cholesterol Lowering in Intermediate-Risk Persons without Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yusuf, Salim; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles; Zhu, Jun; Xavier, Denis; Liu, Lisheng; Pais, Prem; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Dans, Antonio; Avezum, Alvaro; Piegas, Leopoldo S.; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Keltai, Katalin; Keltai, Matyas; Sliwa, Karen; Peters, Ron J. G.; Held, Claes; Chazova, Irina; Yusoff, Khalid; Lewis, Basil S.; Jansky, Petr; Khunti, Kamlesh; Toff, William D.; Reid, Christopher M.; Varigos, John; Sanchez-Vallejo, Gregorio; McKelvie, Robert; Pogue, Janice; Jung, Hyejung; Gao, Peggy; Diaz, Rafael; Lonn, Eva; Alzogaray, M.; Aparici, M.; Berli, M.; Bevacqua, M.; Bustamante Labarta, M.; Bustos, B.; Caccavo, A.; Candiello, A.; Carignano, M.; Carrillo, N.; Carro, N.; Cartasegna, L.; Casali, W.; Cassettari, A.; Centeno, M.; Cuello, J.; Cusimano, S.; Cuneo, C.; Duran, R. Garcia; Damonte, C.; de Landaluc, M.; de Martino, E.; Diez, R.; Duran, R.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrari, A.; Forti, L.; Galello, M.; Garcia, C.; Giachello, F.; Garrido, M.; Gonzalez, M.; Guerlloy, F.; Guerrero, R.; Hrabar, A.; Imposti, H.; Hominal, M.; Liniado, G.; Lanchiotti, P.; Laugle, C.; Litvak, M. R.; Longhi, A.; Luciardi, H.; Mackinnon, I.; Marino, J.; Manzano, R.; Merlo, B.; Milesi, R.; Molina de Salazar, D. I.; Mulazzi, C.; Nemi, S.; Orio, S.; Pelaggage, M.; Raimondi, S.; Rodino, L.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Sago, L.; Sala, J.; Sanchez, A.; Sanchez, R.; Santos, D.; Schygiel, P.; Sernia, V.; Smith, T.; Sokn, F.; Soso, L.; Trivi, M.; Vico, M.; Vilamajo, O. Gomez; Villamil, A.; Vogel, D.; Zaidman, C.; Abhayaratna, W.; Canalese, J.; Krum, H.; Patel, A.; Alves, A. R.; Alves, C. B.; Ayoub, J. C. A.; Bergoli, L. C. C.; Blacher, M. G.; Bodanese, L. C.; Braga, J. C. F.; Brasil, C. K. O. L.; Costa, M. K. M.; Costa, O. M. C.; de Faria, D. G.; del Monaco, M. I.; Fabian Restelatto, L.; Filho, F.; Franco, R. J. S.; Furtado, M. V.; Leaes, P. E.; Maia, L. N.; MarinNeto, J. A.; Martins, A. P. D.; Mattar, E. T. B.; Melo, C. M.; Mothe, F. S.; Oliveira, G. B. F.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Pelloso, E.; Polanczyk, C. A.; Rosa, P. R.; Sales, S. O. C.; Saraiva, J. F. K.; Schmidt, A.; Silva, V. S.; Sousa, A. C. S.; Valle, A. P.; Wiehe, M.; Abramson, B.; Anand, S.; Aw, J.; Baxter, W.; Berlingieri, J.; Cha, J.; Chaulk, R.; Chetty, T.; Dagenais, G.; Dattani, D.; Delage, F.; Dion, D.; Dominguez, M.; Gallo, R.; Glendinning, K.; Goldman, H.; Gosselin, G.; Greenspoon, A.; Hungly, Q.; Juneau, M.; Keegan, P.; Kelly, A.; Kilby, D.; Lavoie, M.; Leiter, L. A.; Lonn, E.; Magloire, P.; Mehta, P.; Mercante, N.; Miscescu, H.; Moran, G.; Nawaz, S.; Nigam, A.; Pang, P.; Papp, E.; Petrella, R.; Poirier, C.; Rabasa-Lhoret, R.; Rizvi, Q.; Saulnier, D.; Sharma, M.; Sohal, P.; Stern, S.; Tobe, S.; Walsh, P.; Ward, R.; Weeks, A.; Woo, V.; Yellin, J.; Zuliani, P.; Bai, X. J.; Dong, L. G.; Feng, J. Z.; Fu, P.; Gao, P.; Gao, M. M.; Ge, H.; Hu, S. P.; Hua, Q.; Li, D. J.; Liu, Z. D.; Liu, Y. J.; Liu, X. L.; Liu, L. H.; Liu, F. Y.; Lu, F. H.; Lv, T.; Ma, H.; Ma, S. P.; Man, R. H.; Shen, Y.; Shi, J. F.; Sun, X. D.; Wang, B.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wei, Y. J.; Yang, H. S.; Yang, X. C.; Yu, J. H.; Yu, K.; Yu, L. T.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, J. G.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, B. X.; Accini, J.; Aroca, G.; Arcos, E.; Accini-Valencia, M.; Casanova, M.; Celemin, C.; Coronel, B. J.; Cotes, C.; Cure, C.; Duarte, A.; Escobar, D.; Figueredo, M.; Garcia, H.; Garcia, L.; Grisales, M.; Hernandez, Z.; Martinez, K.; Nino Castellanos, B.; Diego-Olite, M.; Ospina Rendon, N.; Posada, I.; Quintero, A.; Quiros, F.; Sanchez, G.; Sotomayor, A.; Suarez, M.; Urina, M.; Adamkova, V.; Cifkova, R.; Ferkl, R.; Galovcova, M.; Hartman, J.; Jozifova, M.; Linhart, K.; Linhart, T.; Moravcikova, D.; Nussbaumerova, B.; Plachy, M.; Rosolova, H.; Seifert, B.; Soucek, M.; Duarte Vera, Y.; Espinel, M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, M.; McDermont, J.; Penaherrera, E.; Plascencia, F.; Pow-Chon-Long, F.; Tettamanti, D.; Bajnok, L.; Baranyi, E.; Bartfai, E.; Bod, E.; Bodis, B.; Czuriga, I.; Huber, E.; Mezosi, E.; Poor, F.; Somos, E.; Tarjanyi, Z.; Tatrai, T.; Tomcsanyi, J.; Vertes, A.; Zsary, A.; Aggarwal, D. K.; Alexander, K. G.; Aman, S. D.; Arun, N. N.; Ayyar, V.; Balaji, Y.; Balasubramanian, E.; Bantwal, G.; Bhalvishiya, Y.; Bosco, B.; Chidambaram, N.; Dabra, A.; Daniel, S.; Deshpande, N.; Devendra, H. R.; Ghoshroy, D.; Gnanasekaran, S.; Gupta, R.; Gutti, M. Z.; Jayakumar, P.; Joshi, G. S.; Joshi, S.; Kalantri, S. P.; Kapoor, A.; Khan, A.; Khedar, R. S.; Kishore, J.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, S.; Kumaravel, N. N.; Manjunath, A. R.; Mehta, K.; Mohan, V.; Murthy, S.; Nambiar, A.; Narendra, J.; Paul, S. K.; Qureshi, M. A.; Rajasekaran, S.; Ramu, M.; Ranka, R. L.; Rangadham, K.; Roy, S.; Sathyanarayan, M. R.; Selvam, K.; Sethuraman, J. P.; Shabhasane, D.; Shivaraj, K.; Shunmugvavelu, M.; Sidhu, G.; Singh, B.; Singh, R.; Srinivas, A.; Srinivas, J.; Srinivasulu, B.; Thomas, N.; Umarani, R.; Varghese, K.; Varma, S.; Yelvatkar, S.; Biton, A.; Goldhaber, A.; Ivri, S.; Shapiro, I.; Shveydel, E.; Shveydel, N.; Tsalihin, D.; Vinker, S.; Yosefy, H.; Kim, S. Kil; Choe, K. H.; Ambigga, D.; Aris, M. A.; Ghapar, K. A.; Krishnan, C.; Mahadasa, P.; Maizatullifah, M.; Mazapuspavina, Y.; Ramanathan, L.; Shah, A. Shah Mohd; Yusoff, K.; Bonarius, J. H.; de Jong, A.; DeRuiter, Z.; DeVos, R.; Dirkse, H. A.; Drenth, E.; Ferguson, H.; Jansen, R.; Mevissen, H.; Rol, H.; Schilder, A.; Spelt, I.; VanLeeuwen, P.; Abola, M.; Co, H.; Loyola, A.; Mercado, J.; Morales, D.; Padua, L.; Palileo, L.; Patanao, A.; Rogelio, G.; Roxas, A.; Sulit, D.; Tang-Manga, A.; Tumanan-Mendoza, B.; Boytsov, S.; Chukaeva, I.; Karpov, Y.; Kisliak, O.; Kobalava, Z.; Ledyacva, A.; Lopatin, Y.; Nedogoda, S.; Solovieva, M.; Tsoma, V.; Tyurina, T.; Hranai, M.; Badat, A.; Gerntholtz, T.; Sliwa, K.; Al-Khalili, F.; Carlberg, B.; Dotevall, A.; Nilsson, P.; Olsson, A.; Rosengren, A.; Soderberg, S.; Khunti, K.; Loke, I.; Toff, W. D.; Artomov, D.; Babanina, T.; Bagriy, A.; Chobotko, G.; Danyliuk, S.; Doretska, N.; Dorovska, O.; Dovgan, N.; Dzyak, G.; Glushko, L.; Gorbas, I.; Ilashchuk, T.; Karapetyan, K.; Karavanska, I.; Khimion, L.; Khorsun, A.; Kononenko, L.; Kuryata, O.; Kvasha, O.; Lazareva, S.; Loktyev, D.; Lysenko, G.; Martynyuk, V.; Miroshnchenko, N.; Onyschenko, O.; Petryk, N.; Pivovarova, S.; Rakytskay, I.; Sapozhnychenko, L.; Smymova, I.; Soya, O.; Tashchuk, V.; Turubarova-Leunova, N.; Vasilyeva, L.; Velichko, N.; Yagensky, A.; Zborovskyy, S.; Zhurba, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous trials have shown that the use of statins to lower cholesterol reduces the risk of cardiovascular events among persons without cardiovascular disease. Those trials have involved persons with elevated lipid levels or inflammatory markers and involved mainly white persons. It is

  1. Screening of cardiovascular risk factors among workers of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    are rare in the workplace and there is a virtual absence of psychosocial and overall cardiovascular risks prevention policy. These observations motivated this work in a ... a reality in workplace, the more threatening due to. 4.68% of the cases present a high CVR, strongly correlated with the occurrence of cardiovascular.

  2. Importance of cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term.

  3. Burden of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Pratt, Stephen; Elkin, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users.......Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users....

  4. The association between resistance exercise and cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Sui, Xuemei; Fritz, Stacy; Lavie, Carl J; Beattie, Paul F; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between resistance exercise and cardiovascular disease risk, independent of body composition, physical activity and aerobic capacity, in healthy women. A cross-sectional analysis including 7321 women with no history of heart disease, hypertension or diabetes was performed. Participation in resistance exercise was self-reported and body weight and height was measured. A single cardiovascular disease risk score was established via factor analysis including percent body fat, mean arterial pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Physical activity level was determined based on questionnaire data and aerobic capacity was assessed via a maximal treadmill exercise test. Women reporting resistance exercise had lower total cardiovascular disease risk at any age. Specifically, resistance exercise was associated with lower body fat, fasting glucose and total cholesterol. The association between resistance exercise and cardiovascular disease risk, however, remained only in normal weight women after adjusting for physical activity and aerobic capacity. Results of the present study underline the importance of resistance exercise as part of a healthy and active lifestyle in women across all ages. Our results suggest that resistance exercise may be particularly beneficial to independently improve cardiovascular disease risk profiles in women with normal weight. In overweight/obese women, total physical activity and aerobic capacity may have a stronger association with cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events among airline pilots: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Larsen, Peter D; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J

    2012-05-01

    A cardiovascular risk prediction score is routinely applied by aviation authorities worldwide. We examined the accuracy of the Framingham-based risk chart used by the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority in predicting cardiovascular events among airline pilots. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of 5-yr cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events in Oceania-based airline pilots. Cases were pilots with cardiovascular events as recorded on their medical records. Each case was age and gender matched with four controls that were randomly selected from the pilot population. To collect data before the events, 5-yr retrospective evaluations were conducted. Over a 16-yr study period we identified 15 cases of cardiovascular events, 9 (60%) of which were sudden clinical presentations and only 6 (40%) of which were detected using cardiovascular screening. There were 8 cases (53%) and 16 controls (27%) who had a 5-yr risk of > or = 10-15%. Almost half of the events (7/15) occurred in pilots whose highest 5-yr risk was in the 5-10% range. Cases were 3.91 times more likely to have highest 5-yr risk score of > or =10-15% than controls (OR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.04-16.35). The accuracy of the highest risk scores were moderate (AUC = 0.723, 95% CI 0.583-0.863). The cutoff point of 10% is valid, with a specificity of 0.73, but low sensitivity (0.53). Despite a valid and appropriate cutoff point, the tool had low sensitivity and was unable to predict almost half of the cardiovascular events.

  6. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  7. Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Research: Impact of Pets on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Pamela J

    2016-02-01

    Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or remained the same in the limited number of studies considering companion animals. Physical activity increases have more consistently been linked with dog ownership, although whether this reflects antecedent motivation or direct benefit from the dog is unclear. Allergies and asthma also are variably linked to pet ownership and are confounded by family history of atopy and timing of exposure to pet dander. The benefits of companion animals are most likely to be through reduction in depression, anxiety, and social isolation, but these studies have been largely cross-sectional and may depend on degree of bonding of the owner with the animal. Positive relationships show measurably higher oxytocin with lower cortisol and alpha-amylase levels. Finally, pet ownership is also a marker of better socioeconomic status and family stability, and if companion animals are to provide cardiovascular risk benefit, the route should perhaps be through improved education and opportunity for ownership.

  8. Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Research: Impact of Pets on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or remained the same in the limited number of studies considering companion animals. Physical activity increases have more consistently been linked with dog ownership, although whether this reflects antecedent motivation or direct benefit from the dog is unclear. Allergies and asthma also are variably linked to pet ownership and are confounded by family history of atopy and timing of exposure to pet dander. The benefits of companion animals are most likely to be through reduction in depression, anxiety, and social isolation, but these studies have been largely cross-sectional and may depend on degree of bonding of the owner with the animal. Positive relationships show measurably higher oxytocin with lower cortisol and alpha-amylase levels. Finally, pet ownership is also a marker of better socioeconomic status and family stability, and if companion animals are to provide cardiovascular risk benefit, the route should perhaps be through improved education and opportunity for ownership. PMID:27547289

  9. Relationship between HbA1c levels and risk of cardiovascular adverse outcomes and all-cause mortality in overweight and obese cardiovascular high-risk women and men with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, C; van Gaal, L; Caterson, I D

    2012-01-01

    The optimal HbA(1c) concentration for prevention of macrovascular complications and deaths in obese cardiovascular high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes remains to be established and was therefore studied in this post hoc analysis of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial, which...

  10. Cardiovascular risk in overweight/obese and lean hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana Luísa; Couto, Luciana

    2014-04-01

    Obesity and hypertension have been identified as independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the role of obesity in the development and progression of target-organ disease in hypertensive patients is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of body weight on cardiovascular risk factors, target-organ disease and global cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients in a primary care setting. A cross-sectional observational study was carried in Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal (n=150). A detailed medical and personal history was obtained and a physical examination was performed. Venous blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected, and an electrocardiogram was performed. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using the Framingham score. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS(®). A p-value education on weight reduction and control at primary health care clinics. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk prediction of cardiovascular death based on the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Graff, Claus; Rasmussen, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    interval resulted in the worst prognosis for men whereas in women, a very short QTc interval was equivalent in risk to a borderline prolonged QTc interval. The effect of the QTc interval on the absolute risk of CVD was most pronounced in the elderly and in those with cardiovascular disease whereas.......1 years, 6647 persons died from cardiovascular causes. Long-term risks of CVD were estimated for subgroups defined by age, gender, cardiovascular disease, and QTc interval categories. In general, we observed an increased risk of CVD for both very short and long QTc intervals. Prolongation of the QTc...... the effect was negligible for middle-aged women without cardiovascular disease. The most important improvement in prediction accuracy was noted for women aged 70-90 years. In this subgroup, a total of 9.5% were reclassified (7.2% more accurately vs. 2.3% more inaccurately) within clinically relevant 5-year...

  12. Interrelated aldosterone and parathyroid hormone mutually modify cardiovascular mortality risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan; Rus-Machan, Jutta; Meinitzer, Andreas; Brandenburg, Vincent M; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kapl, Martin; Grammer, Tanja; Ritz, Eberhard; Horina, Jörg H; Kleber, Marcus E; Pieske, Burkert; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Toplak, Hermann; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Amrein, Karin; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Accumulating evidence suggests bidirectional interplay between aldosterone and PTH. METHODS: We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between plasma aldosterone

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in White Collar Workers Under Shift Work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K. Vangelova

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is associated with circadian disruption, disturbs sleep and social life, and modifies disease risk factors, and thus can potentially contribute to various chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases...

  14. Fatal cardiovascular risk in Poland as determined via Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Trzeciak

    2017-05-01

    Automatic monitoring of the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in Poland provides information for epidemiological studies. The system meets the characteristics of diagnostic programmes that can assist epidemiologic-based and therapeutic decisions.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mansour

    2016-03-01

    CONCLUSION:  Saturated fat was associated with elevated lipid levels in obese children. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since child-hood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  16. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Durban South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Durban South African Indians: The Phoenix Lifestyle Project. ... All participants had demographic, anthropometric and biochemical measurements using the modified World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise survey methods. Hypertension, obesity, lipid abnormalities and ...

  17. Metabolic endotoxemia: a molecular link between obesity and cardiovascular risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neves, Ana Luísa; Coelho, João; Couto, Luciana; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Roncon-Albuquerque, Jr, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality. Several molecular mechanisms underlying this association have been implied, among which the intestinal barrier has gained a growing interest...

  18. Cardiovascular risk assessment in Italy: the CUORE Project risk score and risk chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Giampaoli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim: Risk charts and risk score, based on the global absolute risk, are key tools for CVD risk assessment. When applied to the population from which they derive, they provide the best estimate of CVD risk. That is why the CUORE Project has among its objectives the assessment of the Italian population’s cardiovascular risk, identifying the model for the prediction of coronary and cerebrovascular events in 10 years.

    Methods: Data fromdifferent cohorts enrolled in the North, Centre and South of Italy between the 1980s and the 1990s were used. From the 7,056 men and 12,574 women aged 35-69 years, free of cardiovascular disease at base-line and followed up for a mean time of 10 years for total and cause-specific mortality and non fatal cerebrovascular and coronary events, 894 major cardiovascular events (596 coronary and 298 cerebrovascular were identified and validated. To assess 10-year cardiovascular risk, the risk score and risk chart were developed for men and women separately, considering the first major coronary or cerebrovascular event as the endpoint.

    Results: The risk score is applied tomen andwomen aged 35-69 years and includes age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, smoking habit, diabetes and hypertension treatment using continuous values when possible. The risk chart is applied to persons aged 40-69 years and includes the same risk factors as risk score, except for HDL-cholesterol and hypertension treatment, and uses categorical values for all variables.

    Conclusions: The risk score and risk chart are easy-to-use tools which enable general practitioners and specialists to achieve an objective evaluation of the absolute global cardiovascular risk of middle-aged persons in primary prevention.

  19. The Role of Emerging Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Ben; Herrington, William G; Preiss, David; Lewington, Sarah; Armitage, Jane

    2017-06-01

    This review discusses the recent evidence for a selection of blood-based emerging risk factors, with particular reference to their relation with coronary heart disease and stroke. For lipid-related emerging risk factors, recent findings indicate that increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is unlikely to reduce cardiovascular risk, whereas reducing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipoprotein(a) may be beneficial. For inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers, genetic studies suggest that IL-6 (a pro-inflammatory cytokine) and several coagulation factors are causal for cardiovascular disease, but such studies do not support a causal role for C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. Patients with chronic kidney disease are at high cardiovascular risk with some of this risk not mediated by blood pressure. Randomized evidence (trials or Mendelian) suggests homocysteine and uric acid are unlikely to be key causal mediators of chronic kidney disease-associated risk and sufficiently large trials of interventions which modify mineral bone disease biomarkers are unavailable. Despite not being causally related to cardiovascular disease, there is some evidence that cardiac biomarkers (e.g. troponin) may usefully improve cardiovascular risk scores. Many blood-based factors are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Evidence is accumulating, mainly from genetic studies and clinical trials, on which of these associations are causal. Non-causal risk factors may still have value, however, when added to cardiovascular risk scores. Although much of the burden of vascular disease can be explained by 'classic' risk factors (e.g. smoking and blood pressure), studies of blood-based emerging factors have contributed importantly to our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of vascular disease, and new targets for potential therapies have been identified.

  20. A four-year cardiovascular risk score for type 2 diabetic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Ramírez-Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As cardiovascular risk tables currently in use were constructed using data from the general population, the cardiovascular risk of patients admitted via the hospital emergency department may be underestimated. Accordingly, we constructed a predictive model for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department. We undertook a four-year follow-up of a cohort of 112 adult patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department for any cause except patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, or a palliative status. The sample was selected randomly between 2010 and 2012. The primary outcome was time to cardiovascular disease. Other variables (at baseline were gender, age, heart failure, renal failure, depression, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin, smoking, admission for cardiovascular causes, pills per day, walking habit, fasting blood glucose and creatinine. A cardiovascular risk table was constructed based on the score to estimate the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Risk groups were established and the c-statistic was calculated. Over a mean follow-up of 2.31 years, 39 patients had cardiovascular disease (34.8%, 95% CI [26.0–43.6%]. Predictive factors were gender, age, hypertension, renal failure, insulin, admission due to cardiovascular reasons and walking habit. The c-statistic was 0.734 (standard error: 0.049. After validation, this study will provide a tool for the primary health care services to enable the short-term prediction of cardiovascular disease after hospital discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department.

  1. Measurement of ECG abnormalities and cardiovascular risk classification: a cohort study of primary care patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.; Bots, M.L.; Rutten, F.H.; den Ruijter, H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Vaartjes, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: GPs need accurate tools for cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment. Abnormalities in resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) relate to increased CV risk. Aim: To determine whether measurement of ECG abnormalities on top of established risk estimation (SCORE) improves CV risk classification in a

  2. Tobacco use and the risk of cardiovascular diseases in developed and developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The association between cigarette smoking and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is well established. However, the effect of other, less common, types of smoking on CVD risk, such as pipes and cigars in developed countries, remains uncertain. By contrast, in developing countries, a large panel of smokeless tobacco products are consumed alongside smoking products, with unknown effects on the risk of CVD. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the association between various forms of t...

  3. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Çakır

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 33-7

  4. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Chapman, M John; Ray, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies.......The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies....

  5. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Background: We conducted a prospective study to elucidate the effects of increased cardiovascular risk factors on future weight gain and also the relation between body mass index (BMI) and other cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 1525 nonobese children and adolescents with an age range of 3-16 years old, participating in the 1st phase and follow-up phases of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The subjects were evaluated ...

  6. Insulin Resistance and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers s......-cholesterol and did not provide independent prognostic information in postmenopausal women without diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611....

  7. Estimating Cardiovascular Risk in Spain by the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Antonio Jesús; Masana, Luis; Soriguer, Federico; Goday, Albert; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Gaztambide, Sonia; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Valdés, Sergio; Gomis, Ramón; Ortega, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    There are no nationwide, population-based studies in Spain assessing overall cardiovascular risk. We aimed to describe cardiovascular risk and achievement of treatment goals following the 2012 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention strategy. We also investigated clinical characteristics (non-classical risk factors) associated with moderate risk. Participants (n=2310, 58% women) aged 40 to 65 years from a national population-based study (Di@bet.es Study) were identified. First, a priori high/very-high risk individuals were identified. Next, total cardiovascular risk (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation equation including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was used to assess risk of a priori non-high risk individuals. Variables independently associated with moderate versus low-risk were investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Age-and-sex standardized (direct method) percentages of high/very-high, moderate, and low-risk were 22.8%, 43.5%, and 33.7%, respectively. Most men were at moderate (56.2%), while 55.4% of women were at low risk. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (< 70,<100, < 115 mg/dL) and blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) goals for very-high, high and moderate risk were met in 15%, 26% and 46%, and 77%, 68% and 85% of the individuals, respectively. Body mass index, high triglycerides concentrations, diastolic blood pressure, and low Mediterranean diet adherence (in women) were independently associated with moderate (versus low) risk. Cardiovascular risk in Spain is mainly moderate in men and low in women. Achievement of treatment goals in high-risk individuals should be improved. The prevalence of non-classical cardiovascular risk factors is elevated in subjects at moderate risk, an important aspect to consider in a population-based strategy to decrease cardiovascular disease in the most prevalent group. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical distress is associated with cardiovascular events in a high risk population of elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemsdal Tor O

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported health perceptions such as physical distress and quality of life are suggested independent predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients with established cardiovascular disease. This study examined the associations between these factors and three years incidence of cardiovascular events in a population of elderly men with long term hyperlipidemia. Methods We studied observational data in a cohort of 433 men aged 64–76 years from a prospective, 2 × 2 factorial designed, three-year interventional trial. Information of classical risk factors was obtained and the following questionnaires were administered at baseline: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Physical Symptom Distress Index and Life Satisfaction Index. The occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular incidences and peripheral arterial disease were registered throughout the study period. Continuous data with skewed distribution was split into tertiles. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated from Cox regression analyses to assess the associations between physical distress, quality of life and cardiovascular events. Results After three years, 49 cardiovascular events were registered, with similar incidence among subjects with and without established cardiovascular disease. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, serum glucose, HADS-anxiety and treatment-intervention, physical distress was positively associated (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2 – 7.9 for 3rd versus 1st tertile and quality of life negatively associated (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1–5.8 for 3rd versus 1st tertile with cardiovascular events. The association remained statistically significant only for physical distress (hazard ratio 2.8 95% CI 1.2 – 6.8, p Conclusion Physical distress, but not quality of life, was independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in an observational study of elderly men predominantly

  9. Electrocardiographic PR-interval duration and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Vibe; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Skov, Morten Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Background Because of ambiguous reports in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between PR interval and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, heart failure, and pacemaker implantation, allowing for a nonlinear relationship. MethodsWe included 293,111 individuals......, and 1805 pacemaker implantations. A short PR interval ( 200 ms; HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.14-1.32; P risk of cardiovascular death after multivariable...... into 7 groups based on the population PR interval distribution. Cox models were used, with reference to a PR interval between 152 and 161 ms (40th to cardiovascular deaths, 9526 cases of incident heart failure...

