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Sample records for erythroxylum coca control

  1. Biological activity of the alkaloids of Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, C.A.; Novák, M.; Khan, I.

    1984-01-01

    The cultivated Erythroxylum varieties E. coca var. coca, E. coca var. ipadu, E. novogranatense var. novogranatense and E. novogranatense var. truxillense contain 18 alkaloids, identified so far, belonging to the tropanes, pyrrolidines and pyridines, with cocaine as the main alkaloid. The biological

  2. Effect of the aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extract of dried leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca (coca in Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Candida albicans in vitro

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    Medalit Luna-Vílchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of the aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extract of dried leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca (coca in Trichophyton rubrum (TR, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (TM, Microsporum canis (MC and Candida albicans (CA in vitro. Materials and methods: An experimental study which evaluated the presence or absence of fungal growth, and fungal growth rate from the seeding point, compared to fungal growth in Sabouraud Agar (SA using Siegel-Tukey and KruskalWallis tests (p<0.05. Results: The CA group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. aqueous, 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, control vs. aqueous, 0.01M HCl vs. control. The TR group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. aqueous, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, 0.01M HCl vs. control. The TM group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, aqueous vs. acid, aqueous vs. control. The MC group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, aqueous vs. acid, aqueous vs. control. In all the cases, the results of the 0.01M HCl vs. aqueous group were not significant. Conclusions: The aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extracts have no effect on the growth of CA and TM, but the alcoholic extract has effects on the growth of TR and MC. In addition, there were differences in the growth rate of CA, TR and TM in the aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extracts compared to that in SA. However only TR, TM and MC showed differences in their growth rate in the alcoholic extract.

  3. Evaluación de la respuesta glucemica post-ingesta de la hoja de coca (Erythroxylum coca) en personas sin antecedente patológico metabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pedro Erostegui Revilla; Clara Amparo Hurtado Sánchez; Doris Cartagena Triveño

    2013-01-01

    Considerando la veracidad de los beneficios de la hoja de Coca (Erythroxylum coca), este estudio tiene por objetivo evaluar la respuesta glucémica post ingesta de hoja de coca en personas sin previa patología metabólica. La metodología empleada es experimental, tipo ensayo clínico de campo. De una población de 345 personas de laEscuela Militar de Sargentos del Ejército de la ciudad de Cochabamba – Bolivia, se seleccionaron a 90 personas, de sexo masculino entre 18 a 25 años, sin antecedentes ...

  4. Plantas de coca en Colombia. Discusión crítica sobre la taxonomía de las especies cultivadas del género Erythroxylum P. Browne (Erythroxylaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, Aida; Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Erythroxylum es un género pantropical que cuenta con alrededor de 230 especies, de las cuales cerca de 190 se encuentran en el Neotrópico. A este género pertenecen las comúnmente denominadas “plantas de coca”, que en Colombia incluye cerca de 40 especies. Únicamente dos especies del género han sido cultivadas desde épocas prehispánicas: Erythroxylum coca Lam. y E. novogranatense (D. Morris) Hieron. En la literatura se reconocen las variedades taxonómicas Erythroxylum coca var. ...

  5. Efecto terapéutico del extracto etanólico de Erythroxylum coca spp. en anemia ferropénica inducida en ratas Holtzman macho

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    Evelyn F. Gonzales-Carazas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La hoja de coca ha sido usada tradicionalmente con fines medicinales y contiene altos niveles de hierro. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto del extracto etanólico de Erythroxylum coca spp. frente a anemia ferropénica inducida por dieta deficiente en hierro, en ratas Holtzman macho. Diseño: Experimental. Lugar: Laboratorio del Instituto de Patología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: Dieciocho ratas Holtzman macho de 16 días de edad recién destetadas. Intervenciones: Se formó tres grupos de seis ratas cada uno: a grupo hierro suficiente (HS, recibió 25 g/d de alimento balanceado durante 7 semanas; b grupo hierro deficiente (HD, recibió 25 g/d de dieta ferropénica durante 7 semanas; y, c el grupo hierro deficiente - extracto E. coca (HD-EC, recibió 25 g/d de dieta ferropénica durante 7 semanas y a partir de la semana 5 se agregó 18 g/d de extracto de E. coca. Principales medidas de resultados: Nivel sérico de hemoglobina, peso y talla. Resultados: Al finalizar el tratamiento, se observó aumento significativo de la hemoglobina en el grupo HD-EC (p=0,04. Se encontró diferencia significativa en los niveles séricos de hemoglobina entre los grupos HD-EC y HD (p=0,0062. No se encontró diferencia significativa en los valores de hemoglobina entre los grupos HD-EC y HS (p= 0,06. No se evidenció diferencia en el peso y la talla entre los grupos HD y HD-EC (p=0,20 y p=0,23, respectivamente. Conclusiones: E. coca presenta efecto antianémico experimental, sustentado en los resultados de los niveles de hemoglobina.

