WorldWideScience

Sample records for esculentum phaseolus vulgaris

  1. Phaseolus vulgaris - recalcitrant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2014-11-15

    Since the ability to genetically engineer plants was established, researchers have modified a great number of plant species to satisfy agricultural, horticultural, industrial, medicinal or veterinary requirements. Almost thirty years after the first approaches to the genetic modification of pulse crops, it is possible to transform many grain legumes. However, one of the most important species for human nutrition, Phaseolus vulgaris, still lacks some practical tools for genomic research, such as routine genetic transformation. Its recalcitrance towards in vitro regeneration and rooting significantly hampers the possibilities of improvement of the common bean that suffers from many biotic and abiotic constraints. Thus, an efficient and reproducible system for regeneration of a whole plant is desired. Although noticeable progress has been made, the rate of recovery of transgenic lines is still low. Here, the current status of tissue culture and recent progress in transformation methodology are presented. Some major challenges and obstacles are discussed and some examples of their solutions are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  3. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  4. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The water extracts of leaves (green, brown and decayed stages) and bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis were tested for seed germination and primary root and shoot development of. Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. There was no significant difference in the germination percentage of Phaseolus vulgaris due to the treatments of ...

  5. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  6. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  7. Chloroplast Microsatellite Diversity in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiderio, F.; Bitocchi, E.; Bellucci, E.; Rau, D.; Rodriguez, M.; Attene, G.; Papa, R.; Nanni, L.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary studies that are aimed at defining the processes behind the present level and organization of crop genetic diversity represent the fundamental bases for biodiversity conservation and use. A Mesoamerican origin of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris was recently suggested through analysis of nucleotide polymorphism at the nuclear level. Here, we have used chloroplast microsatellites to investigate the origin of the common bean, on the basis of the specific characteristics of these markers (no recombination, haploid genome, uniparental inheritance), to validate these recent findings. Indeed, comparisons of the results obtained through analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA should allow the resolution of some of the contrasting information available on the evolutionary processes. The main outcomes of the present study are: (i) confirmation at the chloroplast level of the results obtained through nuclear data, further supporting the Mesoamerican origin of P. vulgaris, with central Mexico representing the cradle of its diversity; (ii) identification of a putative ancestral plastidial genome, which is characteristic of a group of accessions distributed from central Mexico to Peru, but which have not been highlighted beforehand through analyses at the nuclear level. Finally, the present study suggests that when a single species is analyzed, there is the need to take into account the complexity of the relationships between P. vulgaris and its closely related and partially intercrossable species P. coccineus and P. dumosus. Thus, the present study stresses the importance for the investigation of the speciation processes of these taxa through comparisons of both plastidial and nuclear variability. This knowledge will be fundamental not only from an evolutionary point of view, but also to put P. coccineus and P. dumosus germplasm to better use as a source of useful diversity for P. vulgaris breeding. PMID:23346091

  8. Physiological responses of phaseolus vulgaris to different lead concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, N.; Bukhari, N.; Jawaid, F.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the phyto toxicity of lead on some physio-biochemical parameters that is chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, nucleic acid and phenolic content of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings were treated with 25, 50 and 100 ppm concentration of lead acetate and a control (without any treatment) and sown in pots. Increasing lead acetate levels lead to several disruptions of Phaseolus vulgaris plants, which are reflected by reductions of protein, chlorophyll, carbohydrate DNA and RNA content. However phenolic content of plants were increasing with increasing levels of heavy metal lead. The effect of lead toxicity was more pronounced at 100 ppm as compared to 25 and 50 ppm lead concentration. (author)

  9. Phytoaccumulation of uranium by Phaseolus Vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment surrounding facilities where uranium has been mined and processed has occurred in many countries. If phytomanagement of uranium contaminated areas is envisaged, the impact of the contamination on the vegetation has to be investigated. Uranium is a radiotoxic and chemotoxic heavy metal. Mechanisms of toxicity have been predominantly studied on man and on some animal species. For plants, little information on uranium toxicity at the cellular level is available. In plants facing environmental stress, for example contamination by heavy metals, an increase in the formation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) is often observed. ROS are naturally produced in the plant cells and consequently, cells have developed several anti-oxidative defense mechanisms in order to control the redox state of the cell, an essential parameter for normal physiological and biochemical functioning. The defense system comprise antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutases, peroxidases, catalases, glutathione reductase) and antioxidants (e.g. glutathione, ascorbate,I). The presence of heavy metals, in particular uranium, results in an enhancement of the antioxidative defense mechanism. The objective of the study was to analyze the biological effects (biometry, stress enzyme and antioxidant content, DNA integrity) induced by bioaccumulation of uranium in the bean Phaseolus vulgaris, to evaluate whether the various investigated biomarkers are related and to define possible dose-effect relationships

  10. Genetic diversity study of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic ...

  11. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only, 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly obtained, out of which ...

  13. Performance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a soil contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoremediation is an alternative low cost approach for in situ treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated growth and biochemical composition of Phaseolus vulgaris as influenced by spent engine oil contaminated soil. The experiment was conducted in a pot during the 2005 cropping season. The soil received (0% ...

  14. Registration of Gabisa Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabisa is a common name for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety with pedigree name of VAX-2. It is a bush food bean variety selected out of common bean lines introduced to Ethiopia through CIAT program and released in 2007 by the Bako Agricultural Research Center for production in western Ethiopia and ...

  15. POD DEVELOPMENT INCREASES THE OZONE SENSITIVITY OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the O3 sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. changed with plant development. Plants exposed to charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 throughout the study were compared to those exposed only during the vegetative or reproductive s...

  16. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only,. 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly ...

  17. Biocontrol Of Viral Necrotic Disease Of Phaseolus Vulgaris By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study revealed that the preinoculation of soil with rhizosphere microorganisms significantly reduced number of local lesions produced by TNV, in P. vulgaris plants either grown in amended or unamended soil. Phaseolus plants grown in fish meal amended soil supplied with RMs singly or in mixtures, and then their ...

  18. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  19. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as influenced by fungicide seed treatment. Ndeye Fatou Diaw GUENE, Adama DIOUF and Mamadou GUEYE*. MIRCEN/ Laboratoire commun de microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, BP 1386, DAKAR, Senegal. Accepted 23 June 2003.

  20. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  1. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large seeded grain legumes such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) are very important crops with seeds that are major protein source for people in developing countries, but their yields and improvement lag behind the economically more important cereals. For research purposes ...

  2. Dicamba causes genomic instability in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Taşpınar, Mahmut Sinan; Arslan, Esra; Yaǧci, Semra; Aǧar, Güleray

    2017-04-01

    The herbicide 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) is principally used widely agriculture today. The widely use of dicamba in agriculture may represent a potential toxic risks to some crops. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of dicamba by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. The results showed that persistent DNA damage and decreased genomic template stability (GTS) induced by dicamba (0,2, 0,4 and 0,6 ppm).

  3. Standardization of phaseolus vulgaris valves by macro- and microscopic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Ігорівна Крюкова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years on the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market a tendency to increase the range of the national herbal remedies is observed. Native flora herbs, having a sufficient resource base, deserve special attention and are characterized by a number of economic benefits for manufacturers. The implementation of herbal remedies in medical practice is accompanied by the necessity to improve the quality control of herbal material and to develop normative documents. Macro- and microscopy analysis becomes important at standardization of herbal material especially cut and powdered.Aim. The aim of our work was to carry out macro- and microscopy research of Phaseolus vulgaris and to determine its diagnostic morphologic and anatomic features.Methods. The conventional research methods in pharmacognosy have been used; photomicrography has been taken by using microscope MC-10 and Samsung PL 50 camera.Results. As a result of research, the microscopic diagnostic characteristics for Phaseolus vulgaris valves have been proposed, e.g.: the valves are elongated, straight, navicular or grooved, twisted to some extent; the external surface is smooth or slightly undulating, mat, pale yellow or yellow; the internal surface is shiny, white or yellowish-white. Sometimes carpophore (stalk may occur. The microscopic diagnostic features have been determined and offered, e.g.: cells of outer epidermis are pentagonal and hexagonal, with plicated cuticle; stomata are surrounded by 3–4 subsidiary narrow cells, additionally surrounded by 5–6 narrow cells; cover trichomes and glandular trichomes are elongated, pointed and unbranched; xylem vessels and tracheids; non-bundled structure stalk fragments with pericyclic sclerenchyma and secretory cells in the phloem.Conclusion. Research on determination of the macro- and microscopic characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris valves has been carried out. The diagnostic morphological and anatomic elements in herbal material have

  4. Effect of uranium uptake on oxidative stress reactions for Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    CUYPERS, Ann; Vandenhove, H.; van Hees, M.; Wannijn, J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of uranium by Phaseolus vulgaris. Following a 1 week exposure, plant development and the capacity of enzymes involved in the anti-oxidative defense mechanism of the plant were analyzed. uranium; oxidative stress; Phaseolus vulgaris; uptake; hydroponics

  5. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuaigel, Mohammad Faisal; Seif, Mosaad A; Albuali, Hamad Waleed; Alharbi, Omar; Alhawash, Amer

    2017-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the reduction potential of aqueous extract of casing of pods of phaseolus vulgaris in blood glucose and lipids levels among hyperglycemic streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Oral administration of 150mg/kg of aqueous oral administration of aqueous pod extract of phaseolus vulgaris to diabetic rats for 40days resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose (pphaseolus vulgaris and glibenclamide reduced the blood levels of glucose and lipids. In addition, aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods was more effective than glibenclamide in reducing blood glucose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension.

  7. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  8. Phaseolus vulgaris RbohB functions in lateral root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Quinto, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) catalyze the reduction of oxygen to generate superoxide anion, a kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS produced by RBOHs play essential roles in diverse processes, such as root hair development, stomata closure and signaling mechanisms in response to abiotic stimuli and during plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, we found that PvRbohB silencing in transgenic Phaseolus vulgaris roots had a negative impact on lateral root density. In this work, we show that the downregulation of PvRbohB affects both the growth and ROS levels in recently emerged lateral roots. In addition, we found that the PvRbohB promoter was activated during lateral root primordium initiation in the pericycle, and remained active throughout lateral root development. This study identifies RBOHs as potentially important players in lateral root development in P. vulgaris.

  9. Two endornaviruses show differential infection patterns between gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, Surasak; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A; Osorno, Juan M; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, in breeding lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) collected from the two centers of common bean domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. The two endornaviruses were detected in many genotypes of Mesoamerican origin but rarely in genotypes of Andean origin. The results suggest that these two endornaviruses were introduced into the Mesoamerican modern genotypes during common bean domestication and provide more evidence for the existence of two divergent gene pools of common bean.

  10. Leaf conductance response of phaseolus vulgaris to ozone flux density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiro, B. D.; Gillespie, T. J.

    The effect of ozone flux density on leaf conductance to ozone in Phaseolus vulgaris was examined. The change in conductance was measured within the first two hours of fumigation for mature, fruiting 6-week-old plants of an ozone sensitive cultivar (Seafarer); for young, 14-day-old plants of the same cultivar; and for an ozone resistant cultivar (Gold Crop). Young Seafarer plants showed no change in conductance to ozone over a wide range of ozone flux densities. Gold Crop showed a decrease in conductance of -3.1 % /(mgO 3 m -2 h -1) whereas mature Seafarer plants exhibited a stronger decrease of -7.7% /(mgO 3 m -2 h -1). Diffusion porometer measurements taken on fruiting Seafarer plants in the field illustrated that a decrease in leaf diffusive conductance to water is related to visual ozone injury.

  11. Fungi associated with Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds cultivated in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Martínez de la Parte

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., is the most important legume specie for Cuba, 123 434 ha were harvested for a production of 127 100 t during 2012. Most of phytopathogenic fungi associated to beans used seeds to move their inoculum to new areas, which under favorable condition can cause considerable yield losses. The objective of the present study was to identify fungi associated with bean seeds, their frequency and incidence for bean variety. 102 seed bean lots of 16 varieties for Pinar del Río, Mayabeque and Artemisa provinces were studied. For each seed lot 400 seed were analyzed by blotter test. 679 fungal isolates belonging to 34 species of 20 genera were detected. Penicillium sp. (78.4%, Rhizoctonia solani (77.5%, Aspergillus niger (68.6% and Fusarium solani (51.0% were the predominant species. Nine Fusarium species and six Aspergillus species were identified. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was detected in BAT-58, BAT-93 and Delicia-365 varieties, on which higher infected seed percent was detected in BAT-93. This paper is the first report of S. sclerotiorum incidence on Cuban seed bean. Key words: Aspergillus, Fusarium, mycobiota, Phaseolus, Sclerotinia

  12. Aluminium-phosphate interactions in the rhizosphere of two bean species: Phaseolus lunatus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Cesco, Stefano; Tomasi, Nicola; Pinton, Roberto; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Plants differ in their response to high aluminium (Al) concentrations, which typically cause toxicity in plants grown on acidic soils. The response depends on plant species and environmental conditions such as substrate and cultivation system. The present study aimed to assess Al-phosphate (P) dynamics in the rhizosphere of two bean species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L., in rhizobox experiments. Root activity of the bean species induced up to a sevenfold increase in exchangeable Al and up to a 30-fold decrease in extractable P. High soluble Al concentrations triggered the release of plant-specific carboxylates, which differed between soil type and plant species. The results suggest that P. vulgaris L. mitigates Al stress by an internal defence mechanism and P. lunatus L. by an external one, both mechanisms involving organic acids. Rhizosphere mechanisms involved in Al detoxification were found to be different for P. vulgaris L. and P. lunatus L., suggesting that these processes are plant species-specific. Phaseolus vulgaris L. accumulates Al in the shoots (internal tolerance mechanism), while P. lunatus L. prevents Al uptake by releasing organic acids (exclusion mechanism) into the growth media. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of the Phaseolus vulgaris - Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Awale, Halima E; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) anthracnose caused by the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a major factor limiting production worldwide. Although sources of resistance have been identified and characterized, the early molecular events in the host-pathogen interface have not been investigated. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome analysis using Illumina sequencing of two near isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the presence of the Co-1 gene on chromosome Pv01 during a time course following infection with race 73 of C. lindemuthianum. From this, we identified 3,250 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) within and between the NILs over the time course of infection. During the biotrophic phase the majority of DEGs were up regulated in the susceptible NIL, whereas more DEGs were up-regulated in the resistant NIL during the necrotrophic phase. Various defense related genes, such as those encoding PR proteins, peroxidases, lipoxygenases were up regulated in the resistant NIL. Conversely, genes encoding sugar transporters were up-regulated in the susceptible NIL during the later stages of infection. Additionally, numerous transcription factors (TFs) and candidate genes within the vicinity of the Co-1 locus were differentially expressed, suggesting a global reprogramming of gene expression in and around the Co-1 locus. Through this analysis, we reduced the previous number of candidate genes reported at the Co-1 locus from eight to three. These results suggest the dynamic nature of P. vulgaris-C. lindemuthianum interaction at the transcriptomic level and reflect the role of both pathogen and effector triggered immunity on changes in plant gene expression.

  14. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris growth and Aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Derek; Durham, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  15. Landscape genetics, adaptive diversity and population structure in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Biagetti, Eleonora; Carboni, Andrea; Gepts, Paul; Nanni, Laura; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2016-03-01

    Here we studied the organization of genetic variation of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in its centres of domestication. We used 131 single nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate 417 wild common bean accessions and a representative sample of 160 domesticated genotypes, including Mesoamerican and Andean genotypes, for a total of 577 accessions. By analysing the genetic spatial patterns of the wild common bean, we documented the existence of several genetic groups and the occurrence of variable degrees of diversity in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Moreover, using a landscape genetics approach, we demonstrated that both demographic processes and selection for adaptation were responsible for the observed genetic structure. We showed that the study of correlations between markers and ecological variables at a continental scale can help in identifying local adaptation genes. We also located putative areas of common bean domestication in Mesoamerica, in the Oaxaca Valley, and the Andes, in southern Bolivia-northern Argentina. These observations are of paramount importance for the conservation and exploitation of the genetic diversity preserved within this species and other plant genetic resources. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris and Aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Stephanie; Boylan, Derek

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  17. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results

  18. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris Innate Immune System against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Bablu; Caldas, Danielle Gregório Gomes; Tsai, Siu Mui; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Melotto, Maeli

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. Methodology and Principal Findings As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST) to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. Conclusions/Significance We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to develop a model of

  19. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  20. Purification and partial characterization of Phaseolus vulgaris seed aminopeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdala A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aminopeptidase activity of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was measured using L-Leu-p-nitroanilide and the L-aminoacyl-ß-naphthylamides of Leu, Ala, Arg and Met. A single peak of aminopeptidase activity on Leu-ß-naphthylamide was eluted at 750 µS after gradient elution chromatography on DEAE-cellulose of the supernatant of a crude seed extract. The effluent containing enzyme activity was applied to a Superdex 200 column and only one peak of aminopeptidase activity was obtained. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10% presented only one protein band with molecular mass of 31 kDa under reducing and nonreducing conditions. The aminopeptidase has an optimum pH of 7.0 for activity on all substrates tested and the highest Vmax/KM ratio for L-Leu-ß-naphthylamide. The enzyme activity was increased 40% by 0.15 M NaCl, inhibited 94% by 2.0 mM Zn2+, inhibited 91% by sodium p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and inhibited 45% by 0.7 mM o-phenanthroline and 30 µM EDTA. Mercaptoethanol (3.3 mM, dithioerythritol (1.7 mM, Ala, Arg, Leu and Met (70 µM, p-nitroaniline (0.25 mM and ß-naphthylamine (0.53 mM had no effect on enzyme activity when assayed with 0.56 mM of substrate. Bestatin (20 µM inhibited 18% the enzyme activity. The aminopeptidase activity in the seeds decayed 50% after two months when stored at 4oC and room temperature. The enzyme is leucyl aminopeptidase metal- and thiol group-dependent.

  1. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  2. Formation of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenoorth, Johanna Margriet

    1980-01-01

    n this thesis the development of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is studies. The use of green leaf cuttings has the advantage that the leaf blade provides the developing roots inthe petiole with all the nutrients required, a disadvantage is that the composition of

  3. Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin immunohistochemistry. A comparison between autoradiographic and lectin tracing of neuronal efferents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; Karst, H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    The autoradiographic pattern of anterograde labeling as a result from injections with tritiated amino acids is compared to the labeling of efferents with Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin after lectin injections in the same nucleus visualized by immunohistochemical methods. This comparison is made

  4. Phaseolus vulgaris lectins: A systematic review of characteristics and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shudong; Simpson, Benjamin K; Sun, Hanju; Ngadi, Michael O; Ma, Ying; Huang, Tiemin

    2018-01-02

    Legume lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin. Significant amounts of lectins have been found in Phaseolus vulgaris beans as far back as in the last century; however, many questions about their potential biological roles still remain obscure. Studies have shown that lectins are anti-nutritional factors that can cause intestinal disorders. Owing to their ability to act as toxic allergens and hemagglutinins, the Phaseolus vulgaris lectins are of grave concern for human health and safety. Nonetheless, their potential beneficial health effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV), anti-microbial infection, preventing mucosal atrophy, reducing type 2 diabetes and obesity, promoting nutrients absorption and targeting drugs, are of immense interest. The significance of Phaseolus vulgaris lectins in biological researches and the potential biomedical applications have placed tremendous emphasis on the development of purification strategies to obtain the protein in pure and stable forms. These purification strategies entail considerations such as effects of proteolysis, heating, gamma radiation, and high-hydrostatic-pressure that can have crucial outcomes in either eliminating or improving bioactivities of the lectins. Thus, up-to-date research findings of Phaseolus vulgaris lectins on different aspects such as anti-nutritional and health impacts, purification strategies and novel processing trends, are systematically reviewed.

  5. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...

  6. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  7. Virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, is an important disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the dry and warmer areas of Puerto Rico and in much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. The virulence of three isolates from Isabela (Mph-ISA-TARS), Juana Diaz (Mph-JD) a...

  8. Cortical projection patterns of magnocellular basal nucleus subdivisions as revealed by anterogradely transported Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Gaykema, R.P.A.; Traber, J.; Spencer Jr., D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The present paper deals with a detailed analysis of cortical projections from the magnocellular basal nucleus (MBN) and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the rat. The MBN and HDB were injected iontophoretically with the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

  9. Growth, sucrose synthase, and invertase activities of developing Phaseolus vulgaris L. fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; W.J. Sheih; D.R. Geiger; C.C. Black

    1994-01-01

    Activities of sucrose-cleaving enzymes, acid and neutral invertase and sucrose synthase, were measured in pods and seeds of developing snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fruits, and compared with 14C-import, elongation and dry weight accumulation. The data supports the association of specific sucrose-cleaving enzymes with the specific processes that occur in the...

  10. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  11. Phenotypic variation in a core collection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.; Waninge, J.; Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    Forty accessions, forming a core collection of mainly bush type of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm in the Netherlands, were evaluated for 14 qualitative and quantitative traits at the Agricultural University, Wageningen (WAU), the Netherlands in 1992. These and an additional 117

  12. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  13. THE ACTION OF UV RADIATION ON MITOTIC INDEX AND MITOTIC DIVISION PHASES AT PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Iuliana Bara

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, damaging effects of UV radiations on bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. plantule root tips were investigated. Our study proves that by bean plants, the decrease of cell division frequency appears to be part of protection mechanism against especially the short waved UV radiation, with variations depending on cultivar.

  14. Differential proteomics reveals the hallmarks of seed development in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parreira, J R; Bouraada, J; Fitzpatrick, M A; Silvestre, S; Bernardes da Silva, A; Marques da Silva, J; Almeida, A M; Fevereiro, P; Altelaar, A F M; Araújo, S S

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most consumed staple foods worldwide. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling seed development. This study aims to comprehensively describe proteome dynamics during seed development of common bean. A high-throughput gel-free

  15. Demonstrating a nutritional advantage to the fast cooking dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the...

  16. Onderzoekingen over virusziekten van de boon (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Want, van der J.P.H.

    1954-01-01

    Three viruses were studied which produce diseases in French beans, Phaseolus virus I (PV1), Phaseolus virus 2 (PV2) and a virus isolated from white clover (WKV). Included are symptoms, host plants, properties in vitro, occurrence and spread in the field. Special attention was given to the

  17. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  18. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l. ) walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Solos)

    1982-05-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation.

  19. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M.

    1982-01-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation. (Author) [pt

  20. Development of 12 chloroplast microsatellite markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae) and amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Li, Yi; Guo, Rui; Wu, Hua; Hu, Zhihui; Chen, Chanyou

    2014-03-01

    Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. • Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The number of alleles per locus varied between two and four, the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.123 to 0.497, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.114 to 0.369. In cross-species amplifications, nine of these markers showed polymorphism in 29 P. vulgaris individuals. • The newly developed chloroplast microsatellite markers exhibit variation in V. unguiculata as well as their transferability in P. vulgaris. These markers can be used to investigate genetic diversity and evolution in V. unguiculata and P. vulgaris.

  1. Development of 12 chloroplast microsatellite markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae) and amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Li, Yi; Guo, Rui; Wu, Hua; Hu, Zhihui; Chen, Chanyou

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. • Methods and Results: Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The number of alleles per locus varied between two and four, the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.123 to 0.497, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.114 to 0.369. In cross-species amplifications, nine of these markers showed polymorphism in 29 P. vulgaris individuals. • Conclusions: The newly developed chloroplast microsatellite markers exhibit variation in V. unguiculata as well as their transferability in P. vulgaris. These markers can be used to investigate genetic diversity and evolution in V. unguiculata and P. vulgaris. PMID:25202608

  2. Development of 12 Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae and Amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. Methods and Results: Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The number of alleles per locus varied between two and four, the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.123 to 0.497, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.114 to 0.369. In cross-species amplifications, nine of these markers showed polymorphism in 29 P. vulgaris individuals. Conclusions: The newly developed chloroplast microsatellite markers exhibit variation in V. unguiculata as well as their transferability in P. vulgaris. These markers can be used to investigate genetic diversity and evolution in V. unguiculata and P. vulgaris.

  3. Effects of copper on reserve mobilization in embryo of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmous, Inès; Bellani, Lorenza M; Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Muccifora, Simonetta

    2015-07-01

    The present research reports a biochemical and micro-submicroscopic analysis of copper effect on reserve mobilization during germination of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hatif seeds. Dry embryonic cells are rich in protein bodies and little starch grains. In Cu-treated embryos copper inhibited 50% of albumin and globulin mobilization after 72 h imbibition. The severe alterations in treated embryo cells, observed by electron microscope, were probably the cause of the inability to utilize the amino acids freed by protein mobilization and so possibly the cause of the inhibition of P. vulgaris embryonic axis elongation.

  4. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen; Singh, Jugpreet; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-08-11

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.

  5. Evaluation of gamma radiation (60-Co) induced mutation in two Phaseolus vulgaris varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Two varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (Jutiapan and San Martin) were irradiated at 0, 8, 15, 20 and 30 kR doses in a 60-cobalt gamma source, to identify mutants and 20% lethality. M 2 plants showing morphogical mutations were selected. Differences in sensitivity to irradiation of the two varieties were noted, using data and physiological effects of M 1 . Selection and analysis for protein content were in M 3 as well as hereditary changes. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. A Dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celleno, Leonardo; Tolaini, Maria Vittoria; D'Amore, Alessandra; Perricone, Nicholas V; Preuss, Harry G

    2007-01-24

    More than one billion human adults worldwide are overweight and, therefore, are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and a variety of other chronic perturbations. Many believe that use of natural dietary supplements could aid in the struggle against obesity. So-called "starch blockers" are listed among natural weight loss supplements. Theoretically, they may promote weight loss by interfering with the breakdown of complex carbohydrates thereby reducing, or at least slowing, the digestive availability of carbohydrate-derived calories and/or by providing resistant starches to the lower gastrointestinal tract. The present research study examines a dietary supplement containing 445 mg of Phaseolus vulgaris extract derived from the white kidney bean, previously shown to inhibit the activity of the digestive enzyme alpha amylase, on body composition of overweight human subjects. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 pre-selected, slightly overweight volunteers, whose weight had been essentially stable for at least six months. The volunteers were divided into two groups, homogeneous for age, gender, and body weight. The test product containing Phaseolus vulgaris extract and the placebo were taken one tablet per day for 30 consecutive days before a main meal rich in carbohydrates. Each subject's body weight, fat and non-fat mass, skin fold thickness, and waist/hip/thigh circumferences were measured. After 30 days, subjects receiving Phaseolus vulgaris extract with a carbohydrate-rich, 2000- to 2200-calorie diet had significantly (preduction of body weight, BMI, fat mass, adipose tissue thickness, and waist,/hip/ thigh circumferences while maintaining lean body mass compared to subjects receiving placebo. The results indicate that Phaseolus vulgaris extract produces significant decrements in body weight and suggest decrements in fat mass in the face of maintained lean body mass.

  7. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. MiRNAs play essential roles in almost all plant biological processes. Currently, few miRNAs have been identified in the model food legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used Illumina's sequencing by synthesis (SBS) technology to identify and characterize the miRNA population of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results Small RNA libraries were generated from roots, flowers, leaves, and seedlings of P. vulgaris. Based on similarity to previously reported plant miRNAs,114 miRNAs belonging to 33 conserved miRNA families were identified. Stem-loop precursors and target gene sequences for several conserved common bean miRNAs were determined from publicly available databases. Less conserved miRNA families and species-specific common bean miRNA isoforms were also characterized. Moreover, novel miRNAs based on the small RNAs were found and their potential precursors were predicted. In addition, new target candidates for novel and conserved miRNAs were proposed. Finally, we studied organ-specific miRNA family expression levels through miRNA read frequencies. Conclusions This work represents the first massive-scale RNA sequencing study performed in Phaseolus vulgaris to identify and characterize its miRNA population. It significantly increases the number of miRNAs, precursors, and targets identified in this agronomically important species. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding common bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of P. vulgaris miRNAs in relation to those of other legumes. PMID:22394504

  8. Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different soil moisture levels near Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniafu, M.M.; Macharia, J.N.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv GLP-2 under two soil moisture levels in two contrasting seasons near Nairobi, Kenya were investigated. The experiment confirms that dry weights and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are

  9. Effect of variable protein contents in diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans on performance, organ weights and blood variables in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Weerden, E.J. van

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effects of antinutritional factors present in Phaseolus vulgaris on piglets, rats and chickens. Also the hypothesis of whether the negative effect on weight gain due to the inclusion of raw Phaseolus vulgaris in the diet can be attributed to an insufficient supply of

  10. Computational identification of miRNAs and their targets in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J; Xie, H; Kong, M L; Sun, Q P; Li, R Z; Pan, J B

    2014-01-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Although thousands of miRNAs have been identified in plants, limited information is available about miRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris, despite it being an important food legume worldwide. The high conservation of plant miRNAs enables the identification of new miRNAs in P. vulgaris by homology analysis. Here, 1804 known and unique plant miRNAs from 37 plant species were blast-searched against expressed sequence tag and genomic survey sequence databases to identify novel miRNAs in P. vulgaris. All candidate sequences were screened by a series of miRNA filtering criteria. Finally, we identified 27 conserved miRNAs, belonging to 24 miRNA families. When compared against known miRNAs in P. vulgaris, we found that 24 of the 27 miRNAs were newly discovered. Further, we identified 92 potential target genes with known functions for these novel miRNAs. Most of these target genes were predicted to be involved in plant development, signal transduction, metabolic pathways, disease resistance, and environmental stress response. The identification of the novel miRNAs in P. vulgaris is anticipated to provide baseline information for further research about the biological functions and evolution of miRNAs in P. vulgaris.

  11. Physiological traits of endornavirus-infected and endornavirus-free common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv Black Turtle Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, S; Valverde, R A

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the physiological traits of eight lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Black Turtle Soup, four of which were double-infected with Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, and four of which were endornavirus-free. Plants from all eight lines were morphologically similar and did not show statistically significant differences in plant height, wet weight, number of days to flowering and pod formation, pods per plant, pod thickness, seed size, number of seeds per pod, and anthocyanin content. However, the endornavirus-infected lines had faster seed germination, longer radicle, lower chlorophyll content, higher carotene content, longer pods, and higher weight of 100 seeds, all of which were statistically significant. The endornaviruses were not associated with visible pathogenic effects.

  12. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with field bean (P. vulgaris L. ) in a greenhouse at the field station of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya. MRP finely ground with 30 Grade % P and ...

  13. Influence of 60Co gamma radiation on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and beams Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes Rego, A.F. de; Rodrigues, Z.A.; Oliveira, M.L. de; Santana, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Influence of gamma radiation on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh, 1833) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) and the beans Phaseolus vulgaris (L.). The effects of 60 CO gamma radiation, 50 Gy, on both Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) seedbeans and adults of Zabrotes subfasciatus were studied using the no free choise method. Radiation decreased insect fertility hence insect population and it damage loss of weight and germination of seedbeans. However, radiation resulted in abnamal seedlings, showing various degrees of morphological malformation, although there was no effect on germination rates or seedling vigor. (Author) [pt

  14. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. INDUCED CYTOMICTIC VARIATIONS AND SYNCYTE FORMATION DURING MICROSPOROGENESIS IN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Chaudhary, N

    2016-01-01

    The intercellular translocation of chromatin material along with other cytoplasmic contents among the proximate meiocytes lying in close contact with each other commonly referred as cytomixis was reported during microsporogenesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L., a member of the family Fabaceae. The phenomenon of cytomixis was observed at three administered doses of gamma rays viz. 100, 200, 300 Gy respectively in the diploid plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The gamma rays irradiated plants showed the characteristic feature of inter-meiocyte chromatin/chromosomes transmigration through various means.such as channel formation, beak formation or by direct adhesion between the PMC's (Pollen mother cells). The present study also reports the first instance of syncyte formation induced via cytomictic transmigration in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Though the frequency of syncyteformation was rather low yet these could play a significant role in plant evolution. It is speculated that syncyte enhances the ploidy level of plants by forming 2n gametes and may lead to the production ofpolyploid plants. The phenomenon of cytomixis shows a gradual inclination along with the increasing treatment doses of gamma rays. The preponderance of cytomixis was more frequent during meiosis I as compared to meiosis II. An interesting feature noticed during the present study was the channel formation among the microspores and fusion among the tetrads due to cell wall dissolution. The impact of this phenomenon is also visible on the development of post-meiotic products. The formation of heterosized pollen grains; a deviation from the normal pollen grains has also been reported. The production of gametes with unbalanced chromosomes is of utmost importance and should be given more attention in future studies as they possess the capability of inducing variations at the genomic level and can be further utilized in the improvement of germplasm.

  16. Analysis of the uptake of atmospheric ammonia by leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hove, L. W. A.; Koops, A. J.; Adema, E. H.; Vredenberg, W. J.; Pieters, G. A.

    Individual leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were exposed for 9 h in a leaf chamber to different NH 3 concentrations at different light intensities. The rates of NH 3-uptake, transpiration and photosynthesis were measured simultaneously. The flux density of NH 3 increased linearly with concentration in the range of 4-400μg m -3. Flux densities also increased with light intensity. Resistance analysis indicated that NH 3 transport into the leaf is via the stomata: transport via the cuticle is negligible under the experimental conditions. There is no internal resistance against NH 3 transport. The NH 3 flux was found not to influence the photosynthesis.

  17. Determination of amylase activity in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. carioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Almeida de Morais

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of α- and β-amylase activity in the extracts of cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. cariocawas done using selective inactivation of α-amylase by lowering the pH of the incubation medium or by the use of EDTA as inhibitor or selective inactivation of β-amylase by the use of HgCl2 or by heating to 70ºC in the presence of CaCl2; and still by using the reagent starch azure for specific determination of α-amylase. Results indicated that the methods used were inappropriate in this case, being indicated the determination of total amylase activity.

  18. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. VIA ORGANOGENESIS FROM PETIOLE EXPLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita VELTCHEVA; Diana Lilova SVETLEVA

    2005-01-01

    A system for somatic organogenesis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was developed. Precultivation of seeds on different media was investigated for the ability to influence the process of in vitro regeneration. Leave petioles excised from in vitro derived seedlings at different ages (7 and 14 days-old), were used as primary explants. Precultivation of the seedlings on medium MS-BAP 1 μM for 7 days and dark cultivation of their leave petioles on medium MSI (2 μM TDZ, 0.6 μM NAA and 2 μM p...

  19. Sucrose metabolizing enzymes in cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris Enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em cultura celular de Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ometto de Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the activity of sucrose metabolizing enzymes in extracts of cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Invertase pathway was identified in the three studied species. Sucrose synthase pathway was also responsible for sucrose metabolism in Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris cells. Activity values higher than 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein were found for acid and neutral invertases, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase in the cell extract of the three plant species. Sucrose synthase showed low activity in Bauhinia forficata cells. As sucrose concentration in the culture medium decreased, sucrose synthase activity increased in C. zedoaria and P. vulgaris cells. The glycolytic enzymes activity gradually reduced at the end of the culture period, when carbohydrate was limited.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em culturas de célula em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. A via da invertase foi identificada nas três espécies estudadas. A via da sacarose sintase também foi responsável pelo metabolismo da sacarose em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Foram encontradas atividades maiores que 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 de proteína das enzimas invertase ácida e alcalina, UDPglicose pirofosforilase e fosfoglicomutase no extrato celular das três espécies de plantas. A sacarose sintase mostrou atividade baixa nas células de Bauhinia forficata. À medida que a concentração de sacarose no meio de cultura diminuiu, a atividade da sacarose sintase aumentou em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Ao final do período de cultura, quando os carboidratos se tornaram limitantes, as atividades das enzimas glicolíticas reduziram-se gradualmente.

  20. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on operant self-administration of a chocolate-flavoured beverage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaru, Alessandro; Maccioni, Paola; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Carai, Mauro A M; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2013-06-01

    Treatment with a rational combination of standardized extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus reduced food intake and glycemia in rats. The present study was designed to assess the effect of this extract combination and of each single extract in an experimental model of food craving, made up of rats displaying exaggerated seeking and taking behaviors for a chocolate-flavoured beverage. After training to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavoured beverage, rats were treated with vehicle, Phaseolus vulgaris extract alone (200 mg/kg), Cynara scolymus extract alone (400 mg/kg), or combination of Phaseolus vulgaris (200 mg/kg) and Cynara scolymus (400 mg/kg) extracts. The Phaseolus vulgaris extract and the extract combination exerted similar and substantial decrements in the number of lever-responses and amount of self-administered chocolate-flavoured beverage; conversely, the Cynara scolymus extract was totally ineffective. These results suggest that (i) the capacity of the extract combination to reduce the self-administration of the chocolate-flavoured beverage entirely relied on the Phaseolus vulgaris extract, (ii) Phaseolus vulgaris extract may interfere with the mechanisms regulating food-related addictive-like behaviors, and (iii) combinations of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts may possess a broad spectrum of activities, from treatment of metabolic syndrome to overweight, obesity, and possibly food-related addictive disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Phenotypic diversity for seed mineral concentration in North American dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm of Middle American ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a major protein, carbohydrate, and mineral source for human diets in multiple regions of the world. Seed mineral biofortification is an going objective to improve this important food source. The objective of this research was to assess the seed mineral co...

  2. Analysis of some endogenous plant hormones during induction of somatic embryogenesis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobrev, Petre; Petkov, P.; Svetleva, D.; Ivanova, A.; Djilianov, D.; Petkova, S.; Atanassov, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2001), s. 17-22 ISSN 0205-2067 Grant - others:project TEMPUS(BE) JEP-2216-93 EC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : endogenous plant hormones * somatic embryogenesis * Phaseolus vulgaris L. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.060, year: 2001

  3. A non-destructive selection method for faster growth at suboptimal temperature in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, E.; Oeveren, J.C. van; Jansen, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed to select common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants whose growth is less effected at a suboptimal temperature. Shoot weight was determined at a suboptimal (14°C) and optimal temperature (20°C), 38 days after sowing and accessions identified with a

  4. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Leeuwen, P. van; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets

  5. Bioaccessibility of phenols in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and iron (Fe) availability to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of common and biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), both raw and cooked (autoclaved 120 deg C, 20 min) were analyzed for their polyphenol composition. Polyphenols were identified via HPLC-UV/diode array detection. Cooking favored the extraction of polyphenols without the need of a hydroly...

  6. Seed development in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Populus nigra L., and Ranunculus sceleratus L. with special reference to the microtubular cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XuHan, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, seed development is investigated in celery-leafed buttercup ( Ranunculus sceleratus L.), bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and poplar ( Populus nigra L.). Developing embryos, endosperms and seed coats are

  7. PvRbohB negatively regulates Rhizophagus irregularis colonization in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Montiel, Jesús; Nava, Noreide; Santana, Olivia; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2013-08-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases (RBOHs) regulate the early stages of rhizobial infection in Phaseolus vulgaris and affect nodule function in Medicago truncatula. In contrast, the role of RBOHs in the plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the establishment of the AM interaction is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the role of P. vulgaris Rboh (PvRbohB) during the symbiosis with the AM fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis. Our results indicate that the PvRbohB transcript is significantly up-regulated in the mycorrhized roots of P. vulgaris. Further, the PvRbohB promoter was found to be active during the invasion of R. irregularis. Down-regulation of PvRbohB transcription by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing resulted in diminished ROS levels in the transgenic mycorrhized roots and induced early hyphal root colonization. Interestingly, the size of appressoria increased in PvRbohB-RNAi roots (760 ± 70.1 µm) relative to controls (251 ± 73.2 µm). Finally, the overall level of mycorrhizal colonization significantly increased in PvRbohB-RNAi roots [48.1 ± 3.3% root length colonization (RLC)] compared with controls (29.4 ± 1.9% RLC). We propose that PvRbohB negatively regulates AM colonization in P. vulgaris.

  8. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated.

  9. Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., a symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris that is very effective at fixing nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-11-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can establish symbiotic associations with several Rhizobium species; however, the effectiveness of most strains at fixing nitrogen under field conditions is very low. PRF 81(T) is a very effective strain, usually referred to as Rhizobium tropici and used successfully in thousands of doses of commercial inoculants for the common bean crop in Brazil; it has shown high rates of nitrogen fixation in all areas representative of the crop in the country. Here, we present results that indicate that PRF 81(T), although it belongs to the 'R. tropici group', which includes 10 Rhizobium species, R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum, R. multihospitium, R. miluonense, R. hainanense, R. calliandrae, R. mayense, R. jaguaris and R. rhizogenes, represents a novel species. Several morpho-physiological traits differentiated PRF 81(T) from related species. Differences were also confirmed in the analysis of rep-PCR (sharing less than 45 % similarity with the other species), MLSA with recA, atpD and rpoB genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. The novel species, for which we propose the name Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., is able to establish effective root nodule symbioses with Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, Crotalaria juncea and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The type strain is PRF 81(T) ( = CNPSo 122(T) = SEMIA 4080(T) = IPR-Pv81(T) = WDCM 440(T)).

  10. Somatic embryos formation from immature cotyledons in Phaseolus vulgaris cv. CIAP 7247

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Collado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Common bean, like most of legumes, is recalcitrant to in vitro culture, so the establishment of a regeneration procedure via somatic embryogenesis in this specie has not been possible. Therefore, determining the effect of factors that influencing on somatic embryos formation constitutes an essential step to develop a regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis in common bean. Cotyledons of immature seeds were used as initial plant material to achieve the somatic embryos formation in Phaseolus vulgaris cv. CIAP 7247. Five 2,4-D concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 mg l-1 and cotyledon orientation on culture medium were studied. After eight weeks on culture, the number of explants that formed somatic embryos and the number of somatic embryos per explant were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the major number of explants that formed somatic embryos and the number of somatic embryos formed per explant were obtained with 40 y 50 mg l-1 of 2,4-D. Somatic embryos were formed on abaxial side from the cotyledons when this side was placed opposite to the culture medium. Somatic embryos on cotyledons from immature seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. CIAP 7247 were formed. It was demonstrated that the addition of 2,4-D into culture medium, and the explant orientation had a determining effect on somatic embryogenesis in this important legume. Key words: common bean, regeneration, somatic embryogenesis

  11. Phaseolus vulgaris Leuco-Agglutinin Tracing of Intrahypothalamic Connections of the Lateral, Ventromedial, Dorsomedial and Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nuclei in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; Luiten, P.G.M.

    Intrahypothalamic connections of the lateral (LHA), ventromedial (VMH), dorsomedial (DMH) and paraventricular (PVN) hypothalamic nuclei were studied with anterograde transport of iontophoretically injected Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin and the immunocytochemical detection of labeled

  12. Salicylic acid-, but not cytokinin-induced, resistance to WClMV is associated with increased expression of SA-dependent resistance genes in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gális, Ivan; Smith, J. L.; Jameson, P. E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 161, - (2004), s. 459-466 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : Phaseolus vulgaris * resistance * gene manipulation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.054, year: 2004

  13. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  14. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-01

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 μg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  15. Metabolic responses in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa exposed to the imazamox herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garijo, A; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C; Palma, F

    2014-05-01

    Alterations on growth, amino acids metabolism and some antioxidant enzyme activities as result of imazamox treatment were examined in determinate and indeterminate nodules, formed by Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa, respectively. Young seedlings of both legumes were inoculated with their respective microsymbionts and grown under controlled conditions. At vegetative growth, plants were treated with imazamox (250μM) in the nutrient solution and harvested 7days after. Imazamox was mainly accumulated in V. sativa where concentrations were more than six fold higher than those detected in P. vulgaris. Nodule dry weight and total nitrogen content were reduced by the herbicide treatment: the highest decrease of nodule biomass (50%) and nitrogen content (40%) were registered in V. sativa and P. vulgaris, respectively. The concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) did not change in neither determinate nor indeterminate nodules even though the acetohydroxyacid synthase activity decreased in root and nodules of both symbioses with the herbicide application. Based on this last result and taking into account that total free amino acids increased in roots but not in nodules of common vetch, a possible BCAA translocation from root to nodule could occur. Our results suggest that the maintenance of BCAA balance in nodule become a priority for the plant in such conditions. The involvement of activities glutathione-S-transferase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the response of the symbioses to imazamox are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal Patterns of Nitrate Reductase and Nitrogenase Activities in Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alvilio A.; Pereira, Joao C.; Neyra, Carlos A.