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis: a cross-sectional general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter R; Linneberg, Allan; Skov, Lone

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general U.S. population. However, our results agree with those of other previous studies in which the association between mild psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors is often non-significant. Further controlled research is needed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with mainly mild to moderate psoriasis in the general population. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Perceptions of cardiovascular risk among patients with hypertension or diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijling, B.D.; Lobo, C.M.; Keus, I.M.; Jenks, K.M.; Akkermans, R.P.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Prins, A.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to examine risk perceptions among patients at moderate to high cardiovascular risk. A questionnaire about perceived absolute risk of myocardial infarction and stroke was sent to 2424 patients with hypertension or diabetes. Response rate was 86.3% and 1557 patients without atherosclerotic

  12. Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojevic Iva Perovic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to analyse risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in PCOS, to define individual risk factors and assess their ability to predict risk.

  13. Does IQ predict total and cardiovascular disease mortality as strongly as other risk factors? Comparison of effect estimates using the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Gale, C R

    2008-01-01

    To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.......To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  14. Cardiovascular Risk and Hippocampal Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Donix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this regional cortical thinning would be modulated by cardiovascular risk factors. We utilized high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique to determine the cortical thickness of medial temporal subregions in 30 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using a sex-specific multivariable risk score. Greater cardiovascular risk was associated with cortical thinning in the hippocampus CA2/3/dentate gyrus area but not other hippocampal and medial temporal subregions. APOE genotype, a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, and age did not influence cortical thickness. Alzheimer’s disease-related atrophy could mask the influence of genetic risk factors or age on regional cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe regions, whereas the impact of vascular risk factors remains detectable. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2013-01-01

    The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex...

  16. Modified lipoproteins as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, José Luis; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Prevention of high incidence of cardiovascular disease in diabetes is one of the challenges of endocrinology. Validation of new biomarkers that may contribute to a better assessment of cardiovascular risk and help implement treatment strategies is one of the promising approaches in research on prevention and reduction of cardiovascular risk. Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key element in development of atherosclerotic lesions. Several pathophysiological characteristics of diabetes are crucial for the LDL of these patients to have higher modification rates as compared to the healthy population. Diabetic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress synergistically promote the occurrence of lipoperoxidation, glycosylation and glycoxidation processes, which will generate modified lipoproteins that stimulate development of atherosclerosis. This article reviews the role of different types of modified LDL in development of atherosclerosis in diabetes, as well as the possibility of using its quantification in cardiovascular risk prediction. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of NSAID Treatment on Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. M. S.; Fosbol, E. L.; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2014-01-01

    This MiniReview describes the present evidence for the relationship between cardiovascular risk and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with special focus using Danish register-based data. NSAIDs are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and mainly used for management of pain...... and inflammatory conditions. Through the past decade, much attention has been given to the cardiovascular safety of these drugs, and several studies have shown increased risk of adverse cardiovascular effects associated with NSAID use. Current guidelines discourage any use of NSAIDs in patients with cardiovascular...... disease, yet over a period of 8-10 years, 35-44% of patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure were exposed to NSAIDs in Denmark. Furthermore, NSAID use was associated with an increased risk of death or myocardial infarction by up to 5 times that of non-users. There was also a clear indication...

  18. [Do sleep abnormalities contribute to cardiovascular risk in bipolar disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Geoffroy, P-A; Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the state of knowledge concerning the relationship between cardiovascular risk, sleep abnormalities, and emotional reactivity in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). A scientific literature search of international articles was performed during August and September 2014 using the PubMed electronic database. We used the following MeSH terms : "Bipolar Disorders", "Cardiovascular risk", "Emotional reactivity", "Sleep apnea", and "Sleep disorder". Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder strongly associated with BD, which tends to fragment sleep. OSA is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, emotional hyper-reactivity is favored by "hostility" temperaments, BD and sleep deprivation. The combination of these factors interacts and also results in an increased cardiovascular risk. Taken as a whole, both sleep disorders and emotional hyper-reactivity seem to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in BD. These data emphasize the central role of sleep abnormalities and emotional reactivity in the vulnerability of BD to express cardiovascular diseases. From a clinical point of view, these data also emphasize the importance of identifying and care for sleep abnormalities in BD in order to improve BD outcome. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  19. [Control of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with diabetes with and without cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A; Garzón, G; Gil, A; García, I; Vargas, E; Torres, N

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence that cardiovascular goals are beneficial in diabetes. To determine the distribution of cardiovascular risk levels in patients with diabetes and the clinical interventions they have received. Descriptive cross-sectional study. SERMAS (Madrid) 2010. All patients with diabetes. (n=41,096). Patients in primary or secondary prevention, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors control, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Patient and professional variables. Around one-fifth (21.5%) (95%CI: 21.1% -21.9%) in secondary prevention (very high cardiovascular risk). HbA1c was under control in 31% (95%CI: 30.1%-32%), with 49.9% (95%CI: 48.8%-50.9%) with BP under control, and 39.4% (95% CI: 38.4%-40.4%) with LDL controlled. Only 8.9% (95%CI: 8.3%-9.5%) had a well-controlled HdA1c, BP and LDL, and in 19.8% (95%CI: 19%-20.6%) none of these were under control. Of those with an uncontrolled BP, 23.6% (95% CI: 23.2%-24%) had antihypertensive drugs. There was better control in patients older than 70 years, and those who lived in an urban center, or a lower number of patients per day. In diabetic patients with very high cardiovascular risk (secondary prevention), just half of them had good control of cardiovascular risk factors (BP and LDL). An association was found between better control and older than 70, urban center or lower number of patients per day. This suggests developing strategies to promote a comprehensive control of cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients in secondary prevention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dijana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CVS morbidity and mortality in the endstage renal disease (ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy is 10-30 folds higher than in general population. The prevalence of well known traditional risk factors such as age, sex, race, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity is higher in the uraemic patients. Besides these, there are specific, nontraditional risk factors for dialysis patients. Mild inflammation present in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients which can be confirmed by specific inflammatory markers is the cause of CVS morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hypoalbuminaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in the PD patients. Plasma norepinephrine, an indicator of sympathetic activity, is high in the ESRD patients and higher in the PD patients than in the patients on haemodialysis (HD. Therefore, norepinephrine may be a stronger risk factor in the PD patients. The same applies to asymmetric dimethylargine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, which is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality 15 % higher in the PD than the HD patients. Hyperphosphataemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and high calcium x phosphate product have been associated with the progression of the coronary artery calcification and valvular calcifications and predict all-cause CVS mortality in the PD patients. Residual renal function (RRF declines with time on dialysis but is slower in the PD than the HD patients. RRF decline is associated with the rise of proinflammatory cytokines and the onset of hypervolaemia and hypertension which increase the risk of CVS diseases, mortality in general and CVS mortality. In conclusion, it is very important to establish all CVS risk factors in the PD patients to prevent CVS diseases and CVS mortality in this population.

  1. Cardiovascular risk estimation by professionally active cardiovascular nurses: Results from the Basel 2005 Nurses Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte op Reimer, W.J.M.; Moons, P.; De Geest, S.; Fridlund, B.; Heikkila, J.; Jaarsma, Trijntje (Tiny); Lenzen, M.; Martensson, J.; Norekval, T.M.; Smith, K; Stewart, S.; Stromberg, A; Thompson, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Nurses play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and one would, therefore, expect them to have a heightened awareness of the need for systematic screening and their own CVD risk profile. The aim of this study was to examine personal awareness of CVD risk among a

  2. A novel risk score to predict cardiovascular disease risk in national populations (Globorisk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Ueda, Peter; Lu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors based on disease risk depends on valid risk prediction equations. We aimed to develop, and apply in example countries, a risk prediction equation for cardiovascular disease (consisting here of coronary heart disease and stroke) that can...... be recalibrated and updated for application in different countries with routinely available information. METHODS: We used data from eight prospective cohort studies to estimate coefficients of the risk equation with proportional hazard regressions. The risk prediction equation included smoking, blood pressure......, diabetes, and total cholesterol, and allowed the effects of sex and age on cardiovascular disease to vary between cohorts or countries. We developed risk equations for fatal cardiovascular disease and for fatal plus non-fatal cardiovascular disease. We validated the risk equations internally and also using...

  3. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elani Streja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th birthday. RESULTS: We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00, attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76, became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12. There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. CONCLUSIONS: Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births.

  4. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter; Grove, Jakob; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP) and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th) birthday. We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00), attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76), became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12). There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births.

  5. Importance of cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorber D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Lorber Division of Endocrinology, New York Hospital Queens, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term. Keywords: cardiovascular risk, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia

  6. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  7. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Health Knowledge among Freshman College Students with a Family History of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamragouri, Ravikiran N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study compared the cardiovascular health knowledge, perception of risk factors, and health behavior of 69 freshmen with a family history of cardiovascular disease with 154 freshmen without this history. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  9. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...... of the increased risk. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of observational studies with continuous outcome using random-effects statistics. A systematic search of studies published before 25 October 2012 was conducted using the databases Medline, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PASCAL and BIOSIS...

  10. Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy...... considerable interest in recent years. We briefly summarize the current level of evidence of the association between CIDs and CVD and cardiovascular risk management recommendations. Perspectives of ongoing and planned trials are discussed in consideration of potential ways to improve primary and secondary CVD...

  11. Does fitness improve the cardiovascular risk profile in obese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, H; Lønnebakken, M T; Saeed, S; Midtbø, H; Cramariuc, D; Gerdts, E

    2017-06-01

    Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. We explored the association of fitness with the prevalences of major cardiovascular risk factor like hypertension (HT), diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight and obese subjects. Clinical data from 491 participants in the FAT associated CardiOvasculaR dysfunction (FATCOR) study were analyzed. Physical fitness was assessed by ergospirometry, and subjects with at least good level of performance for age and sex were classified as fit. HT subtypes were identified from clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in combination. Diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The participants were on average 48 years old (60% women), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 32 kg/m2. 28% of study participants were classified as fit. Fitness was not associated with lower prevalences of HT or HT subtypes, diabetes, MetS or individual MetS components (all p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, being fit was characterized by lower waist circumference, BMI fitness was not associated with a lower prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors like HT, diabetes or MetS. Given the strong association of cardiovascular risk factor burden with risk of clinical cardiovascular disease, these findings challenge the notion that fitness alone is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 10-Year cardiovascular event risks for women who experienced hypertensive disorders in late pregnancy: the HyRAS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponjee Gabrielle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the cause of death in 32% of women in the Netherlands. Prediction of an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease is difficult, in particular in younger women due to low sensitive and specific tests for these women. 10% to 15% of all pregnancies are complicated by hypertensive disorders, the vast majority of which develop only after 36 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in later life show both features of "the metabolic syndrome" and atherosclerosis. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and cardiovascular disease may develop by common pathophysiologic pathways initiated by similar vascular risk factors. Vascular damage occurring during preeclampsia or gestational hypertension may contribute to the development of future cardiovascular disease, or is already present before pregnancy. At present clinicians do not systematically aim at the possible cardiovascular consequences in later life after a hypertensive pregnancy disorder at term. However, screening for risk factors after preeclampsia or gestational hypertension at term may give insight into an individual's cardiovascular risk profile. Methods/Design Women with a history of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension will be invited to participate in a cohort study 2 1/2 years after delivery. Participants will be screened for established modifiable cardiovascular risk indicators. The primary outcome is the 10-year cardiovascular event risk. Secondary outcomes include differences in cardiovascular parameters, SNP's in glucose metabolism, and neonatal outcome. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the potential health gains of a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor screening program for women whose pregnancy was complicated by hypertension or preeclampsia. The calculation of individual 10-year cardiovascular event risks will allow identification of those women who will benefit from primary prevention by tailored

  13. Type 2 diabetes: postprandial hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ajikumar V Aryangat; John E Gerich

    2010-01-01

    Ajikumar V Aryangat, John E GerichUniversity of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for both the microvascular and macrovascular complications in  patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the cardiovascular results of large outcomes trials in diabetes and presents new evidence on the role of hyperglycemia, with particular emphasis on postprandial hyperglycemia, in adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabet...

  14. Krill oil for cardiovascular risk prevention: is it for real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, James M; Howard, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in cardiovascular health. Although it is suggested that individuals obtain these nutrients through diet, many prefer to rely on supplements. Fish oil supplements are widely used, yet large capsule sizes and tolerability make them less than ideal. Recently, krill oil has emerged as a potential alternative for omega-3 supplementation. This article will discuss what is known about krill oil and its potential use in cardiovascular risk prevention.

  15. Rosuvastatin: Role in Cardiovascular High-risk Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Feliciano-Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are the lipid-lowering drug family of first choice in situations of hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia with predominant increase in cholesterol. The evidence shows conclusively that each one of the commercially available statins have proven benefits on outcomes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, rosuvastatin has certain pharmacokinetic efficacy and cost-effectiveness characteristics that make it an attractive molecule to be the statin of choice in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  16. Thematic Synthesis of Cardiovascular Risk Predictors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin Garí Llanes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been an increased interest in the identification of cardiovascular disease and the factors that predispose its development in children and adolescents. In this sense, significant risk predictors have been cited, such as the presence of family and personal medical history, genetic predisposition, and the alteration of anthropometric and biochemical markers. The understanding of these factors is crucial to prevent the early onset of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Time-perspective in cardiovascular risk of NSAID use after first-time myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Gislason, Gunnar H; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the fact that NSAIDs are not recommended among patients with established cardiovascular disease, many patients receive NSAID treatment for a short period of time. However, up until recently, data on the relationship between treatment duration and associated cardiovascular...... risk were sparse and have not been summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: A series of recent studies of patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) demonstrated that short-term treatment with most NSAIDs is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk relative to no NSAID treatment. These studies...... furthermore demonstrated that NSAID use among patients with first-time MI was associated with persistently increased risk of all-cause mortality and of a composite of coronary death or nonfatal recurrent MI for at least 5 years thereafter. SUMMARY: The present review indicates that there is no apparent well...

  18. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the

  19. Awareness and attitudes towards total cardiovascular disease risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Utilisation of risk assessments in clinical practice is low. A major barrier was nonfamiliarity with how to use the tools. Continuous medical education and wider use of smartphone technology may represent health system approaches to tackling this issue. Keywords: Risk assessment, cardiovascular disease, and ...

  20. Prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among staff of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-19

    May 19, 2014 ... Aim: The aim was to describe the frequency of occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among selected ... 24 (11.7%), elevated low density lipoprotein-cholesterol 99 (48.1%). ... Conclusion: This study suggests a very high prevalence of CV risk factors among University Staff in LAUTECH,.

  1. 'Awareness and attitudes towards total cardiovascular disease risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft account

    Conclusion: Utilisation of risk assessments in clinical practice is low. A major barrier was non- familiarity with how to use the tools. Continuous medical education and wider use of smartphone technology may represent health system approaches to tackling this issue. Keywords: Risk assessment, cardiovascular disease, and ...

  2. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  3. Screening of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Workers of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in workplace and the global risk among workers of a Construction Company in a developing country. Methods: It was a retrospective and descriptive survey over two years in a construction company in Dakar, Senegal. Results: We ...

  4. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...

  5. OVERWEIGHT OBESITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN MENOPAUSAL TRANSITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde Gutiérrez, Carmen; Ramírez Rodrigo, Jesús; Olmedo Alguacil, Maria Milagrosa; Sánchez Caravaca, Maria Angeles; Argente del Castillo Lechuga, Maria Josefa; Ruiz Villaverde, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    the hormonal decline that is characteristic of the menopause, in conjunction with the associated weight gain, is considered a determinant factor of cardiovascular risk. to examine weight status in relation to clinical symptoms during the menopausal transition, in women referred from primary care to an endocrinology specialist, to determine potential cardiovascular risk profiles. observational analytic cross-sectional study, conducted with data from medical records created at time of referral. 805 women aged 40 years or older, a sufficient number of subjects and medical records for cardiovascular risk to be estimated. hierarchic cluster analysis distinguished four clusters. The prevalence of obesity in each one exceeded 60%. The highest mean cardiovascular risk was observed in women who were older and presented obesity and hypertension. In younger age groups, the risk was low, rising to levels similar to those of the older women by the age of 65 years. these results suggest that preventive and therapeutic monitoring of obesity and modifiable risk factors should be conducted during the menopausal transition, to reduce the risk attributable to these factors, a risk that increases with time. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Apolipoprotein E genotype, cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Tauseef A; Shah, Tina; Prieto, David

    2013-01-01

    At the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, genotypes of the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are also associated with higher coronary risk. However, the association of APOE genotype with other cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of ischaemic stroke is less c...

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with Rheumatic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Rachel H; Kuller, Lewis H; Moreland, Larry W

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests the greater than 1.5 increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is related to an accelerated burden of subclinical atherosclerosis that develops before the diagnosis of RA. Dyslipidemia in RA is better quantified by lipoproteins and apolipoproteins than cholesterol levels. Current risk factors likely underestimate CVD risk partly by underestimating prior risk factor levels. To reduce CVD risk in RA, control disease activity and aggressively treat CVD risk factors. Some of the two-fold higher risk of heart failure and total mortality in RA may be due to myocardial disease caused by inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. World Health Organization cardiovascular risk stratification and target organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorz, D; Bongarzoni, L; Citta, L; Citta, N; Citta, P; Keller, L; Mata, L; Tommasi, A

    2016-01-01

    Prediction charts allow treatment to be targeted according to simple markers of cardiovascular risk; many algorithms do not recommend screening asymptomatic target organ damage which could change dramatically the assessment. To demonstrate that target organ damage is present in low cardiovascular risk hypertensive patients and it is more frequent and severe as global cardiovascular risk increases. Consecutive hypertensive patients treated at a single Latin American center. Cardiovascular risk stratified according to 2013 WHO/ISH risk prediction chart America B. Left ventricular mass assessed by Devereux method, left ventricular hypertrophy considered >95g/m(2) in women and >115g/m(2) in men. Transmitral diastolic peak early flow velocity to average septal/lateral peak early diastolic relaxation velocity (E/e' ratio) measured cut off value >13. Systolic function assessed by tissue Doppler average interventricular septum/lateral wall mitral annulus rate systolic excursion (s wave). A total of 292 patients were included of whom 159 patients (54.5%) had cardiovascular risk of 20%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 17.6% low risk patients, 27.8% in medium risk and 23.3% in high risk (p<0.05), abnormal E/e' ratio was found in 13.8%, 31.1% and 27.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Mean s wave was 8.03+8, 8.1+9 and 8.7+1cm/s for low, intermediate and high risk patients, respectively (p<0.025). Target organ damage is more frequent and severe in high risk; one over four subjects was misclassified due to the presence of asymptomatic target organ damage. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors among retired attendees visiting primary care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight cardiovascular risk factors among retired attendees attending a primary care clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross sectional study was conducted from Januaryto February 2013 at Primary Care Clinics of King Khalid University Hospital and College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All retired attendees were interviewed by family physician, and their duration of retirement was determined. Their cardiovascular risk factors were confirmed from their medical records. The cardiovascular risk factors included history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and smoking. Their weight and height were recorded during the consultation and Body Mass Index was calculated to decide about those classified as obesity ≥ 30 All data were entered and analyzed using statistical package of social science SPSS version 17 software. The present study showed that 19.5% of retired attendees presenting at primary care clinic were early retired before the age of 60 years, while 80.5% were normally retired. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors showed: Hypertension among 73% attendees, Diabetes Mellitus in 67%, dyslipidemia in 71%, Obesity 29%, and Smoking 13% of the patients. This study concluded that cardiovascular risk factors among retired attendees of a primary care clinic are common, and need to be taken in to priority consideration while improving the health care of retired people.

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors among retired attendees visiting primary care clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to highlight cardiovascular risk factors among retired attendees attending a primary care clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted from Januaryto February 2013 at Primary Care Clinics of King Khalid University Hospital and College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All retired attendees were interviewed by family physician, and their duration of retirement was determined. Their cardiovascular risk factors were confirmed from their medical records. The cardiovascular risk factors included history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and smoking. Their weight and height were recorded during the consultation and Body Mass Index was calculated to decide about those classified as obesity ≥ 30 All data were entered and analyzed using statistical package of social science SPSS version 17 software. Results: The present study showed that 19.5% of retired attendees presenting at primary care clinic were early retired before the age of 60 years, while 80.5% were normally retired. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors showed: Hypertension among 73% attendees, Diabetes Mellitus in 67%, dyslipidemia in 71%, Obesity 29%, and Smoking 13% of the patients. Conclusion:This study concluded that cardiovascular risk factors among retired attendees of a primary care clinic are common, and need to be taken in to priority consideration while improving the health care of retired people. PMID:24948970

  11. Association between low education and higher global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of educational status on global cardiovascular risk in a southern Italian urban population. The study population consisted of 488 consecutive outpatients aged 18 years and older. Educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education group (education group (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities (obesity, visceral obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy) and global cardiovascular risk, according to international guidelines, were analyzed. Left ventricular mass index and ejection fraction by echocardiography and E/A ratio, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. The low education group was characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with visceral obesity (P=.021), hypertension (P=.010), metabolic syndrome (P=.000), and microalbuminuria (P=.000) and greater global cardiovascular risk (P=.000). Significantly increased levels of microalbuminuria (P=.000) and significantly decreased values of E/A ratio (P=.000) were also detected in the low education group. Global cardiovascular risk correlated directly with waist-to-hip ratio (P=.010), microalbuminuria (P=.015), and the metabolic syndrome (P>.012) and inversely with educational status (P=.000). Education was independently (P=.000) associated with global cardiovascular risk. These data indicate a strong association between low education and cardiometabolic comorbidities suitable to influence the evolution of chronic degenerative diseases. Preventive strategies need to be more efficient and more effective in this patient population. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cardiovascular risk associated with sodium-containing medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M; George, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    It is widely recognized that excess sodium intake increases the risk of hypertension, and this subsequently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Although efforts are being made to reduce sodium intake in the population in general, there are concerns that a considerable sodium load can be ingested via certain effervescent, dispersible, and soluble formulations of medicines. Reducing dietary sodium intake in the general population has resulted in a significant reduction in cardiovascular disease outcomes. However, no previous studies have highlighted the potential risk of cardiovascular disease by taking sodium-containing medicines such as soluble forms of aspirin, paracetamol, ibuprofen, and other common drugs. We recently conducted a nested case-control study in the UK general population using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to study the long-term use of sodium-containing medicines and cardiovascular outcomes. The results showed that compared with standard formulations, patients who took sodium-containing medicines were 16% more likely to develop cardiovascular events (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 - 1.21). The risks for stroke and hypertension were even higher, (1.22 [1.16 - 1.29] and 7.18 [6.74 - 7.65]), respectively. Sodium-containing formulations should be prescribed with caution only if the perceived benefits outweigh the risks.

  13. Relating Education, Brain Structure, and Cognition: The Role of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mortby, Moyra E.; Richard Burns; Janke, Andrew L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Nicolas Cherbuin

    2014-01-01

    The protective effect of education on cognitive and brain health is well established. While the direct effects of individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and obesity) on cerebral structure have been investigated, little is understood about the possible interaction between the protective effect of education and the deleterious effects of CVD risk factors in predicting brain ageing and cognition. Using data from the PATH Through Life study (N...

  14. Fiber and cardiovascular disease risk: how strong is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkkilä, Arja T; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2006-01-01

    Dietary fiber consists of edible parts of plants or analogous carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine. Fiber can be classified as a dietary source (eg, cereal, fruit, vegetable, or legume) or as a supplement. Based on chemical properties, fiber can be divided to water-soluble (eg, beta-glucans, pectin, and guar) and insoluble (eg, cellulose and lignin) forms. An increasing number of observational findings have reported a lower incidence of coronary heart disease in subjects who report consuming diets high in fiber. Dietary fiber is thought to affect several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Soluble fiber decreases serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and improves insulin resistance. The effect of fiber on inflammatory markers and coagulation is not yet well established. While soluble, gel-forming fiber has beneficially affected CVD risk factors, food sources of mainly insoluble fibers, primarily contributed by cereal products, have been the most consistently associated with lower incidence rates of CVD. Despite this contradiction, the evidence promotes a food-based approach favoring increased intake of whole-grain cereals, fruit, and vegetables providing a mixture of different types of fibers for CVD prevention.

  15. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: a comparison of commonly used risk scoring programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Şükrü

    2013-01-01

    Several calculation modalities are used today for cardiovascular risk assessment. Cardiovascular risk assessment should be performed in all hypertensive patients. Risk assessment methods being based on the population in which the patient lives and the inclusion of factors such as ethnicity variations, socioeconomic status, and medication use will contribute to improvements in risk assessments. The results should be shared with the patient, and modifiable risk factors must be effectively treated.

  16. Insomnia and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Cesari, Francesca; Casini, Alessandro; Macchi, Claudio; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an association between insomnia and cardiovascular disease. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of all the available prospective studies that investigated the association between insomnia and risk of developing and/or dying from cardiovascular disease. Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. We conducted an electronic literature search through MedLine, Embase, Google Scholar, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and bibliographies of retrieved articles up to December 2011. Studies were included if they were prospective, had assessment of insomnia or sleep complaints at baseline, evaluated subjects free of cardiovascular disease at baseline and measured the association between insomnia and risk of developing and/or dying from cardiovascular disease. After the review process 13 prospective studies were included in the final analysis. These studies included 122,501 subjects followed for a time ranging from three to 20 years. A total of 6332 cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up. Insomnia was assessed through questionnaire and defined as either difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep or presence of restless, disturbed nights. The cumulative analysis for all the studies under a random-effects model showed that insomnia determined an increased risk (+45%) of developing or dying from cardiovascular disease during the follow-up (relative risk 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.62; p < 0.00001), with no evidence of heterogeneity across the studies (I 2: 19%; p = 0.14). Insomnia is associated with an increased risk of developing and/or dying from cardiovascular disease.

