WorldWideScience

Sample records for esis entwicklung studierender

  1. Entwicklung und Evaluation computerbasierter Trainingsaufgaben für das wissenschaftliche Schreiben

    OpenAIRE

    Proske, Antje

    2006-01-01

    Wissenschaftliches Schreiben ist eine sehr komplexe Aufgabe, die eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Aktivitäten umfasst. Viele Studierende haben jedoch Schwierigkeiten, die damit verbundenen Anforderungen selbständig zu bewältigen. Im Mittelpunkt des Interesses der vorliegenden Arbeit stand daher die Entwicklung und Evaluation interaktiver computerbasierter Trainingsaufgaben, die Studienanfänger beim Erwerb von Grundkompetenzen des wissenschaftlichen Schreibens unterstützen. Zentrale Anliegen di...

  2. Office 365 ProPlus für Studierende am KIT

    OpenAIRE

    Oberle, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    An Hochschulen Baden-Württembergs eingeschriebene Studierende können seit Dezember 2013 die Microsoft Office Suite Office 365 beziehen. Neu ist dabei die komfortable Anmeldung am Software-Portal, die über das landesweit an Universitäten und Hochschulen verfügbare Identitätsmanagement gesteuert wird.

  3. Wissenschaftliches Schreiben in der Fremdsprache Deutsch : am Beispiel von Abschlussarbeiten französischer Studierender

    OpenAIRE

    François, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem wissenschaftlichen Schreiben in der Fremdsprache Deutsch am Beispiel von Abschlussarbeiten französischer Studierender. Das Ziel der Dissertation ist herauszufinden, wie französische Germanistikstudierende die innere und äußere Form ihrer universitären Abschlussarbeit gestalten. Dabei soll untersucht werden, ob französische fortgeschrittene DaF-Lernende beim wissenschaftlichen Schreiben bestimmte Schwierigkeiten haben, die nicht allen DaF-Lerne...

  4. Polnische qualitative Soziologie: Entwicklung und Hauptthemen

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof T.; Kacperczyk, Anna M.; Marciniak, Lukasz T.

    2005-01-01

    In dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird die Entwicklung der qualitativen Soziologie in Polen rekonstruiert, indem deren wesentliche intellektuelle Wurzeln und einige Hauptthemen der polnischen Soziologie vorgestellt werden. Romantizismus und die induktive Methode sind essenzielle Elemente für die Entwicklung der Disziplin in Polen gewesen und Charakteristika ihrer Besonderheit. Die Bedeutung von Florian ZNANIECKI für die Entstehung der polnischen qualitativen Soziologie wird gewürdigt. URN: urn:n...

  5. Interkulturelles Lernen während eines kurzzeitigen, studienbegleitenden Fremdsprachenprogramms. Erfahrungen australischer Studierender in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Blood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Studienaufenthalte im Ausland werden im Zuge der Internationalisierung des Hochschulsystems von vielen australischen Universitäten gefördert. In dieser Studie werden die Wahrnehmungen von Austauschstudierenden untersucht, die sie während ihres kurzzeitigen Studienaufenthalts über die deutsche Sprache sowie über Umgangsformen, Sitten und Gebräuche im Gastland machen. Ziel der Studie ist eine Identifizierung von Faktoren, die interkulturelles Lernen erleichtern und deshalb von TutorInnen und Lehrenden bei der Vorbereitung auf ein Auslandsstudium berücksichtigt werden sollten. Zu diesem Zweck wurden mit zehn Studierenden, die an einem sechswöchigen Austauschprogramm in Stuttgart teilgenommen hatten, semi-strukturierte Interviews durchgeführt. Die Daten wurden mit der Methode der qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse untersucht, wobei deduktiv nach dem Modell der Entwicklung interkultureller Sensibilität von Bennett (1986 vorgegangen wurde. Die Ergebnisse unserer Studie weisen darauf hin, dass die Studierenden nur unzureichend in der Lage waren, interkulturelle Situationen zu reflektieren. Dies scheint mit der sprachlichen Kompetenz in der Fremdsprache (L2 und ihren bisherigen Erfahrungen auf Auslandsreisen zusammenzuhängen. Analysen des Mobilitätskapitals (Murphy-Lejeune 2003 könnten helfen, die Studierenden vor, während und nach dem Studienaufenthalt besser zu unterstützen. The support of ‘study abroad’ programs is part of an increasing effort made by Australian universities to internationalize the student experience. This study analyses student perceptions of colloquial language, manners and customs in the host country during a short-term study abroad program. The aim of the study is to identify the factors that influence intercultural learning and thus should be taken into account in order for administrators and instructors to best support students taking part in such short-term exchanges. Bennett’s model of the development of

  6. Technology-Enhanced Learning @ CELSTEC: Ausgangslage, Entwicklung und Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Klemke, R. (2011). Technology-Enhanced Learning @ CELSTEC: Ausgangslage, Entwicklung und Trends. Presentation given to visitors from Currenta GmbH in the Learning Media Lab. February, 15, 2011, Heerlen, Netherlands. ICoper-project.

  7. Aufgabenbezogene Differenzierung und Entwicklung des verbalen Selbstkonzepts im Anfangsunterricht

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowsky, Frank; Kastens, Claudia; Lotz, Miriam; Faust, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, wie sich aufgabenbezogene Differenzierung im Deutschunterricht auf die Entwicklung des verbalen Selbstkonzepts von Erst- und Zweitklässlern (Lesen und Schreiben) auswirkt. Die untersuchte Stichprobe setzt sich aus 735 Schülern des ersten Schuljahres zusammen, die 38 Klassen an staatlichen und privaten Grundschulen besuchen und die bis zum Ende des zweiten Schuljahres in ihrer Entwicklung untersucht wurden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen sowohl einen indirekten als au...

  8. 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) utilizes a refined methodology based on the 2000 Pilot ESI effort, to construct an index covering 122 countries...

  9. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  10. 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) measures overall progress toward environmental sustainability for 142 countries based on environmental systems,...

  11. Politische Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und die UN-Dekade der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    Brunold, Andreas (Prof.)

    2009-01-01

    Politische Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und die UN-Dekade der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. - In: Aktuelle theoretische und empirische Projekte in der Politikdidaktik / GPJE (Hrsg.). - Schwalbach/Ts. : Wochenschau-Verl., 2009. - S. 68-83. - (Schriftenreihe der Gesellschaft für Politikdidaktik und Politische Jugend- und Erwachsenenbildung ; 8)

  12. Die Entwicklung von Kindern: eine Einführung

    OpenAIRE

    Siegler, Robert; DeLoache, Judy; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Das Kapitel behandelt zunächst die Gründe für die Untersuchung der Kindesentwicklung und ihre historischen Wurzeln. Es werden anschließend Leitfragen der Kindesentwicklung sowie Methoden der Untersuchung kindlicher Entwicklung erläutert. Eine Zusammenfassung stellt schließlich die Kernthesen der einzelnen Abschnitte in einer kompakten Übersicht dar.(DIPF/paul)

  13. Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur enzymkatalysierten Synthese eines strukturierten Triglycerides

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Hans-Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Ausgangspunkt für die in der vorliegenden Arbeit durchgeführten Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur Synthese des strukturierten Triglycerides 1,3-Oleyl-2-palmitoylglycerin war die von Schmid [Schmid 1999] entwickelte lipase-katalysierte Zwei-Schritt-Synthese für strukturierte Triglyceride vom Typ ABA [European Patent Application; EP 0 882 797 A2]. In der ersten Reaktionsstufe dieser zweistufigen Umesterung wird in einer Folgereaktion das Substrat Tripalmitin mit Hilfe ein...

  14. Gender - Schlüsselthema für Entwicklung sowie Bildung für Nachhaltige Entwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    von Hagen, Markéta; Willems, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter ist international als Schlüssel für Nachhaltige Entwicklung anerkannt. Die internationale und deutsche Entwicklungszusammenarbeit hat zum Ziel, Frauen und Männer gleichermaßen am Entwicklungsprozess zu beteiligen und profitieren zu lassen. Die Integration des Gender-Ansatzes bedeutet, dass Entwicklungsmaßnahmen die Geschlechterverhältnisse berücksichtigen und versuchen diese im Sinne der Gleichberechtigung zu beeinflussen. Der Gender-Ansatz ist einerseits a...

  15. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HABITATS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  16. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  17. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  18. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: KARST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  19. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  20. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  1. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: WETLANDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  2. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  3. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  4. Medienkompetenz multiplizieren? Entwicklung eines Multiplikator/-innenkonzepts im Lehramtsstudium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Müller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zur Förderung von Medienkompetenz und medienpädagogischer Kompetenz in der universitären Lehramtsausbildung wurde an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen ein Lehrprojekt initiiert, das an der aktuellen technologischen Ausstattung von deutschen Schulen ansetzt. Als Zugang wurde die Technologie der interaktiven Whitebords gewählt, um gegenwärtige Entwicklungen der Digitalisierung von Unterrichtsräumen zu thematisieren und dabei ausgewählte Aspekte von Medienkompetenz zu fördern. In dem Projekt haben verschiedene Einrichtungen der Universität und der Lehrerbildung kooperiert, um eine Multiplikator/-innenschulung für Studierende zu erarbeiten und zu etablieren. Es wurde eine 28-stündige Qualifizierungsreihe entwickelt, die sich aus modularisierten Workshops zur medientechnischen und -didaktischen Auseinandersetzung mit interaktiven Whiteboards, Elementen der Tutor/-innenausbildung sowie der Erarbeitung eines eigenen Unterrichtsentwurfes zusammensetzt. In dem Artikel werden die entwickelten Module vorgestellt und bewertet, inwieweit sie den von Herzig, Aßmann und Klar (2014 formulierten Zielvorstellungen zur Medienkompetenzförderung für das Lehramtsstudium entsprechen. Im Abgleich mit diesen Zielvorstellungen werden Entwicklungspotentiale des Konzepts identifiziert. Darüber hinaus fliessen Ergebnisse der praktischen Durchführung in Optimierungsvorschläge zur Steigerung der Nachhaltigkeit und Qualität der didaktischen Kompetenzen zum Einsatz von interaktiven Whiteboards in der Lehramtsausbildung – und darüber vermittelt im Schulunterricht – ein.

  5. Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung und Fairer Handel

    OpenAIRE

    Mathar, Reiner

    2003-01-01

    Im Rahmen des BLK-Programms '21' kann Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung im schulischen Rahmen greifbar gemacht werden. Der Beitrag beschreibt einige Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten am Beispiel des Fairen Handels. (DIPF/Orig.)

  6. Politische Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und das Konzept des Globalen Lernens

    OpenAIRE

    Brunold, Andreas (Prof.)

    2009-01-01

    Politische Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und das Konzept des Globalen Lernens. - In: Standortbestimmung Politische Bildung / Heinrich Oberreuter (Hrsg.). - Schwalbach/Ts. : Wochenschau-Verl., 2009. - S. 307-333. - (Tutzinger Schriften zur politischen Bildung)

  7. Entwicklung und Anwendung neuer NMR-Methoden: Orientierungsmedien zur Strukturbestimmung mit anisotropen Parametern und Metabonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Büchler, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Entwicklung und Anwendung neuer Orientierungsmedien zur Strukturbestimmung mit anisotropen Parametern, sowie die Etablierung von Metabonomics-Studien an Flüssigzellkulturen und Reispflanzen.

  8. Is a mobile emergency severity index (ESI) triage better than the paper ESI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savatmongkorngul, Sorravit; Yuksen, Chaiyaporn; Suwattanasilp, Chanakarn; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the mobile emergency severity index (ESI) tool in terms of validity compared with the original ESI triage. The original ESI and mobile ESI were used with patients at the Department of Emergency Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. Eligible patients were evaluated by sixth-year medical students/emergency physicians using either the original or mobile ESI. The ESI results for each patient were compared with the standard ESI. Concordance and kappa statistics were calculated for pairs of the evaluators. There were 486 patients enrolled in the study; 235 patients (48.4%) were assessed using the mobile ESI, and 251 patients (51.6%) were in the original ESI group. The baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were mostly comparable except for the ED visit time. The percentages of concordance and kappa statistics in the original ESI group were lower than in the mobile group in all three comparisons (medical students vs gold standard, emergency physicians vs gold standard, and medical students vs emergency physicians). The highest kappa in the original ESI group is 0.69, comparing emergency physicians vs gold standard, while the lowest kappa in the application group is 0.84 comparing the medical students vs gold standard. Both medical students and emergency physicians are more confident with the mobile ESI application triage. In conclusion, the mobile ESI has better inter-rater reliability, and is more user-friendly than the original paper form.

  9. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  10. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  12. Strukturell-organisatorische Entwicklung und Etablierung eines interdisziplinären Trainingszentrums für klinisch-praktische Fertigkeiten [Structural and organizational development and establishment of an interdisciplinary Skills Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dott, Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    rztliche Handeln essentiell sind. Im Juli 2005 begann der Aufbau eines interdisziplinären Trainingszentrums an der medizinischen Fakultät der Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen, genannt „AIXTRA“ (Aachener interdisziplinäres Trainingszentrum für medizinische Ausbildung. Sach- und Personalmittel zur strukturellen und methodischen Etablierung des sog. Skillslab wurden zunächst aus einem fakultätsinternen Förderprogramm für innovative Lehrkonzepte, im weiteren Verlauf zum überwiegenden Teil aus Studienbeiträgen zur Verfügung gestellt. Methodik: Im Vorfeld wurden die folgenden notwendigen Schritte eines Projektmanagements erarbeitet: Entwicklung eines methodischen Rahmenkonzeptes, Definition der inhaltlichen Ausrichtung und Auswahl der Fertigkeiten, Schaffung infrastruktureller Voraussetzungen (Räume, Unterrichtsmaterial, Personal, Konzeptionierung von „Pilot-Kursen“, Realisierung repräsentabler „Meilensteine“, Gewinnung weiterer potenter fakultätsinterner Partner für zukünftigen Ausbau, Implementierung Kursangebot in laufende Curricula, Evaluation der Einzel-Kurse und des Gesamtkonzeptes. Ergebnis: Die vorab festgelegten Teilschritte des Projektmanagements erwiesen sich als zielführend bei der Umsetzung des Projektes. Eine „Minimal“-Infrastruktur in Bezug auf räumliche und personelle Ressourcen wurde etabliert, das methodische Konzept umgesetzt. Im Sommersemester 2008 besuchten insgesamt 709 Teilnehmer in 133 fakultativen Kursen und ca. 900 Studierende in curricularen Veranstaltungen das Skillslab „AIXTRA“. Schlussfolgerung: Nach drei Jahren wird im interdisziplinären Trainingszentrum eine breite Palette von Kursen angeboten, in denen Studierende praktische Fertigkeiten erlernen, trainieren und optimieren können. Die bisher gewonnenen Erfahrungen in der Konzeptionierung und Organisation des Kursprogramms sind essentielle Grundlage für den weiteren strukturellen und methodisch-didaktischen Ausbau des Skillslab.

  13. Umweltbildung - Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. Was macht den Unterschied?

    OpenAIRE

    Rost, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag will zeigen, dass Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung gegenüber herkömmlicher Umweltbildung tatsächlich eine neue Qualität hat. ... Das Konzept der Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung hat eine weitere Facette neben der Umweltbildung, nämlich das Konzept des globalen Lernens. Zunächst werden die zentralen Probleme dargestellt, die die Umwelterziehung in den vergangenen drei Jahrzehnten nicht lösen konnte und woran sie vielleicht gescheitert ist. Abschnitt 2 be...

  14. Western Alaska ESI: BIOINDEX (Biological Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of the 1:250,000 map boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  15. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  16. Virginia ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Virginia. The...

  17. 2000 Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2000 Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is an exploratory effort to construct an index that measures the ability of a nation's economy to achieve...

  18. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: FISH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  19. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  20. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  1. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Lines and Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  2. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: SHELFBND (Shelf Boundary)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  3. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BENTHIC (Benthic Marine Habitats)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  4. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: MGT (Management Areas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  5. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  6. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INVERT (Invertebrate Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  7. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  8. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: SALTPOND

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  9. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: MGT (Management Areas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  10. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  11. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  12. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  13. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: INVERT (Invertebrates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  14. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Bird Nests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  15. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  16. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  17. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types) / RSI (Reach Sensitivity Index River and Stream Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  18. Wie Geschwister sich in ihrer musikalischen Entwicklung beeinflussen. Ergebnisse einer Erhebung mit offenem Fragebogen

    OpenAIRE

    Olbertz, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    Die Rolle der Geschwister in der musikalischen Entwicklung sollte anhand empirischer Daten fassbar gemacht und damit eine Forschungslücke der musikalischen Entwicklungspsychologie geschlossen werden. Dazu wurden in der aktuellen Studie zunächst die Formen der musikalischen Beeinflussung unter Geschwistern qualitativ erhoben und kategorisiert. Einfache quantitative Analysen desselben Materials sollten auch Hypothesen über die Bedeutung einiger Variablen ermöglichen, wie z. B. des Altersabstand...

  19. Entwicklung von Cysteinproteaseinhibitoren - ein klassischer und ein kombinatorischer Ansatz zur Inhibitoroptimierung

    OpenAIRE

    Machon, Uwe Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Ziel der Dissertation „Entwicklung von Cysteinproteaseinhibitoren – ein klassischer und ein kombinatorischer Ansatz zur Inhibitoroptimierung“ war die Optimierung von neuen Inhibitoren von Falcipain-2 und Rhodesain als neue potentielle Wirkstoffe gegen Malaria bzw. die Schlafkrankheit über zwei verschiedene Methoden. Es handelt sich hierbei um einen klassischen und einen kombinatorischen Ansatz. Der klassische Ansatz basiert auf einer Struktur, deren Aktivität per Zufall entdeckt wurde. In Scr...

  20. Analysis of sesterterpenoids from Aspergillus terreus using ESI-QTOF and ESI-IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Fang, Dong-Mei; Han, Dan; Li, Guo-You; Chen, Xiao-Zhen; Qi, Hua-Yi; Zhang, Guo-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Biosynthesis of terretonin was studied due to the interesting skeleton of this series of sesterterpenoids. Very recently, López-Gresa reported two new sesterterpenoids (terretonins E and F) which are inhibitors of the mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mass spectrometry (MS), especially tandem mass spectrometry, has been one of the most important physicochemical methods for the identification of trace natural products due to it rapidity, sensitivity and low levels of sample consumption. The potential application prospect and unique skeleton prompted us to study structural characterisation using MS. To obtain sufficient information for rapid structural elucidation of this class of compounds using MS. The elemental composition of the product ions was confirmed by low-energy ESI-CID-QTOF-MS/MS analyses. The fragmentation pathways were postulated on the basis of ESI-QTOF-MS/MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS(n) spectra. Common features and major differences between ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and IT-MS(n) spectra were compared. For ESI-QTOF-MS/MS/MS experiments, capillary exit voltage was raised to induce in-source dissociation. Ammonium acetate or acetic acid were added into solutions to improve the intensity of [M + H]+. The collision energy was optimised to achieve sufficient fragmentation. Some fragmentation pathways were unambiguously proposed by the variety of abundance of fragment ions at different collision energies even without MS(n) spectra. Fragmentation pathways of five representative sesterterpenoids were elucidated using ESI-QTOF-MS/MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS(n) in both positive- and negative-ion mode. The key group of characterising fragmentation profiles was ring B, and these fragmentation patterns are helpful to identify different types of sestertepenoids. Complementary information obtained from fragmentation experiments of [M + H]+ (or [M + NH4]+ and [M-H](-) precursor ions is especially valuable for rapid identification of this kind of sesterterpenoid.

  1. Schreiberfahrungen internationaler Studierender im deutschen Hochschulkontext

    OpenAIRE

    Scheurer, Jana

    2017-01-01

    This master thesis examines international students’ writing experiences in the German academic context. It ties in with existing studies located in the field of academic writing research and contrastive rhetoric, yet attempts a paradigm shift by moving away from pure text analysis towards a more informant-focused approach. By the means of semi-struc- tured, problem-centered interviews, an emphasis is set on the participants’ perspectives, highlighting the point of view of the writers themselv...

  2. Die Entwicklung des Verhaltens bei der Nahrungsaufnahme, der Pflege und dem Spielen bei Kindern im 2. und 3. Lebensjahr in Tageseinrichtungen

    OpenAIRE

    Sporrer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit einem Teil des Dokumentationsbogens der kindlichen Entwicklung, der im Lóczy-Institut in Budapest unter der Leitung der Kinderärztin Emmi Pikler erarbeitet wurde. Mit ihm können außerhäuslich betreute Kinder in ihrer Entwicklung beobachtet und diese dokumentiert werden. Das Ziel ist, differenzierte Aussagen zur Entwicklung der betreuten Kinder machen zu können. Die Normierung des Bogens erfolgte erstmals in den 1960er Jahren in Ungarn. Wir führen in...

  3. Prospektive Entwicklung des postoperativen Sprachverstehens nach Tympanoplastik bei chronischer Otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Knof, B; Plotz, K; Krack, A; Stumper, J; Schönfeld, R

    2013-01-01

    Einleitung: Tympanoplastiken I/III bei chron. Otitis media COM (mesotympanalis CMOM und epitympanalis CEOM). In der Literatur werden erfolgreiche operative Behandlungen mit Verringerung der Schallleitungskomponente (air-bone gap) belegt (Gierke et al. 2011). Aus Sicht des Patienten steht die Verbesserung des Hörvermögens und des Sprachverstehens im Alltag im Vordergrund. Das Ziel war die Untersuchung der Entwicklung des Hörvermögens in Ruhe sowie im Störgeräusch.Methoden: An den Hör- und Sp...

  4. Der Einfluss von Anonymität in der Lehrevaluation durch Studierende [The Effects of Anonymity on Student Ratings of Teaching and Course Quality in a Bachelor Degree Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffner, Noemi

    2013-08-01

    is being taken seriously; consequently, they feel able to provide a constructive and honest evaluation.[german] Zielsetzung und Fragestellung: Unterscheiden sich die Ergebnisse anonymisierter und personalisierter Evaluationen? Methodik: Während zweier Jahre wurden bei jeder Modulevaluation alle Studierenden randomisiert den Halbgruppen „anonym“ und „personalisiert“ zugeteilt. Die Qualität des Moduls in seinen relevanten Aspekten wurde mit einem standardisierten Fragebogen erhoben. Zusätzlich konnten optionale Textantworten formuliert werden. Drei unabhängige Personen bewerteten die Aussagequalität der Antworten gemäss einem Leitfaden. Dieser beinhaltete die fünf Dimensionen positiv-negativ, differenziert-absolut, Nennung einer Person-allgemein, Befehl enthaltend-neutral und optisch akzentuiert-blank. Der Datensatz bestand aus 615 Fragebogen, davon waren 306 in anonymer Form. Mit einer multivariaten Varianzanalyse wurde überprüft, ob sich zwischen anonym und personalisiert erhobenen Daten ein Unterschied sowohl bei den durch Skalen bewerteten Aspekten als auch bei der Qualität der optionalen Textantworten zeigte. Zusätzlich wurde untersucht, ob sich die Häufigkeit der optionalen Textantworten unterschied.Ergebnisse: In der Aussagequalität liess sich kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen anonym und personalisiert erhobenen Daten nachweisen. Hingegen haben Studierende aus der personalisierten Gruppe tendenziell häufiger optionale Textantworten geliefert.Schlussfolgerung: Personalisierte Evaluationen generieren dann keine verfälschten Resultate im Sinne der sozialen Erwünschtheit, wenn der Evaluationszirkel geschlossen und transparent ist: Die Verantwortlichen melden den Studierenden die Evaluationsergebnisse konsequent zurück und Änderungs-, Optimierungswünsche und Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten werden mit ihnen diskutiert. Die Studierenden erfahren so, dass ihre Rückmeldungen ernst genommen werden. So können sie sich echte Kritik erlauben.

  5. Mineralogy And Raw Material Characterization Of Esie Stone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronprobe mineral data of samples of Esie statues is presented as a possible tool for provenance studies. Most of the samples contain talc, chlorite, cummingtonite and rarely tremolite. Other talc-bearing schists are prevalent in the Esie area. However talc-cummingtonite rocks, similar to the raw materials used for the ...

  6. 3D-Master-Leitungssatz - Konzept zur Entwicklung von Leitungssätzen als 3D-Master in einem realistischen, vollständigen DMU-Modell

    OpenAIRE

    Neckenich, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Die Fokussierung auf eine 3D-orientierte Produktentwicklung und einen durchgängigen 3D-Prozess wird in der heutigen Industrie immer wichtiger. Im Entwicklungsprozess des Kabelbaums trifft dabei die bauraumorientierte 3D-Entwicklung auf die produktorientierte 2D-Entwicklung. Die unsaubere Trennung zwischen bestehenden Definitionssystemen im heutigen Entwicklungsprozess führt dabei zu Datendiskrepanzen, Zeitverzug und Fehlern. Im Digital Mock-Up, welcher zur digitalen Absicherung des Fahrzeugs ...

  7. Columbia River ESI: NWI (National Wetlands Inventory - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the wetlands of Columbia River classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification...

  8. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  9. Western Alaska ESI: STREAMS (River and Stream Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing inland linear hydrography features used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western...

  10. North Slope, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the North...

  11. Columbia River ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Columbia...

  12. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Bristol...

  13. Die Etablierung massenspektrometrischer quantitativer Studien des Herzproteoms während der embryonalen Entwicklung und der Alterung

    OpenAIRE

    Konzer, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Neue Erkenntnisse über die physiologischen, molekularen und pathologischen Prozesse im Herzen konnten im letzten Jahrzehnt anhand von Modellorganismen gewonnen werden. Die Entwicklung neuer Techniken ermöglichte außerdem die Etablierung umfangreicher und eindrucksvoller Studien basierend auf den neusten Mikroskopieverfahren, auf globalen Genexpressionsanalysen (Microarray) sowie auf modernen Massenspektrometrie (MS)- basierenden Proteinanalysen anhand von hochauflösenden Tandem-Massenspektrom...

  14. Review: Gerd Jüttemann (Hrsg. (2013. Die Entwicklung der Psyche in der Geschichte der Menschheit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Krebs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Vorbereitungsband für die Reihe "Die Psychogenese der Menschheit" – ein Sammelband aus 32 Beiträgen, betitelt "Die Entwicklung der Psyche in der Geschichte der Menschheit" und 2013 herausgegeben von Gerd JÜTTEMANN – wird in dieser Besprechung in mehreren Schritten vorgestellt und bewertet. Zunächst wird kontextuell argumentiert, dass die bewährte, empirisch-experimentelle Methodologie der Psychologie zur Vernachlässigung weiterer Erkenntnisverfahren führte, die bei Themen wie dem hier zu besprechenden Werk allein verbleiben und die kurz angesprochen werden. Sodann wird das Werk im Überblick knapp dargestellt und die außergewöhnliche Heterogenität in Inhalten und Methoden betont. Die Besprechung einzelner Beiträge, die nach dem Gesichtspunkt großer Unterschiedlichkeit ausgewählt wurden, schließt sich an. Die abschließende Gesamtbewertung betont den lückenhaften Forschungsstand, die Notwendigkeit der allein verbleibenden qualitativen Methodik mit ihren verschiedenen Möglichkeiten und nennt Desiderata künftigen Vorgehens für diesen thematisch und methodisch interessanten Auftakt-Band, der insbesondere durch Dichte und Verschiedenheit der Beiträge beeindruckt. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1502219

  15. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hudson River, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Hudson River from 1942 to 2005. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  19. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Virginia, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014794)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Virginia from 1998 to 2004 (vs. 2 GDB). ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  1. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: New Hampshire, maps and Geographic Information Systems data (NODC Accession 0014789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the New Hampshire coast from 2003 to 2004. ESI data characterize estuarine environments...

  3. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Cook Inlet, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems (NODC Accession 0046027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  5. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  6. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Georgia, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013780)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Georgia. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  8. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Columbia River, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013951)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Columbia River from 1979 to 2004. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Kodiak, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0026418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Kodiak Island and Shelikof Strait, Alaska. ESI data characterize...

  10. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  11. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Lines and Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  12. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  13. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  14. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  15. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  16. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: HABITATS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Lines and Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Mississippi, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013801)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Mississippi. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Louisiana maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013802)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Louisiana. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  1. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  2. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Salinity, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_salinity_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) salinity data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  3. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_fresh_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) fresh marsh data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Seagrass, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_seagrass_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) seagrass data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  5. Renewables in figures. National and international trends in 2016; Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen. Nationale und internationale Entwicklung im Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-09-15

    The expansion of renewable energies is a central pillar of the energy transition. The development is positive: In 2016, renewable energies accounted for 31.7 percent of total gross electricity consumption. The brochure informs about the progress achieved in the further development of renewable energies in Germany, Europe and the world. The data on the development of renewable energies in Germany is based on the results of the Working Group on Renewable Energy Statistics (AGEE-Stat), which compiles the balance sheet of renewable energies for Germany on behalf of the BMWi. The data published here are a snapshot with the editorial deadline of August 2016 - they are still provisional in some places, especially for 2016. At the same time, current time series on the development of renewable energies in Germany since 1990 as well as a variety of graphs are published on the websites of the BMWi. These time series and graphs will be updated at the turn of the year 2017/2018. [German] Der Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien ist eine zentrale Saeule der Energiewende. Die Entwicklung ist positiv: Im Jahr 2016 hatten die erneuerbare Energien einen Anteil von 31,7 Prozent am gesamten Bruttostromverbrauch. Mit der Broschuere wird ueber den erreichten Fortschritt beim weiteren Ausbau der Erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland, in Europa und der Welt informiert. Grundlage der Daten zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland sind die Ergebnisse der Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat), die im Auftrag des BMWi die Bilanz der erneuerbaren Energien fuer Deutschland erarbeitet. Die hier veroeffentlichten Daten stellen eine Momentaufnahme mit Redaktionsschluss August 2016 dar - sie haben insbesondere fuer das Jahr 2016 an einigen Stellen noch vorlaeufigen Charakter. Parallel werden auf den Internetseiten des BMWi aktuelle Zeitreihen zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland seit dem Jahr 1990 sowie vielfaeltige Schaubilder veroeffentlicht

  6. Möglichkeiten der Umsetzung einer Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung unter Verwendung kooperativer Lernformen im Geographieunterricht

    OpenAIRE

    Stange, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    „Ohne Nachhaltigkeit gibt es keine gute Zukunft“ betonte die Bildungsstaatssekretärin Cornelia Quennet-Thielen in einem Interview Anfang Oktober (BMBF 2015). Sie erklärte weiter: „Und ohne Bildung bleibt Nachhaltigkeit nur eine Forderung.“ (ebd.) Genau zehn Jahre sind vergangen, seit die Vereinten Nationen die UN-Dekade für Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung, kurz BNE, ausriefen. Der Leitgedanken der Nachhaltigkeit sollte über die Bildung Eingang in die Alltagswelten finden. Nun ist die UN-D...

  7. "Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung" - die Sicht der Kinder : Ergebnisse aus dem weltweiten OMEP-Projekt

    OpenAIRE

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Während der UNESCO Dekade „Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung“ (BNE) führte die Weltorganisation für Frühe Bildung (OMEP) zwischen 2009-2014 ein umfangreiches Projekt zum Thema Nachhaltigkeit durch. Das übergeordnete Ziel des Projektes war das Bewußtsein der OMEP Mitglieder und der internationalen Fachgemeinde für die Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) zu stärken. Dabei wurde ein besonderer Fokus auf die kindorientierte Perspektive gelegt.

  8. Development with DMU. Options in the modern product life cycle; Entwicklung mit DMU. Moeglichkeiten im modernen Produktlebenszyklus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, H.; Moser, H. [Competent Engineering GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2005-02-01

    In this contribution, the Graz-based development company Competent Engineering outlines the advantages of digital mock-ups for efficient product development. The focus is on a uniform product and data structure that is to ensure early availability of DMU for all stages of the product life cycle. (orig.) [German] Der Grazer Entwicklungsdienstleister Competent Engineering beschreibt in diesem Beitrag anhand der Entwicklung eines Ottomotors, welche Vorteile der Einsatz von Digital Mock-Ups fuer eine effiziente Produktentwicklung hat. Besondere Bedeutung hat dabei eine moeglichst durchgaengige Produkt- und Datenstruktur, um eine fruehe Verfuegbarkeit der DMUs fuer alle Bereiche innerhalb des Produktlebenszyklus zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  9. Characterization, stoichiometry, and stability of salivary protein-tannin complexes by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canon, Francis; Paté, Franck; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Marlin, Thérèse; Cheynier, Véronique; Giuliani, Alexandre; Sarni-Manchado, Pascale

    2009-12-01

    Numerous protein-polyphenol interactions occur in biological and food domains particularly involving proline-rich proteins, which are representative of the intrinsically unstructured protein group (IUP). Noncovalent protein-ligand complexes are readily detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which also gives access to ligand binding stoichiometry. Surprisingly, the study of interactions between polyphenolic molecules and proteins is still an area where ESI-MS has poorly benefited, whereas it has been extensively applied to the detection of noncovalent complexes. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been applied to the detection and the characterization of the complexes formed between tannins and a human salivary proline-rich protein (PRP), namely IB5. The study of the complex stability was achieved by low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) measurements, which are commonly implemented using triple quadrupole, hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight, or ion trap instruments. Complexes composed of IB5 bound to a model polyphenol EgCG have been detected by ESI-MS and further analyzed by MS/MS. Mild ESI interface conditions allowed us to observe intact noncovalent PRP-tannin complexes with stoichiometries ranging from 1:1 to 1:5. Thus, ESI-MS shows its efficiency for (1) the study of PRP-tannin interactions, (2) the determination of stoichiometry, and (3) the study of complex stability. We were able to establish unambiguously both their stoichiometries and their overall subunit architecture via tandem mass spectrometry and solution disruption experiments. Our results prove that IB5.EgCG complexes are maintained intact in the gas phase.

  10. Entwicklung der Reglementierung von 10 MEM-Berufen im Kontext von Bildungsreformen und dem Wandel in der Arbeitswelt: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, Baden

    OpenAIRE

    Egg, Maria Esther; Renold, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Im Auftrag der LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, hat die KOF die Entwicklung von 10 MEM1-Berufsbildern seit dem ersten Berufsbildungsgesetz dargestellt und diese eingebettet in eine kurze Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Etappenschritte des Schweizer Berufsbildungssystems.

  11. Energy report for Bavaria, 1996/97. Data on the development of the Bavarian energy industry, with an energy balance; Energiebericht Bayern 1996/97. Daten zur Entwicklung der bayerischen Energiewirtschaft mit Energiebilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The report presents the energy balance for Bavaria and provides information on: Bavarian energy industry; structure and development of primary and end-use energy consumption; situation and development of energy sources (electricity, gas, mineral oil, coal, district heating). (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt die Energiebilanz Bayern fuer das Berichtsjahr und bietet Informationen zur Energiewirtschaft in Bayern, zur Struktur und Entwicklung des Primaer- und Endenergieverbrauchs und zur Situation und Entwicklung bei den einzelnen Energietraegern (Elektrizitaet, Gas, Mineraloel, Kohle, Fernwaerme). (orig.)

  12. Structure characterization of lipocyclopeptide antibiotics, aspartocins A, B & C, by ESI-MSMS and ESI-nozzle-skimmer-MSMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marshall M; Kong, Fangming; Feng, Xidong; Carter, Guy T

    2009-12-01

    Three lipocyclopeptide antibiotics, aspartocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were obtained from the aspartocin complex by HPLC separation methodology. Their structures were elucidated using previously published chemical degradation results coupled with spectroscopic studies including ESI-MS, ESI-Nozzle Skimmer-MSMS and NMR. All three aspartocin compounds share the same cyclic decapeptide core of cyclo [Dab2 (Asp1-FA)-Pip3-MeAsp4-Asp5-Gly6-Asp7-Gly8-Dab9-Val10-Pro11]. They differ only in the fatty acid side chain moiety (FA) corresponding to (Z)-13-methyltetradec-3-ene-carbonyl, (+,Z)-12-methyltetradec-3-ene-carbonyl and (Z)-12-methyltridec-3-ene-carbonyl for aspartocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), respectively. All of the sequence ions were observed by ESI-MSMS of the doubly charged parent ions. However, a number of the sequence ions observed were of low abundance. To fully sequence the lipocyclopeptide antibiotic structures, these low abundance sequence ions together with complementary sequence ions were confirmed by ESI-Nozzle-Skimmer-MSMS of the singly charged linear peptide parent fragment ions H-Asp5-Gly6-Asp7-Gly8-Dab9-Val10-Pro11-Dab2(1+)-Asp1-FA. Cyclization of the aspartocins was demonstrated to occur via the beta-amino group of Dab2 from ions of moderate intensity in the ESI-MSMS spectra. As the fatty acid moieties do not undergo internal fragmentations under the experimental ESI mass spectral conditions used, the 14 Da mass difference between the fatty acid moieties of aspartocins A (1) and B (2) versus aspartocin C (3) was used as an internal mass tag to differentiate fragment ions containing fatty acid moieties and those not containing the fatty acid moieties. The most numerous and abundant fragment ions observed in the tandem mass spectra are due to the cleavage of the tertiary nitrogen amide of the pipecolic acid residue-3 (16 fragment ions) and the proline residue-11 (7 fragment ions). In addition, the neutral loss of ethanimine from alpha

  13. Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterizations of ESI-09 Based EPAC Inhibitors: Defining the ESI-09 “Therapeutic Window”

    OpenAIRE

    Yingmin Zhu; Haijun Chen; Stephen Boulton; Fang Mei; Na Ye; Giuseppe Melacini; Jia Zhou; Xiaodong Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The cAMP signaling cascade is one of the most frequently targeted pathways for the development of pharmaceutics. A plethora of recent genetic and pharmacological studies suggest that exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (EPACs) are implicated in multiple pathologies. Selective EPAC inhibitors have been recently developed. One specific inhibitor, ESI-09, has been shown to block EPAC activity and functions, as well as to recapitulate genetic phenotypes of EPAC knockout mice when applied...

  14. Renewable energies in Germany. Data on the development in 2016; Erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland. Daten zur Entwicklung im Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    The Working Group on Renewable Energy Statistics (AGEE-Stat), which regularly evaluates the use of renewable energies on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, has made an initial assessment of the development of renewable energies in Germany on the basis of available, mostly provisional data of 2016. The present background paper describes the previous findings for the areas of electricity, heat and transport, supplemented by figures on economic significance as well as on emission reductions through renewable energies. [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat), die im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Wirtschaft und Energie regelmaessig die Nutzung der erneuerbaren Energien bilanziert, hat auf der Grundlage verfuegbarer, zumeist vorlaeufiger Daten eine erste Abschaetzung zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland im Jahr 2016 erstellt. Das vorliegende Hintergrundpapier beschreibt die bisherigen Erkenntnisse fuer die Bereiche Strom, Waerme und Verkehr, ergaenzt um Zahlen zur wirtschaftlichen Bedeutung sowie zur Emissionsvermeidung durch erneuerbare Energien.