  6. Evaluación de sustancias fitoprotectoras usadas como estrategia de neutralización de la acción del glifosato sobre cultivos de erythroxylum coca

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    Carlos Julio Tunjano Huerta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Son múltiples las estrategias empleadas por los cocaleros para resistir a los programas de erradicación. El estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar 3 tratamientos usados por los cultivadores de coca para neutralizar la acción del glifosato, para tal efecto se estableció un cultivo de coca Erythroylum coca y mediante diseño experimental en bloques al azar se aplicaron los tratamientos consistentes en aspersiones a plantas adultas completamente establecidas (8 meses de edad compuestos en 3 tipos de sustancias disueltas en agua: Melaza 0.1 g/ml., Leche 1 g/ml, Jabón detergente 10 g/l, mediante inspección basada en la escala de ALAM se determinó los signos de toxicidad y la efectividad fitoprotectora de las sustancias empleadas encontrándose la ineficacia de las estrategias.

  7. Social control as supplyside harm reduction strategy The case of an indigenous coca growing community in Peru

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    GARCIA-YI, Jaqueline

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coca uses have taken place in Peru and Bolivia from three thousand years. International organizations have urged the implementation of “zero-coca” growing policies in those countries, although without tangible results. Supply-side harm reduction strategies are currently being implemented in Bolivia, which rely on social control to limit, although not totally abolish coca growing. In this article, the different motivations for traditional coca growing are extensively reviewed, and the data from a survey conducted with 496 farmers in an indigenous community is examined, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of the coca-growing problem and to evaluate if social control could potentially influence the scale of coca growing in Peru. The results suggest that social control variables, such as attachment, involvement, and beliefs, seem to limit coca-growing areas. Those factors have been largely overlooked and may offer an opportunity to reduce coca areas if explicitly considered in anti-drug policy design.

  8. Cytotoxic effect of Erythroxylum suberosum combined with radiotherapy in head and neck cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Taysa B.C.; Torres, Hianne M.; Yamamoto-Silva, Fernanda Paula; Silva, Maria Alves G. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia; Elias, Silvia T.; Silveira, Damaris; Magalhaes, Perola O.; Lofrano-Porto, Adriana; Guerra, Eliete N.S., E-mail: elieteneves@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude

    2016-01-15

    The mouth and oropharynx cancer is the 6{sup th} most common type of cancer in the world. The treatment may involve surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. More than 50% of drugs against cancer were isolated from natural sources, such as Catharanthus roseus and epipodophyllotoxin, isolated from Podophyllum. The biggest challenge is to maximize the control of the disease, while minimizing morbidity and toxicity to the surrounding normal tissues. The Erythroxylum suberosum is a common plant in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and is popularly known as 'cabelo-de-negro'. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Erythroxylum suberosum plant extracts of the Brazilian Cerrado biome associated with radiotherapy in human cell lines of oral and hypopharynx carcinomas. Cells were treated with aqueous, ethanolic and hexanic extracts of Erythroxylum suberosum and irradiated at 4 Gy, 6 Gy and 8 Gy. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the absorbance was measured at 570 nm in a Beckman Counter reader. Cisplatin, standard chemotherapy, was used as positive control. The use of Erythroxylum suberosum extracts showed a possible radiosensitizing effect in vitro for head and neck cancer. The cytotoxicity effect in the cell lines was not selective and it is very similar to the effect of standard chemotherapy. The aqueous extract of Erythroxylum suberosum, combined with radiotherapy was the most cytotoxic extract to oral and hypopharynx carcinomas. (author)

  9. Cytotoxic Effect of Erythroxylum suberosum Combined with Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Taysa B C; Elias, Silvia T; Torres, Hianne M; Yamamoto-Silva, Fernanda Paula; Silveira, Dâmaris; Magalhães, Pérola O; Lofrano-Porto, Adriana; Guerra, Eliete N S; Silva, Maria Alves G