  17. Prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia in primary care patients at moderate-very high risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Nuria; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Cabré, Anna; Ruiz, Emilio; Masana, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aim to determine atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence in primary care patients at moderate-very high cardiovascular risk and its associated cardiovascular risk perception in Spain. This cross-sectional study included 1137 primary care patients. Patients had previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, SCORE risk ≥ 3, severe hypertension or dyslipidemia. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as low HDL-C (<40 mg/dL [males], <50 mg/dL [females]) and elevated triglycerides (≥ 150 mg/dL). A visual analog scale was used to define a perceived cardiovascular disease risk score. Mean age was 63.9 ± 9.7 years (64.6% males). The mean BMI was 29.1 ± 4.3 kg/m(2), and mean waist circumference 104.2 ± 12.7 cm (males), and 97.2 ± 14.0 cm (females). 29.4% were smokers, 76.4% had hypertension, 48.0% were diabetics, 24.7% had previous myocardial infarction, and 17.8% peripheral arterial disease. European guidelines classified 83.6% at very high cardiovascular risk. Recommended HDL-C levels were achieved by 50.1% of patients and 37.3% had triglycerides in the reference range. Target LDL-C was achieved by 8.8%. The overall atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence was 27.1% (34.1% in diabetics). This prevalence in patients achieving target LDL-C was 21.4%. Cardiovascular risk perceived by patients was 4.3/10, while primary care physicians scored 5.7/10. When LDL-C levels are controlled, atherogenic dyslipidemia is more prevalent in those patients at highest cardiovascular risk and with diabetes. This highlights the importance of intervention strategies to prevent the residual vascular risk in this population. Both patients and physicians underestimated cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetes mellitus accelerates atherosclerotic changes throughout the vascular tree and consequently increases the risk of developing fatal acute events. Objective: to estimate the global cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: a cross-sectional study of a series of type 2 diabetic patients from the People's Council of Constancia, Abreus municipality, Cienfuegos province was conducted from July to December 2012. The universe comprised the 180 people with diabetes in the area. Variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, blood pressure, toxic habits, associated chronic diseases, blood levels of glucose, lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides and microalbuminuria. World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension prediction charts specific to the region of the Americas, in which Cuba is included, were used to estimate the cardiovascular risk. Results: mean age was 61.63 years and females predominated. Relevant risk factors were hypertension followed by obesity, smoking and dyslipidemia. Mean body mass index was 27.66kg/m2; waist circumference was 94.45 cm in women and 96.86 cm in men. Thirty point six percent had more than two uncontrolled risk factors and 28.3 % of the total presented a high to very high cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: cardiovascular risk prediction charts are helpful tools for making clinical decisions, but their interpretation must be flexible and allow the intervention of clinical reasoning.

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Frías López, M. C.; Tárraga López, P. J.; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; J. Solera Albero; Celada Rodríguez, A.; M. A. López Cara; Gálvez, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia del hipotiroidismo subclínico en la población general de un centro de salud urbano y describir las características clínicas y factores de riesgo cardiovascular de los pacientes con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo, revisando las historias clínicas de los pacientes incluidos en la muestra desde junio de 2005 hasta julio de 2007. Se analizaron las siguientes va...

  20. [Obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. Association with cardiovascular risk factors in first degree relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albañil Ballesteros, María Rosa; Rogero Blanco, María Eloisa; Olivas Domínguez, Antonio; Sánchez Martín, Magdalena; Rabanal Basalo, Alejandro; Sanz Bayona, María Teresa

    2012-03-24

    Obesity is a major concern in public health. The fact that most teenagers stop contacting the health system during this period of life prevents detection of this problem and its associated morbidity. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of obesity at 18. We also aimed to detect overweight, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and association with CVRF in parents and siblings. The research includes 153 children followed up to 18 years old in a community health center. Measures of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, CVRF, and familiar history were taken. The prevalence of obesity in our study group was 7.18%, (IC: 3.0-11.0), (6.25% male and 7.86% female). The prevalence of overweight was 18.3% (IC: 11.9-24.0), (26.56% male and 12.35% female). A familiy history of CVRF was found in 53.9% (IC: 46.1-61.9) of cases, including high blood pressure (25%), obesity (23.6%), dyslipemia (21.7%), and diabetes (7.2%). This finding was more prevalent in the obesity group (72.72%) than in those with overweight only (64.2%), or with normal weight (49.59%). A family history of obesity and diabetes in first-degree relatives was associated to obesity in the study group. Also, a family history of high blood pressure was associated to the presence of high blood pressure in this group. In order to detect obesity, overweight, and associated complications in young adults, specific attention to children and siblings of persons who present risk factors is recommended. Those with high blood pressure, diabetes or obesity have the higher risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent....... Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  2. [Cardiovascular risk factors in psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebrov, A P; Nikitina, N M; Gaĭdukova, I Z

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of conventional and new factors of cardiovascular risk in development of atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PA). Sixty patients with psoriatic arthritis, 414 RA patients and 79 healthy controls entered the trial. All of them had no manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. Screening was made of the leading risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular complications, thickness of the complex intima-media (TIM) of the carotid arteries, vascular wall stiffness were measured, vasoregulatory function of the endothelium, markers of endothelial damage were examined. Patients with psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis were found to have increased TIM of the carotid arteries, high incidence of atherosclerotic plaques, increased stiffness, damage of the vascular wall, affected endothelial vasoregulation. These alterations were associated with high arthritis activity, systemic manifestations, seropositivity by rheumatoid factor (in RA), presence of entesitis, uveitis and dactilitis (in psoriatic arthritis), dislipidemia, arterial hypertension (AH). To determine cardiovascular risk in patients with arthritis, it is necessary to consider not only standard risk factors (dislipidemia and AH), but also severity of systemic inflammation, arterial stiffness, endothelial damage and ability of the vascular wall to relax reflecting endothelial dysfunction.

  3. The Cardiovascular Risk of White-Coat Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of white-coat hypertension (WCH) and the white-coat-effect (WCE) in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Using data from the population-based, 11-cohort IDACO (International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring...... in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes), this study compared daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with conventional blood pressure measurements in 653 untreated subjects with WCH and 653 normotensive control subjects. METHODS: European Society Hypertension guidelines were used as a 5-stage risk score....... Low risk was defined as 0 to 2 risk factors, and high risk was defined as ≥3 to 5 risk factors, diabetes, and/or history of prior CVD events. Age- and cohort-matching was done between 653 untreated subjects with WCH and 653 normotensive control subjects. RESULTS: In a stepwise linear regression model...

  4. New insights into the cardiovascular risk of migraine and the role of white matter hyperintensities: is gold all that glitters?

    OpenAIRE

    Tana, Claudio; Tafuri, Emmanuele; Tana, Marco; Martelletti, Paolo; Negro, Andrea; Affaitati, Giannapia; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Costantini, Raffaele; Mezzetti, Andrea; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2013-01-01

    The role of migraine as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events has been debated for several years, while it is more established for ischemic stroke. Recently, new studies have examined the likelihood of migraine to determine cardiovascular events, supporting the hypothesis of a predominant role in patients with migraine with aura, the risk including both sexes. In the literature, multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are described to explain this association, and are here discu...

  5. A novel approach to cardiovascular health by optimizing risk management (ANCHOR): behavioural modification in primary care effectively reduces global risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jafna L; Vallis, T Michael; Pfammatter, Angela; Szpilfogel, Claudine; Carr, Brendan; O'Neill, Blair J

    2013-11-01

    Primary care is well positioned to facilitate cardiovascular risk improvement and reduce future cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden. The efficacy of risk factor screening, behavioural counselling, and pharmacological treatment to lower CVD risk was assessed via a prospective pre- and postintervention health risk assessment, individualized intervention with behaviour modification, risk factor treatment, and linkage to community programs, with 1-year follow-up and final health risk assessment. Primary outcome was the proportion of subjects with moderate and high baseline Framingham Risk Score (FRS) reducing their risk by 10% and 25%, respectively; the secondary end point was the proportion dropping ≥ 1 risk category. Patients were enrolled (N = 1509) from March 2006 through October 2008 and 72% completed the study. This analysis focuses on 563 subjects with moderate or high baseline FRS, and excluded 325 low-risk patients and 205 with established CVD or diabetes mellitus. Median age was 56 years, 57.7% were female. The primary outcome was achieved in 31.8% (N = 112; 95% confidence interval [CI], 26.9%-36.6%) of moderate risk FRS participants and 47.9% (N = 101; 95% CI, 41.2%-54.6%) of high-risk participants. The secondary outcome was achieved by 37.2% (N = 210; 95% CI, 33.2%-41.2%). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome fell from 79.2% (N = 446; 95% CI, 75.9%-82.6%) at entry to 52.8% (N = 303; 95% CI, 48.7%-56.9%) at study end. Significant improvements in all modifiable risk factors occurred through lifestyle modification. Global cardiovascular risk can be effectively decreased via lifestyle changes informed by readiness to change assessment and individualized counselling targeting specific behaviours. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01620996. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of Hereditary Thrombophilia and Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on the Risk of Arterial Thromboembolism: Pooled Analysis of Four Family Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Lijfering, Willem M.; Brouwer, Jan-Leendert P.; ten Berg, Jur; Hamulyák, Karly; Meijer, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary thrombophilia is associated with a slightly increased risk of arterial thromboembolism (ATE). Whether hereditary thrombophilia interacts with traditional cardiovascular risk factors on the risk of ATE has yet to be established. A total of 1891 individuals belonging to 4 family cohorts

  7. Interaction of Hereditary Thrombophilia and Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on the Risk of Arterial Thromboembolism Pooled Analysis of Four Family Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Lijfering, Willem M.; Brouwer, Jan-Leendert P.; ten Berg, Jur; Hamulyak, Karly; Meijer, Karina

    Background- Hereditary thrombophilia is associated with a slightly increased risk of arterial thromboembolism (ATE). Whether hereditary thrombophilia interacts with traditional cardiovascular risk factors on the risk of ATE has yet to be established. Methods and Results- A total of 1891 individuals

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  9. NEW MARKERS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR RISK: FROM STUDIES TO CLINICAL GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Anichkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are the subject of an intensive discussion in the scientific literature. The biomarkers (newlipid parameters, inflammatory markers and signs of subclinical atherosclerosis are candidates to be included in models to assess the cumulative risk of CVD. The paper considers the basic studies dealing with new markers of CVD risk and their place in current clinical recommendations.

  10. Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Hassim, I; Norazman, M R; Diana, M; Khairul Hazdi, Y; Rosnah, I

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57%). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.

  11. CLINICAL AND ECONOMICAL RATIONALES OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK EVALUATION AT WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study clinical and economical rationales for cardiovascular risk evaluation at workplace (on example of the personnel of engineering research institute.Material and methods. Complex preventive screening with evaluation of arterial hypertension (HT prevalence, cardiovascular risk level and requirement for risk factors correction is performed. Economical rationales for preventive screening (with estimation of the total costs, costs for one studied person and costs for revealing of one person needed in preventive actions are also estimated.Results. Preventive screening in the organized collective found new HT cases (12,2%, high and very high cardiovascular risk (58,6%. The desire for risk factors correction is found in 13,0-59,0% of workers. The total costs for preventive screening of 468 persons were 174413 rubles in 3,5 months. Costs for examination of one worker were 561,7 rubles. Costs for detecting of one worker requiring preventive actions were from 635,6 to 3077,4 rublesConclusion. There are rationales for preventive screening of cardiovascular risk and desire to correct it at the workplace. 

  12. CLINICAL AND ECONOMICAL RATIONALES OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK EVALUATION AT WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study clinical and economical rationales for cardiovascular risk evaluation at workplace (on example of the personnel of engineering research institute.Material and methods. Complex preventive screening with evaluation of arterial hypertension (HT prevalence, cardiovascular risk level and requirement for risk factors correction is performed. Economical rationales for preventive screening (with estimation of the total costs, costs for one studied person and costs for revealing of one person needed in preventive actions are also estimated.Results. Preventive screening in the organized collective found new HT cases (12,2%, high and very high cardiovascular risk (58,6%. The desire for risk factors correction is found in 13,0-59,0% of workers. The total costs for preventive screening of 468 persons were 174413 rubles in 3,5 months. Costs for examination of one worker were 561,7 rubles. Costs for detecting of one worker requiring preventive actions were from 635,6 to 3077,4 rublesConclusion. There are rationales for preventive screening of cardiovascular risk and desire to correct it at the workplace. 

  13. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 10-year Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.

  15. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in an Aging HIV Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N

    2015-01-01

    With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population....... The incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking...

  16. ASSOCIATION OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ADULTS WITHOUT CLINICAL MANIFESTATION OF HEART FAILURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhadze, E; Bregvadze-Tabagari, N; Tvildiani, L

    2016-10-01

    The objective the study was to assess the association between echocardiographic parameters and established cardiovascular risk factors in adults without clinical manifestation of heart failure (HF). A cross-sectional study was conducted between (September 2008 - December 2010) Consecutive sample of 177 participants were enrolled in the study. We performed routine Transthoracic Echocardiography and evaluated several well established cardiovascular risk factors. The data was analyzed using SPSS, version 16. LA was significantly correlated with age (r 0.396, prisk factors for Heart Failure development and progression and as most of them are correlated the age and obesity variables it should be appropriate to conduct routine echocardiography in aged and obese patients even in low CVD risk group. This statement particularly relevant for Georgia as the frequency of obesity is very high in the Georgian population.

  17. [Dyslipidemia management in patients with high cardiovascular risk in Spain. ALMA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; Trias Vilagut, Ferran; Rius Taruella, Joan; Mairal Sallán, Esther

    2017-06-12

    To assess the attitude of primary care (PCPs) and specialized care (SCPs) physicians towards the general set of patients with dyslipidemia, particularly those with cardiovascular risk factors. Observational, descriptive, multi-center study based on a survey. Different healthcare regions in Spain. 1,402 PCPs, and 596 SCPs. Physician's profile, routine practices in the management of patients with dyslipidemia. 84.3% took the global cardiovascular risk into account when prescribing the treatment. Target LDL-C concentration in patients without cardiovascular risk factors was cardiovascular complication, ischemic cardiopathy or stroke, target LDL-C was cardiovascular risk factors was atorvastatin (66%), whereas in patients with diabetes, kidney disease or metabolic syndrome, most physicians (80-89%) used pitavastatin. SCPs showed a greater trend than PCPs to establish a LDL-C target of <70mg/dL in patients with previous stroke (77.5% vs 66.8%) or coronary disease (92.1% vs 80.6%) (P<.0001), as well as to prescribe a combined treatment in patients not achieving the target LDL-C concentrations (58.1% vs 50.2%, P=.0013). Although CVR assessment is generally accepted, there is broad disagreement in defining the objectives of LDL-C. Most often than PCPs, the SCPs consider more ambitious targets for LDL-C and the association of lipid-lowering drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Health Counselling on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Middle Aged Men: Influence of Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Reijo Siren; Johan G Eriksson; Markku Peltonen; Hannu Vanhanen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inverse association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease is well documented. We examined whether the impact of health counselling on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men differed according to socioeconomic status. METHODS: We used data from a community based study assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease among middle-aged men in Helsinki, Finland. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured and cardiovascular disease risk was...

  19. Psoriasis and Cardiovascular Comorbidities: Focusing on Severe Vascular Events, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chu-Sung Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common and chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. It may impair the physical and psychosocial function of patients and lead to decreased quality of life. Traditionally, psoriasis has been regarded as a disease affecting only the skin and joints. More recently, studies have shown that psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disorder which can be associated with various comorbidities. In particular, psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of developing severe vascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. In addition, the prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors are increased, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mortality rates have been found to be increased and life expectancy decreased in patients with psoriasis, as compared to the general population. Various studies have also shown that systemic treatments for psoriasis, including methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, may significantly decrease cardiovascular risk. Mechanistically, the presence of common inflammatory pathways, secretion of adipokines, insulin resistance, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, microparticles, and hypercoagulability may explain the association between psoriasis and cardiometabolic disorders. In this article, we review the evidence regarding the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular comorbidities, focusing on severe vascular events, cardiovascular risk factors and implications for treatment.

  20. Psoriasis and Cardiovascular Comorbidities: Focusing on Severe Vascular Events, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Lan, Cheng-Che E

    2017-10-21

    Psoriasis is a common and chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. It may impair the physical and psychosocial function of patients and lead to decreased quality of life. Traditionally, psoriasis has been regarded as a disease affecting only the skin and joints. More recently, studies have shown that psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disorder which can be associated with various comorbidities. In particular, psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of developing severe vascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. In addition, the prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors are increased, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mortality rates have been found to be increased and life expectancy decreased in patients with psoriasis, as compared to the general population. Various studies have also shown that systemic treatments for psoriasis, including methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, may significantly decrease cardiovascular risk. Mechanistically, the presence of common inflammatory pathways, secretion of adipokines, insulin resistance, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, microparticles, and hypercoagulability may explain the association between psoriasis and cardiometabolic disorders. In this article, we review the evidence regarding the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular comorbidities, focusing on severe vascular events, cardiovascular risk factors and implications for treatment.

  1. Psoriasis and Cardiovascular Comorbidities: Focusing on Severe Vascular Events, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Lan, Cheng-Che E.

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common and chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. It may impair the physical and psychosocial function of patients and lead to decreased quality of life. Traditionally, psoriasis has been regarded as a disease affecting only the skin and joints. More recently, studies have shown that psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disorder which can be associated with various comorbidities. In particular, psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of developing severe vascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. In addition, the prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors are increased, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mortality rates have been found to be increased and life expectancy decreased in patients with psoriasis, as compared to the general population. Various studies have also shown that systemic treatments for psoriasis, including methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, may significantly decrease cardiovascular risk. Mechanistically, the presence of common inflammatory pathways, secretion of adipokines, insulin resistance, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, microparticles, and hypercoagulability may explain the association between psoriasis and cardiometabolic disorders. In this article, we review the evidence regarding the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular comorbidities, focusing on severe vascular events, cardiovascular risk factors and implications for treatment. PMID:29065479

  2. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Marie-Louise; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: . To assess the role of LN as a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in patients with SLE. Methods: . The study was conducted using individual-level data from multiple nationwide registers. We identified a cohort of patients diagnosed wi...

  3. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS: characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Mari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers.

  4. Association between Serum Osteopontin Levels and Cardiovascular Risk in Hypothyrodism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Mete

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cardiovascular effects of hypothyroidism are well known. Osteopontin (OPN is a new inflammatory marker which was first isolated from the bone. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD, a noninvasive technique to measure this endothelium-dependent function, has been used in several clinical studies to show cardiovascular risks. The aim of our study was to assess FMD value in hypothyroidism patients and to investigate whether plasma OPN level is a parameter which can predict cardiovascular risks in this group of patients. Material and Method: This study included 39 patients who had high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and 11 healthy euthyroid controls. Plasma TSH, free thyroxine, fibrinogen, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (T-chol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride and OPN levels were measured at the time hypothyroidism was first detected and after euthyroid state was achieved with levothyroxine treatment. In parallel with these assessments, brachial FMD measurements were also performed. Results: In hypothyroid patients cardiovascular risk factors such as T-chol, LDL and triglyceride levels were higher than in control group but fibrinogen and hsCRP levels were not different between the groups. OPN levels were similar in patient and control groups, but basal FMD levels were lower in patients with hypothyroidism. After euthyroidism was achieved, OPN levels significantly decreased and FMD levels significantly increased, but a correlation was not detected between these two parameters. Discussion: Our study did not show a significant correlation between OPN and cardiovascular risk parameters. Further studies are needed to use OPN as a cardiovascular risk marker in hypothyroid patients.

  5. Cardiovascular risk awareness, treatment, and control in urban Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Honorio; Hernandez-Hernandez, Rafael; Vinueza, Raul; Velasco, Manuel; Boissonnet, Carlos Pablo; Escobedo, Jorge; Silva, H Elif; Pramparo, Palmira; Wilson, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Effective prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases require regular screening for risk factors, high awareness of the condition, effective treatment of the identified risk factors, and adherence to the prescribed treatment. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America study was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study of major cardiovascular risk factors-including hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia-in 7 Latin American cities. This report presents data on assessment, diagnosis, extent, and effectiveness of treatment, adherence to treatment, and reasons for nonadherence. Data were collected through household questionnaire-based interviews administered to 5383 men and 6167 women, 25-64 years of age, living in the following cities: Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Participants also completed a clinic visit for anthromorphometric and laboratory assessments. Rates of prior diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes were high (64% and 78% of affected individuals, respectively) but relatively low for hypercholesterolemia (41%). The majority of affected individuals (hypercholesterolemia 88%, diabetes 67%, and hypertension 53%) were untreated. Among individuals who were receiving pharmacologic treatment, targets for control of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were achieved by 51%, 16%, and 52%, respectively. Adherence to treatment was observed in 69% of individuals with hypertension, 63% with diabetes, and 66% with hypercholesterolemia. Forgetfulness was the major cause of nonadherence for all 3 conditions. There is a substantial need for increasing patient education, diagnosis, treatment, adherence, and control of cardiovascular risk factors in the 7 Latin American cities.

  6. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koska Juraj

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipidemia. Metabolism of these postprandial carbohydrates and lipids yields multiple proatherogenic products. Even a transient increase in these factors may worsen vascular function and induces impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation, a predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. There is a recent increased appreciation for the role of gut-derived incretin hormones in controlling the postprandial metabolic milieu. Incretin-based medications have been developed and are now used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in T2DM. Recent data indicate that these medications may also have profound effects on postprandial lipid metabolism and may favorably influence several cardiovascular functions. This review discusses (1 the postprandial state with special emphasis on postprandial lipid metabolism and its role in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk, (2 the ability of incretins to modulate postprandial hyperlipidemia and (3 the potential of incretin-based therapeutic strategies to improve vascular function and reduce CVD risk.

  7. The role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; de Courten, Barbora; Reid, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. We investigated the relative contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to this elevated risk.......People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. We investigated the relative contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to this elevated risk....

  8. Cardiovascular risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Amy J; Gilbert, Lynn; Baramee, Julaluk; Granger, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Identifying risk factors early in life can facilitate use of preventive strategies to reduce risk and improve health status across the life span. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable (tobacco smoke exposure, physical inactivity, dietary fat intake, overweight, and high blood pressure [BP]) and nonmodifiable (family history, gender, and age) cardiovascular risk factors in low-income preschool children. Low-income preschool children (N = 205) 3-5 years old were recruited to participate. Parents completed a multigenerational cardiovascular health history form and a 24-hour dietary recall for themselves and their child. The children's height, weight, and BP were obtained. Of the 205 children, 61% reported ethnicity as Latino or Hispanic, 31.7% non-Hispanic White, 1% non-Hispanic Black, 3.9% Asian, and 2.4% mixed race. The number of males (50.7%) and females (49.3%) was similar. Only 22 (10.7%) children had no identified cardiovascular risk factors. At least one modifiable risk factor was present in 179 (87.3%) children. Fifty-two (25.5%) children had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 85th percentile for gender and age; 44 (22.3%) had a systolic or diastolic BP over the 90th percentile for gender, age, and height; 128 (66.3%) had a dietary fat intake of > 30%; 77 (37.6%) watched TV or played video games more than 2 hr/day; and 48 (23.4%) were exposed to passive tobacco smoke. The identification of cardiovascular risk factors in almost 90% of presumably healthy preschoolers provides evidence to support testing of interventions that can improve health behaviors and reduce risks.

  9. Impact of using different SCORE tables for estimating cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Núria; Cuixart, Lluís; Osorio, Dimelza; Bottaro, David; Puig, Mireia; Joaniquet, Xavier; Marcos, Albert; Casasa, Albert

    2014-02-01

    In Spain, various SCORE tables are available to estimate cardiovascular risk: tables for low-risk countries, tables calibrated for the Spanish population, and tables that include high-density lipoprotein values. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of using one or another SCORE table in clinical practice. In a cross-sectional study carried out in two primary health care centers, individuals aged 40 to 65 years in whom blood pressure and total cholesterol levels were recorded between March 2010 and March 2012 were selected. Patients with diabetes or a history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using SCORE for low-risk countries, SCORE with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the calibrated SCORE. Cardiovascular risk was estimated in 3716 patients. The percentage of patients at high or very high risk was 1.24% with SCORE with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 4.73% with the low-risk SCORE, and 15.44% with the calibrated SCORE (P<.01). Treatment with lipid-lowering drugs would be recommended in 10.23% of patients using the calibrated SCORE, 3.12% of patients using the low-risk SCORE, and 0.67% of patients using SCORE with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The calibrated SCORE table classifies a larger number of patients at high or very high risk than the SCORE for low-risk countries or the SCORE with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Therefore, its use would imply treating more patients with lipid-lowering medication. Validation studies are needed to assess the most appropriate SCORE table for use in our setting. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study...... was to compare the effect of red wine, nonalcohol compounds of red wine and placebo on established cardiovascular risk factors. Design: A parallel, four-armed intervention study. Subjects: A total of 69 healthy 38 - 74- y-old men and women. Interventions: Subjects were randomised to either 1: red wine ( males...... compared with drinking water with or without red grape extract. The impact of wine on the measured cardiovascular risk factors thus seems primarily explained by an alcohol effect. Our finding suggests that the putative difference in cardiac risk associated with wine vs other alcoholic beverages might...

  11. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Albuminuria with Cardiovascular Risk in Occupational Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Chang, Jer-Ming; Lin, Ming-Yen; Hou, Meng-Ling; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and albuminuria increase cardiovascular risk. However, in occupational drivers, the clinical significance of albuminuria and its association with MetS remain unclear. We investigated the prevalence of MetS, albuminuria and cardiovascular risk, and its associated risk factors in occupational drivers; Methods 441 occupational drivers and 432 age- and sex-stratified matched counterpart controls were enrolled. MetS was defined using Adult Treatment Panel III for Asians. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g. Cardiovascular disease risk was evaluated by Framingham Risk Score (FRS); Results A significantly higher prevalence of MetS (43.1% vs. 25.5%, p albuminuria (12.0% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.001) and high FRS risk ≥ 10% of 10-year risk (46.9% vs. 35.2%, p albuminuria (odds ratio [OR], 2.75; p = 0.01) were risk factors for MetS, while a history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension, and MetS (OR, 2.28; p = 0.01) were risk factors for albuminuria in occupational drivers; Conclusions Our study demonstrated that MetS and albuminuria were public health problems in occupational drivers. An education program for promoting healthy lifestyle and a regular occupational health visit for early detection and interventions should be established. PMID:24201129

  12. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria in Korean population evaluated for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Kim, Jinseung

    2016-05-01

    This study's purpose was to examine established cardiovascular risk prediction model scores for their associations with albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Korean population. We calculated the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk estimated score, Korean coronary heart disease risk prediction score (KRS), and the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III risk score for 9733 South Koreans, aged 40-79 years, who were not diagnosed with stroke, angina pectoris, or myocardial ischemia using data from the 2011-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The associations between cardiovascular risk model scores and the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and eGFR tended to be stronger for the ASCVD risk score than for the other risk scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for increased albuminuria (UACR ≥ 30 mg/g) and decreased eGFR (albuminuria in women). The ASCVD risk score had a stronger relationship with and better predicted albuminuria and eGFR than did the KRS and ATP III risk score.