  15. Der Weg zum Java-Profi Konzepte und Techniken für die professionelle Java-Entwicklung

    CERN Document Server

    Inden, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sie haben bereits Einiges an Erfahrung mit Java und möchten Ihre Entwicklungstätigkeit nun professionalisieren? Oder sind Sie schon auf dem Weg zum Profi, benötigen aber ein Nachschlagewerk, das Ihnen die wichtigen Themen aus der Java-Welt kompakt und kompetent vermittelt? Dieses Buch bietet eine umfassende Einführung in die professionelle Entwicklung und vermittelt Ihnen das notwendige Wissen, um stabile und erweiterbare Softwaresysteme auf Java-SE-Basis zu bauen. Praxisnahe Beispiele helfen dabei, das Gelernte rasch umzusetzen. Neben der Praxis wird viel Wert auf das Verständnis zugrunde liegender Konzepte gelegt. Dabei kommen dem Autor Michael Inden seine umfangreichen Schulungs- und Entwicklererfahrungen zugute - und Ihnen als Leser damit ebenso. Diese Neuauflage wurde durchgehend überarbeitet, aktualisiert und erweitert. Natürlich darf das aktuelle Java 8 nicht fehlen. Verschiedene Kapitel sind Java 8 und seinen Neuerungen gewidmet. Dort wird ein fundierter Einstieg in die umfangreichen Erweit...

  16. Status reports on the development and application of acoustic emission analysis. Proceedings; Statusberichte zur Entwicklung und Anwendung der Schallemissionsanalyse. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-01

    The colloquium lectures represent the wide range of applications in acoustic emission analysis and testing in the areas of damage development and damage mechanisms, testing of components, condition monitoring, development of new measuring systems and sensors as well as software development regarding locating methods and signal analysis. One focus of the colloquium is on current hardware and software developments for status monitoring by means of AE monitoring. One of the papers was separately analyzed for this database. [German] Die Vortraege des Kolloquiums repraesentieren das breite Spektrum der Anwendungen der Schallemissionsanalyse und -pruefung in den Bereichen der Schadensentwicklung und Schadensmechanismen, Pruefung von Bauteilen, Zustandsueberwachung, Entwicklung neuer Messsysteme und Sensoren sowie Softwareentwicklung bezueglich Ortungsverfahren und Signalanalyse. Ein Schwerpunkt des Kolloquiums betrifft aktuelle Hard- und Softwareentwicklungen zur Zustandsueberwachung durch AE-Monitoring.

  17. From eco-efficiency in overall sustainable development in enterprises; Von Oekoeffizienz zu nachhaltiger Entwicklung in Unternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizsaecker, E.U. von; Stigson, B; Seiler-Hausmann, J D [eds.

    2001-07-01

    Eco-efficiency is achieved when goods and services satisfy human needs, increase the quality of life, at prices which are competitive and when environmental impacts and resource intensity are decreased to a degree that they are in accordance with the expected capacities of the Earth. Eco-efficiency is a management approach that allows enterprises to carry out environmental protection measures from a market-oriented point of view. Eco-efficiency shows that ecology and economy do not contradict each other. On the contrary, in combination, they present a gain for enterprises. The motto is: To produce more with less. The WBCSD and its member enterprises have agreed to make economic growth and sustainable development the guideline for their economic entrepreneurial actions. The WBCSD supports the close co-operation of the economy, government and other organizations, as it is only together that we can help sustainable development to achieve a breakthrough. (orig.) [German] Oekoeffizienz ist dann erreicht, wenn Gueter und Dienstleistungen die menschlichen Beduerfnisse befriedigen, die Lebensqualitaet erhoehen und wettbewerbsfaehige Preise aufweisen, und die oekologischen Auswirkungen und die Ressourcenintensitaet waehrend des Lebenszyklus soweit verringert werden, dass eine Uebereinstimmung mit der voraussichtlichen Belastbarkeit der Erde besteht. Oekoeffizienz steht fuer einen Managementansatz, der Unternehmen erlaubt, Umweltschutzmassnahmen unter Marktgesichtspunkten durchzufuehren. Mit Oekoeffizienz wird zum Ausdruck gebracht, dass Oekonomie und Oekologie sich nicht ausschliessen, sondern in Kombination einen Gewinn fuer Unternehmen darstellen. Das Motto lautet: Mehr mit weniger produzieren. Der WBCSD und seine Mitgliedsunternehmen haben sich darauf verstaendigt, ihr Handeln von den Prinzipien des oekonomischen Wachstums und der nachhaltigen Entwicklung leiten zu lassen. Der WBCSD unterstuetzt die enge Zusammenarbeit von Wirtschaft, Staat und anderen Organisationen

  18. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicators Collection contains 103 variables for 146...

  19. Design improvements to the ESI-80 wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T.; Kleeman, A.; Manwell, J.; McGowan, J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes two investigations related to improvements to an ESI-80 wind turbine. One of them involved modeling the tip flaps during braking. The other was a study of the turbine behavior with various delta-3 angles. These topics are of interest since the turbine is a two-bladed, teetered, free-yaw machine with tip flaps and an adjustable delta-3 angle. Tip flaps are used for slowing the turbine during shutdown and as an emergency system to insure that the rotor does not go into an overspeed condition in the event of failure of other parts of the system. Upon deployment, the tip flaps are exposed to a number of varying forces including aerodynamic, damper, spring, centripetal, and gravitational forces and forces at the hinged connection to the blades. For maximum braking the angle of tip flap deployment needs to be as large as possible without striking the blades in overspeed conditions and when covered with ice. To investigate tip flap design tradeoffs, a dynamic model of the tip flaps on the modified ESI-80 turbine was developed. Results include a determination of the effect of the addition of weight to the flap, overspeed conditions, and changes in damping coefficient. Changes in the delta-3 angle can be used to couple pitching and flapping motions, affecting both teeter and yaw behavior. These effects have been investigated using a modified version of YawDyn. The effects of changes in the delta-3 angle on the teeter and yaw behavior of the modified ESI-80 wind turbine were investigated. Results show that increased teeter excursions in steady high winds can be reduced by increasing the delta-3 angle. Increasing the delta-3 angle may also increase yaw motion in low wind speeds. Results suggest that the optimum delta-3 angle for improved performance may be substantially greater than the presently used angle of zero degrees. 8 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung. Bericht der BLK an die Regierungschefs von Bund und Ländern zur Umsetzung des Orientierungsrahmens

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Der Orientierungsrahmen "Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung" wurde 1998 durch die Bund-Länder-Kommission für Bildungsplanung und Forschungsförderung (BLK) beschlossen. In dem vorliegenden Dokument wird auf der Grundlage einer Umfrage der BLK-Geschäftsstelle bei den Kultus- und Wissenschaftsministerien über seine Umsetzung berichtet. Der Bericht gliedert sich wie folgt: 1. Rechtliche und politische Grundlagen sowie landesspezifische Initiativen/Programme einer Bildung für nachhaltige Ent...

  1. Entwicklung und Evaluierung eines auf dem Stellungsfeldermodell basierenden syntaktischen Annotationsverfahrens für Lernerkorpora innerhalb einer Mehrebenen-Architektur mit Schwerpunkt auf schriftlichen Texten fortgeschrittener Deutschlerner

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, Seanna

    2008-01-01

    Die Arbeit zeigt exemplarisch die Möglichkeiten, die die Mehrebenen-Korpusarchitektur bei der Annotation von „standard-“ und „nicht standardsprachlichen“ Äußerungen in einem gemeinsamen Korpus bieten. // Konkret beschäftigt sie sich mit der Entwicklung und Evaluierung eines auf dem Stellungsfeldermodell basierenden syntaktischen Annotationsverfahrens für Lernerkorpora, bestehend aus schriftlichen Texten fortgeschrittener Deutschlerner, innerhalb einer Mehrebenen-Architektur. Die Felderannotat...

  2. Wie wichtig ist der Unterricht in Medizinethik und Medizingeschichte im Medizinstudium? Eine empirische Studie zu den Einschätzungen Studierender [How Important is Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Teaching in the Medical Curriculum? An Empirical Approach towards Students' Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    negative impact. Therefore the teaching of GTE should already begin in the 1 semester. The teaching of GTE must take into account that even right at the start of their studies, students judge medical ethics and the history of medicine differently.[german] Zielsetzung: Es wurde untersucht, wie Studierende zu Beginn und im Verlauf ihres Studiums den Unterricht in Medizinethik und Medizingeschichte einschätzen und welchen Einfluss der durchgeführte bzw. fehlende fachspezifische Unterricht in Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin (GTE auf die Wertschätzung der Fächer hat.Methodik: Befragt wurden im WS 2005/6 insgesamt 533 Studierende des 1. und 5. Fachsemesters aus dem Bochumer Modell- (GTE-Unterricht ab dem 1. Fachsemester und Regelstudiengang (GTE-Unterricht im 5./6. Fachsemester. Befragt wurde jeweils vor und nach dem 1. bzw. 5. oder 6. Semester. Wir fragten nach der Einschätzung der Bedeutung der Lehre in Medizinethik und Medizingeschichte für die Studierenden, nach der Bedeutung der Fächer für den Arzt sowie nach ihrer Lehr- und Prüfbarkeit (Likert Skala von -2 (stimme überhaupt nicht zu bis +2 (stimme völlig zu.Ergebnisse: 331 Fragebogenpaare wurden in die Studie einbezogen. Zwischen den Studierenden der beiden Studiengänge fanden sich zu Beginn des 1. Semesters keine signifikanten Unterschiede. Die Einschätzungen der Medizinethik und der Medizingeschichte unterschieden sich zu Beginn des Studiums jedoch signifikant: Die Bedeutung der Medizinethik für die eigene Person und für den Arzt wurde als sehr hoch eingeschätzt, deutlich schlechter ihre Lehr- und Prüfbarkeit. Für die Medizingeschichte waren die Ergebnisse genau entgegengesetzt.Durch den GTE-Unterricht verbesserten sich dann in beiden Studiengängen die Einschätzungen in den vorher weniger gut bewerteten Items. Fehlender Unterricht führte zur Verschlechterung der Einschätzung beider Fächer in den vorher gut bewerteten Items.Schlussfolgerung: Im Einklang mit der Literatur unterst

  3. esis: un oasis intelectual en el desierto chihuahuense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Payán Alvarado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante dos décadas, la revista académica Nóesis ha sido uno de los oasis intelectuales de la investigación científica social en el estado de Chihuahua. Su trayectoria durante estos veinte años constituye, primero, un reconocimiento de nuestro rezago en la indagación científica dentro de las ciencias sociales y, segundo, un compromiso importante para subsanar nuestras deficiencias en este terreno. El presente ensayo formula tres preguntas importantes a fin de explorar la trayectoria de Nóesis: Unde venis?, Ubi es?, y Quo vadis?, mediante las cuales se pretende explorar brevemente el pasado, el presente, y el futuro de la revista, dadas las condiciones actuales de la comunidad epistémica de la Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, del estado de Chihuahua y de la región norte de México.

  4. [Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) vs. Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ). Direct comparison in a clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, R

    2005-09-01

    This study is the first to directly compare two clinical questionnaires which are both aimed at self-experienced cognitive dysfunctions of schizophrenia: Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ). Evaluated were (a) diagnostic validity, (b) psychometric properties, (c) scale intercorrelations, and (d) factor analytic stability. Ad (a): schizophrenic subjects (n=36) show highly significant increases in the ESI scales and sum score when compared to other clinical groups (patients with depression, alcohol dependence, or obsessive-compulsive disorder, n>30, respectively); on the other hand, the FCQ yields no systematic group differences. Ad (b): mean of reliability coefficients (Cronbach alpha) of the ESI scales is r(tt)=0.86, mean of reliability coefficients of the FCQ scales is significantly lower. Ad (c): the mean intercorrelation between ESI and FCQ scales amounts to r(xy)=0.56 (minimum 0.29, maximum 0.73), corresponding to an average shared variance of about 31%. Ad (d): factor analysis yielded an ESI factor and a FBF factor; one-way ANOVA with the factor scores confirms the diagnostic validity of the ESI. ESI and FCQ measure essentially different aspects of schizophrenic psychopathology. Regarding reliability and diagnostic validity, the ESI is superior to the FCQ.

  5. Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, DIP-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized DIP-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-06-01

    The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (DIP-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the DIP-APCI and the developed DIP-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with DIP-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the DIP-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the DIP-ESI principle.

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Northwest Arctic, Alaska, volume 2, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0046028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay - 1998, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0036884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  8. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay, California maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Aleutian Islands, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by...

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puerto Rico - 2000, maps and geographic information systems data DVD (NODC Accession 0014188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main components: shoreline...

  11. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: US and British Virgin Islands, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0002069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina and South Carolina Digital Data Re-release, 1996 (NODC Accession 0049956)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Indexes (ESI) data for North and South Carolina. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Prince William Sound, Alaska, Volumes 1 and 2, geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0019218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  15. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Brackish Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_brackish_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) brackish marshes data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  16. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Intermediate Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_intermediate_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) intermediate marshes data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  17. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Oyster Leases, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_oyster_lease_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) oyster leases data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  18. Esi- ja alkuopetuksen opettajien näkemyksiä inklusiivisesta kasvatuksesta

    OpenAIRE

    Kanerva, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Tutkimukseni tarkoituksena oli selvittää millaisia näkemyksiä esi- ja alkuopetuksen opettajilla oli inklusiivisesta kasvatuksesta osana esi- ja alkuopetusta. Tutkielman aihe on ajankohtainen, koska nykyään pidetään yhä tärkeämpänä, että kaikilla lapsilla on oikeus päästä päivähoitoon lähipäiväkotiin tai kouluun lähikouluun. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää miten esi- ja alkuopetuksen opettajat määrittelivät inkluusion osaksi esi- ja alkuopetusta, miten esi- ja alkuopetuksen o...

  19. ESI mass spectrometry applied to enantiodiscrimination of chiral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagana, A.; Paladini, A.; Catone, D.; Giardini, A.; Filippi, A.; D'Ettole, A.; Speranze, M.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments with electrospray ionization coupled with mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) together with collisional induced dissociation (CID) were performed in order to study the affinity of chiral alfa-aminophosphonic acids towards first-group metals (Na, Li, K) in gaseous phase and how this can be affected by the ligands configuration. The results are discussed in the light of structure calculation performed by using an empirical force field. The CID fragmentation spectra of diastereomeric clusters containing (1-amino-2-methylpropyl)phosphonic acid enantiomers (P R , P S ), (S)-(+)-(1-aminoethyl)phosphonic acid (E S ) and a sodium ion ( [NaP R (E S ) 2 ] + and [NaP S (E S ) 2 ] + ) is given. (nevyjel)

  20. Fabricating and Characterizing the Microfluidic Solid Phase Extraction Module Coupling with Integrated ESI Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangbin Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic chips coupling with mass spectrometry (MS will be of great significance to the development of relevant instruments involving chemical and bio-chemical analysis, drug detection, food and environmental applications and so on. In our previous works, we proposed two types of microfluidic electrospray ionization (ESI chip coupling with MS: the two-phase flow focusing (FF ESI microfluidic chip and the corner-integrated ESI emitter, respectively. However the pretreatment module integrated with these ESI emitters is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we concentrated on integrating the solid phase micro-extraction (SPME module with our previous proposed on-chip ESI emitters; the fabrication processes of such SPME module are fully compatible with our previous proposed ESI emitters based on the multi-layer soft lithography. We optimized the structure of the integrated chip and characterized its performance using standard samples. Furthermore, we verified its abilities of salt removal, extraction of multiple analytes and separation through on-chip elution using mimic biological urine spiked with different drugs. The results indicated that our proposed integrated module with ESI emitters is practical and effective for real biological sample pretreatment and MS detection.

  1. Erkundungen im Spannungsfeld von Pädagogik, Spielspass und technischer Machbarkeit. Gedanken zur Konzeption und Entwicklung spielbasierter digitaler Lernumgebung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Berger

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Computerspiele sind heute aus der digitalen Medienwelt nicht mehr wegzudenken. Ihre rasante technische Entwicklung sowie ihre hohe Akzeptanz in der Jugendkultur werfen Fragen nach pädagogischer Verwertbarkeit dieses Mediums auf. Auf diesem Gebiet besteht Forschungsbedarf: Für den Einsatz aktueller Spielkonzepte als Lehrmittel existieren keine fundierten Theorien oder Konzepte. Der schöpferische Umgang mit Spielen durch Anwender («Emergent Gameplay» bietet hier durch sein hohes Motivationspotential einen vielversprechenden Ansatz. Die oft wenig beachtete Rolle der digitalen Spielen zugrunde liegenden Softwaretechnik sollte stärkere Berücksichtigung finden: Es existiert einerseits ein für die Akzeptanz beim Anwender notwendiges Minimum, andererseits ist der Einsatz des aktuellen technischen «state of the art» für die Umsetzung pädagogischer und didaktischer Ambitionen durch seine enormen Anforderungen wenig zielführend. Im Ergebnis sind Idee und Spielspass das Mass auch für Anwendungen des Game Based Learn­ing.

  2. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ROAD_MRK (Road Number Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points used in plotting the road numbers on the summary maps. It comprises a portion of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data...

  3. ESI-HI33 Honokaa, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Northern California maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013175)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of northern California which were designed to be utilized in desktop GIS...

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Guam - 2005 maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0033616)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Peninsular Florida Volume 1 (NODC Accession 0006377)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of West Peninsular Florida (to encompass...

  7. ESI-HI21 Kailua, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hawaii - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0033632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  9. ESI-PR18 Bayaney, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-HI09 Naliikakani Point, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-HI54 Lanai South, Island of Lanai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-07 Rose Atoll, American Samoa 2003 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. ESI-PR21, Ciales, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  14. ESI-PR22, Corozal, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. ESI-05, Ofu & Olosega Islands, American Samoa 2003 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. ESI-PR64, Guayama, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. ESI-PR61, Santa Isabel, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. ESI-HI27 Kawaihae, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  19. ESI-HI23 Makalawena, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. ESI-HI26 Puu Hinai, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  1. ESI-HI49 Paia, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-PR41 Naguabo, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-HI45 Lahaina, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. ESI-PR29, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. ESI-PR26, El Yunque, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. ESI-HI57 Molokai Airport, Island of Molokai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. ESI-PR67, Isla De Vieques, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. ESI-HI65 Ewa, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. ESI-PR30, Rosario, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-HI73 Kaneohe, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-HI95 Midway Islands, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-PR20, Florida, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. ESI-HI02 Keaau Ranch, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  14. ESI-PR12, San Juan, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. ESI-PR65, Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. ESI-HI69 Waimea, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. ESI-HI90 Gardner Pinnacles, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. ESI-HI92 Laysan Island, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  19. ESI-HI42 Puu O Kali, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. ESI-HI01 Hilo, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  1. ESI-PR46, Yauco, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-PR1 Isla Mona and Isla Desecheo, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-HI91 Maro Reef, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. ESI-HI28 Keawanui Bay, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. ESI-PR11, Bayamon, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. ESI-PR09, Manati, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: American Samoa, 2004 (NODC Accession 0002827)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach...

  8. ESI-HI74 Mokapu, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. ESI-VI9, Peter Island, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-HI82 Hanalei, Island of Kauai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-HI10 Pahala, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-03, Tutuila Island - South, American Samoa 2003 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. ESI-VI14, Anegada U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  14. ESI-HI60 Molokai East, Island of Molokai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. ESI-HI75 Koko head, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. ESI-HI71 Hauula, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Florida, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0006249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of West Florida (to encompass the coastal...

  18. ESI-PR43, Puerto Real, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  19. ESI-PR13, Carolina, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. ESI-PR39 Juncos, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  1. ESI-PR35, Orocovis, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-PR59, Punta Cuchara , Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-HI62 Pearl Harbor, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. ESI-VI11, Tortola, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. ESI-HI94 Pearl and Hermes Atoll, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. ESI-HI63 Waipahu, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. ESI-HI93 Lisianski Island, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. ESI-PR06, Camuy, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. ESI-HI29 Mahukona, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-HI11 Punaluu, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-VI12 Beef Island, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-PR24, Aguas Buenas, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. ESI-HI08 Kau Desert, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 ( Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: South Florida, July 1996 (NODC Accession 0006539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of South Florida (to encompass the...

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Upper Texas Coast (NODC Accession 0046089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This CD-ROM product from the NOAA National Ocean Service Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division contains the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data...

  16. ESI-PR56, Parguera, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. ESI-PR07, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. ESI-08,Swains Island, American Samoa 2003 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hawaii, December 2001, 2002, Volume 1 and 2 (NODC Accession 0002828)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index or ESI. This approach...

  20. ESI-HI46 Napili, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  1. ESI-PR55, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-HI17 Milolii, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-PR02, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Great Lakes, 1995-1998 (NODC Accession 0013820)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in .PDF format for the following Great Lakes and associated waterways: north, east, and west...

  5. ESI-PR49, Rio Descalabrado, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Guam and the...

  7. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Rhode Island,...

  8. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet...

  9. ESI-VI13, Virgin Gorda, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-HI38 Kipahulu, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-HI67 Kaena, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-HI43 Maalaea, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. ESI-HI76 Lihue, Island of Kauai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  14. ESI-HI72 Kahana, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. ESI-HI06 Kalapana, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. ESI-HI44 Olowalu, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. ESI-HI19 Honaunau, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. ESI-PR16, Central La Plata, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  19. ESI-HI07 Makaopuhi Crater, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. ESI-HI66 Waianae, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  1. ESI-HI37 Hana, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-HI47 Kahakuloa, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-HI48 Wailuku, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. ESI-HI68 Haleiwa, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. Long-term perspectives of technical and social development in Germany. Visions for research and technology policy; Langfristige Perspektiven technischer und gesellschaftlicher Entwicklung in Deutschland. Visionen fuer die Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, W; Zweck, A

    1995-12-01

    This publication contains six contributions discussing the medium- and long-term perspectives of technical, social and economic development in Germany. (UA) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Publikation enthaelt 6 Vortraege, die sich mit mittel- und langfristigen Perspektiven der technischen, sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in Deutschland befassen. (UA)

  6. [St. Petersburg und Livland - und die Entwicklung der estnischen Literatur : Anton Schiefner (1817-1879) und Friedrich R. Kreutzwald (1803-1882) im Briefwechsel (1853-1879)] / Felix Köther

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Köther, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: St. Petersburg und Livland - und die Entwicklung der estnischen Literatur : Anton Schiefner (1817-1879) und Friedrich R. Kreutzwald (1803-1882) im Briefwechsel (1853-1879) / bearbeitet von Hartmut Walravens. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2013. (Orientalistik-Bibliographien und Dokumentationen ; Bd. 22)

  7. Unterrichtsentwurf: Die Entwicklung eines nationalen Identitätsbewusstseins in den von Napoleon besetzten Ländern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Fridrich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nathalie Friedrichs proposes the following lesson plan for the senior classes of the German Gymnasium (grammar-school: „Die Entwicklung eines nationalen Identitätsbewusstseins in den von Napoleon besetzten Ländern“ (The Development of a National Sense of Identity in the Countries Occupied by Napeoleon.The central question, however, is whether this new German national consciousness at the dawn of the 19th century can be traced back to Napoleon’s reign in the Rhineland region or whether it emerged during the wars of liberation as a result of a firm rejection of Napoleon.The following materials will be given to the pupils beforhand: A short preparatory text with essential background information, a pithy quote , and two historical sources, namely the appeal of Ludwig Adolf Peter Graf von Sayn-Wittgenstein to support the war of liberation, and another more francophile source by the physician Adolf Kußmaul. The latter source points in the direction of a positive experience during the time of French occupation and therefore relativises the claim of a German patriotism as a direct result of the war against France. From a didactical viewpoint, the lesson aims to develop the prerequisites for a critical analysis of historical source texts and different points of view on the topic. Finally, a table listing the respective pros and cons of the Napoleonic arguments is sketched out, visualising the perspectives of the students and leading to the final discussion, which should produce answers to the questions of the role of Napoleon for the Germans.

  8. Soziologische Wissenskulturen zwischen individualisierter Inspiration und prozeduraler Legitimation. Zur Entwicklung qualitativer und interpretativer Sozialforschung in der deutschen und französischen Soziologie seit den 1960er Jahren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Keller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wie wissen Soziologinnen und Soziologen, was sie wissen? Trotz der Internationalisierung der Soziologie bestehen nach wie vor starke sprachräumliche Unterschiede in der soziologischen Wissensproduktion, in eingesetzten Theorien, Methoden und Fragestellungen. Der nachfolgende Beitrag erläutert die Entwicklung und Ausprägung der Unterschiedlichkeit soziologischer Wissenskulturen im Hinblick auf den Einsatz qualitativer bzw. interpretativer Ansätze seit den 1960er Jahren in Deutschland und Frankreich. Er stützt sich auf ein von uns 2012-2014 geleitetes Forschungsprojekt und dessen empirische Grundlagen: Dokumentenanalysen und Interviews. Wissenskulturen werden als die Arten und Weisen der Produktion und Legitimation von (hier: soziologischem Wissen verstanden. Diesbezüglich lässt sich von der Erkenntnisproduktion als dem zentralen Handlungsproblem soziologischen Forschens sprechen. Während für die französischsprachige Soziologie diagnostisch von einer Lösung dieses Erkenntnisproblems durch die den Forschenden zugeschriebenen Kompetenzen und Inspirationen ausgegangen werden kann, schiebt sich im deutschsprachigen Raume eine prozedurale Legitimation durch Verfahren in den Vordergrund. Der Beitrag rekonstruiert exemplarisch die Ausgangssituation dieser Entwicklungen um die Wende zu den 1960er Jahren und bettet sie in die weitere Entfaltung der jeweiligen Soziologien ein. Er will damit zur gegenwärtigen Entwicklung einer reflexiven Soziologie beitragen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1601145

  9. Developmental validation of the PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 and PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Systems: STR multiplexes for the new European standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Valerie C; Hopwood, Andrew J; Sprecher, Cynthia J; McLaren, Robert S; Rabbach, Dawn R; Ensenberger, Martin G; Thompson, Jonelle M; Storts, Douglas R

    2011-11-01

    In response to the ENFSI and EDNAP groups' call for new STR multiplexes for Europe, Promega(®) developed a suite of four new DNA profiling kits. This paper describes the developmental validation study performed on the PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 (European Standard Investigator 16) and the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Systems. The PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 System combines the 11 loci compatible with the UK National DNA Database(®), contained within the AmpFlSTR(®) SGM Plus(®) PCR Amplification Kit, with five additional loci: D2S441, D10S1248, D22S1045, D1S1656 and D12S391. The multiplex was designed to reduce the amplicon size of the loci found in the AmpFlSTR(®) SGM Plus(®) kit. This design facilitates increased robustness and amplification success for the loci used in the national DNA databases created in many countries, when analyzing degraded DNA samples. The PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 System amplifies the same loci as the PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 System, but with the addition of a primer pair for the SE33 locus. Tests were designed to address the developmental validation guidelines issued by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), and those of the DNA Advisory Board (DAB). Samples processed include DNA mixtures, PCR reactions spiked with inhibitors, a sensitivity series, and 306 United Kingdom donor samples to determine concordance with data generated with the AmpFlSTR(®) SGM Plus(®) kit. Allele frequencies from 242 white Caucasian samples collected in the United Kingdom are also presented. The PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 and ESI 17 Systems are robust and sensitive tools, suitable for the analysis of forensic DNA samples. Full profiles were routinely observed with 62.5pg of a fully heterozygous single source DNA template. This high level of sensitivity was found to impact on mixture analyses, where 54-86% of unique minor contributor alleles were routinely observed in a 1:19 mixture ratio. Improved sensitivity combined with the robustness afforded by smaller amplicons

  10. Metabolic profiling of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different geographical areas by ESI/MS/MS and determination of major metabolites by LC-ESI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Maldini, Mariateresa; Russo, Mariateresa; Postorino, Santo; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2011-02-20

    Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) has been applied to the full characterization of saponins and phenolics in hydroalcoholic extracts of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Relative quantitative analyses of the samples with respect to the phenolic constituents and to a group of saponins related to glycyrrhizic acid were performed using LC-ESI/MS. For the saponin constituents, full scan LC-MS/MS fragmentation of the protonated (positive ion mode) or deprotonated (negative ion mode) molecular species generated diagnostic fragment ions that provided information concerning the triterpene skeleton and the number and nature of the substituents. On the basis of the specific fragmentation of glycyrrhizic acid, an LC-MS/MS method was developed in order to quantify the analyte in the liquorice root samples. Chinese G. glabra roots contained the highest levels of glycyrrhizic acid, followed by those from Italy (Calabria). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Practical approaches to the ESI-MS analysis of catalytic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Lars P E; Stoddard, Rhonda L; McIndoe, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a soft ionization technique commonly coupled with liquid or gas chromatography for the identification of compounds in a one-time view of a mixture (for example, the resulting mixture generated by a synthesis). Over the past decade, Scott McIndoe and his research group at the University of Victoria have developed various methodologies to enhance the ability of ESI-MS to continuously monitor catalytic reactions as they proceed. The power, sensitivity and large dynamic range of ESI-MS have allowed for the refinement of several homogenous catalytic mechanisms and could potentially be applied to a wide range of reactions (catalytic or otherwise) for the determination of their mechanistic pathways. In this special feature article, some of the key challenges encountered and the adaptations employed to counter them are briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Metabolic profiling of Vitex agnus castus leaves, fruits and sprouts: analysis by LC/ESI/(QqQ)MS and (HR) LC/ESI/(Orbitrap)/MS n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Angela; Montoro, Paola; D'Urso, Gilda; Macchia, Mario; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Food supplements based on Vitex agnus castus L. (Verbenaceae) fruits, also known as chasteberry, are routinely used by women against somatic and psychic premenstrual symptoms such as depression, sadness or irritability. With the aim of highlighting the differences in the chemical profiles of cultivated fruits and different parts of wild plants (fruits, leaves and sprouts) of V. agnus castus, a method concerning with the quali-quantitative study of the derived hydroalcoholic extracts was carried out by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray negative ionization Orbitrap multicollisional high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(Orbitrap)MS(n)) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray negative ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(QqQ)MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Florida 1995-1997 maps in portable document format (pdf) and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main components: shoreline...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: South Carolina - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format (NODC Accession 0013822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of South Carolina. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife...

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska - 2, Northwest Arctic - 2002, North Slope - 2005, Western - 2003, maps and geographic systems data (NODC Accession 0049913)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, North Slope, and Western Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  16. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Classification of the Outer Coast, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains arcs representing the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification of the outer coast of Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and...

  17. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Scrub-Shrub and Wetlands, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_scrub-shrub_wetland_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) scrub-shrub and wetlands data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system,...

  18. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: U.S. and British Virgin Islands maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0049955)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife...

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013952)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca from 1978 to 2006. ESI data characterize...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  1. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Western Alaska - volume 1, geographic information systems data and data tables and volume 2, maps in portable document format (PDF) (NODC Accession 0046030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Western Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format (NODC Accession 0013821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of North Carolina. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife...

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Slope, Alaska, Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0014928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize the marine and coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Southeast Alaska - volume 1, geographic information systems data and volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0046029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  5. Chemical profiling analysis of Maca using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS coupled with UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS and the neuroprotective study on its active ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Peng; Brantner, Adelheid; Wang, Hongjie; Shu, Xinbin; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Han, Lingyu; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active...

  6. Final report on the development of a disturbanceless NDE compact cooling device; Abschlussbericht zur Entwicklung einer stoerarmen maschinellen NDE-Kompaktkuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.

    2002-08-13

    The project comprised the following aspects: 1. Development of a disturbance-free, mechanized compact cooling system for a NDE measuring system on the basis of a commercial SL200-10 split stirling cooling system of AEG Infrarotmodule GmbH, Heilbronn; 2. Support of the development work at the HTSL/Hall magnetometer of Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena; 3. Measurements of HTSL/Hall magnetometer samples and thermal characterisation. [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurden die folgenden Aufgabenstellungen behandelt: 1. Entwicklung einer stoerarmen, maschinellen Kompaktkuehlung fuer ein NDE-Messsystem auf der Basis eines kommerziellen Split-Stirlingkuehlers SL200-10 der Firma AEG Infrarotmodule GmbH, Heilbronn, 2. Unterstuetzung der Entwicklungsarbeiten am HTSL/Hall-Magnetometer, die bei der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet in Jena durchgefuehrt wurden, 3. Messungen an HTSL/Hall-Magnetometer-Proben zu deren thermischer Charakterisierung. (orig.)

  7. Revolution by way of technical transfer in the development of locomotive brake systems; Revolutionierung in der Entwicklung von Bremssystemen bei Lokomotiven durch Technologietransfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, E.C. [New York Air Brake (United States). Bereich Engineering; Sinn, R. [New York Air Brake (United States). Bereich Elektronik und Software

    1997-12-31

    With the use of components from other sectors and orientation on the technologies of other fields it has been possible to enhance the standard of electronic braking systems. The reliability of the CCBII is ten times greater than with conventional systems. The physical volume could be reduced by 40 percent and the weight by 30 percent. The CCBII has functional redundancy and the Locotrol Distributed Power System is already integrated. A diagnostics system allows repair times to be reduced to 20 minutes. Production is now commencing and it is planned to make the first deliveries starting from January 1998. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch das Einbinden von Entwurfsverfahren aus der Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie sowie der Verwendung von Komponenten aus dem Automobilsektor, hochentwickelter Werkstoffe und Techniken ist es moeglich, neue Wege bei Bremssystemen zu gehen. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung einer neuen Generation von computergesteuerten Bremssystemen fuer Lokomotiven. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of flavonoids and phenolic acids in Myrcia bella Cambess. using FIA-ESI-IT-MS(n) and HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS combined with NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Luiz L; Vilegas, Wagner; Dokkedal, Anne L

    2013-07-16

    The leaves of Myrcia DC. ex Guill species are used in traditional medicine and are also exploited commercially as herbal drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present work aimed to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of M. bella hydroalcoholic extract, due to these uses, since the existing legislation in Brazil determines that a standard method must be developed in order to be used for quality control of raw plant materials. The current study identified eleven known flavonoid-O-glycosides and six acylated flavonoid derivatives of myricetin and quercetin, together with two kaempferol glycosides and phenolic acids such as caffeic acid, ethil galate, gallic acid and quinic acid. In total, 24 constituents were characterized, by means of extensive preparative chromatographic analyses, along with MS and NMR techniques. An HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS and FIA-ESI-IT-MS(n) method were developed for rapid identification of acylated flavonoids, flavonoid-O-glycosides derivatives of myricetin and quercetin and phenolic acids in the hydroalcoholic M. bella leaves extract. The FIA-ESI-IT-MS techinique is a powerful tool for direct and rapid identification of the constituents after isolation and NMR characterization. Thus, it could be used as an initial method for identification of authentic samples concerning quality control of Myrcia spp extracts.

  9. Characterization of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Myrcia bella Cambess. Using FIA-ESI-IT-MSn and HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS Combined with NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Dokkedal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Myrcia DC. ex Guill species are used in traditional medicine and are also exploited commercially as herbal drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present work aimed to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of M. bella hydroalcoholic extract, due to these uses, since the existing legislation in Brazil determines that a standard method must be developed in order to be used for quality control of raw plant materials. The current study identified eleven known flavonoid-O-glycosides and six acylated flavonoid derivatives of myricetin and quercetin, together with two kaempferol glycosides and phenolic acids such as caffeic acid, ethil galate, gallic acid and quinic acid. In total, 24 constituents were characterized, by means of extensive preparative chromatographic analyses, along with MS and NMR techniques. An HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS and FIA-ESI-IT-MSn method were developed for rapid identification of acylated flavonoids, flavonoid-O-glycosides derivatives of myricetin and quercetin and phenolic acids in the hydroalcoholic M. bella leaves extract. The FIA-ESI-IT-MS techinique is a powerful tool for direct and rapid identification of the constituents after isolation and NMR characterization. Thus, it could be used as an initial method for identification of authentic samples concerning quality control of Myrcia spp extracts.

  10. Õpetamine esi- ja algõpetuses : Alusväärtused. Ülesanded ja eesmärgid. Orientatsioonidest õppeaineteni. Metoodilised tervikud. Hindamine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Esi- ja algõpetuse alusväärtused ja eesmärgid. Esiõpetuse teadmisala-orientatsioonid ja algõpetuse õppeained. Mängu tähtsusest väikelaste õppimises, õppetunni planeerimine, integreeritud õpetus algõpetuses. Hindamine esi- ja algõpetuses

  11. Wildnisbildung als Möglichkeit zur Professionalisierung zukünftiger Geographielehrer/innen – ein neuer Ansatz zur Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung?. GW-Unterricht|GW-Unterricht 142/143|

    OpenAIRE

    Lindau, Anne-Kathrin; Hottenroth, Daniela; Lindner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Der in den deutschen Nationalparken seit mehreren Jahren thematisierte und praktizierte Ansatz der Wildnisbildung stellt möglicherweise einen neuen Zugang zur Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) in der universitären Lehrer/innenbildung im Fach Geographie dar. Am Beispiel des DBU-geförderten Projektes „Wildnis macht stark“ wird eine Konzeption für die Umsetzung von Wildnisbildung im Rahmen des Geographie-Lehramtsstudiums vorgestellt und mit ersten Forschungsergebnissen zur Wirksamkeit in...

  12. Development of new layer systems for sliding bearings under high mechanical and tribological stress. Final report; Entwicklung neuer Schichtsysteme fuer den Einsatz bei mechanisch-tribologisch hochbeanspruchten Gleitlagern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, M.; Herrmann, B.

    1995-12-31

    The report describes the sputtering technique as a coating method for sliding bearings of high-speed diesel engines. The project aimed at the development of a heavy-duty, wear-resistant sputtered layer on a copper-lead basis for sliding bearings. (HW) [Deutsch] Es wird berichtet ueber die Einfuehrung der Sputtertechnik als Beschichtungsverfahren fuer Gleitlager fuer schnell laufende Dieselmotoren. Ziel des Projektes war die Entwicklung einer hochbelastbaren, verschleissfesten Gleitlager-Sputterschicht auf Kupfer-Blei-Basis. (HW)

  13. Sustainable development - theory and practice of environmental consulting. Proceedings of a seminar of Zentrale Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Vol. 11; Nachhaltige Entwicklung - Theorie und Praxis fuer die Umweltberatung. Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, U.; Behling, G.; Klemmer, A.; Haury, H.J. [comps.

    1998-12-31

    On 25/26 November, 1997, Zentrale Informationsstelle, Umweltberatung Bayern held its 11th seminar under the title ``Sustainable development - theory and practice of environmental consulting. Subjects related to the Agenda 21 were discussed in lectures and workshops. [Deutsch] Am 25. und 26. November 1997 veranstaltete die Zentrale Informationsstelle, Umweltberatung Bayern ihr elftes Seminar mit dem Thema ``Nachhaltige Entwicklung- Theorie und Praxis fuer die Umweltberatung``. In Fachvortraegen und Workshops wurden Themen zur Agenda 21 behandelt. (ABI)

  14. PIXE analysis of museum soapstone sculptures from Esie, south west Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Olarewaju, V.O.; Onabajo, O.