    1979-01-01

    The patterns of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in the leaves (in vivo assay) and root nodule nitrogenase activity (C2H2 reduction) were investigated throughout the season in field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris plants. Maximal NRA (per g fresh weight) occurred at early stages of leaf development but total activity (per leaf) was maximal when the leaf reached full size. In mature plants, most NRA was associated with the upper leaves. Nitrogenase activity was initiated about 2 weeks after sowing, reached a maximum at flowering (5 weeks after sowing) and declined rapidly thereafter. Nitrogenase activity followed the pattern of nodule development. After flowering, P. vulgaris was apparently able to take up and assimilate NO−3 as evidenced by the increase in NO−3 content of the stem and the high levels of NRA in the leaves. Total plant NRA was maximal after flowering and addition of NH4NO3 to the soil at flowering resulted in even higher levels of NRA through most of the pod-filling period, thus resulting in higher seed yields (59% over control). It is proposed that P. vulgaris can benefit from both N2 fixation and NO−3 assimilation and that nitrate reductase plays an important role in the assimilation of nitrogen after flowering. PMID:16660740

  17. BOOKLET TO INSTITUTO PEDAGOGICO NACIONAL TEACHERS ABOUT SYMBIOSIS AND PROCESSES ON BIOTECHNOLOGY: THE BIOFERTILIZER Rhizobium sp IN Phaseolus vulgaris WITH ALTERNATIVE TO SYMBIOSIS FOR Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Quevedo Rubiano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the thesis carried out in the research group of Biotechnology Teaching in Colombia, with the aim of providing teachers of Biology of Instituto Pedagogico Nacional a booklet that can strengthen the teaching of biotechnology processes using Rhizobium sp reduction of chemical fertilizers and symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris.   The booklet contains a proposal of practical activities that enable teachers of this institution to use spaces like the farm, enabling to teach biotechnology related to agronomy. Therefore, for this project was considered two Biological and Pedagogical approaches, the first is within the analytical empirical paradigm in the process of microbiological characterization of Rhizobium and their Biofertilizing ability in beans; and the teaching approach within the design of a booklet that includes the findings of this study as a contribution to the reduction of chemical fertilizers school farm. In order to have a complete analysis of the work it was subjected to quantitative and qualitative methods.   This biotech practice is included in the booklet showing in bioassays that bacteria has biofertilizer without inhibiting potential symbiosis, and that research and teaching biological concepts from scientific expertise can be promoted in Biology class for students to understand its context in a significant way, to be used in different levels of education; also it is a teaching strategy.

  18. Yield and drougth tolerance of six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitza Meriño Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In two moisture conditions (drought and irrigation were evaluated six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., with a factorial randomized complete blocks. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect caused by drought conditions crop varieties, identify high performance and features that enable them to adapt to varying conditions of soil moisture. With the data in yields between the two humidity conditions intensity indices of drought (IIS, susceptibility to drought (ISS, relative efficiency (IER, geometric mean (GM and percent yield losses were calculated . The results were statistically processed using the Statistica software version 8.0 for Windows, if significant differences Tukey test was applied to p<0.05. The selection based on levels ISS, MG, IER and PPR identified high yielding varieties adapted to drought and favorable moisture conditions.

  19. Occurrence of isoflavonoids in Brazilian common bean germplasm (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Paula Feliciano; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2014-10-08

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is present in the daily diet of various countries and, as for other legumes, has been investigated for its nutraceutical potential. Thus, 16 genotypes from different gene pools, representing seven types of seed coats and different responses to pathogens and pests, were selected to verify their isoflavone contents. The isoflavonoids daidzein and genistein and the flavonols kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin were found. Grains of the black type showed the highest concentrations of isoflavonoids and were the only ones to exhibit daidzein. IAC Formoso, with high protein content and source of resistance to anthracnose, showed the greatest concentration of genistein, representing around 11% of the content present in soybean, as well as high levels of kaempferol. Arc 1, Raz 55, and IAC Una genotypes showed high content of coumestrol. The results suggest the use of IAC Formoso to increase the nutraceutical characteristics in common bean.

  20. Comparative assessment of the polypeptide profiles from lateral and primary roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, J.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    In Phaseolus vulgaris, primary roots show gravitational sensitivity soon after emerging from the seed. In contrast, lateral roots are agravitropic during early development, and become gravitropic after several cm growth. Primary and lateral root tissues were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, coupled with western blotting techniques, to compare proteins which may contribute to the acquisition of gravitational sensitivity. Root tips and zones of cell elongation were compared for each root type, using immunological probes for calmodulin, alpha-actin, alpha-tubulin, and proteins of the plastid envelope. Lateral roots contained qualitatively less calmodulin, and showed a slightly different pattern of actin-related epitope proteins, than did primary root tissues, suggesting that polypeptide differences may contribute to the gravitational sensitivity which these root types express.

  1. Comparison of Grain Proteome Profiles of Four Brazilian Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriela Barbosa; Valentim-Neto, Pedro Alexandre; Blank, Martina; Faria, Josias Correa de; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave

    2017-08-30

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a source of proteins for about one billion people worldwide. In Brazil, 'BRS Sublime', 'BRS Vereda', 'BRS Esteio', and 'BRS Estilo' cultivars were developed by Embrapa to offer high yield to farmers and excellent quality to final consumers. In this work, grain proteomes of these common bean cultivars were compared based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to compare 349 matched spots in these cultivars proteomes, and all cultivars were clearly separated in PCA plot. Thirty-two differentially accumulated proteins were identified by MS. Storage proteins such as phaseolins, legumins, and lectins were the most abundant, and novel proteins were also identified. We have built a useful platform that could be used to analyze other Brazilian cultivars and genotypes of common beans.

  2. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M.; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  3. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  4. Fractionation of gamma-emitting fission products absorbed by red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-emitting fission product nuclides 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce that accumulated in the edible pods of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown in nutrient culture were subjected to chemical fractionation. The results indicated that the largest fraction of 106 Ru, 125 Sb and 144 Ce was associated with ionic forms including salts of organic acids, phosphates, carbonates and some protein-bound forms extracted with dilute mineral acids (acid fraction). The association of these radionuclides with lipids including lipophyllic pigments, free amino acids and amino sugars (ethanol fraction) was next in significance. The association of 137 Cs was, however, greater with the ethanol fraction than with the acid fraction. Considerably reduced amounts of the fission products were present in the pectates, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids. (U.K.)

  5. Physiological and Morphological Responses of Phaseolus vulgaris Caused by Mercury Stress under Lab Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jot Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many new risks that effecting the early societies is the continuous exposure to pollutants, namely, heavy metals. Mercury (Hg is perhaps the metal which has attracted the most attention in soil science and plant nutrition due to its potential toxicity to ecosystem. In the present study, the toxic effect of mercury was determined by morphological and physiological parameter on plant Phaseolus vulgaris. In germination studies, parameters such as germination percentage, root length, and shoot length were decreased with increasing dose of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 concentrations. Mercury also showed inhibition property towards physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, protein, nitrate, and endogenous pool. Higher concentrations of HgCl2 were found to be more toxic.

  6. Gamma radiation effects on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in flowering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Matsumoto, K.; Marchezoni, S.A.; Ando, A.; Menten, J.O.M.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing the 60 Co source in the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Sao Paulo University, for gamma-irradiation of plants in flower was shown by an experiment with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Pots with two bean plants in flower, variety Carioca, line 6E 1 , were put individually in the center of the source. Doses used were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kR. The development of these plants after irradiation till harvest and seedling emergence of their progeny were observed. The effects of gamma-rays and the advantages of irradiation of plants in flower were discussed, and recommendable procedures for research workers who need to use the 60 Co source of the CENA are suggested. (Author) [pt

  7. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  8. Leaf gas exchange and ABA accumulation in Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes of contrasting drought tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, A.; Castonguay, Y.; Nadeau, P. (Agriculture Canada, Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    Drought tolerance mechanisms in Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv) are still largely unknown. Gas exchange responses and ABA accumulation were monitored in Pv genotypes differing in their drought adaptation. Higher rates of photosynthesis were observed under well-watered conditions in drought sensitive genotypes. Water stress caused a significant reduction in leaf water potential and photosynthetic rates regardless of drought adaptation. Higher photosynthetic rates were maintained under stress conditions in one drought tolerant genotype. Interestingly water stress caused significant ABA accumulation only in this genotype. Root ABA levels were similar among genotypes and were not modified by water stress. Endogenous levels of free ABA in leaves and roots did not correlated with gas exchange response to water stress. These results differ from previous reports on genotypic variation in ABA accumulation under water stress.

  9. Total phenol content in seed coat of three cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenisey Gutierrez Sánchez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The colors of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are related to some of their properties. The objective of this work was to determine the total phenol content in the seed coat of three different bean cultivars. Seeds of the cultivars 'Delicias 364' (red coat, 'BAT-482' (white coat and 'BAT-304' (black coat were used. Based on a standard curve of gallic acid the total phenol concentration of the samples was calculated. Significant differences were found among the coat extracts of the three cultivars, with the lowest values for 'BAT-482' cultivar with white coat and a ratio greater than 1:20 with respect to the other two assayed. The content of total phenols in the seed coat of common bean cultivars 'Delicias 364', 'BAT-482' and 'BAT-304' was related to their color.   Keywords: common bean, secondary metabolites, symbioses

  10. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effect of lead on imbibition, germination, and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Isaza Guzmán Isaza Guzmán

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is highly reactive and it can be consequently toxic to living cells to both plants and humans. This heavy metal is a source of contamination to the environment and it disrupts natural cycles. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of lead on the imbibition process, germination and growth in the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and maize (Zea mays L.. It was developed a system consisting of receptacles to expose flooded plants at different concentrations of the metal. Results showed that at concentrations of 5 g l-1 lead imbibition process was affected, but was more evident in bean. Germination percentage was not affected in maize seeds, while viability was affected in bean seeds. We observed statistically that there is an effect on organ growth of root, stem and leaf in both species in the presence of solution whose effect is most noticeable in bean plants. Key words: heavy metals,phytoremediation, stress, toxic substances

  12. TESTING CRITERIA FOR ZINC TOLERANCE AND HIPERACCUMULATION COMPARISON IN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA BUTNARIU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study is tested the variability and heavy metal (zinc hiperaccumulation potential in Phaseolus vulgaris plants, as a modality for the reduction of the danger represented by zinc, through the reduction of the heavy metal mobility and biodisponibility in soil through phototherapy. There were effectuated studies on the plants treated with increasing Zn concentrations, confronted with visual symptoms, biomass production, and heavy metal concentration in plant’s organs. Tolerance for increased zinc concentrations is quantified with the help of three parameters as are biomass (aerial parts and roots, main root length, and the influence of the zinc quantity from treatment solution on the accumulation of some micro and macroelements in plant.

  13. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. VIA ORGANOGENESIS FROM PETIOLE EXPLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita VELTCHEVA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A system for somatic organogenesis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. was developed. Precultivation of seeds on different media was investigated for the ability to influence the process of in vitro regeneration. Leave petioles excised from in vitro derived seedlings at different ages (7 and 14 days-old, were used as primary explants. Precultivation of the seedlings on medium MS-BAP 1 μM for 7 days and dark cultivation of their leave petioles on medium MSI (2 μM TDZ, 0.6 μM NAA and 2 μM paclobutrazol benefit the process of shoot initiation in all investigated genotypes. Shoot elongation took place on MSE (22.2 μM BAP and 0.057 μM IAA medium. Plant recovery was established on MSG3 (4.44 μM BAP and 0.58 μM GA3 medium.

  14. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) with different specificities are expressed in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiderio, A; Aracri, B; Leckie, F; Mattei, B; Salvi, G; Tigelaar, H; Van Roekel, J S; Baulcombe, D C; Melchers, L S; De Lorenzo, G; Cervone, F

    1997-09-01

    The pgip-1 gene of Phaseolus vulgaris, encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), PGIP-1 (P. Toubart, A. Desiderio, G. Salvi, F. Cervone, L. Daroda, G. De Lorenzo, C. Bergmann, A. G. Darvill, and P. Albersheim, Plant J. 2:367-373, 1992), was expressed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in tomato plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic tomato plants with different expression levels of PGIP-1 were used in infection experiments with the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Botrytis cinerea, and Alternaria solani. No evident enhanced resistance, compared with the resistance of untransformed plants, was observed. The pgip-1 gene was also transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana with potato virus X (PVX) as a vector. PGIP-1 purified from transgenic tomatoes and PGIP-1 in crude protein extracts of PVX-infected N. benthamiana plants were tested with several fungal polygalacturonases (PGs). PGIP-1 from both plant sources exhibited a specificity different from that of PGIP purified from P. vulgaris (bulk bean PGIP). Notably, PGIP-1 was unable to interact with a homogeneous PG from Fusarium moniliforme, as determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis, while the bulk bean PGIP interacted with and inhibited this enzyme. Moreover, PGIP-1 expressed in tomato and N. benthamiana had only a limited capacity to inhibit crude PG preparations from F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, B. cinerea, and A. solani. Differential affinity chromatography was used to separate PGIP proteins present in P. vulgaris extracts. A PGIP-A with specificity similar to that of PGIP-1 was separated from a PGIP-B able to interact with both Aspergillus niger and F. moniliforme PGs. Our data show that PGIPs with different specificities are expressed in P. vulgaris and that the high-level expression of one member (pgip-1) of the PGIP gene family in transgenic plants is not sufficient to confer general, enhanced

  15. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Carai, Mauro A. M.; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a “reinstatement” procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR) 10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding – being unreinforced – diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg) reduced lever-responding by 40–45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food. PMID:27199752

  16. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-07-07

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome. Copyright © 2016 Gao et al.

  17. Zolfino landrace (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Pratomagno: general and specific features of a functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Balestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Zolfino bean is a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, which is cultivated in a limited area of Tuscany, Italy, and is widely appreciated for its flavor and culinary uses. Objectives: A yellow Zolfino landrace cultivated in the Leccio-Reggello area was characterized and compared with three other varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (i.e. the Borlotto, Cannellino, and Corona beans in terms of its general features and potential as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent. Design: The length, width, thickness, equatorial section surface, weight, volume, and seed coat section were measured in all the beans. The seed surface area was also estimated by an original empirical method. The ability of the different beans to interfere with the enzymes of the polyol pathway (that is, aldose reductase (AR and sorbitol dehydrogenase was tested using the supernatant after soaking the beans at room temperature and after thermal treatment, which simulated the bean-cooking process in a controlled fashion. Results: Concerning the general features, Zolfino was comparable with other beans, except Corona, in terms of surface–volume ratio, which possesses the lowest tegument thickness. Moreover, Zolfino appears the most effective in inhibiting AR activity. The inhibitory ability is unaffected by thermal treatment and appears to be associated with compound(s present in the coat of the bean. Conclusions: The ability of Zolfino to inhibit AR, thus reducing the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, highlights the features of Zolfino as a functional food, potentially useful in treating the dysfunctions linked to the hyperactivity of AR, such as diabetic complications or inflammatory responses.

  18. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris to inoculation to different dose of Trichoderma harzianum with nitrogen fertilizer reduced at 50%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Benavidez Liliana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of Phaseolus vulgaris (bean requires nitrogen fertilizer (NF as a NH4NO3 (ammonium nitrate, NF in excess causes soil´s lost productivity. An ecological alternative to optimize the use NF reduced at 50% in P. vulgaris is to inoculate it with a plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPM as well as Trichoderma harzianum. The objective of this research was to analyze Phaseolus vulgaris´s re-sponse to T. harzianum at of NH4NO doses reduced at 50%. In that way P. vulgaris was inoculated with T. harzianum at 3 different doses 10 g, 20 g and 30 g/ 100 g of P. vulgaris. In that sense bean was sowing in Leonard jars with 50% NF under an experimental design of random blocks: 5 treatments and 4 replicates. While t variable-variables used were: percentage (%, days of germination, phenology: plant height (SH and root length (RL, and biomass: aereal and root fresh weight as well as dry weight (AFW / ADW / (RFW / RDW at seedlings, flowering and physiological maturity stages, experimental data were analyzed by ANOVA / Tukey HSD P <0.01%. The results indicate that at the germination T. harzianum caused a positive effect on time of P. vulgaris seed were able to germinate. At seedling stage of P. vulgaris with 30 g of T. harzianum/100 g of seed at NH4NO3 at 50% was recorded 0.14 g of higher of RWF compared to 0.08 g RDW of P. vulgaris with NH4NO3 at 100% or rela-tive control (RC at flowering stage P. vulgaris with 20 g of T. harzianum/100 g of seed NH4NO3 at 50% recorded 3.2 g of RDW value was statistically different to 1.4 g RDW of P. vulgaris using as a RC, at physiological maturity, P. vulgaris with 30 g of T. harzianum/100 g of seed with NH4NO3 at 50% recorded a fresh weight seed (FWS of 4.2 g per seed and a dry weight seed (DWS of 1.2 g values higher 1.9 g of FWS and 0.6 g DWS/g of P. vulgaris or RC. Results showed by the phenology and biomass indicate a positive response in P. vulgaris, due a T. harzianum which transformed seed and root

  19. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on food intake and glycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-02-01

    Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus may reduce food intake and/or postprandial glycemia. This study investigated the effect of standardized extracts of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus and their combination on food intake and glycemia in rats. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts, and their 1:2 combination, were administered acutely to rats (a) given access to regular food and water, (b) given access to regular food, water, and a chocolate-flavored beverage, or (c) infused with a starch bolus. P. vulgaris extract and the combination produced comparable reductions in intake of regular food and chocolate-flavored beverage; conversely, C. scolymus extract was ineffective on both parameters. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts additively contributed to the reducing effect of the combination on glycemic rise. These results suggest that a mixture of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts is preferable over each single extract, as it combines the anorectic effect of the P. vulgaris extract with the hypoglycemic effect of both extracts. These data support the recent clinical use of the combination of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts in the control of appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia and represent a successful example of translational research in the nutraceutical field. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Efecto de las condiciones de secado sobre el endurecimiento de los granos de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris) pretratados con vapor

    OpenAIRE

    María Virginia Mujica; Marisela Granito; Naudy Soto; Ligda Díaz

    2017-01-01

    El endurecimiento de los granos de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris) generado por el almacenamiento en condiciones de alta temperatura y humedad relativa representa una limitante importante para su consumo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de un tratamiento con vapor y luego secado a los granos de P. vulgaris recién cosechados en la prevención de su endurecimiento. Inicialmente, se construyeron las curvas de secado a 40; 47,5 y 55 ºC. Seguidamente, los granos se trataron con ...

  1. Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events in Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Luis P; Ramírez, Mario; Barbazuk, William B; Hernández, Georgina

    2017-08-22

    The vast diversification of proteins in eukaryotic cells has been related with multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene that result in alternative splicing (AS) of primary transcripts. Analysis of RNA sequencing data from expressed sequence tags and next generation RNA sequencing has been crucial for AS identification and genome-wide AS studies. For the identification of AS events from the related legume species Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max, 157 and 88 publicly available RNA-seq libraries, respectively, were analyzed. We identified 85,570 AS events from P. vulgaris in 72% of expressed genes and 134,316 AS events in 70% of expressed genes from G. max. These were categorized in seven AS event types with intron retention being the most abundant followed by alternative acceptor and alternative donor, representing ~75% of all AS events in both plants. Conservation of AS events in homologous genes between the two species was analyzed where an overrepresentation of AS affecting 5'UTR regions was observed for certain types of AS events. The conservation of AS events was experimentally validated for 8 selected genes, through RT-PCR analysis. The different types of AS events also varied by relative position in the genes. The results were consistent in both species. The identification and analysis of AS events are first steps to understand their biological relevance. The results presented here from two related legume species reveal high conservation, over ~15-20 MY of divergence, and may point to the biological relevance of AS.

  2. Secondary metabolite perturbations in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves due to gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramabulana, T; Mavunda, R D; Steenkamp, P A; Piater, L A; Dubery, I A; Madala, N E

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition in which the balance between the production and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is disturbed. However, plants have developed a very sophisticated mechanism to mitigate the effect of ROS by constantly adjusting the concentration thereof to acceptable levels. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the factors which results in oxidative stress. In the current study, ionizing gamma radiation generated from a Cobalt-60 source was used to induce oxidative stress in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. Plants were irradiated with several radiation doses, with 2 kGy found to be the optimal, non-lethal dose. Metabolite distribution patterns from irradiated and non-irradiated plants were analyzed using UHPLC-qTOF-MS and multivariate data models such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). Metabolites such as hydroxycinnamic phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenes, and a novel chalcone were found to be perturbed in P. vulgaris seedlings treated with the aforementioned conditions. The results suggest that there is a compensatory link between constitutive protectants and inducible responses to injury as well as defense against oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation. The current study is also the first to illustrate the power of a metabolomics approach to decipher the effect of gamma radiation on crop plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Early responses to Nod factors and mycorrhizal colonization in a non-nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Luis; Alemán, Emilia; Nava, Noreide; Santana, Olivia; Sánchez, Federico; Quinto, Carmen

    2006-03-01

    Legumes can acquire nitrogen through a symbiotic interaction with rhizobial bacteria. The initiation of this process is determined by a molecular dialogue between the two partners. Legume roots exude flavonoids that induce the expression of the bacterial nodulation genes, which encode proteins involved in the synthesis and secretion of signals called Nod factors (NFs). NFs signal back to the plant root and trigger several responses, leading to bacterial invasion and nodule formation. Here, we describe the molecular and cellular characterization of a Phaseolus vulgaris non-nodulating mutant (NN-mutant). Root hair cells of the NN-mutant plant respond with swelling and branching when inoculated with Rhizobium etli, albeit without curling induction. Furthermore, neither initiation of cell division in the outer cortex, nor entrapment of bacteria nor infection thread formation was observed. Both the bean wild-type and the NN-mutant responded with elevated intracellular calcium changes in the root hairs. Although the NN-mutant is deficient in early nodulin gene expression when inoculated with R. etli, it can be effectively colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices). Our data indicate that the P. vulgaris NN-mutant is not blocked at the NFs early perception stage, but at later downstream stages between Ca(2+) signaling and early nodulin induction. This supports the idea that both microsymbionts are perceived and trigger different downstream pathways in the host plant.

  4. Analysis of genes that are differentially expressed during the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum–Phaseolus vulgaris interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Barros Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, one of the most important plant pathogens, causes white mold on a wide range of crops. Crop yield can be dramatically decreased due to this disease, depending on the plant cultivar and environmental conditions. In this study, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library approach was used for the identification of pathogen and plant genes that were differentially expressed during infection of the susceptible cultivar BRS Pérola of Phaseolus vulgaris L. A total of 979 unigenes (430 contigs and 549 singletons were obtained and classified according to their functional categories. The transcriptional profile of 11 fungal genes related to pathogenicity and virulence were evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Additionally, the temporal expression profile obtained by RT-qPCR was evaluated for the following categories of plant defense-related genes: pathogenesis-related genes (PvPR1, PvPR2, and PvPR3, phenylpropanoid pathway genes (PvIsof, PvFPS1, and 4CL, and genes involved in defense and stress-related categories (PvLox, PvHiprp, PvGST, PvPod, and PvDox. Data obtained in this study provide a starting point for achieving a better understanding of the pathosystem S. sclerotiorum–P. vulgaris.

  5. Soybean rust resistance sources and inheritance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L P O; Dessaune, S N; Moreira, M A; Barros, E G

    2014-07-25

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and elite lines that were infected under controlled and natural field conditions in South Africa, the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Although SBR is currently not a top priority problem for the common bean crop, many bean breeders are concerned about this disease because of the high severity and virulence diversity of P. pachyrhizi and its broad host range. In this study, a set of 44 P. vulgaris genotypes were tested for resistance to P. pachyrhizi; these genotypes included resistance sources to several fungal common bean diseases, carioca-, black- and red-seeded Brazilian cultivars, and elite lines that were developed by the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Twenty-four SBR resistance sources were identified. They presented the reddish-brown (RB) lesion type, characterizing resistance reactions. In addition to the RB lesion type, the PI181996 line presented the lowest disease severity mean score, considering its associated standard error value. For this reason, it was crossed with susceptible lines to study the inheritance of resistance. The results support the hypothesis that resistance to SBR in PI181996 is monogenic and dominant. We propose that this SBR resistance gene, the first to be identified and characterized in common bean, might be designated as Pkp-1.

  6. Differential proteomics reveals the hallmarks of seed development in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, J R; Bouraada, J; Fitzpatrick, M A; Silvestre, S; Bernardes da Silva, A; Marques da Silva, J; Almeida, A M; Fevereiro, P; Altelaar, A F M; Araújo, S S

    2016-06-30

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most consumed staple foods worldwide. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling seed development. This study aims to comprehensively describe proteome dynamics during seed development of common bean. A high-throughput gel-free proteomics approach (LC-MS/MS) was conducted on seeds at 10, 20, 30 and 40days after anthesis, spanning from late embryogenesis until desiccation. Of the 418 differentially accumulated proteins identified, 255 were characterized, most belonging to protein metabolism. An accumulation of proteins belonging to the MapMan functional categories of "protein", "glycolysis", "TCA", "DNA", "RNA", "cell" and "stress" were found at early seed development stages, reflecting an extensive metabolic activity. In the mid stages, accumulation of storage, signaling, starch synthesis and cell wall-related proteins stood out. In the later stages, an increase in proteins related to redox, protein degradation/modification/folding and nucleic acid metabolisms reflect that seed desiccation-resistance mechanisms were activated. Our study unveils new clues to understand the regulation of seed development mediated by post-translational modifications and maintenance of genome integrity. This knowledge enhances the understanding on seed development molecular mechanisms that may be used in the design and selection of common bean seeds with desired quality traits. Common bean (P. vulgaris) is an important source of proteins and carbohydrates worldwide. Despite the agronomic and economic importance of this pulse, knowledge on common bean seed development is limited. Herein, a gel-free high throughput methodology was used to describe the proteome changes during P. vulgaris seed development. Data obtained will enhance the knowledge on the molecular mechanisms controlling this grain legume seed development and may be used in the design and selection of common bean seeds with desired quality traits. Results may

  7. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 10(2) to 2.8 x 10(3) CFU g(-1) of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology.

  8. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 10² to 2.8 x 10³ CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology.

  9. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  10. Evaluation of foliar phenols of 25 Mexican varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as antioxidants and varietal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martínez, Alfonso; Almaraz-Abarca, Norma; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhri; González-Elizondo, María Del Socorro; Herrera-Arrieta, Yolanda; Pajarito-Ravelero, Arnulfo; Alanís-Bañuelos, Ruth Elizabeth; Torres-Morán, Martha Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and the foliar phenol composition of 25 Mexican varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) were evaluated. Phaseolus coccineus was analysed with comparative aims. The high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection analysis revealed 27 phenolics in the leaves of P. vulgaris (13 quercetin-3-O-glycosides, 8 kaempferol-3-O-glycosides, 2 myricetin glycosides and 4 phenolic acids) and 5 in P. coccineus (2 kaempferol-3-O-glycoside, 2 apigenin-7-O-glycoside and 1 luteolin-7-O-glycoside). All extracts showed high levels of phenols and flavonoids (0.964-5.601 mg g⁻¹ dry tissue, and 0.287-1.418 mg g⁻¹ dry tissue, respectively) and relevant antioxidant properties, suggesting that the leaves of the varieties of P. vulgaris are a significant source of natural antioxidants. The foliar phenol profiles were species-specific and, besides, the qualitative variation allowed discriminating among varieties of P. vulgaris. These profiles can represent an important varietal authenticity proof.

  11. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt). These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724) including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and will aid in the

  12. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmapuram Jyothi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt. These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724 including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and

  13. Effect of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on electrolyte leakage in Phaseolus vulgaris roots overexpressing RbohB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Nava, Noreide; Quinto, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory oxidative burst homolog (RBOH)-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate a wide range of biological functions in plants. They play a critical role in the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. For instance, overexpression of PvRbohB enhances nodule numbers, but reduces mycorrhizal colonization in Phaseolus vulgaris hairy roots and downregulation has the opposite effect. In the present study, we assessed the effect of both rhizobia and AM fungi on electrolyte leakage in transgenic P. vulgaris roots overexpressing (OE) PvRbohB. We demonstrate that elevated levels of electrolyte leakage in uninoculated PvRbohB-OE transgenic roots were alleviated by either Rhizobium or AM fungi symbiosis, with the latter interaction having the greater effect. These results suggest that symbiont colonization reduces ROS elevated electrolyte leakage in P. vulgaris root cells.

  14. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Yan-Ping.

    1993-01-01

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m -2 day -1 biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B BE ). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 μm paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40μm) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m -2 day -1 UV-B BE with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation

  16. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants to low-let ionizing radiation: Growth and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, C.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Pugliese, M.; Virzo De Santo, A.; De Maio, A.

    2013-10-01

    The scenarios for the long-term habitation of space platforms and planetary stations involve plants as fundamental part of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) to support the crew needs. Several constraints may limit plant growth in space: among them ionizing radiation is recognized to severely affect plant cell at morphological, physiological and biochemical level. In this work, plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were subjected to four different doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50 and 100 Gy) in order to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on this species and to analyze possible mechanisms carried out to overcome the radiation injuries. The effects of X-rays on plant growth were assessed by measuring stem elongation, number of internodes and leaf dry weight. The integrity of photosynthetic apparatus was evaluated by photosynthetic pigment composition and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, whereas changes in total antioxidant pool and glutathione S transferase activity (GST) were utilized as markers of oxidative stress. The distribution of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues as natural shielding against radiation was also determined. Irradiation of plants at 0.3 and 10 Gy did not determine differences in all considered parameters as compared to control. On the contrary, at 50 and 100 Gy a reduction of plant growth and a decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, as well as an increase in phenolic compounds and a decrease in total antioxidant content and GST activity were found. Only a slight reduction of Rubisco activity in leaves irradiated at 50 and 100 Gy was found. The overall results indicate P. vulgaris as a species with a good potential to face ionizing radiation and suggest its suitability for utilization in BLSSs.

  17. PvTFDB: a Phaseolus vulgaris transcription factors database for expediting functional genomics in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna; Bonthala, V S; Gajula, Mnv Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The common bean [Phaseolus vulgaris (L.)] is one of the essential proteinaceous vegetables grown in developing countries. However, its production is challenged by low yields caused by numerous biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Regulatory transcription factors (TFs) symbolize a key component of the genome and are the most significant targets for producing stress tolerant crop and hence functional genomic studies of these TFs are important. Therefore, here we have constructed a web-accessible TFs database for P. vulgaris, called PvTFDB, which contains 2370 putative TF gene models in 49 TF families. This database provides a comprehensive information for each of the identified TF that includes sequence data, functional annotation, SSRs with their primer sets, protein physical properties, chromosomal location, phylogeny, tissue-specific gene expression data, orthologues, cis-regulatory elements and gene ontology (GO) assignment. Altogether, this information would be used in expediting the functional genomic studies of a specific TF(s) of interest. The objectives of this database are to understand functional genomics study of common bean TFs and recognize the regulatory mechanisms underlying various stress responses to ease breeding strategy for variety production through a couple of search interfaces including gene ID, functional annotation and browsing interfaces including by family and by chromosome. This database will also serve as a promising central repository for researchers as well as breeders who are working towards crop improvement of legume crops. In addition, this database provide the user unrestricted public access and the user can download entire data present in the database freely.Database URL: http://www.multiomics.in/PvTFDB/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Rhizobium hidalgonense sp. nov., a nodule endophytic bacterium of Phaseolus vulgaris in acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Hui; Liu, Li Xue; Chen, Wen Feng; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Verástegui-Valdés, Myrthala M; Wang, En Tao; Han, Xiao Zeng

    2017-01-01

    One Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as FH14 T , was isolated from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in Hidalgo State of Mexico. Results based upon 16S rRNA gene (≥99.8 % similarities to known species), concatenated sequence (recA, atpD and glnII) analysis of three housekeeping genes (≤93.4 % similarities to known species) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of genome sequence (ranged from 87.6 to 90.0 % to related species) indicated the distinct position of strain FH14 T within the genus Rhizobium. In analyses of symbiotic genes, only nitrogen fixation gene nifH was amplified that had nucleotide sequence identical to those of the bean-nodulating strains in R. phaseoli and R. vallis, while nodulation gene nodC gene was not amplified. The failure of nodulation to its original host P. vulgaris and other legumes evidenced the loss of its nodulation capability. Strain FH14 T contained summed feature 8 (C 18:1 ω6c/C 18:1 ω7c, 59.96 %), C 16:0 (10.6 %) and summed feature 2 (C 12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10.928, 10.24 %) as the major components of cellular fatty acids. Failure to utilize alaninamide, and utilizing L-alanine, L-asparagine and γ-amino butyric acid as carbon source, distinguished the strain FH14 T from the type strains for the related species. The genome size and DNA G+C content of FH14 T were 6.94 Mbp and 60.8 mol %, respectively. Based on those results, a novel specie in Rhizobium, named Rhizobium hidalgonense sp. nov., was proposed, with FH14 T (=HAMBI 3636 T  = LMG 29288 T ) as the type strain.

  19. Rhizobium esperanzae sp. nov., a N2-fixing root symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris from Mexican soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Andrey Barbosa; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Helene, Luisa Caroline Ferraz; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-10-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume consumed worldwide; its genetic origins lie in the Mesoamerican (main centre) and Andean regions. It is promiscuous in establishing root-nodule symbioses; however, in the centres of origin/domestication, the predominant association is with Rhizobium etli. We have previously identified a new lineage (PEL-3) comprising three strains (CNPSo 661, CNPSo 666 and CNPSo 668 T ) isolated from root nodules of common bean in Mexico, and that have now been analysed in more detail. Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene positioned the three strains in a large clade including R. etli. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) with four housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, gyrB and rpoA) positioned the three strains in a clade distinct from all other described species, with 100 % bootstrap support, and nucleotide identity (NI) of the four concatenated genes with the closest species R. etli was 95.0 %. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of the whole genome of CNPSo 668 T and the closest species, R. etli, was 92.9 %. In the analyses of the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC, the strains comprised a cluster with other rhizobial symbionts of P. vulgaris. Other phenotypic and genotypic traits were determined for the new group and our data support the description of the three CNPSo strains as a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium esperanzae is proposed. The type strain is CNPSo 668 T (=UMR 1320 T =Z87-8 T =LMG 30030 T =U 10001 T ), isolated from a common-bean nodule in Mexico.

  20. Comparative analysis of genome-wide Mlo gene family in Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Reena; Singh, V K; Singh, B D

    2016-04-01

    The Mlo gene was discovered in barley because the mutant 'mlo' allele conferred broad-spectrum, non-race-specific resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The Mlo genes also play important roles in growth and development of plants, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Mlo gene family has been characterized in several crop species, but only a single legume species, soybean (Glycine max L.), has been investigated so far. The present report describes in silico identification of 18 CcMlo and 20 PvMlo genes in the important legume crops Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. and Phaseolus vulgaris L., respectively. In silico analysis of gene organization, protein properties and conserved domains revealed that the C. cajan and P. vulgaris Mlo gene paralogs are more divergent from each other than from their orthologous pairs. The comparative phylogenetic analysis classified CcMlo and PvMlo genes into three major clades. A comparative analysis of CcMlo and PvMlo proteins with the G. max Mlo proteins indicated close association of one CcMlo, one PvMlo with two GmMlo genes, indicating that there was no further expansion of the Mlo gene family after the separation of these species. Thus, most of the diploid species of eudicots might be expected to contain 15-20 Mlo genes. The genes CcMlo12 and 14, and PvMlo11 and 12 are predicted to participate in powdery mildew resistance. If this prediction were verified, these genes could be targeted by TILLING or CRISPR to isolate powdery mildew resistant mutants.

  1. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen Yan-Ping

    1993-12-31

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B{sub BE}). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 {mu}m paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40{mu}m) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE} with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Paraburkholderia phymatum under Nitrogen Starvation and during Symbiosis with Phaseolus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraburkholderia phymatum belongs to the β-subclass of proteobacteria. It has recently been shown to be able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in symbiosis with several mimosoid and papilionoid legumes. In contrast to the symbiosis of legumes with α-proteobacteria, very little is known about the molecular determinants underlying the successful establishment of this mutualistic relationship with β-proteobacteria. In this study, we performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq analysis of free-living P. phymatum growing under nitrogen-replete and -limited conditions, the latter partially mimicking the situation in nitrogen-deprived soils. Among the genes upregulated under nitrogen limitation, we found genes involved in exopolysaccharides production and in motility, two traits relevant for plant root infection. Next, RNA-seq data of P. phymatum grown under free-living conditions and from symbiotic root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean were generated and compared. Among the genes highly upregulated during symbiosis, we identified—besides the nif gene cluster—an operon encoding a potential cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase (Bphy_3646-49. Bean root nodules induced by a cyoB mutant strain showed reduced nitrogenase and nitrogen fixation abilities, suggesting an important role of the cytochrome for respiration inside the nodule. The analysis of mutant strains for the RNA polymerase transcription factor RpoN (σ54 and its activator NifA indicated that—similar to the situation in α-rhizobia—P. phymatum RpoN and NifA are key regulators during symbiosis with P. vulgaris.

  3. Generation of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs and investigation of their regulation upon Uromyces appendiculatus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Henry T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean is the second most important legume crop in the world after soybean. Consequently, yield losses due to fungal infection, like Uromyces appendiculatus (bean rust, have strong consequences. Several resistant genes were identified that confer resistance to bean rust infection. However, the downstream genes and mechanisms involved in bean resistance to infection are poorly characterized. Results A subtractive bean cDNA library composed of 10,581 unisequences was constructed and enriched in sequences regulated by either bean rust race 41, a virulent strain, or race 49, an avirulent strain on cultivar Early Gallatin carrying the resistance gene Ur-4. The construction of this library allowed the identification of 6,202 new bean ESTs, significantly adding to the available sequences for this plant. Regulation of selected bean genes in response to bean rust infection was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Plant gene expression was similar for both race 41 and 49 during the first 48 hours of the infection process but varied significantly at the later time points (72–96 hours after inoculation mainly due to the presence of the Avr4 gene in the race 49 leading to a hypersensitive response in the bean plants. A biphasic pattern of gene expression was observed for several genes regulated in response to fungal infection. Conclusion The enrichment of the public database with over 6,000 bean ESTs significantly adds to the genomic resources available for this important crop plant. The analysis of these genes in response to bean rust infection provides a foundation for further studies of the mechanism of fungal disease resistance. The expression pattern of 90 bean genes upon rust infection shares several features with other legumes infected by biotrophic fungi. This finding suggests that the P. vulgaris-U. appendiculatus pathosystem could serve as a model to explore legume-rust interaction.

  4. CINÉTICA DE FEIJÃO PRETO (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, L. EM SECADOR DE BANDEJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyzi Santos Gouveia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propôs estudar a cinética de feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris, l. em secador de bandeja a diferentes temperaturas do ar e posterior ajuste dos dados experimentais, obtidos com os diferentes modelos matemáticos ( Fick, Page e Cavalcante Mata. O teor de umidade inicial das sementes foi determinado pelo método padrão da estufa, 105 ± 3 °C, durante 72 h, com três repetições, de acordo com as regras do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (1985. Os tratamentos de secagem foram realizados em cinco níveis de temperaturas (40, 50, 60 ,70 e 80 ºC. Para cada tratamento de secagem foram utilizados em torno de 60 g de feijão por repetição. Para este fim utilizou-se um desidratador de frutas, Polidryer PD-25. O ar foi aquecido por meio de gás de cozinha, enquanto a temperatura foi controlada com o auxílio de um termopar, conectado ao secador. Os resultados mostraram que as equações propostas por Cavalcanti Mata e Page foram as que melhor representaram os dados experimentais, quando comparada com a equação de Fick utilizando um termo da série.

  5. Attempts to induce mutants resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic virus in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.; Costa, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The golden mosaic of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is present in the tropical parts of the American continent has become a major hindrance for the cultivation of this food legume of great importance to many Latin America countries. Good control measures are not known and bean germ plasm resistant or tolerant to this virus disease is not yet available. Attempts to induce bean mutants with this desirable characteristic were made using gamma radiation and chemical mutagen. Some M 2 plants from one progeny of the cultivar Carioca treated with 0.48% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), 6 hours of treatment at 20 0 C, showed milder symptoms than the control progenies, and at the same time they showed a tendency to recover. This mutant is being tested under field conditions and used in crosses with other bean types that show a certain degree of tolerance, aiming at adding the favourable characters of both parents. Seeds of the hybrids, as well as those of the parent types, are also being further submitted to mutagenic treatments in order to obtain still better mutants that will be satisfactory for direct or indirect control of bean golden mosaic. (author)

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar). PMID:29113066

  7. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to differing ozone regimes having identical total exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Younglove, Theodore; McCool, Patrick M.

    Protocols were designed to test for differences in response of plants to ozone treatments having equal total exposure (concentration × time) but different exposure profiles Kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. California Dark Red) were exposed to ozone in controlled fumigation chambers within a greenhouse Four different ozone exposure profiles were used, each having the same total cumulative exposure (SUM00) and the same 7, 12 and 24 h seasonal means. The three exposure profiles which incorporated peak concentrations more severely impacted response parameters compared to a steady-state profile which did not exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Significant differences were found in percent necrotic leaf area, number of pods and top dry weight between exposure profiles. In additional analyses, the response parameters were regressed against seasonal cumulative ozone concentrations raised to powers of 0.33 and from 0.5 to 4 in steps of 0.5 in order to increase effective weighting of the higher concentrations. Total dry weight and leaf necrosis were best fit with the sum of the squared concentrations ( n = 2) while number of pods was best fit by the summed concentrations to the 3.5 power ( n = 3.5). These analyses suggest the peak ozone concentrations are important in determining plant response.

  8. Linking rhizosphere microbiome composition of wild and domesticated Phaseolus vulgaris to genotypic and root phenotypic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jaramillo, Juan E; Carrión, Víctor J; Bosse, Mirte; Ferrão, Luiz F V; de Hollander, Mattias; Garcia, Antonio A F; Ramírez, Camilo A; Mendes, Rodrigo; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2017-10-01

    Plant domestication was a pivotal accomplishment in human history, but also led to a reduction in genetic diversity of crop species compared to their wild ancestors. How this reduced genetic diversity affected plant-microbe interactions belowground is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the genetic relatedness, root phenotypic traits and rhizobacterial community composition of modern and wild accessions of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in agricultural soil from the highlands of Colombia, one of the centers of common bean diversification. Diversity Array Technology-based genotyping and phenotyping of local common bean accessions showed significant genetic and root architectural differences between wild and modern accessions, with a higher specific root length for the wild accessions. Canonical Correspondence Analysis indicated that the divergence in rhizobacterial community composition between wild and modern bean accessions is associated with differences in specific root length. Along the bean genotypic trajectory, going from wild to modern, we observed a gradual decrease in relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, mainly Chitinophagaceae and Cytophagaceae, and an increase in relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, in particular Nocardioidaceae and Rhizobiaceae, respectively. Collectively, these results establish a link between common bean domestication, specific root morphological traits and rhizobacterial community assembly.

  9. Leaf orientation and distribution in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. crop and their relation to light microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, V. L.; Jones, H. G.; Clark, Jerry A.

    Changes in canopy structure parameters (leaflet orientation, leaflet inclination and leaf area index) were measured in crops of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the field as the canopy developed between July and October. These changes were compared with the corresponding changes in seasonal light transmission. The beans showed clear heliotropic behaviour, with preferential orientation of leaflets towards the sun's beam, especially on sunny days. Nevertheless a significant proportion of the leaves pointed in other directions, with as much as 20% oriented towards the north. The highest proportion of leaf inclinations was in the range 30-40° on cloudy days and between 40° and 50° on sunny days. Two methods were compared for assessing changes in light transmission: (a) the use of a Sunfleck Ceptometer and (b) the use of continuous records obtained with sensors installed in the canopy. Over the growth period studied, the total of the leaf plus stem area indices (LS) increased from 0.26 to 5.2 with the transmission coefficient (τ) for photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), obtained using the Ceptometer, correspondingly decreasing from 0.72 to 0.05, and the canopy extinction coefficient decreasing from 1.4 to 0.62. The continuous records of light transmission gave generally similar estimates of τ. Some contrasting leaf angle distribution functions were compared for estimation of LS from the light measurements. The best leaf angle function to predict LS from the observed light transmission was a conical function corrected by the degree of heliotropism.