  13. Worksite-based cardiovascular risk screening and management: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padwal R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Raj Padwal,1 Mohammad Rashead,2 Jonathan Snider,2 Louise Morrin,2 Agnes Lehman,2 Norm RC Campbell3 1Department of Medicine, Alberta Diabetes Institute and Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 2Cardiovascular Health and Stroke Strategic Clinical Network of Alberta Health Services, 3Department of Medicine, Community Health Sciences and Physiology and Pharmacology, O’Brien Institute of Public Health and Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: Established cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent and contribute substantially to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality because they remain uncontrolled in many Canadians. Worksite-based cardiovascular risk factor screening and management represent a largely untapped strategy for optimizing risk factor control.Methods: In a 2-phase collaborative demonstration project between Alberta Health Services (AHS and the Alberta Newsprint Company (ANC, ANC employees were offered cardiovascular risk factor screening and management. Screening was performed at the worksite by AHS nurses, who collected baseline history, performed automated blood pressure measurement and point-of-care testing for lipids and A1c, and calculated 10-year Framingham risk. Employees with a Framingham risk score of ≥10% and uncontrolled blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or smoking were offered 6 months of pharmacist case management to optimize their risk factor control.Results: In total, 87 of 190 (46% employees volunteered to undergo cardiovascular risk factor screening. Mean age was 44.5±11.9 years, 73 (83.9% were male, 14 (16.1% had hypertension, 4 (4.6% had diabetes, 12 (13.8% were current smokers, and 9 (10% had dyslipidemia. Of 36 employees with an estimated Framingham risk score of ≥10%, 21 (58% agreed to receive case management and 15 (42% attended baseline and 6-month follow-up case management visits. Statistically significant

  14. Improving cardiovascular risk management: a randomized, controlled trial on the effect of a decision support tool for patients and physicians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkiste, B.C. van; Weijden, T. van der; Stoffers, H.E.; Kester, A.D.; Timmermans, D.R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is nonoptimal adherence of general practitioners (GPs) and patients to cardiovascular risk reducing interventions. GPs find it difficult to assimilate multiple risk factors into an accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk. In addition, communicating cardiovascular risk to

  15. Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Speranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dai Cas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium is a dynamic organ with many properties that takes part in the regulation of the principal mechanisms of vascular physiology. Its principal functions include the control of blood-tissue exchange and permeability, the vascular tonus, and the modulation of inflammatory or coagulatory mechanisms. Many vasoactive molecules, produced by the endothelium, are involved in the control of these functions. The most important is nitric oxide (NO, a gaseous molecule electrically neutral with an odd number of electrons that gives the molecule chemically reactive radical properties. Already known in the twentieth century, NO, sometimes considered as a dangerous molecule, recently valued as an important endogenous vasodilator factor. Recently, it was discovered that it is involved in several physiological mechanisms of endothelial protection (Tab. I. In 1992, Science elected it as “molecule of the year”; 6 yrs later three American researchers (Louis Ignarro, Robert Furchgott and Fried Murad obtained a Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology “for their discoveries about NO as signal in the cardiovascular system”.

  17. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: We conducted a prospective study to elucidate the effects of increased cardiovascular risk factors on future weight gain and also the relation between body mass index (BMI) and other cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 1525 nonobese children and adolescents with an age range of 3-16 years old, participating in the 1st phase and follow-up phases of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The subjects were evaluated 4 times with a 3-year time interval regarding lipid profile status and BMI, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. All the cases had a BMI <85% and had been appraised in at least two evaluation points. Results: Cardiovascular risk factors, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.019), low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.016), triglyceride (TG) (P < 0.001), and blood pressure (BP) (P = 0.001); had significant effects on weight gain. There was also no difference between boys and girls and no age trend for increasing weight in both groups. The associations between BMI with cardiovascular risk factors were assessed cross-sectionally. For both sexes, BMI was significantly correlated to systolic and diastolic BP and TG (P = 0.05). For girls, BMI was significantly related to HDL (P = 0.05) regardless to age, but in boys, the relation of BMI with HDL only increased with age (P = 0.05). Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group. PMID:27110553

  18. Gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors in incident diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Emily B; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Daugherty, Stacie L; Steiner, John F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men with diabetes. Previous cross-sectional studies of prevalent diabetes have found that women are less likely to meet American Diabetes Association (ADA) and American Heart Association guidelines for control of cardiovascular risk factors (hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, and blood pressure), but have not studied the critical period immediately after diagnosis. To assess gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors at the time of diabetes diagnosis (baseline) and 1 year later (follow-up), we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6,547 individuals with incident diabetes in an integrated care delivery system. We assessed mean cardiovascular risk factor values by gender and adjusted odds ratios of attaining ADA goals. Compared with men, at baseline women had lower hemoglobin A1c (7.9% vs. 8.2%; p LDL cholesterol (118.9 vs. 111.5 mg/dL; p LDL cholesterol (104.0 vs. 98.2 mg/dL; p risk factor control at the time of diabetes diagnosis. These differences varied by age and decreased over time. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lipid parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, Benoit J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Besides measuring blood pressure and glucose levels, assessing the lipid spectrum is the method most commonly used to identify individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as those who are likely to benefit most from lipid-lowering therapy. Although lowering LDL-cholesterol

  20. risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among diabetic patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic ... Age ≥ 45 years, type 2 diabetes and obesity were predictors of hypertension. ... worldwide; two thirds of whom are in developing countries. By the year 2030, ... Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. ... In the west, up to 25% of diabetic patients ..... Since overweight.

  1. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the

  2. Comparison of lipid profiles and 10 year cardiovascular disease risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemias are possible debilitating outcomes of diabetes and important predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients. We carried out a cross-sectional, case control study from April to July 2014 at the Ngaoundere Regional Hospital involving 90 patients: 45 diabetics (10 type 1 and 35 type 2) and 45 ...

  3. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Balearic workers apparently healthy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Angel Arturo; Angullo Martínez, Escarlata; Román Rodríguez, Miguel; Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Tomás Salvá, Matías; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is well known in the general population. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence of unknown major cardiovascular risk factors, in an apparently healthy Balearic working population. data were obtained to 3,035 people randomly selected and with unknown previous diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. To compare proportions we used the χ2 test and the t-Student test for comparison of means. the prevalence of unknown hypertension in men was 20.6%, hypercholesterolemia 11.6%and 2.6% diabetes. The prevalence of unknown hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in women were 8.3,5.4 and 0.8%, respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors except low HDL-cholesterol were more prevalent in men. 14.4%of men and 5.5% of women met metabolic syndrome. there is a very high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the working population considered theoretically healthy. This highlights the important role in this field from the occupational health units to make them emerge.

  4. High cardiovascular risk in severely obese young children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, N.M.A. van; Renders, C.M.; Veer, M. van de; Buuren, S. van; Baan-Slootweg, O.H. van der; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; HiraSing, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children and adolescents. Methods: A nationwide prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2005 to July 2007 where paediatricians were asked to report all new cases of severe obesity in 2-18-year-old

  5. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PRISON POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soares de OliveiraI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to make a reflection about the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the prison population, as well as the performance of the health care team in these spaces. It is a reflective approach, literature that included e-journal articles, published in the year 2003 to 2011, indexed at LILACS, Scielo, MEDLINE, and available in full. Textbooks were also consulted and ordinances of Ministry of health and Justice of Brazil. Used the descriptors "risk factors," "cardiovascular disease" and "Prisoners". It was noted that the current situation of overcrowding in prisons is, with unhealthy environment, which imposes risks the health of prisoners. The living habits, such as use of alcohol and drugs (cocaine, marijuana, tranquillizers and tobacco, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, the authors emphasize, a priori, the low level of schooling of the detainees. The performance of the health care team must be based on educational practices for promoting and monitoring the health, with multidisciplinary support. Further studies need to be done in order to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of health care for this population.

  6. Guidelines for managing cardiovascular risk: an evolving area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currier, Judith S; Lundgren, Jens

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reflect on the need for guidelines to assist clinicians in the management of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past eight years guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia and metabolic complications of HIV infection have been developed...

  7. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk : epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ron T.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; Mann, Johannes F.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Wen, Chi Pang

    2013-01-01

    Since the first description of the association between chronic kidney disease and heart disease, many epidemiological studies have confirmed and extended this finding. As chronic kidney disease progresses, kidney-specific risk factors for cardiovascular events and disease come into play. As a

  8. Inheritance pattern of familial hypercholesterolemia and markers of cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, D. Meeike; Avis, Hans J.; Braamskamp, Marjet J.; Huijgen, Roeland; Wijburg, Frits A.; Kastelein, John J.; Wiegman, Albert; Hutten, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies in children and adults have resulted in conflicting evidence in the quest for the answer to the hypothesis that offspring from hypercholesterolemic mothers might have an increased cardiovascular risk. Previous studies might have suffered from limitations such as cohort size and clinical

  9. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor : current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Chapman, M John; Ray, Kausik; Borén, Jan; Andreotti, Felicita; Watts, Gerald F; Ginsberg, Henry; Amarenco, Pierre; Catapano, Alberico; Descamps, Olivier S; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: The robust and specific association between

  10. Raised Interleukin 6 Levels: A Risk Factor for Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raised Interleukin 6 Levels: A Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Associated Complications in HIV Positive Zambians before Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy. ... IL-6 and CD4 were assessed in HIV positive on ART, HIV positive ART- naïve and HIV negative control participants. Results and Conclusion: Our study showed that ...

  11. Vitamin D status and changes in cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    A low vitamin D level has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but possible mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and 5-year changes in blood pressure, lipid profile and incidence of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension...

  12. Hashimoto thyroiditis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed N. Atta

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... Hashimoto thyroiditis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in clinically hypothyroid patients. Mohammed N. Atta a. , Rawhia Elessawy a. , Akram Deghedy b. ,. Ahmed Hafez c. , Tamer M. Elsherbiny a,. * a Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology Unit, Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Egypt.

  13. Iron status and cardiovascular disease risk in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-29

    Mar 29, 2011 ... Objective: To examine the associations between measures of iron status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in South African women. Method: In a cross-sectional study, demographic information and health history were obtained during individual interviews using validated questionnaires in.

  14. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  15. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Black College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A.; Lowing, Larry

    1997-01-01

    This study examined cardiovascular risk factors in Black first-year college students (N=238). Students completed surveys about blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking, and physical activity. Results found low rates of high blood pressure, low awareness of cholesterol levels, and low numbers of students who smoked. Females had lower physical…

  16. Cardiovascular risk factor profile of black Africans undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It remains uncertain whether the risk factors identified as contributing to CAD in white populations contribute to a similar extent to CAD incidence in black populations. No data of the local population exists that is based on the coronary angiogram (CA). Objectives: To analyse the relationship of conventional cardiovascular ...

  17. Hashimoto thyroiditis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder that confers an increased cardiovascular risk. The most common cause is Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) but it can also be caused by thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy. The aim of the study is to examine whether there is a relation between the cause of hypothyroidism and ...

  18. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Kathy V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in 57 healthy older individuals were measured (blood pressure, lipids and lipoproteins, and lifestyle behaviors) via a personal health questionnaire. Results indicated that, though the subjects were generally healthy, their lifestyle behaviors, particularly diet and physical activity, could be improved. (SM)

  19. Lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors among hypertensives and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine the lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors among hypertensives and the use of antihypertensive medication in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: Two hundred and fifty consecutive patients who were attending the outpatients' clinic cardiology unit of the medical department of ...

  20. Prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among staff of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim was to describe the frequency of occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among selected university workers in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional study of 206 staff of LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria had an assessment for ...

  1. Lipid and Some Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Assessment in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive. Lipid and Some Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Assessment in a Rural Community in Eastern Nigeria. Ahaneku GI1ab, Ahaneku JE2ab, Osuji CU1ab, Oguejiofor CO1ab, Anisiuba BC1cd, Opara PC2b. 1Departments of Medicine and 2Chemical Pathology, aNnamdi Azikiwe University/bTeaching Hospital, ...

  2. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The link between abdominal fat distribution and insulin related cardiovascular risk factors in black and white female hypertensives who were on drug treatment for hypertension was investigated with computed tomography scan, sonar, anthropometric measurements and blood testing. Fasting blood samples were tested for: ...

  3. Vitamin d status, filaggrin genotype, and cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Martinussen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in observational studies. Whether these associations are causal is not clear. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene result in up to 10% higher serum vitamin D concentrations, supposedly due to a decreased UV...

  4. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in an African, Urban inner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this community based study was to determine the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors in an urban inner city community which had been followed up prospectively from 1993 to 1998. Results show that the prevalence of hypertension (Blood Pressure BP > 160/95 mm Hg) was 12.4 percent with an ...

  5. Employees' Modifiable Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worksites have been identified as strategic locations for the delivery of interventions to decrease the prevalence of chronic diseases of lifestyle among adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of modifiable risks factors for cardiovascular diseases of employees at an urban university in Kigali, ...

  6. Genetics and behavioral medicine: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogler, G.P.; McClearn, G.E.; Snieder, H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Palmer, R.; Knijff, P. de; Slagboom, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles addressing the intersection of interests in behavioral genetics and behavioral medicine. In this article, we use risk factors for cardiovascular disease as a prototypical trait for which behavioral genetic approaches provide powerful tools for

  7. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  8. Iron status and cardiovascular disease risk in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine the associations between measures of iron status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in South African women. Method: In a cross-sectional study, demographic information and health history were obtained during individual interviews using validated questionnaires in the North West ...

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk among professionals: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teachers are often faced with repetitive work related stress, which has been associated with chronic diseases among professionals. Those living in the urban community may be at more risk due to unhealthy lifestyle exposure, but there is little information about their cardiovascular disease profile. Such data ...

  10. Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in older women | Davey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women older than 50 years. Risk factors for CVD differ in some aspects from those in men. The prevention of CVD in women has undergone a reappraisal with the publication of studies looking at the use of menopausal hormone therapy for both primary and ...

  11. Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automechanics are among the job professionals in proximity to diesel and gasoline exhaust whose components are known to be toxic. This raises serious public health concern. This study is a population-based-cross-sectional survey, set up to investigate the risk of cardiovascular and hepatic injury incurred by people ...

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period. Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: Two hundred ...

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Behavioral Contracting in Exercise Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    The use of behavioral contracting in exercise programs has been shown to be effective in increasing the frequency of exercise activity and in reducing dropout rates. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of three cardiovascular risk factors (poor physical fitness, obesity, and smoking) on both client willingness to sign a behavioral…

  14. Hashimoto thyroiditis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed N. Atta

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... radioiodine therapy. The aim of the study is to examine whether there is a relation between the cause of hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk. Subjects and .... dial infarction (MI), aortic atherosclerosis and CHD events and mortality ... prevention and stimulation of platelet aggregation, thrombo- genesis ...

  15. Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... diesel and gasoline engine exhaust and also uses PMS regularly in the cause of performance of their job. The study was a population-based-cross-sectional study in which levels of some biochemical and physiological para- meters which are indices of cardiovascular risk and enzyme activities (indices of ...

  16. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK: PERSPECTIVES OF TREATMENT WITH STATINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Anichkov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are reviewed. The perspectives of treatments with statins in RA are given. Results of clinical trials on statin effects on the inflammatory disease activity and endothelial function in patients with RA are summarized.

  17. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Mediating Mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Hartman, Y.A.W.; Holder, S.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopkins, N.D.

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behavior has a strong association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, which may be independent of physical activity. To date, the mechanism(s) that mediate this relationship are poorly understood. We hypothesize that sedentary behavior modifies key hemodynamic, inflammatory, and

  18. Undiagnosed airflow limitation in patients at cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Emilie; Bongard, Vanina; Roche, Nicolas; Perez, Thierry; Brouquières, Dany; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Fievez, Stéphane; Denis, François; Escamilla, Roger; Ferrières, Jean

    2011-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) share risk factors and impair each other's prognosis. To assess the prevalence of airflow limitation (AL) compatible with COPD in a population at cardiovascular risk and to identify determinants of AL. All consecutive patients referred to the cardiovascular prevention unit of a university hospital in 2009 were studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Patients answered questionnaires on socioeconomic status, medical history and lifestyle, and underwent extensive physical examinations, biological measures and spirometry testing. AL was defined as FEV1/FVC20%) for 10%. Prevalence of AL was 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0-8.3%) in the whole population and 4.3% (2.6-6.6%) among subjects in primary cardiovascular prevention. AL was independently associated with CVD (adjusted odds ratio 4.18, 95% CI 1.72-10.15; P=0.002) but not with Framingham CHD risk. More than 80% of patients screened with AL had not been diagnosed previously and more than one in two patients was asymptomatic. Patients with CVD are at increased risk of AL and thus should benefit from AL screening as they are frequently asymptomatic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette

    2012-01-01

    syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without......Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... are recommended ASA or clopidogrel. With future implementation of new antithrombotic treatment regimens as monotherapy and in combinations with antiplatelet therapy, increased focus on risk of thromboembolic events and bleeding and individual tailoring of antithrombotic therapy is warranted....

  20. Model for assessing cardiovascular risk in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyung-Min; Han, Seungbong; Kim, Seon Ha; Jo, Min-Woo; Her, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Bok; Lee, Moo Song; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Ahn, Jung-Min; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Beom-Jun; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jaewon; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2014-11-01

    A model for predicting cardiovascular disease in Asian populations is limited. In total, 57 393 consecutive asymptomatic Korean individuals aged 30 to 80 years without a prior history of cardiovascular disease who underwent a general health examination were enrolled. Subjects were randomly classified into the train (n=45 914) and validation (n=11 479) cohorts. Thirty-one possible risk factors were assessed. The cardiovascular event was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. In the train cohort, the C-index (95% confidence interval) and Akaike Information Criterion were used to develop the best-fitting prediction model. In the validation cohort, the predicted versus the observed cardiovascular event rates were compared by the C-index and Nam and D'Agostino χ(2) statistics. During a median follow-up period of 3.1 (interquartile range, 1.9-4.3) years, 458 subjects had 474 cardiovascular events. In the train cohort, the best-fitting model consisted of age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, current smoking, family history of coronary heart disease, white blood cell, creatinine, glycohemoglobin, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure, and cholesterol (C-index =0.757 [0.726-0.788] and Akaike Information Criterion =7207). When this model was tested in the validation cohort, it performed well in terms of discrimination and calibration abilities (C-index=0.760 [0.693-0.828] and Nam and D'Agostino χ(2) statistic =0.001 for 3 years; C-index=0.782 [0.719-0.846] and Nam and D'Agostino χ(2) statistic=1.037 for 5 years). A risk model based on traditional clinical and biomarkers has a feasible model performance in predicting cardiovascular events in an asymptomatic Korean population. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Cancer therapy and cardiovascular risk: focus on bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economopoulou P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Panagiota Economopoulou,1 Athanasios Kotsakis,2 Ioannis Kapiris,3 Nikolaos Kentepozidis3 1Medical Oncology Unit, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Haidari, Athens, 2Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, 3251 Airforce General Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Athens, Greece Abstract: Recognition and management of treatment-related cardiovascular toxicity, defined as either an acute cardiac event or a chronic condition, has been tightly integrated into routine cancer care and has become an important component in treatment selection. Several chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines, are traditionally characterized as cardiotoxic, but cardiovascular adverse events are also associated with commonly used molecular targeted therapies. In the past decade, bevacizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been introduced in the treatment of a variety of metastatic malignancies. Despite its efficacy, bevacizumab has been associated with significant risk of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, cardiac ischemia, and congestive heart failure. This review will focus on the cardiovascular toxicity of bevacizumab, providing the latest evidence on the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors, and responsible mechanisms. Keywords: bevacizumab, cardiovascular toxicity, hypertension

  2. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2), gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m(2), gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life.

  3. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldmäe, Margit; Zilmer, Mihkel; Viigimaa, Margus; Zemtsovskaja, Galina; Tomberg, Karel; Kaart, Tanel; Annuk, Margus

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which is highest in Eastern Europe including Estonia. Accumulating evidence suggests that life-style is associated with the development of CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the informative power of common CVD-related markers under unhealthy conditions. Subjects (n = 51; mean age 45 years; 90% men) were recruited from a shelter for homeless people in Tallinn, Estonia, and consisted of persons who constantly used alcohol or surrogates, smoked, and were in a bad physical condition (amputated toes, necrotic ulcers, etc.). Blood pressure, pulse rate, and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The following markers were measured in blood serum: total cholesterol (TChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Chol), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Chol), plasma triglycerides (TG), apolipoproteins A-l (ApoA1) and B (ApoB), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glucose (Gluc), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Except smoking, the anamnestic information considering eating habits, declared alcohol consumption and medication intake were not included in the analysis due to the low credibility of self-reported data. More than half of the investigated patients had values of measured markers (hsCRP, TChol, LDL-Chol, TG, HbA1c, ApoA1, ApoB, Lp(a), Gluc) within normal range. Surprisingly, 100% of subjects had HDL-Chol within endemic norm. This study demonstrates that traditional markers, commonly used for prediction and diagnosis and treatment of CVD, are not always applicable to homeless people, apparently due to their aberrant life-style.

  4. Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Mellitus: Complication of the Disease or of Antihyperglycemic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, C A; Lingvay, I; Vuylsteke, V; Koffarnus, R L; McGuire, D K

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal complication and the leading cause of death for patients with diabetes (DM). The efficacy of antihyperglycemic treatments on cardiovascular disease risk remains uncertain. Cardiovascular risk factors are affected by antihyperglycemic medications, as are many intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Here we summarize the evidence assessing the cardiovascular effects of antihyperglycemic medications with regard to risk factors, intermediate markers of disease, and clinical outcomes. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  5. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  6. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have ...

  7. Changing pattern of cardiovascular risk with duration of Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular risk factors were compared in two groups based on the median year duration of DM. A further 6 sub-grouping was done to look at pattern of increase of the different CVD risk factors. Results: duration of DM range from 1-30 years, median of 5 years and modal of 1 year. There was a difference in the means of ...

  8. Dietary fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular diseases risk

    OpenAIRE

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    Diet is likely to be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this article, we will review the evidence linking the consumption of fruit and vegetables and CVD risk.\\ud \\ud The initial evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption has a protective effect against CVD came from observational studies. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on the occurrence of CVD and whether the optimal intake is five portions or gr...

  9. Depression contributing to dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lemche, A. V.; Chaban, O.S.; Lemche, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Triglycerides are considered an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Recent evidence relating depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) implicated triglyceride levels. We thus investigated interrelations of self-reported depression severity (Zung) and MetS-related biological measures with CVD risk estimates in MetS patients. Methods N?=?101 patients fulfilling International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS from a nationwide sampled treatment cohort for MetS with fami...

  10. Cardiovascular risks associated with incident and prevalent periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke and total CVD. In a prospective cohort of 39,863 predominantly white women, age ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status [prevalent (18%), incident (7.3%) versus never (74.7%)] were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25-2.38) for MI, 1.41 (1.02-1.95) for ischaemic stroke and 1.27 (1.06-1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04-1.56) for MI, 1.12 (0.91-1.37) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for total CVD. New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease : Interrelationship with High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunutsor, Setor K.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Gregson, John; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been suggested to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, however, important aspects of the association, such as shape and independence from established risk factors, have yet to be characterized in detail. We assessed the association of ALP

  12. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  13. Congenital Cerebral Palsy, Child Sex and Parent Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.......16-2.00), attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76), became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant...

  14. Troponin I and cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Makarova, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Our aims were to evaluate the distribution of troponin I concentrations in population cohorts across Europe, to characterize the association with cardiovascular outcomes, to determine the predictive value beyond the variables used in the ESC SCORE, to test a potentially clinically relevant...... population-based studies including 74 738 participants. We investigated the value of adding troponin I levels to conventional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular disease by calculating measures of discrimination (C-index) and net reclassification improvement (NRI). We further tested the clinical...

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in White Collar Workers Under Shift Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelova K.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shift work is associated with circadian disruption, disturbs sleep and social life, and modifies disease risk factors, and thus can potentially contribute to various chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to follow cardiovascular risk in white collar workers under shift work. Cardiovascular risk was studied in sound-engineering staff in sound-recording production. The study encompassed 168 employees (46% males and 54% females working under shift work of age 48.04 ± 8.8 years and length of service 21.6 ± 4.6 years. Our data show that 31.1% of the investigated employees were hypertensive, of which 22.6% had preliminary physician’s diagnosis of arterial hypertension, showing comparatively high rates of undiagnosed hypertension, higher in males in comparison to females. The TC and HDL-C were slightly higher with the females, while the triglycerides and TC/HDL-C ratio with the males. High rates of smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were found with both genders, slightly higher with the females. The preventive approach incorporating regular medical surveillance of shift workers and health promotion covering both life style factors and shift work organization is needed for tackling CVD in shift workers for better cardiovascular health.

  16. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Miriam B.; Kaar, Jill L.; Welsh, Jean A.; Van Horn, Linda V.; Feig, Daniel I.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Munos, Jessica Cruz; Krebs, Nancy F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. METHODS AND RESULTS For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. CONCLUSIONS Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. PMID:27550974

  17. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  18. Cardiovascular risk with subclinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Jasleen; Singh, Sarabjeet; Barsano, Charles P; Arora, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that subclinical thyroid dysfunction, as manifested by abnormalities in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, are associated with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by abnormal lipid metabolism, cardiac dysfunction, diastolic hypertension conferring an elevated risk of atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Similarly, patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism have nearly 3 times the likelihood of atrial fibrillation over a 10-year follow-up interval, raising the question of whether patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism should be treated to prevent atrial fibrillation. A single measurement of low serum TSH in individuals aged 60 years or older has been reported to be associated with increased mortality from all causes and in particular from circulatory and cardiovascular disease in a 10-year follow-up study. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is currently the subject of numerous studies and remains controversial, particularly as it relates to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and clinical applications.