    1989-05-01

    The PIXE technique was employed for the study of Esie museum stone sculptures using 2.55 MeV protons from the 3 MeV tandem accelerator (NEC 3 UDH) in Lund, coupled with the geological and archaeological findings. The aim is to elucidate and decipher the prodigious but rather enigmatic and bewildering stone sculptures. PIXE results show that the composition of the stone sculptures are 40.69% talc-tremolite schist, 30.88% talc-chlorite schist, 15.20% talc-tremolite-anthophyllite schist and 13.24% talc-amphibolite schist. Thus the composition of Esie sculptures are found to be the same with the locally available talc-schists present around Esie. The geological evidence (mineralogical results) corroborated this as there was no textural or mineralogical difference between the talc-bearing country rock (outcrop) in Esie and the museum soapstone samples studied. Consequently, there is a very high probability that the sculptures were carved using the locally available talc-schists. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections in onco-haematology patients with PCR/ESI-MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Rivaya, Belén; Marcó, Clara; Giménez, Montserrat; Quesada, Mª Dolores; Escobedo, Agustín; Batlle, Montserrat; Martró, Elisa; Ausina, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Onco-haematological patients are prone to develop infections, and antibiotic prophylaxis may lead to negative blood cultures. Thus, the microbiological diagnosis and subsequent administration of a targeted antimicrobial therapy is often difficult. The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of IRIDICA (PCR/ESI-MS technology) for the molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections in this patient group. A total of 463 whole blood specimens from different sepsis episodes in 429 patients were analysed using the PCR/ESI-MS platform, comparing the results with those of blood culture and other clinically relevant information. The sensitivity of PCR/ESI-MS by specimen (excluding polymicrobial infections, n = 25) in comparison with blood culture was 64.3% overall, 69.0% in oncological patients, and 59.3% in haematological patients. When comparing with a clinical infection criterion, overall sensitivity rose to 74.7%, being higher in oncological patients (80.0%) than in haematological patients (67.7%). Thirty-one microorganisms isolated by culture were not detected by IRIDICA, whereas 42 clinically relevant pathogens not isolated by culture were detected moleculary. PCR/ESI-MS offers a reliable identification of pathogens directly from whole blood. While additional studies are needed to confirm our findings, the system showed a lower sensitivity in onco-haematological patients in comparison with previously reported results in patients from the Intensive Care Unit. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of triglyceride degradation products in drying oils and oil paints using LC–ESI-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, E.P.; van den Berg, K.J.; Proaño Gaibor, A.N.; van Bommel, M.

    An LC–ESI-MS method is presented as a novel approach for the study of aged drying oils and oil paints invarious stages of oxidation and hydrolysis. The method involves separation and detection of glyceridesand fatty acids on a reversed phase column using a polar gradient ranging from methanol/water

  17. Konzeptionelle Entwicklung innovativer Bremssysteme

    OpenAIRE

    Schwankl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Kooperationsprojekts wurden vorhandene elektromagnetische Bremsen nach konstruktionsmethodischen Gesichtspunkten überarbeitet. Nach einer intensiven Auseinandersetzung mit dem bestehenden System wurde unter Anwendung unterschiedlichster Kreativitätstechniken eine große Anzahl von neuen Lösungsvorschlägen erarbeitet und dokumentiert. Bereits in den frühen Phasen der Produktentwicklung wurden die relevanten, produktbestimmenden Eigenschaften mittels einfacher An...

  18. Die Entwicklung der Lemmaselektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2003-01-01

    On one hand, much too much importance is attached to the selection of lemmas in dictionary reviews, on the other, it is an established fact that metalexicographical interest in the selection of lemmas is not remarkable. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that this problem is more one of methodol......On one hand, much too much importance is attached to the selection of lemmas in dictionary reviews, on the other, it is an established fact that metalexicographical interest in the selection of lemmas is not remarkable. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that this problem is more one...... of methodology, which should be based on the genuine purpose of the dictionary, than one of theory, which may generate entirely new metalexicographical theories. The metalexicographical practise more or less matches the metalexicographical interest. Much time and effort may have been spent on various selection...... is nowhere to be found. This is especially questionable for a dictionary which considers authentic documentation of modern German language to be its most important task. Linked with a criticism of actual systematic phenomena this article offers suggestions for a more systematic methodology....

  19. ESI-HI85 Niihau South and Kaula Island, Island of Niihau, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Bristol Bay, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0033382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically...

  1. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Central California (Including Monterey Bay Sanctuary), maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps have been developed for the coastal areas of Central California from Point Conception to Point Reyes National Seashore....

  2. ESI-VI6, Eastern St Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-VI10 Jost Van Dyke, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. ESI-VI5, Central St Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. Comparison of LC-ESI-MS and GC-MS for the Analysis of a Synthetic Tabun Sample

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Packed capillary LC-ESI-MS and capillary column GC-MS were compared for the analysis of a synthetic tabun sample as each method has advantages for the analysis of samples containing chemical warfare...

  6. ESI-VI3 East Point, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. ESI-VI4 Western St.Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. ESI-VI7, Western St John, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. ESI-VI2, Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Peninsular Florida Volume 2, maps in portable document format (pdf) (NODC Accession 0006394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of lower West Peninsular Florida (to...

  11. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: East Florida, maps in portable document format, Volume 1, Volume 2 (NODC Accession 0004150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of East Florida (to encompass the coastal...

  12. ESI-V1 Frederiksted, St. Croix., U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0002825)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index or ESI. This approach...

  14. ESI PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index PDF Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. Hemoglobin variants as models for investigation of dissociation of intact polypeptide chains by ESI tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light, K.J.; Loo, J.A.; Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D.

    1991-06-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) is rapidly becoming a practical biochemical tool for peptide and protein sequence analysis. The utility of ESI-MS is through use of Collisionally Activated Dissociation (ESI-CAD-MS). Human hemoglobin (Hb, ∼62 kDa) consists of four polypeptide chains and a prosthetic heme group. There are over 400 Hb variants, characterized by amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta polypeptide chains. We investigated ESI-CAD-MS as a tool for rapidly analyzing amino acid substitutions, using eight Hb beta chain variants. The approximate location of the modification can be deduced from comparison of the CAD mass spectra and observance of the mass shifts of the fragment ion containing the substitution. Fragmentation occurs preferentially at the amino terminus of proline residues. For most substitutions, differences in CAD mass spectra were not seen. 2 figs

  16. Towards Discovery and Targeted Peptide Biomarker Detection Using nanoESI-TIMS-TOF MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Alyssa; Benigni, Paolo; Ramirez, Cesar; Baker, Erin M.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    Abstract. In the present work, the potential of trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled to TOF mass spectrometry (TIMS-TOF MS) for discovery and targeted monitoring of peptide biomarkers from human-in-mouse xenograft tumor tissue was evaluated. In particular, a TIMS-MS workflow was developed for the detection and quantification of peptide biomarkers using internal heavy analogs, taking advantage of the high mobility resolution (R = 150–250) prior to mass analysis. Five peptide biomarkers were separated, identified, and quantified using offline nanoESI-TIMSCID- TOF MS; the results were in good agreement with measurements using a traditional LC-ESI-MS/MS proteomics workflow. The TIMS-TOF MS analysis permitted peptide biomarker detection based on accurate mobility, mass measurements, and high sequence coverage for concentrations in the 10–200 nM range, while simultaneously achieving discovery measurements

  17. Lanthanide and actinide inorganic complexes in natural waters. TRLFS and ESI-MS studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercouter, T.; Amekraz, B.; Moulin, C.; Vitorge, P

    2004-07-01

    Aqueous complexes of M(III) f-element ions with the inorganic ligands CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} have been investigated using the highly-sensitive speciation techniques TRLFS and ESI-MS. The Eu(CO{sub 3}){sub i}{sup 3-2i} (i=1-3) species have been characterized by TRLFS, and the stoichiometry of the limiting complex Eu(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} have been confirmed by solubility measurements of NaEu(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(s) at high ionic strength. Temperature effect on Cm(III) carbonate complexes is evidenced by the TRLFS technique. Investigation on sulphate complexation has been done at various ionic strengths by TRLFS on Eu(III) and by ESI-MS on La(III). New thermodynamic data are obtained by both techniques, which are consistent with literature data. (authors)

  18. LC/ESI-MS method applied to characterization of flavonoids glycosides in B. forficata subsp. pruinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane da Silveira Farias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia forficata is used in folk medicine for its hypoglycemiant effect. In the south of Brazil, the subspecies pruinosa is found in a region with the characteristic flora, pampa biome. This species has been consumed by the local population as a tea for diabetes treatment. We studied the chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts using LC/ESI-MS. The leaf extracts were prepared by percolation with 50% (v/v ethanol. The chromatographic analyses were performed using a reverse-phase system, gradient elution with acetonitrile:phosphoric acid 0.05%, and ESI-MS in the positive ion mode. The chemical profile of the flavonoids was suggested to involve four quercetin and kaempferol glycosides.

  19. Phenolic Profiling of Duchesnea indica Combining Macroporous Resin Chromatography (MRC with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchesnea indica (D. indica is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been clinically used to treat cancer in Asian countries. It has been described previously as a rich source of phenolic compounds with a broad array of diversified structures, which are the major active ingredients. However, an accurate and complete phenolic profiling has not been determined yet. In the present work, the total phenolic compounds in crude extracts from D. indica were enriched and fractionated over a macroporous resin column, then identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS (ion trap MS. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in D. indica, of which 21 compounds were identified for the first time. These 27 phenolic compounds encompassing four phenolic groups, including ellagitannins, ellagic acid and ellagic acid glycosides, hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and flavonols, were then successfully quantified using peak areas against those of the corresponding standards with good linearity (R2 > 0.998 in the range of the tested concentrations. As a result, the contents of individual phenolic compounds varied from 6.69 mg per 100 g dry weight (DW for ellagic acid to 71.36 mg per 100 g DW for brevifolin carboxylate. Not only did this study provide the first phenolic profiling of D. indica, but both the qualitative identification and the subsequent quantitative analysis of 27 phenolic compounds from D. indica should provide a good basis for future exploration of this valuable medicinal plant.

  20. Chemical profiling analysis of Maca using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS coupled with UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS and the neuroprotective study on its active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Peng; Brantner, Adelheid; Wang, Hongjie; Shu, Xinbin; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Han, Lingyu; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-03-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active compounds were simultaneously determined in 17 samples by UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS. The results suggested that Maca from Yunnan province was the potential substitute for the one from Peru. Meanwhile, the neuroprotective effects of Maca were investigated. Three fractions and two pure compounds showed strong activities in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced zebrafish model. Among them, 80% methanol elution fraction (Fr5) showed significant neuroprotective activity, followed by 100% part (Fr6). The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) was a possible mechanism of its neuroprotective effect.

  1. Characterization of flavonoids in Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Min; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Ke-Di; Qiao, Xue; Li, Bei-Jia; Cheng, Jun; Feng, Jie; Guo, De-An; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima is a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of gynecological diseases. An HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was established for the rapid separation and characterization of bioactive flavonoids in M. nitida var. hirsutissima. A total of 32 flavonoids were detected, of which 14 compounds were unambiguously characterized by comparing their retention time, UV, and MS spectra with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based o...

  2. esis: un balance de los escritos publicados sobre Economía y otros temas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Limas Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La inquietud por presentar a los lectores(as de una Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades un balance de los escritos publicados sobre Economía a lo largo de 20 años, sugiere tomar como referencia una idea central del proyecto Nóesis (parafraseando a Ferro Gay en Nóesis, 1989 y a Pedraza, 1994: la actividad propia del intelectual se propone rastrear la causa de todas las cosas. Por ello, procede hacer uso del ejercicio de la razón. De ahí que la vinculación entre Nóesis y Economía sugiere detectar y organizar qué tipo de asuntos se han revisado e intentado compartir desde economistas y no economistas desde esta plataforma común. El formato considerado para atender esta tarea se basa en resolver algunas preguntas básicas que plantean: ¿qué se ha producido en Nóesis sobre Economía?, ¿cuánto se ha producido en Nóesis sobre Economía?, y ¿desde quién o desde dónde se han producido los artículos de Nóesis que tratan sobre Economía? Las respuestas probables a esta tercia de interrogantes nos guían a continuación.

  3. Reactions of Hydroxyalkyl Radicals with Cysteinyl Peptides in a NanoESI Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Craig A.; Xia, Yu

    2014-07-01

    In biological systems, carbon-centered small molecule radicals are primarily formed via external radiation or internal radical reactions. These radical species can react with a variety of biomolecules, most notably nucleic acids, the consequence of which has possible links to gene mutation and cancer. Sulfur-containing peptides and proteins are reactive toward a variety of radical species and many of them behave as radical scavengers. In this study, the reactions between alkyl alcohol carbon-centered radicals (e.g., •CH2OH for methanol) and cysteinyl peptides within a nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) plume were explored. The reaction system involved ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of a nanoESI plume using a low pressure mercury lamp consisting of 185 and 254 nm emission bands. The alkyl alcohol was added as solvent into the nanoESI solution and served as the precursor of hydroxyalkyl radicals upon UV irradiation. The hydroxyalkyl radicals subsequently reacted with cysteinyl peptides either containing a disulfide linkage or free thiol, which led to the formation of peptide- S-hydroxyalkyl product. This radical reaction coupled with subsequent MS/MS was shown to have analytical potential by cleaving intrachain disulfide linked peptides prior to CID to enhance sequence information. Tandem mass spectrometry via collision-induced dissociation (CID), stable isotope labeling, and accurate mass measurement were employed to verify the identities of the reaction products.

  4. Ellagitannin composition of blackberry as determined by HPLC-ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Tiffany J; Howard, Luke R; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Prior, Ronald L

    2008-02-13

    Blackberries ( Rubus sp.) were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to identify the ellagitannins present in flesh, torus (receptacle tissue), and seeds. Most ellagitannins were present (or detectable) only in seed tissues. Ellagitannins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS in the seeds included pedunculagin, casuarictin/potentillin, castalagin/vescalagin, lambertianin A/sanguiin H-6, lambertianin C, and lambertianin D. For several of the ellagitannins, isomeric separation was also obtained. The MALDI-TOF-MS analysis was primarily utilized to evaluate and identify high molecular mass (>1000 Da) ellagitannins. The MALDI analysis verified the presence of the ellagitannins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS including lambertianin A/sanguiin H-6, lambertianin C, and lambertianin D, but the analysis also indicated the presence of several other compounds that were most likely ellagitannins based on the patterns observed in the masses (i.e., loss or addition of a gallic acid moiety to a known ellagitannin). This study determined the presence of several possible isomeric forms of ellagitannins previously unidentified in fruit and presents a possible analytical HPLC method for the analysis of the major ellagitannins present in the fruit.

  5. LC coupled to ESI, MALDI and ICP MS - A multiple hyphenation for metalloproteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufalíková, Kateřina; Benešová, Iva; Vaculovič, Tomáš; Kanický, Viktor; Preisler, Jan

    2017-05-22

    A new multiple detection arrangement for liquid chromatography (LC) that supplements conventional electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) detection with two complementary detection techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS and substrate-assisted laser desorption inductively coupled plasma (SALD ICP) MS has been developed. The combination of the molecular and elemental detectors in a single separation run is accomplished by utilizing a commercial MALDI target made of conductive plastic. The proposed platform provides a number of benefits in today's metalloproteomic applications, which are demonstrated by analysis of a metallothionein mixture. To maintain metallothionein complexes, separation is carried out at a neutral pH. The effluent is split; a major portion is directed to ESI MS while the remaining 1.8% fraction is deposited onto a plastic MALDI target. Dried droplets are overlaid with MALDI matrix and analysed consecutively by MALDI MS and SALD ICP MS. In the ESI MS spectra, the MT isoform complexes with metals and their stoichiometry are determined; the apoforms are revealed in the MALDI MS spectra. Quantitative determination of metallothionein isoforms is performed via determination of metals in the complexes of the individual protein isoforms using SALD ICP MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of renewable energy sources in Germany 2014. Charts and figures based on statistical data from the working group on renewable energy-statistics (AGEE-Stat); Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland im Jahr 2014. Grafiken und Diagramme unter Verwendung aktueller Daten der Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Thomas; Bickel, Peter; Musiol, Frank (comps.) [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The more than 30 diagrams and graphs describe the development of the importance of renewable energy in Germany by the year 2014. Also, discusses the development of avoided greenhouse emissions through renewable energies, as well as the investments and their economic impulses for Germany. Some technical terms are conclusively explained in a glossary. [German] Die mehr als 30 Diagramme und Graphiken beschreiben die Entwicklung der Bedeutung der erneuerbaren Energien fuer Deutschland bis zum Jahr 2014. Auch wird auf die Entwicklung der vermiedenen Treibhaus-Emissionen durch erneuerbare Energien, sowie die Investitionen und deren wirtschaftlichen Impulse fuer Deutschland eingegangen. Einige Fachbegriffe werden abschliessend in einem Glossar erlaeutert.

  7. Detecting Protein-Glycolipid Interactions Using Glycomicelles and CaR-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling; Kitova, Elena N; Klassen, John S

    2016-11-01

    This study reports on the use of the catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay, combined with glycomicelles, as a method for detecting specific interactions between water-soluble proteins and glycolipids (GLs) in aqueous solution. The B subunit homopentamers of cholera toxin (CTB 5 ) and Shiga toxin type 1 B (Stx1B 5 ) and the gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GD2 served as model systems for this study. The CTB 5 exhibits broad specificity for gangliosides and binds to GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b; Stx1B 5 does not recognize gangliosides. The CaR-ESI-MS assay was used to analyze solutions of CTB 5 or Stx1B 5 and individual gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GD2) or mixtures thereof. The high affinity interaction of CTB 5 with GM1 was successfully detected. However, the apparent affinity, as determined from the mass spectra, is significantly lower than that of the corresponding pentasaccharide or when GM1 is presented in model membranes such as nanodiscs. Interactions between CTB 5 and the low affinity gangliosides GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b, as well as GD2, which served as a negative control, were detected; no binding of CTB 5 to GM2 or GM3 was observed. The CaR-ESI-MS results obtained for Stx1B 5 reveal that nonspecific protein-ganglioside binding can occur during the ESI process, although the extent of binding varies between gangliosides. Consequently, interactions detected for CTB 5 with GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b are likely nonspecific in origin. Taken together, these results reveal that the CaR-ESI-MS/glycomicelle approach for detecting protein-GL interactions is prone to false positives and false negatives and must be used with caution. Graphical Abstract GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT TEXT HERE] -->.

  8. Mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery after septic embolism; Entwicklung eines mykotischen Aneurysmas der A. mesenterica superior nach septischer Embolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.; Dinkel, H.P. [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Inselspital, Universitaetsklinik Bern (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the aorta and the visceral arteries are life-threatening diseases, due to potential rupture and organ or limb ischemia. They occur in endocarditis, immunodeficiency, bacteremia and fungemia, and have a poor prognosis.We report on a case of a 54-year-old male patient suffering from abdominal angina after mitral valve replacement for septic mycotic endocarditis. In presence of a mycotic-embolic occlusion of the left popliteal artery and multiple septic organ infarctions a mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery was found in abdominal spiral-CT.Based on sequential spiral-CT examinations, this case demonstrates the development of a septic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. (orig.) [German] Mykotische Aneurysmen der Aorta und ihrer Aeste stellen wegen Rupturgefahr und moeglicher Minderperfusion von Organen und Extremitaeten eine lebensgefaehrliche Erkrankung mit unguenstiger Prognose dar. Beguenstigende Faktoren sind geschwaechte Immunabwehr, Endokarditis, Bakteriaemie und Fungaemie.Wir berichten ueber einen 54-jaehrigen Patienten, der nach einem Mitralklappenersatz bei mykotischer Endokarditis zunehmende abdominelle Beschwerden im Sinne einer Angina abdominalis entwickelte. Die abdominelle Spiralcomputertomographie zeigte ein mykotisches Aneurysma der A. mesenterica superior. Daneben bestanden ein mykotischer Verschluss der linken A. poplitea und multiple septische Organinfarkte.Der Fall demonstriert anhand sequentieller Computertomographien eindrucksvoll die Entwicklung eines septischen Viszeralarterienaneurysmas. (orig.)

  9. ESI-MSn and LC-ESI-MS studies to characterize forced degradation products of bosentan and a validated stability-indicating LC-UV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Gulshan; Singh, Ranjit; Saini, Balraj; Bansal, Yogita

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the characterization of forced degradation products of bosentan and a validated stability-indicating HPLC method for the stability testing of bosentan tablets. The forced degradation was carried out under the conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat and photolysis. The drug was found unstable in acid, alkali and oxidative media whereas stable to the hydrolysis in water, to dry heat and to photolysis. In total, six degradation products were formed in all conditions which were resolved in a single run on a C-18 column with gradient elution using ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5, 5.0mM), methanol and acetonitrile. Structures of all the degradation products were characterized through +ESI-MS(n) and LC-ESI-MS spectral data of bosentan as well as LC-ESI-MS spectral data of the products. The products II-VI were characterized as 6-amino-[2,2']bipyrimidinyl-4,5-diol, 6-amino-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']-bipyrimidinyl-4-ol, 2-[6-amino-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']-bipyrimidinyl-4-yloxy]-ethanol, 4-tert-butyl-N-[6-(1-methoxyethoxy)-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']-bipyrimidinyl-4-yl]-benzenesulfonamide and 4-tert-butyl-N-[6-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']bipyrimidinyl-4-yl]-benzenesulfonamide, respectively. The peak of the product I was found to be due to two secondary degradation products which co-eluted and were characterized as β-hydroxyethyl p-tert-butylphenylsulfonate (Ia) and 2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-phenoxy]-ethanol (Ib). These products were formed due to hydrolysis of sulfonamide and alkylaryl ether and the diaryl ether linkages as well as dehydration of the primary alcohol group. The most probable degradation mechanisms were proposed. The HPLC method was found to be stability-indicating, linear (2-100 μg ml(-1)), accurate, precise, sensitive, specific, rugged and robust for quantitation of the drug. The method was applied to the stability testing of the commercially available bosentan tablets successfully. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Verification of propofol sulfate as a further human propofol metabolite using LC-ESI-QQQ-MS and LC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Alexandra; Maier, Christoph; Michel-Lauter, Beate; Broecker, Sebastian; Madea, Burkhard; Hess, Cornelius

    2017-03-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a water-insoluble, intravenous anesthetic that is widely used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia as well as for endoscopic and pediatric sedation. After admission, propofol undergoes extensive hepatic and extrahepatic metabolism, including direct conjugation to propofol glucuronide and hydroxylation to 2,6-diisopropyl-1,4-quinol. The latter substance subsequently undergoes phase II metabolism, resulting in the formation of further metabolites (1quinolglucuronide, 4quinolglucuronide and 4quinol-sulfate). Further minor phase I propofol metabolites (2-(ω-propanol)-6-isopropylphenol and 2-(ω-propanol)-6-isopropyl-1,4-quinol)) are also described. Due to its chemical structure with the phenolic hydroxyl group, propofol is also an appropriate substrate for sulfation by sulfotransferases. The existence of propofol sulfate was investigated by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LCESIQQQ-MS) and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCESI-QTOF-MS). A propofol sulfate reference standard was used for identification and method development, yielding a precursor at m/z 257 (deprotonated propofol sulfate) and product ions at m/z 177 (deprotonated propofol) and m/z 80 ([SO3]-). Propofol sulfate - a further phase II metabolite of propofol - was verified in urine samples by LC-ESI-QQQ-MS and LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Analyses of urine samples from five volunteers collected before and after propofol-induced sedation verified the presence of propofol sulfate in urine following propofol administration, whereas ascertained concentrations of this metabolite were significantly lower compared with detected propofol glucuronide concentrations. The existence of propofol sulfate as a further phase II propofol metabolite in humans could be verified by two different detection techniques (LCESIQQQ-MS and LC-ESI-QTOFMS) on the basis of a propofol sulfate

  11. Combined use of ESI-QqTOF-MS and ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS with mass-spectral library search for qualitative analysis of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlic, Marion; Libiseller, Kathrin; Oberacher, Herbert

    2006-09-01

    The potential of the combined use of ESI-QqTOF-MS and ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS with mass-spectral library search for the identification of therapeutic and illicit drugs has been evaluated. Reserpine was used for standardizing experimental conditions and for characterization of the performance of the applied mass spectrometric system. Experiments revealed that because of the mass accuracy, the stability of calibration, and the reproducibility of fragmentation, the QqTOF mass spectrometer is an appropriate platform for establishment of a tandem-mass-spectral library. Three-hundred and nineteen substances were used as reference samples to build the spectral library. For each reference compound, product-ion spectra were acquired at ten different collision-energy values between 5 eV and 50 eV. For identification of unknown compounds, a library search algorithm was developed. The closeness of matching between a measured product-ion spectrum and a spectrum stored in the library was characterized by a value called "match probability", which took into account the number of matched fragment ions, the number of fragment ions observed in the two spectra, and the sum of the intensity differences calculated for matching fragments. A large value for the match probability indicated a close match between the measured and the reference spectrum. A unique feature of the library search algorithm-an implemented spectral purification option-enables characterization of multi-contributor fragment-ion spectra. With the aid of this software feature, substances comprising only 1.0% of the total amount of binary mixtures were unequivocally assigned, in addition to the isobaric main contributors. The spectral library was successfully applied to the characterization of 39 forensic casework samples.

  12. Multi-Segment Direct Inject nano-ESI-LTQ-FT-ICR-MS/MS For Protein Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Rachel E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC interfaced to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is commonly used for the identification of peptides from proteolytically cleaved proteins embedded in a polyacrylamide gel matrix as well as for metabolomics screening. HPLC separations are time consuming (30-60 min average, costly (columns and mobile phase reagents, and carry the risk of column carry over between samples. The use of a chip-based nano-ESI platform (Advion NanoMate based on replaceable nano-tips for sample introduction eliminates sample cross-contamination, provides unchanging sample matrix, and enhances spray stability with attendant increases in reproducibility. Recent papers have established direct infusion nano-ESI-MS/MS utilizing the NanoMate for protein identification of gel spots based on full range MS scans with data dependent MS/MS. In a full range scan, discontinuous ion suppression due to sample matrix can impair identification of putative mass features of interest in both the proteomic and metabolomic workflows. In the current study, an extension of an established direct inject nano-ESI-MS/MS method is described that utilizes the mass filtering capability of an ion-trap for ion packet separation into four narrow mass ranges (50 amu overlap with segment specific dynamic data dependent peak inclusion for MS/MS fragmentation (total acquisition time of 3 minutes. Comparison of this method with a more traditional nanoLC-MS/MS based protocol utilizing solvent/sample stream splitting to achieve nanoflow demonstrated comparable results for protein identification from polyacrylamide gel matrices. The advantages of this method include full automation, lack of cross-contamination, low cost, and high throughput.

  13. Time-resolved molecular characterization of organic aerosols by PILS + UPLC/ESI-Q-TOFMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Dalleska, N. F.; Huang, D. D.; Bates, K. H.; Sorooshian, A.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Real-time and quantitative measurement of particulate matter chemical composition represents one of the most challenging problems in the field of atmospheric chemistry. In the present study, we integrate the Particle-into-Liquid Sampler (PILS) with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray ionization Quadrupole Time-of-Flight High-Resolution/Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOFMS) for the time-resolved molecular speciation of chamber-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The unique aspect of the combination of these two well-proven techniques is to provide quantifiable molecular-level information of particle-phase organic compounds on timescales of minutes. We demonstrate that the application of the PILS + UPLC/ESI-Q-TOFMS method is not limited to water-soluble inorganic ions and organic carbon, but is extended to slightly water-soluble species through collection efficiency calibration together with sensitivity and linearity tests. By correlating the water solubility of individual species with their O:C ratio, a parameter that is available for aerosol ensembles as well, we define an average aerosol O:C ratio threshold of 0.3, above which the PILS overall particulate mass collection efficiency approaches ∼0.7. The PILS + UPLC/ESI-Q-TOFMS method can be potentially applied to probe the formation and evolution mechanism of a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic SOA systems in laboratory chamber experiments. We illustrate the application of this method to the reactive uptake of isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) on hydrated and acidic ammonium sulfate aerosols.

  14. ESI MS/MS Study of Calix[4]arene Derivatives and their Metal Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Benković, Tomislav; Tomišić, Vladislav; Frkanec, Leo; Galić, Nives

    2012-01-01

    The peptidocalixarenes 1–3 bearing tryptophan, phenylglycine and leucil units at the lower rim and their complexes with alkali-metal (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and selected lanthanide cations (La3+, Ce3+, Eu3+, Yb3+) were analyzed by ESI MS. The influences of the solvent (acetonitrile, methanol, addition of formic acid or sodium acetate) and the calixarene:cation molar ratio on signal intensities were investigated. Comprehensive MS/MS analyses were performed of all singly and doubly charged ion...

  15. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  16. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus's viral peptides with LC-ESI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pzdemir, Z.O.; Bulut, E.K.; Mustafeva, Z.; Karahan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides and proteins play a central role in numerous biological and physiological processes in living organisms. Viral capsid peptides are part of the viruses' outer shell of genetic materials. Viruses are recognized by immune system via capsid peptides. Depending on this property of capsid peptides, prototypes synthetic peptide-based vaccine can be developed. In this work, we synthesized three different viral peptide sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus with microwave enhanced solid phase synthesis method. These peptides were characterized by using liquid chromatography electro spray interface mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) with electro spray ionization. We briefly describe the essential facts for peptide characterization. (author)

  17. Paleo-oil and gas fields in the red sandstone of the North German Basin: Effects of hydrocarbon migration on storage quality development. Fluid flow, diagenesis and storage quality in the red sandstone strata of northern Germany; Palaeo-Oel- und -Gasfelder im Rotliegenden des Norddeutschen Beckens: Wirkung der KW-Migration auf die Speicherqualitaets-Entwicklung. Fluidfluss, Diagenese und Speicherqualitaet im Rotliegend Norddeutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solms, M. [SGC, Lehrte (Germany); Gaupp, R. [Jena Univ. (Germany); Littke, R.; Schwarzer, D. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Schubarth-Engelschall, J.; Trappe, H. [TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany); Krawczyk, C.; Tanner, D.; Oncken, O. [GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This sub-project was aimed at improving the geological concept of the development of storage quality, at the development of a model for monitoring and reconstruction of the structural development and restructuring of reservoirs, and at obtaining information on hydrocarbon origins, migration pathways and filling chronology. Drill core data were combined with 3D seismic data in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the processes involved. [German] Im Rahmen des DGMK-Forschungsprogrammes ''Tight Gas Reservoirs'' (Projekt 593-8) wurden von der Arbeitsgruppe Sedimentologie 43 Bohrungen aus dem Rotliegend Nordwestdeutschlands untersucht. Die vorgestellten Ergebnisse schliessen sich an den Vortrag ''Einfluss von Fazies und Diagenese auf die Speicher-Qualitaets-Entwicklung von Rotliegendsandsteinen NW Deutschlands'' (SOLMS et al., DGMK-Fruehjahrstagung 2002). Ziel dieses Teilprojektes ist die Verbesserung des geologischen Konzeptes zur Entwicklung der Speicherqualitaet, die Entwicklung eines Modells zur Erfassung und Rekonstruktion der strukturellen Entwicklung und Restrukturierung von Lagerstaetten sowie die Klaerung von KW-Herkunftsgebieten, Migrationswegen und Fuellungschronologien. Durch die Verknuepfung der Kerndaten mit 3D seismischen Daten soll eine verbesserte Einschaetzung der Speicherqualitaeten aus dem 3D seismischen Abbild erreicht werden. (orig.)

  18. Non-aqueous CE-MS of cinchona alkaloids - characterizationof a novel CE-ESI-MS interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frederik André; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    We have recently in our group at the University of Copenhagen developed a robust and simple sheatless CE-ESI-MS interface (capillary electrophoresis – electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry). In this presentation the interface is characterized and compared with HPLC-MS for studying...... a submicron fracture in the capillary close the ESI tip. The fracture provides a zero dead volume and excellent conducting properties due to the large amount of ions in the electric double layer. Electric current exceeding the upper limit of CE instrumentation of up to 300 µA can easily be obtained....... Furthermore, the increased conductivity of the buffer in the fracture generates field free pumping of the analytes towards the ESI spray tip. In this study the device was used to analyze the four major alkaloids (diastereomeric pairs of quinine/quinidine and cinchonine/cinchonidine) in Cinchona bark samples...

  19. Delphi report 1995 on developments in science and technology. Mini Delphi; Delphi-Bericht 1995 zur Entwicklung von Wissenschaft und Technik. Mini-Delphi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In August 1993 the first German `Delphi Report on Developments in Science and Technology` was published. It was elaborated by the Fraunhofer Institute for System Engineering and Innovation Research (FhG-ISI) in cooperation with the Japanese National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP). The `MINI-DELPHI` now completed by FhG-ISI, again in cooperation with NISTEP, is a further development of the Delphi approach in that it is more differentiated in its questions and assessment criteria than its predecessors. `MINI-DELPHI` is not intended as a comprehensive forecast on technology in general but rather focusses on key topics. Its emphasis is on technology demand and the relevance of technologies to social issues. Although the Mini-Delphi study was primarily aimed at further refining the methodology employed, it nevertheless contains a wealth of information and details on circumscript questions. The requisite database is provided by tables on the results of two inquiry rounds among Japanese and German experts. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Im August 1993 wurde der erste deutsche `Delphi-Bericht zur Entwicklung von Wissenschaft und Technik` veroeffentlicht. Er war vom Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (FhG-ISI) in Zusammenarbeit mit dem japanischen National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP) erarbeitet worden. Mit dem jetzt vorliegenden `MINI-DELPHI` hat das FhG-ISI - wieder in Zusammenarbeit mit dem NISTEP - den Delphi-Ansatz fortentwickelt und sowohl hinsichtlich der Fragen als auch der Beurteilungskriterien weiter ausdifferenziert. `MINI-DELPHI` bezweckt keine umfassende Technologievorausschau, sondern konzentriert sich auf Schluesselthemen. Im Vordergrund steht der Gedanke des Technikbedarfs und die Relevanz fuer gesellschaftliche Fragestellungen. Obwohl die Mini-Delphi-Studie vorrangig der Weiterentwicklung der Methodik dient, enthaelt sich eine Fuelle von Informationen und Details zu Einzelfragen. Die im Bericht

  20. Development of a dynamic short-term test method for installed thermal solar systems; Entwicklung eines dynamischen Kurzzeittestverfahrens fuer installierte thermische Solaranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beikircher, T.; Gut, M.; Kronthaler, P.; Oberdorf, C.; Schoelkopf, W. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Solarthermie und Biomasse

    1998-12-31

    A short-term test method for in-situ measurement of the collector field, pipelines and heat exchanger of large-surface solar systems was developed at ZAE Bayern, together with the necessary technical systems (mobile acquisition of meteorological data via telemetering, non-invasive surface temperature sensors and ultrasonic volume flow measuring instruments). Dynamic measurements were made for 11 days in a large-surface solar system of the ``Solarthermie 2000`` programme using the new measuring system. In order to optimize the evaluation procedure, the plant was simulated, and the influence of different models and operating conditions during the measurements on the prediction quality was investigated in detail. On this basis, it was possible to predict the long-term collector yield of the ZfS Hilden, which was measured for a period of 7 months, with an error of less than 5%. The method will be validated in two further industrial-scale systems. [Deutsch] Am ZAE Bayern wurde ein Kurzzeittestverfahren zur insitu-Vermessung des Kollektorkreises (Kollektorfeld, Rohrleitungen, Waermetauscher) grosser Solaranlagen entwickelt. Hierzu wurde eine der Aufgabenstellung angepasste Messtechnik entwickelt (Mobile meteorologische Datenerfassung mit Funkbetrieb, nicht-invasive Oberflaechen-Temperaturfuehler und Ultraschall-Volumenstrommessgeraete). Der Kollektorkreis einer grossen Solaranlage aus dem Programm Solarthermie 2000 wurde dynamisch ueber 11 Tage (29.10.-8.11.1997) mit der neuen Messtechnik vermessen. Zur Entwicklung eines geeigneten Auswerteverfahrens wurde die Anlage simulatorisch abgebildet und der Einfluss verschiedener Modellansaetze und der Betriebsbedingungen waehrend des Mess- und Vorhersagezeitraums auf die Vorhersageguete im Detail untersucht. Mit dem entwickelten Verfahren konnte aus der dynamischen Kurzzeitvermessung der in einer Langzeitmessung der ZfS Hilden ueber 7 Monate ermittelte Kollektorertrag nach dem solaren Waermetauscher auf deutlich besser als 5

  1. The Portuguese version of the Epilepsy Surgery Inventory (ESI-55): cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Neide Barreira; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; da Silva, Tatiana Indelicato; Westphal-Guitti, Ana Carolina; Azevedo, Auro Mauro; da Silva Noffs, Maria Helena; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Targas Yacubian, Elza Márcia

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Portuguese version of the Epilepsy Surgery Inventory (ESI-55) and to assess its psychometric properties. Sixty patients with temporal lobe epilepsy related to unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis who underwent presurgical evaluation at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) formed the sample for this study. The psychometric properties of the ESI-55 included: reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Internal consistency was high in all domains (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.76 for Social Function to 0.88 for Physical Function) except Overall Quality of Life (alpha=0.45). Test-retest reliability after 1 week was good, with the intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.79 (Energy/Fatigue) to 0.92 (Role Limitations due to Emotional Problems). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.84 (Cognitive Function) to 0.94 (Role Limitations due to Physical Problems). For construct validity, we verified a high correlation between the ESI-55 and Health Assessment Questionnaire-8 for the Physical Function domain (Pearson linear correlation=-0.84), and a moderate correlation for the Pain domain (P=-0.58), but for the other subscales no correlation was detected. Beck Depression Inventory and ESI-55 domains were highly statistically correlated (ANOVA: P0.05). With respect to demographic characteristics, a statistically significant correlation was observed for the variable educational level (Student t, PESI-55 scores. There was a high correlation between seizure frequency and ESI-55 domains for clinical variables (ANOVA, Pgroup in three domains--Health Perception (1.24), Emotional Well-Being (1.32), and Energy/Fatigue (1.48)-as reflected by the standard response mean and the effect size of the sample. Our results support the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the ESI-55 as a measure of health-related quality of life.

  2. Metabolomic screening using ESI-FT MS identifies potential radiation-responsive molecules in mouse urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Susumu; Kawai, Hidehiko; Izumi, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Fumio; Kamiya, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    The demand for establishment of high-throughput biodosimetric methods is increasing. Our aim in this study was to identify low-molecular-weight urinary radiation-responsive molecules using electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FT MS), and our final goal was to develop a sensitive biodosimetry technique that can be applied in the early triage of a radiation emergency medical system. We identified nine metabolites by statistical comparison of mouse urine before and 8 h after irradiation. Time-course analysis showed that, of these metabolites, thymidine and either thymine or imidazoleacetic acid were significantly increased dose-dependently 8 h after radiation exposure; these molecules have already been reported as potential radiation biomarkers. Phenyl glucuronide was significantly decreased 8 h after radiation exposure, irrespective of the dose. Histamine and 1-methylhistamine were newly identified by MS/MS and showed significant, dose-dependent increases 72 h after irradiation. Quantification of 1-methylhistamine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis also showed a significant increase 72 h after 4 Gy irradiation. These results suggest that urinary metabolomics screening using ESI-FT MS can be a powerful tool for identifying promising radiation-responsive molecules, and that urinary 1-methylhistamine is a potential radiation-responsive molecule for acute, high-dose exposure.