  10. Evaluation of chitooligosaccharide application on mineral accumulation and plant growth in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Philippe G; Pintado, Manuela E; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-02-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COS) - water soluble derivatives from chitin, are an interesting group of molecules for several biological applications, for they can enter plant cells and bind negatively charged molecules. Several studies reported an enhanced plant growth and higher crop yield due to chitosan application in soil grown plants, but no studies have looked on the effect of COS application on plant mineral nutrient dynamics in hydroponically grown plants. In this study, Phaseolus vulgaris was grown in hydroponic culture and the effect of three different concentrations of COS on plant growth and mineral accumulation was assessed. There were significant changes in mineral allocations for Mo, B, Zn, P, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Na, Al and K among treatments. Plant morphology was severely affected in high doses of COS, as well as lignin concentration in the stem and the leaves, but not in the roots. Chlorophyll A, B and carotenoid concentrations did not change significantly among treatments, suggesting that even at higher concentrations, COS application did not affect photosynthetic pigment accumulation. Plants grown at high COS levels had shorter shoots and roots, suggesting that COS can be phytotoxic to the plant. The present study is the first detailed report on the effect of COS application on mineral nutrition in plants, and opens the door for future studies that aim at utilizing COS in biofortification or phytoremediation programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial and temporal dynamics of primary and secondary metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris challenged by Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bueno, María Luisa; Pineda, Mónica; Díaz-Casado, Elena; Barón, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Many defense mechanisms contribute to the plant immune system against pathogens, involving the regulation of different processes of the primary and secondary metabolism. At the same time, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to hijack the plant defense in order to establish the infection and proliferate. Localization and timing of the host response are essential to understand defense mechanisms and resistance to pathogens (Rico et al. 2011). Imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging and thermography, are a very valuable tool providing spatial and temporal information about a series of plant processes. In this study, bean plants challenged with two pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae have been investigated. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 elicit a compatible and incompatible interaction in bean, respectively. Both types of host-pathogen interaction triggered different changes in the activity of photosynthesis and the secondary metabolism. We conclude that the combined analysis of leaf temperature, chlorophyll fluorescence and green fluorescence emitted by phenolics allows to discriminate compatible from incompatible P. syringae-Phaseolus vulgaris interactions in very early times of the infection, prior to the development of symptoms. These can constitute disease signatures that would allow an early identification of emerging plagues in crops. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  13. Molecular polymorphism related to flowering trait variation in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Lorenzo; Tissi, Carlo; Mazzucato, Andrea; Negri, Valeria

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the flowering variation and the molecular polymorphism in key regulatory genes that control flowering in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. collection of 94 accessions from Europe and the Americas. The analysis of variance revealed that the difference in days-to-flowering between accessions was significant, with European accessions characterized by flowering precocity. Population structure analysis corroborated previous data on the genetic distinction between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. A low level of admixture was detected. Genomic sequences of 15 gene fragments were obtained. About 7.0 kb per accession were sequenced and a total of 48 nucleotide substitutions identified. A Mixed Linear Model analysis, including population structure and kinship, was used to identify marker-trait associations. Haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) associated with the studied traits were detected: in PvVRN1 and PvPHYB with days-to-flowering, in PvMYB29 with number of flower buds per inflorescence and in PvTFL1z and PvFCA with inflorescence length. The two genes associated with days-to-flowering control belong to the photoperiod and vernalization pathways. In particular, the PvVRN1 gene appears to play an important role in regulating the adaptation process of common bean. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diallel analysis to choose parents for black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, L M; Carneiro, P C S; Vale, N M; Barili, L D; Silva, L C; Carneiro, J E S; Cruz, C D

    2016-08-29

    In this study, conducted in two different seasons, we aimed to choose parents to obtain promising segregating populations for the extraction of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines that are superior in terms of disease resistance, plant architecture, and grain yield. Twelve parents were arranged in two groups to compose a partial diallel in a 5 x 7 scheme. Group 1 was composed of parents with black grains and erect plant architecture, while group 2 was composed of parents that had carioca grains and were resistant to the main fungal diseases that occur in the common bean. The following traits were evaluated: severity of angular leaf spot (ALS), plant architecture (PAG), and grain yield (YIELD). The data were analyzed according to a partial diallel model using parents and F 1 hybrids. In the genetic control of ALS and PAG, additive effects were predominant, while for YIELD, additive effects were predominant in one season and dominance effects were in another season, because it is a more complex trait than ALS and PAG. For YIELD, we observed an interaction between general combining ability and specific combining ability between seasons. The genes that control ALS, PAG, and YIELD were in eight of the 12 parents evaluated in the diallel. The cultivar 'BRS Estilo' is suitable to use as a parent in common bean breeding in terms of ALS, PAG and YIELD. Recurrent selection is the most recommended option for simultaneously breeding for PAG, YIELD, and resistance to angular leaf spot in bean culture.

  15. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  16. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar; Xu, Baojun

    2017-11-04

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar).

  17. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-01-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  18. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.

  19. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Corrêa, Mariana M.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Nutti, Marília R.; Carvalho, José L. V.; Ribeiro, Ediane M. G.; Freitas, Sidinéa C.

    2012-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P). All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth. PMID:22389643

  20. A genome-wide analysis of differentiation between wild and domesticated Phaseolus vulgaris from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, R; Acosta, J; Delgado-Salinas, A; Gepts, P

    2005-10-01

    Lack of introgression or divergent selection may be responsible for the maintenance of phenotypic differences between sympatric populations of crops and their wild progenitors. To distinguish between these hypotheses, amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were located on a molecular linkage map of Phaseolus vulgaris relative to genes for the domestication syndrome and other traits. Diversity for these same markers was then analyzed in two samples of wild and domesticated populations from Mesoamerica. Differentiation between wild and domesticated populations was significantly higher in parapatric and allopatric populations compared to sympatric populations. It was also significantly higher near genes for domestication compared to those away from these genes. Concurrently, the differences in genetic diversity between wild and domesticated populations were strongest around such genes. These data suggest that selection in the presence of introgression appears to be a major evolutionary factor maintaining the identity of wild and domesticated populations in sympatric situations. Furthermore, alleles from domesticated populations appear to have displaced alleles in sympatric wild populations, thus leading to a reduction in genetic diversity in such populations. These results also provide a possible experimental framework for assessing the long-term risk of transgene escape and the targeting of transgenes inside the genome to minimize the survival of these transgenes into wild populations following introduction by gene flow.

  1. Incorporation of 14CO2 by illuminated intact leaves of bean (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.G. de

    1980-01-01

    Bean plants were grown in hydroponic nutrient solution, maintained in controlled environment. Measurements of the photosynthetic activity using the method of 14 CO 2 incorporation in intact leaves with portable equipment were made on the central leaflet of the first trifoliate leaf except when the effect of leaf age was studied in which case all central leaflets of the same branch were used. The data obtained indicated differences in the photosynthetic efficiency of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars. Relative differences in RuDP carboxylase activity in the crude extracts of leaves, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content were also observed. Rates of 14 CO 2 incorporation at saturating light varied from 14.94 to 22.96 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h and the 6 studied cultivars could be divided into two classes: Classe 1 (above 20 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h): Pirata-1, Rosinha G-2, and Pintadinho Precoce; Classe 2 (below 20 mg CO 2 .dm - 2 .h): Carioca, Rosinha Precoce and Pintado. Plants of the same cultivar showed a relatively high variability and a strong dependence in relation to environmental conditions. Differences among cultivars in relation to RuDP carboxylase activity, leaf area and leaf age were correlated to photosynthetic rate. (Author) [pt

  2. The fate of urea applied to tropical bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervellini, A.; Libardi, P.L.; Victoria, R.L.; Reichardt, K.

    The fate of nitrogen is studied when it is applied to three bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crops variety 'carioca' grown on a site of 'Terra Roxa Estruturada' (Paleudalf) soil. Urea labeled with three different 15 N enrichment percentages was used in order to estimate crop recovery of N (and its utilization efficiency), residual effects of N from one crop to another, distribution of N in the soil profile after cropping and leaching losses of N. The superphosphate and the rockphosphate 'Araxa' were also used. Grain yield was not significantly different between the phosphorus treatments, indicating that both P sources behaved similarly. Differences in fertilizer 15 N enrichment did not affect calculated amounts of nitrogen derived from fertilizer and N utilization efficiency (NUE), as expected. The first crop recovered on the average 31,2% of the N from the applied urea. The second crop recovered 6,2% N from the fertilizer applied to the first crop. The third crop recovered only 1,4%. Taking in account the NUE for the three crops, they recovered 44,1% of the N applied to the first crop. The partition of nitrogen applied to the first crop in four components (crop N removal; soil mineral N (NO 3 + NH 4 ); soil organic N and leaching N) is analysed. Due to the low N utilization efficiency of the crop, much of N remains in the soil profile, being potentially available for leaching and so contributing for fertilizer pollution of ground water. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Combining ability for common bacterial blight resistance in snap and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto dos Santos Trindade

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Common bacterial blight (CBB, which is caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap, is the main bacterial disease in snap beans and controlling this disease using resistant cultivars is still a challenge. This work aimed to study the combining ability for CBB resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes. Six parents (two genotypes of CBB-resistant dry bean and four susceptible snap bean accessions were crossed in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals to estimate the general and specific ability to Xap resistance. CBB resistance was evaluated by the inoculation with two Xap isolates, and its severity was evaluated based on the four following resistance components: area under the disease progress curve; scores in the leaves; latent period and diameter of pod lesion. Differences between the two isolates were observed considering all the disease components. Besides pathogen variability, significant GCA and SCA indicate that additive and non-additive effects are involved in Xap-resistance control for the evaluated genotypes, implying that CBC resistance is a trait with complex inheritance. For breeding purposes, the result demonstrates the need to apply breeding methods that are focused on advanced generations selection.

  4. Metabolic origin of the δ13C of respired CO2 in roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathellier, C.; Tcherkez, G.; Cornic, G.; Ghashghaie, J.; Tcherkez, G.; Bligny, R.; Gout, E.

    2009-01-01

    - Root respiration is a major contributor to soil CO 2 efflux, and thus an important component of ecosystem respiration. But its metabolic origin, in relation to the carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C), remains poorly understood. - Here, 13 C analysis was conducted on CO 2 and metabolites under typical conditions or under continuous darkness in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots. 13 C contents were measured either under natural abundance or following pulse-chase labeling with 13 C-enriched glucose or pyruvate, using isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. - In contrast to leaves, no relationship was found between the respiratory quotient and the δ 13 C of respired CO 2 , which stayed constant at a low value (c. -27.5 per thousand) under continuous darkness. With labeling experiments, it is shown that such a pattern is explained by the 13 C-depleting effect of the pentose phosphate pathway; and the involvement of the Krebs cycle fueled by either the glycolytic input or the lipid/protein recycling. The anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity sustained glutamic acid (Glu) synthesis, with no net effect on respired CO 2 . - These results indicate that the root δ 13 C signal does not depend on the availability of root respiratory substrates and it is thus plausible that, unless the 13 C photosynthetic fractionation varies at the leaf level, the root δ 13 C signal hardly changes under a range of natural environmental conditions. (authors)

  5. Nutritional and protein quality of dry Brazilian beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Alves REZENDE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil is the world's largest producer of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., which are one of the most widely consumed grain legumes in the world. Seven improved genotypes of dry, coloured, Brazilian common beans were analysed for their nutritional (chemical composition, oligosaccharides, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity and protein quality (amino acid profile, amino acid score, trypsin inhibitor activity and in vitro protein digestibility. The grain bean cultivars studied showed a high content of fibre, with some aromatic amino acids present at higher levels than the Food and Agriculture Organization reference protein. The dry beans had intermediate protein digestibility, ranging from 50.3% in the BRS Notável cultivar to 66.9% in the Jalo Precoce cultivar. The studied dry beans contained anti-nutritional and flatulence factors, such as trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. However, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were high. Improved grain beans have important nutritional characteristics that need to be preserved, and some negative, anti-nutritional characteristics. The results presented in this study can be used to assist the identification of appropriate processing techniques that maintain the positive features of dry beans and eliminate their negative attributes.

  6. Seed germination and seedling growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as influenced by magnetized saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Aghamir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetized water is considered eco-friendly physical presowing seed germination.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of magnetized watertreatments on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris germination under saline conditions (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 120 mM NaCl. This experiment was performed as factorial in a complete randomized design (CRD with three replications. The results revealed that the roots and shoots length, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and roots to shoots ratio, chlorophyll content index, water uptake, tissue water contentwere significantly affected by magnetized water.Irrigation with magnetized water significantly increased the physiologic factors such as germination percentage and index, vigor index and salt tolerance index, compared to untreated control seeds.Mean germination time and parameters T1, T10, T25, T50and T90 (required time for germination of one to 90 percent of seeds were reduced significantly in all magnetized water treated plants in comparison to control.The results also demonstrated that magnetized water was conducive to promote the growth of bean seedlings under saline conditions.

  7. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. after home cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to the World Health Organization (WHO, iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives : This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design : Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P. All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results : Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion : The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.

  8. Carbon partitioning among leaves, fruits, and seeds during development of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, D.R.; Shieh, Wenjang; Saluke, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Development of vegetative and floral buds was found to be a key factor in establishing the way carbon is distributed among growing leaves and fruits in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. Leaves emerged principally during a period 14 to 32 days after planting while flowers were produced during a 10- to 12-day period near the end of leaf emergence. Timing of anthesis established the sigmoidal time course for dry weight accumulated by the composite of all fruits on the plant. During the first 12 days following anthesis, fruit growth mainly consisted of elongation and dry weight accumulation by the pod wall. Thereafter, seed dry weight increased for about 1 week, decreased markedly for several days, and then increased again over the next 2 weeks. Accumulation of imported carbon in individual seeds, measured by steady-state labeling, confirmed the time course for dry weight accumulation observed during seed development. Seed respiration rate initially increased rapidly along with dry weight and then remained nearly steady until seed maturation. A number of developmental events described in the literature coincided with the different phases of diauxic growth. The results demonstrated the feasibility of relating current rates of carbon import in individual seeds measured with tracer 14 C to the rates of conversion of imported sucrose and use of the products for specific developmental processes. The resulting data are useful for evaluating the roles of conversion and utilization of imported sucrose in regulating import by developing seeds

  9. Stress induced acquisition of somatic embryogenesis in common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Ponce, José Luis; López, Liliana; León-Ramírez, Claudia G; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Verver-y-Vargas, Aurora

    2015-03-01

    Common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. has been shown to be a recalcitrant plant to induce somatic embryogenesis (SE) under in vitro conditions. We used an alternative strategy to induce SE in common bean based upon the use of a cytokinin (BAP) coupled with osmotic stress adaptation instead of SE response that is induced by auxins. Explants derived from zygotic embryos of common bean were subjected to osmotic stress (sucrose 12 % w/v, 0.5 M) in the presence of BAP 10 mg/L and adenine free base 40 mg/L to induce somatic embryos from specific competent cells of the apical meristem and cotyledonary node. Somatic embryos were obtained from the competent cells in a direct response (direct SE). In a secondary response (secondary SE), those somatic embryos formed proembryogenic masses (PEM) that originated/developed into secondary somatic embryos and showed the SE ontogeny. Maturation of somatic embryos was achieved by using different osmolality media and converted to plants. Full-visible light spectrum was necessary to achieve efficient plant regeneration. Long-term recurrent SE was demonstrated by propagation of PEM at early stages of SE. This protocol is currently being applied for stable genetic transformation by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and bioballistics as well as for basic biochemical and molecular biology experiments.

  10. Aplicação de óleo no controle de Zabrotes subfasciatus e na germinação de Phaseolus vulgaris Oil aplication in the control of Zabrotes subfasciatus and in the germination of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiene de F. C. de Queiroga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho, estudar a qualidade de sementes de feijão carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. tratadas com óleos vegetais de mamona, soja e oiticica, durante cinco meses de armazenamento. Mediante os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os óleos vegetais utilizados no tratamento das sementes de feijão Phaseolus foram eficientes na manutenção da viabilidade e no controle da infestação pelo inseto-praga de armazenamento Zabrotes subfasciatus, nos cinco meses de armazenamento, sendo o óleo de oiticica o que apresentou melhor média de germinação, frente às tratadas com óleo de mamona e soja. O óleo de oiticica também foi o mais eficiente no controle de Z. subfasciatus. Verificou-se, ainda, redução da eficiência dos óleos nas suas menores doses, sendo a dose de 4,5 mL para 500 g de sementes, a mais eficaz para todas as variáveis estudadas.The purpose of this work was to study the quality of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. treated with vegetable oils of castor, soybean and 'oiticica' during five months of storage. From the obtained results it was concluded that vegetable oils used in the treatment of seeds of Phaseolus beans were effective in maintaining the viability and control of storage insect pest infestation Zabrotes subfasciatus during the five months of storage, and the 'oiticica' oil presented the best mean germination, compared to those treated with castor oil and soybeans. 'Oiticica' oil was also the most efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Reduced efficiency of the oils was observed in the small doses and the dose of 4.5 mL for 500 g of seeds was the most effective for all variables.

  11. Study on Plantago major L. dan Phaseolus vulgaris L. chlorophyll and carotenoid content using as bioincator for air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG ANGGARWULAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study using chlorophyll and carotenoid as bioindicator air quality. This research used completely randomized design 2 x 4 factorial with 5 replicates. The first factor was distance from source of exhaust automobile emissions, consists of 4 levels: 0,50, 100, and 200 m. The second factor was plant spesies, consist 2 level: Plantago major and Phaseolus vulgaris. Data collected were analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test in 5% confidence level. The result indicated that increasing distance from source exhaust automobile emission, increased growth and chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll content in Phaseolus is more sensitive as bioindicator for air pollution.

  12. Regulation of Small RNAs and Corresponding Targets in Nod Factor-Induced Phaseolus vulgaris Root Hair Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina

    2016-06-04

    A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean-rhizobia symbiosis.

  13. Chemical profile of beans cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) by 1H NMR - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS);Perfil quimico de cultivares de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris) pela tecnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Luciano Morais; Choze, Rafael; Cavalcante, Pedro Paulo Araujo; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: luciano@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ({sup 1}H HR-MAS) NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed and in development by EMBRAPA - Arroz e Feijao were analyzed by {sup 1}H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques. (author)

  14. Ferti-irrigational impact of sugar mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-11-01

    Ferti-irrigation response of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % concentrations of the sugar mill effluent (SME) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Annapurna) in the rainy and summer seasons was investigated. The fertigant concentrations produced significant (P vulgaris was gradually increased at lower concentrations, i.e., from 5 to 25 %, and decreased at higher concentrations, i.e., from 50 to 100 %, of the SME in both seasons when compared to controls. The accumulations of heavy metals were increased in the soil and P. vulgaris from 5 to 100 % concentrations of the SME in both seasons. The contents of Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd and Cr were noted under the permissible limit of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Most contents of biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and total carbohydrates were found with 25 % concentration of the SME in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various metals was in the order of Cd > Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. vulgaris in both seasons after fertigation with SME. Therefore, the SME can be used to improve the soil fertility and yield of P. vulgaris after appropriate dilution.

  15. The interaction between endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium moniliforme and PGIP from Phaseolus Vulgaris studied by surface plasmon resonance and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, B; Cervone, F; Roepstorff, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A combination of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and matrix-assisted laser-desorptionionization- time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to study the interaction between endopolygalacturonase (PG) from Fusarium moniliforme and a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from...... Phaseolus vulgaris. PG hydrolyses the homogalacturonan of the plant cell wall and is considered an important pathogenicity factor of many fungi. PGIP is a specific inhibitor of fungal PGs and is thought to be involved in plant defence against phytopathogenic fungi. SPR was used either to study the effect...

  16. In vitro plant regeneration system for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of N6-benzylaminopurine and adenine sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Gatica Arias,Andrés M; Muñoz Valverde,Jenny; Ramírez Fonseca,Pilar; Valdez Melara,Marta

    2010-01-01

    A method for regeneration of the commercially important common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ) using N6-benzylaminopurine(BAP) and adenine sulphate (AS) was established. Embryogenic axes of the Costa Rican common bean cultivars Bribrí, Brunca, Guaymí, Huetar and Telire were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 100 mgl-1 myo-inositol, 1 mgl-1 thiamine, 30 gl-1 sucrose, BAP (0, 5 and 10 mgl-1), AS (0, 20 and 40 mgl-1) and 8 gl-1 agar. Regardless of the concentration of BAP and AS...

  17. Effect of cultivar, cold and paclobutrazol on growth, chlorophyll content and cell membrane injury in Phaseolus vulgaris plantlet

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Shariat; Rayhaneh Amooaghaie

    2014-01-01

    The paclobutrazol is one of plant growth regulators from triazoles group that is able to protect plants against environmental stress conditions. This experiment was carried out to investigate paclobutrazol (0, 25 and 50 mg/L) effects on reduction of injuries caused by low temperature (5±1ºC) stress in two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris [Daneshkadeh cv. (white bean) and Sayyad cv. (red bean)]. The results showed that low temperature stress, reduced fresh weight and dry matter and also reduc...

  18. Gamma radiation effects on some nutritional and physico-chemical characteristics of stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini Filho, J.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation effects on physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of three Brazilian varieties of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) - Catu, Rajado and Carioca -were studied. The analytical parameters were obtained by the determination of soaking and cooking times, biological value in rats, protein electrophoretic profile, reductors sugars, oligosaccharides, fiber and fatty acids content. Also, amyloglucosidase, phytohemagglutinins, α-amylase and tryptic inhibitors activities were analysed. It was observed the gamma radiation until determined doses promotes changes on those parameters subsequently reducing substantially the cooking time without modification of the biological value of the proteins. This alteration was particularly noticed in the hard-to-cook beans. (author)

  19. Influence of gelling agent in the regeneration of plants from Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants starting from organogenic callus

    OpenAIRE

    Novisel Veitía; Raúl Collado; Lourdes R. García; Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso; Damaris Torres; Carlos Romero

    2012-01-01

    Genotype, type of explant and concentration of growth regulators have been studied to increase efficiency in plant regeneration of Phaseolus vulgaris L. However, studies on the effect of the gelling agent in shoots induction are not enough. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of gelling agent on organogenic calli proliferation and shoots regeneration of P. vulgaris cv. `BAT-93', `BAT-304', `BAT-482', `Ica Pijao' and `CIAP 7247F'. Callus fresh weight (g) was determined. ...

  20. Functional specialization of one copy of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase in ureide production from symbiotically fixed nitrogen in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleto, Inmaculada; Trenas, Almudena T; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Pineda, Manuel; Alamillo, Josefa M

    2016-08-01

    Purines are essential molecules formed in a highly regulated pathway in all organisms. In tropical legumes, the nitrogen fixed in the nodules is used to generate ureides through the oxidation of de novo synthesized purines. Glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase (PRAT) catalyses the first committed step of de novo purine synthesis. In Phaseolus vulgaris there are three genes coding for PRAT. The three full-length sequences, which are intron-less genes, were cloned, and their expression levels were determined under conditions that affect the synthesis of purines. One of the three genes, PvPRAT3, is highly expressed in nodules and protein amount and enzymatic activity in these tissues correlate with nitrogen fixation activity. Inhibition of PvPRAT3 gene expression by RNAi-silencing and subsequent metabolomic analysis of the transformed roots shows that PvPRAT3 is essential for the synthesis of ureides in P. vulgaris nodules. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Demographic factors shaped diversity in the two gene pools of wild common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, S; Rossi, M; Moghaddam, S M; Annam, D; Lee, R; Papa, R; McClean, P E

    2013-01-01

    Wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is distributed throughout the Americas from Mexico to northern Argentina. Within this range, the species is divided into two gene pools (Andean and Middle American) along a latitudinal gradient. The diversity of 24 wild common bean genotypes from throughout the geographic range of the species was described by using sequence data from 13 loci. An isolation–migration model was evaluated using a coalescent analysis to estimate multiple demographic parameters. Using a Bayesian approach, Andean and Middle American subpopulations with high percentage of parentages were observed. Over all loci, the Middle American gene pool was more diverse than the Andean gene pool (πsil=0.0089 vs 0.0068). The two subpopulations were strongly genetically differentiated over all loci (Fst=0.29). It is estimated that the two current wild gene pools diverged from a common ancestor ∼111 000 years ago. Subsequently, each gene pool underwent a bottleneck immediately after divergence and lasted ∼40 000 years. The Middle American bottleneck population size was ∼46% of the ancestral population size, whereas the Andean was 26%. Continuous asymmetric gene flow was detected between the two gene pools with a larger number of migrants entering Middle American gene pool from the Andean gene pool. These results suggest that because of the complex population structure associated with the ancestral divergence, subsequent bottlenecks in each gene pool, gene pool-specific domestication and intense selection within each gene pool by breeders; association mapping would best be practised within each common bean gene pool. PMID:23169559

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ABA-specific glucosyltransferase gene from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Chung, Gyuhwa; Kim, Sang Hyon; Yang, Seung Hwan

    2015-04-15

    Levels of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) are maintained in homeostasis by a balance of its biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation. The detailed molecular and signaling events leading to strict homeostasis are not completely understood in crop plants. In this study, we obtained cDNA of an ABA-inducible, ABA-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase (ABAGT) from the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) involved in conjugation of a glucose residue to ABA to form inactive ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) to examine its role during development and abiotic stress in bean. The bacterially expressed PvABAGTase enzyme showed ABA-specific glucosylation activity in vitro. A higher level of the PvABAGT transcript was observed in mature leaves, mature flowers, roots, seed coats and embryos as well as upon rehydration following a period of dehydration. Overexpression of 35S::PvABAGT in Arabidopsis showed reduced sensitivity to ABA compared with WT. The transgenic plants showed a high level of ABA-GE without significant decrease in the level of ABA compared with the wild type (WT) during dehydration stress. Upon rehydration, the levels of ABA and phaseic acid (PA) decreased in the WT and the PvABAGT-overexpressing lines with high levels of ABA-GE only in the transgenic plants. Our findings suggest that the PvABAGT gene could play a role in ABA homeostasis during development and stress responses in bean and its overexpression in Arabidopsis did not alter ABA homeostasis during dehydration stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Basal root whorl number: a modulator of phosphorus acquisition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, M A; Widrig, A; Vieira, R F; Brown, K M; Lynch, J P

    2013-10-01

    Root architectural phenes enhancing topsoil foraging are important for phosphorus acquisition. In this study, the utility of a novel phene is described, basal root whorl number (BRWN), that has significant effects on topsoil foraging in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Whorls are defined as distinct tiers of basal roots that emerge in a tetrarch fashion along the base of the hypocotyl. Wild and domesticated bean taxa as well as two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were screened for BRWN and basal root number (BRN). A set of six RILs contrasting for BRWN was evaluated for performance under low phosphorus availability in the greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse, plants were grown in a sand-soil media with low or high phosphorus availability. In the field, plants were grown in an Oxisol in Mozambique under low and moderate phosphorus availability. Wild bean accessions tended to have a BRWN of one or two, whereas cultivated accessions had BRWN reaching four and sometimes five. BRWN and BRN did not vary with phosphorus availability, i.e. BRWN was not a plastic trait in these genotypes. Greater BRWN was beneficial for phosphorus acquisition in low phosphorus soil. Genotypes with three whorls had almost twice the shoot biomass, greater root length and greater leaf area than related genotypes with two whorls. In low phosphorus soil, shoot phosphorus content was strongly correlated with BRWN (R(2) = 0.64 in the greenhouse and R(2) = 0.88 in the field). Genotypes with three whorls had shallower root systems with a greater range of basal root growth angles (from 10 to 45 ° from horizontal) than genotypes with two whorls (angles ranged from 60 to 85 ° from horizontal). The results indicate that BRWN is associated with increased phosphorus acquisition and that this trait may have value for selection of genotypes with better performance in low phosphorus soils.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Scales of Range Expansion in Wild Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Andrea; Berny Mier y Teran, Jorge Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The wild progenitor of common-bean has an exceptionally large distribution from northern Mexico to northwestern Argentina, unusual among crop wild progenitors. This research sought to document major events of range expansion that led to this distribution and associated environmental changes. Through the use of genotyping-by-sequencing (∼20,000 SNPs) and geographic information systems applied to a sample of 246 accessions of wild Phaseolus vulgaris, including 157 genotypes of the Mesoamerican, 77 of the southern Andean, and 12 of the Northern Peru–Ecuador gene pools, we identified five geographically distinct subpopulations. Three of these subpopulations belong to the Mesoamerican gene pool (Northern and Central Mexico, Oaxaca, and Southern Mexico, Central America and northern South America) and one each to the Northern Peru–Ecuador (PhI) and the southern Andean gene pools. The five subpopulations were distributed in different floristic provinces of the Neotropical seasonally dry forest and showed distinct distributions for temperature and rainfall resulting in decreased local potential evapotranspiration (PhI and southern Andes groups) compared with the two Mexican groups. Three of these subpopulations represent long-distance dispersal events from Mesoamerica into Northern Peru–Ecuador, southern Andes, and Central America and Colombia, in chronological order. Of particular note is that the dispersal to Northern Peru–Ecuador markedly predates the dispersal to the southern Andes (∼400 vs. ∼100 ky), consistent with the ancestral nature of the phaseolin seed protein and chloroplast sequences observed in the PhI group. Seed dispersal in common bean can be, therefore, described at different spatial and temporal scales, from localized, annual seed shattering to long‐distance, evolutionarily rare migration. PMID:29069389

  5. Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seedlings Exposed to Prometryn Herbicide Contaminated Soil Trigger an Oxidative Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulahia, Kerima; Carol, Pierre; Planchais, Séverine; Abrous-Belbachir, Ouzna

    2016-04-27

    Herbicides from the family of S-triazines, such as prometryn, have been widely used in crop production and can constitute an environmental pollution in both water and soil. As a valuable crop, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown all over the world and could be exposed to such herbicides. We wanted to investigate the possible stress sustained by the common bean growing in prometryn-polluted soil. Two situations were observed: when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn, some, but not all, measured growth parameters were affected in a dose-dependent manner. Growth was reduced, and photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products were less accumulated when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced had a deleterious effect, as seen by the accumulation of oxidized lipid in the form of malondialdehyde (MDA). Higher prometryn (500 μM) concentrations had a disastrous effect, reducing antioxidant activities. At a low (10 μM) concentration, prometryn increased antioxidant enzymatic activities without affecting plant growth or MDA production. Gene expression of proline metabolism genes and proline accumulation confirm that bean plants respond to a stress according to the prometryn concentration. Physiological responses such as antioxidative enzymes APX, CAT, and the enzyme implicated in the metabolization of xenobiotics, GST, were increased at 10 and 100 μM, which indicated a prevention of deleterious effects of prometryn, suggesting that bean is a suitable material both for herbicide pollution sensing and as a crop on a low level of herbicide pollution.

  6. Punctuated Distribution of Recombination Hotspots and Demarcation of Pericentromeric Regions in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Mehul S.; Jones, Valerie A.; Vallejos, C. Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    High density genetic maps are a reliable tool for genetic dissection of complex plant traits. Mapping resolution is often hampered by the variable crossover and non-crossover events occurring across the genome, with pericentromeric regions (pCENR) showing highly suppressed recombination rates. The efficiency of linkage mapping can further be improved by characterizing and understanding the distribution of recombinational activity along individual chromosomes. In order to evaluate the genome wide recombination rate in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) we developed a SNP-based linkage map using the genotype-by-sequencing approach with a 188 recombinant inbred line family generated from an inter gene pool cross (Andean x Mesoamerican). We identified 1,112 SNPs that were subsequently used to construct a robust linkage map with 11 groups, comprising 513 recombinationally unique marker loci spanning 943 cM (LOD 3.0). Comparative analysis showed that the linkage map spanned >95% of the physical map, indicating that the map is almost saturated. Evaluation of genome-wide recombination rate indicated that at least 45% of the genome is highly recombinationally suppressed, and allowed us to estimate locations of pCENRs. We observed an average recombination rate of 0.25 cM/Mb in pCENRs as compared to the rest of genome that showed 3.72 cM/Mb. However, several hot spots of recombination were also detected with recombination rates reaching as high as 34 cM/Mb. Hotspots were mostly found towards the end of chromosomes, which also happened to be gene-rich regions. Analyzing relationships between linkage and physical map indicated a punctuated distribution of recombinational hot spots across the genome. PMID:25629314

  7. Sunfleck dynamics and canopy structure in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, Victor L.; Jones, Hamlyn G.; Clark, Jerry A.

    Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) fluctuations were quantified in crops of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the field as the canopy developed between July and October. Two different methods were used to select sunflecks and shadeflecks. Four ranges of zenith angles (60-70°, 50-60°, 40-50° and 30-40°) were selected for analysing PPFD fluctuations. At the base of the canopy, sunflecks contributed 18%, 53%, 10% and 4% during the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th week of growth, respectively. At a height of 20 cm above the soil surface, the respective contributions were 28% and 21% during the 6th and 7th weeks. Sunfleck lengths of 0-5 s were the most frequent, with the greatest number being found with smaller zenith angles. The proportion of short duration sunflecks increased as the growth period advanced. The number of long sunflecks decreased with time, with very few longer than 100 s by the 5th and 7th weeks. The distributions of sunfleck irradiance were similar to normal distributions and irradiance ranged in μmol m-2 s-1 from 600-900, 800-1500 and 1000-1600 respectively at zenith angles of 50-60°, 40-50° and 30-40°. A multiple regression showed that short sunflecks (100 s) depended on zenith angle and Ls. Shadefleck distributions were similar to those for sunflecks but there were fewer of the shortest examples and more of the longest. The best statistical distribution to describe sunflecks and shadeflecks was the gamma distribution, which could provide the basis for the future development of a good model for sunfleck and shadefleck distributions.

  8. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  9. Anatomical alterations of Phaseolus vulgaris L. mature leaves irradiated with X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; Arena, C; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation of higher plants in Space involves not only the development of new agro-technologies for the design of ecologically closed Space greenhouses, but also understanding of the effects of Space factors on biological systems. Among Space factors, ionising radiation is one of the main constraints to the growth of organisms. In this paper, we analyse the effect of low-LET radiation on leaf histology and cytology in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants subjected to increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50, 100 Gy). Leaves irradiated at tissue maturity were compared with not-irradiated controls. Semi-thin sections of leaves were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis was applied to quantify anatomical parameters, with a specific focus on the occurrence of signs of structural damage as well as alterations at subcellular level, such as the accumulation of phenolic compounds and chloroplast size. Results showed that even at high levels of radiation, general anatomical structure was not severely perturbed. Slight changes in mesophyll density and cell enlargement were detected at the highest level of radiation. However, at 100 Gy, higher levels of phenolic compounds accumulated along chloroplast membranes: this accompanied an increase in number of chloroplasts. The reduced content of chlorophylls at high levels of radiation was associated with reduced size of the chloroplasts. All data are discussed in terms of the possible role of cellular modifications in the maintenance of high radioresistance and photosynthetic efficiency. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Influence of atmospheric vapour pressure deficit on ozone responses of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Edwin L; Booker, Fitzgerald L; Sadok, Walid; Burkey, Kent O

    2012-04-01

    Environmental conditions influence plant responses to ozone (O(3)), but few studies have evaluated individual factors directly. In this study, the effect of O(3) at high and low atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) was evaluated in two genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (R123 and S156) used as O(3) bioindicator plants. Plants were grown in outdoor controlled-environment chambers in charcoal-filtered air containing 0 or 60 nl l(-1) O(3) (12 h average) at two VPDs (1.26 and 1.96 kPa) and sampled for biomass, leaf area, daily water loss, and seed yield. VPD clearly influenced O(3) effects. At low VPD, O(3) reduced biomass, leaf area, and seed yield substantially in both genotypes, while at high VPD, O(3) had no significant effect on these components. In clean air, high VPD reduced biomass and yield by similar fractions in both genotypes compared with low VPD. Data suggest that a stomatal response to VPD per se may be lacking in both genotypes and it is hypothesized that the high VPD resulted in unsustainable transpiration and water deficits that resulted in reduced growth and yield. High VPD- and water-stress-induced stomatal responses may have reduced the O(3) flux into the leaves, which contributed to a higher yield compared to the low VPD treatment in both genotypes. At low VPD, transpiration increased in the O(3) treatment relative to the clean air treatment, suggesting that whole-plant conductance was increased by O(3) exposure. Ozone-related biomass reductions at low VPD were proportionally higher in S156 than in R123, indicating that differential O(3) sensitivity of these bioindicator plants remained evident when environmental conditions were conducive for O(3) effects. Assessments of potential O(3) impacts on vegetation should incorporate interacting factors such as VPD.

  11. Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris l. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Navarrete

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de México. Durante 1995 se evaluó la reacción de genotipos de frijol de diversos origenes a Xcp, bajo condiciones de invernadero en el Campo Experimental del Valle de México, del INIFAP. Se realizaron tres experimentos con a120, b44 y csiete genotipos de frijol. Las plantas se inocularon por corte con navajas en la etapa V3, a y b con una mezcla de nueve cepas de Xcp y el c, con cada una de siete cepas con diferente grado de patogenicidad. La severidad se evaluó 20 días después de la inoculación, por comparación con una escala visual de nueve grados. Los datos se analizaron bajo un diseño completamente al azar. En a, los genotipos que mostraron reacción de resistencia a Xcp fueron: A 36, A 475, G 5686, G 11867, Harowood, SEA 14, XAN 266, MCD 4012 y REN 27. En b los genotipos resistentes fueron: Sequía Durango, Taylor y XAN 30. En los experimentos anteriores la severidad de la enfermedad mostró una distribución normal, con el máximo número de genotipos en el grado de severidad cinco en a y seis en b. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de mezclas de cepas de bacterias con diferente patogenicidad es eficiente para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a Xcp. Los genotipos resistentes identificados en el último experimento, mostraron respuesta diferencial e interacciones genotipo por cepa. REN 27 y SEA 14 mostraron resistencia a las cepas utilizadas

  12. KARAKTERISASI ENAM VARIETAS BUNCIS (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BERDASARKAN PANDUAN PENGUJIAN INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina Eka Aristya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a plant that has the potential for mainstream consumers, have a large enough market opportunity and a source of vegetable protein. “Perancis” varieties are local Central Java bean varieties are widely grown in the Bandungan area. “Perancis” varieties not currently provide enough characters clear and complete. Test objectives were (1 to characterize the “Perancis” varieties in order to have a complete character information varieties and (2 to determine distinctness, uniformity and stability of the “Perancis” varieties compared with varieties Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072 using guidelines for the conduct of test for distinctness, uniformity and stability reference beans. Implemented on the Garden Seed Testing Bandungan Horticulture, Central Java with an altitude of 560-800 meters above sea level the place. Materials testing consists of six varieties of beans are “Perancis” varieties and the varieties used for comparison Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072. This research used a randomized block design six varieties of beans are planted side by side on three experimental plots as replications. Parameters observed include 49 characters corresponding guidelines bean plants are divided into the plant character, leaves character, flower character, pods character and seed character. Test results based guidelines, “Perancis” varieties showed eight unique characters compared to varieties of Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072 ie. plant height, leaf color, leaf rugosity, long (including beak pods, the degree of the pods curvature, the shape of distal part (excluding beak pods, length of beak pods and curvature of beak pods and “Perancis” varieties have uniformity and stability.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values) was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR) analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Scales of Range Expansion in Wild Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Andrea; Berny Mier Y Teran, Jorge Carlos; Gepts, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The wild progenitor of common-bean has an exceptionally large distribution from northern Mexico to northwestern Argentina, unusual among crop wild progenitors. This research sought to document major events of range expansion that led to this distribution and associated environmental changes. Through the use of genotyping-by-sequencing (∼20,000 SNPs) and geographic information systems applied to a sample of 246 accessions of wild Phaseolus vulgaris, including 157 genotypes of the Mesoamerican, 77 of the southern Andean, and 12 of the Northern Peru-Ecuador gene pools, we identified five geographically distinct subpopulations. Three of these subpopulations belong to the Mesoamerican gene pool (Northern and Central Mexico, Oaxaca, and Southern Mexico, Central America and northern South America) and one each to the Northern Peru-Ecuador (PhI) and the southern Andean gene pools. The five subpopulations were distributed in different floristic provinces of the Neotropical seasonally dry forest and showed distinct distributions for temperature and rainfall resulting in decreased local potential evapotranspiration (PhI and southern Andes groups) compared with the two Mexican groups. Three of these subpopulations represent long-distance dispersal events from Mesoamerica into Northern Peru-Ecuador, southern Andes, and Central America and Colombia, in chronological order. Of particular note is that the dispersal to Northern Peru-Ecuador markedly predates the dispersal to the southern Andes (∼400 vs. ∼100 ky), consistent with the ancestral nature of the phaseolin seed protein and chloroplast sequences observed in the PhI group. Seed dispersal in common bean can be, therefore, described at different spatial and temporal scales, from localized, annual seed shattering to long-distance, evolutionarily rare migration. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  17. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  18. Marker-assisted molecular profiling and RNA-Seq reveal a disease resistance cluster associated with Uromyces appendiculatus infection in common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to fungal rust along wit...

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate loci underlying seven agronomic traits in Middle American diversity panel in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding programs aim to improve both agronomic and seed characteristics traits. However, the genetic architecture of the many traits that affect common bean production are not completely understood. Genome-wide associate studies (GWAS) provide an experimental ap...

  20. Comparative Growth Retarding Activity in Relation to Endogenous Tissue Concentration of Daminozide and a Pyrrolidino Analog (Uni-629) in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Sachs; J. DeBie; J.L. Michael; J.R. Frank; R.A. Creager

    1975-01-01

    N-pyrrolidino succinamic acid (Uni-F529) was considerably superior to succinic acid 2,2 dimethyl hydrazide (daiminozide. SADH) in inhihiting stem elongation in Phaseolus vulgaris L. `Black Valentine' and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, `Bright Golden Anne'. This was true in winter or summer greenhouses. Under...

  1. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  2. Effects of water stress on the photosynthetic assimilation and distribution of 14C-photosynthate in maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez y Huaman, C.A.; Cerri, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthesis and distribution of 14 C-photosinthate as affected by water stress was evaluated. Corn (Zea mays L.) during the grain filling period and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during flowering, representing a C-4 and a C-3 photosynthetic type, respectively, were studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Improving adaptation to drought stress in white pea bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L): genotypic effects on grain yield, yield components and pod harvest index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume crop in Africa and Latin America where rainfall pattern is unpredictable. The objectives were to identify better yielding common bean lines with good canning quality under drought, and to identify traits that could be used as sele...

  4. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of Landfill leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris L and survival of microorganisms of public health importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ortiz, Vanessa Ruby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In landfill, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste generated leachate (LE, a chemical inorganic and organic mix an environmental pollutant to determine by Leachate Pollution Index (LPI. A bioassay could give certainty to its negative effect. To include pathogenic human microorganisms (PHM and mesophilic total aerobic bacteria (MTAB different than fecal and total coliforms would have health value. The objectives of this research were i analyzed the phytotoxicity of leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris and ii to detect in LE the existence of HPM and MATB. A bioassay "in vitro" was made in Petri dishes and Leonard jars using seeds P. vulgaris treated by diluted leachate. The response variables of bioassay were: germination percentage, phenotype: plant height and root length, biomass total: fresh and dry weight of root and plant. Including HPM and MATB detection. Experimental data was analyzed by Tukey p<0.05. The results indicated that LE caused inhibition and/or stimulation on P. vulgaris; Leachate´s phytoxicity was depending on its chemical composition and level dilution, this suggests that toxic effect is due its heavy metals and extreme alkalinity, killing HPM in leachate but not MATB. A bioassay P. vulgaris is useful to define degree of benefical and/or toxicity of LE, and validate LPI. While is important to know the role of HPM in LE and potential environmental biological contamination.

  5. Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol ( phaseolus vulgaris l. en el valle de san juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cedano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el valle de San Juan. Se realizó un estudio para determinar el efecto del fraccionamiento de la fertilización nitrogenada y el momento adecuado para la aplicación de nitrógeno en el cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en cinco localidades del Valle de San Juan, R. D. Los experimentos fueron establecidos del 5 al 14 de noviembre (1997 , se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar y nueve tratamientos en cada localidad, encontrándose que en los terrenos con altos niveles de nitrógeno no hubo respuesta a la aplicación de nitrógeno ni al fraccionamiento de este nutrimento; mientras que en los suelos con deficiencia en nitrógeno si hubo respuesta a la fertilización nitrogenada encontrándose diferencia estadística significativa a la aplicación y al momento de aplicación del fertilizante. Entre las localidades hubo diferencia estadística significativa (P>0.05, mientras que no se encontró interacción entre los tratamientos y las localidades

  6. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Noora; Marcenaro, Delfia; Chilagane, Daudi; Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J R; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

  7. Diversity in the rhizobia associated with Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Ecuador, and comparisons with Mexican bean rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, G; Graham, P H

    2001-06-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have centers of origin in both Mesoamerica and Andean South America, and have been domesticated in each region for perhaps 5000 years. A third major gene pool may exist in Ecuador and Northern Peru. The diversity of the rhizobia associated with beans has also been studied, but to date with an emphasis on the Mesoamerican center of origin. In this study we compared bean rhizobia from Mexico and Andean South America using both phenotypic and phylogenetic approaches. When differences between the rhizobia of these two regions were shown, we then examined the influence of bean cultivar on the most probable number (MPN) count and biodiversity of rhizobia recovered from different soils. Three clusters of bean rhizobia were distinguished using phenotypic analysis and principal-component analysis of Box AIR-PCR banding patterns. They corresponded principally to isolates from Mexico, and the northern and southern Andean regions, with isolates from southern Ecuador exhibiting significant genetic diversity. Rhizobia from Dalea spp., which are infective and effective on beans, may have contributed to the apparent diversity of rhizobia recovered from the Mesoamerican region, while the rhizobia of wild Phaseolus aborigineus from Argentina showed only limited similarity to the other bean rhizobia tested. Use of P. vulgaris cultivars from the Mesoamerican and Andean Phaseolus gene pools as trap hosts did not significantly affect MPN counts of bean rhizobia from the soils of each region, but did influence the diversity of the rhizobia recovered. Such differences in compatibility of host and Rhizobium could be a factor in the poor reputation for nodulation and N2 fixation in this crop.