  19. [Cardiovascular risk factors in users with severe mental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paños-Martínez, Montserrat; Patró-Moncunill, Ester; Santiago-Barragán, Ángel-María; Marti-Mestre, Marc; Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Escayola-Maranges, Anna; Granero-Lázaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk (RCV) in users with a Severe Mental Disorder (SMD) attended in mental health service in ParcTaulí (Sabadell - Barcelona). This is an observational, descriptive and transversal study of the factors of cardiovascular risk in 789 users with SMD. The instrument used was the scale of assessment of the Registre Gironí del Cor, which estimates the risk of cardiovascular disease. 26.6% of the sample has RCV (22.5% moderate, 3.8% high and 0.3% very high). The analysis of the modifiable risk factors shows that 16.5% of the patients are hypertensive, 55.2% are smokers, 19.77% have hyperglycaemia (8.2% of whom are diagnosed of diabetes mellitus), 40.2% have obesity, 36.2% overweight and 47.27% hypercholesterolemia. The study confirms that the prevalence of the RVC in SMD users is greater than the RCV in general population and it's associated to the presence of modifiable risk factors. Health education carried out by nurses is the best to prevent the RCV in SMD users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross......-sectional study were obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen, Denmark. Two hundred ten 9-year-old children were selected for cytokine analysis from 434 third-grade children with complete CVD risk profiles. The subgroup was selected according to the CVD risk factor profile (upper and lower quartile of a composite...... CVD risk score). All the CVD risk factors and CRP differed between the high- and low-risk groups; but plasma glucose, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 had small and inconsistent differences. Strong associations were found between CVD risk scores and fitness (VO(2peak)) or fatness. No associations were found...

  1. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of public and private schools. Salta City, Argentina, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Susana Judith; Jubany, Lilian Laura

    2010-10-01

    South America is now at a stage of epidemiological transition, changing the condition of high prevalence of underweight and stunting, to a scene marked by increases in obesity that accompanies chronic diseases, such us cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Surveillance of risk factors associated with them is considered a priority. To establish the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents in public and private schools in the city of Salta, and observe the socioeconomic characteristics and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in parents. Cross-sectional design, adolescents aged 16 to 20 years of public and private schools. Anthropometric, biochemical, food, social, lifestyle and family history variables. Adolescents of private schools had higher average values of cholesterol, LDL and glucose. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in public schools was 15% and 14.2% in private, and of hypertension 11.3% and 12.2%, respectively. It was noted higher consumption of sweets, sodas and juices; 35.1% and 42.5% of adolescents in public and private schools, did not perform physical activity, 14.2% and 27.1% smoked and 66.2% and 54.7%, respectively, consumed alcohol at weekend. The prevalence of obesity in mothers of public school students was significantly higher. There is evidence of the emergence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents with different characteristics as belonging to public or private schools, but both groups involved in an unhealthy family environment.

  2. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-08

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk.

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors in high-need psoriasis patients and its implications for biological therapies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, R.J.B.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors are reported to be stronger as psoriasis severity increases. This makes studying cardiovascular risk factors in high-need psoriasis patients, eligible for biological therapy, interesting. OBJECTIVE: To survey the

  4. Cardiovascular risks and benefits of moderate and heavy alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Solà, Joaquim

    2015-10-01

    The heart and vascular system are susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. Alcohol is an active toxin that undergoes widespread diffusion throughout the body, causing multiple synchronous and synergistic effects. Alcohol consumption decreases myocardial contractility and induces arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy, resulting in progressive cardiovascular dysfunction and structural damage. Alcohol, whether at binge doses or a high cumulative lifetime consumption-both of which should be discouraged-is clearly deleterious for the cardiovascular system, increasing the incidence of total and cardiovascular mortality, coronary and peripheral artery disease, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus. However, epidemiological, case-control studies and meta-analyses have shown a U-type bimodal relationship so that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption (particularly of wine or beer) is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular events and mortality, compared with abstention. Potential confounding influences-alcohol-dose quantification, tobacco use, diet, exercise, lifestyle, cancer risk, accidents, and dependence-can affect the results of studies of both low-dose and high-dose alcohol consumption. Mendelian methodological approaches have led to doubts regarding the beneficial cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and the overall balance of beneficial and detrimental effects should be considered when making individual and population-wide recommendations, as reductions in alcohol consumption should provide overall health benefits.

  5. Shift work and cardiovascular risk factors: new knowledge from the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquirol, Yolande; Perret, Bertrand; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Marquie, Jean Claude; Dienne, Eloi; Niezborala, Michel; Ferrieres, Jean

    2011-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain a major public health problem. The involvement of several occupational factors has recently been discussed, notably the organization of work schedules, e.g. shift work. To analyse the progress of knowledge on the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and shift work. A review of English-language literature dealing with the link between cardiovascular factors and shift workers (published during 2000-2010) was conducted. Studies published in the past 10 years tend to document an impact of shift work on blood pressure, lipid profile (triglyceride levels), metabolic syndrome and, possibly, body mass index. However, the consequences on glucose metabolism are unclear. These results are not yet firmly established, but are supported by strong hypotheses. Some advice could reasonably be proposed to guide the clinical practitioner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. GPs' Perceptions of Cardiovascular Risk and Views on Patient Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Paulsen, Maja Skov

    2015-01-01

    Objective. General practitioners' (GPs') perception of risk is a cornerstone of preventive care. The aims of this interview study were to explore GPs' professional and personal attitudes and experiences regarding treatment with lipid-lowering drugs and their views on patient compliance. Methods...... patient compliance, and (3) GPs' own risk management. There were substantial differences in the attitudes concerning all three themes. Conclusions. The substantial differences in the GPs' personal and professional risk perceptions may be a key to understanding why GPs do not always follow cardiovascular...

  7. Aerobic fitness related to cardiovascular risk factors in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Low aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK))) is predictive for poor health in adults. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed if VO(2PEAK) is related to a composite risk factor score for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 243 children (136 boys and 107 girls) aged 8 to 11 years. VO(2PEAK...... as composite risk factor score for CVD. Pearson correlation revealed significant associations between VO(2PEAK) and composite risk factor score in both boys (r = -0.48 P ...

  8. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; hide

    2015-01-01

    testing (quiet stance sway) as well as cardiovascular responses during sensorimotor testing on all of the above measures. We have also collected motion sickness data associated with each of the postflight tests. When possible rudimentary cerebellar assessment was undertaken. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, postflight data has been acquired twice more within 24 hours after landing and measurements continue until sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values (approximately 60 days postflight). SUMMARY The level of functional deficit observed in the crew tested to date is more severe than expected, clearly triggered by the acquisition of gravity loads immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention in response to emergency operations will be greatest. Measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiologic data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and the degree of variability among crewmembers for exploration missions where the crew will be unassisted after landing. Overall, these early functional and related physiologic measurements will allow the estimation of nonlinear sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery trends that have not been previously captured.

  9. Smoking interacts with sleep apnea to increase cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Lena; Lavie, Peretz

    2008-03-01

    Sleep apnea syndrome is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and so is cigarette smoking. In both atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated as underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. We investigated oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in 70 non-smoking and smoking patients with sleep apnea. Thirty-five sleep apnea patients aged 20-60 years who smoke 20 or more cigarettes/day and for at least 5 years were individually matched by gender, age (+/-5 years), body mass index (BMI; categorized as, 'normal weight', 'overweight', and 'obese'), sleep apnea severity (categorized as 'mild', 'moderate', and 'severe'), and presence of cardiovascular diseases, with 35 patients who never smoked. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fasting for determination of lipids profile, oxidative stress markers thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, peroxides and paraoxonase-1 and inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Smokers showed significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin and triglycerides and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol than non-smokers. There was a significant interaction effect between smoking and apnea severity on ceruloplasmin and HDL levels. Smokers with severe sleep apnea had the highest level of ceruloplasmin and the lowest level of HDL. There is a synergistic effect between cigarette smoking and sleep apnea on some of the biochemical cardiovascular risk markers. Patients with severe sleep apnea who smoke are at a greater cardiovascular risk than smokers with mild-moderate sleep apnea and patients who do not smoke.

  10. Left ventricular hypertrophy as a predictor of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Philippe

    2005-04-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a potent, independent predictor of cardiovascular events, particularly in hypertension, in which it dramatically increases the risk of stroke, coronary heart disease and heart failure. LVH is predominantly a surrogate marker for the effects of other risk factors integrated over time, but it may also contribute directly to cardiovascular disease through pathological changes in cardiac structure. The influence of blood pressure is central to LVH pathology, with 24-h blood pressure being more predictive of LVH than single clinic measurements. Blood pressure variation throughout the day is also emerging as an important correlate of LVH, and a strong association has been found between the early morning blood pressure rise and increased left ventricular mass. Antihypertensive treatment can reverse LVH, and preliminary studies suggest that this improves cardiovascular outcome and long-term prognosis. Most classes of antihypertensive agent show some effect on LVH regression, with the notable exceptions of minoxidil and hydralazine. However, many of the data regarding LVH regression come from small, poor-quality trials or from meta-analyses of these studies. In the few well-conducted studies that are available, certain classes of antihypertensive drugs are more effective than others. Those that target angiotensin II, such as the angiotensin II receptor blockers, appear to have a specific action on LVH that is independent of blood pressure reduction. Further high-quality studies are needed to define how LVH predicts cardiovascular risk, which agents are most effective at eliciting LVH regression and how such reversal can affect cardiovascular outcome.

  11. Distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in Belgian army men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, Patrick; Clarys, Peter; Hulens, Mieke; Vansant, Greet

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Belgian army men. Biomedical data and cardiovascular risk factors were obtained by a mailed questionnaire and by data collected from a medical software program (Total Health). The number of responders to the mailing was 1852; 974 of the 1852 responders and 420 of the 3148 nonresponders were registered in Total Health. The prevalence of obesity was 5.6%, 15.0%, and 19.5%, respectively, for officers, noncommissioned officers, and soldiers. There was a strong socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of smoking: 12.7% of the officers were smokers, compared with 19.7% of the noncommissioned officers and 29.5% of the soldiers (p < .001). Only 8.5% of the officers had a 10-year risk of more than 5% of developing fatal cardiovascular disease, compared with 18% of the lower socioeconomic positions. In conclusion, high-risk groups in Belgian army men are younger than 40 years of age, and smokers. Active prevention should focus on this group with special attention to the specificity of each rank category.

  12. Association between sarcopenic obesity and cardiovascular risk: where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmao-Sena, Maria Helena; Curvello-Silva, Karine; Barreto-Medeiros, Jairza Maria; Da-Cunha-Daltro, Carla Hilário

    2016-09-20

    The main changes in the body composition refer to the increase of adipose tissue and/or the decrease of muscular mass, and these changes have effect in many clinical outcomes. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) consists of the presence of excessive adipose tissue and deficit of muscular mass simultaneously. People with SO may have synergistic effect due to obesity and sarcopenia, with increases cardiovascular risk more than obesity itself. To describe the findings in the literature about the association between SO and risk factors and/or cardiometabolic disease (CMD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD). An electronic search was done on the following databases: MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science, using the matching expressions and Boolean operators: "obesity sarcopenic" OR "sarcopenic obesity", in the titles of the studies, AND "cardiometabolic disease" OR "cardiovascular disease" OR "metabolic syndrome" OR "insulin resistance", in the abstract. Most of studies are cross-sectional and present many different diagnosis criteria for SO. It was possible to verify the association of the SO and the risk factors and/or CMD or CVD. SO is associated with risk factors and/or CMD or CVD. The lack of a consensus about this definition jeopardizes the effective clinical practice and the research about the subject.

  13. [Motivation to change unhealthy life styles and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Manchón, David; Alvarez-García, Gema María; González-López, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Study the relationship between motivation to change unhealthy life styles and cardiovascular risk. Cross sectional study, random, stratified by age, carried out in the field of primary care with a sample of 369 people. It was felt that with smoking or smoking cessation active consumption less than a year, the physical habit was valued at work and leisure, food habits were assessed in adherence to mediterranean diet and the stages of motivation were categorized precontemplative phase to maintenance phase. The cardiovascular risk was stratified with the SCORE table calibrated in Spain. The 49.6% were men and 50.4% were women, with an average age of 41.2 years. The prevalence of smoking was 31.4% (95% CI 26.56-36,30), 58% in sedentary lifestyle (95% CI 52.27-62,63) and 68% for bad diet (95% CI 63.97-73,69). The 69.8% of smokers, 77.8% of sedentary and 48.4% of people without proper diet was precontemplative to change their lifestyles. Precontemplative stages in unhealthy life styles have association with risk factors and increase the global cardiovascular risk. The transtheoretical model is a useful tool for the assessment of unhealthy behaviors in lifestyles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Teunissen, Pim W; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G; Mol, Ben W; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2016-01-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Gynaecologists have an important role in the counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia. We aimed to assess the role of gynaecologists in informing women on interventions and risk factor follow-up after early and late preeclampsia. In 2011 and 2014, all gynaecologists in the Netherlands were invited for a questionnaire. Results were analysed and compared over time. In 2011, the questionnaire was answered by 244 and in 2014 by 167 gynaecologists. After early preeclampsia, in 2011, 53% advised yearly blood pressure measurements; this increased to 65% in 2014. Over the years there was an increase in respondents advising an increased physical activity of 35% in 2011 to 56% in 2014. After late preeclampsia, in 2011, 36% advised yearly blood pressure measurements; this increased to 46% in 2014. There was an increase in gynaecologists advising increased activity (32% in 2011 to 56% in 2014). In both early and late preeclampsia, smoking cessation and weigh loss were advised often (70-80%); glucose and lipid screening were advised rarely (6-20%). Although there is still a considerable scope for improvement, an increasing number of gynaecologists advise women after preeclampsia on preventive interventions to decrease risks of cardiovascular disease.

  15. BELFAST centenarians: a case of optimised cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennati, E; Murphy, A; Cambien, F; Whitehead, A S; Archbold, G P R; Young, I S; Rea, I M

    2010-01-01

    Centenarians are reservoirs of genetic and environmental information to successful ageing and local centenarian groups may help us to understand some of these secrets. The current centenarian cohort in Belfast survived the 1970s epidemic of death from coronary heart disease in Northern Ireland, where cardiovascular mortality was almost highest in the world. These centenarians provided an opportunity to assess biological and genetic factors important in cardiovascular risk and ageing. Thirty-five (27 female, 8 male) centenarians, participants of the Belfast Elderly Longitudinal Free-living Ageing STudy (BELFAST), were community-living and of good cognition at enrollment. Centenarians showed median Body Mass Index (BMI) at 25.7, systolic blood pressure 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 90 mmHg respectively, and fasting glucose of 5.54 mmol/l with no sex-related difference. Lipoproteins showed median cholesterol 5.3, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) 1.10 and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 3.47 micromol/l respectively. Centenarian smokers showed no different blood pressure or lipid measurements compared with non-smokers. Malondialdehyde, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was low at 1.19, and measures of antioxidant status showed variable results. Male centenarians did not carry any of the vascular risk genotypes studied-Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) and Methylenetetrafolatedehydrogenase reductase (MTFHR), though this was not true for female centenarians. This small local study shows, apart from age, that Belfast centenarians carry a reasonably optimized risk profile with respect to cardiovascular disease. There is also some evidence suggesting that vascular risk factors and genotypes may be tolerated differently between the male and female centenarians. Maintaining an optimized cardiovascular risk profile seems likely to improve the chance of becoming a centenarian, especially for males.

  16. Examination of cardiovascular risk factors and rurality in Appalachian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Christa L; Umer, Amna; Cottrell, Lesley; Pyles, Lee; Neal, William

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors often increases in more rural geographic regions in the USA. However, research on the topic often has conflicting results. Researchers note differences in definitions of rurality and other factors that would lead to differences in inference, including appropriate use of statistical clustering analysis, representative data, and inclusion of individual-level covariates. The present study's objective was to examine CVD risk factors during childhood by geographic distribution in the US Appalachian region as a first step towards understanding the health disparities in this area. Rurality and CVD risk factors (including blood pressure, body-mass index (BMI), and cholesterol) were examined in a large, representative sample of fifth-grade students (N=73 014) from an Appalachian state in the USA. A six-category Rural-Urban Continuum Codes classification system was used to define rurality regions. Mixed modeling analysis was used to appropriately cluster individuals within 725 unique zip codes in each of these six regions, and allowed for including several individual-level socioeconomic factors as covariates. Rural areas had better outcomes for certain CVD risk factors (lowest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood pressure (BP) and highest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) whereas mid-sized metro and town areas presented with the worst CVD risk factors (highest BMI% above ideal, mean diastolic BP, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and lowest HDL-C) outcomes in children and adolescence in this Appalachian state. Counter to the study hypothesis, mid-sized metro areas presented with the worst CVD risk factors outcomes in children and adolescence in the Appalachian state. This data contradicts previous literature suggesting a straightforward link between rurality and cardiovascular risk factors. Future research should include a longitudinal design and explore some of

  17. DETERMINING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Reed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor. We aimed to 1 determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2 create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI. Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC, high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2. The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2 compared with girls (8 (2.1, p < 0.01. A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor

  18. [Diagnosis and risk assessment of perioperative cardiovascular complications in geriatric patients in oncological surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoronenko, V E; Osipova, N A; Lagutin, M B; Shemetova, M M

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular events (CVE) developing at the stages of surgical treatment in 449 geriatric (aged 72 +/- 5.8 years) cancer patients with concomitant cardiovascular diseases (CVD) were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Statistical analysis was used to compare and establish a discrepancy between the results of a predictable risk by the standard scale of the international perioperative CV risk index (ICVRI) and the actually developed complications. The logistic regression method was employed to analyze the risk factors included into the ICVRI scale. The risk factors that were best in predicting the development of CVE were determined. A mathematical formula was derived to estimate the adjusted prognosis of an individual cardiovascular risk. Based on their perioperative CV risk classification, the authors constructed an algorithm of a diagnostic search and surgical preparation tactics in seriously ill cancer patients with concomitant CVD. The algorithm has been put into the routine practice of the P. A. Herzen Moscow Research Institute of Oncology, which makes it possible to improve the results of surgical treatment in geriatric patients and to expand its indications. Examples of clinically applying the algorithm are given.

  19. Impact of One Year of Shift Work on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelsvoort, van L.G.P.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the reported increased cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers could be explained by changes in cardiovascular risk factors. In a cohort of 239 shift and 157 daytime workers, 1-year changes in biological and lifestyle cardiovascular risk

  20. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, J Halskou; Ahlehoff, O; Dreyer, L

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor. Less is known about cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we investigated the risk of mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients diagnosed...

  1. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J F; Penninx, Brenda J W H

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders, clinical characteristics and newly-developed CVD. DSM-IV diagnoses were established in 2510 CVD-free participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Data on subtype, severity, and psychoactive medication were collected. The 6-year incidence of CVD was assessed using Cox regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors. One-hundred-six subjects (4.2%) developed CVD. Having both current depressive and anxiety disorders (HR=2.86, 95%CI 1.49-5.49) or current depression only (HR=2.30; 95%CI 1.10-4.80) was significantly associated with increased CVD incidence, whereas current anxiety only (HR=1.48; 95%CI 0.74-2.96) and remitted disorders (HR=1.48; 95%CI 0.80-2.75) were not associated. Symptom severity was associated with increased CVD onset (e.g., Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology per SD increase: HR=1.51; 95%CI 1.25-1.83). Benzodiazepine use was associated with additional CVD risk (HR=1.95; 95%CI 1.16-3.31). Current depressive (but not anxiety) disorder independently contributed to CVD in our sample of initially CVD-free participants. CVD incidence over 6years of follow-up was particularly increased in subjects with more symptoms, and in those using benzodiazepines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Establishing a family risk assessment clinic for breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting European women and the leading cause of cancer-related death. A total of 15-20% of women who develop breast cancer have a family history and 5-10% a true genetic predisposition. The identification and screening of women at increased risk may allow early detection of breast cancer and improve prognosis. We established a family risk assessment clinic in May 2005 to assess and counsel women with a family history of breast cancer, to initiate surveillance, and to offer risk-reducing strategies for selected high-risk patients. Patients at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer according to NICE guidelines were accepted. Family history was determined by structured questionnaire and interview. Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was calculated using Claus and Tyrer-Cuzick scoring. Risk of carrying a breast cancer-related gene mutation was calculated using the Manchester system. One thousand two hundred and forty-three patients have been referred. Ninety-two percent were at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer. Formal assessment of risk has been performed in 368 patients, 73% have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and 72% a Manchester score >or=16. BRCA1\\/2 mutations have been identified in 14 patients and breast cancer diagnosed in two. Our initial experience of family risk assessment has shown there to be a significant demand for this service. Identification of patients at increased risk of developing breast cancer allows us to provide individuals with accurate risk profiles, and enables patients to make informed choices regarding their follow-up and management.

  3. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality: The role of shared family factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøllesdal, M K R; Ariansen, I; Mortensen, L H; Davey Smith, G; Næss, Ø

    2016-12-01

    To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study, the National Educational Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The study population consisted of participants with at least one full sibling among the health survey participants ( n=271,310). Data were available on CVD risk factors, including weight, height, blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking. The hazards ratio (HR) of CVD mortality was 3.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.96) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The HRs were little altered in the within-sibship analyses. Adjusted for risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality in the cohort analyses was 2.05 (CI 1.77-2.37) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The respective HR in the within-sibship analyses was 2.46 (CI 1.48-2.24). Using a sibling design, we did not find that the association between education and CVD mortality was confounded by early life factors shared by siblings, but it was explained to a large extent by CVD risk factors. These results suggest that reducing levels of CVD risk factors could have the greatest effect on mortality in less well-educated people.

  4. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: from pathophysiology to risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinou, Kyriakoula; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Antonopoulos, Alexios S; Stefanadi, Elli; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-01-07

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. As obesity is considered to be a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to obesity and linking obesity with atherogenesis is necessary, for the development of therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis. The pathophysiology of CVD linked to obesity is an area of intensive research. In this review we examine the role of obesity on CVD, and we focus on specific mechanisms of major importance in atherogenesis, such as the role of adipokines, insulin resistance, endothelial function and cardiac structure with emphasis on the effects of obesity on vascular endothelium and atherosclerosis. We then proceed from the pathophysiology of obesity to clinical practice, and we discuss clinical studies linking obesity with subclinical or overt CVD. We highlight that obesity is an easily assessed cardiovascular risk factor in the clinical setting and strategies to promote optimal body weight should be encouraged.

  5. Is cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS a real risk? Current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios; Kandaraki, Eleni; Papalou, Olga; Vryonidou, Andromachi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2017-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. PCOS incorporates not only symptoms related to the reproductive system but also a clustering of systemic metabolic abnormalities that are linked with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). More specifically, metabolic aberrations such as impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, accompanied by increased low-grade inflammation as well as elevated coagulation factors appear to contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. Even though many studies have indicated a rise in surrogate biomarkers of CVD in women with PCOS, it is still doubtful to what extent and magnitude this elevation can be translated to real cardiovascular events. Furthermore, the cardiovascular risk factors appear to vary significantly in the different phenotypes of the syndrome. Women with PCOS have the potential for early atherosclerosis, myocardial and endothelial dysfunction. Whether PCOS women are at real cardiovascular risk compared to controls remains between the verge of theoretical and real threat for the PCOS women at any age but particularly in the post-menopausal state. Interestingly, although the presence of the CVD risk factors is well documented in PCOS women, their combination on different phenotypes may play a role, which eventually results in a spectrum of clinical manifestations of CVD with variable degree of severity. The present manuscript aims to review the interaction between PCOS and the combination of several cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. Framingham cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rico Pires

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated to a risk factor for the development of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship still needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk in obese patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 obese patients were evaluated for anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, body fat, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glycemia and periodontal parameters (visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, bleeding on probing (BOP, periodontal probing depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to the periodontal characteristics found: Group O-PD: Obese patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 45, 22 men and 23 women; and Group O-sPD: Obese patients without chronic periodontitis (n = 42, 17 men and 25 women. Patients had a BMI mean of 35.2 (±5.1 kg/m 2 . Group O-PD showed a similarity between the genders regarding age, SBP, DBP, cholesterol, HDL, GBI, VPI, PPD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥4 mm. O-PD women showed greater glycemia level and smoking occurrence, but O-PD men presented a 13% - risk over of developing coronary artery disease in 10 years than O-PD women, 9% - risk over than O-sPD men and 15% - risk over than O-sPD women, by the Framingham Score. Conclusions: It was concluded that obesity and periodontal disease are cardiovascular risk factors and that the two associated inflammatory conditions potentially increases the risk for heart diseases.

  7. Contribution of Established Stroke Risk Factors to the Burden of Stroke in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Annette; Grittner, Ulrike; Rolfs, Arndt; Norrving, Bo; Siegerink, Bob; Busch, Markus A

    2017-07-01

    As stroke in young adults is assumed to have different etiologies and risk factors than in older populations, the aim of this study was to examine the contribution of established potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors to the burden of stroke in young adults. A German nationwide case-control study based on patients enrolled in the SIFAP1 study (Stroke In Young Fabry Patients) 2007 to 2010 and controls from the population-based GEDA study (German Health Update) 2009 to 2010 was performed. Cases were 2125 consecutive patients aged 18 to 55 years with acute first-ever stroke from 26 clinical stroke centers; controls (age- and sex-matched, n=8500, without previous stroke) were from a nationwide community sample. Adjusted population-attributable risks of 8 risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, smoking, heavy episodic alcohol consumption, low physical activity, and obesity) and their combinations for all stroke, ischemic stroke, and primary intracerebral hemorrhage were calculated. Low physical activity and hypertension were the most important risk factors, accounting for 59.7% (95% confidence interval, 56.3-63.2) and 27.1% (95% confidence interval, 23.6-30.6) of all strokes, respectively. All 8 risk factors combined explained 78.9% (95% confidence interval, 76.3-81.4) of all strokes. Population-attributable risks of all risk factors were similar for all ischemic stroke subtypes. Population-attributable risks of most risk factors were higher in older age groups and in men. Modifiable risk factors previously established in older populations also account for a large part of stroke in younger adults, with 4 risk factors explaining almost 80% of stroke risk. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F.; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C.

    2016-01-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generall...

  9. Saturated fats and cardiovascular disease risk: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ishi Khosla; Gayatri C Khosla1

    2017-01-01

    Saturated fats have been in the line of fire for more than three decades. The major mistake in understanding fats was to equate all saturated fatty acids as one. The oversimplification of the relationship of saturated fats with cardiovascular disease (CVD) led to unwarranted removal of some valuable fats from our diets. Recently, the relationship of dietary saturated fats and that of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to CVD risk has been reevaluated. All saturated fats are not equal and...