    2016-01-01

    The mouth and oropharynx cancer is the 6th most common type of cancer in the world. The treatment may involve surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. More than 50% of drugs against cancer were isolated from natural sources, such as Catharanthus roseus and epipodophyllotoxin, isolated from Podophyllum. The biggest challenge is to maximize the control of the disease, while minimizing morbidity and toxicity to the surrounding normal tissues. The Erythroxylum suberosum is a common plant in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and is popularly known as "cabelo-de-negro". The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Erythroxylum suberosum plant extracts of the Brazilian Cerrado biome associated with radiotherapy in human cell lines of oral and hypopharynx carcinomas. Cells were treated with aqueous, ethanolic and hexanic extracts of Erythroxylum suberosum and irradiated at 4 Gy, 6 Gy and 8 Gy. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the absorbance was measured at 570 nm in a Beckman Counter reader. Cisplatin, standard chemotherapy, was used as positive control. The use of Erythroxylum suberosum extracts showed a possible radiosensitizing effect in vitro for head and neck cancer. The cytotoxicity effect in the cell lines was not selective and it is very similar to the effect of standard chemotherapy. The aqueous extract of Erythroxylum suberosum, combined with radiotherapy was the most cytotoxic extract to oral and hypopharynx carcinomas.

  10. Spray droplet size, drift potential, and risks to nontarget organisms from aerially applied glyphosate for coca control in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Andrew J; Solomon, Keith R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    A wind tunnel atomization study was conducted to measure the emission droplet size spectra for water and Glyphos (a glyphosate formulation sold in Colombia) + Cosmo-flux sprays for aerial application to control coca and poppy crops in Colombia. The droplet size spectra were measured in a wind tunnel for an Accu-Flo nozzle (with 16 size 0.085 [2.16 mm] orifices), under appropriate simulated aircraft speeds (up to 333 km/h), using a laser diffraction instrument covering a dynamic size range for droplets of 0.5 to 3,500 microm. The spray drift potential of the glyphosate was modeled using the AGDISP spray application and drift model, using input parameters representative of those occurring in Colombia for typical aerial application operations. The droplet size spectra for tank mixes containing glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux were considerably finer than water and became finer with higher aircraft speeds. The tank mix with 44% glyphosate had a D(v0.5) of 128 microm, while the value at the 4.9% glyphosate rate was 140 microm. These are classified as very fine to fine sprays. Despite being relatively fine, modeling showed that the droplets would not evaporate as rapidly as most similarly sized agricultural sprays because the nonvolatile proportion of the tank mix (active and inert adjuvant ingredients) was large. Thus, longer range drift is small and most drift that does occur will deposit relatively close to the application area. Drift will only occur downwind and, with winds of velocity less than the modeled maximum of 9 km/h, the drift distance would be substantially reduced. Spray drift potential might be additionally reduced through various practices such as the selection of nozzles, tank mix adjuvants, aircraft speeds, and spray pressures that would produce coarser sprays. Species sensitivity distributions to glyphosate were constructed for plants and amphibians. Based on modeled drift and 5th centile concentrations, appropriate no-spray buffer zones (distance from the

  11. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COCA ERADICATION POLICY IN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Sanchez, Rocio del Pilar; Kraybill, David S.; Thompson, Stanley R.

    2002-01-01

    We estimate an econometric model of coca production in Colombia. Our results indicate that coca eradication is an ineffective means of supply control as farmers compensate by cultivating the crop more extensively. The evidence further suggests that incentives to produce legal substitute crops may have greater supply-reducing potential than eradication.

  12. CYP79D enzymes contribute to jasmonic acid-induced formation of aldoximes and other nitrogenous volatiles in two Erythroxylum species.

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    Luck, Katrin; Jirschitzka, Jan; Irmisch, Sandra; Huber, Meret; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G

    2016-10-04

    Amino acid-derived aldoximes and nitriles play important roles in plant defence. They are well-known as precursors for constitutive defence compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides and glucosinolates, but are also released as volatiles after insect feeding. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) of the CYP79 family catalyze the formation of aldoximes from the corresponding amino acids. However, the majority of CYP79s characterized so far are involved in cyanogenic glucoside or glucosinolate biosynthesis and only a few have been reported to be responsible for nitrogenous volatile production. In this study we analysed and compared the jasmonic acid-induced volatile blends of two Erythroxylum species, the cultivated South American crop species E. coca and the African wild species E. fischeri. Both species produced different nitrogenous compounds including aliphatic aldoximes and an aromatic nitrile. Four isolated CYP79 genes (two from each species) were heterologously expressed in yeast and biochemically characterized. CYP79D62 from E. coca and CYP79D61 and CYP79D60 from E. fischeri showed broad substrate specificity in vitro and converted L-phenylalanine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-tryptophan, and L-tyrosine into the respective aldoximes. In contrast, recombinant CYP79D63 from E. coca exclusively accepted L-tryptophan as substrate. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CYP79D60, CYP79D61, and CYP79D62 were significantly upregulated in jasmonic acid-treated Erythroxylum leaves. The kinetic parameters of the enzymes expressed in vitro coupled with the expression patterns of the corresponding genes and the accumulation and emission of (E/Z)-phenylacetaldoxime, (E/Z)-indole-3-acetaldoxime, (E/Z)-3-methylbutyraldoxime, and (E/Z)-2-methylbutyraldoxime in jasmonic acid-treated leaves suggest that CYP79D60, CYP79D61, and CYP79D62 accept L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-tryptophan as substrates in vivo and contribute to the production of volatile and semi