  8. Genetic diversity and genome-wide association analysis of cooking time in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Karen A; Wiesinger, Jason A; Mendoza, Fernando A

    2015-08-01

    Fivefold diversity for cooking time found in a panel of 206 Phaseolus vulgaris accessions. Fastest accession cooks nearly 20 min faster than average.   SNPs associated with cooking time on Pv02, 03, and 06. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food and a dietary staple in parts of Africa and Latin America. One of the major factors that limits greater utilization of beans is their long cooking times compared to other foods. Cooking time is an important trait with implications for gender equity, nutritional value of diets, and energy utilization. Very little is known about the genetic diversity and genomic regions involved in determining cooking time. The objective of this research was to assess cooking time on a panel of 206 P. vulgaris accessions, use genome- wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify genomic regions influencing this trait, and to test the ability to predict cooking time by raw seed characteristics. In this study 5.5-fold variation for cooking time was found and five bean accessions were identified which cook in less than 27 min across 2 years, where the average cooking time was 37 min. One accession, ADP0367 cooked nearly 20 min faster than average. Four of these five accessions showed close phylogenetic relationship based on a NJ tree developed with ~5000 SNP markers, suggesting a potentially similar underlying genetic mechanism. GWAS revealed regions on chromosomes Pv02, Pv03, and Pv06 associated with cooking time. Vis/NIR scanning of raw seed explained 68 % of the phenotypic variation for cooking time, suggesting with additional experimentation, it may be possible to use this spectroscopy method to non-destructively identify fast cooking lines as part of a breeding program.

  9. Mapping of angular leaf spot resistance QTL in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume for human diet worldwide and the angular leaf spot (ALS) is one of the most devastating diseases of this crop, leading to yield losses as high as 80%. In an attempt to breed resistant cultivars, it is important to first understand the inheritance mode of resistance and to develop tools that could be used in assisted breeding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance to ALS under natural infection conditions in the field and under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. Results QTL analyses were made using phenotypic data from 346 recombinant inbreed lines from the IAC-UNA x CAL 143 cross, gathered in three experiments, two of which were conducted in the field in different seasons and one in the greenhouse. Joint composite interval mapping analysis of QTL x environment interaction was performed. In all, seven QTLs were mapped on five linkage groups. Most of them, with the exception of two, were significant in all experiments. Among these, ALS10.1DG,UC presented major effects (R2 between 16% - 22%). This QTL was found linked to the GATS11b marker of linkage group B10, which was consistently amplified across a set of common bean lines and was associated with the resistance. Four new QTLs were identified. Between them the ALS5.2 showed an important effect (9.4%) under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. ALS4.2 was another major QTL, under natural infection in the field, explaining 10.8% of the variability for resistance reaction. The other QTLs showed minor effects on resistance. Conclusions The results indicated a quantitative inheritance pattern of ALS resistance in the common bean line CAL 143. QTL x environment interactions were observed. Moreover, the major QTL identified on linkage group B10 could be important for bean breeding, as it was stable in all the environments. Thereby, the GATS11b marker is a potential tool

  10. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Folate Content in Dry Beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khanal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of folates, yet the level of folate may vary among different genotypes. Folates are essential vitamins and folate deficiencies may lead to a number of health problems. Among the different forms of folates, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF comprises more than 80% of the total folate in dry beans. The objectives of this paper were to compare selected genotypes of dry beans for the folate content of the dry seeds and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with the folate content in a population derived from an inter-gene-pool cross of dry beans. The folate content was examined in three large-seeded (AC Elk, Redhawk, and Taylor and one medium-seeded (Othello dry bean genotypes, their six F1 (i.e., one-way diallel crosses, and the F2 of Othello/Redhawk that were evaluated in the field in 2009. Total folate and 5MTHF contents were measured twice with one-hour time interval. The significant variation (P<0.05 in the folate content was observed among the parental genotypes, their F1 progeny, and members of the F2 population, ranging from 147 to 345 μg/100 g. There was a reduction in the 5MTHF and total folate contents in the second compared to the first measurement. Dark red kidney variety Redhawk consistently had the highest and pinto Othello had the lowest total folate and 5MTHF contents in both measurements. A single marker QTL analysis identified three QTL for total folate and 5MTHF contents in the first measurement and one marker for the total folate in the second measurement in the F2. These QTL had significant dominance effects and individually accounted for 7.7% to 10.5% of the total phenotypic variance. The total phenotypic variance explained by the four QTL was 18% for 5MTHF and 19% for total folate in the first measurement, but only 8% for total folate in the second measurement.

  11. Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity--beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, S; Balamurugan, M; Parthasarathi, K; Gunasekaran, G; Ranganathan, L S

    2009-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers-NPK, on the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils--clay loam soil (CLS) and sandy loam soil (SLS) and on the growth, yield and nutrient content of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris. Results showed that the application of vermicompost @ 5 tonnes ha(-1) had enhanced significantly the pore space (1.09 and 1.02 times), water holding capacity (1.1 and 1.3 times), cation exchange capacity (1.2 and 1.2 times). It reduced particles (1.2 and 1.2 times), and bulk density (1.2 and 1.2 times), pH (1 and 1.02 times) and electrical conductivity (1.4 and 1.2 times) and increased organic carbon (37 and 47 times), micro (Ca 3.07 and 1.9 times, Mg 1.6 and 1.6 times, Na 2.4 and 3.8 times, Fe 7 and 7.6 times, Mn 8.2 and 10.6 times, Zn 50 and 52 times and Cu 14 and 22 times) and macro (N 1.6 and 1.7 times, P 1.5 and 1.7 times, K 1.5 and 1.4 times) nutrients and microbial activity (1.4 and 1.5 times) in both soil types, particularly more in CLS. The growth, yield (1.6 times) and quality (protein (1.05 times) and sugar (1.01 times) content in seed) of bean were enhanced in CLS than SLS. On the other hand, the application of inorganic fertilizers @ 20:80:40 kg ha(-1) has resulted in reduced porosity (1.03 and 1.01 times), organic carbon (1.04 and 9.5 times) and microbial activity (1.02 and 1.03 times) in both soil types.

  12. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Joaquín J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the β-1,2-cyclic glucan from R

  13. Genomic analysis of storage protein deficiency in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar ePandurangan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome

  14. Rhizobium acidisoli sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Ponce, Brenda; Jing Zhang, Yu; Soledad Vásquez-Murrieta, María; Hua Sui, Xin; Feng Chen, Wen; Carlos Alberto Padilla, Juan; Wu Guo, Xian; Lian Gao, Jun; Yan, Jun; Hong Wei, Ge; Tao Wang, En

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, FH13T and FH23, representing a novel group of Rhizobium isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Mexico, were studied by a polyphasic analysis. Phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed them to be members of the genus Rhizobium related most closely to 'Rhizobium anhuiense' CCBAU 23252 (99.7 % similarity), Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370T (98.6 %), and Rhizobium sophorae CCBAU 03386T and others ( ≤ 98.3 %). In sequence analyses of the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD, both strains formed a subclade distinct from all defined species of the genus Rhizobium at sequence similarities of 82.3-94.0 %, demonstrating that they represented a novel genomic species in the genus Rhizobium. Mean levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the reference strain FH13T and the type strains of related species varied between 13.0 ± 2.0 and 52.1 ± 1.2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain FH13T was 63.5 mol% (Tm). The major cellular fatty acids were 16 : 0, 17 : 0 anteiso, 18 : 0, summed feature 2 (12 : 0 aldehyde/unknown 10.928) and summed feature 8 (18 : 1ω7c). The fatty acid 17 : 1ω5c was unique for this strain. Some phenotypic features, such as failure to utilize adonitol, l-arabinose, d-fructose and d-fucose, and ability to utilize d-galacturonic acid and itaconic acid as carbon source, could also be used to distinguish strain FH13T from the type strains of related species. Based upon these results, a novel species, Rhizobium acidisoli sp. nov., is proposed, with FH13T ( = CCBAU 101094T = HAMBI 3626T = LMG 28672T) as the type strain.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  16. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-05-09

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed.

  17. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  18. Photoacoustic study of ethylene emission and respiration rate of carbon dioxide from insulin germinated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista-Filho, M.; Corrêa, S. F.; da Silva, L. B.; Xavier-Filho, J.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to study ethylene and CO2 respiration emission rates from germinating bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) seeds. The concentration of ethylene was measured at 10P(12) and 10P(14) lines of the CO2 laser with the PA cell in the intracavity configuration. On the other hand, the respiration rate of CO2 was deduced (precision 1 ppm) from the concentration data measured by the commercial PA analyser operating in the infrared range. The objective of this study was to obtain better understanding of insulin signalling in the germinating seeds. The experiments were performed with seeds imbibed either in water or in aqueous solution of insulin (0,9 μg.mL-1 H2O).

  19. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae Causing Bacterial Brown Spot and Halo Blight in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Are Distinguishable by Ribotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana J.; Landeras, Elena; Mendoza, M. Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Ribotyping was evaluated as a method to differentiate between Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and pv. syringae strains causing bacterial brown spot and halo blight diseases in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Ribotyping, with restriction enzymes BglI and SalI and using the Escherichia coli rrnB operon as the probe, differentiated 11 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, and a combination of data from both procedures yielded 19 combined ribotypes. Cluster analysis of the combined ribotypes differentiated the pathovars phaseolicola and syringae, as well as different clonal lineages within these pathovars. The potential of ribotyping to screen for correlations between lineages and factors such as geographical region and/or bean varieties is also reported. PMID:10653764

  1. Effect of different production systems on chemical profiles of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Top Crop) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopic, Jerneja; Slatnar, Ana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Bavec, Franci; Bavec, Martina

    2013-03-13

    The chemical composition of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Top Crop was compared among five production systems: conventional, integrated, organic, and biodynamic production systems and the control. Determination of sugars and organic acids was performed with a HPLC system, and identification of individual phenolic compounds using HPLC-MS. The chemical composition of the beans was unaffected by the production systems; however, the content levels of individual compounds were changed. The pods from integrated production contained the lowest levels of glucose and sucrose and the highest levels of catechin, procyanidin dimers, and a vanillic acid derivative. The control treatment, as well as organic and biodynamic productions, positively affected the levels of sugar content and caused a lower content of catechin and trans-p-coumaroylaldaric acids. Beans from the conventional production system contained the lowest levels of fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, and many phenolics from various groups.

  2. Effect of bacterial distribution and activity on conjugal transfer on the phylloplane of the bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Molin, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had...... the gfp gene inserted downstream of a lac promoter. A chromosomal insertion of lacI(q) prevented expression of the gfp gene. The recipient (P. putida KT2440) had a chromosomal tetracycline resistance marker. Thus, transconjugants could be enumerated by plating and visualized in situ as green fluorescent...... cells. Sterile bean seedlings were inoculated with donors and recipients at densities of approximately 10(5) cells per cm(2). To manipulate the density and metabolic activity (measured by incorporation of [H-3]leucine) of the inoculated bacteria, plants were grown at various relative humidities (RH...

  3. Purification, cDNA Cloning, and Developmental Expression of the Nodule-Specific Uricase from Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Federico; Campos, Francisco; Padilla, Jaime; Bonneville, Jean-Marc; Enríquez, Consuelo; Caput, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Nodule-specific uricase (uricase II) from Phaseolus vulgaris L. was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods. Purification data indicated that uricase II is approximately 2% of the total soluble protein from mature nodules. Specific antiserum was raised and used to determine the developmental expression and for immunoselection of polysomes. Uricase II was antigenically detected early in nodule development, 2 to 3 days before nitrogen fixation. Uricase-encoding cDNA clones were isolated by hybridizing a nodule-specific pUC9 cDNA library with labeled mRNA from immunoselected polysomes and a 35,000 molecular weight uricase II-encoding cDNA from soybean. An homologous clone (pNF-UR07) was used to assess the expression pattern of the specific transcript during development. Northern-blot analysis indicated that uricase II mRNA is exclusively expressed in nodule tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665575

  4. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  5. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P.

    2012-01-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg 2+ .

  6. An alternative pathway for ureide usage in legumes: enzymatic formation of a ureidoglycolate adduct in Cicer arietinum and Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alfonso; Bannenberg, Gerard L; Montero, Olimpio; Cabello-Díaz, Juan Miguel; Piedras, Pedro; Pineda, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Ureidoglycolate is an intermediate in the degradation of the ureides, allantoin and allantoate, found in many organisms. In some leguminous plant species these compounds are used to transport recently fixed nitrogen in the root nodules to the aerial parts of the plant. In the present study, it was demonstrated that purified ureidoglycolases from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) do not produce glyoxylate, and can use phenylhydrazine as a substrate with K(m) values of 4.0 mM and 8.5 mM, respectively. Furthermore, these enzymes catalyse the transfer of the ureidoglycolyl group to phenylhydrazine to produce ureidoglycolyl phenylhydrazide, which degrades non-enzymatically to glyoxylate phenylhydrazone and urea. This supports their former classification as ureidoglycolate urea-lyases. The enzymatic reaction catalysed by the characterized ureidoglycolases uncovered here can be viewed as a novel type of phenylhydrazine ureidoglycolyl transferase. The implications of these findings for ureide metabolism in legume nitrogen metabolism are discussed.

  7. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations.

  8. Efficient whole plant regeneration of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using thin-cell-layer culture and silver nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz de Carvalho MH; Van Le B; Zuily-Fodil; Pham Thi AT; Tran Thanh Van K

    2000-11-06

    A method was designed to optimize rapid and high frequency direct shoot regeneration (without intermediate callus) of the commercially important common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., using the transverse thin cell layer (tTCL) method. The pretreatment of seeds with 10 µM TDZ significantly increased bud regeneration frequency on tTCL. A 2-week culture of tTCLs on 10 µM TDZ followed by a reduction in the TDZ concentration (1 µM) was needed to achieve optimal bud induction and further development of the neo-formed buds. An incubation period greater than 2 weeks of tTCLs with 10 µM TDZ concentration resulted in inhibitory effects on the development of shoots and roots. Shoot development was enhanced by 10 µM BAP and 10 µM AgNO(3) leading to 100% well developed shoots. Regenerated plants developed into true-to-type fertile plants.

  9. Heterologous expression of an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain-Isasi, Stephanie; Álvarez-Lueje, Alejandro; Higgins, Thomas Joseph V

    2017-06-15

    Phaseolamin or α-amylase inhibitor 1 (αAI) is a glycoprotein from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that inhibits some insect and mammalian α-amylases. Several clinical studies support the beneficial use of bean αAI for control of diabetes and obesity. Commercial extracts of P. vulgaris are available but their efficacy is still under question, mainly because some of these extracts contain antinutritional impurities naturally present in bean seeds and also exhibit a lower specific activity αAI. The production of recombinant αAI allows to overcome these disadvantages and provides a platform for the large-scale production of pure and functional αAI protein for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. A synthetic gene encoding αAI from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto) was codon-optimised for expression in yeasts (αAI-OPT) and cloned into the protein expression vectors pKLAC2 and pYES2. The yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 (and protease deficient derivatives such as YCT390) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499 were transformed with the optimised genes and transformants were screened for expression by antibody dot blot. Recombinant colonies of K. lactis YCT390 that expressed and secreted functional αAI into the culture supernatants were selected for further analyses. Recombinant αAI from K. lactis YCT390 was purified using anion-exchange and affinity resins leading to the recovery of a functional inhibitor. The identity of the purified αAI was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Recombinant clones of S. cerevisiae YPH499 expressed functional αAI intracellularly, but did not secrete the protein. This is the first report describing the heterologous expression of the α-amylase inhibitor 1 (αAI) from P. vulgaris in yeasts. We demonstrated that recombinant strains of K. lactis and S. cerevisiae expressed and processed the αAI precursor into mature and active protein and also showed that K. lactis secretes functional αAI.

  10. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. (IRNA, Salamanca (Spain) Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada (Spain))

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  11. Genome-wide identification of the Phaseolus vulgaris sRNAome using small RNA and degradome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formey, Damien; Iñiguez, Luis Pedro; Peláez, Pablo; Li, Yong-Fang; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Sánchez, Federico; Reyes, José Luis; Hernández, Georgina

    2015-06-02

    MiRNAs and phasiRNAs are negative regulators of gene expression. These small RNAs have been extensively studied in plant model species but only 10 mature microRNAs are present in miRBase version 21, the most used miRNA database, and no phasiRNAs have been identified for the model legume Phaseolus vulgaris. Thanks to the recent availability of the first version of the common bean genome, degradome data and small RNA libraries, we are able to present here a catalog of the microRNAs and phasiRNAs for this organism and, particularly, we suggest new protagonists in the symbiotic nodulation events. We identified a set of 185 mature miRNAs, including 121 previously unpublished sequences, encoded by 307 precursors and distributed in 98 families. Degradome data allowed us to identify a total of 181 targets for these miRNAs. We reveal two regulatory networks involving conserved miRNAs: those known to play crucial roles in the establishment of nodules, and novel miRNAs present only in common bean, suggesting a specific role for these sequences. In addition, we identified 125 loci that potentially produce phased small RNAs, with 47 of them having all the characteristics of being triggered by a total of 31 miRNAs, including 14 new miRNAs identified in this study. We provide here a set of new small RNAs that contribute to the broader knowledge of the sRNAome of Phaseolus vulgaris. Thanks to the identification of the miRNA targets from degradome analysis and the construction of regulatory networks between the mature microRNAs, we present here the probable functional regulation associated with the sRNAome and, particularly, in N2-fixing symbiotic nodules.

  12. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  13. Genetic Transformation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with the Gus Color Marker, the Bar Herbicide Resistance, and the Barley (Hordeum vulgare HVA1 Drought Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingdom Kwapata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties including “Condor,” “Matterhorn,” “Sedona,” “Olathe,” and “Montcalm” were genetically transformed via the Biolistic bombardment of the apical shoot meristem primordium. Transgenes included gus color marker which visually confirmed transgenic events, the bar herbicide resistance selectable marker used for in vitro selection of transgenic cultures and which confirmed Liberty herbicide resistant plants, and the barley (Hordeum vulgare late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 which conferred drought tolerance with a corresponding increase in root length of transgenic plants. Research presented here might assist in production of better P. vulgaris germplasm.

  14. Molecular analysis of the parallel domestication of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Mesoamerica and the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Giardini, Alessandro; Rau, Domenico; Rodriguez, Monica; Biagetti, Eleonora; Santilocchi, Rodolfo; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi; Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Nanni, Laura; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the nucleotide diversity of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, which is characterized by two independent domestications in two geographically distinct areas: Mesoamerica and the Andes. This provides an important model, as domestication can be studied as a replicate experiment. We used nucleotide data from five gene fragments characterized by large introns to analyse 214 accessions (102 wild and 112 domesticated). The wild accessions represent a cross-section of the entire geographical distribution of P. vulgaris. A reduction in genetic diversity in both of these gene pools was found, which was three-fold greater in Mesoamerica compared with the Andes. This appears to be a result of a bottleneck that occurred before domestication in the Andes, which strongly impoverished this wild germplasm, leading to the minor effect of the subsequent domestication bottleneck (i.e. sequential bottleneck). These findings show the importance of considering the evolutionary history of crop species as a major factor that influences their current level and structure of genetic diversity. Furthermore, these data highlight a single domestication event within each gene pool. Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, this evidence indicates the Oaxaca valley in Mesoamerica, and southern Bolivia and northern Argentina in South America, as the origins of common bean domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. In vitro response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds cultivar 'Ica Pijao' irradiated with different doses of Gamma radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Martirena Ramírez; Novisel Veitía; Lourdes García; Raúl Collado; Damaris Torres; Leonardo Rivero; Miriam Ramírez López

    2015-01-01

    The lower yields in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide is due primarily to abiotic factors. For this reason the search for tolerant varieties is one of the objectives of the breeding programs in this species. The use of mutagenesis joined with somaclonal variation, it is a tool to increase the genetic variability in the crop. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro response of common bean seeds cultivar `Ica Pijao' exposed to different doses of Gamma radiation. The...

  16. Characterization of Sugar Concentration Among Edible Podded Accessions in the USDA Phaseolus vulgaris Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. The results could be used to market product quality and offer unique opportunities to expand ma...

  17. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  18. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes.

  19. ISOENZYMATIC POLYMORPHISM AND ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASES OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. UNDER SALINE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BROETTO

    1997-09-01

    crude extract of the different bean cultivars analysed showed different reations to salt concentration in the cultivation procedures as well as a high increasing of peroxidase activity in cv. IAC and JALO.Uma das utilizações da técnica de cultura de tecidos para o melhoramento vegetal é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentem tolerância ao estresse salino. Para se estudar os mecanismos bioquímicos envolvidos na expressão genética da tolerância a salinidade, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários de quatro cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; cultivares IAC - carioca, IAPAR 14, JALO-EEP 558, BAT - 93, foram cultivados em meio sólido Murashige & Skoog (1962, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 mM. Após 14 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto aos padrões isoenzimáticos e de atividade das peroxidases. Os cultivares BAT e IAPAR apresentaram duas zonas de atividade em comum na região anódica e apenas uma zona enzimática específica a cada um deles (migração mais rápida.Possivelmente as duas zonas anódicas intermediárias sejam produtos do mesmo loco enzimático, porém com alelos diferentes, consequentemente diferentes mobilidades eletroforéticas. O cv. JALO apresentou duas zonas anódicas de atividade em comum com os cultivares IAC e IAPAR com uma zona anódica exclusiva de migração mais lenta, a qual apresentou atividade mais intensa de todos os cultivares analisados. Este cultivar revelou ainda uma zona catódica provavelmente dimérica e heterozigota nos indivíduos de todos os tratamentos aplicados. Provavelmente, esta é a mesma zona que ocorre em homozigose com fixação do alelo lento para os indivíduos de todos os tratamentos efetuados nos cultivares BAT e IAPAR. O cv. IAC apresentou duas bandas anódicas em comum com os cv. IAPAR e JALO. Apresentou também a banda anódica mais rápida em comum com o cv. IAPAR e uma banda anódica exclusiva de migração mais

  20. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Runner (P. coccineus) Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Morosan, Mihaela; López-Gresa, María del Pilar; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl); one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−), osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars), and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl−) transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus. PMID:27657045

  1. The bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on growth of phaseolus-vulgaris plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Mehdipour, L.A.; Behnejad, B.B. [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Objective: Plants absorb radioactive elements from phosphate fertilizers, and also from naturally occurring radiation in the soil, air and water. It has long been known that low doses of ionizing radiation evoke stimulatory effects in a wide variety of living organisms. However, as far as we know, there is no published report on the bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-effects of low doses of diagnostic X-rays on growth rate of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) plants. Materials and Methods: Before cultivation, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) seeds were soaked in tap water for 2 days followed by another 2 days of covering under a wet cloth. Four hundred newly cultivated seeds were randomly divided into two groups of 200 plants each. In this experiment, two seeds were cultivated in each dish (100 dishes for irradiation group and 100 for sham-irradiation group). Fifteen days after starting cultivation, newly grown plants were irradiated with X-rays. Plants were exposed to a single dose of X-ray (80 kVp, 80 mAs) for 6 days. On day 29, plants were pulled out from the ' soil. Length of plant stem, length of root, number of leaves and plant weight were measured. Results: The stem length in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants was 296.5{+-}13.57 and 223.96{+-}15.02 mm respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Although the number of leaves in irradiated plants was higher than that of sham-irradiated plants (7.05{+-}0.18 and 6.74{+-}0.19 respectively), the difference was not statistically significant. The stem diameter in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants were 3.52{+-}0.12 and 3.35{+-}0.09 mm respectively, but the difference again was not statistically significant (P<0.00 1). Plant weight in irradiated samples was less than that of non-irradiated plants but it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The overall results indicate that diagnostic doses of X-rays can

  2. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 co-segregates with homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, M; Lund, O Søgaard; Larsen, R

    2008-01-01

    In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3 and bc-u control resistance to potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). To identify candidates for the bc-genes, we cloned and sequenced homologues of genes encoding cap...... in a segregating F2 population of P. vulgaris, BCMV resistance was found to co-segregate with homozygotic presence of the mutant eIF4E allele. , BCMV resistance was found to co-segregate with homozygotic presence of the mutant allele. Silent mutations were found in eIF(iso)4E, but without correspondence to P....... vulgaris response to BCMV and BCMNV. No differences were found in cDNA of nCBP....

  3. Absorção de metais pesados do lodo de esgoto pelo feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Heavy Metal Uptake Of The Sewage Sludge By Bean Plants(Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Miyazawa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and uptake of heavy metals of sewage sludge by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated in green house experiments. Treatments consisted of 1,0 ; 2,0 and 5,0% (m/m of dry sewage sludge, collected from Londrina (Bom Retiro and ETE-Sul and Curitiba (ETE-Belém and RALF. Bean ( variety IAPAR 57 was sown three times at 0, 120 and 240 days after the treatments have been applied. Contents of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb in bean tissues cultivated with 5,0% (m/m of all sewage sludge were similar to the control and Ba contents were reduced by increasing the quantity of sewage sludge in the soil. The Zn content in tissue bean incresed from 86 mg kg-1 of control to 462 mg kg-1 by applying 5% (m/m of sewage sludge in soil, but plant beans did not show toxicity symptons. The addition of 5% (m/m of sewage sludge increased Mn content in plants, from 193 mg kg-1 of control to 1.960 mg kg-1, showing toxity in bean leaves when the contents were more than 500 mg kg-1. The addition of sewage sludges in soils increased only available Zn carbonate and Cu organic species.

  4. Ozone impact on vegetation: phenolic metabolism modification and oxidative alteration of Rubisco in Phaseolus vulgaris L; Impact de l'ozone sur le vegetal: modification du metabolisme phenolique et alteration de la Rubisco chez Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, M.

    2002-04-15

    In order to characterize and quantify, in semi-natural situation, the incidence of atmospheric pollution on some physiological and metabolic functions in plants, the aim of our work was to identify sub-cellular impact markers, in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), able to characterize a chronic and realistic ozone pollution climate. Two criteria were chosen: the foliar phenolic metabolism and the Rubisco, the key enzyme of photosynthesis. Using Open Top Chambers system, we demonstrated that, according to concentration, exposure kinetic and leaf type, ozone could induce amount variations of some constitutive soluble phenolic and the synthesis of new phenolic (iso-flavonoids). In some cases, these disturbances were observed jointly with foliar injuries and/or biomass reduction. Concurrently, this chronic and moderate ozone exposure could also induce carbonyl formation in amino acid residues constitutive of Rubisco small subunit (Rubisco-SSU) and a reduction in the amount of the native Rubisco. The amount of a constitutive kaempferol glucuronide and the ozone-induced oxidative alteration of Rubisco-SSU were selected and tested for the construction of dose-response relationships. Whatever the marker, the linear model was able to describe the relation. For the phenolic response, several exposure indexes were tested. According to their mode of calculation, these exposure forms emphasize more or less the contribution of high ozone concentrations. If, for Rubisco oxidation, the use of the exposure index AOT40 seems relevant, in the case of the phenolic marker, the choice of the right index is leaf type dependant. (author)

  5. The presence of a below-ground neighbour alters within-plant seed size distribution in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin J W; During, Heinjo J; Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R

    2014-10-01

    Considerable variation in seed size commonly exists within plants, and is believed to be favoured under natural selection. This study aims to examine the extent to which seed size distribution depends on the presence of competing neighbour plants. Phaseolus vulgaris plants rooting with or without a conspecific neighbour were grown in soil with high or low nutrient availability. Seeds were harvested at the end of the growth cycle, the total nitrogen and phosphorus invested in seed production were measured and within-plant seed size distribution was quantified using a set of statistical descriptors. Exposure to neighbours' roots induced significant changes in seed size distribution. Plants produced proportionally more large seeds and fewer small ones, as reflected by significant increases in minimal seed size, mean seed size, skewness and Lorenz asymmetry coefficient. These effects were different from, and in several cases opposite to, the responses when the soil nutrient level was reduced, and were significant after correction for the amount of resources invested in seed production. Below-ground neighbour presence affects within-plant seed size distribution in P. vulgaris. This effect appears to be non-resource-mediated, i.e. to be independent of neighbour-induced effects on resource availability. It implies that, based on current environmental cues, plants can make an anticipatory adjustment of their investment strategy in offspring as an adaptation to the local environment in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  7. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant.

  8. The characterization of a new set of EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers as a resource for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over recent years, a growing effort has been made to develop microsatellite markers for the genomic analysis of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to broaden the knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of this species. The availability of large sets of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in public databases has given rise to an expedient approach for the identification of SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), specifically EST-derived SSRs. In the present work, a battery of new microsatellite markers was obtained from a search of the Phaseolus vulgaris EST database. The diversity, degree of transferability and polymorphism of these markers were tested. Results From 9,583 valid ESTs, 4,764 had microsatellite motifs, from which 377 were used to design primers, and 302 (80.11%) showed good amplification quality. To analyze transferability, a group of 167 SSRs were tested, and the results showed that they were 82% transferable across at least one species. The highest amplification rates were observed between the species from the Phaseolus (63.7%), Vigna (25.9%), Glycine (19.8%), Medicago (10.2%), Dipterix (6%) and Arachis (1.8%) genera. The average PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) varied from 0.53 for genomic SSRs to 0.47 for EST-SSRs, and the average number of alleles per locus was 4 and 3, respectively. Among the 315 newly tested SSRs in the BJ (BAT93 X Jalo EEP558) population, 24% (76) were polymorphic. The integration of these segregant loci into a framework map composed of 123 previously obtained SSR markers yielded a total of 199 segregant loci, of which 182 (91.5%) were mapped to 14 linkage groups, resulting in a map length of 1,157 cM. Conclusions A total of 302 newly developed EST-SSR markers, showing good amplification quality, are available for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris. These markers showed satisfactory rates of transferability, especially between species that have great economic and genomic values. Their diversity was comparable to

  9. Genetic Relationships of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Race Chile with Wild Andean and Mesoamerican Germplasm Relaciones Genéticas entre el Germoplasma de Poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Raza Chile y Silvestres Andinos y Mesoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Becerra V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. belongs to the cultivated race Chile and its origin is presumably Andean. The objective of this study was to identify the origin of a group of Chilean accessions based on their genetic relationship with wild material from the Mesoamerican and Andean common bean gene pool. To achieve this objective, universal primers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA were used to detect polymorphism using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Thirty-two genotypes were analyzed, including wild material from Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, as well as Chilean cultivated genotypes belonging to endemic Chilean accession types (Tórtola, Coscorrón, and Cuyano and naturalized commercial lines (Frutilla, Bayo, Manteca, and Blanco grande. Results showed a low level of polymorphism for cpDNA (23% and mtDNA (24% in wild and cultivated Chilean common bean accessions. Some universal primers and restriction enzyme combinations were more efficient than others in detecting polymorphism. The Chilean materials were closely related to wild accessions collected in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru indicating their Andean origin. The wild accessions from Ecuador were located in a intermediate position between the Mesoamerican and Andean accessions.El poroto chileno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pertenece a la raza Chile, cuyo origen es desconocido y presumiblemente andino. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar el origen de un grupo de genotipos chilenos basado en sus relaciones genéticas con material silvestre perteneciente a los acervos genéticos mesoamericano y andino. Para lograr este objetivo se usaron partidores universales de ADNcp y ADNmt con la metodología de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa-Fragmentos de Restricción Polimórficos. (PCR-RFLP. Se analizó un total de 32 genotipos de P. vulgaris, los cuales incluyeron materiales silvestres de M

  10. Plastic expression of heterochrony quantitative trait loci (hQTLs) for leaf growth in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Libo; Clavijo, Jose A; Sun, Lidan; Zhu, Xuli; Bhakta, Mehul S; Gezan, Salvador A; Carvalho, Melissa; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Wu, Rongling

    2015-08-01

    Heterochrony, that is, evolutionary changes in the relative timing of developmental events and processes, has emerged as a key concept that links evolution and development. Genes associated with heterochrony encode molecular components of developmental timing mechanisms. However, our understanding of how heterochrony genes alter the expression of heterochrony in response to environmental changes remains very limited. We applied functional mapping to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for growth trajectories of leaf area and leaf mass in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in two contrasting environments. We identified three major QTLs pleiotropically expressed under the two environments. Further characterization of the temporal pattern of these QTLs indicates that they are heterochrony QTLs (hQTLs) in terms of their role in influencing four heterochronic parameters: the timing of the inflection point, the timing of maximum acceleration and deceleration, and the duration of linear growth. The pattern of gene action by the hQTLs on each parameter was unique, being environmentally dependent and varying between two allometrically related leaf growth traits. These results provide new insights into the complexity of genetic mechanisms that control trait formation in plants and provide novel findings that will be of use in studying the evolutionary trends. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Endophytic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum are abundant in the Phaseolus vulgaris and have high genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, L L; Costa, L E O; Santos, T T; Araújo, E F; Queiroz, M V

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi from the leaves of the common bean and the genetic diversity of endophytic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum using IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism) analyses. The fungi were isolated by tissue fragmentation and identified by analysing the morphological features and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the rDNA large subunit (LSU). Twenty-seven different taxa were identified. Colletotrichum was the most commonly isolated genera from the common bean (32.69% and 24.29% of the total isolates from the Ouro Negro and Talismã varieties, respectively). The IRAP and REMAP analyses revealed a high genetic diversity in the Colletotrichum endophytic isolates and were able to discriminate these isolates from the phytopathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Fungi from the genus Colletotrichum are abundant in the Phaseolus vulgaris endophytic community, and the IRAP and REMAP markers can be used to rapidly distinguish between C. lindemuthianum and other Colletotrichum members that are frequently found as endophytes. This is the first report of the diversity of endophytic fungi present in the common bean and the use of IRAP and REMAP markers to assess the genetic diversity of endophytic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Bioremediation model for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils using phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a locally adapted microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga-Navarrete, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Pastrana, Blanca Rosa; Villagómez-Ibarra, José Roberto; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio Arturo; Perry, Gregory; Islas-Pelcastre, Margarita

    2017-06-03

    The objective of the present study was to examine a biological model under greenhouse conditions for the bioremediation of atrazine contaminated soils. The model consisted in a combination of phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and rhizopheric bio-augmentation using native Trichoderma sp., and Rhizobium sp. microorganisms that showed no inhibitory growth at 10,000 mg L -1 of herbicide concentration. 33.3 mg of atrazine 50 g -1 of soil of initial concentration was used and an initial inoculation of 1 × 10 9 UFC mL -1 of Rhizobium sp. and 1 × 10 5 conidia mL -1 of Trichoderma sp. were set. Four treatments were arranged: Bean + Trichoderma sp. (B+T); Bean + Rhizobium sp. (BR); Bean + Rhizobium sp. + Trichoderma sp. (B+R+T) and Bean (B). 25.51 mg of atrazine 50 g -1 of soil (76.63%) was removed by the B+T treatment in 40 days (a = 0.050, Tukey). This last indicate that the proposed biological model and methodology developed is useful for atrazine contaminated bioremediation agricultural soils, which can contribute to reduce the effects of agrochemical abuse.

  13. Redox biology response in germinating Phaseolus vulgaris seeds exposed to copper: Evidence for differential redox buffering in seedlings and cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmous, Inès; Trevisan, Rafael; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Chaoui, Abdelilah; Sheehan, David

    2017-01-01

    In agriculture, heavy metal contamination of soil interferes with processes associated with plant growth, development and productivity. Here, we describe oxidative and redox changes, and deleterious injury within cotyledons and seedlings caused by exposure of germinating (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hâtif) seeds to copper (Cu). Cu induced a marked delay in seedling growth, and was associated with biochemical disturbances in terms of intracellular oxidative status, redox regulation and energy metabolism. In response to these alterations, modulation of activities of antioxidant proteins (thioredoxin and glutathione reductase, peroxiredoxin) occurred, thus preventing oxidative damage. In addition, oxidative modification of proteins was detected in both cotyledons and seedlings by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. These modified proteins may play roles in redox buffering. The changes in activities of redox proteins underline their fundamental roles in controlling redox homeostasis. However, observed differential redox responses in cotyledon and seedling tissues showed a major capacity of the seedlings' redox systems to protect the reduced status of protein thiols, thus suggesting quantitatively greater antioxidant protection of proteins in seedlings compared to cotyledon. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive redox biology investigation of the effect of Cu on seed germination.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Phytohemagglutinins from White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the Rat Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Haj Sassi, Fayçal; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study. This investigation aimed to identify and characterize phytohemagglutinins (PHAs) in the small intestine and sera of rats following oral challenge with ground white beans. Twenty young, adult male rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The control group underwent gavage with a suspension of 300 mg of rodent pellet flour. The experimental group was administered a 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected. All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques. The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera. Ingestion of raw Beldia beans may lead to interaction between PHAs and the mucosa of the small intestine, potentially resulting in an inflammatory response.

  15. Consumer acceptance and aroma characterization of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powders prepared by extrusion and conventional processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygiel, Edward J; Harte, Janice B; Strasburg, Gale M; Cho, Sungeun

    2017-09-01

    Food products produced with bean ingredients are gaining in popularity among consumers due to the reported health benefits. Navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powder produced through extrusion can be considered as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional methods, which often involve high water inputs. Therefore, navy bean powders produced with extrusion and conventional methods were assessed for the impact of processing on consumer liking in end-use products and odor-active compounds. Consumer acceptance results reveal significant differences in flavor, texture and overall acceptance scores of several products produced with navy bean powder. Crackers produced with extruded navy bean powder received higher hedonic flavor ratings than those produced with commercial navy bean powder (P < 0.001). GC-O data showed that the commercial powder produced through conventional processing had much greater contents of several aliphatic aldehydes commonly formed via lipid oxidation, such as hexanal, octanal and nonanal with descriptors of 'grassy', 'nutty', 'fruity', 'dusty', and 'cleaner', compared to the extruded powder. Extrusion processed navy bean powders were preferred over commercial powders for certain navy bean powder applications. This is best explained by substantial differences in aroma profiles of the two powders that may have been caused by lipid oxidation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Inoculation of new rhizobial isolates improve nutrient uptake and growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and arugula (Eruca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Eduardo M; Bassani, Victor L; Sperotto, Raul A; Granada, Camille E

    2016-08-01

    In the current agricultural model, the massive use of chemical fertilizer causes environmental and economic losses. Inoculation of plant-growth-promoting (PGP) nitrogen-fixing bacteria is an alternative to the use of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. In this study, rhizobia strains isolated from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) root nodules were evaluated in an effort to identify an efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobia strain able to improve bean germination and growth. Common bean plants were collected from seven sites in southern Brazil, and 210 native rhizobia isolates were obtained. Evaluation of PGP traits showed that most of the rhizobia isolates were non-siderophore producers and weak indolic compounds producers. Under laboratory conditions, rhizobia isolates E15 (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and L5 (Rhizobium radiobacter) increase germination percentage, length, and dry weight of common bean and arugula (Eruca sativa) seedlings. Under greenhouse conditions, common bean plants inoculated with the rhizobia isolates VC28 and L15 (both Rhizobium fabae) presented the highest nodule number and shoot dry matter, while VC28 also presented the highest values of shoot nitrogen and potassium. Isolate L17 presented highly effective N fixation, even with reduced nodulation. These new rhizobia isolates are attractive PGP alternatives to chemical fertilizers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The nodule conductance to O₂ diffusion increases with phytase activity in N₂-fixing Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazali, Mohamed; Drevon, Jean Jacques

    2014-07-01

    To understand the relationship between phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) and respiration for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in legume nodules, six recombinant inbred lines of common bean (RIL Phaseolus vulgaris L.), contrasting in PUE for SNF, were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and grown under hydroaeroponic culture with sufficient versus deficient P supply (250 versus 75 μmol P plant(-1) week(-1)). At the flowering stage, the biomass of plants and phytase activity in nodules were analyzed after measuring O2 uptake by nodulated roots. Our results show that the P-deficiency significantly increased the phytase activity in nodules of all RILs though with highest extent for RILs 147, 29 and 83 (ca 45%). This increase in phytase activity was associated with an increase in nodule respiration (ca 22%) and in use of the rhizobial symbiosis (ca 21%). A significant correlation was found under P-deficiency between nodule O2 permeability and phytase activity in nodules for RILs 104, 34 and 115. This observation is to our knowledge the first description of a correlation between O2 permeability and phytase activity of a legume nodule. It is concluded that the variation of phytase activity in nodules can increase the internal utilization of P and might be involved in the regulation of nodule permeability for the respiration linked with SNF and the adaptation to P-deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of {sup 57}Fe-enriched Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppler, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Zurich (Switzerland); Meile, Leo [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Zurich (Switzerland); Walczyk, Thomas [National University of Singapore, Department of Chemistry and Department of Biochemistry, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-01-15

    Ferritin is the major iron storage protein in the biosphere. Iron stores of an organism are commonly assessed by measuring the concentration of the protein shell of the molecule in fluids and tissues. The amount of ferritin-bound iron, the more desirable information, still remains inaccessible owing to the lack of suitable techniques. Iron saturation of ferritin is highly variable, with a maximum capacity of 4,500 iron atoms per molecule. This study describes the direct isotopic labeling of a complex metalloprotein in vivo by biosynthesis, in order to measure ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin was produced by cloning and overexpressing the Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin gene pfe in Escherichia coli in the presence of {sup 57}FeCl{sub 2}. Recombinant ferritin was purified in a fully assembled form and contained approximately 1,000 iron atoms per molecule at an isotopic enrichment of more than 95% {sup 57}Fe. We did not find any evidence of species conversion of the isotopic label for at least 5 months of storage at -20 C. Transfer efficiency of enriched iron into [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin of 20% was sufficient to be economically feasible. Negligible amounts of non-ferritin-bound iron in the purified [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin solution allows for use of this spike for quantification of ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  19. Mild Salt Stress Conditions Induce Different Responses in Root Hydraulic Conductivity of Phaseolus vulgaris Over-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to salinity by altering their physiological parameters in order to maintain their water balance. The reduction in root hydraulic conductivity is one of the first responses of plants to the presence of salt in order to minimize water stress. Although its regulation has been commonly attributed to aquaporins activity, osmotic adjustment and the toxic effect of Na+ and Cl− have also a main role in the whole process. We studied the effects of 30 mM NaCl on Phaseolus vulgaris plants after 9 days and found different responses in root hydraulic conductivity over-time. An initial and final reduction of root hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential in response to NaCl was attributed to an initial osmotic shock after 1 day of treatment, and to the initial symptoms of salt accumulation within the plant tissues after 9 days of treatment. After 6 days of NaCl treatment, the increase in root hydraulic conductivity to the levels of control plants was accompanied by an increase in root fructose content, and with the intracellular localization of root plasma membrane aquaporins (PIP) to cortex cells close to the epidermis and to cells surrounding xylem vessels. Thus, the different responses of bean plants to mild salt stress over time may be connected with root fructose accumulation, and intracellular localization of PIP aquaporins. PMID:24595059

  20. Degradation of ureidoglycolate in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is catalysed by a ubiquitous ureidoglycolate urea-lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alfonso; Raso, María José; Pineda, Manuel; Piedras, Pedro

    2006-06-01

    A ureidoglycolate-degrading activity was analysed in different tissues of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants during development. Activity was detected in all the tissues analysed, although values were very low in seeds before germination and in cotyledons. After radicle emergence, the activity increased due to high activity present in the axes. The highest levels of specific activity were found in developing fruits, from which the enzyme was purified and characterised. This is the first ureidoglycolate-degrading activity that has been purified to homogeneity from a ureide legume. The enzyme was purified 280 fold, and the specific activity for the pure enzyme was 4.4 units mg(-1), which corresponds to a turnover number of 1,055 min(-1). The native enzyme has a molecular mass of 240 kDa and consists of six identical or similar-sized subunits each of 38 kDa. The activity of the purified enzyme was completely dependent on manganese and asparagine. The enzyme exhibited hyperbolic, Michaelian kinetics for ureidoglycolate with a K(m) value of 3.9 mM. This enzyme has been characterised as a ureidoglycolate urea-lyase (EC 4.3.2.3).