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH is a commonly encountered entity in day-to-day clinical practice and has been associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profile in adults and children. Data on children and adolescents with SCH, from India, are limited. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional case–control study, conducted at a tertiary care center in Northeast India. Twenty-seven children and adolescents aged 11 ± 2.4 years with SCH and thyroid-stimulating hormone >7.5 mIU/L were included in the study along with 20 age-, gender-, and height-matched controls. Multiple clinical, biochemical, and radiological cardiovascular risk factors were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results: Body mass index (BMI (P = 0.048, waist circumference (P = 0.008, waist to height ratio (P = 0.007, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.04, triglycerides (TGs (P = 0.038, TGs to high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol ratio (P = 0.005, non-HDL cholesterol (P = 0.019, fasting insulin (P = 0.006, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.007 were found to be significantly higher while free T4 (P = 0.002 and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.019 were found to be significantly lower in SCH subjects compared to controls. On multiple regression analysis, BMI was found to have significant association with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with SCH were found to have adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Long-term follow-up studies are required to assess the clinical significance of these findings and requirement for therapy.

  11. Arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk: Pathophysiologic mechanisms and emerging clinical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Carlo; Kozakova, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    Arterial stiffness results from a degenerative process affecting mainly the extracellular matrix of elastic arteries under the effect of aging and risk factors. Changes in extracellular matrix proteins and in the mechanical properties of the vessel wall related to arterial stiffening may activate number of mechanisms involved also in the process of atherosclerosis. Several noninvasive methods are now available to estimate large artery stiffness in the clinical setting, including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, the reference for aortic stiffness estimate, and local distensibility measures of superficial arteries, namely carotid and femoral. An independent predictive value of arterial stiffness for cardiovascular events has been demonstrated in general as well as in selected populations, and reference values adjusted for age and blood pressure have been established. Thus, arterial stiffness is emerging as an interesting tissue biomarker for cardiovascular risk stratification and estimation of the individual "biological age". This paper overviews the mechanisms accounting for development and progression of arterial stiffness and for associations between arterial stiffness, atherosclerotic burden and incident cardiovascular events, summarizes the evidence and caveat for clinical use of stiffness as surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk, and briefly outlines some emerging methods for large artery stiffness characterization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W Philip T; Caterson, Ian D; Coutinho, Walmir

    2010-01-01

    The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established.......The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established....

  13. Cardiovascular risk reduction and weight management at a hospital-based postpartum preeclampsia clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmohamed, Rahim; Montgomery-Fajic, Erin; Sia, Winnie; Germaine, Debbie; Wilkie, Jodi; Khurana, Rshmi; Nerenberg, Kara A

    2015-04-01

    Women who develop preeclampsia during pregnancy are at high risk of developing future chronic diseases, including premature cardiovascular disease. We have established an interdisciplinary clinic that aims to prevent cardiovascular disease through educational counselling focused on lifestyle modifications in the early postpartum period. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in weight and cardiovascular risk factors in participating women after six months of attendance at the clinic. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women who had a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia, and who subsequently attended the Postpartum Preeclampsia Clinic. Study subjects had baseline assessments of lifestyle, physical, and laboratory parameters. Individualized goals for cardiovascular risk reduction and lifestyle were established, centering on physical activity and dietary modifications. The primary outcome was change in weight. Over the study period, 21 women were seen for a minimum of six months of follow-up. At an average (± SD) of 4.4 ± 1.4 months postpartum, subjects showed a non-significant improvement in weight (mean weight loss of 0.4 ± 4.5 kg) and BMI (mean decrease in BMI 0.1 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Physical activity improved significantly, from 14% of subjects participating in physical activity before pregnancy to 76% at a mean of 4.4 months postpartum. This study has demonstrated the early benefits of a longitudinal interdisciplinary intervention with counselling about lifestyle modifications for prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with recent preeclampsia. A study with a larger sample size and longer duration of follow-up is planned to confirm these findings.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors, nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Gracia, M; Córdoba Alonso, A; Hernández Hernández, J L; Pérez Montes, R; Napal Lecumberri, J J

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the importance of cardiovascular risk factors, ultrasound findings in the supra-aortic trunk and the presence of anticoagulated nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and in a control group. A cross-sectional study was conducted of all patients with RVO consecutively referred to the office of internal medicine, comparing them with a control group. We analysed clinical, electrocardiographic and ultrasound variables. We studied 212 patients (114 men and 98 women) with RVO and 212 controls (95 men and 117 women) of similar ages. Arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus were significantly more prevalent in the patients with RVO than in the controls (73.6 vs. 50%, 64.6 vs. 48.6% and 27.8 vs. 12.3%, respectively). We observed arteriosclerotic lesions in the supra-aortic trunk in 55% of the patients with RVO. The patients with RVO and NVAF had a greater burden of cardiovascular risk factors than the controls with NVAF. There were no differences in terms of the international normalised ratio or in the use of direct anticoagulants between the cases and controls with NVAF. Cardiovascular risk factors (especially arterial hypertension) and arteriosclerotic involvement of the supra-aortic trunk are highly prevalent in RVO. Anticoagulation does not appear to be effective in preventing RVO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  16. [Cerebrovascular accidents in Osona borough. Cardiovascular risks factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclemente Ansó, C; Alonso Valdés, F; Rovira Pujol, E; Vigil Sanmartín, D

    2004-04-01

    Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the second cause of hospitalization in the order of frequency in our service, thus reflecting this pathologýs high incidence in our borough. This study analyzes clinical and biological characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and actions taken in hospital discharge in the internal medicine department of a borough hospital (the reference hospital in Osona borough), as well as other characteristics of the hospitalized CVD patients from January 2001 to December 2001. This study was performed by revising each patient's hospital discharge report. 277 patients were hospitalized for CVD. Biological and demographic characteristics, as well as cardiovascular risk factors analyzed (arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking, or dyslipidemy) were similar to other series. Incidence of hemorrhagic and cardio-embolic CVD was slightly lower, taken into account that hemorrhagic episodes that needed neurosurgical intervention were transferred to a higher-level center with a department of neurosurgery. Age was neither a factor for bad prediction leading to bad sequels after the episode nor a cause of an increased mortality. This data differs from others series. Actions taken on discharge, on cardiovascular risk factors and on hygienic-dietetic recommendations were deficient. Average stay was higher when compared to average stay in specialized ictus units.

  17. Severity of menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular and osteoporosis risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, J A; Palacios, S; Chavida, F; Pérez, M

    2013-04-01

    To assess whether the severity of menopausal symptoms is related to increased cardiovascular and osteoporosis risk factors, and to determine whether women with more severe menopausal symptoms present a greater percentage of osteoporosis disease. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study encompassing women aged 45-65 years in the whole Spanish territory. The study population sample was collected through random sampling. A total of 10 514 women were included. Their sociodemographic, medical history and lifestyle data were assessed by means of a survey. The Kupperman Index was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. Bone mineral density was measured by the dual X-ray absorptiometry method. The prevalences of risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease were 67.6% and 74.8%, respectively. Women with a higher intensity of symptoms also had a greater percentage of cardiovascular (p osteoporosis (p osteoporosis disease (p obesity (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.55-2.91; p osteoporosis disease (OR 3.71; 95% CI 2.9-4.52; p osteoporosis disease risk factors and suffered more from osteoporosis disease compared to those who had milder or no menopausal symptoms.

  18. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in shift healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copertaro, Alfredo; Bracci, Massimo; Barbaresi, Mariella; Santarelli, Lory

    2008-04-01

    Shift work has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); in particular, night work affects the circadian rhythm. The study examines the effectiveness of three screening methods and plasma hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent risk factor, in assessing the risk of CVD in 147 healthcare providers doing daytime or rotational shift work. The methods applied were: (i) the method proposed by the European Cardiovascular Indicators Surveillance Set (EUROCISS); (ii) the metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (ATPIII) and (iii) the MS criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). EUROCISS was unable to distinguish between the CVD risk of daytime and rotational shift workers. Both the ATPIII and the IDF detected MS, which is strongly associated with CVD, but only the IDF evidenced a significantly greater prevalence of MS (Pshift workers. Hyperhomocysteinemia was unable to discriminate the CVD risk between daytime and shift workers, as it was influenced by multiple confounding factors. The increased risk of CVD associated with shift work is related to the greater incidence of MS among these workers. In our study a high prevalence of MS was detected only with the IDF. The method is useful for CVD prevention and the promotion of health during any medical examination of shift workers.

  19. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk in Canadian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD and its risk factors show clear socioeconomic gradients in Canadian adults. Whether socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk emerge in childhood remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are socioeconomic gradients in physiological markers of CVD risk in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Using combined cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007–2011, we examined the following cardiovascular risk markers: overweight (including obesity, aerobic fitness score (AFS, blood pressure (BP, blood lipids (total as well as HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose metabolism and C-reactive protein (CRP by sex in 2149 children (ages 6–11 years and 2073 adolescents (ages 12–17 years. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify patterns in cardiovascular risk across strata of household income adequacy and parental educational attainment, adjusting for age and ethnicity, and stratified by age group and sex. Results: Young boys showed markedly higher prevalence of obesity than young girls (prevalence of 18.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.6–21.5 vs. 7.7%, 95% CI: 5.2–10.3. However, negative SES gradients in adiposity risk were seen in young and adolescent girls rather than boys. Young and adolescent boys were more physically fit than girls (mean AFS of 541, 95% CI: 534–546 vs. 501, 95% CI: 498–505 in children; 522, 95% CI: 514–529 vs. 460, 95% CI: 454–466 in adolescents; p < .001. Although a positive income gradient in AFS was observed in both boys and girls, statistical significance was reached only in girls (p = .006. A negative gradient of parental education in BP was observed in young children. While we observed substantial sex differences in systolic BP, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and CRP in adolescents, sex-specific socioeconomic gradients were only observed for

  20. Community-level cardiovascular risk factors impact geographic variation in cardiovascular disease hospitalizations for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fátima; Wang, Yun; Naderi, Sahar; Johnson, Caitlin E; Foody, JoAnne M

    2013-06-01

    Prior work has shown significant geographic variation in cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. However, little is known about how variations in CV risk impact cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related hospitalizations. Community-level CV risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and elevated waist circumference) were assessed from community-wide health screenings sponsored by Sister to Sister (STS) from 2008 to 2009 in 17 major US cities. Using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS), CVD hospitalizations were identified based on ICD-9 codes for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and stroke. We linked STS data with HCUP-NIS hospitalizations based on common cities and restricted the analysis to women discharged from hospitals inside the STS cities. Using hierarchical models with city as the random intercept, we assessed the impact of city-specific CV risk factors on between-city variance of AMI, CHF, and stroke. Analyses were also adjusted for patient age and clinical comorbidities. Our analysis yielded a total of 742,445 all-cause discharges across 70 hospitals inside of 13 linked cities. The overall city-specific range proportion of AMI, CHF, and stroke hospitalizations were 1.13 % (0.75-1.59 %), 2.57 % (1.44-3.92 %), and 1.24 % (0.66-1.84 %), respectively. After adjusting for city-specific CV risk factors, between-city variation was no longer statistically significant for all CVD conditions explored. In conclusion, we found that geographic variations in AMI, CHF, and stroke hospitalizations for women may be partially explained by community-level CV risk factors. This finding suggests that interventions to reduce CVD should be tailored to the unique risk profile and needs of high-risk communities.

  1. Fasting glucose and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Sarna, M; Thanvi, Jyoti; Sharma, Vibha; Gupta, V P

    2007-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that blood glucose levels in the range of normoglycemia are associated with increased cardiovascular risk we performed an epidemiological study in an urban population. Randomly selected adults > or = 20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target sample was 1800 (men 960, women 840) of which 1123 subjects participated. Blood samples were available in 1091 subjects (60.6%, men 532, women 559). Measurement of anthropometric variables, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was performed. Cardiovascular risk factors were determined using US Adult Treatment Panel-3 guidelines. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of fasting glucose with various risk factors were determined. Fasting glucose levels were classified into various groups as 126 mg/dl or known diabetes. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was determined in each group. There was a significant positive correlation of fasting glucose in men and women with body mass index (r = 0.20, 0.12), waist-hip ratio (0.17, 0.09), systolic blood pressure (0.07, 0.22), total cholesterol (0.21, 0.15) and triglycerides (0.21, 0.25). Prevalence (%) of cardiovascular risk factors in men and women was smoking/tobacco use in 37.6 and 11.6, hypertension in 37.0 and 37.6, overweight and obesity in 37.8 and 50.3, truncal obesity in 57.3 and 68.0, high cholesterol > or = 200 mg/dl in 37.4 and 45.8, high triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl in 32.3 and 28.6 and metabolic syndrome in 22.9 and 31.6 percent. In various groups of fasting glucose there was an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, and metabolic syndrome (Mantel-Haenzel X2 for trend, p fasting glucose fasting glucose levels with many cardiovascular risk factors and level < 75 mg/dl is associated with the lowest prevalence.

  2. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Future Cardiovascular Event Risk in Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stephen T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Hanis, Craig L.; Milic, Natasa M.; Garovic, Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This may reflect an underlying familial predisposition or persistent damage caused by the hypertensive pregnancy. We sought to isolate the effect of hypertension in pregnancy by comparing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in women who had hypertension in pregnancy and their sisters who did not using the dataset from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study, which examined the genetics of hypertension in white, black, and Hispanic siblings. This analysis included all sibships with at least one parous woman and at least one other sibling. After gathering demographic and pregnancy data, BP and serum analytes were measured. Disease-free survival was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with their sisters who did not have hypertension in pregnancy, women who had hypertension in pregnancy were more likely to develop new onset hypertension later in life, after adjusting for body mass index and diabetes (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.27–2.42). A sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy was also associated with an increased risk of hypertension in brothers and unaffected sisters, whereas an increased risk of cardiovascular events was observed in brothers only. These results suggest familial factors contribute to the increased risk of future hypertension in women who had hypertension in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of nonfamilial factors. Furthermore, a sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy may be a novel familial risk factor for future hypertension. PMID:26315531

  3. Dietary fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular diseases risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-06-13

    Diet is likely to be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this article, we will review the evidence linking the consumption of fruit and vegetables and CVD risk. The initial evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption has a protective effect against CVD came from observational studies. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on the occurrence of CVD and whether the optimal intake is five portions or greater. Results from randomized controlled trials do not show conclusively that fruit and vegetable intake protects against CVD, in part because the dietary interventions have been of limited intensity to enable optimal analysis of their putative effects. The protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables may not only include some of the known bioactive nutrient effects dependent on their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and electrolyte properties, but also include their functional properties, such as low glycemic load and energy density. Taken together, the totality of the evidence accumulated so far does appear to support the notion that increased intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce cardiovascular risk. It is clear that fruit and vegetables should be eaten as part of a balanced diet, as a source of vitamins, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. The evidence now suggests that a complicated set of several nutrients may interact with genetic factors to influence CVD risk. Therefore, it may be more important to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns rather than individual nutrients to successfully impact on CVD risk reduction. A clearer understanding of the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk would provide health professionals with significant information in terms of public health and clinical practice.

  4. [Influence of the arterio-venous fistula on cardiovascular system in patients with particular cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Magdalena; Weyde, Wacław; Kosmala, Wojciech; Klinger, Marian

    2006-08-01

    In the population of hemodialysis patients the risk of ischemic heart disease and morbidity related to it, is considerably higher than in general population. In the group of elderly hemodialysed patients and in patients with diabetes this risk is even higher Additional risk factors of cardiovascular disease are those specific for renal insufficiency, including the presence of arterio-venous fistula, which is believed to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease through the promotion of hyperkinetic circulation. In the study the impact of the arterio-venous fistula on heart function in Doppler USG in the group of 16 elderly hemodialysis patients (aged 79, 4 +/- 5,4), 10 diabetics with type 2 diabetes (aged 63,2 +/- 10,4) and 7 hemodialysis patients younger and without diabetes was examined. In all patients arterio-venous fistula was created on the forearm from native vessels. The following hemodynamic USG parameters of heart function were assessed: ejection fraction (EF), shortening fraction (FS), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). We conclude that impact of native arterio-venous fistula created on forearm on circulation in the group of elderly and diabetic patients is of the same magnitude as in the group of younger, non diabetic patients.

  5. [Civilization stress, cardiovascular risk, evidence-based medicine, guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kornél

    2009-05-10

    Cardiovascular diseases have the pole-position on the list of morbidity and mortality statistics. Despite the great advances have been made in management of cardiovascular diseases, prevalence of these disorders increases worldwide, and even younger and younger ages are threatened. This phenomenon is strongly related to obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemic, which shows an unequivocal association with expansion of modernized life-style. The pathomechanism proposed to have central role is the chronic stress induced by civilized life-conduct. The authors criticizes the everyday practice suggested for management of cardiovascular diseases, focusing on normalization of cardiovascular risk factors, instead of fighting against the primary cause ie. chronic stress. There is growing evidence, that achieving the target values defined in guide-lines will not necessarily result in improvement of patient related clinical outcomes. The statistical approach generally practiced in randomized clinical trials is primarily striving for the drug-sale, instead of discovering novel pathophysiological relations. Pharmaceutical industry having decisive role in research and patient-care is mainly interested in profit-sharing, therefore patients' interest can not be optimally realized, and costs are unnecessarily augmented. Separation of patient-, and business-oriented medical care is an ethical question of fundamental importance.

  6. Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvado; Ramon Estruch; Miguel Angel Martinez-Gonzalez; Dolores Corella; Valentina Ruiz-Gutierrez; Maria Isabel Covas; Miguel Fiol; Enrique Gomez-Gracia; Mari Carmen Lopez-Sabater; Ernest Vinyoles; Fernando Aros; Manuel Conde; Carlos Lahoz; Jose Lapetra; Guillermo Saez; Emilio Ros; PREDIMED Study Investigators

    2006-01-01

    Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on Cardiovascular Risk Factors Background: The Mediterranean diet has been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: To compare the short-term effects of 2 Mediterranean diets versus those of a low-fat diet on intermediate markers of cardiovascular risk. Design: Substudy of a multicenter, randomized, primary prevention trial of cardiovascular disease (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea [PREDIMED] Study). Settin...

  7. Cumulative effect of psychosocial factors in youth on ideal cardiovascular health in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Kubzansky, Laura D; Hintsa, Taina; Serlachius, Anna; Laitinen, Tomi T; Laitinen, Tomi; Pahkala, Katja; Mikkilä, Vera; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2015-01-20

    The American Heart Association has defined a new metric of ideal cardiovascular health as part of its 2020 Impact Goals. We examined whether psychosocial factors in youth predict ideal cardiovascular health in adulthood. Participants were 477 men and 612 women from the nationwide Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Psychosocial factors were measured from cohorts 3 to 18 years of age at the baseline of the study, and ideal cardiovascular health was examined 27 years later in adulthood. The summary measure of psychosocial factors in youth comprised socioeconomic factors, emotional factors, parental health behaviors, stressful events, self-regulation of the child, and social adjustment of the child. There was a positive association between a higher number of favorable psychosocial factors in youth and greater ideal cardiovascular health index in adulthood (β=0.16; Pcardiovascular risk factors in childhood (β=0.15; Pfactors was associated with improvement in cardiovascular health. Of the specific psychosocial factors, a favorable socioeconomic environment (β=0.12; Pcardiovascular health in adulthood. The findings suggest a dose-response association between favorable psychosocial factors in youth and cardiovascular health in adulthood, as defined by the American Heart Association metrics. The effect seems to persist throughout the range of cardiovascular health, potentially shifting the population distribution of cardiovascular health rather than simply having effects in a high-risk population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Clare C.W.; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; McManus, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters in Hong Kong. Methods Male firefighters (n = 387) were randomly selected from serving firefighters in Hong Kong (n = 5,370) for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, known cardiovascular diseases). One-third (Target Group) were randomly selected for the assessment of off-duty leisure-time physical activity using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed, as well as cardiovascular workload using heart rate monitoring for each firefighter for four “normal” 24-hour working shifts and during real-situation simulated scenarios. Results Overall, 33.9% of the firefighters had at least two cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the Target Group, firefighters who had higher leisure-time physical activity had a lower resting heart rate and a lower average working heart rate, and spent a smaller proportion of time working at a moderate-intensity cardiovascular workload. Firefighters who had moderate aerobic fitness and high leisure-time physical activity had a lower peak working heart rate during the mountain rescue scenario compared with firefighters who had low leisure-time physical activities. Conclusion Leisure-time physical activity conferred significant benefits during job tasks of moderate cardiovascular workload in firefighters in Hong Kong. PMID:26929827

  9. Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rate and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Rebecca K; Griffin, Simon J; Witte, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    -based screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rates and cardiovascular events. METHODS: This register-based, non-randomised, controlled trial included men and women aged 40-69 years without known diabetes who were registered with a general practice in Denmark (n = 1......-screening group (HR 0.99 [0.96, 1.02], p = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A population-based stepwise screening programme for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors among all middle-aged adults in Denmark was not associated with a reduction in rate of mortality or cardiovascular events between 2001...... were invited to visit their GP for assessment of diabetes status and cardiovascular risk (screening group). The 1,759,285 individuals registered with all other general practices in Denmark constituted the retrospectively constructed no-screening (control) group. Outcomes were mortality rate...

  10. Status of Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in an Urban Cuban Population—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ojea, Arturo; Alonso, Celia; Yarnell, John W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in Cuba, yet the prevalence of novel risk factors is not known. To examine the prevalence of risk factors of traditional and novel cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among an urban Cuban population, a cross-sectional pilot survey was undertaken in Havana city, Cuba. Ninety-seven adults aged 45-60 years registered to receive medical care at a policlinic. The prevalences of rates of CVD risk factors were: hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) (53.6%), hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/L) (47.0%), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (15 μmol/L) (11.1%). The total carotenoid status was independently associa-ted with waist-circumference and risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In this small unrepresentative sample of people aged 40-65 years from Havana city, there was a high prevalence of traditional and novel CVD risk factors. The total serum carotenoid status appeared to be associated with an increased prevalence of CVD risk factors. PMID:22106757

  11. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. ISPD Cardiovascular and Metabolic Guidelines in Adult Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Part I - Assessment and Management of Various Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Angela Yee Moon; Brimble, K Scott; Brunier, Gillian; Holt, Stephen G; Jha, Vivekanand; Johnson, David W; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kooman, Jeroen P; Lambie, Mark; McIntyre, Chris; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease contributes significantly to the adverse clinical outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Numerous cardiovascular risk factors play important roles in the development of various cardiovascular complications. Of these, loss of residual renal function is regarded as one of the key cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with an increased mortality and cardiovascular death. It is also recognized that PD solutions may incur significant adverse metabolic effects in PD patients. The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) commissioned a global workgroup in 2012 to formulate a series of recommendations regarding lifestyle modification, assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors, as well as management of the various cardiovascular complications including coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmia (specifically atrial fibrillation), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and sudden cardiac death, to be published in 2 guideline documents. This publication forms the first part of the guideline documents and includes recommendations on assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors. The documents are intended to serve as a global clinical practice guideline for clinicians who look after PD patients. The ISPD workgroup also identifies areas where evidence is lacking and further research is needed. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  13. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Ryan J.; Prizment, Anna E.; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the two leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as two separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (e.g. obesity, diabetes), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. While chronic inflammation is an indispensible feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, but there are now millions of cancer survivors at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiologic studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  14. Relation between Childhood Obesity and Adult Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. Allcock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.

  15. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......, psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  16. Inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) represents a highly prevalent disease and is recognized as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood, but given the complexity of the disorder, a multifactorial etiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in general and they mediate many of the stages of atheroma formation. Circulating levels of several markers of inflammation have been associated with future cardiovascular risk. These markers include cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and selectins, cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), chemokines such as IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP). There is increasing evidence that inflammatory processes also play a central role in the cardiovascular pathophysiology of OSAS. This is supported by cell culture and animal studies identifying a preferential activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia (IH), the hallmark of OSAS. A number of studies have selectively examined the expression of inflammatory factors in OSAS patients with different conclusions. These different findings may have been contributed to by a number of methodological factors such as small subject numbers, inadequately matched study populations, particularly in terms of body mass index (BMI), and inclusion of patients with pre-existing cardiovascular or metabolic diseases. This review will focus on the potential role of various inflammatory markers in OSAS with a critical analysis of the current literature.

  17. Are there genetic paths common to obesity, cardiovascular disease outcomes, and cardiovascular risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-02-27

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥ 1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. [Renal markers and predictors, and renal and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andrade, C

    2002-01-01

    An important task of the nephrologists during the last century, it has been the search of elements and means that allow us, with the adequate precision, to correlate the functional deterioration of the kidney, and the patient's clinical reality. And the continuous searching of factors and markers that injure them, the prognosis, and early diagnosis, to be able to predict the degree of the organs and patient's survival. Almost parallel survival presage in the natural history of the illness, almost one century ago. In the second half of the XX century, in the developed countries, appear modifications of the social, cultural, and sanitary conditions, that make appear some very different partner-sanitary and epidemic circumstances, and take place like they are, among others: 1. An increase of per cápita private rents, what takes place to increase of the level of social life and the population's health. With increment of the longevity, and smaller incidence and prevalence of classic process, as malnutrition, infections, infantile mortality, so increasing the weight of the cardiovascular diseases and death. This is potentiated for the increment and the incidence of environmental cardiovascular risk's factors (like high caloric and fatty-rich diets, smoke, alcohol, disappearance of the physical work, inactivity, etc). And that situations are also product of the change of the outline of human and social values and guides. 2. Access of the whole population to a sanitary attention of more quality and effectiveness. It allows the biggest survival of patients that suffer vascular crisis, (as angina, miocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident), that few years ago they have had a higher morbimortality and an inferior survival (2). 3. The execution of big epidemic studies has been able to, not only characterize and test with scientific evidence to numerous factors and markers, that induce renal and cardiovascular prejudicial changes, but risk and death probability

  19. Chemerin as an independent predictor of cardiovascular event risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Sinan; Aksan, Gökhan; Doğan, Pınar

    2016-04-01

    Currently, coronary artery disease (CAD) is considered a major ailment in humans with widespread prevalence. CAD also accounts for high mortality rates around the world that involves several known risk factors. Chemerin is a novel adipokinine that is associated with inflammation and adipogenesis. Furthermore, experimental and clinical data indicate that localized as well as circulating chemerin expression and activation are elevated in numerous metabolic and inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Chemerin is accepted as being a strong marker because the serum chemerin levels are increased in a CAD condition. However, the chimeric characteristics of chemerin have not been fully investigated. Although chemerin is known to be responsible for CAD development among other factors, authors still investigate it at the marker level. This review focuses on chemerin expression, processing, biological function and relevance to human diseases, and on the role of chemerin in the maintenance of a cardiovascular disease.