  3. Towards Discovery and Targeted Peptide Biomarker Detection Using nanoESI-TIMS-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, Alyssa; Benigni, Paolo; Ramirez, Cesar E.; Baker, Erin S.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, the potential of trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled to TOF mass spectrometry (TIMS-TOF MS) for discovery and targeted monitoring of peptide biomarkers from human-in-mouse xenograft tumor tissue was evaluated. In particular, a TIMS-MS workflow was developed for the detection and quantification of peptide biomarkers using internal heavy analogs, taking advantage of the high mobility resolution (R = 150-250) prior to mass analysis. Five peptide biomarkers were separated, identified, and quantified using offline nanoESI-TIMS-CID-TOF MS; the results were in good agreement with measurements using a traditional LC-ESI-MS/MS proteomics workflow. The TIMS-TOF MS analysis permitted peptide biomarker detection based on accurate mobility, mass measurements, and high sequence coverage for concentrations in the 10-200 nM range, while simultaneously achieving discovery measurements of not initially targeted peptides as markers from the same proteins and, eventually, other proteins. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Fragmentation characteristics of hydroxycinnamic acids in ESI-MSn by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhi-Hui; Sun, Chang-Hai; Fang, Hong-Zhuang

    2017-07-01

    This work aims to analyze the electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS n ) fragmentation characteristics of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) in negative ion mode. The geometric parameters, energies, natural bond orbitals and frontier orbitals of fragments were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) to investigate mass spectral fragmentation mechanisms. The results showed that proton transfer always occurred during fragmentation of HCAs; their quasi-molecular ions ([M - H] - ) existed in more than one form and were mainly with the lowest energy. The fragmentation characteristics included the followings: (1) according to the different substitution position of phenolic hydroxyl group, the ring contraction reaction by CO elimination from benzene was in an increasingly difficult order: m-phenolic hydroxyl > p-phenolic hydroxyl > o-phenolic hydroxyl; and (2) ortho effect always occurred in o-dihydroxycinnamic acids (o-diHCAs), i.e. one phenolic hydroxyl group offered H + , which combined with the other one to lose H 2 O. In addition, there was a nucleophilic reaction during ring contraction in diHCAs that oxygen atom attacked the carbon atom binding with the other phenolic hydroxyl to lose CO 2 . The fragmentation characteristics and mechanism of HCAs could be used for analysis and identification of such compounds quickly and effectively, and as reference for structural analogues by ESI-MS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termentzi, Aikaterini; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    In this study, various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) whereas the antioxidant potential was evaluated by applying two methodologies, the DPPH. radical scavenging activity test and the Co(II)-induced luminol chemiluminescence procedure. According to data obtained from these antioxidant tests, the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions demonstrated the strongest antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the major constituents identified in these fractions correspond to kaempferol, quercetin, naringenin and some flavanone and flavanol derivatives glycosylated and esterified with phenylpropanoic acids. In addition, the presence of some nitrogen-containing substances, as well as other phenolics and phenylpropanoic derivatives was also traced. The identification and structural elucidation of all substances isolated in this study was achieved by both comparing available literature data and by proposed fragmentation mechanisms based on evaluating the LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) experimental data. The quantitative analysis data obtained thus far have shown that Crocus sativus petals are a rich source of flavonoids. Such a fact suggests that the good antioxidant capacity detected in the various fractions of Crocus sativus petals could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, since it is already known that these molecules exert antioxidant capability. The latter, along with the use of Crocus sativus in food and pharmaceutical industry is discussed.

  6. Proanthocyanidin screening by LC-ESI-MS of Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Natércia; Azevedo, Joana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are one of the most important polyphenolic compounds in wine. Among PAs, prodelphinidin (PD) dimers and trimers have not been widely detected in wines due to the lack of available commercial standards and the difficulty to detect and isolate them from natural sources. LC-ESI-MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) with the right chromatographic conditions has proven to be a powerful tool for PAs detection and identification in complex samples. This technique has been applied to an exhaustive study of PA composition of two Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes, especially for the identification of PD dimers and trimers. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with ion trap provided additional information about the structures of these compounds through the fragmentation patterns of the pseudomolecular ions. A LC-ESI-MS method was optimized and 41 different compounds were found. Among them are included 8 PD dimers and 13 PD trimers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative analysis of the major constituents of St John's wort with HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekera, Dhammitha H; Welham, Kevin J; Ashton, David; Middleton, Richard; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-12-01

    A method was developed to profile the major constituents of St John's wort extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The objective was to simultaneously separate, identify and quantify hyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetrin, quercitrin and chlorogenic acid using HPLC-MS. Quantification was performed using an external standardisation method with reference standards. The method consisted of two protocols: one for the analysis of flavonoids and glycosides and the other for the analysis of the more lipophilic hypericins and hyperforin. Both protocols used a reverse phase Luna phenyl hexyl column. The separation of the flavonoids and glycosides was achieved within 35 min and that of the hypericins and hyperforin within 9 min. The linear response range in ESI-MS was established for each compound and all had linear regression coefficient values greater than 0.97. Both protocols proved to be very specific for the constituents analysed. MS analysis showed no other signals within the analyte peaks. The method was robust and applicable to alcoholic tinctures, tablet/capsule extracts in various solvents and herb extracts. The method was applied to evaluate the phytopharmaceutical quality of St John's wort preparations available in the UK in order to test the method and investigate if they contain at least the main constituents and at what concentrations.

  8. Simultaneous quantification of the organophosphorus pesticides dimethoate and omethoate in porcine plasma and urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS and flow-injection-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Eddleston, Michael; Clutton, R Eddie; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst

    2010-05-15

    Dimethoate is an organophosphorus toxicant used in agri- and horticulture as a systemic broad-spectrum insecticide. It also exhibits toxic activity towards mammalian organism provoked by catalytic desulfuration in the liver producing its oxon-derivative omethoate thus inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, initiating cholinergic crisis and ultimately leading to death by respiratory paralysis and cardiovascular collapse. Pharmaco- and toxicokinetic studies in animal models help to broaden basic understanding of medical intervention by antidotes and supportive care. Therefore, we developed and validated a LC-ESI-MS/MS method suitable for the simultaneous, selective, precise (RSD(intra-day) 1-8%; RSD(inter-day) 5-14%), accurate (intra-day: 95-107%; inter-day: 90-115%), and robust quantification of both pesticides from porcine urine and plasma after deproteinization by precipitation and extensive dilution (1:11,250 for plasma and 1:40,000 for urine). Accordingly, lower limits of quantification (0.24-0.49 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-1.56 microg/ml urine) and lower limits of detection (0.12-0.24 microg/ml plasma and 0.39-0.78 microg/ml urine) were equivalent to quite low absolute on-column amounts (1.1-2.1 pg for plasma and 2.0-3.9 pg for urine). The calibration range (0.24-250 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-200 microg/ml urine) was subdivided into two linear ranges (r(2)>or=0.998) each covering nearly two orders of magnitude. The lack of any interfering peak in 6 individual blank specimens from plasma and urine demonstrated the high selectivity of the method. Furthermore, extensive sample dilution causing lowest concentration of potentially interfering matrix ingredients prompted us to develop and validate an additional flow-injection method (FI-ESI-MS/MS). Validation characteristics were as good as for the chromatographic method but sample throughput was enhanced by a factor of 6. Effects on ionization provoked by plasma and urine matrix from 6 individuals as well as in the

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Massachusetts - Volume 1, geographic information systems data and Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Massachusetts from 1980 to 2000. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife...

  10. Major signal suppression from metal ion clusters in SFC/ESI-MS - Cause and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglind, Alfred; Hedeland, Mikael; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt E

    2018-05-01

    The widening application area of SFC-MS with polar analytes and water-containing samples facilitates the use of quick and simple sample preparation techniques such as "dilute and shoot" and protein precipitation. This has also introduced new polar interfering components such as alkali metal ions naturally abundant in e.g. blood plasma and urine, which have shown to be retained using screening conditions in SFC/ESI-TOF-MS and causing areas of major ion suppression. Analytes co-eluting with these clusters will have a decreased signal intensity, which might have a major effect on both quantification and identification. When investigating the composition of the alkali metal clusters using accurate mass and isotopic pattern, it could be concluded that they were previously not described in the literature. Using NaCl and KCl standards and different chromatographic conditions, varying e.g. column and modifier, the clusters proved to be formed from the alkali metal ions in combination with the alcohol modifier and make-up solvent. Their compositions were [(XOCH 3 ) n  + X] + , [(XOH) n  + X] + , [(X 2 CO 3 ) n  + X] + and [(XOOCOCH 3 ) n  + X] + for X = Na + or K + in ESI+. In ESI-, the clusters depended more on modifier, with [(XCl) n  + Cl] - and [(XOCH 3 ) n  + OCH 3 ] - mainly formed in pure methanol and [(XOOCH) n  + OOCH] - when 20 mM NH 4 Fa was added. To prevent the formation of the clusters by avoiding methanol as modifier might be difficult, as this is a widely used modifier providing good solubility when analyzing polar compounds in SFC. A sample preparation with e.g. LLE would remove the alkali ions, however also introducing a time consuming and discriminating step into the method. Since the alkali metal ions were retained and affected by chromatographic adjustments as e.g. mobile phase modifications, a way to avoid them could therefore be chromatographic tuning, when analyzing samples containing them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  11. The ESI scale, an ethical approach to the evaluation of seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Guerrieri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The dissemination of correct information about seismic hazard is an ethical duty of scientific community worldwide. A proper assessment of a earthquake severity and impact should not ignore the evaluation of its intensity, taking into account both the effects on humans, man-made structures, as well as on the natural evironment. We illustrate the new macroseismic scale that measures the intensity taking into account the effects of earthquakes on the environment: the ESI 2007 (Environmental Seismic Intensity) scale (Michetti et al., 2007), ratified by the INQUA (International Union for Quaternary Research) during the XVII Congress in Cairns (Australia). The ESI scale integrates and completes the traditional macroseismic scales, of which it represents the evolution, allowing to assess the intensity parameter also where buildings are absent or damage-based diagnostic elements saturate. Each degree reflects the corresponding strength of an earthquake and the role of ground effects, evaluating the Intensity on the basis of the characteristics and size of primary (e.g. surface faulting and tectonic uplift/subsidence) and secondary effects (e.g. ground cracks, slope movements, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes, anomalous waves, tsunamis, trees shaking, dust clouds and jumping stones). This approach can be considered "ethical" because helps to define the real scenario of an earthquake, regardless of the country's socio-economic conditions and level of development. Here lies the value and the relevance of macroseismic scales even today, one hundred years after the death of Giuseppe Mercalli, who conceived the homonymous scale for the evaluation of earthquake intensity. For an appropriate mitigation strategy in seismic areas, it is fundamental to consider the role played by seismically induced effects on ground, such as active faults (size in length and displacement) and secondary effects (the total area affecting). With these perspectives two different cases

  12. Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Profiling the Oxylipin and Endocannabinoid Metabolome by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS in Human Plasma to Monitor Postprandial Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Späth, Jana; Zivkovic, Angela M; Nording, Malin L

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive lipids, including oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds may function as specific biochemical markers of certain aspects of inflammation. However, the postprandial responsiveness of these compounds is largely unknown; therefore, changes in the circulating oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in response to a challenge meal were investigated at six occasions in a subject who freely modified her usual diet. The dietary change, and especially the challenge meal itself, represented a modification of precursor fatty acid status, with expectedly subtle effects on bioactive lipid levels. To detect even the slightest alteration, highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods for bioactive lipid profiling was employed. A previously validated UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for profiling the endocannabinoid metabolome was used, while validation of an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for oxylipin analysis was performed with acceptable outcomes for a majority of the parameters according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for linearity (0.9938 metabolome, caused by changes in diet and ii) responsiveness to a challenge meal for a subset of the oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome. To summarize, we have shown proof-of-concept of our UPLC-ESI-MS/MS bioactive lipid protocols for the purpose of monitoring subtle shifts, and thereby useful to address lipid-mediated postprandial inflammation.

  14. Profiling of Glucosinolates and Flavonoids in Rorippa indica (Linn.) Hiern. (Cruciferae) by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An UHPLC-DAD-ESI/HRMSn profiling method was used to identify the glucosinolates and flavonoids of Rorippa montana (Cruciferae), a Chinese herb used to treat cough, diarrhea and rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty three glucosinolates, over 40 flavonol glycosides, and more than 20 other phenolic and common ...

  15. Diagnostic validity of the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI): a self-report screen for ultrahigh risk and acute psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don

    2010-01-01

    Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict

  16. Diagnostic Validity of the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI): A Self-Report Screen for Ultrahigh Risk and Acute Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don

    2010-01-01

    Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild…

  17. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI...

  18. In vivo Phosphoproteome of Human Skeletal Muscle Revealed by Phosphopeptide Enrichment and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Bowen, Benjamin P; Hwang, Hyonson

    2009-01-01

    volunteers. Trypsin digestion of 3-5 mg human skeletal muscle protein was followed by phosphopeptide enrichment using SCX and TiO2. The resulting phosphopeptides were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Using this unbiased approach, we identified 306 distinct in vivo phosphorylation sites in 127 proteins, including...

  19. Simultaneous quantitation of sphingoid bases by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS with identical (13)C-encoded internal standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaian, M.; Wisse, P.; Ferraz, M. J.; Marques, A. R. A.; Gaspar, P.; Oussoren, S. V.; Kytidou, K.; Codée, J. D. C.; van der Marel, G.; Overkleeft, H. S.; Aerts, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Free sphingoid bases (lysosphingolipids) of primary storage sphingolipids are increased in tissues and plasma of several sphingolipidoses. As shown earlier by us, sphingoid bases can be accurately quantified using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, particularly in combination with identical (13)C-encoded internal

  20. Analysis of peptide mixtures for proteomics research using LC–ESI-MS with a simple microgradient device

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenobel, R.; Řehulková, H.; Šebela, M.; Franc, V.; Kahle, Vladislav; Moravcová, Dana; Řehulka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2015), s. 420-428 ISSN 1527-5949 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : LC-ESI-MS * proteomics * peptide Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0249120

  1. Selenium speciation analysis of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus selenoprotein by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical methods for selenium (Se) speciation were developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Separations of selenomethionine (Se-Met) and sel...

  2. Analysis of iodinated quorum sensing peptides by LC–UV/ESI ion trap mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorick Janssens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Five different quorum sensing peptides (QSP were iodinated using different iodination techniques. These iodinated peptides were analyzed using a C18 reversed phase HPLC system, applying a linear gradient of water and acetonitrile containing 0.1% (m/v formic acid as mobile phase. Electrospray ionization (ESI ion trap mass spectrometry was used for the identification of the modified peptides, while semi-quantification was performed using total ion current (TIC spectra. Non-iodinated peptides and mono- and di-iodinated peptides (NIP, MIP and DIP respectively were well separated and eluted in that order. Depending on the used iodination method, iodination yields varied from low (2% to high (57%.

  3. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytochemical Analysis of Pfaffia glomerata Inflorescences by LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Felipe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata contains high levels of β-ecdysone, which has shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study demonstrated that inflorescences of P. glomerata contain other important bioactive compounds in addition to β-ecdysone. The identification of compounds from inflorescences using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS was performed for the first time. The eight compounds identified were β-ecdysone, flavonoid glycosides such as quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-(6-p-coumaroyl-glucoside, oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins such as ginsenoside Ro and chikusetsusaponin IV, in addition to oleanonic acid and gluconic acid. This study provided information on the phytochemicals contained in P. glomerata inflorescences revealing the potential application of this plant part as raw material for the phytotherapeutic and cosmetic industries.

  5. Sequencing Lys-N Proteolytic Peptides by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we explored the MS/MS behavior of various synthetic peptides that possess a lysine residue at the N-terminal position. These peptides were designed to mimic peptides produced upon proteolysis by the Lys-N enzyme, a metalloendopeptidase issued from a Japanese fungus Grifola frondosa that was recently investigated in proteomic studies as an alternative to trypsin digestion, as a specific cleavage at the amide X-Lys chain is obtained that provides N-terminal lysine peptide fragments. In contrast to tryptic peptides exhibiting a lysine or arginine residue solely at the C-terminal position, and are thus devoid of such basic amino acids within the sequence, these Lys-N proteolytic peptides can contain the highly basic arginine residue anywhere within the peptide chain. The fragmentation patterns of such sequences with the ESI-QqTOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometers commonly used in proteomic bottom-up experiments were investigated.

  6. Measurement of methionine level with the LC-ESI-MS/MS method in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksizoglu, S; Kulaksizoglu, B; Ellidag, H Y; Eren, E; Yilmaz, N; Baykal, A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma methionine levels by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in schizophrenic patients. A twelve-point standard graph was drawn, and the recovery rate, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV), the limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were evaluated. The y and R2 values of the standard graph equation were determined as 0.011x + 0.0179 and 0.9989, respectively, and the graph remained linear until the 200 µmol/l level. The intra-day coefficients of variation of the samples (n = 10) containing 8, 28, and 58 µmol/l methionine were determined as 2.68, 3.10, and 3.79%, respectively; while their inter-day coefficients of variation were determined as 2.98, 3.19, and 3.84%. The LOD and LOQ values were determined as 0.04 and 0.1 µmol/l, respectively, while the mean recovery rates were determined as 101.7 and 99.3%. Plasma methionine values were measured as 21.5 (19.5-24,6) µmol/l for the patient group, 17.8 (16.3-20.1) µmol/l for the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.03). LC-ESI-MS/MS method represents a fairly sensitive, economic, and rapid analysis that requires very little sample and is suitable for measuring methionine levels in schizophrenic patients.

  7. UFLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of multiple mycotoxins in medicinal and edible Areca catechu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Luo, Jiaoyang; Kong, Weijun; Liu, Qiutao; Hu, Yichen; Yang, Meihua

    2016-05-01

    A robust, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-ESI-MS/MS) was optimized and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of eleven mycotoxins in medicinal and edible Areca catechu, based on one-step extraction without any further clean-up. Separation and quantification were performed in both positive and negative modes under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a single run with zearalanone (ZAN) as internal standard. The chromatographic conditions and MS/MS parameters were carefully optimized. Matrix-matched calibration was recommended to reduce matrix effects and improve accuracy, showing good linearity within wide concentration ranges. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were lower than 50 μg kg(-1), while limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.1-20 μg kg(-1). The accuracy of the developed method was validated for recoveries, ranging from 85% to 115% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤14.87% at low level, from 75% to 119% with RSD ≤ 14.43% at medium level and from 61% to 120% with RSD ≤ 13.18% at high level, respectively. Finally, the developed multi-mycotoxin method was applied for screening of these mycotoxins in 24 commercial samples. Only aflatoxin B2 and zearalenone were found in 2 samples. This is the first report on the application of UFLC-ESI(+/-)-MS/MS for multi-class mycotoxins in A. catechu. The developed method with many advantages of simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity is a proposed candidate for large-scale detection and quantification of multiple mycotoxins in other complex matrixes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a test system for the determination of biodegradability in surface waters; Entwicklung eines Testsystems fuer die Pruefung des biologischen Abbaus in Oberflaechengewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsch, W; Knacker, T; Robertz, M; Schallnass, H J

    1997-04-01

    The study presented here describes the development of a laboratory test system for the determination of aerobic biodegradability of substances at low concentrations in surface water. It was aimed to prepare a draft guideline for a biodegradation simulation test according to OECD format. The experimental approach was based on a literature study conducted within the frame of this project. Further useful information on the possible test design was derived from the German BBA guideline 5-1. Natural water and sediments were collected. Radiolabelled Lindane or 4-Nitrophenol was added. The test vessels (reactors) were aerated and incubated under controlled conditions for up to 92 days. The results showed biological stability of the sediment/water systems even without addition of nutrients and adherence to non-reducing conditions. Mineralisation of 4-Nitrophenol was influenced by the sediment type, the method of aeration and temperature. Factors affecting the mineralisation of Lindane were the method of application and again, the sediment type and temperature. Considerable amounts of the radioactivity were bound to the sediment and were to a large extent unextractable. The potential of a reactor to mineralise a test substance could not be correlated with the biological parameters measured. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Studie beschreibt die Entwicklung eines Labortestverfahrens zur Pruefung des aeroben Abbaus niedrig konzentrierter Stoffe in Oberflaechengewaessern. Dabei war es ein Ziel, das Verfahren so weit abzusichern, dass ein Entwurf fuer eine Pruefrichtlinie als Simulationstest im Format der OECD-Richtlinien abgefasst werden konnte. Grundlage fuer die Konzeption war eine zuvoerderst durchgefuehrte Literaturstudie. Hinweise auf ein moegliches Testdesign ergaben sich auch aus der BBA-Richtlinie 5-1. Wasser und Sediment wurden der Natur entnommen und nach Zugabe der radioaktiven Pruefsubstanz Lindan oder 4-Nitrophenol in einem beluefteten Gefaess unter

  9. Development of a CdTe/CdS solar wafer. Final report; Entwicklung einer CdTe/CdS Duennschicht-Solarzelle. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koentges, M.; Reineck-Koch, R.

    2002-07-01

    The focus was on the development and optimisation of the close-spaced sublimation process in an inline coating plant for production of stable high-efficiency CdS/CdTe solar wafers. An inline plant was to be constructed by ANTEC GmbH and ISFH. Film layers were to be optimised, and investigations were to show whether processing of single films is possible without breaking the vacuum, e.g. for etching. The results were to be used directly by ANTEC GmbH. An efficiency of 14 percent and an idle voltage of about 850 V were to be achieved with a film thickness of 2 {mu}m. To achieve these goals, the following project stages were envisaged: 1. Replacement of the expensive window material ITO by a less costly material. 2. Higher stability of the back contact by using appropriate intermediate layers. 3. Alternative activation processes other than the conventional CdCl{sub 2} activation. 4. Investigation of the effects of the activation step on the electric properties of the sample. [German] Die uebergreifende Aufgabenstellung des Projektes war die Entwicklung und Optimierung des Close-spaced-Sublimation verfahrens in einer Inline-Beschichtungsanlage fuer die Herstellung stabiler und hocheffizienter CdS/CdTe Duennschichtsolarzellen. Mit dem Wissen der ANTEC GmbH sollte zusammen mit dem ISFH eine Inline-Anlage konzipiert und gebaut werden. Die fuer die Solarzelle notwendigen Einzelschichten sollten in dem Inline-Prozess optimiert werden. Es sollte ermittelt werden, ob eine Prozessierung der Einzelschichten ohne Brechen des Vakuums, z.B. fuer einen Aetzschritt, moeglich ist. Die erzielten Ergebnisse sollen direkt der ANTEC GmbH zufliessen. In dem Projekt wurde als Endziel ein Wirkungsgrad der CdTe/CdS-Duennschichtsolarzelle von 14% und eine Erhoehung der Leerlaufspannung auf Werte um 850 mV angestrebt. Gleichzeitig sollte die CdTe-Schichtdicke auf 2 {mu}m vermindert werden. Um dieses Gesamtziel zu erreichen, sollen folgende Teilaufgaben bearbeitet werden: 1) Das teuere

  10. Rehabilitation and development of environmental pollution areas: pilot project in a former uranium mining area; Sanierung und Entwicklung umweltbelasteter Raeume: Modellvorhaben in einer ehemaligen Uranbergbauregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.; Rathmann, J.; Wirth, P.; Bovet, J.; Danielzyk, R.; Dienemann, H.; Dudel, G.; Freyer, W.; Hutter, G.

    2002-07-01

    zunehmend wahrgenommen, wobei bestimmte Gebietstypen wie altindustrialisierte Raeume, Bergbau- und Konversionsgebiete im Focus der Aufmerksamkeit stehen. Haeufig - so auch im ehemaligen Uranbergbaugebiet um Johanngeorgenstadt im saechsischen Erzgebirge - treten zu den Umweltschaeden allgemeine Probleme strukturschwacher Raeume (schwache wirtschaftliche Wertschoepfung, schlechte Erreichbarkeit). Durch die Selbstverstaerkung negativer Prozesse wird die Abwanderung der Bevoelkerung ausgeloest und die Siedlungen beginnen zu schrumpfen. Einzelfallbezogene und rein technische Loesungsansaetze, wie sie durch die regionale Strukturpolitik in der Vergangenheit praktiziert worden sind, geraten in derartigen Problemraeumen rasch an ihre Grenzen. Gefragt sind stattdessen komplexe Loesungen, die gezielt Einzelprojekte mit der Entwicklung neuer Perspektiven fuer die betroffenen Gemeinden verbinden. In Anbetracht der positiven Erfahrungen im Sanierungs- und Entwicklungsgebiet Uranbergbau wird jenen Bundeslaendern, in denen es Gebiete mit gravierenden Umweltschaeden gibt, empfohlen, Sanierungs- und Entwicklungsgebiete in die landes- und regionalplanerische Praxis zu uebernehmen. Dabei steht der Gedanke im Mittelpunkt, dass zunaechst die Ausweisung von Problemgebieten in Raumordnungsplaenen erfolgt und daraufhin Aktionsraeume gebildet werden, in denen Sanierungs- und Entwicklungsziele formuliert und umgesetzt werden. (orig.)

  11. Production of highly charged ion beams Kr32+, Xe44+, Au54+ with Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) Krion-2 and corresponding basic and applied studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2010-09-01

    Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) Krion-2 (JINR, Dubna) was used for basic and applied research in various aspects of multiply charged heavy ions production. Energy recuperation mode in ESIS has been proofed first and used for production of highly charged ions 84Kr28+÷84Kr32+, 124Xe40÷124Xe44 and Au51+÷ Au54+. Krion-2 ESIS was mounted on high voltage (HV) platform of LU-20 Linac and used as an injector of highly charged ions during Nuclotron run N° 41. Krion-2 ESIS has produced 3.0.107 124Xe42+ ions per pulse of 7 μs duration. This ion beam was injected into LU-20 and Nuclotron, accelerated up to energy of 186 GeV and the extracted Xe beam was used for physics experiments. Electron String Ion Source Krion-2 demonstrated the high reliability and stability running during 30 days on HV platform. We believe that it is due to an extremely low electron beam power, provided by using the electron string mode of operation: 50 W pulse power and about 10 W average power. Other possible application of ESIS could be its use in injection complexes of synchrotrons and cyclotrons for cancer therapy. Slow and fast extraction of C4+ and C6+ beams from Krion-2 ESIS were preliminary studied towards ESIS optimization for medical accelerators requirements.

  12. Horizontal Transfer of the Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis Resistance and Virulence Plasmid pESI to the Gut Microbiota of Warm-Blooded Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Aviv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent salmonellae worldwide. Recently, we showed that the emergence of S. Infantis in Israel was facilitated by the acquisition of a unique megaplasmid (pESI conferring multidrug resistance and increased virulence phenotypes. Here we elucidate the ecology, transmission properties, and regulation of pESI. We show that despite its large size (~280 kb, pESI does not impose a significant metabolic burden in vitro and that it has been recently fixed in the domestic S. Infantis population. pESI conjugation and the transcription of its pilus (pil genes are inhibited at the ambient temperature (27°C and by ≥1% bile but increased under temperatures of 37 to 41°C, oxidative stress, moderate osmolarity, and the microaerobic conditions characterizing the intestinal environment of warm-blooded animals. The pESI-encoded protein TraB and the oxygen homeostasis regulator Fnr were identified as transcriptional regulators of pESI conjugation. Using the mouse model, we show that following S. Infantis infection, pESI can be horizontally transferred to the gut microbiota, including to commensal Escherichia coli strains. Possible transfer, but not persistence, of pESI was also observed into Gram-positive mouse microbiota species, especially Lactobacillus reuteri. Moreover, pESI was demonstrated to further disseminate from gut microbiota to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, in the context of gastrointestinal infection. These findings exhibit the ability of a selfish clinically relevant megaplasmid to distribute to and from the microbiota and suggest an overlooked role of the microbiota as a reservoir of mobile genetic elements and intermediator in the spread of resistance and virulence genes between commensals and pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Short version of the 1996 environmental expertise on the implementation of a sustainable, environmentally acceptable development. Conclusions and recommendations for action; Kurzfassung des Umweltgutachtens 1996 zur Umsetzung einer dauerhaft-umweltgerechten Entwicklung. Schlussfolgerungen und Handlungsempfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the present expertise is to set new orientation marks for the tedious, conflict-laden procedure of bringing the ideal of a sustainable, environmentally acceptable development to realisation. By submitting this expertise the Environmental Council has acted in accordance with its assignment to report periodically on certain well-defined issues; specifically, to analyse generic questions of environmental protection, describe the environmental situation in Germany with regard to selected sectors of environmental protection, and give a critical valuation of current environmental policy. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Gutachten hat das Ziel, weitere Markierungen fuer den langwierigen und konflikttraechtigen Weg zur Umsetzung des Leitbildes einer dauerhaft-umweltgerechten Entwicklung zu setzen. Der Umweltrat kommt auch in diesem Gutachten seinem Auftrag nach, im Rahmen der periodischen Begutachtung uebergreifende Fragen des Umweltschutzes zu analysieren und fuer ausgewaehlte Umweltschutzsektoren die Umweltsituation in Deutschland zu beschreiben und die Umweltpolitik kritisch zu bewerten. (orig./SR)

  14. „Ein Brief wird erhalten!“: Passivfehler iranischer DaF-Studierender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Raeisi Dastanaei

    2017-10-01

    The German passive is a specific difficulty for L1 Persian learners of German. For this reason, the present study has aimed to elucidate the problems of the learners in this area, to diagnose them and to clarify the respective reasons. In accordance with this objective, the mistakes of 38 L1 Persian learners of German at the University of Isfahan were examined and it was analyzed with which of the passive constructions they have major problems. The results show that mistakes with regard to the passive forms are predominant in case of present perfect and past perfect tenses, as well as in verbs which can become passive in Persian, but not in German (and vice versa, but also in the transformation of the case forms. This small-scale study shows that a series of mistakes made in the formation and use of the passive forms of Persian learners are obviously interference errors, that is, under the influence of the system of the mother tongue.

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas, Gulf of Mexico, Alabama 2007, Louisiana 2003, Mississippi 1995, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0036821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  16. ESI GIS Data and PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index including GIS Data and Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: California; Northern (2008), Southern (2010), Central (2006), and San Francisco (1998) maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0052935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ESI data were collected, mapped, and digitized to provide environmental data for oil spill planning and response. The Clean Water Act with amendments by the...

  18. Separation and identification of Se-methylselenogalactosamine - a new metabolite in basal human urine - by HPLC-ICP-MS and CE-nano-ESI-(MS)(2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L.; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2004-01-01

    Three minor metabolites were isolated from human urine. Two of these were identified by nano electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (nESI-MS) as Se-methylseleno-N-acetylglucosamine and Se-methylselenogalactosamine, respectively. A human urine pool was lyophilised and reconstituted in methanol......-chromatographed in the reversed phase system and further purified in different separation systems before analysis by nESI-MS. By CE-nESI-MS analysis of one of the fractions, the characteristic selenium pattern was recognized around m/z 285 and ( MS) 2 fragmentation resulted in a fragments at m/z 267, 173 and 155, respectively....... It was not possible to identify this selenium compound on basis of the available data. The selenium compound in the second fraction showed co-elution with a Se-methylseleno-N-acetylglucosamine standard. The identity of this compound was verified by nESI-MS after further purification by size exclusion chromatography...

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puerto Rico - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0006584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach...

  20. Evaluation of analytical performance and reliability of direct nanoLC-nanoESI-high resolution mass spectrometry for profiling the (xeno)metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetwynd, Andrew J; David, Arthur; Hill, Elizabeth M; Abdul-Sada, Alaa

    2014-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) profiling techniques are used for analysing metabolites and xenobiotics in biofluids; however, detection of low abundance compounds using conventional MS techniques is poor. To counter this, nanoflow ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-time-of-flight MS (nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS), which has been used primarily for proteomics, offers an innovative prospect for profiling small molecules. Compared to conventional UHPLC-ESI-TOFMS, nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS enhanced detection limits of a variety of (xeno)metabolites by between 2 and 2000-fold. In addition, this study demonstrates for the first time excellent repeatability and reproducibility for analysis of urine and plasma samples using nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS, supporting implementation of this platform as a novel approach for high-throughput (xeno)metabolomics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. ESI-VI8, Peter Island, U. K. and Eastern St John, U. S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. Unambiguous metabolite identification in high-throughput metabolomics by hybrid 1D 1 H NMR/ESI MS 1 approach: Hybrid 1D 1 H NMR/ESI MS 1 metabolomics method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lawrence R. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Hoyt, David W. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Walker, S. Michael [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence KS 66045 USA; Ward, Joy K. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence KS 66045 USA; Nicora, Carrie D. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Bingol, Kerem [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-09-16

    We present a novel approach to improve accuracy of metabolite identification by combining direct infusion ESI MS1 with 1D 1H NMR spectroscopy. The new approach first applies standard 1D 1H NMR metabolite identification protocol by matching the chemical shift, J-coupling and intensity information of experimental NMR signals against the NMR signals of standard metabolites in metabolomics library. This generates a list of candidate metabolites. The list contains false positive and ambiguous identifications. Next, we constrained the list with the chemical formulas derived from high-resolution direct infusion ESI MS1 spectrum of the same sample. Detection of the signals of a metabolite both in NMR and MS significantly improves the confidence of identification and eliminates false positive identification. 1D 1H NMR and direct infusion ESI MS1 spectra of a sample can be acquired in parallel in several minutes. This is highly beneficial for rapid and accurate screening of hundreds of samples in high-throughput metabolomics studies. In order to make this approach practical, we developed a software tool, which is integrated to Chenomx NMR Suite. The approach is demonstrated on a model mixture, tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana metabolite extracts, and human urine.

  3. Development of ecological and economical super-insulations for various applications. Subproject 1: scientific development of ecological super-insulations for industrial application. Subproject 2: experimental synthesis and development of a pilot plant for continuously production and realisation of multilayer-insulation materials. Final report; Entwicklung oekologischer und wirtschaftlicher Super-Isolationen fuer vielfaeltige Anwendungen. Teilvorhaben 1: Wissenschaftliche Entwicklung oekologischer Super-Isolationen fuer industrielle Anwendungen. Teilvorhaben 2: Experimentelle Struktursynthese und Entwicklung einer Technikumsanlage zur kontinuierlichen Herstellung von Mehrschicht-Daemmstoffen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, P.; Freudenberg, C.; Schenk, A.; Doerfel, A.; Hoffmann, G.; Roedel, H.; Schierz, C.; Hopf, W.

    2002-07-01

    deliverables. A precondition for this is the continued work and the successful combination of the present solutions with new innovative materials. (orig.) [German] Waermedaemmstoffe finden in unterschiedlichen Bereichen, aus denen ihre speziellen Aufgaben resultieren, Anwendung. Materialien wie Daemmstoffe aus Mineralfasern und Schaumkunststoffe werden im Bauwesen und fuer die Industriedaemmung eingesetzt. Waermedaemmstoffe aus natuerlichen Rohstoffen finden, wenn auch nur begrenzt, im Bauwesen Anwendung. Im Bekleidungsbereich werden neben Vliesstoffen aus synthetischen Polymeren oder Schafwolle besonders im out-door-Bereich gestrickte Fleece verwendet. Die Zielstellung des Projektes besteht in der Entwicklung eines Daemmmaterials mit sehr geringer Waermeleitfaehigkeit bei sehr geringer Dichte sowie hohen Freiheitsgraden hinsichtlich der Struktur- und Stoffparameter. Die Umsetzung erfolgt mit dem Verfahren der elektrostatischen Beflockung. Es wird ein Rechenmodell zur Ermittlung optimaler Strukturen hinsichtlich Waermeleitfaehigkeit und Dichte erstellt. Im Anschluss an eine anforderungsgerechte Materialauswahl werden praktische Untersuchungen zur Wirkungsweise des Materials durchgefuehrt. Es wird eine Technikumsanlage zur kontinuierlichen Herstellung des Materials installiert und erprobt. Das Ergebnis des Projektes besteht in einer sehr variablen gestaltbaren Daemmstoffstruktur mit hervorragenden Eigenschaften. Das entwickelte Material wird als Super-Isolations-Flock-Daemmstoff bezeichnet. Bei definierten Strukturbedingungen und entsprechender Materialauswahl koennen Werte fuer die Waermleitfaehigkeit im Bereich von 0,027 W/mK und 0,030 W/mK erreicht werden. Die Dichte fuer derartige Strukturen liegt im Bereich zwischen 10 kg/m{sup 3} und 20 kg/m{sup 3}. Fuer Anwendungsbeispiele ohne hohen mechanische Anforderunge koennen Strukturen mit einer Dichte von ca. 7 kg/m{sup 3} erzielt werden. Der Super-Isolations-Flock-Daemmstoff findet im Bekleidungsbereich sowie im technischen

  4. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirarattananon, Surapong; Nirukkanaporn, Supattana

    2006-01-01

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990 s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system) rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  5. Screening natural libraries of human milk oligosaccharides against lectins using CaR-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawiet, Amr; Chen, Yajie; Shams-Ud-Doha, Km; Kitova, Elena N; Kitov, Pavel I; Bode, Lars; Hage, Naim; Falcone, Franco H; Klassen, John S

    2018-01-15

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) afford many health benefits to breast-fed infants, such as protection against infection and regulation of the immune system, through the formation of non-covalent interactions with protein receptors. However, the molecular details of these interactions are poorly understood. Here, we describe the application of catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) for screening natural libraries of HMOs against lectins. The HMOs in the libraries were first identified based on molecular weights (MWs), ion mobility separation arrival times (IMS-ATs) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fingerprints of their deprotonated anions. The libraries were then screened against lectins and the ligands identified from the MWs, IMS-ATs and CID fingerprints of HMOs released from the lectin in the gas phase. To demonstrate the assay, four fractions, extracted from pooled human milk and containing ≥35 different HMOs, were screened against a C-terminal fragment of human galectin-3 (hGal-3C), for which the HMOs specificities have been previously investigated, and a fragment of the blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA) from Helicobacter pylori, for which the HMO specificities have not been previously established. The structures of twenty-one ligands, corresponding to both neutral and acidic HMOs, of hGal-3C were identified; all twenty-one were previously shown to be ligands for this lectin. The presence of HMO ligands at six other MWs was also ascertained. Application of the assay to BabA revealed nineteen specific HMO structures that are recognized by the protein and HMO ligands at two other MWs. Notably, it was found that BabA exhibits broad specificity for HMOs, and recognizes both neutral HMOs, including non-fucosylated ones, and acidic HMOs. The results of competitive binding experiments indicate that HMOs can interact with BabA at previously unknown binding sites. The affinities of eight purified HMOs for BabA were

  6. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surapong Chirarattananon; Supattana Nirukkanaporn [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathum Thani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2006-11-15

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in the early 1990s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system, rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  7. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirarattananon, Surapong [Energy Program, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)]. E-mail: surapong@ait.ac.th; Nirukkanaporn, Supattana [Energy Program, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

    2006-11-15

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990 s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system) rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  8. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surapong Chirarattananon; Supattana Nirukkanaporn

    2006-01-01

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in the early 1990s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system, rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  9. Quantitation of iothalamate in urine and plasma using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Ross J; Ritchie, James C

    2010-01-01

    The following chapter describes a method to measure iothalamate in plasma and urine samples using high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Methanol and water are spiked with the internal standard (IS) iohexol. Iothalamate is isolated from plasma after IS spiked methanol extraction and from urine by IS spiked water addition and quick-spin filtration. The plasma extractions are dried under a stream of nitrogen. The residue is reconstituted in ammonium acetate-formic acid-water. The reconstituted plasma and filtered urine are injected into the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Iothalamate and iohexol show similar retention times in plasma and urine. Quantification of iothalamate in the samples is made by multiple reaction monitoring using the hydrogen adduct mass transitions, from a five-point calibration curve.