  1. Mineral nutrient imbalance, total antioxidants level and DNA damage in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of metals in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Effects of mineral nutrient imbalance, total antioxidants level and DNA damage induced by accumulation of heavy metals, were investigated in bean seedlings treated with two selected metal concentrations for 7 days. Metal content is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay is used and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was applied for investigation of DNA damages. The increasing metal concentration in the treatment medium changed synchronously metal content in samples, and decreased total antioxidant activity in all samples with exception only for samples treated with Ni and Cd. The obtained "DNA fingerprints" demonstrated that the increasing metal concentrations induced changes in RAPD profiles (disappearance and/or appearance of bands in comparison with untreated control samples). The highest number of missing bands was observed in samples treated with zinc (total 4 bands) and nickel (total 4 bands) at both concentrations. These results suggested that mineral nutrient imbalance is involved in changes of antioxidant levels and DNA damages of the seedlings, which may help to understand the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants.

  2. Bean dwarf mosaic virus BV1 protein is a determinant of the hypersensitive response and avirulence in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Ramirez, E R; Sudarshana, M R; Lucas, W J; Gilbertson, R L

    2000-11-01

    The capacities of the begomoviruses Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) and Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) to differeBean dwarf mosaic viru certain common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars were used to identify viral determinants of the hypersensitive response (HR) and avirulence (avr) in BDMV. A series of hybrid DNA-B components, containing BDMV and BGYMV sequences, was constructed and coinoculated with BDMV DNA-A (BDMV-A) or BDMVA-green florescent protein into seedlings of cv. Topcrop (susceptible to BDMV and BGYMV) and the BDMV-resistant cvs. Othello and Black Turtle Soup T-39 (BTS). The BDMV avr determinant, in bean hypocotyl tissue, was mapped to the BDMV BV1 open reading frame and, most likely, to the BV1 protein. The BV1 also was identified as the determinant of the HR in Othello. However, the HR was not required for resistance in Othello nor was it associated with BDMV resistance in BTS. BDMV BV1, a nuclear shuttle protein that mediates viral DNA export from the nucleus, represents a new class of viral avr determinant. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between the HR and resistance.

  3. Canopy reflectance indices and its relationship with yield in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with phosphorus supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.G.; Escalante-Estrada, J.A.; Gonzalez, M.T.R.; Reynolds, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown under three phosphorous levels (0,100 & 200 kg ha-1) and under rain fed conditions with the objective to examine the association between vegetative indices (NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index; and GNDVI, green normalized difference vegetation index) and intercepted radiation, leaf area index, biomass and yield during the growing season. The maximum intercepted radiation, leaf area index (LAI) and biomass were reached during the pod filling stage {80 days after sowing (DAS)}, and the P treatment of 200 kg ha-1 showed the highest values. The high intercepted radiation was derived from an increase in LAI inducing a major biomass accumulation. Near to physiological maturity LAI decreased as a result of leaf abscission. NDVI and GNDVI were higher with P supply than without P at anthesis and pod filling stage (50 - 80 DAS). Near to physiological maturity, NDVI and GNDVI decreased in all the treatments . When the maximum intercepted radiation, LAI, and biomass production were reached during anthesis and pod filling stage, NDVI and GNDVI also had the highest values. The association between the vegetative indices and seed yield during the pod filling stage showed a linear relationship by the P supply. The relationship between GNDVI and seed yield was higher (r2 = 0.77) than the relationship between NDVI and seed yield (r2 = 0.61)

  4. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  5. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  6. Interaction between cadmium and iron. Accumulation and distribution of metals and changes in growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siedlecka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals, and iron, an essential plant nutritional element, was investigated in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Słowianka seedlings. The interaction was externally induced by changing the content of both metals in the nutrient medium. Under iron deficiency conditions (0 and 0.5 of normal dose of this element, the toxic effects of cadmium on plant growth parameters, like fresh and dry weight accumulation, primary leaves area, etc., were generally much more pronounced than under normal iron supply. At normal and excess iron supply (1, 2 and 4 doses cadmium diminished iron accumulation in roots and primary leaves, but on the other hand excess iron decreased cadmium level, preventing plants from extreme toxicity of very high cadmium concentrations in the growth environment. It is to be noted that iron is classified also as a heavy metal, and its excess may become toxic, e.g. decreasing root dry weight or diminishing leaf area, especially at the highest dose. The detoxication role of iron against cadmium, and possibly other toxic metals is, however, limited to concentrations of this element in the nutrient solution which themselves are not toxic for the organism.

  7. Histological anomalies in stems of common and runner beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Ph. coccineus L. treated with pendimenthalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'Augustynka' and 'Złota Saxa' and runner beans (Ph. coccineus L. 'Blanka' and 'Eureka' were seeded on loess-like soil containing 1.6% of organic matter, and sprayed with pendimethalin at the dose of 1650 g•ha-1 ' immediately after seeding in the middle of May. The herbicide inhibited shoot growth and caused enlargement of the stem at the soil level. Observations made in light and scanning electron microscope showed that in the swollen parts of the stem, the diameter of cortical parenchyma cells was bigger, the thickness of phloem layer was irregular, phloem fibers were less lignified, and the xylem cylinder was asymmetrical. In stems of 'Augustynka', 'Złota Saxa' and 'Eureka' cultivars, the thickness of secondary xylem and the diameter of vessels were reduced. Some vessels and tracheids were positioned transversely and obliquely to the stem axis and had an arched shape. Cell walls were less lignified and had a smaller number of pits. The largest number of histological anomalies was found in stems of the 'Augustynka' and 'Złota Saxa' cultivars.

  8. The influence of soil moisture on nodulation and utilization of Phosphorus(32P) in Phaseolus vulgaris, L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, R.; Saito, S.M.T.; Montanheiro, M.N.S.

    The effects of adding phosphorus ( 32 P) on nodulation and P utilisation in common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were studied in glasshouse, using a latossol soil (LVa) kept under different water tensions (0,4;2 and 15 atm). P was added (as KH 2 PO 4 ) at rates of 0, 100 and 200 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha. Positive and linear responses in plant weight to increasing rates of P was observed only when water was supplied in higher amounts. The efficiency of P utilisation was directly influenced by the water of the soil, showing increasing utilisation from flowering to pod filling, when a maximun utilisation of 20% of P from fertilizer was obtained. A highly positive interaction between P addition, water content and nodulation (wt. and activity of nodules) was observed. Probably, the increase in N content observed in plants which received higher amounts of P was due to increase in the efficiency of N 2 fixation. By using autoradiography, it was possible to detect that 32 P contributed to increasing the number and size of nodules. The nodules. was shown to be one of the sites of the plant with higher P requirement. (Author) [pt

  9. Trypsin Isoinhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity toward Leukemia Cells from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A purification protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75 was complied to isolate two trypsin inhibitors from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”. Both trypsin inhibitors exhibited a molecular mass of 16 kDa and reduced the activity of trypsin with an IC50 value of about 0.6 M. Dithiothreitol attenuated the trypsin inhibitory activity, signifying that an intact disulfide bond is indispensable to the activity. [Methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells was inhibited with an IC50 value of 28.8 M and 21.5 M, respectively. They were lacking in activity toward lymphoma MBL2 cells and inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and fungal growth when tested up to 100 M.

  10. myo-Inositol synthesis from [1-3H]glucose in Phaseolus vulgaris L. during early stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabeled D-[1- 3 H]glucose was fed by imbibition under sterile conditions to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. After 72 and 96 hours of feeding, the 3 H was located in uronic acid and pentose residues as well as hexose residues of cell wall polysaccharides in growing hypocotyl and root. Free myo-inositol present in cotyledons, hypocotyl, and root also contained 3 H, showing that de novo synthesis of myo-inositol from [1- 3 H]glucose did occur during the first 72 hours of germination. More than 90% of the labeled, free myo-inositol was present in the cotyledons. The 3 H percentage in trifluoroacetic acid-soluble arabinaose residues of cell wall polysaccharides from 72-hour-old bean hypocotyls was only half of their mole percentage. On the other hand, 3 H percentages in hexose residues were higher than their mole percentages. The results suggest that myo-inositol is synthesized from reserve sugars during the very early stages of germination, and that the newly synthesized myo-inositol, as well as that stored in cotyledons, can be used for the construction of new hypocotyl and root cell wall polysaccharides after conversion into uronic acids and pentoses via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway

  11. Desempeño del Phaseolus vulgaris bajo riego parcial cultivado en un sistema de respuesta hidrogravitrópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Cristhian Vega Ponce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experimental area of the UNALM (Lima - Perú was evaluated on partial root - zone drying irrigation treatments (RPR300 and RPR500, ml and full irrigation (RC300 a nd RC500, ml control, the impact of xylem potential ( x and stomatal conductance (gs in common bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in systems (pots of hydrogravitropic response. A randomized complete block design with 12 plants/pots per trea tments was used in three replicates. To control the irrigation application and manage to maintain the x nonlethal conditions (< - 15 bars, a water - soil retention curve was generated. The values of gs before irrigation (between 217.18 and 268.67 mm m - 2 s - 1 showed that only RPR500 plants were maintained under optimal water conditions, despite low levels of x (between - 9.92 and - 7.33 bar; situation that could be attributed to the ability of the roots to balance those moments when half of these structures we re inside soil with low humidity, while the opposite half was favorable soil water level.

  12. Resistance or tolerance to the golden mosaic virus of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), obtained by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.

    1979-09-01

    Experiments were carried out with the objective of selecting, evaluation and using induced mutants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic - a virus disease of beans. Seeds from three bean cultivars were treated with gamma-ray or the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). After golden mosaic inoculation of 50,000 M 2 seedlings, in a insectary, screening was made and a tolerant mutant (TMD-1) was selected. Evaluation of TMD-1 was carried out by comparing it with the parent cultivar Carioca, indicating that, although showing lower productivity than the original material, (what prevented it from being used directly on a commercial basis), it maintained the same reaction to rust, bacterial blight, and common mosaic. Studies on the genetic basis of the mutation were also done. The possibility of using this mutant in a plant breeding programme aimed at obtaining resistance to golden mosaic was demonstrated in crosses between TMD-1 and two cultivars, to which transference of tolerance was possible. (Author) [pt

  13. 5-Aminolevulinic acid improves DNA damage and DNA Methylation changes in deltamethrin-exposed Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taspinar, Mahmut Sinan; Aydin, Murat; Arslan, Esra; Yaprak, Muhammet; Agar, Guleray

    2017-09-01

    Deltamethrin, synthetic type II pyrethroid, is one of the most widely used pesticide in agriculture. Intense use of deltamethrin can cause permanant or temporary damages in nontarget plant species. In this study, we aimed to determine DNA methylation change and DNA damage level in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings subjected to different concentrations of deltamethrin (0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 ppm). Coupled Restriction Enzyme Digestion-Random Amplification (CRED-RA) was performed to analyze the changes of DNA methylation as well as Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used for genotoxic influences estimation and genomic stability. The results showed that deltamethrin caused to increase in RAPD profile changes (DNA damage) and reduce in Genomic Template Stability (GTS). GTS declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of deltamethrin applied. The lowest GTS value (71.4%) observed in 0.5 ppm deltamethrin treatment. Also, DNA hypermethylation was occurred in all treatments. Moreover, alleviative effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20, 40 and 80 mg/l), one of the plant growth regulators, was tested against the 0.5 ppm deltamethrin. Adverse effects of deltamethrin on GTS decreased after ALA treatments, especially 20 mg/l concentration. As a result, we concluded that ALA has a strong anti-genotoxic agent against deltamethrin and it could be an alternative chemical to reduce genetic damage in plants under deltamethrin stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic dissection of ICP-detected nutrient accumulation in the whole seed of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Blair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K and magnesium (Mg are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu, iron (Fe, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for 9 additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B and calcium (Ca had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed.

  15. Changes in growth and 14CO2 fixation of Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris induced by UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Increased UV-B radiation on the earth's surface due to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is one of the changes of current climate-change pattern. A field experiment was concluded to study the effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on growth parameters, photosynthetic efficiency (14CO2-fixation) and biochemical characteristics of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Plants grown under ambient UV-B radiation were compared with those grown without UV-B by excluding ambient UV-B radiation. To exclude solar ambient UV-B radiation, the sunlight was filtered through a polyester film that selectively absorbed UV-B. For ambient UV-B effects, plants were grown under polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters that transmitted the complete light spectrum. The results indicated increased shoot length, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, leaf area ratio and specific leaf weight in plants of both the crops grown without UV-B compared with those grown under ambient UV-B. Similarly, the rate of photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content, nitrates reductase (NR) enzyme activity and sugar content. The effect of UV-B exclusion was clearer in common bean compared with that in barley. We conclude that monocot species may be less sensitive to increased solar UV-B due to ozone depletion than with dicots

  16. Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  17. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  18. Novel Rhizobium lineages isolated from root nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Andean and Mesoamerican areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Graham, Peter H; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-09-01

    The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity in protein hydrolysates from normal and anthracnose disease-damaged Phaseolus vulgaris seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Álvarez, Alan Javier; Carrasco-Castilla, Janet; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque-Peña, Javier; Jacinto-Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2013-03-15

    Bean seeds are an inexpensive source of protein. Anthracnose disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum results in serious losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops worldwide, affecting any above-ground plant part, and protein dysfunction, inducing the synthesis of proteins that allow plants to improve their stress tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of beans damaged by anthracnose disease as a source of peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-inhibitory activity. Protein concentrates from beans spoiled by anthracnose disease and from regular beans as controls were prepared by alkaline extraction and precipitation at isolelectric pH and hydrolysed using Alcalase 2.4 L. The hydrolysates from spoiled beans had ACE-I-inhibitory activity (IC(50) 0.0191 mg protein mL(-1)) and were very similar to those from control beans in terms of ACE-I inhibition, peptide electrophoretic profile and kinetics of hydrolysis. Thus preparation of hydrolysates using beans affected by anthracnose disease would allow for revalorisation of this otherwise wasted product. The present results suggest the use of spoiled bean seeds, e.g. anthracnose-damaged beans, as an alternative for the isolation of ACE-I-inhibitory peptides to be further introduced as active ingredients in functional foods. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Isolation of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro screening of plant growth-promoting (PGP traits was carried out using eight Pseudomonas spp., PPR1 to PPR8, isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing on the Uttarakhand Himalayan range in India. All the isolates were fast growers, positive for catalase, oxidase and urease activities, and utilized lactose and some amino acids. All the isolates were indole acetic acid (IAA positive, however PPR8 solubilized potassium and zinc along with various other types of inorganic (tricalcium, dicalcium and zinc phosphate and organic (calcium phytate phosphates, as well as producing siderophore and ACC deaminase. PPR8 also produced cyanogens, extracellular chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase and oxalate oxidase. Based on the PGP traits of all isolates, PPR8 was found to be the most potent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Further, PPR8 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. PPR8, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Moreover, the PGP activities of PPR8 confirmed it to be a potent biocontrol agent, inhibiting the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi. This study reveals the potential of Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 to be used as a good bioinoculant for growth promotion of common bean and for the protection of important legume crops from various deleterious phytopathogens.

  1. Characterization of pectinases and pectin methylesterase cDNAs in pods of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbelaar, M E; Tucker, G A; Laats, M M; van Dijk, C; Stolle-Smits, T; Recourt, K

    1996-09-01

    Tomato fruit maturation is accompanied by a depolymerization of cell wall pectins which is due to the action of endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) preceded by pectin methylesterase (PE) activity. To investigate the role of endoPG and PE in determining the structure of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pectins, these pectinases were studied during pod development. Early developmental stages displayed low endoPG or exoPG activities while PE activities were measurable during all stages of pod and seed development. These results do not favour a possible synergistic action of PE and PG. For seeds, the relatively high PE activities concurred with relatively low levels of pectin methyl esterification. At a molecular level, one partial chromosomal clone of 210 bp (PE1V), two partial PE cDNA clones of 660 bp (PE2V and PE3V) from cv. verona and one full-length PE cDNA clone of 1990 bp (PE3M), from cv. Masai were isolated. The identity of the CDNA clones was confirmed by expression in Escherichia coli and immunodetection with antibodies directed towards a tomato fruit PE. Transcripts corresponding with the genomic clone PE1V were not detected but both PE2 and PE3 cDNAs corresponded with mRNAs 1.8 kb in length. In contrast to PE2, PE3 gene expression levels varied significantly in pods from different cultivars suggesting an involvement in determining pod morphology.

  2. Adaptation to High Temperature and Water Deficit in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. during the Reproductive Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hide Omae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the adaption to heat and drought stresses in Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain and vegetable crop widely grown in both the Old and New World. Substantial genotypic differences are found in morphophysiological characteristics such as phenology, partitioning, plant-water relations, photosynthetic parameters, and shoot growth, which are related to reproductive responses. The associations between (a days to podding and leaf water content and (b the number of pods per plant and seed yield are consistent across different environments and experiments. Leaf water content is maintained by reductions in leaf water potential and shoot extension in response to heat and drought stress. Heat-tolerant cultivars have higher biomass allocation to pods and higher pod set in branches. These traits can be used as a marker to screen germplasm for heat and drought tolerance. In this paper, we briefly review the results of our studies carried out on heat and drought tolerance in the common bean at the Tropical Agriculture Research Front, Ishigaki, Japan.

  3. Measuring of the Genotoxic and Potential Antioxidant Effects of Essential Oil Obtained from Satureja Hortensis Against to Phaseolus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Bozari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is known that, there are many ways for increasing the yield at the crops specially cereal products. Genetic manipulations and physiological interventions are the primary studies that aim to obtain products at high quality and amounts. It is known that, the usage of synthetic chemicals for physiological inverventions negatively affects organism. But using natural plant products instead of these chemicals is a subject that draws attention of today scientific environment. In this study, this situation was taken into consideration and the essential oil obtained from Satureja hortensis (SEO plant were applied to bean seeds. The genotoxic and physiological effects of SEO at four different dosages were detected against to Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. According to obtained data, essential oil that were applied at different doses decreased the genomic stability of the bean seeds up to 30.77% in accordance with the increased dosage. The essential oil applied in the same way lead to stress on enzyme activities of seedlings. Among the antioxidant enzymes, while, significant changeswere observed at Superoxide dismutase and Peroxidase enzymes according to the control, no significant change was seen at Ascorbate peroxidase level.

  4. The Class II trehalose 6-phosphate synthase gene PvTPS9 modulates trehalose metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Barraza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1% of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant.

  5. The Infiltration-centrifugation Technique for Extraction of Apoplastic Fluid from Plant Leaves Using Phaseolus vulgaris as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brendan M.; Rico, Arantza; McCraw, Sarah; Fones, Helen N.; Preston, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    The apoplast is a distinct extracellular compartment in plant tissues that lies outside the plasma membrane and includes the cell wall. The apoplastic compartment of plant leaves is the site of several important biological processes, including cell wall formation, cellular nutrient and water uptake and export, plant-endophyte interactions and defence responses to pathogens. The infiltration-centrifugation method is well established as a robust technique for the analysis of the soluble apoplast composition of various plant species. The fluid obtained by this method is commonly known as apoplast washing fluid (AWF). The following protocol describes an optimized vacuum infiltration and centrifugation method for AWF extraction from Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean) cv. Tendergreen leaves. The limitations of this method and the optimization of the protocol for other plant species are discussed. Recovered AWF can be used in a wide range of downstream experiments that seek to characterize the composition of the apoplast and how it varies in response to plant species and genotype, plant development and environmental conditions, or to determine how microorganisms grow in apoplast fluid and respond to changes in its composition. PMID:25549068

  6. In vitro response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds cultivar 'Ica Pijao' irradiated with different doses of Gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Martirena Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower yields in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. worldwide is due primarily to abiotic factors. For this reason the search for tolerant varieties is one of the objectives of the breeding programs in this species. The use of mutagenesis joined with somaclonal variation, it is a tool to increase the genetic variability in the crop. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro response of common bean seeds cultivar `Ica Pijao' exposed to different doses of Gamma radiation. The doses tested were 0, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. It assessed the in vitro seed germination. In the callus formation and proliferation, we determined the fresh weight (g at 21, 42 and 63 days of culture. 100% of seed germination was achieved with radiation doses studied. However, it were observed damages in callus formation with doses of 300 and 400 Gy. With 80 and 90Gy, higher values of fresh mass it were reached, with significant differences with doses of 100 and 200 Gy. Plants regeneration was affected and with doses of 80, 90, 100 and 200Gy young shoots were formed. The results showed that for the variety `Ica Pijao' doses above 90 Gy, undertake callus formation and multiplication, as well as plant regeneration. Keywords: beans, breeding, callus, in vitro mutations, radiosensitivity, variability

  7. Effect of cultivar, cold and paclobutrazol on growth, chlorophyll content and cell membrane injury in Phaseolus vulgaris plantlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Shariat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paclobutrazol is one of plant growth regulators from triazoles group that is able to protect plants against environmental stress conditions. This experiment was carried out to investigate paclobutrazol (0, 25 and 50 mg/L effects on reduction of injuries caused by low temperature (5±1ºC stress in two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris [Daneshkadeh cv. (white bean and Sayyad cv. (red bean]. The results showed that low temperature stress, reduced fresh weight and dry matter and also reduced length of shoots and roots and leaf chlorophyll contents but increased electrolyte leakage percentage. Paclobutrazol treatment reduced fresh weight and dry matter and length of shoots but increased root dry weight and root development. Moreover, paclobutrazol-treated plants, when exposed to the cold stress condition, showed electrolyte leakage percentage less than control plants. Treatment of seedlings with paclobutrazol led to an increase in chlorophyll contents, either in stress or non stress conditions. White bean was more sensitive to cold than red bean and paclobutrazol affected white bean more than red bean. Therefore, it could be concluded that paclobutrazol treatment improved ability of plant responses to the cold stress and this effect was more remarkable in cold sensitive cultivars.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L. VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  9. Efecto de las condiciones de secado sobre el endurecimiento de los granos de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris pretratados con vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Mujica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El endurecimiento de los granos de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris generado por el almacenamiento en condiciones de alta temperatura y humedad relativa representa una limitante importante para su consumo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de un tratamiento con vapor y luego secado a los granos de P. vulgaris recién cosechados en la prevención de su endurecimiento. Inicialmente, se construyeron las curvas de secado a 40; 47,5 y 55 ºC. Seguidamente, los granos se trataron con vapor por 8 min 20 s y se sometieron a un proceso de secado, bajo un diseño central compuesto cuyos factores fueron la temperatura del aire (40 y 55 ºC y el tiempo de secado (4 y 8 h. La muestra secada de cada tratamiento se dividió en 3 lotes, el primero se analizó de inmediato y los otros se almacenaron por 5 semanas bajo 2 condiciones distintas 5 ºC/34 % HR y 37 ºC/75 % HR. Las determinaciones realizadas fueron humedad, capacidad de imbibición, tiempo de cocción y actividad de la peroxidasa soluble. El tiempo de secado fue de 6,5; 5 y 2,5 h a 40; 47,5 y 55 ºC, respectivamente, para alcanzar una humedad de 13 % (b.s.. El coeficiente de difusión resultó igual a 3,40x10-9; 3,52x10-9 y 3,87x10-9 m2/s, a 40, 47,5 y 55 ºC, respectivamente. El valor de la energía de activación fue de 7,33 kJ/mol. La aplicación de vapor y posterior secado de los granos no previno su endurecimiento, y este no dependió de la actividad de la peroxidasa soluble. Por lo que se puede inferir que los compuestos fenólicos y la enzima peroxidasa no son los únicos implicados en el mecanismo de endurecimiento de los granos de P. vulgaris.

  10. Protoplast isolation, transient transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts and improved Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc infiltration of Phaseolus vulgaris: tools for rapid gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Blanco, Lourdes; Arellano, Elizabeth S; Lara, Miguel

    2016-06-24

    Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most extensively studied model legumes in the world. The P. vulgaris genome sequence is available; therefore, the need for an efficient and rapid transformation system is more imperative than ever. The functional characterization of P. vulgaris genes is impeded chiefly due to the non-amenable nature of Phaseolus sp. to stable genetic transformation. Transient transformation systems are convenient and versatile alternatives for rapid gene functional characterization studies. Hence, the present work focuses on standardizing methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple tissues and transient transformation protocols for rapid gene expression analysis in the recalcitrant grain legume P. vulgaris. Herein, we provide methodologies for the high-throughput isolation of leaf mesophyll-, flower petal-, hypocotyl-, root- and nodule-derived protoplasts from P. vulgaris. The highly efficient polyethylene glycol-mannitol magnesium (PEG-MMG)-mediated transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts was optimized using a GUS reporter gene. We used the P. vulgaris SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (PvSnRK1) gene as proof of concept to demonstrate rapid gene functional analysis. An RT-qPCR analysis of protoplasts that had been transformed with PvSnRK1-RNAi and PvSnRK1-OE vectors showed the significant downregulation and ectopic constitutive expression (overexpression), respectively, of the PvSnRK1 transcript. We also demonstrated an improved transient transformation approach, sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT), for the leaf disc infiltration of P. vulgaris. Interestingly, this method resulted in a 90 % transformation efficiency and transformed 60-85 % of the cells in a given area of the leaf surface. The constitutive expression of YFP further confirmed the amenability of the system to gene functional characterization studies. We present simple and efficient methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple P

  11. Tolerância à salinidade em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L Salt tolerance in bean (Paseolus vulgaris cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Broetto

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações das técnicas da cultura de tecidos no melhoramento é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentam tolerância à salinidade. Vários autores obtiveram linhas de células tolerantes ao estresse salino; e estudo de mecanismos bioquímicos da tolerância a sais em plantas tem demonstrado altas correlações entre estes e o acúmulo de macromoléculas em tecido de plantas superiores. Para verificar essas correlações em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris cv IAC carioca, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários foram cultivados em meio sólido, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0 a 60 mM. Após 13 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto ao crescimento relativo, teor de proteínas, teor de prolina e atividade da peroxidase. Os parâmetros analisados mostraram decréscimo no crescimento relativo e no de proteínas em resposta ao NaCl. Paralelamente, observou-se aumento significativo no conteúdo de prolina e atividade da enzima peroxidase.One of the applications of the tissue culture technique in plant improvement is the identification of cell lines which show salinity tolerance. Several authors were able to obtain saline stress-tolerant cell lines and show that mechanisms of tolerance to salts have a strong correlation between this phenomenon and a high macromolecule concentration in plant tissues. Callus obtained from embrionic axis of Phaseolus vulgarís cv. IAC carioca in solid medium, supplemented with 0 to 60 mM NaCl, as the salt treatment, were used. Callus harvesting was done on the 13th day, when they were processed for relative growth, protein, proline content and peroxidase acivity. The results show both, a decrease of the relative growth and of protein content in response to the NaCl treatment, as compared to controls. However, there was a significant increase on the proline content and on the peroxidase activity.

  12. Sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. `CIAP 7247F' plants to Glufosinate ammonium herbicide in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding in Phaseolus by genetic transformation requires an efficient selection system. The present investigation was aimed to determine the minimum lethal concentration of glufosinate-ammonium (Finale ® in beans plants cv. `CIAP 7247F' grown in greenhouse. Different concentrations of the herbicide were applied to the foliage of plants in acclimatization phase (20, 30 y 40 mg l-1 and the control. Results showed that the minimum lethal concentration in plants in acclimatization phase was 30 mg l-1. Results also demonstrated that is possible the use of the herbicide as a selective agent of beans transformants cv. `CIAP 7247F' carrying the bar gene. Keywords: genetic transformation, herbicide, selective agent, tissue culture

  13. Avaliação da biodiversidade de rizóbios simbiontes do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em Santa Catarina Assessment of biodiversity in rhizobia symbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Stocco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os solos brasileiros, em geral, apresentam uma população abundante de rizóbios capazes de nodular e fixar N2 em simbiose com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; contudo, a diversidade dessas bactérias ainda é pouco conhecida. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer a biodiversidade de microssimbiontes do feijoeiro em Santa Catarina e, para isso, foram obtidos 117 isolados de nódulos de plantas coletadas em campo, em 23 áreas do extremo oeste, do meio oeste e do planalto sul catarinense. Com base nos atributos morfofisiológicos, os isolados foram classificados em nove grupos. Pela análise dos perfis de DNA após a amplificação (PCR com o "primer" BOX, que codifica regiões conservadas e repetidas do genoma, 107 perfis distintos foram agrupados em um nível final de similaridade de apenas 26,9 %. Os perfis obtidos pela amplificação do gene 16S ribossômico - referência na taxonomia atual de procariotos - seguida pela digestão com três enzimas de restrição (técnica de RFLP-PCR, resultaram em seis agrupamentos principais e cinco bactérias isoladas. As populações consistiram de 17,1 % de Rhizobium tropici, 35,9 % de R. etli, 32,5 % de R. leguminosarum, 1,7 % de R. giardinii e 12,8 % com perfis distintos das espécies descritas de rizóbios de feijoeiro. R. tropici predominou em solos ácidos do meio oeste e do planalto sul, R. leguminosarum não foi detectado no extremo oeste e R. etli ocorreu nas três regiões, essas duas últimas espécies em solos menos ácidos. Os resultados enfatizam a diversidade genética elevada de rizóbios, inter e intra-específica, nos solos catarinenses, inclusive com a indicação de novas espécies.Brazilian soils usually present a great number of populations of rhizobial bacteria capable of nodulating and fixing N2 in symbiosis with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., but the diversity of these bacteria is still poorly known. This study aimed to assess the biodiversity of micro-symbionts of

  14. Efeito da irrigação com água salina em um solo cultivado com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of irrigation water salinity in a soilcultivated with french beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sal, da água de irrigação, na salinização de um Latossolo Roxo distrófico, onde cultivou-se o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação no Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, em Lavras, MG, com o propósito de evitar a interferência das precipitações pluviométricas. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis de salinidade da água (condutividade elétrica de 0,1; 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 com seis repetições. A condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado do solo foi medida no início do experimento, no final da fase vegetativa e após a colheita. Constatou-se uma diminuição da salinidade do solo para o tratamento 0,1 dS m-1, nas diferentes datas de análise do extrato. Para os demais tratamentos, houve um aumento significativo na salinidade: 116,98%, 195,10%, 565,84% e 955,17% para os níveis 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1, respectivamente. Houve uma queda acentuada de produção com níveis crescentes de salinidade do solo. O aumento da salinidade da água promoveu um acréscimo linear na condutividade elétrica do solo e no potencial osmótico.The objective this study was to evaluate the different irrigation water salt concentrations effects in the salinization of a "Dystrophic Dusky Red Latossol", cultivated with (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the Engineering Department at Federal University of Lavras, of Lavras - MG to avoid the interference of the precipitations. The treatments consisted of five level of water salt concentration (electric conductivity of 0.10; 1.0; 2.5; 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1 with six replications. The electric conductivity of the soil saturation extract was measured at the beginning of the experiment, at the end of the vegetative phase and after the crop harvest. A decrease of soil

  15. Qualidade da colheita mecanizada de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris em dois sistemas de preparo do solo Quality of the mechanical harvesting of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris under two tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouverson Pereira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as etapas de produção do feijoeiro a colheita é uma das mais importantes, porque pode interferir de maneira decisiva na qualidade e no custo de produção. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade da operação da colheita mecanizada de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, cultivado sob preparo convencional e plantio direto. As variáveis analisadas foram: o nível de ruído emitido, calculado através de um medidor de pressão sonora; o desempenho operacional, sendo monitorado o consumo de combustível, a patinagem dos rodados e a velocidade de deslocamento do conjunto coletados em uma central digital (datalogger; e a operação de colheita quanto à matéria seca e densidade de palhada, e as perdas na colheita. A velocidade e os consumos horário e operacional apresentaram distribuição normal dos dados, enquanto que o nível de ruído apresentou distribuição assimétrica. As perdas na colheita mecanizada de feijão e a densidade de palhada apresentaram baixa variabilidade e distribuição normal. Assim, apenas o consumo horário e a produção de matéria seca de palhada apresentaram comportamento instável em relação ao controle estatístico de processo, enquanto os demais indicadores mostraram condições de manter a qualidade da operação de colheita tanto no preparo convencional de solo quanto no plantio direto.Among the production stages of the bean plant, harvesting is one of the most important, because it can decisively affect both quality and production costs. Thus, the objective was to assess quality in the mechanized harvesting of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, grown under conventional tillage and no-tillage systems. The variables analysed were: the noise level emitted, calculated using a sound-pressure meter; the operational performance, by monitoring fuel consumption, wheel-slippage, and displacement velocity of the machine, all collected digitally (datalogger; and the harvesting operation with regard to the dry matter and

  16. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly am...

  17. Copper bioavailability to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in long-term Cu-contaminated soils, uncontaminated soils, and recently Cu-spiked soils

    OpenAIRE

    Senkondo, Yasin Hassan; Semu, E; Tack, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Copper solubility and its bioavailability to Phaseolus vulgaris in long-term copper-contaminated soils, uncontaminated soils, and copper-spiked soils were studied. The role of plant factors, total copper load in soils, and/or the aging effect on the uptake of copper was explored so as to assess health risks through contamination of the food chain associated with growing the crop on such soils. Contaminated soils and clean soils were collected from coffee-growing fields in Kilimanjaro and Arus...

  18. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  19. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Del Pino,Victoria H.; Lajolo,Franco M.

    2003-01-01

    Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró e...

  20. Efecto de la cáscara sobre el mecanismo de endurecimiento del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris): resultados preliminares

    OpenAIRE

    de León, L. F.; Bressani, R.; Elías, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    Frijol negro (Phaseolus vulgaris), variedad Tamazulapa fue utilizado para conocer los cambios físicos y químicos que ocurren durante el almacenamiento del frijol con o sin cáscara y así determinar el papel que juega la cáscara en este proceso. Se prepararon muestras de cotiledones y de frijol entero, las cuales se almacenaron durante 6 semanas a 37°C y 90% de humedad relativa, al final de las cuales la muestra del frijol entero se dividió en dos sub-muestras. Una de ellas quedó Intacta, y la ...

  1. Adenine sulfate effect on shoot formation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar `CIAP7247F' via indirect organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Novisel Veitía; Lourdes R García; Amanda Martirena Ramírez; Idalmis Bermúdez Caraballoso; Raúl Collado; Damaris Torres; Carlos Romero

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of adenine sulfate in plant regeneration from callus of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar `CIAP 7247F'. To this, it was added two concentrations (20 and 40 mg l-1) adenine sulfate to the regeneration culture medium and it was included a control to form a total of three treatments. The number of formed shoots was quantified by treatment in the regeneration culture medium and the height of shoot was measured in elongation medium. It was determined that the ...

  2. Description des embryons de Phaseolus vulgaris en cours d'avortement issus de plantes mutagénisées au méthanesulfonate d'éthyle (EMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Silué, Souleymane; Diarrasouba, Nafan; Fofana, Inza Jesus; Muhovski, Yordan; Toussaint, André; Mergeai, Guy; Jacquemin, Jean-Marie; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM) and cotylédons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to tho...

  3. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Mantequilla to inoculation of Rhizobium native strains of the Ecuador in greenhouse native races of the Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Iván Granda Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of biofertilizers based on Rhizobium strains for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. requires studies about bacterial interaction with target cultivars. For these reason, the aim of this paper was to determine the effect of the inoculation of Rhizobium native strains, isolated from southern Ecuador, on P. vulgaris cultivar Mantequilla. An assay was performed in greenhouse. It were evaluated the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation and efficiency of the symbiosis. All inoculated strains were able to nodulate bean seedlings. The total number of nodules, nodular biomass and plant biomass, were favourably affected by inoculation of Rhizobium strains. The best results were obtained with R. mesoamericanum NAM1, R. leguminosarum COL 6 and R. etli PIN 1 strains. The experimental evidences shows the potential of native strains of Rhizobium for it use as biofertilizers because they are able to raise the rates of nitrogen fixation in common bean in southern Ecuador.

  4. ZnO nanoparticles and root colonization by a beneficial pseudomonad influence essential metal responses in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O; Hansen, Trevor; Stewart, Jacob; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into commercial products are reactive on plants. Here, the influence of a root-associated bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6) on the responses of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to commercial ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was examined. ZnO NPs (250-1000 mg Zn/kg) significantly (p = 0.05) impacted root elongation after 7 days; only at 1000 mg/kg was shoot growth significantly inhibited. Zn solubilized from ZnO NPs correlated with root growth inhibition (r(2 )= 0.8709); solubility of Fe (r(2 )= 0.916) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.997), and shoot accumulation of Zn (r(2 )= 0.9095), Fe (r(2 )= 0.9422) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.789). Root ferric reductase activity diminished 31% in NP-exposed plants. Amendments with Zn ions at 6 mg/kg, corresponding to Zn solubilized from the NPs, did not replicate the responses, suggesting a nano-specific contribution of the ZnO. Neither NPs (500 mg Zn/kg) nor Zn ions affected root colonization by PcO6. Siderophore production by PcO6 increased 17% by exposure to NPs and 11% with Zn ions (18 mg/kg). PcO6 restored plant ferric reduction under NP exposure, but decreased uptake of Zn and Fe, 58 and 18%, respectively, suggesting soil bacteria could reduce plant accumulation of metals under toxic exposure levels, while negatively affecting uptake of essential elements. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that growth and balance of essential metals in bean exposed to ZnO NPs were influenced by the NPs and bacterial colonization of NP-exposed roots, indicating subtle effects of NPs in plant nutrition.

  5. The response of aminopeptidases of Phaseolus vulgaris to drought depends on the developmental stage of the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budič, Maruška; Cigić, Blaž; Šoštarič, Maja; Sabotič, Jerica; Meglič, Vladimir; Kos, Janko; Kidrič, Marjetka

    2016-12-01

    Aminopeptidases, together with other proteases, execute and regulate the total and specifically limited protein breakdown involved in plant physiology, raising the possibility of their involvement in response to drought. We have identified, in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L., five aminopeptidases (E.C.3.4.11) whose levels of activity changed when three week old plants were subjected to drought. First, second and third trifoliate leaves were investigated separately. The aminopeptidases were first identified then isolated using ion exchange chromatography of leaf extracts. Three, named PvAP1, PvAP2 and PvAP4, are metallo aminopeptidases with broad substrate specificity, active against substrates conjugated to alanine and lysine. Two others, PvAP3 and PvAP5, are apparently serine aminopeptidases, the former active against substrates conjugated to phenylalanine and leucine, and the latter characterised by narrow specificity against substrates conjugated to phenylalanine. Their apparent molecular weights range from ∼37 kDa to ∼80 kDa. Levels of activity of individual aminopeptidases in both watered and drought stressed plants are shown to depend on the age of leaves. In watered plants they were generally highest in young, and very low in older, trifoliate leaves, the latter with the exception of PvAP5. Drought initiated an almost general increase of their activities, although to different extents, with the exception of PvAP4 and PvAP5 in young trifoliate leaves. Thus, in such studies it is necessary to investigate the effects of drought separately in leaves of different ages in order to elucidate the different complex and probably specific roles of aminopeptidases in the response of common bean to drought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Occurrence of polyamines in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Miguel; Cobos-Porras, Libertad; Hidalgo-Castellanos, Javier; Lluch, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds that have been shown to be an important part of plant responses to salt stress. For that reason in this work we have investigated the involvement of PAs in the response to salt stress in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici. The level and variety of PAs was higher in nodules, compared to leaves and roots, and in addition to the common PAs (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) we found homospermidine (Homspd) as the most abundant polyamine in nodules. UPLC-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 4-aminobutylcadaverine (4-ABcad), only described in nodules of Vigna angularis before. Indeed, the analysis of different nodular fractions revealed higher level of 4-ABcad, as well as Homspd, in bacteroids which indicate the production of these PAs by the bacteria in symbiosis. The genes involved in PAs biosynthesis in nodules displayed an induction under salt stress conditions which was not consistent with the decline of free PAs levels, probably due to the nitrogen limitations provoked by the nitrogenase activity depletion and/or the conversion of free PAs to theirs soluble conjugated forms, that seems to be one of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PAs levels. On the contrary, cadaverine (Cad) and 4-ABcad concentrations augmented by the salinity, which might be due to their involvement in the response of bacteroids to hyper-osmotic conditions. In conclusion, the results shown in this work suggest the alteration of the bacteroidal metabolism towards the production of uncommon PAs such as 4-ABcad in the response to salt stress in legume root nodules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux.

  8. Gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from North-western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neeraj; Bawa, Vanya; Paliwal, Rajneesh; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Mohd Ashraf; Mir, Javid Iqbal; Gupta, Moni; Sofi, Parvaze A; Thudi, Mahendar; Varshney, Rajeev K; Mir, Reyazul Rouf

    2018-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important grain legume crops in the world. The beans grown in north-western Himalayas possess huge diversity for seed color, shape and size but are mostly susceptible to Anthracnose disease caused by seed born fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Dozens of QTLs/genes have been already identified for this disease in common bean world-wide. However, this is the first report of gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose using bean germplasm from north-western Himalayas of state Jammu & Kashmir, India. A core set of 96 bean lines comprising 54 indigenous local landraces from 11 hot-spots and 42 exotic lines from 10 different countries were phenotyped at two locations (SKUAST-Jammu and Bhaderwah, Jammu) for Anthracnose resistance. The core set was also genotyped with genome-wide (91) random and trait linked SSR markers. The study of marker-trait associations (MTAs) led to the identification of 10 QTLs/genes for Anthracnose resistance. Among the 10 QTLs/genes identified, two MTAs are stable (BM45 & BM211), two MTAs (PVctt1 & BM211) are major explaining more than 20% phenotypic variation for Anthracnose and one MTA (BM211) is both stable and major. Six (06) genomic regions are reported for the first time, while as four (04) genomic regions validated the already known QTL/gene regions/clusters for Anthracnose. The major, stable and validated markers reported during the present study associated with Anthracnose resistance will prove useful in common bean molecular breeding programs aimed at enhancing Anthracnose resistance of local bean landraces grown in north-western Himalayas of state Jammu and Kashmir.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  10. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingli; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Mantri, Nitin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY). The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  11. Effect of the dietary level of cull pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and digestibility of hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Castillo Rangel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effect of three levels of cull pinto beans (CPB; Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and nutrient digestibility in hair lambs. Six cannulated lambs averaging 56.6±3.8 kg were used and were randomly assigned to one of three treatments. Treatments were: 0.0 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (control; 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB25; and 0.40 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB40. Dry matter intake, ruminal pH, NH3, and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, methane production, Kp (passage rate, MRT (mean retention time, and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were evaluated. Data were analyzed in a Latin square design, repeated in line, by MIXED procedure of SAS. Estimates used for Kp and MRT were obtained by a non-linear regression model (PROC NLIN. Dry matter intake was reduced by supplementation of CPB. No differences were found in ruminal pH or ruminal NH3. During the trial, differences were found for ruminal VFA concentration (mM, which were greater for the CB25 group. The propionate:acetate ratio was greater for the CB40 treatment. Methane production (mM/m differed among treatments, but it was the greatest for the CB40 group. Passage rate (kg kg−1/h and MRT (h were similar among treatments and the digestibility (kg kg−1 of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber was not different among treatments. The inclusion of 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the diet of hair lambs allows for appropriate nutrient digestion without affecting Kp and MRT and increases the molar proportion of the ability of VFA to maintain acetate:propionate ratio without increasing methane production.

  12. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Chen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY. The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  13. Antioxidant and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Raw Green Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Aged Male Rats Exposed to gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed EI-Gawad, E.I.; Aiad, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This Study was established to assess the effect of supplemental dietary raw green snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) for three months to overcome gamma-irradiation induced alterations on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , total iron, ferritin, transferrin and ceruloplasmin) and the hyper lipidemic state (triglycerides, cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL-c and LDL-c) in aged male rats. Raw green snap is an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India. The study also aimed to estimate the effect of dietary raw green snap on general health through the follow up of body weight and mortality during the course of supplementation. Thirty-two aged male rats (24 months, 370-375 g) were divided equally into four groups. 1- Control group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months. 2- Supplemented group, the animals balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g / kg body wt/ day) for 3 months. 3- Irradiated group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months were then exposed to whole body y-radiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. 4-Supplemented-irradiated group, the animals' balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g/ kg/ day) for three months and then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. The blood samples were taken from orbital venous plexuses after 48 h of stopping green snap supplementation (supplemented group) or after irradiation (irradiated and supplemented gamma-irradiated groups). The results obtained showed reduction in the body wt in green snap supplemented group which increased gradually concomitant with occurrence of animal mortality on week 7 reaching II) maximal values (-32.79 and 33.33 %) respectively, on week 12 of supplementation. Also, the supplemented group showed non significant changes in tested parameters although the level of total iron and triglycerides recorded noticeable changes as compared with controls

  14. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and sesame (Sesamum indicum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 3 replications and 16 treatments based on different densities of sesame and bean intercropping was used. The model predicted the maximum yield of an isolated plant of bean and sesame approximately 33 and 17g per plant respectively. The area associated with the maximum yield per plant in bean and sesame were 0.6 and 0.1 m2, respectively. Bean was the dominant competitor with respect to both grain and biomass, and competition coefficient was 0.35 and 0.3 for bean grain yield and bean biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was more important than inter-specific competition for bean. Competition coefficient was 2.6 and 2.9 for sesame grain yield and biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was much less important than Interspecific competition in sesame. The highest grain yield in bean (300 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 20 plants, and the highest sesame grain yield (195 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 40 plants, the highest land equivalent ratio (1.14 was obtained in intercropping of 20 plants of bean and 10 plants of sesame.