  20. [Cardiovascular risk factors in an Arab and Hispanic working population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, P; García, A; de Rus, I; Avila, J M; Andrade, R; Escolar, J L; González, P

    1991-07-01

    318 records of male workers, 169 Spanish and 149 Arab were retrospectively studied in 1987 at the "Gabinete de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo" (Council for Safety and Hygiene in the Workplace) in Ceuta in order to prove the hypothesis that 2 different ethnic groups living in the same geographic area have a non-equal distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. The Spanish group showed a higher prevalence in blood hypertension, diabetes, glucose intolerance, obesity and alcohol intake, compared to the Arab group. Smoking and high levels of seric cholesterol were similar in both groups, however, medium levels of seric cholesterol were lower in the Arab group. Family histories of cardiovascular disease were very rare in the latter mentioned group. These observations suggested a major predisposition to ischemic cardiopathy in the Spanish group.

  1. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  2. DIETARY FATTY ACIDS. EFFECTS ON THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Perova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world publications data about the impact of consumption and the fatty acids ratio in consumed fats on the development of cardiovascular diseases and acute complications due to atherothrombosis is presented. The role of some fat characteristics is discussed: hydrogenous saturation with different number of double bonds, various lengths of hydrocarbonic chains and molecule geometry , etc. Fat structure is more crucial for cardiovascular risk than total amount of consumed saturated fat. Favorable fat structure should include physiologic amounts of saturated fatty acids (8-10%, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 long-chain, a significant amount (up to 20% of calories of monounsaturated fatty acids, a very small amount of trans fatty acid form. Such a fatty product is useful in antiatherogenic diets.

  3. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  4. SISTEMA ENDOCANABINOIDE: MODIFICANDO LOS FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR Endocannabinoid system: modifying cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edwin Feliciano Alfonso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de alcanzar un tratamiento óptimo para el tabaquismo, la obesidad y sus comorbilidades, conocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, ha fomentado la búsqueda de objetivos terapéuticos novedosos. Es el caso del sistema endocanabinoide, involucrado en diversos fenómenos fisiológicos entre los que se encuentran el refuerzo de ciertos comportamientos y la regulación del apetito. La sobreactivación de este sistema altera la homeostasis corporal predisponiendo a dependencias o a un aumento en la ingesta alimentaria, lo que puede traducirse en tabaquismo u obesidad. La intervención farmacológica sobre el sistema endocanabinoide puede contribuir al manejo de estos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, teniendo en cuenta que a tales beneficios se suman otros independientes de la suspensión del tabaquismo o la reducción de peso, como el aumento del colesterol de alta densidad, la disminución de triglicéridos y la mejoría del control glucémico en pacientes con diabetes. Ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados adelantados en poblaciones con diferentes características, han evaluado la utilidad de la regulación farmacológica del sistema endocanabinoide; confirmando su eficacia en personas con factores de riesgo cardiovascular establecidos.The need for an optimal treatment for smoking, obesity and their comorbidities, well-known cardiovascular risk factors; has prompted the search for novel therapeutic targets. This is the case of the endocannabinoid system, involved in several physiological phenomena including the reinforcement of certain behaviors and the regulation of appetite.

  5. Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W H Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S; Koeth, Robert A; Britt, Earl B; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L

    2013-04-25

    Recent studies in animals have shown a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of the choline moiety in dietary phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and coronary artery disease through the production of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine, TMAO levels, and adverse cardiovascular events in humans. We quantified plasma and urinary levels of TMAO and plasma choline and betaine levels by means of liquid chromatography and online tandem mass spectrometry after a phosphatidylcholine challenge (ingestion of two hard-boiled eggs and deuterium [d9]-labeled phosphatidylcholine) in healthy participants before and after the suppression of intestinal microbiota with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. We further examined the relationship between fasting plasma levels of TMAO and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) during 3 years of follow-up in 4007 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Time-dependent increases in levels of both TMAO and its d9 isotopologue, as well as other choline metabolites, were detected after the phosphatidylcholine challenge. Plasma levels of TMAO were markedly suppressed after the administration of antibiotics and then reappeared after withdrawal of antibiotics. Increased plasma levels of TMAO were associated with an increased risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest TMAO quartile, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 3.28; Pphosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota. Increased TMAO levels are associated with an increased risk of incident major adverse cardiovascular events. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Imed; Smaoui, Wided; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Ouniss, Monder; Aderrahim, Ezzeddine; Hedri, Hafedh; Elyounsi, Fethi; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abdallah, Taieb Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of our investigation was the evaluation of an extensive cardiovascular profile in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We studied 74 patients with ESRD (38 males, 36 females), maintained either on chronic HD (n= 50) or chronic PD (n= 24) and age and sex matched 20 healthy subjects as controls. The lipid profile, homocysteine (Hcy) and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured. When compared to a healthy population, HD patients displayed a marked atherogenic profile, as attested by increased levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A (Apo A), CRP, Hcy and lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), Apo B, albumin (ALB). A significant difference was noted concerning the rates of Apo B, HDL-C, TC, ALB and Hcy. Same biological disorders that those found at HD patients were noted in these PD patients. One also noted lower concentration in Apo A. there were a significant difference with the reference group concerning the rates of albumin, Apo A, HDL-Cl and Hcy. When compared to PD patients, HD patients had significantly decreased concentration of LDL-C. The peculiar metabolic changes observed in the present study confirm the marked tendency of patients with impaired renal function for developing cardiovascular diseases, irrespectively of the type of dialysis. We suggest including uremia-related risk factors in the panel for evaluation of cardiovascular risk in dialysis patients.

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Masked Hypertension: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Samantha G; Shimbo, Daichi; Booth, John N; Correa, Adolfo; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Carson, April P; Muntner, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Masked hypertension is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Identifying modifiable risk factors for masked hypertension could provide approaches to reduce its prevalence. Life's Simple 7 is a measure of cardiovascular health developed by the American Heart Association that includes body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, and glucose. We examined the association between cardiovascular health and masked daytime hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African American cohort. Life's Simple 7 factors were assessed during a study visit and categorized as poor, intermediate, or ideal. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed after the study visit. Using BP measured between 10:00 am and 8:00 pm on ambulatory BP monitoring, masked daytime hypertension was defined as mean clinic systolic BP/diastolic BP hypertension. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios for masked daytime hypertension comparing participants with 2, 3, and ≥4 versus ≤1 ideal Life's Simple 7 factors were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.33), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.57-1.03), and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.33-0.79), respectively. Masked daytime hypertension was less common among participants with ideal versus poor levels of physical activity (ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-1.00), ideal or intermediate levels pooled together versus poor diet (prevalence ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.91), ideal versus poor levels of cigarette smoking (prevalence ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.82), and ideal versus intermediate levels of clinic BP (prevalence ratio, 0.28, 95% CI, 0.16-0.48). Better cardiovascular health is associated with a lower preva lence of masked hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helal Imed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The aim of our investigation was the evaluation of an extensive cardiovascular profile in hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. We studied 74 patients with ESRD (38 males, 36 females, maintained either on chronic HD (n= 50 or chronic PD (n= 24 and age and sex matched 20 healthy subjects as controls. The lipid profile, homo-cysteine (Hcy and C reactive protein (CRP were measured. When compared to a healthy popu-lation, HD patients displayed a marked atherogenic profile, as attested by increased levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein A (Apo A, CRP, Hcy and lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, Apo B, albumin (ALB. A significant difference was noted concerning the rates of Apo B, HDL-C, TC, ALB and Hcy. Same biological disorders that those found at HD patients were noted in these PD patients. One also noted lower concentration in Apo A. there were a significant diffe-rence with the reference group concerning the rates of albumin, Apo A, HDL-Cl and Hcy. When compared to PD patients, HD patients had significantly decreased concentration of LDL-C. The peculiar metabolic changes observed in the present study confirm the marked tendency of patients with impaired renal function for developing cardiovascular diseases, irrespectively of the type of dialysis. We suggest including uremia-related risk factors in the panel for evaluation of cardio-vascular risk in dialysis patients.

  9. Pet ownership and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: another look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F

    2003-11-03

    To test the claim that pet ownership reduces cardiovascular risk. Community survey. 2528 adults aged 40-44 years and 2551 aged 60-64 years who lived in the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, New South Wales, and were drawn randomly from the Australian electoral roll in 2000 and 2001. Sociodemographic measures, including pet ownership, and measures of physical health (including body mass index [BMI], alcohol and cigarette consumption, and levels of physical activity). Two readings of diastolic and systolic blood pressure were also taken. While pet owners and non-pet owners had similar levels of systolic blood pressure, those with pets had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. Pet owners also had higher BMI and were more likely to smoke. While those with pets undertook more mild physical activity, they continued to have significantly higher diastolic blood pressure after controlling for hypertensive risk factors. In this study, we found no evidence that pet ownership per se is associated with cardiovascular health benefits. Rather, pet owners had higher diastolic blood pressure than those without pets. It is likely that this increased health risk is linked to other hypertensive risk factors that are only indirectly associated with pet ownership.

  10. Oxidative stress biomarkers in type 2 diabetes mellitus for assessment of cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Roy; Kundur, Avinash R; Singh, Indu

    2017-12-30

    Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent and progressive metabolic conditions affecting approximately 8.5% of the global population. Individuals with T2DM have a significantly increased risk of developing chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated complications, therefore, it is of great importance to establish strategies for combatting T2DM and its associated chronic conditions. Current literature has identified several biomarkers that are known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of CVD. Many of these biomarkers affecting CVD are influenced by an increase in oxidative stress as seen in T2DM. The purpose of this review is to analyse and correlate the oxidative stress-related biomarkers that have been identified in the literature to provide an updated summary of their significance in CVD risk factors. This review has analysed current research on T2DM, CVD, and oxidative stress. Four key cardiovascular risk factors: thrombosis, inflammation, vascular homeostasis and cellular proliferation were searched to identify potential biomarkers for this review. These biomarkers stem from seven major cellular pathways; NF-κB, Keap1-Nrf2, protein kinase-C, macrophage activation, arachidonic acid mobilisation, endothelial dysfunction and advanced glycation end products. The pathways and biomarkers were analysed to show their role as contributing factors to CVD development and a summary is made regarding the assessment of cardiovascular risk in T2DM individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cardiovascular risk profiles of world masters games participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climstein, Mike; Walsh, Joe; Debeliso, Mark; Heazlewood, Tim; Sevene, Trish; Adams, Kent

    2016-10-11

    Increasing evidence indicates adherence to exercise throughout life is concurrent with improved health. World masters games (WMG) have more participants than any other international sporting competition and is under investigated, particularly with regard to indices of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, we chose to investigate selected cardiovascular risk factors in WMG participants. This was a cross-sectional, observational study which utilized a web-based questionnaire to survey cardiovascular risk factors of WMG participants. The survey consisted of three sections: basic demographics, medical history and physiological parameters which included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), resting blood pressure (BP) and lipids (total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL)). A total of 1,435 participants, 872 male, aged 27-91yrs (mean age 54.99yrs) participated in the study. Key findings included significant differences (p<0.05) between genders in BMI (17.7%, p<0.001), WC (10.6%, p<0.001), resting SBP (5.8%, p<0.001) and resting DBP (4.8%, p<0.001). Significant differences were also found between genders in HDLs (15.2%, p<0.001), TC:HDL ratio (17.2%, p<0.001) and LDL:HDL ratio (19.0%, p<0.001). Significant differences (p<0.001) were also identified when comparing WMG lipid results to the Australian general population (TC p<0.001; HDLs p<0.001; LDLs p<0.001). A high percentage of WMG participants demonstrated optimal values in a number of CVD risk factors when compared to the general population, female WMG participants had better values as compared to males. This reflected a decreased CVD in WMG participants and supports our hypothesis of enhanced health characteristics in an active, but aged cohort.

  12. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Albuminuria with Cardiovascular Risk in Occupational Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chun Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and albuminuria increase cardiovascular risk. However, in occupational drivers, the clinical significance of albuminuria and its association with MetS remain unclear. We investigated the prevalence of MetS, albuminuria and cardiovascular risk, and its associated risk factors in occupational drivers; Methods: 441 occupational drivers and 432 age- and sex-stratified matched counterpart controls were enrolled. MetS was defined using Adult Treatment Panel III for Asians. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g. Cardiovascular disease risk was evaluated by Framingham Risk Score (FRS; Results: A significantly higher prevalence of MetS (43.1% vs. 25.5%, p < 0.001, albuminuria (12.0% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.001 and high FRS risk ≥ 10% of 10-year risk (46.9% vs. 35.2%, p < 0.001 was found in occupational drivers compared with their counterpart controls. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that old age, a history of diabetes, gout and betel nut chewing, less exercise and albuminuria (odds ratio [OR], 2.75; p = 0.01 were risk factors for MetS, while a history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension, and MetS (OR, 2.28; p = 0.01 were risk factors for albuminuria in occupational drivers; Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that MetS and albuminuria were public health problems in occupational drivers. An education program for promoting healthy lifestyle and a regular occupational health visit for early detection and interventions should be established.

  13. Association of Vasomotor and Other Menopausal Symptoms with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taulant Muka

    Full Text Available Vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats and other symptoms, including depression, anxiety and panic attacks, are commonly experienced by menopausal women and have been associated with an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile.To investigate whether presence of menopausal symptoms is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were search until February 17th, 2015 to identify relevant studies. Observational cohort studies or randomised intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they followed participants prospectively (at least 1 year of follow-up, and reported relevant estimates on the association of any vasomotor symptoms, or other menopausal symptoms, with risk of CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD, or stroke in perimenopausal, menopausal, or postmenopausal women. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Separate pooled relative risks (RRs for age and non-established cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., education, ethnicity adjusted data and for established cardiovascular risk factors and potential mediators-adjusted data (e.g., smoking, body mass index, and hypertension were calculated.Out of 9,987 initially identified references, ten studies were selected, including 213,976 women with a total of 10,037 cardiovascular disease outcomes. The age and non-established cardiovascular risk factors adjusted RRs [95% confidence intervals] for development of CHD, Stroke and CVD comparing women with and without any menopausal symptoms were 1.34 [1.13-1.58], 1.30 [0.99-1.70], 1.48 [1.21-1.80] respectively, and the corresponding RRs adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and potential mediators were 1.18 [1.03-1.35], 1.08 [0.89-1.32], 1.29 [0.98-1.71]. However, these analyses were limited by potential unmeasured confounding and the small number of studies on this topic.Presence of vasomotor symptoms and

  14. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-en...

  15. Testosterone therapy and cardiovascular risk: advances and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Miner, Martin M; Caliber, Monica; Guay, Andre T; Khera, Mohit; Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2015-02-01

    Two recent studies raised new concerns regarding cardiovascular (CV) risks with testosterone (T) therapy. This article reviews those studies as well as the extensive literature on T and CV risks. A MEDLINE search was performed for the years 1940 to August 2014 using the following key words: testosterone, androgens, human, male, cardiovascular, stroke, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, heart attack, death, and mortality. The weight and direction of evidence was evaluated and level of evidence (LOE) assigned. Only 4 articles were identified that suggested increased CV risks with T prescriptions: 2 retrospective analyses with serious methodological limitations, 1 placebo-controlled trial with few major adverse cardiac events, and 1 meta-analysis that included questionable studies and events. In contrast, several dozen studies have reported a beneficial effect of normal T levels on CV risks and mortality. Mortality and incident coronary artery disease are inversely associated with serum T concentrations (LOE IIa), as is severity of coronary artery disease (LOE IIa). Testosterone therapy is associated with reduced obesity, fat mass, and waist circumference (LOE Ib) and also improves glycemic control (LOE IIa). Mortality was reduced with T therapy in 2 retrospective studies. Several RCTs in men with coronary artery disease or heart failure reported improved function in men who received T compared with placebo. The largest meta-analysis to date revealed no increase in CV risks in men who received T and reduced CV risk among those with metabolic disease. In summary, there is no convincing evidence of increased CV risks with T therapy. On the contrary, there appears to be a strong beneficial relationship between normal T and CV health that has not yet been widely appreciated.

  16. Benzene exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abplanalp, Wesley; DeJarnett, Natasha; Riggs, Daniel W; Conklin, Daniel J; McCracken, James P; Srivastava, Sanjay; Xie, Zhengzhi; Rai, Shesh; Bhatnagar, Aruni; O'Toole, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous, volatile pollutant present at high concentrations in toxins (e.g. tobacco smoke) known to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Despite its prevalence, the cardiovascular effects of benzene have rarely been studied. Hence, we examined whether exposure to benzene is associated with increased CVD risk. The effects of benzene exposure in mice were assessed by direct inhalation, while the effects of benzene exposure in humans was assessed in 210 individuals with mild to high CVD risk by measuring urinary levels of the benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between benzene exposure and CVD risk. Mice inhaling volatile benzene had significantly reduced levels of circulating angiogenic cells (Flk-1+/Sca-1+) as well as an increased levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) compared with control mice breathing filtered air. In the human cohort, urinary levels of t,t-MA were inversely associated several populations of circulating angiogenic cells (CD31+/34+/45+, CD31+/34+/45+/AC133-, CD34+/45+/AC133+). Although t,t-MA was not associated with plasma markers of inflammation or thrombosis, t,t-MA levels were higher in smokers and in individuals with dyslipidemia. In smokers, t,t-MA levels were positively associated with urinary metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and acrolein (3-hydroxymercapturic acid). Levels of t,t-MA were also associated with CVD risk as assessed using the Framingham Risk Score and this association was independent of smoking. Thus, benzene exposure is associated with increased CVD risk and deficits in circulating angiogenic cells in both smokers and non-smokers.

  17. Novel risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their associations between obesity, physical activity and physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan S. Buchan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD.

  18. Cardiovascular risk during early adult life. Risk markers among participants in "Live for Life" health promotion programme in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, L. G.; Lindstrom, K; Lingfors, H; Bengtsson, C; Lissner, L

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study differences in cardiovascular lifestyle risk factors and biological risk markers in early adult life, with special attention to age and sex differences. Lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors included dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol habits, psychosocial strain, and mental stress. Biological risk markers included anthropometric variables, arterial blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration. DESIGN: A combined individual and communit...

  19. An Path Analysis on the Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease in Makassar City Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Amiruddin, Ridwan; Muh. Taufiq, La Ode

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aims of the research were to analyze to what extent the relationship between risk factor and the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and to analyze to what extent direct and indirect relationship (with the involvement of intermediary factor) between risk factor and occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The Research used case control method to 91 cardiovascular disease patients and 91 respondents who did not suffer from cardiovascular diseases in the outpatient rooms of Dr. ...

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  1. [Cardiovascular risk factors and life and occupational stress among policemen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja-Miturai, Izabela; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Szymczak, Wieslaw; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown an association between work-related stress and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. ever, only a few studies concerned the police. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the general and work-related stress, and the functioning of the circulatory system in the police staff. The study group consisted of 126 policemen (aged 37.8 +/- 7.3 years), with average employment duration of 14.4 +/- 7 years. The study comprised the assessment of health status based on the medical examination and medical history of identified diseases, cardiovascular risk factors and symptoms, dietary habits, physical activity, intake of drugs, data on the family history, determinations of serum total cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triglycerides, and fasting glycemia . The stress level was assessed using the Questionnaire for the Subjective Assessment of Work and Perceived Stress Scale. On medical examination hypertension was found in 36% of the people under study. Chest discomfort was reported by 60% of the subjects. Average body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and LDI, were elevated (22.7 +/- 4.1, 222.6 +/- 41.7 mg/dl and 142.7 +/- 39.7 mg/dl, respectively). Mean triglyceride, HDL fraction and fasting glucose levels were normal in the whole group. The levels of general and occupational stress were 34.914.8 and 128.0+33.3, respectively, being higher than in other occupational groups. In the group with the highest level of stress, there were significantly more people with circulatory problems (81%), drinking strong alcohol at least once a week (27%), working in a 3-shift system (40.5%) and working overtime (44%). The results show that the police are a group at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to work-related stress.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is considered one of the most crucial health concerns. Few studies have investigated the correlation between CO poisoning and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we conducted a population-based, longitudinal cohort study in Taiwan to determine whether patients with CO poisoning are associated with higher risk of developing subsequent CVDs, including arrhythmia, coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). This retrospective study used the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised all patients aged ≥20 years with a diagnosis of CO poisoning and hospitalized during 2000 to 2011 (N = 8381), and the comparison cohort comprised randomly selected non-CO-poisoned patients (N = 33,524) frequency-matched with the study cohort by age, sex, and the year of index date. Each patient was individually tracked to identify those who develop CVD events during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to calculate the hazard ratios of CVDs after adjusting for possible confounders. The overall incidences of arrhythmia, CAD, and CHF were higher in the patients with CO poisoning than in the controls (2.57 vs 1.25/1000 person-years, 3.28 vs 2.25/1000 person-years, and 1.32 vs 1.05/1000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the patients with CO poisoning were associated with a 1.83-fold higher risk of arrhythmia compared with the comparison cohort, and nonsignificantly associated with risk of CAD and CHF. CO-poisoned patients with coexisting comorbidity or in high severity were associated with significantly and substantially increased risk of all 3 CVDs. CO poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent development of arrhythmia. Future studies are required to explore the long-term effects of CO poisoning on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25761191

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors among women with self-reported infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Sun, Fangui; Cheng, J Jojo; Chow, Erika T; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Murabito, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    Amongst women with certain types of ovulatory disorder infertility, the studies are conflicting whether there is an increased risk of long-term cardiovascular disease risk. This paper evaluates the associations of several CVD risk factors among Framingham women with self-reported infertility. Women who completed the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation and Omni Cohort 2 Exam 2 (2008-2011), and reported on past history of infertility and current cardiovascular disease status were included in this cross-sectional study. Directly measured CVD risk factors were: resting blood pressure, fasting lipid levels, fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI). Multivariable models adjusted for age, smoking, physical activity, and cohort. Generalized estimating equations adjusted for family correlations. We performed sensitivity analyses to determine whether the association between infertility and CVD risk factors is modified by menopausal status and menstrual cycle length. Comparing women who self-reported infertility to those who did not, there was an average increase in BMI (β = 1.03 kg/m(2), 95% CI: 0.18, 1.89), waist circumference (β = 3.08 in., 95% CI: 1.06, 5.09), triglycerides (β = 4.47 mg/dl, 95% CI:-1.54, 10.49), and a decrease in HDL cholesterol (β = -1.60 mg/dl, 95% CI: -3.76, 0.56). We estimated that infertile premenopausal women have an increased odds of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11, 4.49) and diabetes (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 0.86, 4.49). BMI and waist circumference were the most strongly correlated CVD risk factors amongst women reporting a history of infertility.

  4. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes universitarios chilenos Cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Chiang-Salgado

    1999-12-01

    cardiovasculares en la vida adulta de los jóvenes.OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic university students of both sexes, aged 18 to 25 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum lipid levels were measured in a subsample of 293 subjects, using a Hitachi 717 chemical analyzer. Obesity was classified using Body Mass Index (BMI measurements. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect data on sedentary life style, family history of cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoking. Statistical associations of lipid levels with lipidic and non-lipidic risk factors were assessed using Pearson´s chi² test and multiple regression. RESULTS: We found lipid risk levels in 29.2% for Total Cholesterol (CT, 16.2% for Low Density Lipoproteins (C-LDL and 5% for High Density Lipoproteins (C-HDL. The main non-lipidic factors were smoking (46.1% and sedentarism (60.8%. Obesity, hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction were present in 1.9%, 4.6% and 11%, respectively. We observed an association of a lipid risk profile with obesity, cigarette smoking and family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that sedentarism and smoking are associated with a lipid risk profile. These results call for the need to develop appropriate behavior strategies for the successful prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  5. [Risk reduction in cardiovascular diseases by physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löllgen, H; Löllgen, D

    2012-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle or physical inactivity is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity improves muscular function, cardiac function, and metabolic syndrome-related disorders. Leisure time physical activity reduces all-cause mortality by 22-34% and cardiovascular mortality by 27-35%. These data have been shown in many prospective cohort studies and published in four large meta-analyses with more than 800,000 participants (evidence IA). The risk reduction is somewhat more pronounced in the elderly and in women (IB). In addition to reduced mortality, physical activity also improves cardiopulmonary function and quality of life (IB). This also holds true for coronary artery disease, cardiac failure, and arterial hypertension with high-grade evidence (IA). Furthermore, evidence has been shown a risk reduction in stroke, development of cognitive dysfunction, and intermittent claudication. Training recommendations for physical activity have reached high-grade evidence (IA). Therefore, regular physical activity is one of the most important components of a healthy lifestyle. All physicians should ask their patients at all clinic and office visits about physical activity and recommend activity for prevention and therapy.

  6. Using Machine Learning Algorithms in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sitar-Taut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if Medicine and Computer Science seemapparently intangible domains, they collaborate each otherfor few decades. One of the faces of this cooperation is DataMining, a relative new and multidisciplinary field capable toextract valuable information from large sets of data. Despitethis fact, in cardiology related studies it was rarely used. Weassume that some data mining tools can be used as asubstitute for some complex, expensive, uncomfortable, timeconsuming, and sometimes dangerous medical examinations.This paper aims to show that cardiovascular diseases may bepredicted by classical risk factors analyzed and processed ina “non-invasive” way.