  10. Profiling and Distribution of Metabolites of Procyanidin B2 in Mice by UPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Ying; Hu, Zhongzhi; Yin, Zhiting; Zhou, Yiming; Liu, Taiyi; Zhou, Xiaoli; Chang, Dawei

    2017-01-01

    The metabolite profiles and distributions of procyanidin B2 were qualitatively described using UPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn without help of reference standards, and a possible metabolic pathway was proposed in the present study. Summarily, 53 metabolites (24 new metabolites) were detected as metabolites of procyanidin B2, and 45 of them were tentatively identified. Twenty seven metabolites were assigned as similar metabolites of (−)-epicatechin by scission of the flavanol interflavanic bond C4–C8,...

  11. Detection, characterization and quantification of salicylic acid conjugates in plant extracts by ESI tandem mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Victoria; Vicent, Cristian; Cerezo, Miguel; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Dean, John; Flors, Victor

    2012-04-01

    An approach for the detection and characterization of SA derivatives in plant samples is presented based on liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometric techniques. Precursor ion scan methods using an ESI triple quadrupole spectrometer for samples from plants challenged with the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 allowed us to detect two potential SA derivatives. The criterion used to consider a potential SA derivative is based on the detection of analytes in the precursor ion scan chromatogram upon selecting m/z 137 and m/z 93 that correspond to the salicylate and its main product ion, respectively. Product ion spectra of the newly-detected analytes as well as accurate m/z determinations using an ESI Q-time-of-flight instrument were registered as means of characterization and strongly suggest that glucosylated forms of SA at the carboxylic and at the phenol functional groups are present in plant samples. The specific synthesis and subsequent chromatography of salicylic glucosyl ester (SGE) and glucosyl salicylate (SAG) standards confirmed the chemical identity of both peaks that were obtained applying different tandem mass spectrometric techniques and accurate m/z determinations. A multiple reaction monitoring method has been developed and applied to plant samples. The advantages of this LC-ESI-MS/MS methods with respect to the traditional analysis of glucosyl conjugates are also discussed. Preliminary results revealed that SA and the glucosyl conjugates are accumulated in Arabidopsis thaliana in a time dependent manner, accordingly to the up-regulation of SA-dependent defenses following P. syringae infection. This technique applied to plant hormones or fragment ions may be useful to obtain chemical family members of plant metabolites and help identify their contribution in the signaling of plant defenses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS Identification of Light Harvesting and Light Screening Pigments in the Lake Sediments at Edmonson Point

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, Rita; Alibabaei, Leila; Zannotti, Marco; Ferraro, Stefano; Petetta, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The composition of sedimentary pigments in the Antarctic lake at Edmonson Point has been investigated and compared with the aim to provide a useful analytical method for pigments separation and identification, providing reference data for future assessment of possible changes in environmental conditions. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection and diode array detection (DAD) has been used to identify light screeni...

  13. Conformations of cationized linear oligosaccharides revealed by FTMS combined with in-ESI H/D exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Previously (Kostyukevich et al. Anal Chem 2014, 86, 2595), we have reported that oligosaccharides anions are produced in the electrospray in two different conformations, which differ by the rate of gas phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reaction. In the present paper, we apply the in-electrospray ionization (ESI) source H/D exchange approach for the investigation of the oligosaccharides cations formed by attaching of metal ions (Na, K) to the molecule. It was observed that the formation of different conformers can be manipulated by varying the temperature of the desolvating capillary of the ESI interphase. Separation of the conformers was performed using gas phase H/D approach. Because the conformers have different rates of the H/D exchange reaction, the deuterium distribution spectrum becomes bimodal. It was found that the conformation corresponding to the slow H/D exchange rate dominates in the spectrum when the capillary temperature is low (~200 °C), and the conformation corresponding to the fast H/D exchange rate dominates at high (~400 °C) temperatures. In the intermediate temperature region, two conformers are present simultaneously. It was also observed that large oligosaccharide requires higher temperature for the formation of another conformer. It was found that the presence of the conformers considerably depends on the solvent used for ESI and the pH. We have compared these results with the previously performed in-ESI source H/D exchange experiments with peptides and proteins. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. An analytical approach based on ESI-MS, LC-MS and PCA for the quali-quantitative analysis of cycloartane derivatives in Astragalus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Assunta; Akay, Seref; Mari, Angela; Bedir, Erdal; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2013-11-01

    Astragalus species are widely used as health foods and dietary supplements, as well as drugs in traditional medicine. To rapidly evaluate metabolite similarities and differences among the EtOH extracts of the roots of eight commercial Astragalus spp., an approach based on direct analyses by ESI-MS followed by PCA of ESI-MS data, was carried out. Successively, quali-quantitative analyses of cycloartane derivatives in the eight Astragalus spp. by LC-ESI-MS(n) and PCA of LC-ESI-MS data were performed. This approach allowed to promptly highlighting metabolite similarities and differences among the various Astragalus spp. PCA results from LC-ESI-MS data of Astragalus samples were in reasonable agreement with both PCA results of ESI-MS data and quantitative results. This study affords an analytical method for the quali-quantitative determination of cycloartane derivatives in herbal preparations used as health and food supplements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical characterisation of non-defective and defective green arabica and robusta coffees by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Juliana C F; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S; Nunes, Marcella

    2008-11-15

    The coffee roasted in Brazil is considered to be of low quality, due to the presence of defective coffee beans that depreciate the beverage quality. These beans, although being separated from the non-defective ones prior to roasting, are still commercialized in the coffee trading market. Thus, it was the aim of this work to verify the feasibility of employing ESI-MS to identify chemical characteristics that will allow the discrimination of Arabica and Robusta species and also of defective and non-defective coffees. Aqueous extracts of green (raw) defective and non-defective coffee beans were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and this technique provided characteristic fingerprinting mass spectra that not only allowed for discrimination of species but also between defective and non-defective coffee beans. ESI-MS profiles in the positive mode (ESI(+)-MS) provided separation between defective and non-defective coffees within a given species, whereas ESI-MS profiles in the negative mode (ESI(-)-MS) provided separation between Arabica and Robusta coffees. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First characterisation of flavonoid- and diarylheptanoid-type antioxidant phenolics in Corylus maxima by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergő; Alberti, Ágnes; Végh, Krisztina; Burlini, Ilaria; Könczöl, Árpád; Balogh, György Tibor; Kéry, Ágnes

    2015-03-25

    Corylus maxima Mill. (Betulaceae) leaves have been used in traditional medicine both internally and externally, nevertheless phytochemical exploration of the plant remains incomplete. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenolic composition of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of C. maxima leaves and bark are reported for the first time. The radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated by the ABTS and DPPH assays. All the extracts of C. maxima possessed notable antioxidant activity. By mean of a HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF and a HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method, altogether twenty-two phenolics were tentatively characterised: one flavan derivative (1), seven flavonol derivatives (4, 6, 12, 13, 16, 20 and 21) and fourteen diarylheptanoids (2, 3, 5, 7-11, 14, 15, 17-19 and 22). The amount of the two main flavonoids - myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (6) and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (13) - and two diarylheptanoids - oregonin (3) and hirsutenone (15) - in the extracts were determined by a validated HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Our results showed that C. maxima could be considered as a valuable source of pharmacologically important natural products that might contribute to the revaluation of the phytotherapeutical potential of the plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NACE-ESI-TOF MS to reveal phenolic compounds from olive oil: introducing enriched olive oil directly inside capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Most CE methods for the analysis of phenols from olive oil use an aqueous electrolyte separation medium, although the importance of NACE is obvious, as this kind of CE seems to be more compatible with the hydrophobic olive oil matrix and could facilitate its direct injection. In the current work we develop a method involving SPE and NACE coupled to ESI-TOF MS. All the CE and ESI-TOF MS parameters were optimized in order to maximize the number of phenolic compounds detected and the sensitivity in their determination. Electrophoretic separation was carried out using a CE buffer system consisting of 25 mM NH(4)OAc/AcH in methanol/ACN (1/1 v/v) at an apparent pH value of 5.0. We studied in depth the effect of the nature and concentration of different electrolytes dissolved in different organic solvents and other experimental and instrumental CE variables. The results were compared with those obtained by CZE (with aqueous buffers) coupled to ESI-TOF MS; both methods offered to the analyst the chance to study phenolic compounds of different families (such as phenolic alcohols, lignans, complex phenols, flavonoids, etc.) from virgin olive oil by injecting methanolic extracts with efficient and fast CE separations. In the case of NACE method, we also studied the direct injection of the investigated matrix introducing a plug of olive oil directly into the capillary.

  18. Quantum-chemical, NMR, FT IR, and ESI MS studies of complexes of colchicine with Zn(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Wojciech; Kurek, Joanna; Barczyński, Piotr; Hoffmann, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Colchicine is a tropolone alkaloid from Colchicinum autumnale. It shows antifibrotic, antimitotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, and is used to treat gout and Mediterranean fever. In this work, complexes of colchicine with zinc(II) nitrate were synthesized and investigated using DFT, 1 H and 13 C NMR, FT IR, and ESI MS. The counterpoise-corrected and uncorrected interaction energies of these complexes were calculated. We also calculated their 1 H, 13 C NMR, and IR spectra and compared them with the corresponding experimentally obtained data. According to the ESI MS mass spectra, colchicine forms stable complexes with zinc(II) nitrate that have various stoichiometries: 2:1, 1:1:1, and 2:1:1 with respect to colchichine, Zn(II), and nitrate ion. All of the complexes were investigated using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). The calculated and the measured spectra showed differences before and after the complexation process. Calculated electron densities and bond critical points indicated the presence of bonds between the ligands and the central cation in the investigated complexes that satisfied the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Graphical Abstract DFT, NMR, FT IR, ESI MS, QTAIM and puckering studies of complexes of colchicine with Zn(II).

  19. Development of a fluidized-bed method for on-line evaluation of radiotracers in vitro; Entwicklung einer Fliessbettechnik zur Bewertung von Radiopharmaka an Zellkulturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, T.

    1999-05-01

    This study presents the development of a continuously operating fluidized-bed bioreactor for on-line evaluation of radiotracers in vitro, which combines tissue-like three-dimensional cell cultivation in open porous microcarriers with a technique for on-line radioactivity detection. The long time stability of steady-state permits a large number of experiments using the same culture. All relevant parameters (O{sub 2}, pH, T, etc.) can be adjusted according to the experimental requirements. The flux of the circulating medium can be adapted to the blood flow of the corresponding organism, while the input function of the radiotracer is freely adjustable for simulation of in vivo conditions. Sampling and examination of the immobilized cells care possible at any time. Using this system, the kinetics of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) in human glioma cells (86HG39) were studied and it was shown that the dependence of the lumped constant (LC) for FDG on the medium glucose concentration is similar to that obtained in the rat brain. For normoglycemic concentrations the LC was determined to be in the range of 0.7, while in hypoglycemia it increased progressively up to a value of 1.22 at a glucose concentration of 3 mM. The rate constants in the three compartment model were found to be similar to those obtained in vivo using PET; indicating the validity of the system for tracer evaluation. Furthermore the kinetics of both diastereomeric forms of 4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-proline was investigated and found that both diastereomeres were not metabolized and reached an identical intracellular steady state concentration. The trans-form was transported three times faster than the cis-diastereomere, indicated by the rate constants. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit beschreibt die Entwicklung eines kontinuierlich betriebenen Wirbelschichtreaktors zur on-line Bewertung von Radiotracern an Zellkulturen. Der Bioreaktor kombiniert eine gewebeaehnliche, dreidimensionale Zellkultivierung in

  20. Development of plans for retrofitting Russian housing, taking into account European competences for increasing its energy efficiency; Entwicklung von Planungs- und Sanierungskonzepten fuer den russischen Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezhov, Andrey; Himburg, Stefan [Hochschule fuer Technik Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    und die Erstellung eines einheitlichen Berechnungsansatzes. Als Grundlage fuer die durchgefuehrten Berechnungen dienten die deutschen Vorschriften der aktuellen Energieeinsparverordnung in Kombination mit der Berechnungsnorm DIN 4108-6 sowie DIN 4701-10. Hierzu wurden die klimatischen Bedingungen Russlands am Beispiel der russischen Metropole Sankt Petersburg in die Berechnungen integriert. Die Datenanalyse des Bestandsgebaeudes eroeffnet eine grosse Bandbreite an Moeglichkeiten zur Erhoehung der Energieeffizienz. So wird unter anderem im Zuge der Berechnungen festgestellt, dass durch relativ kostenguenstige Massnahmen zur Verbesserung des Waermeschutzes eine bedeutende Verringerung des Endenergiebedarfs erreicht werden kann. Es werden weiterhin moegliche Sanierungsvarianten unter Einbeziehung verschiedener Materialien und Heizungsanlagen vorgestellt. Die Ergebnisse machen deutlich, dass die Zukunft russischer Wohnhaeuser wie der hier dargestellten Typenserie 1-507 alles andere als aussichtslos ist, wie oft vermutet wird. Sie koennen im Gegenteil durchaus als komfortabler und funktionaler Wohnraum dienen. Auch die Verwendung regenerativer Energiequellen wie der Solarenergie ist unter den Bedingungen einer noerdlich gelegenen Stadt wie Sankt Petersburg realisierbar. Die durchgefuehrten Berechnungen zeigen, dass eine Sanierung der russischen Wohnbauten der ersten Periode des industriellen Bauens durchaus lohnenswert sein kann, insbesondere wenn man die Entwicklung der Energiepreise betrachtet. In seiner energieeffizientesten Form (''Passivhaus'') bringt eine Sanierung eine Reduzierung des Endenergiebedarfs von bis zu 90 % im Vergleich zum Bestandsgebaeude mit sich. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Application of LC-ESI-MS-MS for detection of synthetic adulterants in herbal remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Maciej J; Hassan, Huda; Al-Enazi, Eid; Ibrahim, Zuhour; Al-Tufail, Mohammed

    2006-05-03

    Adulteration of allegedly "natural herbal medicines" with undeclared synthetic drugs is a common and dangerous phenomenon of alternative medicine. The purpose of the study was to develop a procedure for detection of most common synthetic adulterants in herbal remedies, using high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). Eighty drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes were included in the study. For most drugs two transitions were monitored, using protonated or deprotonated molecules as precursor ions. The drugs were isolated from herbal remedies using simple methanol extraction. Chromatographic separation was done in gradient of acetonitrile-10 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0). Drugs tested were grouped in suites, comprising analgesic drugs, antibiotics, antidiabetic drugs, antiepileptic drugs, aphrodisiacs, hormones and anabolic drugs, psychotropic drugs, and weight reducing compounds. These suites were used according to the declared benefits of examined preparations. Limits of detection ranged from 5 pg to 1 ng per injected sample. Drug-free herbal remedy spiked with eight various pharmaceuticals occurring in adulterated herbal preparations was used for internal proficiency testing. The recoveries of spiked drugs ranged from 63 to 100%. The procedure was applied in everyday casework. Several undeclared drugs were identified in "herbal" remedies, like e.g. sildenafil, tadalafil, testosterone, or glibenclamide. Pharmacological properties of detected drugs always corresponded with the claims of the "natural" remedies. The method presents a valuable extension of standard GC-MS screening used for this purpose.

  2. Anthocyanins and antioxidant capacities of six Chilean berries by HPLC-HR-ESI-ToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Kennelly, Edward J; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2015-06-01

    The HPLC profiles of six fruits endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis (HR-ToF-ESI-MS). The anthocyanin fingerprints generated for the fruits were compared and the antioxidant capacities measured by the scavenging of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and correlated with the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (LP) and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Several anthocyanins were identified, including 3-O-glycosides derivatives of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloyl-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid) and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin) were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity. However, the highest LP activity was found for Chilean blueberries (>95%) followed by calafate fruits (91.27%) and luma (83.4%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-time ESI-MS of enzymatic conversion: impact of organic solvents and multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerle, Romy K; Grassmann, Johanna; Letzel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Different enzymatic assays were characterized systematically by real-time electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in the presence of organic solvents as well as in multiplex approaches and in a combination of both. Typically, biological enzymatic reactions are studied in aqueous solutions, since most enzymes show their full activity solely in aqueous solutions. However, in recent years, the use of organic solvents in combination with enzymatic reactions has gained increasing interest due to biotechnological advantages in chemical synthesis, development of online coupled setups screening for enzyme regulatory compounds, advantages regarding mass spectrometric detection and others. In the current study, the influence of several common organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, acetonitrile) on enzymatic activity (hen egg white lysozyme, chitinase, α-chymotrypsin, elastase from human neutrophils and porcine pancreas, acetylcholinesterase) was tested. Moreover, multiplexing is a promising approach enabling fast and cost-efficient screening methods, e.g. for determination of inhibitors in complex mixtures or in the field of biomedical research. Although in multiplexed setups the enzymatic activity may be affected by the presence of other substrates and/or enzymes, the expected advantages possibly will predominate. To investigate those effects, we measured multiple enzymatic assays simultaneously. For all conducted measurements, the conversion rate of the substrate(s) was calculated, which reflects the enzymatic activity. The results provide an overview about the susceptibility of the selected enzymes towards diverse factors and a reference point for many applications in analytical chemistry and biotechnology.

  4. Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Species of the Genus Usnea by UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salgado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise about 360 of these species. Usnea lichens have been used since ancient times as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, deodorants and folk medicines. The phytochemistry of the Usnea genus includes more than 60 compounds which belong to the following classes: depsides, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinones, phenolics, polysaccharides, fatty acids and dibenzofurans. Due to scarce knowledge of metabolomic profiles of Usnea species (U. barbata, U. antarctica, U. rubicunda and U. subfloridana, a study based on UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS was performed for a comprehensive characterization of their secondary metabolites. From the methanolic extracts of these species a total of 73 metabolites were identified for the first time using this hyphenated technique, including 34 compounds in U. barbata, 21 in U. antarctica, 38 in U. rubicunda and 37 in U. subfloridana. Besides, a total of 13 metabolites were not identified and reported so far, and could be new according to our data analysis. This study showed that this hyphenated technique is rapid, effective and accurate for phytochemical identification of lichen metabolites and the data collected could be useful for chemotaxonomic studies.

  5. Substitution pattern elucidation of hydroxypropyl Pinus pinaster (Ait.) bark polyflavonoid derivatives by ESI(-)-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Marrero, Danny E; Glasser, Wolfgang G; Pizzi, Antonio; Paczkowski, Sebastian; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G

    2014-10-01

    The structure of condensed tannins (CTs) from Pinus pinaster bark extract and their hydroxypropylated derivatives with four degrees of substitution (DS 1, 2, 3 and 4) has been characterized for the first time using negative-ion mode electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(-)-MS/MS). The results showed that P. pinaster bark CTs possess structural homogeneity in terms of monomeric units (C(15), catechin). The oligomer sizes were detected to be dimers to heptamers. The derivatives showed typical phenyl-propyl ether mass fragmentation by substituent elimination (58 amu) and inherent C(15) flavonoid fissions. The relative abundance of the product ions revealed a preferential triple, tetra-/penta- and octa- hydroxypropylation substitution pattern in the monomer, dimer and trimer derivatives, respectively. A defined order of -OH reactivity towards propylene oxide was established by means of multistage experiments (A-ring ≥ B-ring > C-ring). A high structural heterogeneity of the modified oligomers was detected. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Different Cultivars of Sweet Osmanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiguang; Fu, Jianxin; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Hongbo

    2016-09-14

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour. has traditionally been a popular ornamental plant in China. In this study, ethanol extracts of the leaves of four cultivar groups of O. fragrans were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results suggest that variation in flavonoids among O. fragrans cultivars is quantitative, rather than qualitative. Fifteen components were detected and separated, among which, the structures of 11 flavonoids and two coumarins were identified or tentatively identified. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the abundance of these components (expressed as rutin equivalents), 22 selected cultivars were classified into four clusters. The seven cultivars from Cluster III ('Xiaoye Sugui', 'Boye Jingui', 'Wuyi Dangui', 'Yingye Dangui', 'Danzhuang', 'Foding Zhu', and 'Tianxiang Taige'), which are enriched in rutin and total flavonoids, and 'Sijigui' from Cluster II which contained the highest amounts of kaempferol glycosides and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, could be selected as potential pharmaceutical resources. However, the chemotaxonomy in this paper does not correlate with the distribution of the existing cultivar groups, demonstrating that the distribution of flavonoids in O. fragrans leaves does not provide an effective means of classification for O. fragrans cultivars based on flower color.

  7. Determination of the major phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Toselli, Moreno; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2013-06-05

    Traditionally, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been consumed as fresh fruit or as pomegranate juice. In this study, the main phenolic compounds of 12 pomegranate varieties and 5 pomegranate clones were determined by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS. Two chromatographic methods with a fused-core C18 column and a classical HPLC system were developed. Thirteen anthocyanins and fourteen other phenolic compounds were determined in the pomegranate juices. As far as we are concerned, a new flavonol-glycoside, phellatin or its isomer amurensin, has been tentatively identified for the first time in pomegranate juices. Total phenolic content ranged from 580.8 to 2551.3 mg/L of pomegranate juice. Anthocyanins varied between 20 to 82% of total phenolic content. Flavonoids were 1.6-23.6% of total phenolic compounds, while phenolic acids and ellagitannins were in the range 16.4-65.8%. The five clones reported a phenolic content comparable with that of the other pomegranate samples.

  8. Determination of linsidomine in human plasma by tandem LC-MS with ESI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, F C; de Jager, A D; Swart, K J; Hundt, H K; Scanes, T; Hundt, A F

    2000-04-01

    A sensitive method for the determination of linsidomine in plasma was developed, using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Linsidomine was derivatised with propyl chloroformate and extracted with tert-butyl methyl ether/1,2-dichloroethane (55:45, v/v), back-extracted into HCl (0.01 M) followed by alkalinisation and back-extraction into ether; the final ether extract evaporated, reconstituted in mobile phase and then separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 (2) 5 micron 2.1 x 150 mm column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol water formic acid (98/100%) (400:600:0.05, v/v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.4 ml min(-1). Detection was achieved by a Finnigan MAT mass spectrometer (LCQ) at unit resolution in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode monitoring the transition of the protonated molecular ion m/z 257.0 to the product ion m/z 86.0. The mean recovery for linsidomine was 51% with a lower limit of quantification of 0.70 ng/ml using 1 ml plasma for extraction. This LC-MS/MS method for the determination of linsidomine in human plasma allows for better specificity and a higher sample throughput than the traditional LC-UV methods. It also demonstrates the profound effect that the composition of acidic modifiers and matrix constituents can have on the electrospray ionisation (ESI) of the analyte.

  9. Semi-Targeted Analysis of Complex Matrices by ESI FT-ICR MS or How an Experimental Bias may be Used as an Analytical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Jasmine; Carré, Vincent; Dufour, Anthony; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    Ammonia is well suited to favor deprotonation process in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to increase the formation of [M - H]-. Nevertheless, NH3 may react with carbonyl compounds (aldehyde, ketone) and bias the composition description of the investigated sample. This is of significant importance in the study of complex mixture such as oil or bio-oil. To assess the ability of primary amines to form imines with carbonyl compounds during the ESI-MS process, two aldehydes (vanillin and cinnamaldehyde) and two ketones (butyrophenone and trihydroxyacetophenone) have been infused in an ESI source with ammonia and two different amines (aniline and 3-chloronaniline). The (+) ESI-MS analyses have demonstrated the formation of imine whatever the considered carbonyl compound and the used primary amine, the structure of which was extensively studied by tandem mass spectrometry. Thus, it has been established that the addition of ammonia, in the solution infused in an ESI source, may alter the composition description of a complex mixture and leads to misinterpretations due to the formation of imines. Nevertheless, this experimental bias can be used to identify the carbonyl compounds in a pyrolysis bio-oil. As we demonstrated, infusion of the bio-oil with 3-chloroaniline in ESI source leads to specifically derivatized carbonyl compounds. Thanks to their chlorine isotopic pattern and the high mass measurement accuracy, (+) ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) unambiguously highlighted them from the numerous CxHyOz bio-oil components. These results offer a new perspective into the detailed molecular structure of complex mixtures such as bio-oils. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Characterization of the Proteome of Theobroma cacao Beans by Nano-UHPLC-ESI MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Emanuele; Neville, David; Oruna-Concha, M Jose; Trotin, Martine; Cramer, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    Cocoa seed storage proteins play an important role in flavour development as aroma precursors are formed from their degradation during fermentation. Major proteins in the beans of Theobroma cacao are the storage proteins belonging to the vicilin and albumin classes. Although both these classes of proteins have been extensively characterized, there is still limited information on the expression and abundance of other proteins present in cocoa beans. This work is the first attempt to characterize the whole cocoa bean proteome by nano-UHPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis using tryptic digests of cocoa bean protein extracts. The results of this analysis show that >1000 proteins could be identified using a species-specific Theobroma cacao database. The majority of the identified proteins were involved with metabolism and energy. Additionally, a significant number of the identified proteins were linked to protein synthesis and processing. Several proteins were also involved with plant response to stress conditions and defence. Albumin and vicilin storage proteins showed the highest intensity values among all detected proteins, although only seven entries were identified as storage proteins. A comparison of MS/MS data searches carried out against larger non-specific databases confirmed that using a species-specific database can increase the number of identified proteins, and at the same time reduce the number of false positives. The results of this work will be useful in developing tools that can allow the comparison of the proteomic profile of cocoa beans from different genotypes and geographic origins. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005586. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Rapid identification of fluorochrome modification sites in proteins by LC ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikwar, Prakash; Zimmerman, Tahl; Blanco, Francisco J; Williams, Todd D; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2011-07-20

    Conjugation of either a fluorescent dye or a drug molecule to the ε-amino groups of lysine residues of proteins has many applications in biology and medicine. However, this type of conjugation produces a heterogeneous population of protein conjugates. Because conjugation of fluorochrome or drug molecule to a protein may have deleterious effects on protein function, the identification of conjugation sites is necessary. Unfortunately, the identification process can be time-consuming and laborious; therefore, there is a need to develop a rapid and reliable way to determine the conjugation sites of the fluorescent label or drug molecule. In this study, the sites of conjugation of fluorescein-5'-isothiocyanate and rhodamine-B-isothiocyanate to free amino groups on the insert-domain (I-domain) protein derived from the α-subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) were determined by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF MS) along with peptide mapping using trypsin digestion. A reporter fragment of the fluorochrome moiety that is generated in the collision cell of the Q-TOF without explicit MS/MS precursor selection was used to identify the conjugation site. Selected ion plots of the reporter ion readily mark modified peptides in chromatograms of the complex digest. Interrogation of theses spectra reveals a neutral loss/precursor pair that identifies the modified peptide. The results show that one to seven fluorescein molecules or one to four rhodamine molecules were attached to the lysine residue(s) of the I-domain protein. No modifications were found in the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), which is an important binding region of the I-domain.

  12. Instrument evaluation no. 11. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-06-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to he carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This report deals with the ESI Nuclear Model 271 C; a general purpose contamination monitor, comprising a GM tube connected by a coiled extensible cable to a ratemeter

  13. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung von Satellitengalaxien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Björn

    2002-01-01

    Gleichgewichtsmodelle ein- und zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien werden erzeugt und die Gezeiteneinwirkungen der als starres äußeres Potential angenommenen Milchstraße auf sie betrachtet. Eine erste Reihe von Simulationen mit anfänglich kugelsymmetrischen einkomponentigen Satelliten zeigt, daß sich nach elliptischer Deformation ein Balken und Schweife ungleicher Länge ausbilden, deren Aussehen sich periodisch ändert. Mithilfe von Vergleichssimulationen wurden folgende Phänomene am Satelliten entdeckt: (1) Hochdichtebereiche in den Schweifen, (2) Niedrigdichtebereiche um den Kern bzw. Balken und (3) ein oft verdeckter Balken. Analysiert wird das Erscheinungsbild in Zeitabhängigkeit. Die Teilchen gehen dem Kern über den Balken verloren und bewegen sich entlang gewisser stets gleich aussehender charakteristischer Strukturen in die Schweife. Nach einer Herleitung allgemeiner Größen des mehrkomponentigen Kingprofils werden drei stabile Standardmodelle zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien mit Massenverhältnis 1:10 (baryonische zu dunkle Materie) und unterschiedlicher Verteilung der dunklen und sichtbaren Materie gefunden. Ohne die Allgemeinheit der Ergebnisse zu beeinträchtigen, wurde dabei die Große Magellanische Wolke als Grundlage der Modelle genommen. Nach geeigneter Wahl der Bahn, zu der der Gezeitenradius des verwendeten dreikomponentigen Milchstraßenpotentials sowohl analytisch als auch numerisch berechnet wird, werden Simulationen der Modelle analysiert. Hauptaugenmerk ist das unterschiedliche Verhalten der Komponenten. Hauptergebnisse: (1) Es ist möglich, große Anteile dunkler, jedoch nur geringe sichtbarer Materie abzulösen. Dunkle und sichtbare Materie können unterschiedliche morphologische Strukturen bilden. (2) Je nach Konzentration der Komponenten ist die Eigengravitation der Teilchen mehr oder weniger für das Aussehen bestimmend. (3) Die Kernauflösung des Satelliten findet im Perigalaktikum (PG), sein Zerfall aber erst im Apogalaktikum statt. (4) Die Geschwindigkeitsdispersionen der Komponenten im Kern sind im PG entlang der Sichtlinie kurzzeitig stark erhöht, sie fallen ebenso wie die Dichten und deren Verhältnis mit jedem PG stufenförmig ab; einiges davon sind nur Projektionseffekte. (5) Der radiale Verlauf der Geschwindigkeitsdispersion ist vom Bahnort abhängig er wurde genau untersucht. (6) Der Satellit zerfällt über einen Kreislauf aus Massenverlust, flacher werdendem Potential und kleiner werdendem Gezeitenradius. Equilibrium models of one- and two-component satellite galaxies are created. The tidal influence of the Milky Way, which is modeled as a rigid external potential, is examined. A first set of simulations adopting originally spherically-symmetric, one-component satellites show that after elliptical deformation, a bar and tails of unequal length arise which change their morphology cyclically. By considering comparative simulations, the following phenomena are discovered: (1) High-density regions in the tails, (2) low-density zones around the core or bar, (3) an often concealed bar. The overall morphology as function of time is analysed. The particles are lost from the core via the bar and move along certain morphologically characteristic structures into the tails. After deducing general quantities of the multi-component King model, three stable standard models of two-component satellite galaxies with different distributions of dark and visible matter are found. These models have a mass ratio of 1:10 for baryonic to dark matter. Without restriction to the universality of the results, the Large Magellanic Cloud was taken as basic prototype for these models. To choose the proper orbits, the tidal radius of the three-component model of the potential of the Galaxy is calculated both analytically and numerically. Then the simulations are analysed with the different behaviour of the components being the main focus of interest. Main results: (1) It is possible to detach a large fraction of dark matter but only a small amount of visible matter. Dark and visible matter may form different morphological structures. (2) Depending on the concentrations of the components, self-gravity may be the decisive factor for determining the morphology. (3) The dissolution of the core of the satellite occurs at perigalacticon (PG), but it does not decay before apogalacticon. (4) At PG the core densities of the components, their ratio and the velocity dispersions fall off in steps, the velocity dispersions along the line of sight show a high narrow peak. Some of these effects are just projection effects. (5) The radial dependence of the velocity dispersion is dependent on the orbital position; it is analysed in detail. (6) The satellite decays through a cycle of mass loss, an increasingly shallow potential and decreasing tidal radius.

  14. Development of process technology for large-area thin-film solar modules based on compound semiconductors. Final report; Entwicklung der technologischen Grundlagen fuer grosse Photovoltaikmodule auf Basis von Duennschicht-Verbindungshalbleitern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, H.; Lechner, P.; Geyer, R.; Ruebel, H.; Schade, H.; Psyk, W.; Frammelsberger, W.; Berthold, W.; Eichner, C.; Heckel, E.; Huber, R.; Labudde-Eibl, H.; Raith, S.; Schenk, B.; Ullrich, H.

    1998-06-01

    dabei die Grundlagenentwicklungen des Instituts fuer physikalische Elektronik der Universitaet Stuttgart (IPE) und des ZSW einerseits und die Erfahrungen der PST auf den Gebieten der grossflaechigen Modulfertigung andererseits. Fuer jede Einzelschicht eines Moduls (Rueckkontakt Mo, Absorber CIS, Anpassungsschicht CdS o.ae. und Fensterschicht ZnO) wurden Anlagen und Verfahren entwickelt, die eine hohe Qualitaet der Eigenschaften auf Flaechen bis 30x30 cm{sup 2} gewaehrleisten. Die monolithische Integration der Solarmodule durch geeignete Strukturierungsverfahren wie Laser-Scribing, mechanisches Ritzen und Lift-Off-Verfahren wurden untersucht und optimiert. Die Projektschwerpunkte bei PST waren die grossflaechige Abscheidung des Mo-Rueckkontaks und seine nachfolgende Strukturierung, Beitraege zur Entwicklung der ZnO-Fensterschicht und die Entwicklung der Modultechnik. Die hier zugeordneten Arbeitspakete waren die Randentschichtung, die Kontaktierung, die Laminierung, die Kabeldurchfuehrung, die Modulcharakterisierung und der Klimatest. Das Projektziel, naemlich die Entwicklung der Verfahrens- und Anlagentechnik (Basistechnologie) zur Herstellung grossflaechiger Module (30x30 cm{sup 2}) mit einem Wirkungsgrad von 10-12% wurde erreicht (bestes Modul: {eta}=11.7 Apertur). (orig.)

  15. Comparison of different tandem mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-IT, ESI- and IP-MALDI-QRTOF and vMALDI-TOF/RTOF) for the analysis of crocins and picrocrocin from the stigmas of Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakiotis, Nikolaos Stavros; Pittenauer, Ernst; Halabalaki, Maria; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Allmaier, Günter

    2012-03-30

    The expensive spice saffron originating from the stigmas of Crocus sativus L. and also applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complex mixture of glycoconjugates varying not only in the aglycon structure, but also in glycosylation pattern. Therefore, various tandem mass spectrometric techniques were evaluated for their usefulness in structural elucidation. Three selected constituents of the stigmas of Crocus sativus L., trans- and cis-crocin-4 as well as picrocrocin, were isolated and purified by HPLC and finally analyzed by ESI-MS (ion trap, QqRTOF), IP-MALDI-MS (QqRTOF) and vMALDI-MS (TOF/RTOF) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry in collision energy regimes ranging from a few eV (LE) to 20 keV (HE) collisions for the first time. These data aid in structurally elucidating minor, unknown glycoconjugates originating from this plant-derived spice. LE-CID of isomeric crocins on either an ion trap with ESI or a QqRTOF-instrument with ESI or IP-MALDI as desorption/ionization technique only yielded a limited number of structurally diagnostic sodiated product ions related to the carbohydrate moiety as well as to the intact aglycon in contrast to true HE-CID. The low MW constituent picrocrocin did not yield useful LE-CID spectra, but showed a high number of structurally diagnostic product ions by HE-CID utilizing a vMALDI TOF/RTOF-instrument. The highest number of structurally diagnostic product ions allowing also determination of the carbohydrate linkage of the gentiobiose-moiety of isomeric crocins ((0,4)A(2), (3,5)A(2) product ions indicating a 1→6 carbohydrate linkage) was only achievable by HE-CID. Fragmentation of the aglycon was not observed by any collision energy regime applied. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Research parallel to 'Solarthermie 2000'. Development of a standardized acceptance test for industrial-scale solar thermal systems. Final report; Begleitforschung Solarthermie 2000. Entwicklung eines standardisierten Abnahmeverfahrens fuer solarthermische Grossanlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beikircher, T.; Benz, N.; Gut, M.; Schwenk, C.; Schoelkopf, W.

    2000-02-01

    First, a simple and efficient tool for projecting solar thermal power systems was to be developed by ITW Stuttgart (see separate ITW Stuttgart report). Parallel to this, a fast and simple method was to be developed for in-situ assessment or the annual yield of such systems, with a maximum error of 5 percent. The following steps were taken: 1. Development of a measuring system for the task; 2. Selection of methods of evaluation for the dynamic in situ short-term test; 3. Development and testing of the method in several industrial-scale systems and validation by comparison with the results of conventional measurements. The dynamic in situ short-term test method developed on this basis consists of six steps which are described in the report. The measuring accuracy depends on the correct function of the plant. [German] Zunaechst sollte fuer solarthermische Grossanlagen ein Katalog standardisierter Anlagenkonfigurationen erstellt und anschliessend in die gaengigen Planungswerkzeuge TRNSYS und TSOL uebertragen werden, um Planern ein einfaches und leistungsfaehiges Werkzeug zur Auslegung und zur Berechnung des GSR zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Damit sollen Planungsfehler aufgrund fehlender Erfahrung mit Solaranlagen vermieden und ein Standard fuer innovative Anlagenkonzepte verbreitet werden. Dieser Arbeitspunkt wurde ausschliesslich durch das ITW Stuttgart bearbeitet, siehe separater Berichtsteil des ITW Stuttgart. Parallel dazu war ein Testverfahren zu entwickeln, mit dem der Jahresertrag grosser thermischer Solaranlagen in situ, d.h. an der installierten Anlage vor Ort, ohne Eingriff in die Anlage, um die Gewaehrleistungspflicht des Anlagenbauers zu erhalten, auf 5% genau, um ein klares juristisches Kriterium fuer die Feststellung einer etwaigen Nachbesserungspflicht des Erbauers zu haben, kostenguenstig und in kurzer Zeit (maximal 6 Wochen) bestimmt werden kann. Hierzu waren folgende Arbeiten notwendig: 1. Entwicklung einer an die Aufgabenstellung angepassten Messtechnik

  17. United Nations conference of environment and development, held at Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Documents. Agenda 21; Konferenz der Vereinten Nationen fuer Umwelt und Entwicklung im Juni 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. Dokumente. Agenda 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    With the translation of Agenda 21 all the documents released in connection with the United Nations Conference of Environment and Development (UNCED) at Rio de Janeiro (June 1992) have now been made generally available also in the German language. Agenda 21, which in 40 chapters discusses the basic political platforms of environment-oriented sustainable development, is an action programme for the 21st century adopted at Rio by more than 170 states. The action programme contains detailed instructions as to the practices to be abandoned to prevent any further deteriorations as well as strategies to be adopted to gradually relieve the situation and to ensure a reasonable and sustainable exploitation of our natural resources. One important approach to this goal is that environmental issues are considered within a global context, thus being a prominent factor in all political spheres. The rules set up in this action programme are applicable to industrial and developing countries alike. It offers - in broad outline - prescriptions for the combatting poverty, control of overpopulation, reconciliation of commercial and environmental interests, disposal of refuse and chemicals, for climate, energy and agricultural policies as well as the ways in which industrial and developing countries could cooperate both financially and in terms of shared technologies. The bilateral and multilateral development policies of the Federal Government are largely based on Agende 21. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Mit der Uebersetzung der Agenda 21 sind nunmehr alle Dokumente der Konferenz fuer Umwelt und Entwicklung der Vereinten Nationen (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro (June 1992) auch in deutscher Sprache der Oeffenlichkeit zugaenglich. Die Agenda 21, die mit ihren 40 Kapiteln alle wesentlichen Politikbereiche einer umweltvertraeglichen, nachhaltigen Entwicklung anspricht, ist das in Rio von mehr als 170 Staaten verabschiedete Aktionsprogramm fuer das 21. Jahrhundert. Mit diesem Aktionsprogramm werden

  18. Europium, uranyl, and thorium-phenanthroline amide complexes in acetonitrile solution: an ESI-MS and DFT combined investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Mei, Lei; Zhang, Xin-Rui; Wall, Nathalie; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2015-08-28

    The tetradentate N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-ditolyl-2,9-diamide-1,10-phenanthroline (Et-Tol-DAPhen) ligand with hard-soft donor atoms has been demonstrated to be promising for the group separation of actinides from highly acidic nuclear wastes. To identify the formed complexes of this ligand with actinides and lanthanides, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to probe the possible complexation processes. The 1 : 2 Eu-L species ([EuL2(NO3)](2+)) can be observed in ESI-MS at low metal-to-ligand ([M]/[L]) ratios, whereas the 1 : 1 Eu-L species ([EuL(NO3)2](+)) can be observed when the [M]/[L] ratio is higher than 1.0. However, ([UO2L(NO3)](+)) is the only detected species for the uranyl complexes. The [ThL2(NO3)2](2+) species can be observed at low [M]/[L] ratios; the 1 : 2 species ([ThL2(NO3)](3+)) and a new 1 : 1 species ([ThL(NO3)3](+)) can be detected at high [M]/[L] ratios. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) results showed that Et-Tol-DAPhen ligands can coordinate strongly with metal ions, and the coordination moieties remain intact under CID conditions. Natural bond orbital (NBO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), electron localization function (ELF), atoms in molecules (AIM) and molecular orbital (MO) analyses indicated that the metal-ligand bonds of the actinide complexes exhibited more covalent character than those of the lanthanide complexes. In addition, according to thermodynamic analysis, the stable cationic M-L complexes in acetonitrile are found to be in good agreement with the ESI-MS results.