  15. Metabolic origin of the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2} in roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathellier, C.; Tcherkez, G.; Cornic, G.; Ghashghaie, J. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution - ESE, CNRS-UMR 8079 - IFR 87, Batiment 362, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Tcherkez, G. [Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome, IFR87 La Plante et son Environnement, Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Bligny, R.; Gout, E. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale CEA-Grenoble 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-01

    - Root respiration is a major contributor to soil CO{sub 2} efflux, and thus an important component of ecosystem respiration. But its metabolic origin, in relation to the carbon isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C), remains poorly understood. - Here, {sup 13}C analysis was conducted on CO{sub 2} and metabolites under typical conditions or under continuous darkness in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots. {sup 13}C contents were measured either under natural abundance or following pulse-chase labeling with {sup 13}C-enriched glucose or pyruvate, using isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. - In contrast to leaves, no relationship was found between the respiratory quotient and the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2}, which stayed constant at a low value (c. -27.5 per thousand) under continuous darkness. With labeling experiments, it is shown that such a pattern is explained by the {sup 13}C-depleting effect of the pentose phosphate pathway; and the involvement of the Krebs cycle fueled by either the glycolytic input or the lipid/protein recycling. The anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity sustained glutamic acid (Glu) synthesis, with no net effect on respired CO{sub 2}. - These results indicate that the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal does not depend on the availability of root respiratory substrates and it is thus plausible that, unless the {sup 13}C photosynthetic fractionation varies at the leaf level, the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal hardly changes under a range of natural environmental conditions. (authors)

  16. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Phenotypic evaluation and genome wide association studies of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) diversity panels in multiple locations highlight evaluation techniques, traits and lines useful for trait based selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity is constrained by abiotic soil conductions including drought and low fertility as well as by high temperature. High temperature primarily impacts pollen viability and growth. Soil water content and nutrients occur heterogeneously and often in a stratif...

  18. Projection from the prefrontal cortex to histaminergic cell groups in the posterior hypothalamic region of the rat. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemistry of histidine decarboxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterlood, F.G.; Steinbusch, H.W.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Bol, J.G.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the projection from the infralimbic division of the prefrontal cortex (area 25) to histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamic area. Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) was injected in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Frozen brain sections were subjected to combined

  19. Relationship between seed coat colors and patterns with phenolic content and antioxidant activity in a collection of 120 heirloom accessions of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) from the National Plant Germplasm System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are one of the most economically and nutritionally important crops world-wide. They are the most important legume for direct human consumption with more than 23 million metric tons produced in 2013; more than twice that of the next most important legume, chickpea (Cicer...

  20. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) seed coat on the embryonic and larval development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of the Phaseolus vulgaris circadian clock and the repressive role of the PvTOC1 factor by a newly established in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeou, Angeliki; Roussis, Andreas; Prombona, Anastasia

    2018-03-01

    The circadian clock is crucial for the synchronization of an organism's physiology and metabolism with the geophysical time. In plants, previous work on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has identified various differing aspects of clock function compared to the widely studied Arabidopsis thaliana clock. However, transformation of legumes for the study of the circadian clock regulatory mechanisms is extremely laborious. In the present work, we describe an easy-to-follow and rapid method of preparing bean leaf protoplasts with high transformation potential and a functional circadian clock. In this system, we show that application of trichostatin A differentially changes the expression levels of several clock genes. More importantly, we investigate the effect of the clock protein PvTOC1 (Phaseolus vulgaris TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1) on the activity of bean circadian promoters. We present new evidence on the function of PvTOC1 as a repressor of the promoter activity of its own gene, mediated by its conserved CCT (CONSTANS, CO-LIKE and TOC1) domain. Using our protoplast system we were able to uncover functions of the bean circadian clock and to identify an additional target of the PvTOC1clock transcription factor, not previously reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for 60 Co and 137 Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of 90 Y was used for 90 Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for 60 Co and 137 Cs. For the 90 Sr, the translocation was below 2,5 mBq kg -1 /Bq

  3. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M., E-mail: adriana.souza@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  4. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaf and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed coat extracts in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Yulia; Shipelin, Vladimir; Mazo, Vladimir; Zorin, Sergey; Petrov, Nikita; Kochetkova, Alla

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaf (VLE) and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed coat (PCE) plant extracts, containing polyphenolic compounds, on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats with streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Male Wistar rats with STZ and HFD-induced diabetes were fed with or without VLE or PCE for 50 d. At different intervals, blood glucose and body weight were recorded. Blood samples were used to determine glycated hemoglobin (HbA) and parameters of lipid profile in serum. Additionally, the levels of serum diene conjugates and malondialdehyde were assessed. Results of HbA and blood glucose level analysis showed the ameliorative effect of VLE on carbohydrate metabolism in diabetic rats. Of the eight diabetic animals treated with bilberry leaf extract, four had normal HbA levels. A significant reduction was observed in VLE group in blood glucose level compared with control diabetic rats (level of hyperglycemia decreased to normal values in 50% of animals versus 0% in the control diabetic group). VLE treatment normalized parameters of lipid metabolism. There was no significant difference from the same parameters in the intact control group. Administration of PCE significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of plasma triacylglycerol (0.81 ± 0.06 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein (0.74 ± 0.10 mmol/L) in blood serum compared with the diabetic control group (1.36 ± 0.13 and 1.85 ± 0.30, respectively). Moreover, VLE and PLE showed an antioxidant effect on diene compounds in the blood serum of rats. A significant decrease was found in the plasma diene conjugate levels in PLE group (1.16 ± 0.11 nmol/mL) compared with control diabetic rats (2.09 ± 0.21 nmol/mL; P < 0.05). There was no significant difference from the same parameter in the VLE and intact control groups. The set of results that was obtained in the present

  5. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) PvTIFY orchestrates global changes in transcript profile response to jasmonate and phosphorus deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background TIFY is a large plant-specific transcription factor gene family. A subgroup of TIFY genes named JAZ (Jasmonate-ZIM domain) has been identified as repressors of jasmonate (JA)-regulated transcription in Arabidopsis and other plants. JA signaling is involved in many aspects of plant growth/development and in defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we identified the TIFY genes (designated PvTIFY) from the legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and functionally characterized PvTIFY10C as a transcriptional regulator. Results Nineteen genes from the PvTIFY gene family were identified through whole-genome sequence analysis. Most of these were induced upon methyl-JA elicitation. We selected PvTIFY10C as a representative JA-responsive PvTIFY gene for further functional analysis. Transcriptome analysis via microarray hybridization using the newly designed Bean Custom Array 90 K was performed on transgenic roots of composite plants with modulated (RNAi-silencing or over-expression) PvTIFY10C gene expression. Data were interpreted using Gene Ontology and MapMan adapted to common bean. Microarray differential gene expression data were validated by real-time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Comparative global gene expression analysis revealed opposite regulatory changes in processes such as RNA and protein regulation, stress responses and metabolism in PvTIFY10C silenced vs. over-expressing roots. These data point to transcript reprogramming (mainly repression) orchestrated by PvTIFY10C. In addition, we found that several PvTIFY genes, as well as genes from the JA biosynthetic pathway, responded to P-deficiency. Relevant P-responsive genes that participate in carbon metabolic pathways, cell wall synthesis, lipid metabolism, transport, DNA, RNA and protein regulation, and signaling were oppositely-regulated in control vs. PvTIFY10C-silenced roots of composite plants under P-stress. These data indicate that PvTIFY10C regulates, directly or indirectly, the

  6. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M.; Arthur, Valter

    2011-01-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  7. EFEITO DO CONDICIONAMENTO OSMÓTICO NO VIGOR DE PLÂNTULAS DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Firmino de Queiroz

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Estudou-se o efeito de seis níveis de potencial osmótico (0, -0,2 -0,4 -0,6 -0,8 e -1,0MPa induzidos por polietileno glicol-6000 (PEG-6000 sobre o vigor de sementes de dez cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris , L.. O experimento foi conduzido em laboratório, em condições de temperatura e umidade controladas e substrato de papel-toalha e o delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial de 10 x 6, com 4 repetições, cada uma com dez sementes. Houve avaliação do comprimento médio da radícula, do comprimento médio do hipocótilo e da relação radícula/hipocótilo. A medição das plântulas foi realizada em todas as cultivares, para cada nível de PEG-6000, no momento em que uma das dez cultivares atingia o nível de 80% de germinação, ou tivessem decorridos 20 dias da instalação do teste, estando as plântulas com hipocótilo e radícula nitidamente diferenciados, com comprimento mínimo de 0,5cm. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se haver influência do PEG-6000 sobre o vigor das plântulas. A cv. Diamante Negro foi a mais vigorosa em baixos potenciais osmóticos (-0,4MPa e -0,6MPa e a Safira, a mais sensível. Sob condições de estresse hídrico, as radículas tenderam a se alongar mais que o hipocótilo e os genótipos menos tolerantes desenvolveram maior relação radícula/hipocótilo.

  8. Do French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in proximity to Mt Kenya forest- Kenya- experience pollination deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Masiga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yields of commercially important crops in Kenya are often far below their potential. Amongst the possible reasons for such low yields may be the ecosystem degradation that can be expected to have negative impacts on pollinator presence in cropland, and the consequent food security issue for smallholder farmers who depend on these crops for their livelihood. Our study was carried out to assess the potential pollination deficit of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major export vegetable crop in Kenya grown by small-scale farmers. Sufficient pollination of French beans likely results in high seed set and uniform heavier green pods. Such pods get the highest grade while malformed pods are unmarketable, reducing family income. We hypothesized that pollination success was linked to the abundance and diversity of large pollinators, itself associated with the proximity to natural habitats. Flower visitors to French beans were sampled in 2011 and 2012 in ten farmer-managed plots, five within 200 m from the edge of Mt. Kenya forest and five farther away, more than 1000 m. Each plot measured 760 m2 and was planted at the same time, with the “Julia” variety. Flowers were observed for 2 h in each plot once weekly for three weeks at peak flowering from 0900-1100 h in the morning and 1200 – 1400 h in the afternoon on alternate days. Honey bees (Apis mellifera were the most abundant visitors of French bean flowers followed by carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp. and leafcutter bees (Megachile spp.. Significantly higher numbers of leafcutter bees were recorded on farms far to the forest. There was no significant difference in honey bee abundance among the study sites, probably because apiaries and wild colonies are located across the landscape. French bean yield was significantly correlated with the mean abundance of carpenter bees in 2011. This suggests the possible occurrence of pollination deficit in French beans where the density of carpenter bees is

  9. Leaf area of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. according to leaf dimensionsÁrea foliar de feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em função de dimensões foliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Toebe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the methods of leaf discs and digital photos used to determine the leaf area of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., with indeterminate growth habit, and model complete leaf area (three leaflets according the length, or width and or the product of length width, for different sizes of leaves. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at University Federal of Santa Maria, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. For this, in 191 leaves, collected 55 days after sowing, it was measured the maximum length and maximum width of central leaflet, and calculated the product of length width. After was determined leaf area of complete leaves (left, central and right leaflets, by the methods of digital photos and leaf discs. Linear regression analysis and correlation were used to compare the methods. The quadratic, potency and linear models of the leaf area as a function of the length, or width, or product of length width were adjusted, and validated by different indicators. In snap beans, the leaf disks and digital photos methods are discordant. The method digital photos adequately represent the leaf limb, regardless of different mass per area exist, and is appropriate for the determination of leaf area. Quadratic model (? = –4.8376 + 1.8908 x + 2.2027 x2, R2 = 0.9901 and potency model (? = 2.5806 x1.9565, R2 = 0.9883 based on the width of central leaflet (x are adequate to estimate complete leaf area (three leaflets, determined by digital photos.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os métodos de discos foliares e de fotos digitais, utilizados para determinar a área foliar de feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. de hábito de crescimento indeterminado, e modelar a área foliar completa (três folíolos em função do comprimento, ou da largura e/ou do produto comprimento vezes largura do folíolo central, de diferentes tamanhos de folhas. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, sob estufa pl

  10. Allelopathic Effects of Eucalyptus Tereticornis on Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water extracts of leaves (green, brown and decayed stages) and bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis were tested for seed germination and primary root and shoot development of Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. There was no significant difference in the germination percentage of Phaseolus vulgaris due to the treatments of ...

  11. Utilisation des mutations induites pour l'étude de l'embryogenèse chez le haricot Phaseolus vulgaris L. et deux plantes modèles Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. et Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of induced mutations in embryogenesis study in bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. and Zea mays L.. Breeding of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., through interspecific hybridizations with the species Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. as female parents leads to the abortion of immature embryos. Identification of genes required for embryo development could partly explain the abortion of hybrid embryos; induced mutations could thus be an alternative to identify key genes involved in Phaseolus embryogenesis. This paper is a review which shows a few examples of the use of induced mutations in the identification of essential genes for embryogenesis in two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn. for dicots and Zea mays L. for monocots. In these two species, embryo development mutants have been isolated using insertional mutagenesis and chemical mutagenesis with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS. Arabidopsis embryo mutants are affected in apical-basal axis polarity, radial pattern and in post-embryonic stages. Some Arabidopsis embryo mutants are defected in auxin signalisation. In maize, defective kernel (dek mutants are affected in the embryo and the endosperm, while in embryo specific (emb mutants, only the embryo is affected. In common bean, plants deficient in seed development were isolated using EMS mutagenesis. Embryos inside the seeds fail to growth at different stages of development and show abnormalities mainly in the suspensor and the cotyledons.

  12. RbohB, a Phaseolus vulgaris NADPH oxidase gene, enhances symbiosome number, bacteroid size, and nitrogen fixation in nodules and impairs mycorrhizal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Nava, Noreide; Santana, Olivia; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by respiratory burst oxidative homologs (Rbohs) are involved in numerous plant cell signaling processes, and have critical roles in the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Previously, down-regulation of RbohB in Phaseolus vulgaris was shown to suppress ROS production and abolish Rhizobium infection thread (IT) progression, but also to enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization. Thus, Rbohs function both as positive and negative regulators. Here, we assessed the effect of enhancing ROS concentrations, by overexpressing PvRbohB, on the P. vulgaris--rhizobia and P. vulgaris--AMF symbioses. We estimated superoxide concentrations in hairy roots overexpressing PvRbohB, determined the status of early and late events of both Rhizobium and AMF interactions in symbiont-inoculated roots, and analyzed the nodule ultrastructure of transgenic plants overexpressing PvRbohB. Overexpression of PvRbohB significantly enhanced ROS production, the formation of ITs, nodule biomass, and nitrogen-fixing activity, and increased the density of symbiosomes in nodules, and the density and size of bacteroides in symbiosomes. Furthermore, PvCAT, early nodulin, PvSS1, and PvGOGAT transcript abundances were elevated in these nodules. By contrast, mycorrhizal colonization was reduced in roots that overexpressed RbohB. Overexpression of PvRbohB augmented nodule efficiency by enhancing nitrogen fixation and delaying nodule senescence, but impaired AMF colonization. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 is associated with the homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Larsen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) play a central role in potyviral infection. Accordingly, mutations in the gene encoding eIF4E have been identified as a source of recessive resistance in several plant species. In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc......-3 and bc-u, have been proposed to control resistance to the potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. In order to identify molecular entities for these genes, we cloned and sequenced P. vulgaris homologues of genes encoding the eIF proteins eIF4E, eIF(iso)4E...... resistance and eIF4E genotype was subsequently analysed in an F2 population derived from the P. vulgaris all-susceptible genotype and a genotype carrying bc-3. F2 plants homozygous for the eIF4E mutant allele were found to display at least the same level of resistance to BCMV as the parental resistant...

  14. EVALUATION OF SWINE ORGANIC MATTER ON COMMON BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L) YIELD AVALIAÇÃO DO EFEITO DE RESÍDUOS ORGÂNICOS DE SUÍNOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE FEIJÃO COMUM (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Haroldo Rodrigues da Cunha; Magda Beatriz de almeida Matteuci

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to test the effect of organic manure (swine slurry) on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grain yield, CV. Carioca, on a red latossol, with low fertility, high acidity (pH = 4.8), medium aluminum toxicity (0.5 me/100 ml), medium contents of P (6.1 ppm) and K+ (53 ppm) and low contents of calcium plus magnesium (1.1 me/100ml) at the Federal University of Goiás, Sc...

  15. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes under Late Season Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somayyeh soheili movahhed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought or water deficit stress is the most important environmental factor which has severe negative impacts on crop yields, especially when the water stress occurs in the flowering stage. Iran is located in arid and semi-arid areas, therefore, attention to the effects of water deficit stress in different stages of plants growth seems necessary. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important legumes that has a major contribution to human diet and provides an important part of the human protein. According to studies, cultivation areas of legumes in Iran are about 97300 hectares and its total production is about 208350 tons of grain. Bean is a fast-growing plant (Tran and Singh, 2002, thus soil water must be sufficiently available to ensure its desirable growth and yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of drought stress on yield and yield components of some pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in Zanjan province. Materials and methods An experiment was conducted as spilt plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications in Zanjan university research farm. Irrigation levels (control and drought stress and genotypes (Local khomein, Sadri, Ks21193 and Ks21189 were set in the main and subplot, respectively. Water deficit stress was applied during flowering stage (50% of the plants were at anthesis. Sampling was performed to measure yield and yield components at the end of the growth period and final maturity. In this experiment number of pod per Plant, numberof grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Results and Discussion In this experiment it was observed that drought stress, genotype and interact irrigation×genotyps were significantly for all traits except biological yield. Drought stress reduced number of pod perplant, number of grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and Harvest Index. Results

  16. A model of canopy irradiance in relation to changing leaf area in a phytotron-grown snap bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieth, J. H.; Reynolds, J. F.

    1984-03-01

    Simple exponential decay models were used to describe the variation in irradiance profiles within a snap bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) canopy over a 33-day period of canopy development. The extinction coefficients of these models were varied over time as a function of changing canopy leaf area; nonlinear least-squares procedures were used to estimate parameter values. The resultant model response surfaces depict the changes in canopy irradiance that accompany canopy maturation and illustrate the dynamic nature of canopy closure. A criterion index is defined to aid in assessing the applicability of these models for use in whole-plant simulation models, and an evaluation of these models is given based on this index, their predictive accuracy, and the utility for use within varying modeling frameworks.

  17. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marteleto, Patricia B.; Lomonaco, Cecilia; Kerr, Warwick E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  18. Control of ascorbic acid synthesis and accumulation and glutathione by the incident light red/far red ratio in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G; Tambussi, Eduardo A; Diego, Fanello; Foyer, Christine H

    2009-01-05

    The effects of red/far red (R/FR) ratios on leaf ascorbate (AA) and glutathione (GSH) accumulation were examined in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Growth under low R/FR ratios resulted in a "shade" phenotype and much lower leaf AA and GSH contents than high (R/FR) ratios. Photosynthesis rates were unaffected by changes in the R/FR ratio but leaf respiration rates, pyridine nucleotide pools and antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased under the low R/FR regime. The GSH pool changed slowly in response to altered R/FR ratios but leaf ascorbate acclimated over a single photoperiod. We conclude that light quality signals, particularly R/FR ratios, are important regulators of antioxidant synthesis and accumulation. These acclimatory changes are an early response to changing light environment.

  19. Law enforcement fick and peleg model for study of water uptake in navel cargamanto yellow (phaseolus vulgaris l. and peas seca (pisan sativa during rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fernando Agudelo Ospina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research validated Fick’s Law and Peleg’s model applicability for modeling water sorption of yellow navel cargamanto bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. and dry pea (Pisum sativum, using five different water temperatures 25, 35, 40, 47 y 55 ºC, to soak the analyzed materials; for bean an optimal mathematical expression was obtained to make estimations, opposite case was the observed thing for pea; the diffusion coefficient calculated were all of the order of 1.91 x 10-9 m2/s for bean and 3.51 x 10-10 for dry pea; the activation energies were 41.464 KJ/mol for bean and 56.246 KJ/mol for dry pea

  20. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  1. Determinación de las relaciones genéticas en 24 accesiones de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris Determination of genetic relationships among 24 collections of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez C. Martha Leticia

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron 24 accesiones de Phaseolus vulgaris L., de las cuales 21 son de origen andino y tres mesoamericanas. Dentro de los materiales andinos, se incluyeron variedades mejoradas y cultivariedades regionales, procedentes de diversas zonas agroecológicas de Colombia. Para la  caracterización, se utilizaron 22 sistemas isoenzimáticos, ocho de los cuales mostraron buena resolución y fueron seleccionados como marcadores bioquímicos del estudio. Seis enzimas revelaron polimorfismos: Esterasa (EST, Malato deshidrogenasa (MOH, Oeshidrogenasa Shikimica (SKOH,
    Rubisco (RBCS, Isocitrato deshidrogenasa (IOH, y Glutamato deshidrogenasa (GOH. Las enzimas: Transaminasa glutámica oxalacética (GOT y Endopeptidasa (EP fueron monomórficas para todas las accesiones estudiadas. El polimorfismo se evidenció a través de 17 loci que codificaron para un mínimo de 34 alelos diferentes. Las enzimas IOH y GOHse reportan por primera vez en el fríjol común. Para establecer las relaciones entre los grupos, se usó la distancia de Jaccard y el algoritmo de agrupación UPGMA. El dendrograma obtenido conjugó dos grupos divididos en cinco subgrupos. Los grupos principales se separaron en primera instancia por el centro de domesticación: el mesoamericano y el andino, como era de esperarse. Los tres testigos mesoamericanos fueron separados del resto en un subgrupo. Las poblaciones andinas colombianas, en las cuales se centró la importancia de este estudio, fueron divididas en cuatro subgrupos que no discriminaron, en forma marcada las variedades mejoradas de las cultivariedades regionales. Los subgrupos se analizaron y discutieron de acuerdo con sus genealogías, orígenes geográficos y lugares de adaptación, más que por sus características morfológicas.
    Twenty four collections of common bean, 21 from Andean origin and three from Central America were characterized, using biochemical markers. Eight out of 22 isozyme systems showed good

  2. Genome-wide identification and in silico characterisation of microRNAs, their targets and processing pathway genes in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Cardoso, T C; Portilho, L G; de Oliveira, C L; McKeown, P C; Maluf, W R; Gomes, L A A; Teixeira, T A; do Amaral, L R; Spillane, C; de Souza Gomes, M

    2016-03-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) is a globally important staple crop, which is an important source of calories, protein and essential micronutrients. At the genomic level little is known regarding the small non-coding RNAs within the common bean genome. One of the most important classes of such small non-coding RNAs is microRNAs (miRNAs), which control mRNA and protein expression levels in many eukaryotes. Computational methods have been applied to identify putative miRNAs in the genomes of different organisms. In this study, our objective was to comprehensively identify and characterise miRNAs from the genome and transcriptome of P. vulgaris, including both mature and precursor miRNA forms. We also sought to identify the putative proteins involved in miRNA processing and the likely target genes of common bean miRNAs. We identified 221 mature miRNAs and 136 precursor miRNAs distributed across 52 different miRNA families in the P. vulgaris genome. Amongst these, we distinguished 129 novel mature miRNAs and 123 miRNA precursors belonging to 24 different miRNA families. We also identified 31 proteins predicted to participate in the miRNA-processing pathway in P. vulgaris. Finally, we also identified 483 predicted miRNA targets, including many which corroborate results from other species, suggesting that miRNA regulatory systems are evolutionarily conserved and important for plant development. Our results expand the study of miRNAs and their target genes in common bean, and provide new opportunities to understand their roles in the biology of this important staple crop. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Acetylsalicylic acid enhance tolerance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to chilling stress, improving photosynthesis, antioxidants and expression of cold stress responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Mona H; Alayafi, Aisha A M; El Kelish, Amr A; Abu-Elsaoud, Abdelghafar M

    2018-02-15

    High and low temperatures constitute the most damaging type of abiotic stress and limit the survival, and productivity of plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of exogenous applications of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in reducing the deleterious effects of cold stress. Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings were treated with foliar-sprayed ASA at concentrations of 0-3 mM and then subjected to chilling stress at 4 °C for 2 or 4 days. Growth, photosynthesis, biochemical alterations, oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as the expression of cold-responsive genes (CBF3-COR47), were monitored during the experiment. ASA applications substantially improved several growth and photosynthetic parameters, including shoot biomass, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigments, of P. vulgaris seedlings exposed to different durations of chilling stresses. The ASA foliar spray treatments significantly (p < 0.05) rescued the growth and photosynthetic pigments of P. vulgaris seedlings under different chilling stresses. The total soluble sugars markedly increased during 0-4 days of chilling stress following ASA foliar spraying. The exogenous application of ASA significantly (p < 0.05) increased the accumulation of proline in P. vulgaris seedlings under chilling stress. At the gene expression level, ASA significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated the cold-responsive genes CBF3 and COR47. As a result, we speculate that, the application of exogenous ASA alleviated the adverse effects of chilling stress on all measured parameters, and 1 and 2 mM ASA exhibited the greatest effects.

  4. EFFECT OF ORGASOL ON SNAP BEAN CROP (Phaseolus vulgaris L. WITH AND WITHOUT CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS EFEITO DO ORGASOL NA CULTURA DE FEIJÃO-DE-VAGEM (Phaseolus vulgaris L. NA PRESENÇA E NA AUSÊNCIA DE ADUBAÇÃO QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Orgasol, an organic compound of animal origin, was tested on seeds and on snap crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, with and without chemical fertilizer (NPK in two planting dates. The orgasol-s with three applied doses (0, 1 and 2 ml/l of water on a first date and 0, 3 and 6 ml/l, on a second date had no influence on seed germination and pods production on this crop.

    O Orgasol, um composto orgânico de origem animal, foi testado em sementes e na cultura do feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, em duas épocas de plantio, na presença e na ausência de adubação química. O Orgasol-S foi empregado nas doses de 0, 1 e 2 ml/litro de água na primeira época de plantio e 0, 3 e 6 ml/litro de água na segunda época. Este composto não influenciou a germinação nem a produção de vagens na cultura estudada.

  5. Infestation of Phaseolus Vulgaris (L) by the beanfly Ophiomyia Spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Its Management by Cultural Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayitare, Joseph Sibomana

    1993-04-01

    Cultural practices as management strategy for bean fly control were examined over four cropping seasons in 1991 and 1992 under farmer’s developed field conditions at Oyugis, in Homa Bay District of Western Kenya. In many parts of East and Central Africa, the bean fly is a major constraint to the production of the bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris), its incidence causes yield losses averaging 47-87%, Control methods used against the pest are mostly insecticides based. Cultural control as a pest management strategy is a less considered area of research which needs to be studied, since it is the first line of defence against pest populations and results in little or no added cost. For this reason studies on five cultural practices (soil fertility, inter cropping, weeding regimes, plant spacing and planting time) on bean fly infestation were undertaken as possible control methods, Increase in nitrogen levels increased bean fly infestation by 12-66%. Phosphorus served as catalyst for nitrogen assimilation. The fertilized plants were more succulent, tender and had more nutrients and therefore offered better conditions for bean fly penetration into bean stems, fecundity and development. However, the infested plants in fertilized soils were able to compensate for the damage caused to them and grew quickly to pass the critical stages. Thus the bean fly infestation had little effect on grain yield. The effect of bean fly infestation on yield when no nitrogen and phosphorus were applied, was a 48% reduction in yield, Therefore, the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers reduced the effect of bean fly damage and increased grain yield. Inter cropping increased bean fly infestation compared to pure stands of beans. The micro climatic conditions (light intensity, temperature and relative humidity) created by inter cropping of beans with maize increased bean fly infestation compared to that in the bean mono crop. Weeding regimes had no effect on bean fly infestation, however

  6. A comparative analysis of composts and vermicomposts derived from municipal solid waste for the growth and yield of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate and compare the responses of Phaseolus vulgaris to three types of composts and vermicomposts derived from municipal solid waste (MSW). Different amendment rates were used and evaluated for their effect on germination, growth, and marketable yield. MSW-derived vermicomposts and composts were substituted into mineral brown-earth soil, applied at rates of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100% (v/v) in plastic pots of 7.2-L capacity. Green beans which are grown in 40% vermicompost/soil mixtures and compost/soil mixtures yielded 78.3-89.5% higher fruit weights as compared to control. Results showed that MSW vermicomposts consistently outperformed equivalent quantities of composts in terms of fruit yield, shoot, and root dry weights, which can be attributed to the contributions of physicochemical properties and nutrients content (N, P, and K) in the potting experiments. Consequently, it seemed likely that MSW vermicompost provided other biological inputs such as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and plant growth hormones (PGHs), which could have a considerably positive effect on the growth and yields of P. vulgaris as compared to composts. More in-depth scientific investigation is required in order to identify the distinctive effects and the exact mechanisms of these PGRs in MSW vermicomposts which influenced plant growth responses.

  7. Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60 % similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4 % sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50 % DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) ( = CNPSo 120(T) = LMG 27577(T) = IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain. © 2014 IUMS.

  8. Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae in Phaseolus vulgaris L Toxicidade e repelência de óleos essenciais a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria de França

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tangerine (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, lemon (Citrus medica limonum Lush, pear orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, red copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., rosemary (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière and E. citriodora Hook, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. and citronella (Cimbopogon nardus Linnaeus oils at several concentrations on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman were studied. In toxicity tests, grains of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rajadinho were impregnated with oils and infested with adults of Z. subfasciatus up to 24 hours old. All tested oils were effective in reducing the viable egg-laying and adult emergence of this pest, in function of the concentrations used, highlighting E. citriodora and E. globulus oils which caused 100% effectiveness from 0.5 mL Kg-1 concentration. In repellency tests, two arenas consisting of plastic containers, connected symmetrically to a central box by two plastic tubes were used. In one of the boxes, untreated beans were placed and on the other ones beans treated with each oil concentration were used. In the central box, five couples of Z. subfasciatus were released. Grains of P. vulgaris treated with oils of E. citriodora, C. citratus and C. oleifera reduced the attraction percentage of Z. subfasciatus adults, while the E. globulus increased this percentage. The percentages of reduced viable eggs ranged from 17.9% (C. medica limonum to 93.3% (C. nardus, while the reduction on the number of emerged insects was 23.9% and 95.9%, respectively for these same oils.Estudaram-se os efeitos dos óleos de tangerina 'Cravo' (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, limão-siciliano (Citrus medica limonum Lush, laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeek, copaíba-vermelha (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., alecrim-do-campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus

  9. (Phaseolus vulgaris L) Genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bruening 2001; Ho 1988). At whole plant level, the differences in drought resistance among drought-resistant and susceptible genotypes are related to the ability to accumulate biomass, remobilization of stored biomass to reproductive organs and the subsequent capacity to establish new reproductive sinks (Koç et al. 2003 ...

  10. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R) genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs) from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. Results A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv) resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs). Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs) were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77%) of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93%) PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS) and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. Conclusions In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated into the common

  11. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhanji

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. Results A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs. Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77% of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93% PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. Conclusions In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated

  12. Growth dynamics of two bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. l. Growth analysis by fixed periods Dinámica de crecimiento de dos variedades de frijol (phaseolus vulgaris L. l. análisis de crecimiento por periodos fijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado Gustavo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Inthe vegetative phase of growth in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., the dry matter gain depends on the physiological behavior and growth habit of the bean plant. The Growth process in relation to growth type were evaluated in the present study. The purpose of the study was to establish growth type and growth index relations in ICA-Cerinza (growth type 1 and
    ICA -Tundama (growth type 11 wich are both bush bean varieties. The plants were sown in 40.5 m2 plots, in rows spaced 0.5 m. and 0.12 m. between plants in a randomized completely block design with 4 replications; samples of 3 plants per plotwere taken 7 days each starting 15 to 78 days after emergence. Total dryweight (TOW Stem dryweight (SOW, leaf dry weight (LOW and total leaf area (TLA were
    determined. Relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, leaf area ratio (LAR, leaf weight ratio (LWR, and specific leaf area (SLA, were determined by the classical aproach. Significant differences in TDW, SDW, LDW, and TLA between varieties were detected in the 15 and 78 days
    evaluations. Similar results were obtained for RGR, NAR, LAR, LWR, and SLA. The mean RGR was 0.0455 g. g-1 .day-1 in Cerinza and 0.0437 g.g-1.day -1 in Tundama but these were no statistically different. NAR and RGR had similar trends and were positive and significantly correlated. LAR decreced
    linearly in Cerinza, but it was cuadratic in Tundama with the highest values in the initial and the last evaluations. The LWR show that Tundama variety translocated more dry matter to assimilatory tissue formation. SLA was similar for the two varieties, but it was higher in the indeterminate (type 11, showing that Tundama had moretinny leaves. Growth analysis
    utilizing fixed time periods did not allow to detect differences between varieties. Apparently, these were similar in physiological behavior during the vegetative phase independently of growth type.
    La fase de crecimiento vegetativo de la planta de

  13. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures.

  14. The Effects of Foliar Application of Methanol on Morphological Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Armand

    2016-02-01

    , each experimental unit was a pot of 1 kg and 5 seeds were planted in each pot and after emergence decreased to 3 seedlings per pot. They were placed in a growth chamber with day and night temperatures as 25 °C and 15°C, respectively. Drought stress treatment based on soil moisture percentage was adjusted by measuring the weight percent of soil moisture and adding water consumed daily by each pot. Foliar application was done 3 times during the growing season and at intervals of 10 days. The first foliar application was performed during the seedling stage within 4 weeks after planting and other foliar application, respectively in early flowering and early podding. The foliar application was performed in such a way that solution droplets were present at all parts of the bean. Trait measurement was carried out 35 days after planting. Results and Discussion Results showed that there was significant difference (P 0.01 between methanol and drought stress regarding the plant height, number of branches, leaf number per pod, root and shoot dry weight, tap root length, root area, root diameter, root volume, and number of pod (P 0.05. All of the morphological traits were mainly affected by severe drought stress. The results of the comparing mean data in the interactions of methanol and drought stress showed that 20% methanol level in non-drought stress significantly increased in plant height, number of branches, root dry weight, root diameter and number of pod compared with control. 20% methanol level in temperate drought stress condition significantly increased the number of pod compared with non-applied methanol foliar application. Severe drought conditions in other traits except plant height difference between the levels of methanol and the methanol was observed. Conclusions Present study showed that the use of methanol at 20% by volume of methanol without the stress could be effective but failed to reduce the negative effects of drought stress on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L

  15. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris; Respostas fisiologicas, morfologicas e comportamentais de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) associadas ao consumo de diferentes variedades de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteleto, Patricia B. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Genetica e Bioquimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao], e-mail: patriciamarteleto@gmail.com; Lomonaco, Cecilia [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia], e-mail: lomonaco@ufu.br; Kerr, Warwick E. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: kerr@ufu.br

    2009-03-15

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  16. Computational prediction of miRNAs and their targets in Phaseolus vulgaris using simple sequence repeat signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithin, Chandran; Patwa, Nisha; Thomas, Amal; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad; Basak, Jolly

    2015-06-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, noncoding, short RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In spite of immense importance, limited information of P. vulgaris miRNAs and their expression patterns prompted us to identify new miRNAs in P. vulgaris by computational methods. Besides conventional approaches, we have used the simple sequence repeat (SSR) signatures as one of the prediction parameter. Moreover, for all other parameters including normalized Shannon entropy, normalized base pairing index and normalized base-pair distance, instead of taking a fixed cut-off value, we have used 99% probability range derived from the available data. We have identified 208 mature miRNAs in P. vulgaris belonging to 118 families, of which 201 are novel. 97 of the predicted miRNAs in P. vulgaris were validated with the sequencing data obtained from the small RNA sequencing of P. vulgaris. Randomly selected predicted miRNAs were also validated using qRT-PCR. A total of 1305 target sequences were identified for 130 predicted miRNAs. Using 80% sequence identity cut-off, proteins coded by 563 targets were identified. The computational method developed in this study was also validated by predicting 229 miRNAs of A. thaliana and 462 miRNAs of G. max, of which 213 for A. thaliana and 397 for G. max are existing in miRBase 20. There is no universal SSR that is conserved among all precursors of Viridiplantae, but conserved SSR exists within a miRNA family and is used as a signature in our prediction method. Prediction of known miRNAs of A. thaliana and G. max validates the accuracy of our method. Our findings will contribute to the present knowledge of miRNAs and their targets in P. vulgaris. This computational method can be applied to any species of Viridiplantae for the successful prediction of miRNAs and their targets.

  17. Response of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans) plants exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation under mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Rashmi; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance resulting from depletion in the ozone layer has the potential to cause detrimental effects on plants. Higher altitudes tend to receive higher doses of ambient UV-B radiation. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of enhanced UV-B (ambient + 10.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) radiation on two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati) at growth, physiological, and biochemical levels grown under mountain ecosystem. The magnitudes of negative effects of enhanced UV-B radiation were found more in Pusa Parvati as compared to Pusa Himlata. Non-enzymatic (total phenolics and flavonoids content) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were increased in both cultivars at both the ages of growth but increase was found more in Pusa Himlata as compared to Pusa Parvati. The study further showed that the economic yield of Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati was decreased by 14 and 44%, respectively, due to enhanced UV-B radiation. The higher decrease in the economic yield of Pusa Parvati depicted that increased amounts of total flavonoids content and stimulation of their antioxidant defense mechanism via increasing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants were not able to completely detoxify the produced reactive oxygen species under enhanced UV-B radiation and made it more sensitive to applied stress. From the present study, it can be concluded that enhanced UV-B radiation in the mountain areas of the Indian Himalayan Regions could be one of the environmental causes for lower yields of agricultural crops. Cultivation of P. vulgaris L. cv. Pusa Himlata should be promoted at higher altitudes of the Indian Himalayan Regions.

  18. In silico comparison of genomic regions containing genes coding for enzymes and transcription factors for the phenylpropanoid pathway in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Glycine max L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmilla eReinprecht

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes contain a variety of phytochemicals derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway that have important effects on human health as well as seed coat color, plant disease resistance and nodulation. However, the information about the genes involved in this important pathway is fragmentary in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The objectives of this research were to isolate genes that function in and control the phenylpropanoid pathway in common bean, determine their genomic locations in silico in common bean and soybean, and analyze sequences of the 4CL gene family in two common bean genotypes. Sequences of phenylpropanoid pathway genes available for common bean or other plant species were aligned, and the conserved regions were used to design sequence-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the gene sequences along with common bean gene-based (g markers were BLASTed against the Glycine max v.1.0 genome and the P. vulgaris v.1.0 (Andean early release genome. In addition, gene sequences were BLASTed against the OAC Rex (Mesoamerican genome sequence assembly. In total, fragments of 46 structural and regulatory phenylpropanoid pathway genes were characterized in this way and placed in silico on common bean and soybean sequence maps. The maps contain over 250 common bean g and SSR (simple sequence repeat markers and identify the positions of more than 60 additional phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, plus the putative locations of seed coat color genes. The majority of cloned phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences were mapped to one location in the common bean genome but had two positions in soybean. The comparison of the genomic maps confirmed previous studies, which show that common bean and soybean share genomic regions, including those containing phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, with conserved synteny. Indels identified in the comparison of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean sequences might be used to develop

  19. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  20. Marker-Assisted Molecular Profiling, Deletion Mutant Analysis, and RNA-Seq Reveal a Disease Resistance Cluster Associated with Uromyces appendiculatus Infection in Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Antonette R; Donofrio, Nicole; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; McClean, Phillip E; Lee, Rian K; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial; Kalavacharla, Venu Kal

    2017-05-23

    Common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of the common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to virulent strains or races of the bean rust pathogen along with Crg , (Complements resistance gene), which is required for Ur-3 -mediated rust resistance. In this study, we inoculated two common bean genotypes (resistant "Sierra" and susceptible crg) with rust race 53 of U. appendiculatus , isolated leaf RNA at specific time points, and sequenced their transcriptomes. First, molecular markers were used to locate and identify a 250 kb deletion on chromosome 10 in mutant crg (which carries a deletion at the Crg locus). Next, we identified differential expression of several disease resistance genes between Mock Inoculated (MI) and Inoculated (I) samples of "Sierra" leaf RNA within the 250 kb delineated region. Both marker assisted molecular profiling and RNA-seq were used to identify possible transcriptomic locations of interest regarding the resistance in the common bean to race 53. Identification of differential expression among samples in disease resistance clusters in the bean genome may elucidate significant genes underlying rust resistance. Along with preserving favorable traits in the crop, the current research may also aid in global sustainability of food stocks necessary for many populations.

  1. Effect of controlled lactic acid fermentation on selected bioactive and nutritional parameters of tempeh obtained from unhulled common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Mickowska, Barbara

    2014-01-30

    Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian food of high nutritional quality obtained by fungal fermentation of dehulled, soaked and cooked legumes. The aim of this research was to study the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 20174 activity on selected parameters of tempeh made from unhulled seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Lactobacillus plantarum cells were applied during soaking of seeds (submerged fermentation) or during solid state fermentation with Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis (co-cultivation). Tempeh obtained from common beans contained 200 g kg⁻¹ protein of 34% in vitro bioavailability. Fungal fermentation caused decomposition of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose levels in seeds, on average by 93, 84 and 73% respectively. Enhanced antiradical (DPPH•, ABTS•+) capacity was accompanied by increased soluble phenol content. Application of Lactobacillus in the fermentation procedure increased tempeh protein and in vitro protein bioavailability by 18 and 17% respectively. Mixed culture tempeh contained lower levels of stachyose (25%), verbascose (64%) and condensed tannins (20%). Co-cultivation enhanced both DPPH•-scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity. The application of Lactobacillus in most cases improved the nutritional parameters of tempeh from unhulled common beans. It may also be recommended to obtain products with diverse antioxidant properties as compared with fungal fermentation alone. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The use of statistical methods for censored data to evaluate the activity concentration of Pb-210 in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingote, Raquel M; Nogueira, Regina A

    2016-10-01

    A survey of 210 Pb activity concentration, one of the major internal natural radiation sources to man, has been carried in the most common species of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown and consumed in Brazil. The representative bean types chosen, Carioca beans and black type sown in the Brazilian Midwestern and Southern regions, have been collected in this study and 210 Pb determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry after separation with chromatographic extraction using Sr-resin. Available values in data set of radioactivity in Brazil (GEORAD) on the 210 Pb activity concentration in black beans grown in Southeastern region have been added to the results of this study with the purpose of to amplify the population considered. Concerning the multiple detection limits and due to the high level of censored observations, a robust semi-parametric statistical method called regression on order statistics (ROS) has been employed to provide a reference value of the 210 Pb in Brazilian beans, which amounted to 41 mBq kg -1 fresh wt. The results suggest that the 210 Pb activity concentration in carioca beans is lower than in black beans. Also evaluated was the 210 Pb activity concentration in vegetable component of a typical diet, which displays lower values than those shown in the literature for food consumed in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 μM arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant. PMID:24078924

  4. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombra, Maria Neve; d'Acierno, Antonio; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pane, Catello; Maione, Mena; Fratianni, Florinda

    2016-01-01

    Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA) ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 50% (EC50). The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking. PMID:28105248

  5. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  6. Ozone-induced foliar damage and release of stress volatiles is highly dependent on stomatal openness and priming by low-level ozone exposure in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Harley, Peter C; Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-09-01

    Acute ozone exposure triggers major emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but quantitatively, it is unclear how different ozone doses alter the start and the total amount of these emissions, and the induction rate of different stress volatiles. It is also unclear whether priming (i.e. pre-exposure to lower O 3 concentrations) can modify the magnitude and kinetics of volatile emissions. We investigated photosynthetic characteristics and VOC emissions in Phaseolus vulgaris following acute ozone exposure (600 nmol mol -1 for 30 min) under illumination and in darkness and after priming with 200 nmol mol -1 O 3 for 30 min. Methanol and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway product emissions were induced rapidly, followed by moderate emissions of methyl salicylate (MeSA). Stomatal conductance prior to acute exposure was lower in darkness and after low O 3 priming than in light and without priming. After low O 3 priming, no MeSA and lower LOX emissions were detected under acute exposure. Overall, maximum emission rates and the total amount of emitted LOX products and methanol were quantitatively correlated with total stomatal ozone uptake. These results indicate that different stress volatiles scale differently with ozone dose and highlight the key role of stomatal conductance in controlling ozone uptake, leaf injury and volatile release. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evidence for Introduction Bottleneck and Extensive Inter-Gene Pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) Hybridization in the European Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from “pure” accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with “pure” accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed. PMID:24098412

  8. X-ray Spectroscopy Uncovering the Effects of Cu Based Nanoparticle Concentration and Structure on Phaseolus vulgaris Germination and Seedling Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Nádia M; Savassa, Susilaine M; Lima, Rafael Giovanini de; de Almeida, Eduardo; Linhares, Francisco S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Pereira de Carvalho, Hudson W

    2017-09-13

    Nanoparticles properties such as solubility, tunable surface charges, and singular reactivity might be explored to improve the performance of fertilizers. Nevertheless, these unique properties may also bring risks to the environment since the fate of nanoparticles is poorly understood. This study investigated the impact of a range of CuO nanoparticles sizes and concentrations on the germination and seedling development of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Nanoparticles did not affect seed germination, but seedling weight gain was promoted by 100 mg Cu L -1 and inhibited by 1 000 mg Cu L -1 of 25 nm CuO and CuSO 4 . Most of the Cu taken up remained in the seed coat with Cu hotspots in the hilum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy unraveled that most of the Cu remained in its pristine form. The higher surface reactivity of the 25 nm CuO nanoparticles might be responsible for its deleterious effects. The present study therefore highlights the importance of the nanoparticle structure for its physiological impacts.