  7. [Cardiovascular risks of combined oral contraceptives - beyond the French controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronier, H; Gronier-Gouvernel, H; Robin, G

    2014-03-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptive is the most used contraceptive method in France among childbearing-aged women. Following the temporary delisting of oral contraception containing a 3rd generation progestin and following the market withdrawal of oral pills containing cyproterone acetate in combination with ethynil-estradiol (35μg), the impact of these events on our prescribing practice remains to determine. We will especially discuss the cardiovascular risk associated with combined hormonal contraceptives in the light of the most recent publications either with epidemiological or biological data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Depression contributing to dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemche, A V; Chaban, O S; Lemche, E

    2017-05-01

    Triglycerides are considered an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Recent evidence relating depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) implicated triglyceride levels. We thus investigated interrelations of self-reported depression severity (Zung) and MetS-related biological measures with CVD risk estimates in MetS patients. N = 101 patients fulfilling International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS from a nationwide sampled treatment cohort for MetS with familial T2DM risk or manifest T2DM in a Ukrainian governmental health care system were participants. Both laboratory and non-laboratory measures were included. Recent European cardiological SCORE system CVD risk estimates were used as outcome variables. Following correlation matrix, we entered all variables into principal component analysis (PCA; 76.7% explained variance), followed by hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling (SEM). The PCA suggested a one-factor solution, where the latent variable showed highest loadings of SCORE risk estimates, triglycerides, depression severity, and pulse pressure. A comprehensive SEM was adjusted with 92.7% explained variance: overall CVD risk related to depression, pulse pressure, triglycerides, and fasting glucose. The findings in this MetS sample suggest that triglycerides and depression severity are the key variables among MetS biomarkers in cross-sectionally associating with the fatal and total SCORE risk estimates in MetS.

  9. Can genetic pleiotropy replicate common clinical constellations of cardiovascular disease and risk?

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    Omri Gottesman

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD is established when looked at from a clinical, epidemiological or pathophysiological perspective. Yet, when viewed from a genetic perspective, there is comparatively little data synthesis that these conditions have an underlying relationship. We sought to investigate the overlap of genetic variants independently associated with each of these commonly co-existing conditions from the NHGRI genome-wide association study (GWAS catalog, in an attempt to replicate the established notion of shared pathophysiology and risk. We used pathway-based analyses to detect subsets of pleiotropic genes involved in similar biological processes. We identified 107 eligible GWAS studies related to CVD and its established comorbidities and risk factors and assigned genes that correspond to the associated signals based on their position. We found 44 positional genes shared across at least two CVD-related phenotypes that independently recreated the established relationship between the six phenotypes, but only if studies representing non-European populations were included. Seven genes revealed pleiotropy across three or more phenotypes, mostly related to lipid transport and metabolism. Yet, many genes had no relationship to each other or to genes with established functional connection. Whilst we successfully reproduced established relationships between CVD risk factors using GWAS findings, interpretation of biological pathways involved in the observed pleiotropy was limited. Further studies linking genetic variation to gene expression, as well as describing novel biological pathways will be needed to take full advantage of GWAS results.

  10. Impact of hypertension on mortality and cardiovascular disease burden in patients with cardiovascular risk factors from a general practice setting: the ESCARVAL-risk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Josep; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Gil-Guillen, Vicente; Pita Fernandez, Salvador; Navarro-Pérez, Jorge; Pallares, Vicente; Valls, Francisco; Fernandez, Antonio; Perez-Navarro, Ana María; Sanchis, Carlos; Dominguez-Lucas, Alejandro; Sanz, Gines; Martin-Moreno, Jose M

    2016-06-01

    To estimate the attributable risk associated to hypertension for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization endpoints in a prospective study of patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factors participating in the Estudio Cardiovascular Valencia-risk project, we also evaluated the attributable risk associated with other risk factors and risk factor clustering. Prospective electronic health recording-based study in a Mediterranean population that included 52 007 cardiovascular disease-free men and women aged 30 years or older (mean age 62.6 year) with hypertension (79.0%), diabetes mellitus (37.3%), or dyslipidemia (88.2%), who underwent routine health examinations. All-cause mortality and hospitalization records for coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke were collected. During an average follow-up time of 3.2 years, 928 deaths and 1682 and 1529 hospitalizations for CHD and stroke, respectively, were recorded. In both men and women, hypertension significantly increased the multiadjusted rates of death and CHD and stroke hospitalizations. Hypertension was associated with a substantial amount of avoidable deaths both in men and women, population attributable risks were 41.81 (95% confidence interval 28.02, 53.24)% and 37.84 (5.74, 61.51)%, respectively. Similarly, the population attributable risk of hospitalization for CHD and stroke associated to hypertension was among the highest in both the sexes as compared with the impact of the other main cardiovascular risk factors. Increasing cardiovascular risk factors clustering was associated with increasing burden of disease. Our results highlight the relevance of hypertension as main risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular events in a real-life setting. Although our data support the ongoing need of cardiovascular risk factors prevention, intensified actions for primary prevention of hypertension show potential to largely reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Target organ damage assessment in French hypertensive patients without established cardiovascular or renal disease: results of the PREVENT-A study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Patrick; Hosseini, Kossar; Tropeano, Anne-Isabelle; Fay, Renaud; Tsatsaris, Anne; Guillemin, Francis; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the modalities of subclinical target organ damage (TOD) assessment in France, 2-3 years after publication of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2007 guidelines. Two parallel, large, cross-sectional surveys were performed in representative samples of 516 private practice cardiologists, and 943 general practitioners (GPs), in hypertensive patients (952 and 1778, respectively) without established cardiovascular or renal disease. At least one TOD search was performed in 97.6% of cardiologists' patients, performed or ongoing in 96.1% of GPs' patients, with a median number of three TOD searches in both surveys. Only 8.6% of cardiologists' patients and 6.3% of GPs' patients had a full set of TOD analyses [i.e. the five categories investigated: left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), vascular, renal, retinopathy and cerebrovascular]. When considering the three priority categories of subclinical TOD search recommended by the ESH/ESC guidelines (i.e. LVH, vascular and renal), 63.2% of cardiologists' patients and 49.5% of GPs' patients had this triple assessment completed. The new TOD assessment modalities, namely pulse wave velocity, ankle brachial index and microalbuminuria, were rarely used. Only 3.3% of GPs' patients and 15.4% of cardiologists' patients were reclassified with an upgraded cardiovascular risk. Subclinical TOD modalities are commonly assessed in French hypertensive patients without established cardiovascular or renal diseases, although 55% still do not benefit from combined triple LVH, macrovascular and renal assessment. The new modalities of TOD assessment are rarely implemented. Moreover, TOD assessment displayed poor effectiveness in upgrading cardiovascular risk classification.

  12. Risk Control of Offshore Installations. A Framework for the Establishment of Risk Indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeien, Knut

    2001-07-01

    Currently quantitative risk assessments are carried out to analyze the risk level of offshore installations and to evaluate whether or not the risk level is acceptable. By way of the quantitative risk analysis the risk status of a given installation is obtained. However, the risk status is obtained so infrequently that it is inadequate for risk control. It can be compared to economic control having the economic status presented about each fifth year, which is obviously inadequate. It is important to know the risk status because this may provide an early warning about the need for remedial actions. Without frequent information about the risk status, control of risk cannot be claimed. The main objective of this thesis has been the development of a framework for the establishment of risk indicators. These risk indicators provide a status of the risk level through measuring of changes in technical, operational and organizational factors important to risk, and is thus a means to control risk during operation of offshore petroleum installations. The framework consists of a technical methodology using the quantitative risk assessment as a basis, an organizational model, and an organizational quantification methodology. Technical risk indicators are established from the technical methodology covering the risk factors explicitly included in the quantitative risk assessment. Organizational risk indicators measure changes in the organizational risk factors included in the organizational model, but not included in the quantitative risk assessment. The organizational model is an extension to the risk model in the quantitative risk assessment. The organizational quantification methodology calculates the effect of the changes measured by the organizational risk indicators. The organizational model may also be applied as a qualitative tool for root cause analysis of incidents (process leaks). Other results are an intermediate-level expert judgment procedure applicable for

  13. A contemporary review of the relationship between red meat consumption and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bronzato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases burden is increasing due to aging populations and represents one of the major health issues worldwide. Dietary habits have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular field despite the difficulty in the quantification of the assumption of each single food and the observation that several foods affect cardiovascular risk with opposite effects. Moreover, some older findings have been reverted by more recent studies. Red meat has been widely studied in this context, and it has been suggested to increase cardiovascular risk primarily by causing dyslipidemia. Our aim is to review the relationship between red meat assumption and cardiovascular risk and to present novel findings regarding their link.

  14. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among adults in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2011-12-01

    This report provides the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Syria, where such data are still scarce. A population-based household survey was conducted in Aleppo (population >2.5 million), involving 1,168 subjects ≥25 years old (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information about socio-demographics, personal behavior, and other CVD risk factors was collected. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained. The prevalence of clinical risk factors of CVD (ClinRFs) was 45.6% for hypertension, 43.2% for obesity, 21.9% for hypercholesterolemia and 15.6% for diabetes. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors (BehRFs) was 82.3% for physical inactivity, 39.0% for smoking, and 33.4% for unhealthy diet. All ClinRFs increased with age, while gender was associated only with obesity and smoking. Education was associated with obesity and diabetes (P Syria have some of the world's highest prevalence of CVD risk factors. Unhealthy behaviors and social norms unfavorable to women may explain some of such risk profiles.

  15. Managing tobacco use: the neglected cardiovascular disease risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, Nancy A; Clair, Carole

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the leading avoidable cause of death worldwide. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) increases the risk of CVD among non-smokers. Smoking cessation benefits all smokers, regardless of age or amount smoked. The excess risk of CVD is rapidly reversible, and stopping smoking after a myocardial infarction reduces an individual's risk of CVD mortality by 36% over 2 years. Smoking cessation is a key component of primary and secondary CVD prevention strategies, but tobacco use often receives less attention from cardiologists than other risk factors, despite the availability of proven treatments that improve smoking cessation rates. Both psychosocial counselling and pharmacotherapy are effective methods to help smokers quit, but they are most effective when used together. The first-line medications licensed to aid smoking cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, are effective in and appropriate for patients with CVD. An evidence-based approach for physicians is to routinely ask all patients about smoking status and SHS exposure, advise all smokers to quit and all patients to adopt smoke-free policies for their home and car, and offer all smokers in the office or hospital brief counselling, smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, and referral to local programmes where psychosocial support can be sustained in person or by telephone. Like other chronic diseases, tobacco use requires a long-term management strategy. It deserves to be managed as intensively as other CVD risk factors.

  16. Environmental factors and cardiovascular risk in young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancaş, Silvia; Mihalaş, Georgeta; Gaită, D; Drăgan, Simona; Duda-Seiman, D M; Sarău, C A; Noveanu, Lavinia; Petcov, Bileana; Mancaş, Georgiana; Ionescu, V; Păcurar, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Normal endothelial function alters physiologically with aging. Intervention of environmental factors precipitates and accelerates endothelial dysfunction progression, correlated with cardiovascular risk. To study the impact of environmental factors (smoking, nutritional habits, stress, physical activity) on the imbalance of the endothelial commuting threshold. The questionnaire method was applied in order to identify and quantify the presence of environmental factors; an anthropometrical physical exam was performed; metabolic profile (insulin resistance HOMA-IR, lipid parameters) was assessed. Arterial elasticity was assessed with Complior (Artech Medical). The studied lot (n=80, 21.16 +/- 2.43 years) comprised young medicine students and showed a high incidence of: smoking (31.25%), unhealthy nutritional habits (60%), stress (60%), sedentary lifestyle (25%). The odds for endothelial function alteration were significant only in subjects who associated stress and smoking (OR=8.18, p=0.0006); in the same group, there was noticed the tendency for metabolic profile alteration, meaning insulin resistance (OR=1.19, p=ns). The association stress-smoking did not significantly influence the unhealthy nutritional habits (p=ns, OR=2.39), lipoprotein anomalies (TC > or = 190 mg/dL: p=ns, OR=0.98; LDL > or = 130 mg/dL: p=ns, OR=3.53), or the sedentary lifestyle (p=ns, OR=0.80). The main environmental factors which determine endothelial function imbalance in young ages are smoking and occupational stress. It is a positive stress which does not lead to significant metabolic anomalies or lifestyle changes. Though, this kind of stress leads to an unhealthy behavior: smoking. The association stress-smoking is essential in endothelial function alteration in young subjects. Primary cardiovascular prevention must focus drastically on unhealthy behaviors correction to reduce cardiovascular risk in young individuals.

  17. Risco cardiovascular em pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático Cardiovascular risk in patients submitted to liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélem de Sena Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de risco cardiovascular em pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático de acordo com o escore de Framingham e avaliar possíveis associações com fatores de risco tradicionais e não tradicionais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em que pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático foram estratificados quanto ao risco cardiovascular pelo escore de Framingham. Variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, clínicas e antropométricas foram coletadas para verificar associação com risco cardiovascular utilizando-se análises estatísticas uni e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 115 pacientes, dos quais 46,1% apresentaram médio ou alto risco para ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares em 10 anos. O risco percentual médio dos pacientes avaliados foi de 9,5% ± 7,8%. Sexo masculino (OR: 4,97; IC 95% 1,92-12,85; p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk in patients undergoing liver transplantation according to the Framingham score, and to evaluate possible associations with traditional and non-traditional risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which patients undergoing liver transplantation were stratified by cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score. Demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and anthropometric variables were collected to assess the association with cardiovascular risk factors using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients were evaluated, of which 46.1% showed medium or high risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular events over ten years. The mean percentage risk of evaluated patients was of 9.5 ± 7.8%. Male gender (OR: 4.97; CI: 1.92-12.85; p < 0.01, older age (OR: 1,09; CI: 1.04-1.13; p < 0.01, and higher BMI at the moment of assessment (1.09; CI: 0.99-1.20; p = 0.03 were factors associated with medium and high cardiovascular risk. A higher percentage of cardiovascular risk was also associated with

  18. Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension: pathophysiological mechanism or marker of cardiovascular risk?

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    Lorenzo Ghiadoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the modulation of vessel tone and structure, protecting the vascular wall from atherosclerosis. In pathological conditions, however, the endothelium also produces pro-atherogenic substances (mainly reactive oxygen species, which inactivate NO. The Endothelial dysfunction, induced by reduced NO availability, is known to contribute to the development and progression of vascular damage. For this reason, endothelial function has been a major focus of cardiovascular research in the last few decades. Because NO has a very short half-life and its in vivo measurement is difficult, many researchers prefer to measure its biological activity, particularly the NO-dependent vasodilation, at the level of the coronary and peripheral circulation by endothelial stimuli. The most widely used technique involves measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation. This test allows non-invasive evaluation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the peripheral macrocirculation induced by a mechanical stimulus (increase in shear stress caused by 5 minutes of forearm ischemia. The vasodilatatory response is reduced in the presence of major cardiovascular risk factors, particularly essential hypertension. Conclusions Studies conducted mainly in high-risk patients have demonstrated that endothelial dysfunction within the coronary or peripheral circulation is predictive of cardiovascular events (independently of classical risk factors. Drug therapy can improve endothelial function by increasing the availability of NO (a possible adjunctive benefit in terms of preventing vascular damage and improving the prognosis. Future studies will establish whether the evaluation of endothelial function by non-invasive, standardized, reproducible, low-cost techniques is an important test for cardiovascular risk stratification in clinical practice.

  19. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  20. Anthropometric measurements in childhood and prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood: Kaunas cardiovascular risk cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkeviciene, Janina; Klumbiene, Jurate; Kriaucioniene, Vilma; Raskiliene, Asta; Sakyte, Edita; Ceponiene, Indre

    2015-03-04

    This study aimed to examine the associations between anthropometric measurements in childhood and adulthood as well as the effect of childhood body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness in the prediction of adult cardiovascular risk factors. The Study subjects were participants of the Kaunas Cardiovascular Risk Cohort study. They were 12-13 years old at the time of the baseline survey (1977) and 48-49 years old in the 35-year follow-up survey (2012, n = 506). In childhood, height, weight, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness measurements were taken. In 2012, health examination involved measurements of blood pressure (BP), BMI, waist circumference, glucose, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the associations of childhood BMI and skinfold thicknesses as well as BMI gain with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age. All logistic regression models were adjusted for sex, physical activity level, alcohol consumption, smoking and family history of obesity. Over 35 years of follow-up, BMI gain was greater in men than in women. Anthropometric measurements in childhood significantly correlated with values measured in adulthood. The highest correlation coefficients were defined for weight and BMI measurements (in girls r = 0.56 and r = 0.51 respectively; in boys r = 0.45 and r = 0.41 respectively, P risk of adult obesity, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycaemia or type 2 diabetes, and elevated level of high-sensitivity CRP increased with a rise in childhood BMI and skinfold thicknesses, irrespectively of BMI gain from childhood to adulthood. No relationship was found between childhood anthropometric measurements and arterial hypertension, raised level of triglycerides or reduced level of HDL cholesterol. Gain in BMI from childhood to adulthood was associated with increased odds of all above-mentioned risk factors independently of childhood BMI. Risk of metabolic syndrome

  1. The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 on cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Jacob; Rosenmeier, Jaya; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, an enzyme that degrades endogenous GLP-1, have established effectiveness in lowering glucose levels and are routinely used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. These agents regulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms and have several effects......-based therapies could potentially target both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This Review highlights the mechanisms targeted by GLP-1-based therapies, and emphasizes current developments in incretin research that are relevant to cardiovascular risk and disease, as well as treatment with GLP-1......Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally, as opposed to intravenously, and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1-based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor...

  2. Is obesity predictive of cardiovascular dysfunction independent of cardiovascular risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVallance, E; Fournier, S B; Donley, D A; Bonner, D E; Lee, K; Frisbee, J C; Chantler, P D

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is thought to exert detrimental effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, this relationship is impacted by the co-occurrence of CV risk factors, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and overt disease. We examined the relationships between obesity, assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and CV function in 102 subjects without overt CV disease. We hypothesized that obesity would be independently predictive of CV remodeling and functional differences, especially at peak exercise. Brachial (bSBP) and central (cSBP) systolic pressure, carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) augmentation index (AGI; by SphygmoCor), and carotid remodeling (B-mode ultrasound) were examined at rest. Further, peak exercise cardiac imaging (Doppler ultrasound) was performed to measure the coupling between the heart and arterial system. In backward elimination regression models, accounting for CV risk factors, neither BMI nor WC were predictors of carotid thickness or PWVcf; rather age, triglycerides and hypertension were the main determinants. However, BMI and WC predicted carotid cross-sectional area and lumen diameter. When examining the relationship between body size and SBP, BMI (β=0.32) and WC (β=0.25) were predictors of bSBP (Pobesity, without T2DM and overt CV disease, and after accounting for CV risk factors, is susceptible to pathophysiological adaptations that may predispose individuals to an increased risk of CV events.

  3. Is Obesity Predictive of Cardiovascular Dysfunction Independent of Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVallance, Evan; Fournier, Sara B.; Donley, David A.; Bonner, Daniel E.; Lee, Kyuwan; Frisbee, Jefferson C.; Chantler, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is thought to exert detrimental effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, this relationship is impacted by the co-occurrence of CV risk factors, type II diabetes (T2DM), and overt disease. We examined the relationships between obesity, assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and CV function in 102 subjects without overt CV disease. We hypothesized that obesity would be independently predictive of CV remodeling and functional differences, especially at peak exercise. Methods Brachial (bSBP) and central (cSBP) systolic pressure, carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) augmentation index (AGI) (by SphygmoCor), and carotid remodeling (B-mode ultrasound) were examined at rest. Further, peak exercise cardiac imaging (Doppler ultrasound) was performed to measure the coupling between the heart and arterial system. Results In backward elimination regression models, accounting for CV risk factors, neither BMI nor WC were predictors of carotid thickness or PWVcf; rather age, triglycerides, and hypertension were the main determinants. However, BMI and WC predicted carotid cross-sectional area and lumen diameter. When examining the relationship between body size and SBP, BMI (β=0.32) and WC (β=0.25) were predictors of bSBP (pobesity, without T2DM and overt CV disease, and after accounting for CV risk factors, is susceptible to pathophysiological adaptations that may predispose individuals to an increased risk of CV events. PMID:24957486

  4. CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botez C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of dental diseases, acceleration of atherosclerosis is supported by the role played by infections. The study – performed between 2008-2009 – analyzed 45 cases, selected from the patients hospitalized in the Medical Clinics of the Military Hospital of Ia[i. The patients included in the study suffered from arterial hypertension (HTA, cardiac insufficiency, ischemic cardiopathy, pectoral angina and subacute infectious endocarditis. All were subjected to a stomatological examination, for establishing their dental hygiene, the stomatological diseases they had had and the treatments performed. There are several ways in which infections of the oral cavity lead to cardiovascular disease. These include: transitory bacteriemia; inflammation and vascular lesions; diet and smoking.

  5. Surgical and pharmacological reassignment: influence on transsexual cardiovascular risk profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Marco M; Loverro, Giuseppe; Scicchitano, Pietro; Loverro, Matteo; Ricci, Gabriella; Scaramuzzi, Francesca; Gesualdo, Michele; Zito, Annapaola; Campagna, Marcello; Moncelli, Michele; Nicolardi, Vittorio; Manca, Fabio; Boninfante, Barbara; Carbonara, Santa; Cortese, Francesca; Todarello, Orlando; Bettocchi, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate and stratify early cardiovascular risk of transsexuals who underwent pharmacological and/or surgical gender reassignment. Fifty-six transsexuals were divided into two groups: group 1 - underwent gonadectomy (orchiectomy for transwomen and hystero-annessiectomy for transmen); group 2 - hormone replacement therapy alone. All participants underwent carotid artery intima-media thickness (C-IMT) and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of brachial artery evaluations. FMD was lower in patients who had undergone gonadectomy compared with non-surgically treated patients (Group 1: 5.711 vs Group 2: 7.339, P < 0.0001). Mean C-IMT was higher in group 1 than group 2 (group 1: 0.733 vs group 2: 0.582). The duration of hormone therapy correlates positively with mean C-IMT (B = 0.001) and negatively with FMD (%) (B = - 0.007). Cardiovascular risk, which is expressed in terms of endothelial (FMD) and morphological (C-IMT) dysfunction, increases in subjects undergoing gonadectomy compared with those receiving cross-sex reassignment therapy alone. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Red and processed meat and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalić, Bruno; Toth, Jurica; Atalić, Vlasta; Radanović, Danijela; Miskulin, Maja; Lucin, Ana

    2013-06-01

    The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was conducted, paying due attention to the subject age and sex as potential confounders. Linear analyses showed the total meat intake and combined red and processed meat intake to cause a 1.03 kg/m2 rise in BMI each, while the red and processed meat intakes analyzed as separate categories caused 1.02 kg/m2 rise each. The greatest effects were observed on the systolic blood pressure with a 1.7 mm Hg rise for the total and the red and processed meat intakes, 1.5 mm Hg rise for the red meat intake, and 1.02 mm Hg rise for the processed meat intake. There were no associations between different meat intakes and plasma total cholesterol. Study results revealed the interquartile ranges of the mentioned meat type intakes to increase BMI by around 1 kg/m2 and systolic blood pressure by around 1.5 mm Hg, while they had no influence on plasma total cholesterol.

  7. Lipoprotein (a) and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Ástrid Camêlo; Leal, Adriana Amorim de F.; Ramos, Nathaly de Medeiros N.; de Alencar F., José; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da S.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a) levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a) and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a) levels and the lipid profile. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:24473960

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amílcar B; Capingana, Daniel P; Magalhães, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mauer A; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Rodrigues, Sërgio L; Baldo, Marcelo P; Mateus, Miguel S; Mill, Josë Geraldo

    The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially in countries with accelerated economic growth. We determined the prevalence of and associations between overweight/obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal (seven- to 11-year-old) schoolchildren (both genders, n = 198) in Luanda, Angola. Biochemical (fasting blood) and clinical examinations were obtained in a single visit. Data are reported as prevalence (95% confidence intervals) and association (r, Pearson). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 17.7% (12.4- 23.0%), high blood pressure (BP > 90% percentile) was 14.6% (9.7-19.5%), elevated glucose level was 16.7% (11.5-21.9%) and total cholesterol level > 170 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l) was 69.2% (62.8-75.6%). Significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic BP (r = 0.46 and 0.40, respectively; p Angola and fat accumulation was directly associated with blood pressure increase but not with other cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. Lipoprotein (a) and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Ástrid Camêlo; Leal, Adriana Amorim de F; Ramos, Nathaly de Medeiros N; Neto, José de Alencar F; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da S; Medeiros, Carla Campos M

    2013-12-01

    To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children and adolescents. This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a) levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a) and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a) levels and the lipid profile. The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates.

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular risk in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep breathing disorders in children encompasses a wide range of pathological conditions, among which obstructive sleep apnea is the most severe disorder. The paper gives data on a relationship of the above disorder to the higher risk for childhood cardiovascular disease. It indicates the link of obstructive sleep apnea to impaired autonomic regulation, which manifests itselfas hypersympaticotonia determined by cardiac rhythm characteristics, metabolic parameters, and blood pressure levels. Myocardial electrical instability is detected, which appears as increased QT interval dispersion on ECG. The observed changes raise the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Obstructive sleep apnea in children is accompanied by increases in vascular tone and blood pressure, change in the endothelial structure, and activation of a systemic inflammatory response, which contributes to atherogenetic processes. The above disorders can be persistent if timely treatment is absent. The diagnosis and correction of obstructive sleep apnea in children are constituents in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Update on Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Diagnosis, Cardiovascular Risk, and Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hak Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent studies, the reported prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH has been higher than in previous reports. Although cascade genetic screening is a good option for efficient identification of affected patients, diagnosis using only clinical criteria is more common in real clinical practice. Cardiovascular risk is much higher in FH patients due to longstanding low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C burden and is also influenced by other risk factors. Although guidelines emphasize aggressive LDL-C reduction, the majority of patients cannot reach the LDL-C goal by conventional pharmacotherapy. Novel therapeutics such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors have shown strong lipid lowering efficacy and are expected to improve treatment results in FH patients.

  12. Cardiovascular risk in climacteric women: focus on diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Angeles, C; Castelo-Branco, C

    2016-06-01

    A literature search was made using PubMed. The proportion of postmenopausal women has been continually increasing because of enhanced life expectancy. However, accompanying this trend, there is an observed increase in mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). All over the world, obesity rates are increasing and this fact is associated with expanded rates of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Many of these well-known risk factors for CVD can be modified by lifestyle changes. For this reason, nutritional strategies to prevent CVD in this population should be a primary objective for health-care providers. Any attempt at lifestyle modification should include behavioral changes and the implementation of healthy diets and physical activity. The Mediterranean diet is comparable with other interventions such as aspirin, statins, physical activity, and even antihypertensives in terms of reducing the risk of CVD morbidity, mortality and events. The aim of this review is to analyze the effect of dietary advice on postmenopausal women's health.

  13. Diagnostic inertia in obesity and the impact on cardiovascular risk in primary care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-St John, Damian R J; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F; Sepehri, Armina; N