  19. Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Wen-Hsin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses. Results The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS. Conclusions ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed.

  20. Stability and oxidation products of hydrolysable tannins in basic conditions detected by HPLC/DAD-ESI/QTOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Anu; Sundman, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysable tannins occur in plants that are used for food or medicine by humans or herbivores. Basic conditions can alter the structures of tannins, that is, the oxidation of phenolic groups can lead to the formation of toxic quinones. Previously, these labile quinones and other oxidation products have been studied with colorimetric or electron paramagnetic resonance methods, which give limited information about products. To study the stability and oxidation products of hydrolysable tannins in basic conditions using HPLC with a diode-array detector (DAD) combined with electrospray ionisation (ESI) and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS. Three galloyl glucoses, four galloyl derivatives with different polyols and three ellagitannins were purified from plants. The incubation reactions of tannins were monitored by HPLC/DAD at five pH values and in reduced oxygen conditions. Reaction products were identified based on UV spectra and mass spectral fragmentation obtained with the high-resolution HPLC/DAD-ESI/QTOF/MS. The use of a base-resistant HPLC column enabled injections without the sample pre-treatment and thus detection of short-lived products. Hydrolysable tannins were unstable in basic conditions and half-lives were mostly less than 10 min at pH 10. Degradation rates were faster at pH 11 but slower at milder pH. The HPLC analyses revealed that various products were formed and identified to be the result of hydrolysis, deprotonation and oxidation. Interestingly, the main hydrolysis product was ellagic acid; it was also formed from galloyl glucoses that do not contain oxidatively coupled galloyl groups in their initial structures. HPLD/DAD-ESI/QTOF/MS was an efficient method for the identification of polyphenol oxidation products and showed how different pH conditions determine the fate of hydrolysable tannins. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Development of a guidance manual for the identification and assessment of interactions as part of Environmental Impact Assessment; Entwicklung einer Arbeitsanleitung zur Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkungen in der Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassmus, J.; Bruening, H.; Kleinschmidt, V.; Reck, H.; Dierssen, K.; Bonk, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Oekologie-Zentrum

    2001-03-01

    , a methodology for the cross-media assessment of effects was developed. Here, the direct and indirect (caused e.g. via effect chains/webs) effects already described in the chapters specific to the various protected assets are examined to select and jointly assess those among them that are of relevance to general objectives or sub-objectives (protection of human health, improvement of environmental conditions to improve the quality of life for human beings, preservation of habitat potentials for plants and animals). (orig.) [German] Ziel des Vorhabens war die Entwicklung einer praxisorientierten Arbeitsanleitung fuer die Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkungen in der UVP. Die Arbeitsanleitung soll Vorhabenstraeger und deren Gutachter bei der Ermittlung und Beschreibung der Auswirkungen eines Vorhabens auf Wechselwirkungen und der entsprechenden sachgerechten Darstellung innerhalb der Antragsunterlagen und Behoerden bei der folgenden Bewertung unterstuetzen. Im Rahmen des Vorhabens wurden die entsprechenden rechtlichen und naturwissenschaftlichen Grundlagen (hier insbesondere der Kenntnistand der Oekosystemforschung), die im In- und Ausland bekannten Leitfaeden/Arbeitsanleitungen u.ae. und die in der Praxis angewandten Ansaetze ausgewertet und weiterentwickelt. Dies erfolgte u.a. durch die Auswertung der entsprechenden Literatur und durch Expertenworkshops. Nach der im Vorhaben entwickelten Definition sind unter Wechselwirkungen im Sinne der EU-UVP-Richtlinie und Paragraph 2 UVPG, die in der Umwelt ablaufenden Prozesse zu verstehen. Bei der in der UVP-Praxis gegenwaertig angewandten Betrachtung von Wirkungsketten und -netzen werden Prozesse bzw. Wechselwirkungen bereits weitgehend ermittelt und beschrieben, da die Glieder der Ketten und Netze ueber Prozesse miteinander verbunden sind. Die im Vorhaben entwickelte Arbeitsanleitung geht hier einen Schritt weiter, indem sie ein Verfahren fuer die systematische Bearbeitung von Wirkungsketten- und -netzen mit definierten

  2. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized di-caffeoylquinic acids generated by metalloporphyrin-catalyzed reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel D. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS investigation on the oxidation of 3,5- and 4,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid using iron(III tetraphenylporphyrin chloride as catalyst. Two major mono-oxidised products of the quinic acid moiety have been identified for both compounds. However, only the 4,5-derivative afforded two different tri-oxo products. Thus, it seems that the oxidation pattern depends on the number and positions of the caffeic acid moieties present in caffeoylquinic acid molecules.

  3. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized di-caffeoylquinic acids generated by metalloporphyrin-catalyzed reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Michel D.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Iamamoto, Yassuko

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS investigation on the oxidation of 3,5- and 4,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid using iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride as catalyst. Two major mono-oxidised products of the quinic acid moiety have been identified for both compounds. However, only the 4,5-derivative afforded two different tri-oxo products. Thus, it seems that the oxidation pattern depends on the number and positions of the caffeic acid moieties present in caffeoylquinic acid molecules. (author)

  4. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized di-caffeoylquinic acids generated by metalloporphyrin-catalyzed reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Michel D.; Lopes, Norberto P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: npelopes@fcfrp.usp.br; Iamamoto, Yassuko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS investigation on the oxidation of 3,5- and 4,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid using iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride as catalyst. Two major mono-oxidised products of the quinic acid moiety have been identified for both compounds. However, only the 4,5-derivative afforded two different tri-oxo products. Thus, it seems that the oxidation pattern depends on the number and positions of the caffeic acid moieties present in caffeoylquinic acid molecules. (author)

  5. Establish an automated flow injection ESI-MS method for the screening of fragment based libraries: Application to Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Caronni, Dannica; Colombo, Maristella; Dalvit, Claudio; Paolucci, Mauro; Regazzoni, Luca; Visco, Carlo; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo

    2015-08-30

    ESI-MS is a well established technique for the study of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins) and their non covalent adducts, due to its capacity to detect ligand-target complexes in the gas phase and allows inference of ligand-target binding in solution. In this article we used this approach to investigate the interaction of ligands to the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). This enzyme is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and maturation of several proteins which has been subjected in the last years to intensive drug discovery efforts due to its key role in cancer. In particular, reference compounds, with a broad range of dissociation constants from 40pM to 100μM, were tested to assess the reliability of ESI-MS for the study of protein-ligand complexes. A good agreement was found between the values measured with a fluorescence polarization displacement assay and those determined by mass spectrometry. After this validation step we describe the setup of a medium throughput screening method, based on ESI-MS, suitable to explore interactions of therapeutic relevance biopolymers with chemical libraries. Our approach is based on an automated flow injection ESI-MS method (AFI-MS) and has been applied to screen the Nerviano Medical Sciences proprietary fragment library of about 2000 fragments against Hsp90. In order to discard false positive hits and to discriminate those of them interacting with the N-terminal ATP binding site, competition experiments were performed using a reference inhibitor. Gratifyingly, this group of hits matches with the ligands previously identified by NMR FAXS techniques and confirmed by X-ray co-crystallization experiments. These results support the use of AFI-MS for the screening of medium size libraries, including libraries of small molecules with low affinity typically used in fragment based drug discovery. AFI-MS is a valid alternative to other techniques with the additional opportunities to identify compounds interacting with

  6. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS identification of light harvesting and light screening pigments in the lake sediments at Edmonson Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Rita; Alibabaei, Leila; Zannotti, Marco; Ferraro, Stefano; Petetta, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The composition of sedimentary pigments in the Antarctic lake at Edmonson Point has been investigated and compared with the aim to provide a useful analytical method for pigments separation and identification, providing reference data for future assessment of possible changes in environmental conditions. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection and diode array detection (DAD) has been used to identify light screening and light harvesting pigments. The results are discussed in terms of local environmental conditions.

  7. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS Identification of Light Harvesting and Light Screening Pigments in the Lake Sediments at Edmonson Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Giovannetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of sedimentary pigments in the Antarctic lake at Edmonson Point has been investigated and compared with the aim to provide a useful analytical method for pigments separation and identification, providing reference data for future assessment of possible changes in environmental conditions. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS detection and diode array detection (DAD has been used to identify light screening and light harvesting pigments. The results are discussed in terms of local environmental conditions.

  8. Comprehensive characterization of natural organic matter by MALDI- and ESI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Dong; Huang, Huogao; Hu, Ming; Cui, Lin; Geng, Fanglan; Rao, Ziyu; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Kang, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MALDI-FT-ICR-MS was firstly employed for molecular characterization of NOM. • 1,8-Bis(dimethyl-amino)-naphthalene (DMAN) was used as matrix. • Mass spectra of NOM generated by MALDI and ESI methods were compared. • Complementary molecular information of NOM was provided by MALDI. - Abstract: Natural organic matter (NOM) is a complex and non-uniform mixture of organic compounds which plays an important role in environmental processes. Due to the complexity, it is challenging to obtain fully detailed structural information about NOM. Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for providing molecular information about NOM, multiple ionization methods are needed for comprehensive characterization of NOM at the molecular level considering the ionizing selectivity of different ionization methods. This paper reports the first use of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method coupled with FT-ICR-MS for molecular characterization of NOM within a mass range of 200–800 Da. The mass spectral data obtained by MALDI were systematically compared with data generated by electrospray ionization (ESI). It showed that complementary molecular information about NOM which could not be detected by ESI, were provided by MALDI. More unsaturated and aromatic constituents of NOM with lower O/C ratio (O/C ratio < 0.5) were preferentially ionized in MALDI negative mode, whereas more polar constituents of NOM with higher O/C ratio were preferentially ionized in ESI negative mode. Molecular anions of NOM appearing at even m/z in MALDI negative ion mode were detected. The results show that NOM molecules with aromatic structures, moderate O/C ratio (0.7 > O/C ratio > 0.25) and lower H/C ratio were liable to form molecular anions at even m/z, whereas those with higher H/C ratio are more likely to form deprotonated ions at odd m/z. It is speculated that almost half of the NOM

  9. Biological and chemical development of mining lakes. Status report 1998/1999. Data acquisition, methods, trends; Biologische und chemische Entwicklung von Bergbaurestseen. Statusbericht 1998/1999. Bestandsaufnahme, Methoden und Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, K; Tuempling, W von [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Acidification of mining lakes in central Germany and the Lausitz was investigated for three aspects: 1.) biological dynamics and material effects on plancton abundance and variety; 2.) Chemical and microbiological interactions between sediments influenced by mining (authochthone, allochthone) and water phase 3. 3.) Limnological and hydrochemical development of water systems in abandoned mining areas with a view to environmental quality and/or utilisation. The following objects were investigated. a) Goitsche open-cast mine (Bitterfeld district); b) Lake 111 (Koyne/Pllessa district), - Lakes 107, 117 (Koyne/Plessa district), Lake b (Schlabendorf-Nord district). [German] Kernproblem in den Braunkohlengebieten der neuen Bundeslaender ist die Versauerung von Bergbauseen. Die Bearbeitung des Verbundprojektes konzentriert sich in den Bergbaufolgelandschaften der Regionen Mitteldeutschland und Lausitz auf bergbaulich gestoerte und in Veraenderung befindliche Oberflaechenwasser-Systeme. Arbeitziele sind 1.) die Vertiefung der Kenntnisse zur biologischen Dynamik und zum stofflichen Einfluss auf die Diversitaet und Abundanz von Plankton in sauren Bergbauseen 2) Untersuchungen zu spezifischen Wechselwirkungen (chemisch, mikrobiologisch) zwischen bergbaulich beeinflussten Sedimenten (autochthon, allochthon) und der Wasserphase 3. Betrachtungen der limnologischen und hydrochemischen Entwicklung der Wassersysteme in Bergbaufolgelandschaften hinsichtlich Umweltqualitaetszielen und/oder Nutzungszielen. Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes werden von den Sektionen Gewaesserforschung, Hydrogeologie, Analytik, Bodenforschung und Umweltmikrobiologie in Mitteldeutschland und der Lausitz folgende Objekte bearbeitet: a) Tagebaukomplex Goitsche (Bitterfelder Revier) und b) Restloch 111 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch 107, 117 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch B (Revier Schlabendorf-Nord). (orig.)

  10. Innovation for improvement of pedestrian protection as the challenge for the development of front-end structures of passenger cars; Innovationen zur Verbesserung des Fussgaengerschutzes als Herausforderung fuer die Entwicklung von PKW-Vorbaustrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, F.; Weidemann, W.; Jansohn, W.; Schneider, M. [EDAG Engineering and Design AG, Fulda (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Requirements for improvement of pedestrian protection are the result of real-world accidents and test conditions, which take an important role in development of front-end structures of passenger cars at present, based on legal regulations (EU directives expected in 2005) and on car assessment programmes (application as per EuroNCAP since 1997). Styling and packaging are major considerations in conceptual realisation on a large scale. Furthermore, demands for minimisation of weight and cost have to be considered as marginal conditions. Solutions for this conflict of aims, which results from the new safety requirements and performance criteria for front-end structures, are to be represented and discussed based on concrete examples. (orig.) [German] Anforderungen zur Verbesserung des Fussgaengerschutzes resultieren einerseits aus dem Unfallgeschehen und andererseits aus Versuchsbedingungen, die derzeit auf der Basis von gesetzlichen Regelungen (erwartete EU-Richtlinie etwa im Jahr 2005) und von Sicherheitsbewertungen (Anwendung im Rahmen von EuroNCAP seit 1997) in der Vorbau-Entwicklung von Personenkraftwagen eine bedeutende Rolle einnehmen. Die konzeptionelle Umsetzung tangiert sowohl Styling als auch Packaging in erheblichem Umfang, darueber hinaus sind als Randbedingungen die Forderungen nach der Minimierung von Gewicht und Kosten zu beruecksichtigen. Die Loesungen dieses Zielkonfliktes, deren Wirkungsfeld durch die neuen Sicherheitsanforderungen und die Auslegungskriterien fuer Vorbaustrukturen aufgespannt wird, sollen anhand von konkreten Beispielen dargestellt und diskutiert werden. (orig.)

  11. Development and prototypical application of analysis methods for complex anion mixtures in waters and heavy metal organyls in sediments; Entwicklung und prototypische Anwendung von Analysenverfahren fuer komplexe Anionengemische in Waessern und Schwermetallorganylen in Sedimenten. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, B.; Knoechel, A.; Potgeter, H.; Staub, S.; Stocker, M.

    2002-07-01

    When it comes to assessing the hazards emanating from heavy pollutants in waters mere elemental analysis provides too little information. Due to the great differences in toxicity and mobility it is important to know more about the exact species in question. This is particularly true of heavy metals that form stable organyls, specifically As, Pb, Sn and Hg, but also of alkylated arsenic acids, which need to be measured in complex anion mixtures. The purpose of the present project was to develop robust, powerful analysis methods and thus overcome the existing deficit in reliable analysis methods for these substances. An important approach in this connection is the use of coupled chromatography and detection systems for separation and analysis. [German] Hinsichtlich der von einer Schwermetallbelastung in Gewaessern ausgehenden Gefahren liefert die reine Elementanalytik nur unzureichende Aussagen. Aufgrund der grossen Unterschiede in Toxiditaet und Mobilitaet ist die Kenntnis der jeweils vorliegenden Spezies bedeutungsvoll. Dies gilt in besonderem Masse fuer die stabile Organyle bildenden Schwermetalle As, Pb, Sn und Hg sowie die alkylierten Arsensaeuren, die es innerhalb komplexer Anionengemische zu bestimmen gilt. Hinsichtlich ihrer sicheren Bestimmung bestehen methodische Defizite, die das vorliegende Projekt durch die Entwicklung robuster, nachweisstarker Analysenverfahren zu beseitigen versucht. Grosse Bedeutung kommt dabei gekoppelten Systemen aus Chromatographie und Detektion als Trenn- und Bestimmungsmethode zu. (orig.)

  12. Dual vehicle - Development, construction and testing of a dual vehicle for passenger transport on roads and railways. Final report; Zweiwegefahrzeug - Entwicklung, Bau und Erprobung eines Zweiwegefahrzeuges zur Personenbefoerderung Strasse/Schiene. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This feasibility study investigated a prototype dual vehicle for railways and roads. Technical problems, acceptance specifications, legal and economic aspects were gone into. [German] Zielstellung fuer das Vorhaben war die Untersuchung ausgewaehlter technischer Fragestellungen hinsichtlich der Machbarkeit der Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Prototypes fuer ein Zweiwegefahrzeug fuer den Personenverkehr, das fuer den Einsatz auf der Schiene und der Strasse vorgesehen und dafuer entsprechend technisch ausgestattet ist. Damit erbringt das Vorhaben technisch-konstruktive Loesungsansaetze fuer ein vollstaendig neues Fahrzeuggrundkonzept und traegt hinsichtlich eines solchen zukuenftigen Fahrzeugtyps - zur Klaerung technischer Fragen (statische Zusammenbauuntersuchungen, geometrische und massliche Bedingungen sowie Konzipierung, Leistungsanforderungen der Komponenten, Konzept fuer Ein- und Ausspuren sowie fuer Ein- und Ausstieg), - zur Pruefung der technischen Zulassungsfaehigkeit des Fahrzeuges, - zur Klaerung von Rechtsfragen fuer die Sicherung des Betriebes des Fahrzeuges - sowie zum Nachweis des wirtschaftlicheren Betriebes des Fahrzeuges bei. Das Vorhaben unterbreitet unter Beruecksichtigung sicherheitstechnischer, gesetzlicher und wirtschaftlicher Rahmenbedingungen Loesungsvorschlaege fuer die konstruktive Konzipierung des Fahrgestells und ein technisches Konzept fuer das Ein- und Ausspuren fuer einen neuen Fahrzeugtyp, der sowohl fuer die Strassenbenutzung als auch fuer den Schienenverkehr zugelassen ist. (orig.)

  13. Development of a regional concept for energy management for the region of Karlsruhe. Final report; Entwicklung eines regionalen Energiemanagement-Konzeptes und Anwendung auf die TechnologieRegion Karlsruhe. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, O.; Fichtner, W.; Frank, M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion; Wolf, M.A.; Rejman, M.; Eyerer, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT) (Germany); Reimert, R.; Schulz, A.; Buren, V. v. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut Bereich 1 - Gas, Erdoel und Kohle; Schaefers, B.; Bernart, Y. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Institut fuer Soziologie (IfSoz) (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Major objectives of this project are: to prepare a cross-disciplinary analysis of all characteristic aspects of the energy supply and demand patterns of a group of selected energy-intensive companies in the Karlsruhe and Rhine harbour area (5 industrial power consumers, 1 utility), to identify practical approaches for optimization and integration of energy and material flows, (networking), and to develop optimised investment and energy supply options within the framework of given conditions. The basis of the optimal solution and energy network presented and explained in detail is a new combined-cycle power plant running as a gas-fired CHP plant, substituting about 50% of the systems formerly used. (orig./CB) [German] Fragestellungen der Effizienzsteigerung und der Verwertung von Abfaellen und Abwaerme gewinnen an Relevanz vor dem Hintergrund der begrenzten Aufnahmekapazitaet der Umweltmedien fuer Schadstoffe. Im Rahmen des Projektes wurde am Beispiel der Region Karlsruhe (5 Industrieunternehmen und 1 EVU) die Entwicklung betriebsuebergreifender Energieversorgungssysteme (Netzwerke) interdisziplinaer analysiert und beschrieben. Zielsetzungen des Projekts waren unter anderem: Bestimmung von zukunftsfaehigen Optionen, intelligente Vernetzung von Energiestroemen, wirtschaftliche Optimierung betriebsuebergreifender Energiemanagement-Loesungen. Die optimale vorgestellte Loesung ist charakterisiert durch den Neubau einer zentralen, gasgefeuerten GuD-Anlage, die etwa die Haelfte der bisherigen Anlagen ersetzt und zusammen mit den weiterhin genutzten Anlagen die Energieversorgung der Unternehmen sicherstellt. (orig./CB)

  14. Energy report for Bavaria, 1998/99. Data on the development of the Bavarian energy industry, with an energy balance; Energiebericht Bayern 1998/99. Daten zur Entwicklung der bayerischen Energiewirtschaft mit Energiebilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The energy report presents an annotated statistical review of energy supply in Bavaria and addresses the energy policy and resulting activities of the Bavarian Land government. The energy balance and tabulated data for the various branches of the energy industry predominantly cover the year 1997, but whenever available, data for the years 1998 and 1999 have been included. As in previous energy reports, an annex to the report contains statements of the Bavarian Land government in reply to written questions of members of the Land Parliament, and energy policy decisions of the Land Parliament taken within the reporting period. (orig./CB) [German] Der vorliegende Bericht zeigt die Entwicklung der Energieversorung in Bayern und gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die energiepolitischen Aktivitaeten der Staatsregierung. Die Energiebilanz und die Datentabellen zu den einzelnen Energiezweigen beziehen sich im allgemeinen auf das Jahr 1997. Soweit bei einigen Energietraegern bereits Zahlen fuer 1998 und 1999 vorliegen, wurden sie in den Bericht mit aufgenommen. Im Anhang des Energieberichts sind wieder Stellungnahmen der Bayerischen Staatsregierung zu Schriftlichen Anfragen von Abgeordneten sowie Beschluessen des Bayerischen Landtags zur Energiepolitik aus dem Berichtszeitraum wiedergegeben. (orig.)

  15. Development of a two-phase, two-component jet pump refrigerator for utilization of low-temperature solar heat. Final report; Entwicklung einer Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpenkaelteanlage zur Nutzung solarer Niedertemperaturwaerme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostofizadeh, C.; Bohne, D.

    2001-08-01

    A solar refrigerator for air conditioning and cooling was developed. The key component is a two-phase, two-component jet pump with ammonia and water as working fluid. Both the pump flow and the suction flow can be two-phase flows. This way, the advantages of both the absorption and the compression principle will be utilized, and a compact size will be achieved. Upon termination of the calculations, the function of the pump will be investigated in a 0 W pilot plant. For this, various geometries were calculated and tested for their potential efficiencies. A prototype will be constructed on the basis of the results. [German] Das Ziel des Vorhabens besteht in der Entwicklung einer solarbetriebenen Kaelteanlage fuer Klimatisierungs- und Kuehlungszwecke. Die Hauptkomponente der Kaelteanlage ist eine Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpe, die mit dem Arbeitsgemisch Ammoniak/Wasser betrieben wird. Sowohl der Treib- als auch der Saugstrom koennen zweiphasig sein. Dadurch sollen einerseits die Vorteile des Absorptions- und des Kompressionsprinzips miteinander verknuepft und andererseits ein kompakter Aufbau erreicht werden. Nach Abschluss der thermodynamischen und kinetischen Berechnungen soll die Funktion der Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpe mit Hilfe einer Pilotanlage mit ca. 20 kW Kaelteleistung untersucht werden. Dazu werden nach Vorausberechnungen verschiedene Geometrien in Bezug auf erzielbare Wirkungsgrade getestet. Die Ergebnisse bilden die Basis fuer den Bau eines Prototyps. (orig.)

  16. LC-ESI/MS/MS method for rapid screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byoung Wook; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Ho Jun; Jin, Changbae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jaeick

    2011-09-01

    A sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) has been developed and validated for the screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids (29 parent steroids and 15 metabolites) in human urine. The method involves an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and detection by LC-MS/MS. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in positive ESI mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for the screening and product ion scan mode for the confirmation. The protonated molecular ions were used as precursor ions for the SRM analysis and product ion scan. The intraday and interday precisions of the target analytes at concentrations of the minimum required performance levels for the screening were 2-14% and 2-15%, respectively. The limits of detection for the screening and confirmation method were 0.1-10 ng/mL and 0.2-10 ng/mL, respectively, for 44 steroids. This method was successfully applied to analysis of urine samples from suspected anabolic steroid abusers.

  17. Unambiguous Metabolite Identification in High-Throughput Metabolomics by Hybrid 1H-NMR/ESI-MS1 Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-18

    The invention improves accuracy of metabolite identification by combining direct infusion ESI-MS with one-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy. First, we apply a standard 1H-NMR metabolite identification protocol by matching the chemical shift, J-coupling and intensity information of experimental NMR signals against the NMR signals of standard metabolites in a metabolomics reference libraries. This generates a list of candidate metabolites. The list contains both false positive and ambiguous identifications. The software tool (the invention) takes the list of candidate metabolites, generated from NMRbased metabolite identification, and then calculates, for each of the candidate metabolites, the monoisotopic mass-tocharge (m/z) ratios for each commonly observed ion, fragment and adduct feature. These are then used to assign m/z ratios in experimental ESI-MS spectra of the same sample. Detection of the signals of a given metabolite in both NMR and MS spectra resolves the ambiguities, and therefore, significantly improves the confidence of the identification.

  18. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae, known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  19. Structural Feature Ions for Distinguishing N- and O-Linked Glycan Isomers by LC-ESI-IT MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everest-Dass, Arun V.; Abrahams, Jodie L.; Kolarich, Daniel; Packer, Nicolle H.; Campbell, Matthew P.

    2013-06-01

    Glycomics is the comprehensive study of glycan expression in an organism, cell, or tissue that relies on effective analytical technologies to understand glycan structure-function relationships. Owing to the macro- and micro-heterogeneity of oligosaccharides, detailed structure characterization has required an orthogonal approach, such as a combination of specific exoglycosidase digestions, LC-MS/MS, and the development of bioinformatic resources to comprehensively profile a complex biological sample. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has emerged as a key tool in the structural analysis of oligosaccharides because of its high sensitivity, resolution, and robustness. Here, we present a strategy that uses LC-ESI-MS/MS to characterize over 200 N- and O-glycans from human saliva glycoproteins, complemented by sequential exoglycosidase treatment, to further verify the annotated glycan structures. Fragment-specific substructure diagnostic ions were collated from an extensive screen of the literature available on the detailed structural characterization of oligosaccharides and, together with other specific glycan structure feature ions derived from cross-ring and glycosidic-linkage fragmentation, were used to characterize the glycans and differentiate isomers. The availability of such annotated mass spectrometric fragmentation spectral libraries of glycan structures, together with such substructure diagnostic ions, will be key inputs for the future development of the automated elucidation of oligosaccharide structures from MS/MS data.

  20. Profiling LC-DAD-ESI-TOF MS method for the determination of phenolic metabolites from avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2011-03-23

    A powerful HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF MS method was established for the efficient identification of the chemical constituents in the methanolic extracts of avocado (Persea americana). Separation and detection conditions were optimized by using a standard mix containing 39 compounds belonging to phenolic acids and different categories of flavonoids, analytes that could be potentially present in the avocado extracts. Optimum LC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 analytical column (4.6×150 mm, 1.8 μm particle size) by gradient elution with water+acetic acid (0.5%) and acetonitrile as mobile phases, at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min. The detection was carried out by ultraviolet-visible absorption and ESI-TOF MS. The developed method was applied to the study of 3 different varieties of avocado, and 17 compounds were unequivocally identified with standards. Moreover, around 25 analytes were tentatively identified by taking into account the accuracy and isotopic information provided by TOF MS.

  1. Use of ESI-MS to determine reaction pathway for hydrogen sulphide scavenging with 1,3,5-tri-(2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydro-s-triazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2012-01-01

    To study the reaction between hydrogen sulphide and 1,3,5-tri-(2-hydroxyethyl)- hexahydro-s-triazine, which is an often used hydrogen sulphide scavenger, electro spray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used. The investigation was carried out in positive mode, and tandem mass spectrometry...... the dithiazine species, hereby confirming previously obtained results and showing the ability of the ESI-MS method for studying the scavenging reaction. The final theoretical product s-trithiane was not detected. Furthermore, fragmentation products of thiadiazine and dithiazine were detected in the solution...

  2. Learn & Go: Entwicklung einer Mobile Learning Applikation für Smartphones zur Nutzung von Learning Management Features und Funktionen via Webservice [Learn & Go: Development of a mobile learning application for smartphones to use learning management features and functions via web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] This paper indicates an attractive offer of the Saarland University to the economic study organisation in the mobile age. The realised solution allows students, without requiring any browser technologies, to use functions of the University’s learning management system avoiding to hold information and contents available more than once. Besides the methodical approch to gain the prototyp of the mobile application, the thereby achieved added value of accessing information for medical students regardless time or place is pointed out as well as the advantage perspectively gained as an innovative qualification option in the lifelong learning process for all different kinds of professional groups in the medical sector.[german] Dieser Beitrag zeigt im mobilen Zeitalter eine attraktive Offerte der Universität des Saarlandes zur ökonomischen Studienorganisation auf. Die realisierte Lösung ermöglicht Studierenden, fernab von Browsertechnologien, die Nutzung von Funktionen des Learning-Management-Systems der saarländischen Hochschulen ohne die Informationen und Inhalte mehrfach vorzuhalten. Das methodische Vorgehen zur Pilotierung der mobilen Applikation wird im Folgenden ebenso beleuchtet wie das hierdurch ermöglichte Potential des orts- und zeitunabhängigen Zugriffs auf Informationen, zum einen für Studierende der Human- und Zahnmedizin an der Universität des Saarlandes und zum anderen perspektivisch als innovative Qualifizierungsform im Lifelong Learning Prozess für alle Berufsgruppen im Gesundheitswesen.

  3. Electro-spray ionization - mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and molecular modelling, two complementary approaches. Application to calixarenes; Electrospray - spectrometrie de masse (ESI/MS) et modelisation moleculaire, deux approches complementaires. Application aux calixarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, F.; Virelizier, H.; Moulin, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Procedes d' Enrichissement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lamare, V.; Dozol, J.F. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    The molecular dynamics simulation and the experimental results obtained by the ESI/MS technique have shown that the stability of the calixarene - alkaline cation complexes is dependent of the medium. Indeed, in solution, the calixarene presents a strong affinity for cesium whereas in gaseous phase, the strong affinity is for sodium. The stability of the [calixarene+Na]{sup +} complexes depends of the nature of the medium too; these two techniques having shown that the presence of a small quantity of water in the dilution solvent stabilizes the complex. At last, calixarenes with benzo groups on their crown have an affinity for sodium which is weak in solution but strong in gaseous phase. These different results show the excellent complementarity between the two techniques. (O.M.)

  4. 基于 ESI 的精神病与心理学领域科技论文分析%Analysis on Literatures in Psychiatry and Psychology Field Based on ESI Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹引; 靳彬

    2015-01-01

    基于ESI数据库对2004-2014年全球精神病与心理学领域科技论文进行计量分析,通过对国家和地区、研究机构、期刊等各项指标的比较,明确我国在精神病与心理学领域的学术地位及不足,为我国精神病与心理学的科研发展提供参考。%Based on ESI database, the paper carries out bibliometric analysis on international psychiatry and psychology literatures during 2004-2014, through comparison of country/region, institutions and journal distribution, it demonstrates the academic status and weakness of our country in psychiatry and psychology field, providing references psychiatry and psychology scientific research development in our country.

  5. Sulphur fertilization influences the sulphur species composition in Allium sativum: sulphomics using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Andrea; Ronzan, Marilena; Feldmann, Joerg

    2017-10-18

    Garlic (A. sativum) contains a large number of small sulphur (S)-containing metabolites, which are important for its taste and smell and vary with A. sativum variety and growth conditions. This study was designed to investigate the influence of different sulphur-fertilization regimes on low molecular weight S-species by attempting the first sulphur mass balance in A. sativum roots and bulbs using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS. Species unspecific quantification of acid soluble S-containing metabolites was achieved using HPLC-ICP-MS/MS. For identification of the compounds, high resolution ESI-MS (Orbitrap LTQ and q-TOF) was used. The plants contained up to 54 separated sulphur-containing compounds, which constitute about 80% of the total sulphur present in A. sativum. The roots and bulbs of A. sativum contained the same compounds, but not necessarily the same amounts and proportions. The S-containing metabolites in the roots reacted more sensitively to manipulations of sulphur fertilization than those compounds in the bulbs. In addition to known compounds (e.g. γ-glutamyl-S-1-propenylcysteine) we were able to identify and partially quantify 31 compounds. Three as yet undescribed S-containing compounds were also identified and quantified for the first time. Putative structures were assigned to the oxidised forms of S-1-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-2-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-allyl/propenyl-containing PC-2 and 2-amino-3-[(2-carboxypropyl)sulfanyl]propanoic acid. The parallel use of ICP-MS/MS as a sulphur-specific detector and ESI-MS as a molecular detector simplifies the identification and quantification of sulphur containing metabolites without species specific standards. This non-target analysis approach enables a mass balance approach and identifies the occurrence of the so far unidentified organosulphur compounds. The experiments showed that the sulphur-fertilization regime does not influence sulphur-speciation, but the concentration of some S

  6. Analysis of perchlorate in foods and beverages by ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Aribi, Houssain [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ont., L4K 4V8 (Canada)]. E-mail: houssain.aribi@sciex.com; Le Blanc, Yves J.C. [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ont., L4K 4V8 (Canada); Antonsen, Stephen [Dionex Canada Ltd., 1540 Cornwall Road, Oakville, Ont., L6J 7W5 (Canada); Sakuma, Takeo [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ont., L4K 4V8 (Canada)

    2006-05-10

    A new IC-ESI-MS/MS method, with simple sample preparation procedure, has been developed for quantification and confirmation of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4} {sup -}) anions in water, fresh and canned food, wine and beer samples at low part-per-trillion (ng l{sup -1}) levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time an analytical method is used for determination of perchlorate in wine and beer samples. The IC-ESI-MS/MS instrumentation consisted of an ICS-2500 ion chromatography (IC) system coupled to either an API 2000{sup TM} or an API 3200{sup TM} mass spectrometer. The IC-ESI-MS/MS system was optimized to monitor two pairs of precursor and fragment ion transitions, i.e., multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). All samples had oxygen-18 isotope labeled perchlorate internal standard (ISTD) added prior to extraction. Chlorine isotope ratio ({sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl) was used as a confirmation tool. The transition of {sup 35}Cl{sup 16}O{sub 4} {sup -} (m/z 98.9) into {sup 35}Cl{sup 16}O{sub 3} {sup -} (m/z 82.9) was monitored for quantifying the main analyte; the transition of {sup 37}Cl{sup 16}O{sub 4} {sup -} (m/z 100.9) into {sup 37}Cl{sup 16}O{sub 3} {sup -} (m/z 84.9) was monitored for examining a proper isotopic abundance ratio of {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl; and the transition of {sup 35}Cl{sup 18}O{sub 4} {sup -} (m/z 107.0) into {sup 35}Cl{sup 18}O{sub 3} {sup -} (m/z 89.0) was monitored for quantifying the internal standard. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for this method in de-ionized water is 5 ng l{sup -1} (ppt) using the API 2000{sup TM} mass spectrometer and 0.5 ng l{sup -1} using the API 3200{sup TM} mass spectrometer. Over 350 food and beverage samples were analyzed mostly in triplicate. Except for four, all samples were found to contain measurable amounts of perchlorate. The levels found ranged from 5 ng l{sup -1} to 463.5 {+-} 6.36 {mu}g kg{sup -1} using MRM 98.9 {sup {yields}} 82.9 and 100 {mu}l injection.