  9. The effect of wind velocity, air temperature and humidity on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hove, L. W. A.; Vredenberg, W. J.; Adema, E. H.

    The influence of wind velocity, air temperature and vapour pressure deficit of the air (VPD) on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was examined using a leaf chamber. The measurements suggested a transition in the properties of the leaf boundary layer at a wind velocity of 0.3-0.4 ms -1 which corresponds to a Recrit value of about 2000. At higher wind velocities the leaf boundary layer resistance ( rb) was 1.5-2 times lower than can be calculated from the theory. Nevertheless, the assessed relationships between rb and wind velocity appeared to be similar to the theoretical derived relationship for rb. The NH 3 flux and in particular the SO 2 flux into the leaf strongly increased at a VPD decline. The increase of the NH 3 flux could be attributed to an increase of the stomatal conductance ( gs). However, the increase of the SO 2 flux could only partly be explained by an increase of gs. An apparent additional uptake was also observed for the NH 3 uptake at a low temperature and VPD. The SO 2 flux was also influenced by air temperature which could be explained by a temperature effect on gs. The results suggest that calculation of the NH 3 and SO 2 flux using data of gs gives a serious understimation of the real flux of these gases into leaves at a low temperature and VPD.

  10. Early changes in apoplast composition associated with defence and disease in interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and the halo blight pathogen Pseudomonas syringae Pv. phaseolicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brendan M; Neale, Helen C; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Jackson, Robert W; Arnold, Dawn L; Preston, Gail M

    2016-10-01

    The apoplast is the arena in which endophytic pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae grow and interact with plant cells. Using metabolomic and ion analysis techniques, this study shows how the composition of Phaseolus vulgaris leaf apoplastic fluid changes during the first six hours of compatible and incompatible interactions with two strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) that differ in the presence of the genomic island PPHGI-1. Leaf inoculation with the avirulent island-carrying strain Pph 1302A elicited effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and resulted in specific changes in apoplast composition, including increases in conductivity, pH, citrate, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and K(+) , that are linked to the onset of plant defence responses. Other apoplastic changes, including increases in Ca(2+) , Fe(2/3+) Mg(2+) , sucrose, β-cyanoalanine and several amino acids, occurred to a relatively similar extent in interactions with both Pph 1302A and the virulent, island-less strain Pph RJ3. Metabolic footprinting experiments established that Pph preferentially metabolizes malate, glucose and glutamate, but excludes certain other abundant apoplastic metabolites, including citrate and GABA, until preferred metabolites are depleted. These results demonstrate that Pph is well-adapted to the leaf apoplast metabolic environment and that loss of PPHGI-1 enables Pph to avoid changes in apoplast composition linked to plant defences. © 2016 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ameliorating effects of industrial sugar residue on the Jales gold mine spoil (NE Portugal) using Holcus lanatus and Phaseolus vulgaris as indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, P.M.; Teiga, P.M.; Santos, M.H.; Koe, T. de; Verkleij, J.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    A residue of the sugar industry can be used in revegetation programs on metal contaminated sites. - Phytostabilisation of bare heavily contaminated substrate, such as abandoned mine sites, is considered a very appropriate technology in order to diminish erosion and dispersion of contaminants into the surroundings. In this short-term pot study, application of industrial sugar residue (ISR), a waste product of the sugar industry, proved to ameliorate spoils conditions for plant performance by elevating pH and immobilising several metals. Although arsenate concentrations were positively correlated to spoil pH and spoil treatment with ISR mobilised As, growth of both Phaseolus vulgaris and Holcus lanatus improved significantly after applications of 3.75 g ISR kg -1 dry spoil. Nutrient uptake from the substrate, with the exception of potassium, was elevated by ISR. As a remediation technique ISR application could be effective although in As-contaminated sites application might be restricted to areas where leaching to (ground) water does not form a risk

  12. Assessment of the genotoxicity of heavy metals in Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a model plant system by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Mitrev, Saša; Kovacevik, Biljana; Kostadinovska, Emilija; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2012-01-01

    Impact assessments of environmental pollutants are important in eco-genotoxicology. A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to detect genotoxicity-induced DNA damage in Phaseolus vulgaris L. from heavy metals at two different concentrations. The results from six 10-base pair (bp) random RAPD primers with 60-70% GC content used, showed a total of 295 RAPD fragments of 700-4000 bp in molecular size in the seedlings of untreated and treated samples, of which only 163 fragments were polymorphic. Polymorphisms became evident as the disappearance and/or appearance of DNA fragments in treated samples compared to the control. A dendrogram constructed using the Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System (NTSYSps), showed that the control group merged with groups treated with CuSO(4)·5H(2)O (150 mg L(-1)) and MnSO(4)·H(2)O (150 mg L(-1)) in a separate cluster. These groups were linked with all of the other samples treated with metals at concentrations of 150 mg L(-1) and CuSO(4)·5H(2)O and Cd(NO(3))(2) at concentrations of 350 mg L(-1). Finally, the samples treated with metals at concentrations of 350 mg L(-1) together with NiSO(4) at the concentration of 150 mg L(-1), clustered separately. The DNA polymorphism detected by RAPD analysis offered a useful biomarker assay for the detection of toxic chemicals genotoxicity in plant model systems.

  13. Analyses of methylomes derived from Meso-American common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. using MeDIP-seq and whole genome sodium bisulfite-sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollee eCrampton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is economically important for its high protein, fiber, and micronutrient contents, with a relatively small genome size of ~587 Mb. Common bean is genetically diverse with two major gene pools, Meso-American and Andean. The phenotypic variability within the genotypes is partly attributed to the genetic diversity and epigenetic changes that are largely influenced by environmental factors. It is well established that an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression is DNA methylation. Here, we present results generated from two high-throughput sequencing technologies, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq and whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-Seq. Our analyses revealed that common bean displays similar methylation patterns as other previously published plant methylomes, with CG ~50%, CHG ~30%, and CHH ~2.7% methylation, however, these differ from the common bean reference methylome of Andean origin. We identified higher CG methylation levels in both promoter and genic regions than CHG and CHH contexts. Moreover, we found relatively higher CG methylation levels in genes than in promoters. Conversely, the CHG and CHH methylation levels were highest in promoters than in genes. This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling study in a Meso-American common bean cultivar (Sierra using NGS approaches. Our long-term goal is to generate genome-wide epigenomic maps in common bean focusing on chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and DNA methylation.

  14. Soil to plant 137Cs transfer factors in Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris in a semi-arid ecosystem from a radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, M.L.; Segovia, N.; Gaso, M.I.; Palacios, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 137 Cs in soil, maize plants, (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been performed at the confined Storage Centre for Radioactive Waste from Mexico. Under field conditions the site was divided in four zones with different soil contamination characteristics. The plants were grown 'in situ' reproducing the local agricultural practices without fertilizers, pesticides or artificial irrigation.The 137 Cs determinations were performed using a low background gamma spectrometry system with an HPGe detector. The results indicate that one of the zones had a striking 137 Cs contamination in the soil and the uptake by the grown plants showed the highest specific activities at the root. For the edible parts of the plants the amount of 137 Cs in the maize grains was one order of magnitude lower than for the beans. The transfer factors ranges for the different parts of the maize plants was from 0.001 in the grain to 0.6 in the root. (author)

  15. Ozone-induced foliar damage and release of stress volatiles is highly dependent on stomatal openness and priming by low-level ozone exposure in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Harley, Peter C.; Niinemets, Ülo

    2018-01-01

    Acute ozone exposure triggers major emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), but quantitatively, it is unclear how different ozone doses alter the start and the total amount of these emissions, and the induction rate of different stress volatiles. It is also unclear whether priming (i.e., pre-exposure to lower O3 concentrations) can modify the magnitude and kinetics of volatile emissions. We investigated photosynthetic characteristics and VOC emissions in Phaseolus vulgaris following acute ozone exposure (600 nmol mol-1 for 30 min) under illumination and in darkness and after priming with 200 nmol mol-1 O3 for 30 min. Methanol and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway product emissions were induced rapidly, followed by moderate emissions of methyl salicylate (MeSA). Stomatal conductance prior to acute exposure was lower in darkness and after low O3 priming than in light and without priming. After low O3 priming, no MeSA and lower LOX emissions were detected under acute exposure. Overall, maximum emission rates and the total amount of emitted LOX products and methanol were quantitatively correlated with total stomatal ozone uptake. These results indicate that different stress volatiles scale differently with ozone dose and highlight the key role of stomatal conductance in controlling ozone uptake, leaf injury and volatile release. PMID:28623868

  16. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean.

  17. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Gioia

    Full Text Available Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2% than in America (12.3%. The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  18. Asymmetry of gene flow and differential geographical structure of molecular diversity in wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, R; Gepts, P

    2003-01-01

    Using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), we analyzed the genetic structure of wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mesoamerica at different geographical levels to test the hypothesis of asymmetric gene flow and investigate the origin of weedy populations. We showed both by phenetic and admixture population analyses that gene flow is about three- to four-fold higher from domesticated to wild populations than in the reverse direction. This result, combined with other work, points to a displacement of genetic diversity in wild populations due to gene flow from the domesticated populations. The weedy populations appear to be genetically intermediate between domesticated and wild populations, suggesting that they originated by hybridization between wild and domesticated types rather than by escape from cultivation. In addition, the domesticated bean races were genetically similar confirming a single domestication event for the Mesoamerican gene pool. Finally, the genetic diversity of the domesticated bean population showed a lower level of geographic structure in comparison to that of the wild populations.

  19. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  20. L-Asparaginase Isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds Exhibited Potent Anti-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Effects In-Vitro and Low Immunogenic Properties In-Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli-derived L-asparaginases have been used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, however, clinical hypersensitivity reactions and silent inactivation due to antibodies against E. coli-asparaginase, lead to inactivation of these preparations in most cases.Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antitumor effects ofa novel L-asparaginaseenzyme, isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds (P-Asp on the ALL cell line (Jurkat. The immunogenicity of the enzyme was also evaluated in-vivo and results were compared to commercially available enzymes of microbial sources. The data demonstrated that P-Asp has an enhanced anti-proliferative effect on ALL cells as detected by the WST-8 cell viability assay kit. Cells treated with P-Asp also exhibited a higher degree of early apoptosis compared with asparaginase from Escherichia coli (L-Asp or its pegylated form Pegasparagas (PEG-ASP that induced higher rates of late apoptosis and necrosis as detected by an Annexin V/Propidium iodide binding assay. In-vivo experiments indicated that mice treated with P-Asp had less distinct allergenic responses than other bacterial enzyme preparations as indicated by lower serum concentrations of IgG, IgE, IgM and mMCP-1 compared with other treated groups. In conclusion, P-Asp can be considered as a promising candidate for use in the treatment of ALL.

  1. Allelic relationships of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resistance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Michelite and the proposal of a new anthracnose resistance gene, Co-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Gonçalves-Vidigal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic resistance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Michelite to races 8 and 64 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of bean anthracnose, was characterized. Crosses were made between Michelite and Mexico 222 cultivars and the F2 population was inoculated with race 64 in order to study the inheritance of resistance to anthracnose in Michelite. The segregation of F2 population fitted in a ratio of 3R:1S, showing the presence of a dominant gene in Michelite gene conditioning resistance to race 64. Allelism tests were conducted with F2 populations derived from crosses between Michelite and AB 136, AND 277, BAT 93, Cornell 49-242, G 2333, Kaboon, Mexico 222, Michigan Dark Red Kidney (MRDK, Ouro Negro, Perry Marrow, PI 207262, TO, TU, and Widusa. All the cultivars (except Mexico 222 were resistant to race 64. While F2 derived from the Michelite x Mexico 222 was inoculated with race 8. Additionally, allelism tests indicated that the gene present in Michelite is independent from Co-1, Co-2, Co-3, Co-4, Co-5, Co-6, Co-7, Co-9 and Co-10 genes. The monogenic inheritance observed in Michelite and the independence of this gene from those previously characterized allow the authors to propose that the anthracnose resistant gene in Michelite should be named Co-11.

  2. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of leaf nutrients and photosynthetic pigments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under salinity stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parsa-Motlagh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of leaf nutrients and photosynthetic pigments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in condition of irrigation with saline water, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse of Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran during 2010. The studied factors were water salinity (500 (control, 2000, 4000 and 6000 s.cm-1, phosphorus fertilizer (0, 100 and 200 mg.kg-1 soil in form of Triple super phosphate and mycorrhizal fungi with three levels (GLOMUS MOSSEAE AND GLOMUS INTRARADICES AND no fungi (control. The results showed that the concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoeids, K, Ca and P were decreased with increasing of salinity levels. But salinity increased the concentration of Na and Na/K ratio. Mycorrhizal fungi had no significant effect on concentration of Ca and chlorophyll a. The interaction of salinity and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of chlorophyll b, Na and P was significant. Results demonstrated that GLOMUS INTRARADICES had better effect on improvement of photosynthetic pigments concentration and concentration of nutrition elements. In low levels of salinity stress, use of MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI WITH PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER, can reduce the negative effects of salt by increasing of concentration of photosynthetic pigments and nutrition elements.

  3. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the 60Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B 1 , B 2 and B 6 protein content, biological evaluation in rats [Food intake and Weight gain (in grams), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  4. Carbon Isotope Composition of Carbohydrates and Polyols in Leaf and Phloem Sap of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Influences Predictions of Plant Water Use Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Millicent; Wild, Birgit; Richter, Andreas; Simonin, Kevin; Merchant, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The use of carbon isotope abundance (δ(13)C) to assess plant carbon acquisition and water use has significant potential for use in crop management and plant improvement programs. Utilizing Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a model system, this study demonstrates the occurrence and sensitivity of carbon isotope fractionation during the onset of abiotic stresses between leaf and phloem carbon pools. In addition to gas exchange data, compound-specific measures of carbon isotope abundance and concentrations of soluble components of phloem sap were compared with major carbohydrate and sugar alcohol pools in leaf tissue. Differences in both δ(13)C and concentration of metabolites were found in leaf and phloem tissues, the magnitude of which responded to changing environmental conditions. These changes have inplications for the modeling of leaf-level gas exchange based upon δ(13)C natural abundance. Estimates of δ(13)C of low molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols increased the precision of predictions of water use efficiency compared with those based on bulk soluble carbon. The use of this technique requires consideration of the dynamics of the δ(13)C pool under investigation. Understanding the dynamics of changes in δ(13)C during movement and incorporation into heterotrophic tissues is vital for the continued development of tools that provide information on plant physiological performance relating to water use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y la producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y producción del cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se hicieron dos experimentos, uno in vitro con un diseño completamente aleatorizado y otro en campo con dos variantes y 8 réplicas (diseño de bloques al azar. El tratamiento en ambos ensayos fue inmersión de las semillas en una solución del promotor al 0,02% por 3 horas y otro grupo testigo con inmersión por igual tiempo en agua natural. Los resultados mostraron que la germinación y la altura de las plantas fueron mejores con la inmersión en el producto en ambos experimentos. En el ensayo de campo los vainas por planta no hubo diferencia entre los tratamientos. En los granos por vaina y granos por planta el grupo tratado fue superior al control en 16,70 y 15,22% respectivamente. La masa de 100 granos no mostró diferencia entre ambos tratamientos. El rendimiento agrícola fue superior en los tratados(1,22t.ha-1 vs. 1,02. Con ambos experimentos se determinó que el promotor del crecimiento influyó positivamente en la germinación, desarrollo y producción del cultivo del frijol.

  6. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  7. Transcriptional analysis of drought-induced genes in the roots of a tolerant genotype of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gustavo Henrique; Caldas, Danielle Gregorio Gomes; Beraldo, Ana Luiza Ahern; da Silva, Márcio José; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2013-03-28

    In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477) when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as "driver" the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought). After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags). We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress.

  8. Transcriptional Analysis of Drought-Induced Genes in the Roots of a Tolerant Genotype of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Mui Tsai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477 when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as “driver” the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought. After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags. We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress.

  9. Impairment by covalent modification of the ability of Phaseolus vulgaris phytohemagglutinin to stimulate cultured human lymphocytes: a comparison of different forms of covalent modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, G; Clairoux-Moreau, S; Chevrier, P

    1980-02-01

    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris has been modified by treatment with various chemical reagents and the modified proteins have been tested for their ability to stimulate peripheral lymphocytes from two healthy human donors, in vitro. Reaction of PHA with citraconic anhydride, S-methyl isothiourea, or 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide produced derivatives which retained the ability to stimulate lymphocytes, at low concentrations. Acylation of the lectin with acetic anhydride or masking of the carboxyl side chains by reaction with glycinamide-carbodiimide impaired stimulation. When PHA was treated with N-bromosuccinimide or with tetranitromethane, the derivatives were ineffective as lymphocyte stimulants. Chemical modifications affected, in some cases, the quaternary structure of the lectin. Glycinamide-, homoarginine-, and nitro-PHA were tetramers whereas acetyl-, citraconyl-, and N-bromosuccinimide-treated lectin were dimers. Antinative lectin antiserum cross-reacted with all the modified proteins, except in the case of the N-bromosuccinimide derivative. The results show that, in the human lymphocyte transformation assay, the mitogenic property of PHA may depend on intact aspartic, glutamic, and tyrosine residues whereas lysine residues do not appear to be essential.

  10. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-17

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  11. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  12. Comparison of the α-amylase inhibitor-1 from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties and transgenic expression in other legumes--post-translational modifications and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter M; Reiner, Daniela; Moore, Andrew E; Lee, Rui-Yun; Epstein, Michelle M; Higgins, T J V

    2011-06-08

    The seeds of peas (Pisum sativum) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) expressing a gene for α-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are protected from damage by old world bruchids (pea and cowpea weevils). Here, we used electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to compare the post-translational modifications of αAI from transgenic sources with the processed forms of the protein from several bean varieties. All sources showed microheterogeneity with differences in the relative abundance of particular variants due to differences in the frequency of addition of glycans, variable processing of glycans, and differences of C-terminal exopeptidase activity. The structural variation among the transgenics was generally within the range of the bean varieties. Previously, mice showed allergic reactions following ingestion of transgenic pea αAI but not bean αAI. Here, only minor differences were observed following intraperitoneal sensitization. Both of the transgenic pea and bean forms of αAI elicited Th1 and Th2 antibody isotype responses, suggesting that both proteins are immunogenic and could potentially be allergenic.

  13. Separation and Enrichment of Lectin from Zihua Snap-Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds by PEG 600–Ammonium Sulfate Aqueous Two-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A fast and efficient method based on a polyethylene glycol (PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system for extracting lectin from Zihua snap-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was established. According to a Box–Behnken design (BBD, involving four factors at three levels each subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and response surface analysis, the protein recovery and the purification factor of lectin in the top phase were used as the response values of the variance analysis to acquire the multivariate quadratic regression model. SDS–PAGE electrophoresis and the hemagglutination test were used to detect the distribution of lectin in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. The obtained data indicated that lectin was preferentially partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, and the ATPS, composed of 15% (NH42SO4 (w/w, 18% PEG 600 (w/w, 0.4 g/5 g NaCl and 1 mL crude extract, showed good selectivity for lectin when the pH value was 7.5. Under the optimal conditions, most of the lectin was assigned to the top phase in the ATPS, and the hemagglutination activity of the purified lectin in the top phase was 3.08 times that of the crude extract. Consequently, the PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system was an effective method for separating and enriching lectin directly from the crude extract of Zihua snap-bean seeds.

  14. Sensibilité du haricot Phaseolus vulgaris à la concentration en aluminium des sols de la région des grands lacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters, JFR.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensibility to soil aluminium concentration of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris in the African "Great Lakes" region. The climate of the African region around the "Great Lakes" induces a strong process of soil weathering which eventually leads to a strong aluminium saturation of the absorption complex, as expressed by the "m" index of Kamprath. The response to aluminium toxicity of the common bean cv. Diacol Calima, a widely grown variety in Burundi, has been studied in pot trials in two ways : (1 Using superficial soil samples of "humiferous high elevation kaolisols" whose "m" index varied between 4 and 92 ; (2 On culture condition consisting of an inert substrate complemented with a nutritional solution to which a serie of soluble aluminium concentrations were added. Under soil condition, biomass produced after a period of 25 days of growth, decreased as from "m" = 33. The number of Rhizobium nodules decreased drastically with aluminium toxicity becoming negligible at "m" - 33. On culture media, rising concentration of aluminium affected growth adversely as well, although root growth inhibition was less pronounced than under soil condition.

  15. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Biological aspects of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) on Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), under laboratory conditions; Aspectos biologicos de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) em Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), sob condicoes de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Lisiane Taiatella; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare, E-mail: lisi@bio.ufpr.b, E-mail: stra@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva, E-mail: paulo@cpafrr.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Roraima, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Entomologia

    2003-12-15

    Zabrotes subfasciatus is a serious pest of common beans, P. vulgaris L.. In Brazil there are several studies dealing with resistance of bean genotypes to this insect, while other studies have emphasized the utilization of oils and powders from plants to repel their attack. In this paper, fecundity, fertility, pattern of oviposition, life cycle and longevity were evaluated for a Brazilian stock from the Goias State on P. vulgaris cv. Carioca, at 30 deg C and 70% R.H. The mean fecundity was 38 eggs per female and 73% of viability. Egg laying showed an aggregated pattern. Males and females lived an average of 13 and 9 days, respectively. The total life cycle lasted for about 28 days. (author)

  17. Tylosema esculentum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jean-Emmery Ngabo

    Marama bean, Tylosema esculentum, is an endemic, perennial wild tuberous Fabaceae, widely distributed in the Southern Kalahari (Namibia, Botswana and to a lesser extends in South Africa). It is well adapted to the deep sandy soils of the Kalahari. It is drought avoiding. It has been valued by the indigenous people of the ...

  18. Characterisation of Phaseolus coccineus interspecific germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sister species of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are an attractive genetic resource to broaden the genetic base of this crop, especially for adaptation to extreme environments. The runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) in particular, has been shown to contribute to disease resistance and tolerance to low soil fertility, ...

  19. Biological aspects of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) on Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Lisiane Taiatella; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Zabrotes subfasciatus is a serious pest of common beans, P. vulgaris L.. In Brazil there are several studies dealing with resistance of bean genotypes to this insect, while other studies have emphasized the utilization of oils and powders from plants to repel their attack. In this paper, fecundity, fertility, pattern of oviposition, life cycle and longevity were evaluated for a Brazilian stock from the Goias State on P. vulgaris cv. Carioca, at 30 deg C and 70% R.H. The mean fecundity was 38 eggs per female and 73% of viability. Egg laying showed an aggregated pattern. Males and females lived an average of 13 and 9 days, respectively. The total life cycle lasted for about 28 days. (author)

  20. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos Inhibitory effect of carioca bean tannins on phaseolin digestibility assessed by two multi-enzymatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria H. Del Pino; Franco M. Lajolo

    2003-01-01

    Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró e...

  1. EFECTIVIDAD DE UN BIOFERTILIZANTE FOLIAR SOBRE EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL COMÚN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, BLUEFIELDS, R.A.A.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yader Mejía Bermúdez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como propósito evaluar la efectividad de las diferentes dosis de un biofertilizante foliar sobre el rendimiento del cultivo de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris en época de postrera, en la comunidad El Cañal, Kukra River, Bluefields, en el ciclo productivo 2008-2009. Se utilizó un diseño completo al azar, cuatro tratamientos con dos repeticiones, cada repetición constó de 63 plantas de frijol (n=126. Los tratamientos fueron: T1 (testigo; T2: 0.25 litros de biofertilizante; T3: 0.37 lt. y T4: 0.5 lt. En todos los tratamientos, incluyendo al testigo, se hizo deshierbe y en todos, excepto el testigo, se aplicó el biofertilizante disuelto en 10 litros de agua. Se realizaron tres mediciones (21, 36 y 51 días después de la siembra.Los resultados indican que no existen diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos en la altura de las plantas, pero si en el porcentaje de afectación por herbívoros, así como en el número de vainas por planta y de granos por vaina. El tratamiento T4 registró el menor ataque por herbívoros, la mayor producción en función del número de vainas por planta, de granos por vaina y peso total de los granos de frijol, en cambio el testigo fue el que registró el menor rendimiento con respecto a todas estas variables. El uso del biofertilizante foliar aumentó el rendimiento del cultivo de frijol en todas las dosis.SummaryThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different doses of a foliar biofertilizer on crop production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris throughout season time in the community of El Cañal, Kukra River, Bluefields, during the production cycle 2008-2009. A random design was used, four treatments with two replications, each replication consisted of 63 bean plants (n=126. The treatments were: T1 (baton, T2: 0.25 liters of biofertilizer, T3: 0.37 lt. and T4: 0.5 lt.  In all the treatments, including the baton, weeding was done, and in all except the baton

  2. Nucleotide sequence of Phaseolus vulgaris L. alcohol dehydrogenase encoding cDNA and three-dimensional structure prediction of the deduced protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Kassim; Khor, Chin Yin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J

    2015-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken. The objective of this study was to elucidate P. vulgaris L. AD (PvAD) gene cDNA sequence and to predict the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced protein. positive and negative strands of the PvAD cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and M13 reverse primers to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. Deduced PvAD cDNA and protein sequence was analyzed for their basic features using online bioinformatics tools. Sequence comparison was carried out using bl2seq program, and tree-view program was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The secondary structures and 3D structure of PvAD protein were predicted by using the PHYRE automatic fold recognition server. The sequencing results analysis showed that PvAD cDNA is 1294 bp in length. It's open reading frame encodes for a protein that contains 371 amino acids. Deduced protein sequence analysis showed the presence of putative substrate binding, catalytic Zn binding, and NAD binding sites. Results indicate that the predicted 3D structure of PvAD protein is analogous to the experimentally determined crystal structure of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from an Arabidopsis species. The 1294 bp long PvAD cDNA encodes for 371 amino acid long protein that contains conserved domains required for biological functions of AD. The predicted deduced PvAD protein's 3D structure reflects the analogy with the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana s-nitrosoglutathione reductase. Further study is required

  3. Determination of soyasaponins in Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by LC-ESI-FTICR-MS and evaluation of their hypoglycemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Pascale, Raffaella; Carbone, Cecilia F; Acquavia, Maria A; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Russo, Daniela; Milella, Luigi

    2018-02-01

    Soyasaponins are oleanene-type triterpenoid saponins, naturally occurring in many edible plants that have attracted a great deal of attention for their role in preventing chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the distribution and the content of soyasaponins in 21 ecotypes of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Leguminosae). High-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry (MS) in conjunction with infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) was applied for the unambiguous identification of soyasaponins Ba (m/z 959.5213, [C 48 H 79 O 19 ] + ), Bb (m/z 943.5273, [C 48 H 79 O 18 ] + ), Bd (m/z 957.5122, [C 48 H 77 O 19 ] + ), and Be (m/z 941.5166, [C 48 H 77 O 18 ] + ), which are the only commercially available reference standards. In addition, the several diagnostic product ions generated by IRMPD in the ICR-MS cell allowed us the putative identification of soyasaponins Bb' (m/z 797.4680, [C 42 H 69 O 14 ] + ), αg (m/z 1085.5544, [C 54 H 85 O 22 ] + ), βg (m/z 1069.5600, [C 54 H 85 O 21 ] + ), and γg (m/z 923.5009, [C 48 H 75 O 17 ] + ), establishing thus their membership in the soyasaponin group. Quantitative and semiquantitative analysis of identified soyasaponins were also performed by RPLC-ESI(+) FTICR-MS; the total concentration levels were found ranging from 83.6 ± 9.3 to 767 ± 37 mg/kg. In vitro hypoglycemic outcomes of four soyasaponin standards were evaluated; significant inhibitory activities were obtained with IC 50 values ranging from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 2.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL and 12.0 ± 1.1 to 29.4 ± 1.4 μg/mL for α-glucosidase and α-amylase, respectively. This study represents the first detailed investigation on the antidiabetic activity of bioactive constituents found in Fagioli di Sarconi beans. Graphical abstract The first detailed RPLC-ESI(+) FTICR-MS investigation of

  4. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagoez, Vahram; Han, Susan S.; Manning, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O 3 -sensitive)/'R123' (O 3 -tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O 3 -sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O 3 -tolerant) were used to study the effects of O 3 on stomatal conductance (g s ), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O 3 and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O 3 . Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O 3 sensitivity and g s : while 'S156' had higher g s rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G s rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O 3 -tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O 3 in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O 3 -sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O 3 concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O 3 concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O 3 eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O 3 and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This appeared to be more evident in O 3 -sensitive cultivars. - O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal development and the presence of different control mechanisms on each leaf surface is confirmed

  5. Spatial-temporal analysis of polyethylene glycol-reduced aluminium accumulation and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase action in root tips of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; Ma, Yanqi; Horst, Walter J; Yang, Zhong-Bao

    2016-07-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major limiting factors for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production on tropical acid soils. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)-induced osmotic stress (OS) simulating drought stress reduces Al accumulation in the entire root tips of common bean by alteration of cell-wall (CW) porosity, which might be regulated by two genes encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, PvXTH9 and PvXTHb The aim of this research was to understand the spatial and temporal regulation of both XTH genes in PEG-mediated Al accumulation in the root tips. In this study the spatial and temporal expression patterns of Al-inhibited root elongation, Al accumulation, XTH gene expression and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) enzyme action in the root tips were analysed under PEG-induced OS by a combination of physiological and molecular approaches such as quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ fluorescence detection of XET in root tips. The results showed that Al accumulation, expression of XTH genes and XET action were distinctly reduced in the apical 0-2, 2-7 and 7-12 mm zones under OS, implying a potential regulatory role of XTH genes and XET enzyme in CW Al accumulation in these zones. The results provide novel insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of CW structure modification as a response of plant roots to OS, which will contribute to mitigate Al and drought stresses, severely limiting crop yields on acid soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  7. Expression and validation of PvPGIP genes for resistance to white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, R C C; Lima, T F C; Fernandes-Brum, C N; Chalfun-Junior, A; Santos, J B

    2016-08-19

    The interaction between polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), produced by plants, and endopolygalacturonases (PGs), produced by fungi, limits the destructive potential of PGs and can trigger plant defense responses. This study aimed to i) investigate variation in the expression of different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes and its relationship with resistance to white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum); ii) determine the expression levels of PvPGIP genes at different time points after inoculation with white mold; and iii) investigate differences in PvPGIP gene expression between two white mold isolates with different levels of aggressiveness. Four bean lines were analyzed, including two lines from a recurrent selection for white mold (50/5 and 84/6), one resistant line that was not adapted to Brazilian conditions (Cornell 605), and one susceptible line (Corujinha). Gene expression was investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after inoculation. The isolate UFLA 03 caused no significant difference in the relative expression of any gene examined, and was inefficient in discriminating among the genotypes. For the isolate UFLA 116, all of the genes were differentially expressed, as they were associated with resistance to white mold, and the expressions increased until the third day after inoculation. The 50/5 line was not significantly different from the Corujinha line for all of the genes analyzed. However, this line had a resistance level that was similar to that of Cornell 605, according to the straw test. Therefore, the incorporation of PvPGIP genes can increase the resistance of lines derived from recurrent selection.

  8. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  9. Paraburkholderia nodosa is the main N2-fixing species trapped by promiscuous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Brazilian 'Cerradão'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca F; Plotegher, Fábio; Souza, Renata C; Mendes, Iêda C; Dos Reis Junior, Fábio B; Béna, Gilles; Moulin, Lionel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial genus Burkholderia comprises species occupying several habitats, including a group of symbionts of leguminous plants-also called beta-rhizobia-that has been recently ascribed to the new genus Paraburkholderia We used common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to trap rhizobia from an undisturbed soil of the Brazilian Cerrado under the vegetation type 'Cerradão'. Genetic characterization started with the analyses of 181 isolates by BOX-PCR, where the majority revealed unique profiles, indicating high inter- and intra-species diversity. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the 16S rRNA of representative strains of the BOX-PCR groups indicated two main clusters, and gene-sequencing analysis identified the minority (27%) as Rhizobium and the majority (73%) as Paraburkholderia Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and housekeeping (recA and gyrB) genes positioned all strains of the second cluster in the species P. nodosa, and the phylogeny of a symbiotic gene-nodC-was in agreement with the conserved genes. All isolates were stable vis-à-vis nodulating common bean, but, in general, with a low capacity for fixing N2, although some effective strains were identified. The predominance of P. nodosa might be associated with the edaphic properties of the Cerrado biome, and might represent an important role in terms of maintenance of the ecosystem, which is characterized by acid soils with high saturation of aluminum and low N2 content. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  11. Molecular ecology and selection in the drought-related Asr gene polymorphisms in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The abscisic acid (ABA) pathway plays an important role in the plants’ reaction to drought stress and ABA-stress response (Asr) genes are important in controlling this process. In this sense, we accessed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes for drought tolerance (Asr1 and Asr2), involved in an ABA signaling pathway, in the reference collection of cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a core collection of wild common bean accessions. Results Our wild population samples covered a range of mesic (semi-arid) to very dry (desert) habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Asr1 exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to the neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Asr2 exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection. These patterns were more notable in wild beans than in cultivated common beans indicting that natural selection has played a role over long time periods compared to farmer selection since domestication. Conclusions Together these results suggested the importance of Asr1 in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. Furthermore, one of our major successes was to find that wild common bean is a reservoir of genetic variation and selection signatures at Asr genes, which may be useful for breeding drought tolerance in cultivated common bean. PMID:22799462

  12. Effective microorganisms enhance the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown in salty soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Neveen B

    2014-07-01

    No information is available regarding effective microorganisms (EM) influence on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle under saline conditions. Therefore, as a first approach, this article focuses on the contribution of EM to the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in salt-stressed plants. It investigates some mechanisms underlying alleviation of salt toxicity by EM application. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Nebraska plants were grown under non-saline or saline conditions (2.5 and 5.0 dSm(-1)) with and without EM application. Lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content were significantly increased in response to salinity, while they decreased with EM application in both stressed and non-stressed plants. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) increased under saline conditions; these increases were more significant in salt-stressed plants treated by EM. Activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.1) decreased in response to salinity; however, they were significantly increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ascorbate and glutathione contents were increased with the increasing salt concentration; moreover they further increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG decreased under saline conditions, whereas they were significantly increased with EM treatment in the presence or in the absence of soil salinization. The EM treatment detoxified the stress generated by salinity and significantly improved plant growth and productivity. Enhancing the H2O2-scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in EM-treated plants may be an efficient mechanism to attenuate the activation of plant defences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L. C.; Justino, F.; Oliveira, L. J. C.; Sediyama, G. C.; Ferreira, W. P. M.; Lemos, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  15. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop, is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22, signal transduction (21, protein synthesis and processing (20, development and cytoskeletal organization (12, transport of proteins (7, gene expression and RNA metabolism (4, redox reactions (4, defense and stress responses (3, energy metabolism (3, and hormone responses (2. Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as

  16. Ocurrencia de tóxicos naturales en frijol colorado (Phaseolus vulgaris y arveja (Pisum sativum. Efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento y los tratamientos caseros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilbao Reboredo Tania

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Las leguminosas, consideradas como una de los principales alimentos para el hombre pueden contener diferentes sustancias conocidas como antinutrientes las cuales tienen cierto efecto en la nutrición humana y animal si no son removidos o inactivados adecuadamente. En Cuba existe muy poca información sobre cuales son los antinutrientes y en qué concentraciones se encuentran en dos de las leguminosas de importación de mayor consumo por nuestra población: el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris y la arveja (Pisum sativum y tampoco se han estudiado los cambios que pueden sufrir durante su almacenamiento, así como la efectividad de los tratamientos caseros. Muestras de estos granos fueron analizadas durante un año de almacenamiento comercial a una temperatura promedio de 27 °C y 79 % de humedad relativa. Se evaluó la presencia de taninos, ácido cianhídrico, ácido fítico, inhibidores de proteasas y lectinas, en los granos crudos y después de dos tratamientos: remojo y cocción y cocción directamente, en olla de presión. Todos los antinutientes disminuyeron con el tiempo de almacenamiento (p<0,05. Los tratamientos aplicados eliminaron el ácido cianhídrico, los inhibidores de tripsina y las lectinas en los dos tipos de granos, comprobándose la efectividad de la combinación remojo-cocción sobre la aplicación únicamente del tratamiento térmico, sobre el resto de los antinutrientes.

  17. Molybdenum and copper in four varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): new data of potential utility in designing healthy diet for diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Armando Gómez; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Escobosa, Alma Rosa Corrales; Elguera, Julio César Torres; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that diabetic patients and individuals with impaired copper homeostasis could be at risk of molybdenum toxicity. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire revealed that in central Mexico, diabetic patients with severe complications tend to consume beans more often than individuals with less advanced disease. Four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris were comparatively evaluated as the dietary sources of two elements; the results showed molybdenum concentration decreasing in the order peruvian > pinto > mayflower > black, whereas for copper, the order was peruvian > pinto ∼ black > mayflower. The two elements were determined in pre-soaking water, cooked legumes, and broth obtained in cooking procedure; an in vitro gut model was also applied to assess potentially bioavailable fraction of both elements in cooked beans. The results indicated that the black variety would be the healthiest bean choice for diabetic patients and individuals susceptible to Mo toxicity. Relatively low total molybdenum was found in this variety (2.9 ± 1.4 versus 4.3-10.9 μg g(-1) in other types), element availability was also low (15 % in supernatant from enzymolysis, 24.9 % in combined broth + supernatant fractions), and the molar ratio of Cu/Mo was the highest among four types (41, versus Cu/Mo <10 in peruvian, pinto, or mayflower). Considering peruvian and pinto beans, broth elimination would help to lower molybdenum intake with marginal effect on Cu/Mo molar ratio. This recommendation would be especially important for peruvian variety, which provided 1090, 803, and 197 μg day(-1) of molybdenum in raw grains, broth + supernatant, and supernatant, respectively (based on 100-g portion), exceeding the recommended daily allowance of 45 μg day(-1).

  18. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  19. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pino Victoria H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró el efecto adverso de los taninos condensados sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, después de producirse una significativa inhibición en el grado de hidrólisis de esa proteína por los dos sistemas multienzimáticos. Se comprobó la dificultad de hidrólisis de la faseolina cuando esta unida al tanino en el punto de saturación (proporción 5/20 tanino/proteína p/p y mayores, después de detectarse en los perfiles electroforéticos, péptidos de 45.7 y 24KDa, resistentes a la hidrólisis hasta por prolongados períodos de incubación. Esto se debió a la existencia de un complejo de naturaleza refractária no digeríble, incluso en condiciones excesivas de enzima. Los resultados sugieren la unión simultánea del tanino con mas de un ligante a través de sus múltiples grupos hidróxilos libres, formando un complejo proteína-tanino-enzima (PTE* que correspondería a la fracción no digeríble de la faseolina.

  20. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  1. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  2. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira eMafi Moghaddam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6x to 5.1x coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2,687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate.

  3. Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov., an indigenous N2-fixing symbiont of the Ecuadorian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genetic pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Martins, Talita Busulini; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Marçon Delamuta, Jakeline Renata; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2015-09-01

    There are two major centres of genetic diversification of common bean (Phaseolus vilgaris L.), the Mesoamerican and the Andean, and the legume is capable of establishing nitrogen-fixing symbioses with several rhizobia; Rhizobium etli seems to be the dominant species in both centres. Another genetic pool of common bean, in Peru and Ecuador, is receiving increasing attention, and studies of microsymbionts from the region can help to increase our knowledge about coevolution of this symbiosis. We have previously reported several putative new lineages from this region and here present data indicating that strains belonging to one of them, PEL4, represent a novel species. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, PEL4 strains are positioned in the Rhizobium phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade, but show unique properties in several morphological, physiological and biochemical analyses, as well as in BOX-PCR profiles ( Rhizobium fabae. DNA-DNA hybridization ( Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov. The type strain is CNPSo 671(T) ( = UMR 1450(T) = PIMAMPIRS I 5(T) = LMG 27578(T)).

  4. Toxigenic fungi in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes black and color cultivated in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes preto e cores cultivado no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Luzia Freitas Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic fungi were studied in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of Classes black and color, cultivated in different regions of the State of Santa Catarina, south region of Brazil. The mean counts of filamentous fungi were 2.8 x 103 and 6.7 x 103 CFU/g for beans Classes black and color, respectively. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Phoma spp. were the most frequent genera isolated, followed by Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. and Dreschelera spp. Among beans Class black, 24.6% of the Aspergillus strains produced mycotoxins: 13.1% produced aflatoxins (AFs; 11.5% produced ochratoxin A (OTA and 28.9% of Penicillium produced citrinin (CTR. On the other hand, 22.1% of Aspergillus strains isolated from beans Class color produced mycotoxins (16.7% produced AFs and 5.4% produced OTA, while Penicillium genera had 35.4% of CTR producing strains. The toxigenic species were A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and P. citrinum Thom.Foram estudados fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., classes preto e cores, cultivados em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, região Sul do Brasil. A média total de fungos filamentosos foi de 2,8x10³ e 6,7x10³ UFC/g para feijão classe preto e cores, respectivamente. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Phoma spp. foram os gêneros mais frequentes isolados, seguidos por Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. e Dreschelera spp. No feijão classe preto, 24,6% das cepas de Aspergillus isolados eram toxigenicas: 13.1% eram produtoras de aflatoxinas (AFs e 11,5% de ocratoxina A (OTA; e 28,9% de Penicillium produziram citrinina (CTR. Por outro lado, 22,1% de cepas de Aspergillus isolados do feijão classe cores, produziram micotoxinas (16,7% produziram AF e 5,4% produziram OTA, já do g

  5. ATIVIDADE DE PEROXIDASES (EC 1.11.1.7 E TEOR DE PROLINA NO EMBRIÃO E COTILÉDONES DE FEIJOEIRO Phaseolus vulgaris L. EM CONDIÇÕES DE SALINIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P.P. LIMA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da salinidade sobre a atividade de peroxidases foram acompanhadas no embrião e em cotilédones de feijoeiro Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca, observando-se em ambos, aumento na atividade das enzimas. Com relação ao teor de prolina, ocorreu decréscimo constante no embrião de feijoeiro cultivado em condições salinas, entretanto, nos cotilédones, verificou-se aumento progressivo em condições de presença ou ausência de salinidade.Changes in proline level and peroxidase activity in bean embryo and cotiledon were studied in response to salinity conditions. Activity of peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7 in bean embryo and cotiledon (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca was higher than in seedlings growing in the absence of NaCl. Proline level decresead constantly in bean embryo growing in saline conditions. However, in cotiledon the proline content increased progressively in the absence and presence of NaCl in growth solution.

  6. CHARACTERISATION OF Phaseolus coccineus INTERSPECIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Common beans are important sources ...... of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Peru. Plant Soil 152:87. Doi: 10.1007/. BF00016336. Mills, L.J. and Silbernagel, M.J. 1992. A rapid screening technique to combine resistance to halo blight ...