  7. Improving the coastal record of tsunamis in the ESI-07 scale: Tsunami Environmental Effects Scale (TEE-16 scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, J.; Bardaji, T.; Silva, P.G.; Zazo, C.; Goy, J.L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses possibilities to improve the Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale (ESI-07 scale), a scale based on the effects of earthquakes in the environment. This scale comprises twelve intensity degrees and considers primary and secondary effects, one of them the occurrence of tsunamis. Terminology and physical tsunami parameters corresponding to different intensity levels are often misleading and confusing. The present work proposes: i) a revised and updated catalogue of environmental and geological effects of tsunamis, gathering all the available information on Tsunami Environmental Effects (TEEs) produced by recent earthquake-tsunamis; ii) a specific intensity scale (TEE-16) for the effects of tsunamis in the natural environment at coastal areas. The proposed scale could be used in future tsunami events and, in historic and paleo-tsunami studies. The new TEE- 16 scale incorporates the size specific parameters already considered in the ESI-07 scale, such as wave height, run-up and inland extension of inundation, and a comprehensive and more accurate terminology that covers all the different intensity levels identifiable in the geological record (intensities VI-XII). The TEE-16 scale integrates the description and quantification of the potential sedimentary and erosional features (beach scours, transported boulders and classical tsunamites) derived from different tsunami events at diverse coastal environments (e.g. beaches, estuaries, rocky cliffs,). This new approach represents an innovative advance in relation to the tsunami descriptions provided by the ESI-07 scale, and allows the full application of the proposed scale in paleoseismological studies. The analysis of the revised and updated tsunami environmental damage suggests that local intensities recorded in coastal areas do not correlate well with the TEE-16 intensity (normally higher), but shows a good correlation with the earthquake magnitude (Mw). Tsunamis generated by earthquakes can then be

  8. Interaction of Pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) Ligands with Parallel Intermolecular G-Quadruplex Complex Using Spectroscopy and ESI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Gajjela; Srinivas, Ragampeta; Santhosh Reddy, Vangala; Idris, Mohammed M.; Kamal, Ahmed; Nagesh, Narayana

    2012-01-01

    Studies on ligand interaction with quadruplex DNA, and their role in stabilizing the complex at concentration prevailing under physiological condition, has attained high interest. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and spectroscopic studies in solution were used to evaluate the interaction of PBD and TMPyP4 ligands, stoichiometry and selectivity to G-quadruplex DNA. Two synthetic ligands from PBD family, namely pyrene-linked pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine hybrid (PBD1), mixed imine-amide pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer (PBD2) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) were studied. G-rich single-stranded oligonucleotide d(5′GGGGTTGGGG3′) designated as d(T2G8), from the telomeric region of Tetrahymena Glaucoma, was considered for the interaction with ligands. ESI-MS and spectroscopic methods viz., circular dichroism (CD), UV-Visible, and fluorescence were employed to investigate the G-quadruplex structures formed by d(T2G8) sequence and its interaction with PBD and TMPyP4 ligands. From ESI-MS spectra, it is evident that the majority of quadruplexes exist as d(T2G8)2 and d(T2G8)4 forms possessing two to ten cations in the centre, thereby stabilizing the complex. CD band of PBD1 and PBD2 showed hypo and hyperchromicity, on interaction with quadruplex DNA, indicating unfolding and stabilization of quadruplex DNA complex, respectively. UV-Visible and fluorescence experiments suggest that PBD1 bind externally where as PBD2 intercalate moderately and bind externally to G-quadruplex DNA. Further, melting experiments using SYBR Green indicate that PBD1 unfolds and PBD2 stabilizes the G-quadruplex complex. ITC experiments using d(T2G8) quadruplex with PBD ligands reveal that PBD1 and PBD2 prefer external/loop binding and external/intercalative binding to quadruplex DNA, respectively. From experimental results it is clear that the interaction of PBD2 and TMPyP4 impart higher stability to the quadruplex complex. PMID:22558271

  9. Interaction of pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD ligands with parallel intermolecular G-quadruplex complex using spectroscopy and ESI-MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajjela Raju

    Full Text Available Studies on ligand interaction with quadruplex DNA, and their role in stabilizing the complex at concentration prevailing under physiological condition, has attained high interest. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and spectroscopic studies in solution were used to evaluate the interaction of PBD and TMPyP4 ligands, stoichiometry and selectivity to G-quadruplex DNA. Two synthetic ligands from PBD family, namely pyrene-linked pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine hybrid (PBD1, mixed imine-amide pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer (PBD2 and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridylporphyrin (TMPyP4 were studied. G-rich single-stranded oligonucleotide d(5'GGGGTTGGGG3' designated as d(T(2G(8, from the telomeric region of Tetrahymena Glaucoma, was considered for the interaction with ligands. ESI-MS and spectroscopic methods viz., circular dichroism (CD, UV-Visible, and fluorescence were employed to investigate the G-quadruplex structures formed by d(T(2G(8 sequence and its interaction with PBD and TMPyP4 ligands. From ESI-MS spectra, it is evident that the majority of quadruplexes exist as d(T(2G(8(2 and d(T(2G(8(4 forms possessing two to ten cations in the centre, thereby stabilizing the complex. CD band of PBD1 and PBD2 showed hypo and hyperchromicity, on interaction with quadruplex DNA, indicating unfolding and stabilization of quadruplex DNA complex, respectively. UV-Visible and fluorescence experiments suggest that PBD1 bind externally where as PBD2 intercalate moderately and bind externally to G-quadruplex DNA. Further, melting experiments using SYBR Green indicate that PBD1 unfolds and PBD2 stabilizes the G-quadruplex complex. ITC experiments using d(T(2G(8 quadruplex with PBD ligands reveal that PBD1 and PBD2 prefer external/loop binding and external/intercalative binding to quadruplex DNA, respectively. From experimental results it is clear that the interaction of PBD2 and TMPyP4 impart higher stability to the quadruplex complex.

  10. Proteome profile of functional mitochondria from human skeletal muscle using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefort, Natalie; Yi, Zhengping; Bowen, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    were functional as evidenced by their response to carbohydrate and fat-derived fuels. Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, 823 unique proteins were detected, and 487 of these were assigned to the mitochondrion, including the newly characterized SIRT5, MitoNEET and RDH13...

  11. Derivatization of carboxylic acids with 4-APEBA for detection by positive-ion LC-ESI-MS(/MS) applied for the analysis of prostanoids and NSAID in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, A.; Giera, M.A.; Wijtmans, M.; de Vries, L.; Lingeman, H.; Irth, H.; Niessen, W.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a generic positive ionization ESI LC-MS method for a variety of interesting substance classes, a new derivatization strategy for carboxylic acids was developed. The carboxylic acid group is labeled with the bromine containing 4-APEBA reagent based on carbodiimide chemistry. The

  12. Development of a novel selective ESI-MS derivatization reagent - ssynthesis and optimization for the analysis of aldehydes in biological mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, M.; Wijtmans, M.; de Esch, I.J.P.; Lingeman, H.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Irth, H.

    2008-01-01

    In LC-MS, derivatization is primarily used to improve ionization characteristics, especially for analytes that are not (efficiently) ionized by ESI or APCI such as aldehydes, sugars, and steroids. Derivatization strategies are then directed at the incorporation of a group with a permanent charge. A

  13. High temperature liquid chromatography hyphenated with ESI-MS and ICP-MS detection for the structural characterization and quantification of halogen containing drug metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlieger, Jon S.B. de; Giezen, Mark J.N.; Falck, David; Tump, Cornelis; Heuveln, Fred van; Giera, Martin; Kool, Jeroen; Lingeman, Henk; Wieling, Jaap; Honing, Maarten; Irth, Hubertus; Niessen, Wilfried M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hyphenation of high temperature liquid chromatography to ICP-MS and ESI-MS. → Structural characterization of kinase inhibitor metabolites with high resolution MS n experiments. → Quantification of drug metabolites with ICP-MS based on Iodine detection. → Significant changes in ESI-MS response after small structural changes. - Abstract: In this paper we describe the hyphenation of high temperature liquid chromatography with ICP-MS and ESI-MS for the characterization of halogen containing drug metabolites. The use of temperature gradients up to 200 deg. C enabled the separation of metabolites with low organic modifier content. This specific property allowed the use of detection methods that suffer from (significant) changes in analyte response factors as a function of the organic modifier content such as ICP-MS. Metabolites of two kinase inhibitors (SB-203580-Iodo and MAPK inhibitor VIII) produced by bacterial cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants and human liver microsomes were identified based on high resolution MS n data. Quantification was done using their normalized and elemental specific response in the ICP-MS. The importance of these kinds of quantification strategies is stressed by the observation that the difference of the position of one oxygen atom in a structure can greatly affect its response in ESI-MS and UV detection.

  14. LC-MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2: Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI-MS and UV-Vis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    The protein species of apomyoglobin (apoMb) and heme are freed and segregated from the aqueous protein solution of metmyoglobin by liquid chromatography, and are distinguished by UV-Vis absorption or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This is an ingenious and effective approach to characterize apomyoglobin and heme, while students…

  15. Separation and identification of selenotrisulfides in epithelial cell homogenates by LC-ICP-MS and LC-ESI-MS after incubation with selenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Gammelgaard, Bente; Bendahl, Lars

    2006-01-01

    . The presence of Cys-Se-SG and GS-Se-SG was verified by LC-ESI-MS. Selenotrisulfides were synthesized by reaction of L-cysteine and L-glutathione with sodium selenite. The reaction mixture contained three main products: selenodicysteine (Cys-Se-Cys), selenocysteine glutathione (Cys...

  16. Pilot-plant cultivation of Streptomyces griseus producing homologues of nonactin by precursor-directed biosynthesis and their identification by LC/MS-ESI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Prell, Aleš; Spížek, Jaroslav; Sigler, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 8 (2010), s. 524-529 ISSN 0021-8820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : liquid chromatography/MS-ESI * pilot-plant cultivation * precursor-directed biosynthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.628, year: 2010

  17. New methodology for capillary electrophoresis with ESI-MS detection: Electrophoretic focusing on inverse electromigration dispersion gradient. High-sensitivity analysis of sulfonamides in waters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 935, SEP (2016), s. 249-257 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : electrophoretic focusing * CE-ESI-MS * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  18. ESI(+-MS and GC-MS Study of the Hydrolysis of N-Azobenzyl Derivatives of Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New N-p-chloro-, N-p-bromo-, and N-p-nitrophenylazobenzylchitosan derivatives, as well as the corresponding azophenyl and azophenyl-p-sulfonic acids, were synthesized by coupling N-benzylvchitosan with aryl diazonium salts. The synthesized molecules were analyzed by UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 15N-NMR spectroscopy. The capacity of copper chelation by these materials was studied by AAS. Chitosan and the derivatives were subjected to hydrolysis and the products were analyzed by ESI(+-MS and GC-MS, confirming the formation of N-benzyl chitosan. Furthermore, the MS results indicate that a nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SnAr reaction occurs under hydrolysis conditions, yielding chloroaniline from N-p-bromo-, and N-p-nitrophenylazo-benzylchitosan as well as bromoaniline from N-p-chloro-, and N-p-nitrophenylazobenzyl-chitosan.

  19. Structural elucidation of in vitro and in vivo metabolites of emodin in rats by LC -ESI-MS/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Zhu, Q.; Chen, G.; Liu, B.; Chen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Emodin is a widely occurring natural product and has been studied extensively for its varieties of pharmacological activity. In attempt to know more deeply about its metabolism, this paper investigated the metabolites of emodin in rats, including its in vitro conversion product by intestinal microflora and urinary metabolites. The detection of emodin metabolites was performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with negative ion mode. By comparing the changes of metabolites in molecular masses (delta M), product ions and retention times with those of the parent drug, six metabolites (8-O-methylemodin, omega-hydroxyemodin, x-hydroxyemodin, emodin glucuronide, hydroxyemodin glucuronide and emodin sulfate) were observed,and what is more, the metabolite hydroxyemodin glucuronide was first reported in this article. For some metabolites, identification of their precise structure needs to be confirmed by other techniques such as the 1H and 13C NMR. (author)

  20. Extensive characterisation of bioactive phenolic constituents from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Reidah, Ibrahim M; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to characterise the phenolic compounds in artichoke (hearts) by using HPLC coupled to DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS, which proved useful in characterising 61 phenolic and other polar compounds. Notably, of the 61 compounds characterised, 34 new phenolic compounds with their isomers have been tentatively characterised in artichoke for the first time, namely: 3 hydroxybenzoic acids, 17 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 lignans, 7 flavones, 2 flavonols, and 1 phenol derivative. Moreover, a total of 28 isomers of previously described phenolics have also been detected. The data compiled from the qualitative polyphenol characterisation indicate that the artichoke extract analysed (Blanca de Tudela variety) could be regarded as a bioactive functional food and also as a promising source of antioxidant phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of phenolic antioxidants and bioactives of pomegranate seeds following juice extraction using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-04-15

    Phenolics from free and hydrolyzed fractions of pomegranate juice (PJ) and seeds (PS) were evaluated. In general, total phenolic contents and scavenging of ABTS + , DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, as well as metal chelation of the soluble fraction from PS, were higher than those for PJ. Insoluble-bound phenolics from PS accounted for up to 27% of total scavenging capacity (free+esterified+insoluble-bound). Phenolic acids (13), monomeric flavonoids (8), hydrolysable tannins (12), proanthocyanidin (1) and anthocyanins (12) were tentatively characterized using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Several compounds were identified for the first time in PJ or PS. The inhibition of DNA damage (induced by hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals), copper-induced LDL-cholesterol peroxidation, as well as alpha-glucosidase and lipase activities were demonstrated, therefore supporting the potential exploitation of PJ and PS as sources of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electro-spray ionization - mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and molecular modelling, two complementary approaches. Application to calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, F.; Virelizier, H.; Moulin, Ch.; Lamare, V.; Dozol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    The molecular dynamics simulation and the experimental results obtained by the ESI/MS technique have shown that the stability of the calixarene - alkaline cation complexes is dependent of the medium. Indeed, in solution, the calixarene presents a strong affinity for cesium whereas in gaseous phase, the strong affinity is for sodium. The stability of the [calixarene+Na] + complexes depends of the nature of the medium too; these two techniques having shown that the presence of a small quantity of water in the dilution solvent stabilizes the complex. At last, calixarenes with benzo groups on their crown have an affinity for sodium which is weak in solution but strong in gaseous phase. These different results show the excellent complementarity between the two techniques. (O.M.)

  3. ESI-MS study on non-covalent bond complex of rhFKBP12 and new neurogrowth promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hongxia; (王红霞); ZHANG; Xuemin; (张学敏); YANG; Songcheng; (杨松成); XIAO; Junhai; (肖军海); NIE; Aihua; (聂爱华); ZHAO; Liqin; (赵丽琴); LI; Song; (李松)

    2003-01-01

    An ESI-MS method for studying the non-covalent bond complex of rhFKBP12 with its nonimmunosuppressive ligands was developed. The method was used to screen out three compounds capable of binding to rhFKBP12 non-covalently from 52 compounds. By competing binding experiment, the binding site and the relative binding strength of these three compounds 000107, 000308 and A2B12 with rhFKBP12 were measured. All of them have the same binding site as FK506 does. X-ray crystalline diffraction experiment of non-covalent bond complex of 000107, 000308 with rhFKBP12 by Tsinghua University showed the same results. Among them 000308 has good effect on stimulating neurite to grow in chicken sensory neuronal cultures.

  4. Systematic HPLC/ESI-High Resolution-qTOF-MS Methodology for Metabolomic Studies in Nonfluorescent Chlorophyll Catabolites Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julián Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs and dioxobilane-type nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolite (DNCC in peel extracts of ripened lemon fruits (Citrus limon L. was performed by HPLC/ESI-high resolution-qTOF-MS method. Compounds were identified in samples on the basis of measured accurate mass, isotopic pattern, and characteristic fragmentation profile with an implemented software postprocessing routine. Three NCC structures already identified in other vegetal tissues were present in the lemon fruit peels (Cl-NCC1; Cl-NCC2; Cl-NCC4 while a new structure not defined so far was characterized (Cl-NCC3. This catabolite exhibits an exceptional arrangement of the peripheral substituents, allowing concluding that the preferences for the NCC modifications could be a species-related matter.

  5. Surfactant-free microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (SF-MEEKC) with UV and MS detection - a novel approach for the separation and ESI-MS detection of neutral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohorič, Urška; Beutner, Andrea; Krickl, Sebastian; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    2016-12-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is a powerful tool to separate neutral species based on differences in their hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. However, as a major drawback the conventionally used SDS based microemulsions are not compatible with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In this work, a surfactant-free microemulsion (SFME) consisting of water, ethanol, and 1-octanol is used for surfactant-free microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (SF-MEEKC). Ammonium acetate was added to the SFME enabling electrophoretic separations. The stability of SFMEs containing ammonium acetate was investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering. A method for the separation of a model system of hydrophobic and hydrophilic neutral vitamins, namely the vitamins B 2 and D 3 , and the cationic vitamin B 1 was developed using UV/VIS detection. The influence of the ammonium acetate concentration on the separation performance was studied in detail. The method was characterized concerning reproducibility of migration times and peak areas and concerning the linearity of the calibration data. Furthermore, SF-MEEKC was coupled to ESI-MS investigating the compatibility between SFMEs and the ESI process. The signal intensities of ESI-MS measurements of the model analytes were comparable for SFMEs and aqueous systems. Finally, the vitamin D 3 content of a drug treating vitamin D 3 deficiency was determined by SF-MEEKC coupled to ESI-MS using 25-hydroxycholecalciferol as an internal standard. Graphical abstract The concept of surfactant-free microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  6. Forensic validation of the PowerPlex® ESI 16 STR Multiplex and comparison of performance with AmpFlSTR® SGM Plus®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Valerie C; Kirkham, Amanda J; Hopwood, Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    We describe the forensic validation of Promega's PowerPlex® European Standard Investigator 16 (ESI 16) multiplex kit and compare results generated with the AmpFlSTR® SGM Plus® (SGM+) multiplex. ESI 16 combines the loci contained within the SGM+ multiplex with five additional loci: D2S441, D10S1248, D22S1045, D1S1656, and D12S391. A relative reduction in amplicon size of the SGM+ loci facilitates an increased robustness and amplification success of these amplicons with degraded DNA samples. Tests performed herein supplement ESI 16 data published previously with sensitivity, profile quality, mock casework, inhibitor and mixture study data collected in our laboratories in alignment with our internal technical and quality guidelines and those issued by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), the DNA Advisory Board (DAB) and the DNA working group (DNAWG) of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI). Full profiles were routinely generated from a fully heterozygous single source DNA template using 62.5 pg for ESI 16 and 500 pg for SGM+. This increase in sensitivity has a consequent effect on mixture analyses and the detection of minor mixture components. The improved PCR chemistry confers enhanced tolerance to high levels of laboratory prepared inhibitors compared with SGM+ results. In summary, our results demonstrate that the ESI 16 multiplex kit is more robust and sensitive compared with SGM+ and will be a suitable replacement system for the analysis of forensic DNA samples providing compliance with the European standard set of STR loci.

  7. Developmental validation of the PowerPlex(®) ESI 16/17 Fast and PowerPlex(®) ESX 16/17 Fast Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Robert S; Bourdeau-Heller, Jeanne; Patel, Jaynish; Thompson, Jonelle M; Pagram, Jenny; Loake, Thomas; Beesley, David; Pirttimaa, Markus; Hill, Carolyn R; Duewer, David L; Kline, Margaret C; Butler, John M; Storts, Douglas R

    2014-11-01

    The PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 Fast, ESI 17 Fast, ESX 16 Fast, and ESX 17 Fast Systems represent faster cycling versions (50min or less) of the PowerPlex(®) ESI and ESX Systems released by Promega in 2009 to accommodate the ENFSI and EDNAP groups' call for new STR multiplexes for Europe. In addition to amplification of purified DNA samples, these new faster cycling systems allow for direct amplification from single-source blood and buccal samples deposited on FTA(®) and nonFTA paper as well as from SwabSolution™ extracts of buccal swabs without the need for purification and quantitation. There are no changes to the autosomal primer pair sequences in the PowerPlex(®) ESI Fast and ESX Fast Systems compared to the original multiplexes, and full concordance at all autosomal loci and amelogenin was observed with data generated previously with the original PowerPlex(®) ESI and ESX Systems. This paper describes the developmental validation study performed on these new fast systems following guidelines issued by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) and those of the DNA Advisory Board (DAB). Validation data demonstrate that these systems are sensitive for detecting low levels of DNA while also being capable of generating robust profiles from the high amount of input DNA present in direct-amplification samples. These systems are also tolerant to both high concentrations of PCR inhibitors as well as to slight variations in the final concentration of master mix and primer pair present in the amplification reaction that might be encountered due to pipetting error. The results of this validation study demonstrate that these systems may be used on multiple thermal cyclers and capillary electrophoresis platforms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. High-performance ion mobility spectrometry with direct electrospray ionization (ESI-HPIMS) for the detection of additives and contaminants in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midey, Anthony J., E-mail: anthony.midey@excellims.com; Camacho, Amanda; Sampathkumaran, Jayanthi; Krueger, Clinton A.; Osgood, Mark A.; Wu, Ching

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new ESI source was built for direct ionization from syringe. •Phthalates, food dyes, and sweeteners detected with high-performance IMS. •Phthalates directly detected in cola, soy bubble tea matrices with simple treatment. -- Abstract: High-performance ion mobility spectrometry (HPIMS) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source detected a series of food contaminants and additive compounds identified as critical to monitoring the safety of food samples. These compounds included twelve phthalate plasticizers, legal and illegal food and cosmetic dyes, and artificial sweeteners that were all denoted as detection priorities. HPIMS separated and detected the range of compounds with a resolving power better than 60 in both positive and negative ion modes, comparable to the commonly used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but with most acquisition times under a minute. The reduced mobilities, K{sub 0}, have been determined, as have the linear response ranges for ESI-HPIMS, which are 1.5–2 orders of magnitude for concentrations down to sub-ng μL{sup −1} levels. At least one unique mobility peak was seen for two subsets of the phthalates grouped by the country where they were banned. Furthermore, ESI-HPIMS successfully detected low nanogram levels of a phthalate at up to 30 times lower concentration than international detection levels in both a cola matrix and a soy-based bubble tea beverage using only a simplified sample treatment. A newly developed direct ESI source (Directspray) was combined with HPIMS to detect food-grade dyes and industrial dye adulterants, as well as the sweeteners sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate, with the same good performance as with the phthalates. However, the Directspray method eliminated sources of carryover and decreased the time between sample runs. Limits-of-detection (LOD) for the analyte standards were estimated to be sub-ng μL{sup −1} levels without extensive

  9. High-performance ion mobility spectrometry with direct electrospray ionization (ESI-HPIMS) for the detection of additives and contaminants in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midey, Anthony J.; Camacho, Amanda; Sampathkumaran, Jayanthi; Krueger, Clinton A.; Osgood, Mark A.; Wu, Ching

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new ESI source was built for direct ionization from syringe. •Phthalates, food dyes, and sweeteners detected with high-performance IMS. •Phthalates directly detected in cola, soy bubble tea matrices with simple treatment. -- Abstract: High-performance ion mobility spectrometry (HPIMS) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source detected a series of food contaminants and additive compounds identified as critical to monitoring the safety of food samples. These compounds included twelve phthalate plasticizers, legal and illegal food and cosmetic dyes, and artificial sweeteners that were all denoted as detection priorities. HPIMS separated and detected the range of compounds with a resolving power better than 60 in both positive and negative ion modes, comparable to the commonly used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but with most acquisition times under a minute. The reduced mobilities, K 0 , have been determined, as have the linear response ranges for ESI-HPIMS, which are 1.5–2 orders of magnitude for concentrations down to sub-ng μL −1 levels. At least one unique mobility peak was seen for two subsets of the phthalates grouped by the country where they were banned. Furthermore, ESI-HPIMS successfully detected low nanogram levels of a phthalate at up to 30 times lower concentration than international detection levels in both a cola matrix and a soy-based bubble tea beverage using only a simplified sample treatment. A newly developed direct ESI source (Directspray) was combined with HPIMS to detect food-grade dyes and industrial dye adulterants, as well as the sweeteners sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate, with the same good performance as with the phthalates. However, the Directspray method eliminated sources of carryover and decreased the time between sample runs. Limits-of-detection (LOD) for the analyte standards were estimated to be sub-ng μL −1 levels without extensive sample handling

  10. Macrophage biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MSn analysis for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhao-Guang; Duan, Ting-Ting; He, Bao; Tang, Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Ru-Shang; Zhu, Jia-Xiao; Xu, You-Hua; Zhu, Quan; Feng, Liang

    2013-04-15

    A cell-permeable membrane, as typified by Transwell insert Permeable Supports, permit accurate repeatable invasion assays, has been developed as a tool for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (SGR). In this research, components in the water extract of SGR (ESGR) might conjugate with the receptors or other targets on macrophages which invaded Transwell inserts, and then the eluate which contained components biospecific binding to macrophages was identified by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Six compounds, which could interact with macrophages, were detected and identified. Among these compounds, taxifolin (2) and astilbin (4) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of standards, while the four others including 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (1), neoastilbin (3), neoisoastilbin (5) and isoastilbin (6), were elucidated by their structure clearage characterizations of tandem mass spectrometry. Then compound 1 was isolated and purified from SGR, along with 2 and 4, was applied to the macrophage migration and adhesion assay in HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) -macrophages co-incultured Transwell system for immunological activity assessment. The results showed that compounds 1, 2 and 4 with concentration of 5μM (H), 500nM (M) and 50nM (L) could remarkably inhibit the macrophage migration and adhesion (Vs AGEs (Advanced Glycation End Produces) group, 1-L, 2-H and 4-L groups: pgroups: pESI-MS(n) analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method for screening immunological active components from Traditional Chinese Medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical Conditions for Liquid Chromatography of Statistical Copolymers: Functionality Type and Composition Distribution Characterization by UP-LCCC/ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Ruben; Panne, Ulrich; Falkenhagen, Jana

    2017-02-07

    Statistical ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) copolymers of different monomer compositions and different average molar masses additionally containing two kinds of end groups (FTD) were investigated by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography under critical conditions (UP-LCCC) combined with electrospray ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Theoretical predictions of the existence of a critical adsorption point (CPA) for statistical copolymers with a given chemical and sequence distribution1 could be studied and confirmed. A fundamentally new approach to determine these critical conditions in a copolymer, alongside the inevitable chemical composition distribution (CCD), with mass spectrometric detection, is described. The shift of the critical eluent composition with the monomer composition of the polymers was determined. Due to the broad molar mass distribution (MMD) and the presumed existence of different end group functionalities as well as monomer sequence distribution (MSD), gradient separation only by CCD was not possible. Therefore, isocratic separation conditions at the CPA of definite CCD fractions were developed. Although the various present distributions partly superimposed the separation process, the goal of separation by end group functionality was still achieved on the basis of the additional dimension of ESI-TOF-MS. The existence of HO-H besides the desired allylO-H end group functionalities was confirmed and their amount estimated. Furthermore, indications for a MSD were found by UPLC/MS/MS measurements. This approach offers for the first time the possibility to obtain a fingerprint of a broad distributed statistical copolymer including MMD, FTD, CCD, and MSD.

  12. Identification and determination of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Pill by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of twelve major compounds in Longdan Xiegan Pill. The chemical profile of the twelve compounds, including geniposidic acid (1, geniposide(2, gentiopicroside(3, liquiritin(4, crocin(5, baicalin(6, wogonoside(7, baicalein(8, glycyrrhizic acid (9, wogonin (10, oroxylin A (11 and aristolochic acid A (12, was acquired using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled with an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The analysis was performed on a Dikma Platisil ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm with a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile-0. 1% aqueous formic acid. The validation was carried out and the linearities (r > 0. 9996, repeatability (RSD<1. 8%, intra- and inter-day precision (RSD< 1. 3%, and recoveries (ranging from 96. 6% to 103. 4% were acceptable. The limits of detection (LOD of these compounds ranged from 0.29 to 4. 17 ng. Aristolochic acid A, which is the toxic ingredient, was not detected in all the batches of Longdan Xiegan Pill. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis was used to evaluate the variation of the herbal prescription. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for the quality control of this traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Keywords: Longdan Xiegan Pill, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled with an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, qualitative evaluation, aristolochic acid A, hierarchical cluster analysis

  13. Expression profiling of c-kit and its impact after esiRNA silencing during gonadal development in catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laldinsangi, C; Senthilkumaran, B

    2018-04-03

    C-kit receptor is a member of a family of growth factor receptors that have tyrosine kinase activity, and are involved in the transduction of growth regulatory signals across plasma membrane by activation of its ligand, kitl/scf. The present study analysed mRNA and protein expression profiles of c-kit in the gonads of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, using real time PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Tissue distribution analysis revealed higher expression mainly in the catfish gonads. Ontogeny studies showed minimal expression during early developmental stages and highest during 50-75 days post hatch, and the dimorphic expression in gonads decreased gradually till adulthood, which might suggest an important role for this gene around later stages of sex differentiation and gonadal development. Expression of C-kit was analysed at various phases of gonadal cycle in both male and female, which showed minimal expression during the resting phase, and higher expression in male compared to females during the pre-spawning phase. In vitro and in vivo induction using human chorionic gonadotropin elevated the expression of c-kit indicating the regulatory influence of hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. In vivo transient gene silencing using c-kit-esiRNA in adult catfish during gonadal recrudescence showed a decrease in c-kit expression, which affected the expression level of germ cell meiotic marker sycp3, as well as several factors and steroidogenic enzyme genes involved in germ cell development. Decrease in the levels of serum 11-KT and T were also observed after esiRNA silencing. The findings of this study suggest that c-kit has an important role in the process of germ cell proliferation, development and maturation during gonadal development and recrudescence in catfish. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The Prevalence of Power-Sharing: Exploring the Patterns of Post-Election Peace Die Verbreitung von Power-Sharing: Bedingungen für eine friedliche Entwicklung nach Wahlen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Jarstad

    2009-01-01

    Statistiken aus der Post-Accord Elections (PAE Datensammlung, die in diesem Artikel präsentiert werden, haben gleichwohl ergeben, dass Frieden, Power-Sharing und Demokratie eng miteinander verflochten sind; Friedensabkommen sehen heute in den meisten Fällen sowohl Power-Sharing als auch Wahlen vor. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Forschungen, die von der Annahme ausgingen, das Power-Sharing ein Instrument zur Beendigung von Gewalt darstellt, belegen die Daten, dass der Konflikt häufig nach Unterzeichnung eines Abkommens fortlebt, auch wenn Regelungen zur Machtteilung vorgesehen sind. Dass Power-Sharing Wahlen begünstigt, lässt sich nicht belegen; im Gegenteil, es kommt häufiger vor, dass nach einem Friedensprozess ohne Power-Sharing-Abkommen Wahlen abgehalten werden. Eine Periode der Machtteilung vor Wahlen scheint eine anschließende friedliche Entwicklung nicht zu fördern; Wahlen sind in diesem Fall ähnlich konfliktreich wie Wahlen, die nach Friedensvereinbarungen ohne Machtteilungsklauseln abgehalten wurden. Als gute Nachricht kann gelten, dass Power-Sharing keinen negativen Effekt auf eine friedliche Entwicklung nach Wahlen zu haben scheint.

  15. From the components to the stack. Developing and designing 5kW HT-PEFC stacks; Von der Komponente zum Stack. Entwicklung und Auslegung von HT-PEFC-Stacks der 5 kW-Klasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendzulla, Anne

    2010-12-22

    The aim of the present project is to develop a stack design for a 5-kW HTPEFC system. First, the state of the art of potential materials and process designs will be discussed for each component. Then, using this as a basis, three potential stack designs with typical attributes will be developed and assessed in terms of practicality with the aid of a specially derived evaluation method. Two stack designs classified as promising will be discussed in detail, constructed and then characterized using short stack tests. Comparing the stack designs reveals that both designs are fundamentally suitable for application in a HT-PEFC system with on-board supply. However, some of the performance data differ significantly for the two stack designs. The preferred stack design for application in a HT-PEFC system is characterized by robust operating behaviour and reproducible high-level performance data. Moreover, in compact constructions (120 W/l at 60 W/kg), the stack design allows flexible cooling with thermal oil or air, which can be adapted to suit specific applications. Furthermore, a defined temperature gradient can be set during operation, allowing the CO tolerance to be increased by up to 10 mV. The short stack design developed within the scope of the present work therefore represents an ideal basis for developing a 5-kW HT-PEFC system. Topics for further research activities include improving the performance by reducing weight and/or volume, as well as optimizing the heat management. The results achieved within the framework of this work clearly show that HTPEFC stacks have the potential to play a decisive role in increasing efficiency in the future, particularly when combined with an on-board supply system. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines Stackkonzeptes fuer ein 5 kW-HT-PEFC System. Dazu wird zunaechst fuer jede Komponente der Stand der Technik moeglicher Materialien und Prozesskonzepte diskutiert. Darauf aufbauend werden drei

  16. Application of laser-optical diagnostics for the support of direct-injection gasoline combustion process development; Einsatz laseroptischer Messverfahren zur Unterstuetzung der Entwicklung von Brennverfahren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, W.; Meyer, H.; Stiebels, B. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Abt. Forschung und Entwicklung

    2000-07-01

    The development of direct-injection gasoline engines at Volkswagen was supported strictly from the beginning by the means of optical diagnostics and CFD-simulations. Basic phenomena, such as the formation of the in-cylinder flow field, the penetration of the spray formed by a hollow-cone swirl-type injector at high fuel pressure, the interaction of spray and flow and the formation of an ignitable mixture were analysed in details. The paper describes the laser-optical techniques-particle-image-velocimetry, laser-Doppler-anemometry, videostroboscopy, high-speed cinematography and laser-induced fluorescence - which were used during the development of the DI gasoline combustion process. Examples taken from engines with optical access to the combustion chamber demonstrate the capability of the techniques and pinpoint where the design of the combustion process benefits from experimental and simulation investigations. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung von Ottomotoren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung wurde bei Volkswagen von Beginn an konsequent durch den Einsatz optischer Messverfahren und CFD-Simulationen unterstuetzt. Damit konnten grundlegende Phaenomene, wie die Ausbildung des Stroemungsfeldes im Motorbrennraum, die Ausbreitung des durch einen Hohlkegel-Drallinjektor unter hohem Druck eingespritzten Kraftstoffs sowie die Wechselwirkung der Luftstroemung im Zylinder mit den Einspritzstrahlen und die Bildung einer zuendfaehigen Ladungswolke detailliert untersucht werden. Das Paper beschreibt die laseroptischen Messverfahren - Particle-Image-Velocimetry, Laser-Doppler-Anemometry, Video-Stroboskopie, Hochgeschwindikgkeits-Kinematographie und Laserinduzierte Fluoreszenz - die bei der Brennverfahrensentwicklung eingesetzt werden und zeigt anhand einer Reihe von konkreten Beispielen, wo Antworten auf Grundsatzfragen zur Auslegung des Brennverfahrens durch Messergebnisse an optisch zugaenglichen Motoren und durch CFD-Simulationen erarbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  17. North Atlantic Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Massachusetts (2001), Delaware Bay (1996), New Hampshire (2004), Hudson River (2006), and Rhode Island, Connecticut, NY/NJ Metro Area (2001) maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0020555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ESI data were collected, mapped, and digitized to provide environmental data for oil spill planning and response. The Clean Water Act with amendments by the...

  18. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area - Volume 1, Geographic Information Systems data and Volume 2, Maps in Portable Document Format (NODC Accession 0014792)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York - New Jersey Metropolitan Area from 1999 to...

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas, Gulf of Mexico, Upper Coast of Texas PDFs 1996, Louisiana 2003, Mississippi 2009, Alabama 2007, Florida 1995-2003 maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0064870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas (2): Cook Inlet - 2002, Kodiak - 1998, Southeast - 2002, Bristol Bay - 2004, Prince William Sound - 2000, Aleutians - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0050372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Kodiak (1998), Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), Cook Inlet (2002),...

  1. Quantification of underivatised amino acids on dry blood spot, plasma, and urine by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme deficiencies in amino acid (AA) metabolism affecting the levels of amino acids and their derivatives in physiological fluids may serve as diagnostically significant biomarkers for one or a group of metabolic disorders. Therefore, it is important to monitor a wide range of free amino acids simultaneously and to quantify them. This is time consuming if we use the classical methods and more than ever now that many laboratories have introduced Newborn Screening Programs for the semiquantitative analysis, detection, and quantification of some amino acids needed to be performed in a short time to reduce the rate of false positives.We have modified the stable isotope dilution HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS method previously described by Qu et al. (Anal Chem 74: 2034-2040, 2002) for a more rapid, robust, sensitive, and specific detection and quantification of underivatised amino acids. The modified method reduces the time of analysis to 10 min with very good reproducibility of retention times and a better separation of the metabolites and their isomers.The omission of the derivatization step allowed us to achieve some important advantages: fast and simple sample preparation and exclusion of artefacts and interferences. The use of this technique is highly sensitive, specific, and allows monitoring of 40 underivatized amino acids, including the key isomers and quantification of some of them, in order to cover many diagnostically important intermediates of metabolic pathways.We propose this HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for underivatized amino acids as a support for the Newborn Screening as secondary test using the same dried blood spots for a more accurate and specific examination in case of suspected metabolic diseases. In this way, we avoid plasma collection from the patient as it normally occurs, reducing anxiety for the parents and further costs for analysis.The same method was validated and applied also to plasma and urine samples with good reproducibility

  2. Quantification of the Triazole Antifungal Compounds Voriconazole and Posaconazole in Human Serum or Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinelli, Alejandro R; Rose, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole and posaconazole are triazole antifungal compounds used in the treatment of fungal infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring of both compounds is recommended in order to guide drug dosing to achieve optimal blood concentrations. In this chapter we describe an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of both compounds in human plasma or serum following a simple specimen preparation procedure. Specimen preparation consists of protein precipitation using methanol and acetonitrile followed by a cleanup step that involves filtration through a cellulose acetate membrane. The specimen is then injected into an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS equipped with a C18 column and separated over an acetonitrile gradient. Quantification of the drugs in the specimen is achieved by comparing the response of the unknown specimen to that of the calibrators in the standard curve using multiple reaction monitoring.

  3. Isolation and identification of arctiin and arctigenin in leaves of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) by polyamide column chromatography in combination with HPLC-ESI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiming; Chen, Kaoshan; Schliemann, Willibald; Strack, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    A simple method involving polyamide column chromatography in combination with HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS for isolating and identifying two kinds of lignans, arctiin and arctigenin, in the leaves of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) has been established. After extraction of burdock leaves with 80% methanol, the aqueous phase of crude extracts was partitioned between water and chloroform and the aqueous phase was fractionated on a polyamide glass column. The fraction, eluting with 100% methanol, was concentrated and gave a white precipitate at 4 degrees C from which two main compounds were purified by semi-preparative HPLC. In comparison with the UV and ESI-MS spectra and the HPLC retention time of authentic standards, the compounds were determined to be arctiin and arctigenin. The extraction/separation technique was validated using an internal standard method.

  4. The 4-pyridylmethyl ester as a protecting group for glutamic and aspartic acids: 'flipping' peptide charge states for characterization by positive ion mode ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sriramya; Burns, Colin S

    2014-03-01

    Use of the 4-pyridylmethyl ester group for side-chain protection of glutamic acid residues in solid-phase peptide synthesis enables switching of the charge state of a peptide from negative to positive, thus making detection by positive ion mode ESI-MS possible. The pyridylmethyl ester moiety is readily removed from peptides in high yield by hydrogenation. Combining the 4-pyridylmethyl ester protecting group with benzyl ester protection reduces the number of the former needed to produce a net positive charge and allows for purification by RP HPLC. This protecting group is useful in the synthesis of highly acidic peptide sequences, which are often beset by problems with purification by standard RP HPLC and characterization by ESI-MS. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. DIRECT INFUSION ESI-MS APPLIED IN THE DETECTION OF BYPRODUCTS DUE TO REDUCTIVE DEGRADATION OF ACETAMIPRID BY ZERO-VALENT IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. Cruz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the reductive degradation of acetamiprid (5 mg L-1 in aqueous medium (at pH 2.0 induced by zero-valent iron (50 mg. The process was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to determine the degradation rate as a function of reaction time, and direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-MS to search for (and potentially characterize any possible byproducts formed during degradation. The results obtained via HPLC showed that after 60 min, the degradation of the substrate reached nearly 100% in an acidic medium, whereas the mineralization rate (as determined by total organic carbon measurements was as low as 3%. Data obtained by DI-ESI-MS showed that byproducts were formed mainly by insertions of hydrogen atoms into the nitrile, imine, and pyridine ring moieties, in addition to the observation of chlorine substitution by hydrogen replacement (hydrodechlorination reactions.

  6. Characterization of ANFO explosive by high accuracy ESI(±)-FTMS with forensic identification on real samples by EASI(-)-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Vinicius Veri; Franco, Marcos Fernado; Santos, Jandyson Machado; Melendez-Perez, Jose J; de Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; Logrado, Lucio Paulo Lima; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) is an explosive used in many civil applications. In Brazil, ANFO has unfortunately also been used in criminal attacks, mainly in automated teller machine (ATM) explosions. In this paper, we describe a detailed characterization of the ANFO composition and its two main constituents (diesel and a nitrate explosive) using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry performed on an FT-ICR-mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI(±)-FTMS) in both the positive and negative ion modes. Via ESI(-)-MS, an ion marker for ANFO was characterized. Using a direct and simple ambient desorption/ionization technique, i.e., easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), in a simpler, lower accuracy but robust single quadrupole mass spectrometer, the ANFO ion marker was directly detected from the surface of banknotes collected from ATM explosion theft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspectivas mecanisticas de reações organicas catalisadas por paladio : Heck, oxa-Heck e acoplamento de Buchwald-Hartwig por ESI-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Boniek Gontijo Vaz

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: A espectrometria de Massas por eletronspray (ESI-MS) tornou-se um método prático para o estudo de mecanismos reacionais em solução. Neste trabalho importantes reações catalisadas por paládio: reação de Heck-Mizoroki, oxa-Heck e o acoplamento de Buchwald-Hartwig foram monitoradas por ESI-MS visando interceptar espécies que comprovam as atuais propostas mecanísticas ou que abram caminho para novas propostas para estas reações. O monitoramento das reações foi realizado no modo off-line, ...

  8. Analysis of antioxidants in insulation cladding of copper wire: a comparison of different mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-IT, MALDI-RTOF and RTOF-SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnöller, Johannes; Pittenauer, Ernst; Hutter, Herbert; Allmaier, Günter

    2009-12-01

    Commercial copper wire and its polymer insulation cladding was investigated for the presence of three synthetic antioxidants (ADK STAB AO412S, Irganox 1010 and Irganox MD 1024) by three different mass spectrometric techniques including electrospray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MALDI-RTOF-MS) and reflectron TOF secondary ion mass spectrometry (RTOF-SIMS). The samples were analyzed either directly without any treatment (RTOF-SIMS) or after a simple liquid/liquid extraction step (ESI-IT-MS, MALDI-RTOF-MS and RTOF-SIMS). Direct analysis of the copper wire itself or of the insulation cladding by RTOF-SIMS allowed the detection of at least two of the three antioxidants but at rather low sensitivity as molecular radical cations and with fairly strong fragmentation (due to the highly energetic ion beam of the primary ion gun). ESI-IT- and MALDI-RTOF-MS-generated abundant protonated and/or cationized molecules (ammoniated or sodiated) from the liquid/liquid extract. Only ESI-IT-MS allowed simultaneous detection of all three analytes in the extract of insulation claddings. The latter two so-called 'soft' desorption/ionization techniques exhibited intense fragmentation only by applying low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem MS on a multistage ion trap-instrument and high-energy CID on a tandem TOF-instrument (TOF/RTOF), respectively. Strong differences in the fragmentation behavior of the three analytes could be observed between the different CID spectra obtained from either the IT-instrument (collision energy in the very low eV range) or the TOF/RTOF-instrument (collision energy 20 keV), but both delivered important structural information. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Detecting Protein-Glycolipid Interactions Using CaR-ESI-MS and Model Membranes: Comparison of Pre-loaded and Passively Loaded Picodiscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Han, Ling; Li, Jianing; Kitova, Elena N.; Xiong, Zi Jian; Privé, Gilbert G.; Klassen, John S.

    2018-04-01

    Catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS), implemented using model membranes (MMs), is a promising approach for the discovery of glycolipid ligands of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs). Picodiscs (PDs), which are lipid-transporting complexes composed of the human sphingolipid activator protein saposin A and phospholipids, have proven to be useful MMs for such studies. The present work compares the use of conventional (pre-loaded) PDs with passively loaded PDs (PLPDs) for CaR-ESI-MS screening of glycolipids against cholera toxin B subunit homopentamer (CTB5). The pre-loaded PDs were prepared from a mixture of purified glycolipid and phospholipid or a mixture of lipids extracted from tissue, while the PLPDs were prepared by incubating PDs containing only phospholipid with glycolipid-containing lipid mixtures in aqueous solution. Time-dependent changes in the composition of the PLPDs produced by incubation with glycomicelles of the ganglioside GM1 were monitored using collision-induced dissociation of the gaseous PD ions and from the extent of ganglioside binding to CTB5 measured by ESI-MS. GM1 incorporation into PDs was evident within a few hours of incubation. At incubation times ≥ 10 days, GM1 binding to CTB5 was indistinguishable from that observed with pre-loaded PDs produced directly from GM1 at the same concentration. Comparison of ganglioside binding to CTB5 measured for pre-loaded PDs and PLPDs prepared from glycolipids extracted from pig and mouse brain revealed that the PLPDs allow for the detection of a greater number of ganglioside ligands. Together, the results of this study suggest PLPDs may have advantages over conventionally prepared PDs for screening glycolipids against GBPs using CaR-ESI-MS. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Tandem solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS/MS for rapid screening and structural identification of trace diterpenoids in flowers of Rhododendron molle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hong-Yan; Luo, Jun; Xu, De-Ran; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-01-01

    'Naoyanghua', composed of the flowers of Rhododendron molle G. Don, is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely known for its toxicity. Grayanane-type diterpenoids are the main active ingredients in R. molle, as well as possibly their toxicity: they are, however, difficult to isolate and analyse using common chromatographic methods, due to their small amounts and absence of conjugated groups, such as phenyl and α, β-unsaturated ketone. To establish a highly sensitive, selective and reliable method for the qualitative evaluation of trace diterpenoids in the flowers of R. molle by using tandem solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS/MS). Tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) was undertaken using a polyamide cartridge and a C18E cartridge in succession to enrich the trace diterpenoids. HPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS/MS was used to determine the fragmentation patterns of diterpenoids and to tentatively characterise their fragmentation pathways. HPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS/MS detected a total of 14 diterpenoids, eight of which were identified by comparison with literature sources and six based on fragmentation analysis. Among the latter six, rhodojaponin VI-3-glucoside was tentatively identified as a new diterpenoid glycoside and rhodojaponin VII, rhodojaponin IV and rhodojaponin I were reported from R. molle for the first time. By qualitative research of diterpenoids in this plant by HPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS/MS, a reliable methodology for the analysis of these active constituents of R. molle was established for the first time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Tandem mass spectrometry approach for the investigation of the steroidal metabolism: structure-fragmentation relationship (SFR) in anabolic steroids and their metabolites by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ali, Arslan; Khan, Naik Tameem; Yousuf, Maria; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used to investigate the effect of different substitutions introduced during metabolism on fragmentation patterns of four anabolic steroids including methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, cis-androsterone and adrenosterone, along with their metabolites. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis was performed to correlate the major product ions of 19 steroids with structural features. The analysis is done to portray metabolic alteration, such as incorporation or reduction of double bonds, hydroxylations, and/or oxidation of hydroxyl moieties to keto functional group on steroidal skeleton which leads to drastically changed product ion spectra from the respective classes of steroids, therefore, making them difficult to identify. The comparative ESI-MS/MS study also revealed some characteristic peaks to differentiate different steroidal metabolites and can be useful for the unambiguous identification of anabolic steroids in biological fluid. Moreover, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fermented extract of methyltestosterone, obtained by Macrophomina phaseolina was also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD study of different populations of cultivated, wild and commercial Gentiana lutea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ahmed M; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Maggi, Filippo; Marín, Rosa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2015-05-01

    The root of Gentiana lutea L., famous for its bitter properties, is often used in alcoholic bitter beverages, food products and traditional medicine to stimulate the appetite and improve digestion. This study presents a new, fast, and accurate HPLC method using HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD for simultaneous analysis of iridoids (loganic acid), secoiridoids (gentiopicroside, sweroside, swertiamarin, amarogentin) and xanthones (isogentisin) in different populations of G.lutea L., cultivated in the Monti Sibillini National Park, obtained wild there, or purchased commercially. Comparison of HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD indicated that HPLC/ESI-MS is more sensitive, reliable and selective. Analysis of twenty samples showed that gentiopicroside is the most dominant compound (1.85-3.97%), followed by loganic acid (0.11-1.30%), isogentisin (0.03-0.48%), sweroside (0.05-0.35%), swertiamarin (0.08-0.30%), and amarogentin (0.01-0.07%). The results confirmed the high quality of the G.lutea cultivated in the Monti Sibillini National Park. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of CE-ICP-MS and CE-ESI-MS/MS for identification of Zn-binding ligands in Goji berries extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzik, Lena; Kwiatkowski, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    The identification of groups of ligands binding metals is a crucial issue for the better understanding of their bioaccessibility. In the current study, we have intended an approach for identification of Zn-binding ligands based on using capillary electrophoresis combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS/MS). The approach, which featured the use of the coupling of capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry allows to separate and observe zinc ions present in complexes with respect to their size and charge and to identify nine compounds with zinc isotopic profile. CE-ICP-MS provides us with information about presence of zinc species and elemental information about zinc distribution. CE-ESI-MS/MS provide us with information about the most favorable Zn binding ligands: amino acids, flavonols, stilbenoids, fenolic acids and carotenoids. The presented work is the continuation of previous studies based on using LC-ESI-MS/MS, though, now we presented a new solutions with the possibility of changing detectors without changing the separation techniques, what is important without re-optimizing the method. The new presented method allows to identify the zinc-binding ligands in shorter time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Polar Compounds in Guava Leaves Infusions and Ultrasound Aqueous Extract by HPLC-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature lacks publications about polar compounds content in infusion or guava leaves tea. Because of that, a comparison between different times of infusion and a conventional ultrasound aqueous extract was carried out. Several polar compounds have been identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by FRAP and ABTS assays. Four different classes of phenolic compounds (gallic and ellagic acid derivatives, flavonols, flavanones, and flavan-3-ols and some benzophenones were determined. The quantification results reported that the order, in terms of concentration of the classes of polar compounds in all samples, was flavonols > flavan-3-ols > gallic and ellagic acid derivatives > benzophenones > flavanones. As expected, the aqueous extract obtained by sonication showed the highest content in the compounds studied. Significative differences were noticed about the different times of infusion and five minutes was the optimal time to obtain the highest content in polar compounds using this culinary method. All the identified compounds, except HHDP isomers and naringenin, were positively correlated with antioxidant activity.

  15. Measurement of caffeine and its three primary metabolites in human plasma by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Parker, Robert B; Laizure, S Casey

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is a mild stimulant with significant potential for abuse, being consumed in larger doses with the widespread availability of energy drinks and by novel routes of administration such as inspired powder, oral sprays and electronic cigarettes. How these recent changes in caffeine consumption affecting caffeine disposition and abuse potential is of growing concern. In the study of caffeine disposition in humans, it is common to only measure the caffeine concentration; however, caffeine's three major metabolites (paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline) retain central nervous system stimulant activity that may contribute to the overall pharmacological activity and toxicity. Therefore, it would be scientifically more rigorous to measure caffeine and its major metabolites in the evaluation of caffeine disposition in human subjects. Herein, we report a method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine and its three major metabolites in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Human plasma samples were treated by simple protein precipitation and the analytes were separated using a 6 min gradient program. Precision and accuracy were well within in the 15% acceptance range. The simple sample preparation, short runtime, sensitivity and the inclusion of caffeine's major metabolites make this assay methodology optimal for the study of caffeine's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in human subjects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Detection of 191 Taxifolin Metabolites and Their Distribution in Rats Using HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxifolin is a ubiquitous bioactive constituent of foods and herbs. To thoroughly explore its metabolism in vivo, an HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn method combined with specific metabolite detection strategy was used to detect and identify the metabolites of taxifolin in rats. Of the 191 metabolites tentatively identified, 154 were new metabolites, 69 were new compounds and 32 were dimers. This is the first report of the in vivo biotransformation of a single compound into more than 100 metabolites. Furthermore, acetylamination and pyroglutamic acid conjugation were identified as new metabolic reactions. Seventeen metabolites were found to have various taxifolin-related bioactivities. The potential targets of taxifolin and 63 metabolites were predicted using PharmMapper, with results showing that more than 60 metabolites have the same five targets. Metabolites with the same fragment pattern may have the same pharmacophore. Thus these metabolites may exert the same pharmacological effects as taxifolin through an additive effect on the same drug targets. This observation indicates that taxifolin is bioactive not only in the parent form, but also through its metabolites. These findings enhance understanding of the metabolism and effective forms of taxifolin and may provide further insight of the beneficial effects of taxifolin and its derivatives.

  17. Combined HILIC-ELSD/ESI-MS(n) enables the separation, identification and quantification of sugar beet pectin derived oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoroza, C; Cord-Landwehr, S; Leijdekkers, A G M; Moerschbacher, B M; Schols, H A; Gruppen, H

    2012-09-01

    The combined action of endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PGII), pectin lyase (PL), pectin methyl esterase (fungal PME) and RG-I degrading enzymes enabled the extended degradation of methylesterified and acetylated sugar beet pectins (SBPs). The released oligomers were separated, identified and quantified using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with online electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS(n)) and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). By MS(n), the structures of galacturonic acid (GalA) oligomers having an acetyl group in the O-2 and/or O-3 positions eluting from the HILIC column were elucidated. The presence of methylesterified and/or acetylated galacturonic acid units within an oligomer reduced the interaction with the HILIC column significantly compared to the unsubstituted GalA oligomers. The HILIC column enables a good separation of most oligomers present in the digest. The use of ELSD to quantify oligogalacturonides was validated using pure GalA standards and the signal was found to be independent of the chemical structure of the oligomer being detected. The combination of chromatographic and enzymatic strategies enables to distinguish SBPs having different methylesters and acetyl group distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A method for the determination of acrylamide in bakery products using ion trap LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Achim; Weisz, Georg M; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2005-10-01

    Acrylamide levels of bakery products, e. g., bread and bread rolls, are usually below 100 microg/kg , often even below 50 microg/kg. Therefore, usual analytical methods which have an LOQ greater, not dbl equals 25 microg/kg are not sensitive enough for detailed investigations on acrylamide formation within these commodities. An improved method for trace level determination of acrylamide in bakery products was developed using ion trap LC-ESI-MS/MS. Samples were divided into crumbs and crusts to achieve an initial concentration by removing the crumbs since these are devoid of acrylamide. After sample extraction and clean-up using multimode SPE cartridges, further analyte enrichment was accomplished by solid-phase-supported liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The method was evaluated using bread, bread rolls, alkali-baked bread rolls, and toast. LOQ was calculated from the confidence interval of the calibration curve and found to be 1.7 ng/mL, corresponding to 17 microg/kg of product. When crumbs and crusts were separated, an LOQ of 10.2 microg/kg of bakery product could be obtained. As demonstrated in preliminary comparative analyses, accuracy of the method met the requirements for determination of trace level acrylamide formation in bakery products. Mean recovery was 102.4% (CV 4.5%), intermediate reproducibility revealed a CV of 2.1%, and a repeatability of CV 6.0%.

  19. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and their analogues in foods and dietary supplements in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyung Joo; Park, Hyoung Joon; Hwang, In Sun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Yoon, Chang-Yong; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Woo Seong

    2016-01-01

    A number of 188 food and dietary supplement samples were collected from 2009 to the first half of 2013 in Korean online and offline stores. A method to identify phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogues using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was validated. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation of liquid-type and solid-type negative samples ranged from 0.05 to 3.33 ng/mL or ng/g and from 0.15 to 10.00 ng/mL or ng/g, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 83% to 112%. Nineteen PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogues were detected, with tadalafil group compounds being the most frequently observed (53.0%), followed by the sildenafil group (42.5%). Tadalafil concentrations ranged from 0.08 to 138.69 mg/g. Compounds were most frequently detected in capsules (in 40 of 80 adulterated samples). To protect public health and food safety, appropriate monitoring of PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogues in foods and dietary supplements is recommended.

  20. A new LC-ESI-MS/MS method to measure long-chain acylcarnitine levels in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauregui, Olga; Sierra, Adriana Y.; Carrasco, Patricia; Gratacos, Esther; Hegardt, Fausto G.; Casals, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of long-chain acylcarnitines in lipid extracts from cultured cells or tissues is a prerequisite to study carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity. There is thus a need for the accurate measurement of the concentration of long-chain acylcarnitines at the lowest concentration present in lipid extracts. Here we report a fast and reliable quantitative method based on the use of weak acid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to quantify acylcarnitines through hydrophilic interaction chromatography. The method was validated using isotopic dilution and the results allow the analysis of a large number of samples at low concentration levels (down to 0.35 nmol L -1 for palmitoylcarnitine) with good inter- and intra-day precision. The method was used for the quantitative study of changes in concentration of palmitoylcarnitine and other acylcarnitines in PC-12 cells over-expressing CPT1a gene. It was also used to measure CPT1 activity in mitochondria isolated from transfected cells, giving similar results to the more common radiometric method, but with higher sensitivity

  1. UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics survey on the toxicity of triptolide and detoxication of licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, He; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Duan, Su-Min; Li, Xiu-Yang; Li, Guang-Fu; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-06-01

    Triptolide (TP) from Tripterygium wilfordii has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. TP is specially used for the treatment of awkward rheumatoid arthritis, but its clinical application is confined by intense side effects. It is reported that licorice can obviously reduce the toxicity of TP, but the detailed mechanisms involved have not been comprehensively investigated. The current study aimed to explore metabolomics characteristics of the toxic reaction induced by TP and the intervention effect of licorice water extraction (LWE) against such toxicity. Obtained urine samples from control, TP and TP + LWE treated rats were analyzed by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS. The metabolic profiles of the control and the TP group were well differentiated by the principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The toxicity of TP was demonstrated to be evolving along with the exposure time of TP. Eight potential biomarkers related to TP toxicity were successfully identified in urine samples. Furthermore, LWE treatment could attenuate the change in six of the eight identified biomarkers. Functional pathway analysis revealed that the alterations in these metabolites were associated with tryptophan, pantothenic acid, and porphyrin metabolism. Therefore, it was concluded that LWE demonstrated interventional effects on TP toxicity through regulation of tryptophan, pantothenic acid, and porphyrin metabolism pathways, which provided novel insights into the possible mechanisms of TP toxicity as well as the potential therapeutic effects of LWE against such toxicity. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A new LC-ESI-MS/MS method to measure long-chain acylcarnitine levels in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, Olga [Scientific and Technical Services, University of Barcelona (Spain); Sierra, Adriana Y.; Carrasco, Patricia; Gratacos, Esther [Molecular and Cellular Unit, School of Health Sciences, International University of Catalonia (Spain); Hegardt, Fausto G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, School of Pharmacy (Spain); Casals, Nuria [Molecular and Cellular Unit, School of Health Sciences, International University of Catalonia (Spain)], E-mail: ncasals@csc.uic.es

    2007-09-05

    The quantitative evaluation of long-chain acylcarnitines in lipid extracts from cultured cells or tissues is a prerequisite to study carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity. There is thus a need for the accurate measurement of the concentration of long-chain acylcarnitines at the lowest concentration present in lipid extracts. Here we report a fast and reliable quantitative method based on the use of weak acid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to quantify acylcarnitines through hydrophilic interaction chromatography. The method was validated using isotopic dilution and the results allow the analysis of a large number of samples at low concentration levels (down to 0.35 nmol L{sup -1} for palmitoylcarnitine) with good inter- and intra-day precision. The method was used for the quantitative study of changes in concentration of palmitoylcarnitine and other acylcarnitines in PC-12 cells over-expressing CPT1a gene. It was also used to measure CPT1 activity in mitochondria isolated from transfected cells, giving similar results to the more common radiometric method, but with higher sensitivity.

  3. Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. by UPLC-ESI-Q-Exactive Focus-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ethnic drug Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. (MDL is widely distributed throughout South China, and is the major component of Gong Yan Ping Tablets/Capsules and Zi Di Ning Xue San. Although the pharmacological effects of MDL have been well documented, its chemical profile has not been fully determined. In this study, we have developed a rapid and sensitive UPLC-ESI-Q-Exactive Focus-MS/MS method to characterize the chemical constituents of MDL in the positive and negative ionization modes. A comparison of the chromatographic and spectrometric data obtained using this method with data from databases, the literature and reference standards allowed us to identify or tentatively characterize 109 compounds, including 26 fatty acids, 26 organic acids, 33 flavonoids, six tannins, 10 triterpenoids, two steroids and six other compounds. Notably, 55 of the compounds characterized in this study have never been detected before in this plant. The information obtained in this study therefore enriches our understanding of the chemical composition of MDL and could be used in quality control, pharmacological research and the development of drugs based on MDL. In addition, this study represents the first reported comprehensive analysis of the chemical constituents of MDL.

  4. Identification and characterization of phenolics and terpenoids from ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus species by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Awantika Singh; Brijesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Phyllanthus species plants are a rich source of phenolics and widely used due to their medicinal properties. A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) for the identification and characterization of quercetin, kaempferol, ellagic acid and their derivatives in ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus species. The chromatographic separation was carried out on Thermo Betasil C8 column (250 mm×4.5 mm, 5 μm) using 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in methanol as the mobile phase. The identification of diagnostic fragment ions and optimization of collision energies were carried out using 21 reference standards. Totally 51 compounds were identified which include 21 compounds identified and characterized unambiguously by comparison with their authentic standards and the remaining 30 were tentatively identified and characterized in ethanolic extracts of P. emblica, P. fraternus, P. amarus and P. niruri.

  5. Polyphenolic compounds in date fruit seed (Phoenix dactylifera): characterisation and quantification by using UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Hosam M; Platat, Carine; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Cheynier, Veronique; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2014-04-01

    Date fruit seeds have been demonstrated to possess high antioxidant activities due to their high content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The objective of this work was to identify and quantify the phenolic composition of date seeds. Two UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analyses were performed on the seed of the Khalas variety as follows: (1) an analysis of simple phenolic compounds [phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols (monomers, dimers and trimers)]; and (2) an analysis of all flavan-3-ols (monomers, and proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers) after depolymerisation. The amount of total phenolic compounds before depolymerisation was found to be 2.194 ± 0.040 g kg(-1) date seed. The analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers and constitutive units of proanthocyanidins after depolymerisation revealed 50.180 ± 1.360 g kg(-1) flavan-3-ols with 46.800 ± 1.012 g kg(-1) epicatechin and 3.380 ± 0.349 g kg(-1) catechin. The results indicate that date seeds are a very rich source of bioactive compounds, thus constituting strong candidates for functional food additives and nutraceuticals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Rapid Characterization of Insulin Modifications and Sequence Variations by Proteinase K Digestion and UHPLC-ESI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong-Sheng; Tang, Weijuan; Sheng, Huaming; Meng, Fanyu

    2018-01-01

    Discovery of novel insulin analogs as therapeutics has remained an active area of research. Compared with native human insulin, insulin analog molecules normally incorporate either covalent modifications or amino acid sequence variations. From the drug discovery and development perspective, methods for efficient and detailed characterization of these primary structural changes are very important. In this report, we demonstrate that proteinase K digestion coupled with UPLC-ESI-MS analysis provides a simple and rapid approach to characterize the modifications and sequence variations of insulin molecules. A commercially available proteinase K digestion kit was used to process recombinant human insulin (RHI), insulin glargine, and fluorescein isothiocynate-labeled recombinant human insulin (FITC-RHI) samples. The LC-MS data clearly showed that RHI and insulin glargine samples can be differentiated, and the FITC modifications in all three amine sites of the RHI molecule are well characterized. The end-to-end experiment and data interpretation was achieved within 60 min. This approach is fast and simple, and can be easily implemented in early drug discovery laboratories to facilitate research on more advanced insulin therapeutics. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Profiling and Distribution of Metabolites of Procyanidin B2 in Mice by UPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The metabolite profiles and distributions of procyanidin B2 were qualitatively described using UPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn without help of reference standards, and a possible metabolic pathway was proposed in the present study. Summarily, 53 metabolites (24 new metabolites were detected as metabolites of procyanidin B2, and 45 of them were tentatively identified. Twenty seven metabolites were assigned as similar metabolites of (−-epicatechin by scission of the flavanol interflavanic bond C4–C8, including 16 aromatic metabolites, 5 conjugated metabolites, 3 ring-cleavage metabolites, and 2 phenylvalerolactone metabolites. Additionally, 14 metabolites were conjugates of free procyanidin B2, comprising 9 methylation metabolites, 8 sulfation metabolites, 5 hydration metabolites, 2 hydroxylation metabolites, 1 hydrogenation metabolites, and 1 glucuronidation metabolites. The results of metabolite distributions in organs indicated that the conjugated reaction of free procyanidin B2 mainly occurred in liver and diversified metabolites forms were observed in small intestine. The metabolic components of procyanidin B2 identified in mice provided useful information for further study of the bioactivity and mechanism of its action.

  8. Rapid Characterization of Insulin Modifications and Sequence Variations by Proteinase K Digestion and UHPLC-ESI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong-Sheng; Tang, Weijuan; Sheng, Huaming; Meng, Fanyu

    2018-05-01

    Discovery of novel insulin analogs as therapeutics has remained an active area of research. Compared with native human insulin, insulin analog molecules normally incorporate either covalent modifications or amino acid sequence variations. From the drug discovery and development perspective, methods for efficient and detailed characterization of these primary structural changes are very important. In this report, we demonstrate that proteinase K digestion coupled with UPLC-ESI-MS analysis provides a simple and rapid approach to characterize the modifications and sequence variations of insulin molecules. A commercially available proteinase K digestion kit was used to process recombinant human insulin (RHI), insulin glargine, and fluorescein isothiocynate-labeled recombinant human insulin (FITC-RHI) samples. The LC-MS data clearly showed that RHI and insulin glargine samples can be differentiated, and the FITC modifications in all three amine sites of the RHI molecule are well characterized. The end-to-end experiment and data interpretation was achieved within 60 min. This approach is fast and simple, and can be easily implemented in early drug discovery laboratories to facilitate research on more advanced insulin therapeutics. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Simultaneous qualification and quantification of baccharane glycosides in Impatientis Semen by HPLC-ESI-MSD and HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jun; Yu, Jun-Jie; Li, Ping

    2011-03-25

    This study presents a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MSD) and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) method for the simultaneous qualification and quantification of eight major baccharane glycosides, namely hosenlosides A, B, C, F, G, K, L, and M in Impatientis Semen, a Chinese herbal medicine derived from the seeds of Impatiens balsamina L. In order to achieve optimum performance, several extraction parameters (including extraction solvent, extraction mode, extraction time) were optimized. The baccharane glycosides were separated on a Shim-pack CLC-ODS column with gradient elution of water and methanol. Temperature for the ELSD drift tube was set at 98°C and the nitrogen flow rate was 2.7l/min. The unambiguous identities of the analytes were realized by comparing retention times and mass data with those of reference compounds. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, recovery as well as robustness, and subsequently applied to evaluate the quality of 14 batches of Impatientis Semen commercial samples from different collections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2013-08-14

    Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).

  11. Novel Tyrosine Phosphorylation Sites in Rat Skeletal Muscle Revealed by Phosphopeptide Enrichment and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Højlund, Kurt; Luo, Moulun; Meyer, Christian; Thangiah, Geetha; Yi, Zhengping

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a fundamental role in many cellular processes including differentiation, growth and insulin signaling. In insulin resistant muscle, aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins has been detected. However, due to the low abundance of tyrosine phosphorylation (tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been identified in mammalian skeletal muscle to date. Here, we used immunoprecipitation of phosphotyrosine peptides prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to improve the discovery of tyrosine phosphorylation in relatively small skeletal muscle biopsies from rats. This resulted in the identification of 87 distinctly localized tyrosine phosphorylation sites in 46 muscle proteins. Among them, 31 appear to be novel. The tyrosine phosphorylated proteins included major enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and glycogen metabolism, sarcomeric proteins, and proteins involved in Ca2+ homeostasis and phosphocreatine resynthesis. Among proteins regulated by insulin, we found tyrosine phosphorylation sites in glycogen synthase, and two of its inhibitors, GSK-3α and DYRK1A. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation sites were identified in several MAP kinases and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHPTP2. These results provide the largest catalogue of mammalian skeletal muscle tyrosine phosphorylation sites to date and provide novel targets for the investigation of human skeletal muscle phosphoproteins in various disease states. PMID:22609512

  12. Phlorotannin Extracts from Fucales Characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: Approaches to Hyaluronidase Inhibitory Capacity and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Lopes, Graciliana; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight) and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC50 = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight). As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC50 = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight), followed by F. spiralis (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight). These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process. PMID:23222802

  13. Chemical Differentiation of Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium devonianum by Using HPLC Fingerprints, HPLC-ESI-MS, and HPTLC Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi; Dai, Jia-Rong; Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Lu, Ye; Wu, Lei-Lei; Gong, Amy G. W.; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2017-01-01

    The stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis) have a high medicinal value as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Because of the limited supply, D. officinale is a high priced TCM, and therefore adulterants are commonly found in the herbal market. The dried stems of a closely related Dendrobium species, Dendrobium devonianum Paxt., are commonly used as the substitute; however, there is no effective method to distinguish the two Dendrobium species. Here, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was successfully developed and applied to differentiate D. officinale and D. devonianum by comparing the chromatograms according to the characteristic peaks. A HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was further applied for structural elucidation of 15 flavonoids, 5 phenolic acids, and 1 lignan in D. officinale. Among these flavonoids, 4 flavonoid C-glycosides were firstly reported in D. officinale, and violanthin and isoviolanthin were identified to be specific for D. officinale compared with D. devonianum. Then, two representative components were used as chemical markers. A rapid and reliable high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was applied in distinguishing D. officinale from D. devonianum. The results of this work have demonstrated that these developed analytical methods can be used to discriminate D. officinale and D. devonianum effectively and conveniently. PMID:28769988

  14. A capillary monolithic trypsin reactor for efficient protein digestion in online and offline coupling to ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spross, Jens; Sinz, Andrea

    2010-02-15

    We describe the preparation of a capillary trypsin immobilized monolithic enzyme reactor (IMER) for a rapid and efficient digestion of proteins down to the femtomole level. Trypsin was immobilized on a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol dimethycrylate) monolith using the glutaraldehyde technique. Digestion efficiencies of the IMER were evaluated using model proteins and protein mixtures as well as chemically cross-linked lysozyme regarding the addition of denaturants and increasing digestion temperature. The trypsin IMER described herein is applicable for the digestion of protein mixtures. Even at a 1000-fold molar excess of one protein, low-abundance proteins are readily identified, in combination with MS/MS analysis. An online setup of the IMER with reversed phase nano-HPLC separation and nano-ESI-MS/MS analysis was established. The great potential of the trypsin IMER for proteomics applications comprise short digestion times in the range of seconds to minutes, in addition to improved digestion efficiencies, compared to in-solution digestion.

  15. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) analysis of phenolic compounds for quality control of Grindelia robusta Nutt. and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Grosso, Clara; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Azevedo, Carolina; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-06-01

    The phenolic composition of herbal tea (HT) and hydromethanolic extract (HME) obtained from Grindelia robusta Nutt. was studied by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Thirty six flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were detected, from which thirty are described for the first time in this species. Quantification by HPLC-DAD showed that diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide-3'-O-pentoside+apigenin-7-O-glucuronide-4'-O-pentoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide+diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid+3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid were the major compounds. Since the health-promoting effects of natural phenolic compounds against brain disorders is of increasing interest, HT and HME were also tested against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species and against enzymes related with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Extracts displayed strong in vitro scavenging activity and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibitory activity. The anti-MAO-A capacity was observed at non-toxic concentrations for SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line, reinforcing the benefits of G. robusta HT. However, no protection against hydrogen peroxide treatment was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental research - development of the material balance of oak tree ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank substrates of coal mines; Umweltforschung - Entwicklung des Stoffhaushaltes von Eichenoekosystemen auf quartaeren Kippsubstraten des Braunkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzur, J.; Knoche, D.

    2000-07-01

    ersten Bestandsgeneration aus waldbaulicher Perspektive stabile und mit vertretbarem Aufwand zu bewirtschaftende Oekosysteme entwickeln. Analogieschluesse anhand gleichaltriger Systeme des unverritzten Tagebauumfeldes sind aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Substratverhaeltnisse bzw. der abweichenden Randbedingungen (u.a. Depositionsgeschehen, Mesoklima) zunaechst nicht moeglich. Nach wie vor fehlen adaequate, auf oekosystemaren Wasser- und Stofffluessen basierende Systeminformationen. Uebergeordnetes Ziel des Vorhabens ist es, die Entwicklung von Laubholz-Oekosystemen auf quartaeren Kippsubstraten anhand von Wasser- und Stoffhaushaltskrietierien zu quantifizieren. Es sollen Richtung und Groessenordnung der Veraenderungen in den Oekosysteme abgeschaetzt werden. Im Rahmen einer 3 gliedrigen Roteichenchronosequenz (Boxberg: Q.rubra L., 2 Jahre; Kleinleipisch: Q.rubra L., 21 Jahre und Annahuette: Q.rubra L., 63 Jahre) auf quartaeren Kipp-Sanden wird die oekosystemare Wasser- und Stoffhaushaltscharakteristik u.a. unter Anwendung des Bilanzierungsansatzes kompartimentbezogen ermittelt und mit den Ergebnissen eines unverritzten Referenzstandorts des Tagebauumlands (Neusorgefeld: Q.rubra L., 41 Jahre) verglichen. (orig.)

  17. Development of a measuring and evaluation method for X-ray analysis of residual stresses in the surface region of polycrystalline materials; Entwicklung eines Mess- und Auswerteverfahrens zur roentgenographischen Analyse des Eigenspannungszustandes im Oberflaechenbereich vielkristalliner Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, C.

    2000-11-01

    The topic of the habilitation thesis is the development of an X-ray diffraction method for measurement and depth-resolved analysis of internal stresses in the surface region of polycrystalline materials. The method relies on the basic approach of varying {tau}, the penetration depth of the X-rays in the materials, by the scattering vector g{sub theta{psi}} via stepwise specimen rotation. Thus, depth profiles of the interlattice plane distances d(hkl) in the specimen system can be derived for given direction and inclination angles {theta} and {psi} of the scattering vector. This offers the possibility to identify individual components of the stress tensors of the basic equation of the X-ray diffraction analysis, and to perform separate analyses of those components. For calculation of the relevant internal stress distributions {sigma}{sub ij}({tau}) using the interlattice plane distance profiles, a self-consistent method is established which takes into account the high sensitivity of the derived internal stresses in relation to the interlattice plane distance d{sub 0}(hkl) in the stress-free crystal lattice. The evaluation yields results describing the depth profiles as well as the strain-free interlattice plane distance d{sub 0}(hkl), so that a quantitative analysis is possible of tri-axial internal stress states in the surface region of the materials. (orig./CB) [German] Den Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit bildet die Entwicklung eines roentgenographischen Mess- und Auswerteverfahrens zur tiefenaufgeloesten Analyse des oberflaechennahen Eigenspannungszustandes in vielkristallinen Werkstoffen. Der Grundgedanke der Methode besteht darin, die Eindringtiefe {tau} der Roentgenstrahlung in den Werkstoff durch schrittweise Drehung der Probe um den Streuvektor g{sub {theta}}{sub {psi}} zu variieren. Damit koennen Tiefenprofile der Netzebenenabstaende d(hkl) fuer fest vorgegebene Azimut- und Neigungswinkel {theta} und {psi} des Streuvektors im Probensystem ermittelt

  18. Development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide applying high throughput methods; Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren zur Spaltung von Methanol in Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid mittels Hochdurchsatz-Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Torsten

    2008-07-11

    The topic of this thesis has been the development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. As an important constraint here, the content of noble metals of the catalysts should be as low as possible. High-throughput-methods were applied in some of the syntheses and experiments to accelerate the development, as, for example, the use of liquid based sol-gel syntheses and the examination of catalyst libraries by spatial resolution gas chromatography. This screening technique allowed to test up to 207 different substances during one single experiment. Then, different combinatorial strategies were applied. First, these methods led to a highly active and stable catalyst in the ternary system of Cu-Ni-Zn, which showed high conversion and selectivity comparable to an industrial reference catalyst. Its activity during an 18 hour long term run was constant in contrast to the reference. Second, an additional approach starting from a broader variety of elements led to a Ce- Ru- and to a Cr-Ru-catalyst. Both of them were highly active in short term experiments, but lost their outstanding performances during long term runs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit der Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren fuer die Spaltung von Methanol zu Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid, die einen moeglichst geringen Gehalt an Edelmetallen aufweisen sollten. Um diesen Prozess zu beschleunigen, wurden in einem Teil der Synthesen und Experimente Hochdurchsatzmethoden verwendet. Neben der Roboter gestuetzten Sol-Gel-Synthese umfasste dies die Untersuchung von Katalysatorbibliotheken mittels ortsaufgeloester Gaschromatographie, die es ermoeglichte, in einem Experiment bis zu 207 verschiedene Substanzen auf ihre katalytische Aktivitaet zu testen. Unter Anwendung verschiedener kombinatorischer Strategien wurde zunaechst ein sehr aktiver und stabiler Katalysator im ternaeren Cu-Ni-Zn-System entdeckt. Neben Umsaetzen und

  19. Quantenmechanik verstehen eine Einführung in den Welle-Teilchen-Dualismus für Lehrer und Studierende

    CERN Document Server

    Pietschmann, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    Der bekannte Autor H. Pietschmann wendet sich mit diesem Buch an Physiklehrer an höheren Schulen und an Physikstudenten im Anschluß an deren Grundausbildung. Quantenmechanik entzieht sich der Anschaulichkeit, wie wir sie von der klassischen Physik her kennen, aber - und das ist das Kernthema des Buchs - man kann sie sehr wohl verstehen. H. Pietschmann gelingt es, dies mit einfachen Mitteln zu erreichen, und damit gibt er Lehrerinnen und Lehrern eine Unterrichtshilfe und Studenten eine Einführung in die anspruchsvollen Hochschultexte an die Hand. Die mathematische Behandlung spielt keine zentrale Rolle, vielmehr wird versucht, der Interpretation und dem Denken in quantenmechanischen Kategorien breiten Raum zu geben. Behandelt werden z.B. die Quantenhypothese unter Einbeziehung der Geschichte dieses Konzepts, die Schrödingertheorie, die Interpretation der Wellenfunktion und der Messprozess, die Ein- und Mehrelektronenatome sowie Fragen der Zeitabhängigkeit.

  20. Reduction of energy consumption and reduction of galvanisation fluid loss by means of innovative galvanisation drums made of novel materials and with novel geomentries. Final report; Senkung des Energieverbrauches und Verringerung der Galvanisierbadverschleppung durch die Entwicklung von innovativen Galvanisiertrommeln aus neuen Werkstoffen mit neuer Geometrie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tscherwitschke, R.

    2003-09-01

    The project intended to develop a galvanizing drum with higher efficiency (30 percent) without inducing limitations, either by reducing the exposure time at identical energy consumption or by permitting a higher coating rate at higher energy consumption. Developments during the last 50 years have been unsatisfactory in this field. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war, eine Galvanisiertrommel zu entwickeln, die ohne sonstige Einschraenkung eine signifikante Leistungssteigerung erbringt, konkret bei gleichem Energie-Einsatz (V x A) die Expositionszeit beim Galvanisierprozess reduziert oder bei gleichem Energie-Einsatz ein groesseres Warenvolumen mit der gleichen Schichtdicke, galvanisch beschichtet. Angestrebte Effizienzsteierung war 30%. In der gleichen Groessenordnung sollte eine Energieeinsparung einhergehen. In den letzten 50 Jahren gab es nur eine Entwicklung in diese Richtung, die sich aus einer Reihe von Gruenden nicht dauerhaft durchgesetzt hat. (orig.)