  7. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the {sup 60}Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais dos feijoes Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-07-01

    The effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} protein content, biological evaluation in rats (Food intake and Weight gain (in grams)), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  8. Biochars mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and bioaccumulation of potentially toxic elements and arsenic speciation in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Chi, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Yaoyang

    2017-08-01

    Anthropogenic and natural activities can lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions and discharge of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into soil environment. Biochar amendment to soils is a cost-effective technology and sustainable approach used to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, improve phytoremediation, and minimize the health risks associated with consumption of PTE-contaminated vegetables. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of peanut shell biochar (PNB) and sewage sludge biochar (SSB) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, plant growth, PTE bioaccumulation, and arsenic (As) speciation in bean plants. Results indicated that amendments of PNB and SSB increased plant biomass production by increasing soil fertility and reducing bioavailability of PTEs. Addition of biochars also increased soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 -N) but decreased available concentrations of PTEs such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and As. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 - -N) was also decreased in biochar-amended soils. In addition, PNB and SSB amendments significantly (P carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions were significantly (P emissions first increased and then decreased amended with both biochars. Current findings demonstrate that SSB and PNB are two beneficial soil amendments simultaneous mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and PTE bioaccumulation as well as arsenic speciation in P. vulgaris L.

  9. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  10. Proanthocyanidin accumulation and transcriptional responses in the seed coat of cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with different susceptibility to postharvest darkening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixas Coutin, José A; Munholland, Seth; Silva, Anjali; Subedi, Sanjeena; Lukens, Lewis; Crosby, William L; Pauls, K Peter; Bozzo, Gale G

    2017-05-25

    Edible dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that darken during postharvest storage are graded lower and are less marketable than their non-darkened counterparts. Seed coat darkening in susceptible genotypes is dependent upon the availability of proanthocyanidins, and their subsequent oxidation to reactive quinones. Mature cranberry beans lacking this postharvest darkening trait tend to be proanthocyanidin-deficient, although the underlying molecular and biochemical determinants for this metabolic phenomenon are unknown. Seed coat proanthocyanidin levels increased with plant maturation in a darkening-susceptible cranberry bean recombinant inbred line (RIL), whereas these metabolites were absent in seeds of the non-darkening RIL plants. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to monitor changes in the seed coat transcriptome as a function of bean development, where transcript levels were measured as fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped. A total of 1336 genes were differentially expressed between darkening and non-darkening cranberry bean RILs. Structural and regulatory genes of the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated in seed coats of the darkening RIL. A principal component analysis determined that changes in transcript levels for two genes of unknown function and three proanthocyanidin biosynthesis genes, FLAVANONE 3-HYDROXYLASE 1, DIHYDROFLAVONOL 4-REDUCTASE 1 and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE 1 (PvANR1) were highly correlated with proanthocyanidin accumulation in seed coats of the darkening-susceptible cranberry bean RIL. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that in vitro activity of a recombinant PvANR1 was NADPH-dependent and assays containing cyanidin yielded epicatechin and catechin; high cyanidin substrate levels inhibited the formation of both of these products. Proanthocyanidin oxidation is a pre-requisite for postharvest-related seed coat darkening in dicotyledonous seeds. In model plant species, the accumulation of

  11. Transcript profiling of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. using the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronwald John W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybean (Glycine max both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. Results To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common bean and soybean in triplicate to the soybean GeneChip. Initial data analysis showed a decreased sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression in common bean cross-species hybridization (CSH GeneChip data compared to that of soybean. We employed a method that masked putative probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions between common bean and soybean. A masking signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression. After masking for ISV regions, the number of differentially-expressed genes identified in common bean was increased by 2.8-fold reflecting increased sensitivity. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of 20 randomly selected genes and purine-ureide pathway genes demonstrated an increased accuracy of measuring differential gene expression after masking for ISV regions. We also evaluated masked probe frequency per probe set to gain insight into the sequence divergence pattern between common bean and soybean. The sequence divergence pattern analysis suggested that the genes for basic cellular functions and metabolism were highly conserved between soybean and common bean. Additionally, our results show that some classes of genes, particularly those associated with environmental adaptation, are highly divergent. Conclusions The soybean GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for transcript profiling in common bean when used in combination with the masking protocol described. In

  12. UTILIZATION OF MEMBRANE MICROFILTRATION IN PREPARATION OF HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN FROM FERMENTED RED BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. EXTRACT AS FORTIFICATION AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Moerniati

    2010-06-01

    : Microfiltration, membrane, Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP, fermented red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

  13. EMPLEO DE ZEOLITAS NATURALES EN LA FERTILIZACIÓN Y PRODUCCIÓN DEL FRÉJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L. EN LA ZONA DE QUEVEDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofilo Gorki Díaz Coronel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de incrementar la producción y rentabilidad del cultivo de fréjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., se evaluaron dos tipos de zeolitas comerciales: “Zeolite C” y “Roca Mágica”, ambas del tipo Clinoptilolita, en dosis de 25, 50 y 75% de la fertilización recomendada para el cultivo en la localidad de Quevedo (80–40–00. Se utilizó la variedad de fréjol “EVG-6”. Los tratamientos se generaron de forma factorial, 2 (tipos de zeolita x 3 (dosis de zeolita + 1 (testigo fertilización sin zeolita, y se los dispuso de un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Para comparar los tratamientos se utilizó la prueba de Tukey (P≤0.05. En la parcela útil se midió: días a floración, daño de plagas y enfermedades, número de vainas por planta, número de granos por vaina, peso de 100 semillas, rendimiento por planta y por hectárea. Con la mayor dosis de zeolita se adelantó la floración del fréjol aproximadamente dos días. El menor daño de las plagas y enfermedades se registró con la aplicación de la zeolita natural en conjunto con los fertilizantes. Entre los tipos de zeolita solo se encontraron diferencias estadísticas en el peso de 100 semillas y rendimiento por planta; en las otras variables no se presentaron diferencias estadísticas. En el contraste: “zeolita vs sin zeolita” se encontró una mayor producción por planta y por hectárea a favor de la aplicación de la zeolita. Con el empleo del fertilizante más “75% de Zeolite – C” y “25% de Roca Mágica” se obtuvieron las mayores rentabilidades.

  14. Farinha do subproduto de feijão Phaseolus vulgaris em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. P. Azevedo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A procura por fontes proteicas alternativas em dietas para peixes é necessária, pois alguns ingredientes proteicos tradicionais apresentam grande variação no preço e disponibilidade. Um experimento de 45 dias foi conduzido em um sistema de recirculação de água com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (peso inicial de 16,2 ± 0,1 g para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de farinha do subproduto de feijão Phaseolus vulgaris sobre os índices produtivos e composição corporal. Três dietas isonitrogenadas (35% de proteína bruta e isocalóricas (3.100 kcal/kg de energia digestível foram preparadas para incluir 0%; 6,2% e 12,4% de farinha do subproduto de feijão substituindo 0%; 10% e 20% da proteína bruta do farelo de soja, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado (n=4. O peso final, ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico, índice de consumo alimentar, taxa de eficiência proteica e sobrevivência foram similares (P>0,05 entre os peixes alimentados com as dietas experimentais. Nenhuma diferença (P>0,05 foi registrada no teor de proteína bruta, cinzas e extrato etéreo corporais dos peixes. O valor produtivo da proteína bruta e a matéria seca corporal diminuíram (P<0,05 nos peixes alimentados com 12,4% da farinha do subproduto de feijão. A inclusão de farinha do subproduto de feijão até 6,2% como substituto do farelo de soja não diminui o desempenho produtivo e a composição corporal dos peixes.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos Filho, Julio

    1971-01-01

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses ( 60 Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e

  16. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  17. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en habichuela Phaseolus vulgaris L., mediante descriptores morfológicos y bioquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificó la variabilidad genética de una muestra de 116 accesiones de habichuela P. vulgaris, cultivadas en centros primarios y secundarios de domesticación. Se evaluaron 18 descriptores morfo-agronómicos asociados con características de la planta, vaina y semilla. Mediante el análisis de las faseolinas utilizando SDS-PAGE se encontraron patrones de bandas de origen andino (T, C y H1 y mesoamericano [S, Sb, CH y H(S+I]. También se evaluaron ocho sistemas isoenzimáticos polimórficos. En el germoplasma de habichuela hay importante contribución del acervo mesoamericano y las accesiones en algunos centros secundarios de domesticación tuvieron origen y procesos de dispersión diferentes de los del fríjol común en tales zonas. La mayor variabilidad morfológica y el mayor número de accesiones con características deseables para el mercado fresco se encontró en el grupo mesoamericano. Se detectó mayor número de genotipos híbridos entre acervos cuando se utilizaron simultáneamente los tres descriptores, lo cual indica una estructura genética compleja que podría deberse al efecto de los factores ambientales propios de la zona templada sobre sus patrones reproductivos. La diversidad total medida con los tres descriptores fue similar a la registrada en fríjol común. Sin embargo, la estructura poblacional encontrada por otros autores en el fríjol común es diferente de la observada en este estudio. Palabras claves: Variabilidad, descriptores morfológicos, isoenzimas, proteínas de semilla, acervos genéticos. ABSTRACT Genetic variability of 116 accesions of Phaseolus vulgaris showing snap beans characteristics coming from primary and secondary centers of domestication, were studied using eighteen morphological descriptors to characterize pods and seeds, SDS-PAGE analysis of seed phaseolins and eight isozyme systems. Higher morphological diversity and best pod marketing characteristics were found at Andean accessions

  18. Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddes Kavala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid disorders may affect all of the organ systems of the body and they are also highly associated with a wide variety of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV and to determine the association between thyroid disorders and clinical involvement and systemic corticosteroid treatment in patients with PV. Methods. The study consisted of eighty patients with PV and eighty healthy individuals. Thyroid functions (fT3, fT4, and TSH and thyroid autoimmunity (anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg antibodies were investigated in both groups. Primary thyroid disease (PTD was diagnosed with one or more of the following diagnostic criteria: (i positive antithyroid antibodies, (ii primary thyroid function abnormalities. Results. Significant changes in the serum thyroid profile were found in 16% (13/80 of the PV group and 5% (4/80 of the control group. Positive titers of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-Tg were observed in 7 patients (9% with PV and one in the control group (1,2%. Hashimoto thyroiditis was diagnosed in 9% of PV patients and it was found to be more prevalent in the mucosal form of PV. PTD was found in 13 of (%16 PV patients which was significantly high compared to controls. PTD was not found to be associated with systemic corticosteroid use. Free T3 levels were significantly lower in PV group compared to the control group and free T4 levels were significantly higher in PV group compared to the controls. Conclusions. PV may exist together with autoimmune thyroid diseases especially Hashimoto thyroiditis and primer thyroid diseases. Laboratory work-up for thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibodies should be performed to determine underlying thyroid diseases in patients with PV.

  19. Effect of Mulch and Water Stress on Some Physiological Traits, Yield Components and Grain Yield of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water use in agricultural production as one of the most important environmental factors affecting plant growth and development, especially in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions of Iran is of special importance (21. One of the ways of alleviating water scarcity is by enhancing its use efficiency or productivity. Improving water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid areas depends on effective conservation of moisture and efficient use of limited water. Mulching is one of the management practices for increasing water use efficiency (WUE . Straw mulch is commonly used as mulch. Straw mulching has potential for increasing soil water storage (16. Mulches modify the microclimate and growing conditions of crops (16, conserve more water and increase water use efficiency (34. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume (25 and is an important source of proteins and minerals (28. The majority of red kidney bean production is under drought conditions, and thus yield reductions due to drought are very common (29. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of wheat straw mulch and water stress on physiological traits, yield components and grain yield of red kidney bean cultivars. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran (latitude 38°05_N, longitude 46°17_E, altitude 1360 m above sea level. In order to investigate the effect of mulch on grain yield and yield components of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars at different water stress treatments, a factorial experiment was conducted based on RCB design with three replications. The factors were including water stress treatment (I1 and I2, irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively; mulch application at two levels (M1: (no mulch and M2: 2 ton ha-1 wheat straw mulch and red kidney bean cultivars including Akhtar and

  20. Construcción de una genoteca de cDNA de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. para mapeo genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca William M.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A small cDNA library from beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of about 1500 clones was constructed, to further saturate the bean RFLP linkage map. The primarily synthesized cDNAs were amplified by PCR using the adaptors as primers for amplification (Jepson et al., 1991. Inserts in the range of 500 bp were obtained. 93 clones were singled for further analysis. They showed a degree of repeatibility of around 61 %. Around 80% of the unique clones were single copy, and 20% were low copy sequences as expected from a cDNA library. Three pairs of parental bean lines were chosen for their agronomical traits, and evaluated for polymorphism, which was highest as revealed by digestion with EcoRV (77%, followed by DraI (73%, EcoRI (63% and HindIIl (60%. The highest polymorphism was observed between the pair DOR60 and APNI8, 71% for EcoRV and 57% for EcoRI, respectively. Two clones of the two groups with the most repeated clones were analyzed by slot blot hybridization against the other clones and ribosomal DNA, to understand the origin of the repetitions. Only one clone seemed to be of ribosomal origin, as confirmed by the patterns obtained by hybridization to bean genomic DNA digested with HaelIl, implying that the whole group to which it belonged was of ribosomal origin.  It can be explained by the combined utilization of the PCR amplification methodology and the multipleprimers for the synthesis of the first cDNA strand.

    Se construyó una pequeña librería de cDNA de fríjol (phaseolus vulgaris L. de alrededor de 1500 clones, con el fin de incrementar la saturación del mapa de ligamiento de fríjol con marcadores de RFLPs. Para la generación de la librería se utilizó la técnica de amplificación por PCR (Jepson et al., 1991. En ella se utilizan como iniciadores para la reacción los mismos adaptadores empleados para generar los terminales cohesivos del cDNA. Se obtuvieron insertos con un promedio de 500 pares de bases. Se aislaron 93 clones, los

  1. Avaliação de cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris para o plantio em sistema orgânico no Distrito Federeal Field bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars evaluation for crop in organic system in the state of Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Pereira de Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo se propôs a indicar cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris que tenham melhor desempenho no sistema orgânico, além de mostrar que o rendimento ótimo sustentável conseguido pela agricultura orgânica, pode estar muito próximo do rendimento potencial conseguido pela agricultura convencional. No ano de 2003, foram instalados dois ensaios, um irrigado e outro no período das águas, em uma área de pastagem de baixa fertilidade, situação semelhante à encontrada pelos produtores que se iniciam na produção orgânica sem passar pelo período de conversão, utilizando áreas que se encontram em descanso há alguns anos ou pastagens que não receberam aplicações de agrotóxicos ou adubos de alta solubilidade. No ano seguinte, os mesmos ensaios foram instalados em outra área com fertilidade corrigida e equilibrada, situação em que se encontram produtores já enquadrados na atividade orgânica. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. As cultivares avaliadas foram: Diamante Negro, Talismã, Xamego, Marfim, Jalo Precoce, Pérola, Timbó, Radiante, Aporé, Valente e Vereda. Dentre as cultivares empregadas destacaram-se as dos grupos comerciais preto e carioca, os tipos de maior demanda na região do Distrito Federal.This study objectified indicate field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars that have better performance in organic system, besides to show that the optimum sustainable yield, that can be managed by organic agriculture can be close to potential yield managed by the conventional agriculture. Two experiments were established during the year 2003, one under irrigation system in the dry season and the other in the wet season, in an area with brachiaria pasture with low fertility, the same situation of growers who choose to join the organic system without the necessity of passing through the conversion period, using areas that have been in rest for few years or pastures that

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas for chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with day-old broiler type chicks to study the effect of a cobalt-60 source of gamma irradiation and autoclaving on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas was also studied. Total protein (N x 6.25) was not changed appreciably by gamma irradiation (21 Mrad cobalt-60) and autoclaving but solubility in water was decreased. In vitro enzymic digestibility of irradiated bean protein was increased by pepsin alone and with a mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. The nutritional value of all varieties of beans, based on chick growth, was significantly improved by gamma irradiation. The irradiated treatment of beans increased nitrogen retention by chicks and decreased uric acid nitrogen excretion in relation to nitrogen intake

  3. Efeito das infestantes na qualidade do feijão Manata (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) : em condições de conforto hídrico e stress hídrico

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, João Manuel Figueira Batista

    2014-01-01

    O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris) é uma leguminosa largamente consumida no mundo sendo o seu nível nutricional reconhecido. Os objetivos gerais deste trabalho consistiram em determinar a influência do tempo de permanência das infestantes e do estado hídrico do solo na qualidade do feijão. A cultura do feijão foi submetida a cinco períodos de convivência da cultura com as infestantes 15, 30, 45, 60 dias após a emergência até à colheita e mais uma testemunha sem convívio com as infestantes. O ensai...

  4. Effect of 59Fe and 65Zn on plant weight and chemical composition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. carioca and on atmospheric nitrogen fixation in three soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhet, A.R.

    1976-09-01

    A study is made of the effects of iron and zinc on yield and chemical composition of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.) and on atmospheric nitrogen fixation in three soils, classified as Terra Roxa Estruturada (TRE), Latossol Vermelho Escuro (LVE) and Podzolico Vermelho Amarelo (PVA). The coefficient of utilization of these micronutrients by this crop and their distribution in the aerial part and in the roots were also assessed. There was no influence of treatments of iron and zinc on yield of aerial parts and also on the weight and number of modules. There was significative effect of treatments on nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc contents in aerial parts and on nitrogen, calcium and zinc contents in the root. (A.R.) [pt

  5. Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Aline; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martínez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-09-01

    Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)).

  6. Characterization of a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-TIR gene differentially expressed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) undergoing a defence response to the geminivirus Bean dwarf mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Su; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Rojas, Maria R; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2007-03-01

    SUMMARY Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar (cv.) Othello develops a hypersensitive response-associated vascular resistance to infection by Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV), a single-stranded DNA virus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). A PCR-based cDNA subtraction approach was used to identify genes involved in this resistance response. Eighteen clones, potentially involved with BDMV resistance, were identified based upon being up-regulated in BDMV-infected tissues and/or having sequence similarity with known resistance-associated genes. Analysis of these clones revealed potential genes involved in pathogen defence, including pathogenesis-related protein genes and resistance gene analogues (RGAs). Further characterization of one RGA, F1-10, revealed that it encodes a predicted protein with a double Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) motif. Full-length (F1-10) and spliced (F1-10sp) forms of the RGA were strongly up-regulated in BDMV-infected cv. Othello hypocotyl tissues by 4 days post-inoculation, but not in equivalent mock-inoculated tissues. In agroinfiltration experiments, F1-10, but not F1-10sp, mediated resistance to BDMV in the susceptible common bean cv. Topcrop. By contrast, transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana lines expressing F1-10 or F1-10sp were not resistant to BDMV. Interestingly, when these transgenic lines were inoculated with the potyvirus Bean yellow mosaic virus, some F1-10 lines showed a more severe symptom phenotype compared with non-transgenic control plants. Based on these findings, F1-10 was named: Phaseolus vulgaris VIRUS response TIR-TIR GENE 1 (PvVTT1).

  7. Effects of Plant Density and Cow Manure Levels on Growth Criteria of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars under Mashhad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Legumes after cereals are the second source of human food and in Iran they are the second most important food after the wheat. Legumes protein is four times as much as that of grains and 10 to 20 times as much as that of glandular plants. In addition, beans are planted in Iran in a wide area and knowing optimal farming factors can be an important step in increasing them. One of the most important factors determining the yield of cowpea (Vign asinensis L. is appropriate plant density. Plant density defines the number of plants per square meter, which in turn determines the area available to each individual plant. For most crops, plant density has a major influence on biomass, crop yield and economic profitability. In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., plant density can affect canopy architecture, light conversion efficiency, duration of vegetative growth, dry matter production, seed yield and ultimately, the economic productivity of a crop. Therefore, optimizing plant density, which may be defined by both the number of plants per unit area and the arrangement of plants on the ground, is a pre-requisite for obtaining higher productivity of common bean. However, the other yield components such as number and weight of pods and seeds per plant and 100- seed weight which are established at a later stage in the course of the crop cycle are significantly affected by environmental conditions. Furthermore, the contribution efficiency of these components in the final seed yield is also associated with the number of plants per unit area. Therefore, varying plant density may be a viable alternative to manipulate the productivity of bean under different environmental conditions through their changes in physiological processes. Madani et al. (2008 showed that plant density had significant effect on LAI and shoot dry weight of bean. Moeinit et al. (2009 reported the increase in common bean seed yield with the increase in plant density. Another

  8. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-04-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2-4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. Copyright © 2016 Iwata-Otsubo et al.

  9. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  10. Diversidade genética em acessos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genetic diversity in common bean accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os recursos genéticos devem ser devidamente caracterizados para permitir ganhos genéticos mais promissores no melhoramento e para o uso destes recursos pelo próprio agricultor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de acessos de feijão comum do germoplasma existente na Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, através de inter-relações entre os descritores agronômicos. O experimento foi conduzido a partir de outubro de 2005, constituído por 20 acessos de feijão comum, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com 3 repetições. Foi utilizada a técnica de análise multivariada para medir a divergência genética representada pela distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Com base na matriz de dissimilaridade genética gerada, foi construído o dendrograma pelo método de agrupamento da distância média. Das 12 variáveis envolvidas no estudo, o peso de 100 sementes teve a maior contribuição na separação dos genótipos, seguido pela espessura do legume, pelo comprimento do legume e pelo rendimento de grãos. Os acessos BAF 42, BAF 46, BAF 47 e BAF 57 se destacaram quanto ao nível de produtividade (3.500 a 5.000kg ha-1 e devem ser mais bem caracterizados para serem incorporados nos programas de melhoramento da cultura e/ou indicado para os agricultores.The correct characterization of genetic resources allows to identify sources of variability, a genetic profit during the plant breeding and use of these resources in the crop science. This research was aimed at evaluating genetic divergence in bean accessions of a germplasm of Santa Catarina, through interrelation among the agronomic character descriptor. Twenty bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. accessions were evaluated carried out in October 2005, using the randomized block design with three replications. The genotypes were studied using multivariable techniques to measure genetic divergence represented by the generalized distance of

  11. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  12. (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Rhizobia symbiosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... order to study the effect of insoluble phosphorus (IP) in hydroponic culture, two common bean varieties, that is, WAFA and REBIA were inoculated separately with three rhizobia strains (P.Tb.09,. CIAT899 and P.OM.09) and were grown under mineral P (250 µmol P (KH2PO4)) versus IP (250 µmol P.

  13. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... gene centers (Near East and Mediterranean) in the world. (Şehirali and Özgen, 1987). There are 163 plant families, ... seeded cultivars are from Mexico and Central America, termed the Mesoamerican Center (Singh et al., .... quality foods have increased. For this reason, determination and preservation of ...

  14. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  15. EVALUATION OF SWINE ORGANIC MATTER ON COMMON BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L YIELD AVALIAÇÃO DO EFEITO DE RESÍDUOS ORGÂNICOS DE SUÍNOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE FEIJÃO COMUM (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Rodrigues da Cunha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An experiment was carried out to test the effect of organic manure (swine slurry on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grain yield, CV. Carioca, on a red latossol, with low fertility, high acidity (pH = 4.8, medium aluminum toxicity (0.5 me/100 ml, medium contents of P (6.1 ppm and K+ (53 ppm and low contents of calcium plus magnesium (1.1 me/100ml at the Federal University of Goiás, School of Agronomy, Goiânia, Goiás. A randomized block design with four repetitions was used and the treatments: KPK dressing (T1; liming (T2; swine slurry (T3; NPK dressing + liming + swine slurry (T4 and NPK dressing + liming. The following average grain yield (kg/ha were obtained: T2 (liming = 400.7; T1 (NPK dressing = 537.8; T3 (swine slurry = 576.4; T5 (NPK dressing + liming = 577.1 and T4 (NPK dressing + liming + swine slurry = 616.4. The “complete” treatment (T4 showed the highest grain production, whilst the others showed no significant differences among them. However, the treatment with swine slurry gained a productivity of common beans equivalent to that obtained by conventional NPK dressings used in Brazil. Due to its easy obtention, swine slurry can be used as an alternative economic choice for little growers to fertilize their common beans crops.

    Conduziu-se um experimento para testar o efeito da adubação orgânica (Chorume de suíno na produção de grãos de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L., CV. Carioca, em um solo LE de baixa fertilidade, elevada acidez (pH = 4,8, toxidez média de A1+ + + (0,5 meq./100ml, com teores médios de P (6,1 ppm e de K+ (53 ppm nas dependências da Escola de Agronomia da UFG, Goiânia, Goiás. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, e os tratamentos: adubação NPK (T1, calagem (T2, chorume de suínos (T3, adubação NPK + chorume de su

  16. Efeito de substâncias húmicas na cinética de absorção de potássio, crescimento de plantas e concentração de nutrientes em Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of humic-like substances on potassium uptake kinetics, plant growth and nutrient concentration in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Machado da Rosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As substâncias húmicas podem influenciar direta ou indiretamente o metabolismo das plantas, alterando assim o seu crescimento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de substâncias húmicas (SH no crescimento e na concentração de nutrientes em plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. e nos parâmetros cinéticos de absorção de K. O experimento foi realizado em bancada de laboratório, com luz artificial. As plantas cresceram em vasos contendo solução nutritiva completa acrescida de cinco doses (0; 2,5; 5; 10; e 20 mg L-1 de C de SH solúveis em meio alcalino (ácido húmico + ácido fúlvico, extraídos de amostra de carvão mineral da mina de Candiota, RS, da Companhia Riograndense de Mineração, num delineamento completamente ao acaso, com três repetições. Aos 28 dias de cultivo, foram avaliados parâmetros cinéticos de absorção de K, massa da parte aérea e da raiz seca, teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no tecido da parte área e as características morfológicas de raízes (comprimento, área e raio. Os resultados evidenciaram que a adição de SH extraída de carvão mineral estimulou o crescimento do feijão e afetou a cinética de absorção de K. A produção de massa da parte aérea seca das plantas mostrou resposta quadrática à adição de substâncias húmicas, atingindo valor máximo na dose equivalente a 11 mg L-1 de C, enquanto a massa das raízes secas aumentou linearmente em até 41 %, com as doses testadas. As características morfológicas de raiz e o estado nutricional das plantas não foram significativamente afetados pelas SH. Os parâmetros cinéticos de absorção de K, Imáx, Cmín e Km, decresceram linearmente com o aumento das doses de SH, causando redução na taxa de absorção de K nas concentrações deste nutriente na solução superiores a 10 μmol L-1.Humic substances can influence plant metabolism direct or indirectly, thus modifying its growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate

  17. In vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically pre-treated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. flour using commercial protease and Bacillus sp. protease Digestibilidade protéica in vitro de farinhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pré-tratadas com protease comercial e protease de Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disney Ribeiro Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a staple food in the Brazilian diet and represents the major source of dietary protein and other micronutrients and minerals. Despite the considerable protein concentration in beans, the food is considered of low biological value when compared to animal proteins and other plant protein sources. To improve the availability of protein in beans, enzymatic treatments were performed in four cultivars (ON, OPNS, TAL and VC3. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. We used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments: treatment 1-addition of commercial protease (Trypsin 250, Difco, treatment 2-addition of protease from Bacillus sp., and treatment 3:-control without enzyme addition. The enzyme: substrate ratio was 5% w/w (amount of enzyme per total protein in bean flour. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. A 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments, the same as those mentioned above was used. The concentration of total protein (g.100 g-1 of dry matter in the samples ranged from 16.94 to 18.06%, while the concentration of total phenolics was between 0.78 and 1.12% (g Eq. tannic acid.100 g-1 dry matter. The in vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically untreated bean flour (control ranged from 47.30 to 56.17% based on the digestibility of casein. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn observed in the four cultivars tested were within the average values available in the literature. Treatment 2 with protease from Bacillus sp. induced decreases in the levels of Cu and Mn. The average Fe content increased in all bean flour samples when treated with proteases, reaching a maximum increase of 102% in the TAL flour treated with protease from Bacillus sp. The digestibility of all beans tested was significantly increased (p O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é um alimento básico na refeição do brasileiro

  18. INFLUÊNCIA DE SISTEMAS AGRÍCOLAS NA RESPOSTA DO FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. IRRIGADO À ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA EM COBERTURA DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON IRRIGATED COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. RESPONSE TO NITROGEN TOPDRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corival Cândido da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O aumento na produção de alimentos por meio da agricultura, com enfoque em sistemas agrícolas, tem sido bastante praticado nos últimos anos. O feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma espécie viável de integrar esses sistemas, o que tem sido demonstrado nas áreas irrigadas na região central do Brasil. Entretanto, são necessários ajustes nas técnicas de manejo, adequando-as aos diferentes sistemas. A adubação nitrogenada é uma delas e esta deve ser diferenciada, considerando a diversidade dos sistemas agrícolas em que o feijoeiro participa. Para testar esta hipótese, avaliou-se a influência de quatro sistemas agrícolas na resposta do feijoeiro irrigado, cultivar Aporé, à adubação nitrogenada. Os sistemas foram A - rotação milho-feijão, preparo do solo com arado de aiveca na primavera-verão (novembro-dezembro e grade aradora no outono-inverno (maio-junho; B – rotação arroz-feijão, preparo do solo com arado de aiveca em todas as épocas; C - rotação arroz/calopogônio-feijão, preparo do solo com grade aradora em todas as épocas; e D - rotação milhofeijão, em plantio direto contínuo. O nitrogênio, tendo a uréia como fonte, foi aplicado em cobertura nas doses de 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 kg.ha-1 de N. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no período de outono-inverno (maio-junho de 1996 e 1997, em latossolo vermelho-escuro distrófico, na Fazenda Capivara, pertencente à Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Houve efeito dos tratamentos no número de vagens/planta, na massa de 100 grãos e no rendimento de grãos. Os maiores rendimentos de grãos foram obtidos nos sistemas C e D, em que houve menor movimentação de solo. No sistema C, o efeito das doses de N ajustou-se ao modelo quadrático, sendo de 109 kg.ha-1 de N a

  19. The Effect of Bio-fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizers (Phosphate and Zinc on Yield and Yield Components of Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2016-02-01

    and 30. They reported that dual inoculation increases plant productivity. In this study, phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers caused an increase in yield, yield component and shoot nutrient by increasing nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, growth hormones and creating favorable growth conditions. Also results showed that the consume of P fertilizers were decreased (50 percent with proper integration of chemical and bio-fertilizers. These results correspond with the results of other researchers (17, 22, 23, 24 and 27. Conclusion: In this research proper integration of bio- and chemical fertilizers was shown to increase yield and yield components with increasing and improving P and other nutrients’ uptake in both bean cultivars. The result also indicated that combining bio and chemical phosphate fertilizers increased the efficiency of phosphate fertilizers by 50 percent. Sadri cultivar is a suitable cultivar for Chaharmahal-va- Bakhtiari province and regions with a similar climate. Keywords: Phosphorus, Zinc, Mycorrhizal fungi, Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Insoluble phosphorus and zinc solubilizers

  20. Phytochemicals and selected mineral constituents of Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris pods was screened for its phytochemical constituents. Selected mineral elements were also determined. Standard procedures were adopted for the phytochemical screening. Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for mineral analysis. Alkaloids ...

  1. Efeitos do controle de plantas daninhas, com herbicidas, na produção e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effects of weed control with herbicides on yield and physiological quality of field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. da Silva

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o efeito de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas, na produção e na qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rico 23, foi instalado um experimento no campo, em solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo Câmbico, fase terraço, com 2,8% de matéria orgânica e textura argilosa. Usaram-se os tratamentos: testemunha com capina; testemunha sem capina; EPTC a 5,70 kg i.a./ha; trifluralina a 0,75 kg i.a./ha; EPTC a 2,00 kg i.a./ha + trifluralina a 0,60 kg i.a./ha; nitralina a 1,00 kg i.a./ha e pendimethalin a 1,50 kg i.a./ha. Avaliaram-se a população inicial e a produção de grãos pelo feijoeiro e o número de plantas daninhas Realizaram-se, também, testes de avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes do feijoeiro. pelo teste-padrão de germinação, teste de primeira contagem, peso de matéria seca das plãntulas na primeira contagem e teste de germinação após 20, 40 e 60 horas de permanência das sementes na câmara de envelhecimento precoce. No campo, observou-se predominância de trevo (Oxalis sp, picão-branco (Galinsoga parviflora e tiririca (Cyperus rotundus. Não se observaram diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos, quanto ao controle de plantas daninhas e> inicial e produção do feijoeiro. O teste-padrão de germinação não foi bom parâmetro para diferenciar níveis de vigor das sementes. O herbicida trifluralina não prejudicou o acúmulo de matéria seca pelas plântulas. O tratamento das sementes do feijoeiro na câmara de envelhecimento precoce, a 42 ± 3ºC e 95% U.R., pelo período de 20 horas, promoveu, nas sementes do tratamento testemunha sem capina, deterioração precoce, diferenciando-o do EPTC + trifluralina, que permaneceu vigoroso.This experiment was planned to evaluate the effect of herbicides on yield and physiological quality of field bean seeds. A trial was carried out on a Cambic yellow Podzolic, terrace fase clay soil, with 2,8% of organic

  2. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Marzuoli, Riccardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Fondazione Lombardia per l' Ambiente, piazza Diaz 9, 20123 Milano (Italy); Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Lab., DISAT, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Faoro, Franco [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Iriti, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.iriti@unimi.i [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O{sub 3} exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O{sub 3} m{sup -2}. Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, DELTAF/F{sub m}{sup '}). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  3. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto; Faoro, Franco; Iriti, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O 3 exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H 2 O 2 accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O 3 m -2 . Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, ΔF/F m ' ). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  4. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  5. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of free phenolic compounds and oligosaccharides from corn (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chips during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and simulated colonic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo-Ocampo, I; Campos-Vega, R; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Preciado-Ortiz, R; Mendoza, S; Loarca-Piña, G

    2017-10-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are alternative suitable ingredients for snacks, because of their content of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds (PC) and oligosaccharides (OS). However, there is no information about the transformation of these compounds associated with food matrix during gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, the objective of this work was to simulate the whole digestion process (mouth to colon) to estimate bioaccessibility and small intestine permeability of free PC and OS, and the antioxidant capacity of free PC. Digested nixtamalized corn-cooked common bean chips exhibited significant different quantities of free PC and OS, and higher antioxidant activity compared to methanolic extract. The free PC showed high values of apparent permeability coefficients (0.023-0.729×10 -3 ), related with their absorption in the small intestine. Both free PC and OS were retained in the non-digestible fraction of chips (10.24-64.4%) and were able to reach the colon. Our results suggest the digestion potential to increase chip bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Additional studies are required to evaluate their in vivo effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  7. Combined effects of blue light and supplemental far-red light and effects of increasing red light with constant far-red light on growth of kidney bean [Phaseolus vulgaris] under mixtures of narrow-band light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, H.; Shoji, K.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing blue light and decreasing R: FR with supplementary far-red light affect morphogenesis, dry matter production and dry matter partitioning to leaves, stems and roots. In this study, the combined effects of the two spectral treatments were examined in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under the mixture of four different narrow-band light sources. In addition, because the leaf and stem growth are accelerated by increasing red light (600-700 nm) in proportion to far-red light (700-800 nm) while keeping R : FR constant, this study was conducted to determine whether red light or far-red light causes the acceleration of growth. Increasing blue light (400-500 nm) and decreasing R : FR only interacted on stem extension. The results illustrated with figures suggest that blue light amplifies or attenuates the acceleration of stem extension caused by decreasing R : FR. On the other hand, increasing red light with constant far-red light had no influence on leaf expansion or stem extension while R : FR increased. Because the acceleration of leaf and stem growth is caused by increasing either far-red light or both red and far-red light in our environmental conditions, the stimulative effects on leaves and stems seem to require increases in far-red light rather than red light

  8. Determinación de la composición físico-química y de la digestibilidad in vitro de dos variedades de frijol común Phaseolus vulgaris L. estimación del contenido de pectina y celulosa en el residuo indigerible

    OpenAIRE

    Víquez Rodríguez, Floribeth; Bonilla Leiva, Ana Ruth

    2000-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio fue determinar, mediante un estudio de digestibilidad in vitro, la porción indigerible presente en dos variedades de frijol común Phaseolus vulgaris L. consumidas en Costa Rica y cuantificar en dicha porción, dos de los principales polisacáridos no almidonosos causantes de flatulencia: pectina y celulosa. Se determinaron además, las principales características físicas (tamaño y tasa de absorción de agua) y químicas (contenido de proteínas, grasa, cenizas y carbohi...

  9. Effet des poudres d'Eucalyptus citriodora, de Cupressus lucitanica et de Tagetas minitiflora dans la conservation du maïs (Zea mays et du haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris dans les conditions de Rethy, République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloma, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Eucalyptus citriodora, Cupressus lucitanica and Tagetas minitiflora Powders in the Conservation of Maize (Zea mays and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in Conditions of Rethy (Democratic Republic of the Congo. A study on the effect of Eucalyptus citriodora, Cupressus lucitanica and Tagetas minitiflora powders, was made at Rethy (Democratic Republic of the Congo in order to determine efficacy in the conservation of maize and bean. After 10 months, T. minitiflora was more efficacious with 0.19% of infestation for bean, and 2.59% for maize in comparison to the control sample which gave 0.9% for bean and 4.45% for maize.

  10. Aplicación de la ley de Fick y el modelo de peleg para estudiar la absorción de agua en el frijol cargamanto ombligo amarillo (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y la arveja seca (Pisan sativa) durante la rehidratación

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo Ospina, John Fernando; Franco Castro, Ricardo Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó la aplicabilidad de la ley de Fick y el modelo matemático empírico de Peleg, en el proceso de rehidratación de fríjol cargamanto ombligo amarillo (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) y la arveja seca (Pisum sativum), utilizando cinco temperaturas de rehidratación 25, 35, 40, 47 y 55 ºC. El fríjol sigue el modelo matemático de Peleg y se le determinó la ecuación de rehidratación. La arverja tuvo un comportamiento diferente. Los coeficientes de difusión calculados estuvieron alrededor ...

  11. Project Phaseolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out through the Phaseolus Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA) Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. It comprises the following subject s: plant breeding; nitrogen fixation; tissue cultures; proteins; photosynthetic efficiency; soil-plant interactions; electron microscopy of the golden mosaic virus; pest control; production of 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate, and determination of elements in the beans plant. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Efeito da densidade e da distância de caruru-de-mancha e amendoim-bravo na cultura do feijoeiro Effect of the density and distance of slender amaranth and milkweed on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.M. Barroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência causada pelo caruru-demancha (Amaranthus viridis e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, em função das densidades e distâncias, no feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Pérola. Como recipientes, foram utilizadas caixas de cimento-amianto, com capacidade para 50 litros, preenchidas com LatossoloVermelho-Escuro. As mudas foram formadas em bandejas de 128 células preenchidas com substrato hortícola; quando as plântulas atingiram o estádio V2, foram transplantadas para as caixas, sendo as de feijoeiro numa linha central, reproduzindo a semeadura em campo, e as das plantas daninhas nas densidades de 8, 16 e 32 plantas m-2, distanciadas de 0, 12 e 24 cm das plantas de feijão e igualmente entre si. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3+2T, com quatro repetições, constituindo as parcelas experimentais. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento e de produtividade da cultura e das plantas daninhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as plantas daninhas obtiveram maior desenvolvimento quando em maior distância da cultura. O caruru-de-mancha causou reduções no número de vagens e na produtividade estimada do feijoeiro. Para o caruru-de-mancha, o aumento da densidade só causou redução na produtividade da cultura quando as plantas estavam distanciadas em pelo menos 12 cm. A 0 cm, o feijoeiro tornou-se mais competitivo e não sofreu interferência das plantas daninhas, independentemente da densidade destas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference caused by Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis and Milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla at different densities and distances in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pérola. The experiment was carried out using asbestos cement boxes

  13. Efecto de la temperatura, el estrés hídrico y luminoso sobre la heterogeneidad del fotosistema II en cuatro variedades de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of temperature, water and light stress on PSII heterogeneity in four bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIERA GONZÁLEZ

    2001-12-01

    diferencias en la magnitud de los cambios observados en las diferentes variedades de poroto, en todos ellos se aprecia la tendencia a modificar la estructura de los centros PSII, de manera de favorecer una menor sobreexcitación de los centros de reacción de dichos complejos, en las situaciones de estrés estudiadasHigher plants have developed multiple mechanisms of photoprotection in order to efficiently use the absorbed energy, as well as protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against oxidative damage. Particularly, under environmental conditions, restrictive for the photochemical use of the absorbed energy, such as high light, water stress and high temperatures. PSII complexes are able to change their location and structure as in PSIIß and state transitions, but not exclusively upon light intensity. In the present study, the effect of different environmental stresses on PSII heterogeneity in four bean cultivar (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: Arroz Tuscola (AT, Orfeo INIA (OI, Bayos Titán (BT and Hallado Dorado (HD, has been assessed. In chamber grown plants, the proportion of the PSIIb centers increases up to a 100 % as the temperature rises. A stronger response was observed, upon water stress. Under field conditions, light stress induced by fixing leaves to horizontal position, further increased the water stress dependent effect on PSIIb centers, from 27 % in free leaves from watered plants up to a 63 % in horizontal leaves from water stressed plants. As for state transitions, an increase was observed in 20 ºC grown plants when exposed to 15 ºC. Also, temperatures from 25 to 35 ºC induced increases in state transitions. Such increases were lowered by water stress, in cultivars AT and OI, maintained in HD and further increased in BT. Even though differences were observed in the extent of the changes on PSIIß and state transitions among varieties, a clear trend to modify the PSII structure in order to decrease its excitation pressure under the stress conditions studied were

  14. Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus conferred by the bc-1 and bc-2 genes in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects long distance movement of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Orellana, Gardenia; Myers, James; Karasev, Alexander V

    2018-04-12

    Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is governed by four genes that include one strain-nonspecific helper gene bc-u, and three strain-specific genes bc-1, bc-2, and bc-3. The bc-3 gene was identified as an eIF4E translation initiation factor gene mediating resistance through disruption of the interaction between this protein and the VPg protein of the virus. The mode of action of bc-1 and bc-2 in expression of BCMV resistance is unknown, although bc-1 gene was found to affect systemic spread of a related potyvirus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. To investigate the possible role of both bc-1 and bc-2 genes in replication, cell-to-cell, and long distance movement of BCMV in P. vulgaris, we tested virus spread of eight BCMV isolates representing pathogroups I, IV, VI, VII, and VIII, in a set of bean differentials expressing different combinations of six resistance alleles including bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, bc-2 2 , and bc-3. All studied BCMV isolates were able to replicate and spread in inoculated leaves of bean cultivars harboring bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles and their combinations, while no BCMV replication was found in inoculated leaves of 'IVT7214' carrying the bc-u, bc-2 and bc-3 genes, except for isolate 1755a capable of overcoming the resistance conferred by bc-2 and bc-3. In contrast, the systemic spread of all BCMV isolates from pathogroups I, IV,VI, VII, and VIII was impaired in common bean cultivars carrying bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles. The data suggest that bc-1 and bc-2 recessive resistance genes have no effect on the replication and cell-to-cell movement of BCMV, but affect systemic spread of BCMV in common bean. The BCMV resistance conferred by bc-1 and bc-2 and affecting systemic spread was found only partially effective when these two genes were expressed singly. The efficiency of the restriction of the systemic spread of the virus was greatly enhanced when

  15. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  16. Effects of acute O3 stress on PSII and PSI photochemistry of sensitive and resistant snap bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), probed by prompt chlorophyll "a" fluorescence and 820 nm modulated reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Elisabetta; Fusaro, Lina; Strasser, Reto J; Bussotti, Filippo; Manes, Fausto

    2015-12-01

    The response of PSII and PSI photochemistry to acute ozone (O3) stress was tested in a "model plant system", namely the O3 sensitive (S156) and O3 resistant (R123) genotype pairs of Phaseolus vulgaris L., during a phenological phase of higher O3 sensitivity (pod formation). The modulation of the photosynthetic activity during O3 stress was analysed by measuring gas exchanges, Prompt Fluorescence (PF, JIP-test) and 820 nm Modulated Reflectance (MR), a novel techniques which specifically detects the changes in the redox state of P700 and plastocyanin. The results showed that, coherently with genotypic-specific O3 sensitivity, the response of the two snap bean genotypes differed for the intensity and time of onset of the considered physiological changes. In fact, despite leaf injury and gas exchanges reduction appeared concurrently in both genotypes, S156 showed a PSII down regulation already after the first day of fumigation (DOF), and an enhancement of Cyclic Electron Flow of PSI after the second DOF, whereas R123 showed only slight adjustments until the third DOF, when the activity of both photosystems was down-regulated. Despite these differences, it is possible to distinguish in both genotypes an early O3 response of the photochemical apparatus, involving PSII only, and a following response, in which PSI activity and content are also modulated. The measurement of the MR signal, performed simultaneously with the PF measurements and the JIP-test analysis, has allowed a better understanding of the role that PSI plays in the O3 stress response of the S156/R123 model plant system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da

    2009-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15 N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N 2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg -1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15 N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good ag