  13. Fatty Acid Esters of Triterpenes from Erythroxylum passerinum

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    Barreiros Marizeth L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hexane extract of leaves of Erythroxylum passerinum yielded besides sitosterol, beta-amyrin, lupeol and erythrodiol, beta-amyrin palmitate, 3beta,28-dihydroxy-olean-12-enyl palmitate, 3beta,11beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-enyl palmitate, 3beta-hydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-enyl palmitate and 3beta-hydroxy-11,12-epoxy-friedoolean-14-enyl palmitate. The structural elucidation of the isolates and of their derivatives were based on spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, IR and MS.

  14. Heterogeneous motivations for coca growing: the case of an indigenous Aymara community in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Yi, Jaqueline

    2014-11-01

    Coca is a native bush from the Amazon rainforest from which cocaine is extracted. Growing coca is a profitable activity; however, not all farmers located in the coca-supply areas do so. Little is known about farmers' motivations for the decision to grow coca and if so, how much to grow. This article evaluates the influence of monetary and non-monetary factors on these decisions. The study is based on a survey of 496 households in an indigenous Aymara community in Peru. The results suggest, for example, that farmers are more likely to cultivate coca when their plots are characterized by flatter agricultural slopes and when in debt. In relation to the scale of coca cultivation, farmers can be classified into two groups. The larger group (73 percent) grows a high number of coca bushes when facing economic hardship; farmers in the second group (27 percent) seem to be more motivated by the potential profits from coca production relative to coffee, the alternative crop in the area. Therefore, the results support the common notion that farmers cultivate coca in accordance with economic need. Nonetheless, non-economic factors also influence the number of coca bushes cultivated and offer an additional opportunity to reduce coca cultivation if explicitly considered in drug-control policies. This research also discusses potential farmers' responses to different coca-growing reduction strategies. Common drug-control policies such as organic coffee certification, road construction, and education have mixed effects on coca cultivation, depending on the type of coca grower. As such, farmers' motivations are heterogeneous and the design of effective drug-control policies needs to reflect this. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Agranulocitosis por levamisol asociado a cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Pellegrini; Pablo Young; Verónica Grosso; María Massa; Julio E. Bruetman

    2013-01-01

    La neutropenia en usuarios de cocaína es una condición de reciente reconocimiento en distintos países. Se debe a la utilización del levamisol, una antigua droga antiparasitaria e inmunomoduladora, como agente de corte. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con agranulocitosis por levamisol asociado a cocaína y una revisión de las características del cuadro, así como del control de estos pacientes. También se tratan los motivos vinculados al agregado cada vez más frecuente de levamisol a la cocaí...

  16. Hjernen vil have Coca Cola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Coca Cola kan i modsætning til Pepsi aktivere den præfontale kortex eller pandelappen - derfor er det selvfølgelig den, vi vil have!......Coca Cola kan i modsætning til Pepsi aktivere den præfontale kortex eller pandelappen - derfor er det selvfølgelig den, vi vil have!...

  17. Philanthropically Always Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    In an interview, the head of the Coca-Cola Foundation, Ingrid Saunders Jones, discusses the foundation's objectives for financial support of education and the role of targeted and ethnic marketing, programs at historically black colleges and universities, recent growth of the endowment, number of projects funded, and the role of the Coca-Cola…

  18. Flavonoides glicosilados de Erythroxylum pulchrum a. st.-hil. (Erythroxylaceae

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    Camila Holanda de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant.

  19. Flavonoid glycosides from Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae); Flavonoides glicosilados de Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Camila Holanda de; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Oliveira, Steno Lacerda de; Silva, Taina Souza; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da, E-mail: josean@ltf.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Goncalves, Gregorio Fernandes; Pessoa, Hilzeth de Luna Freire [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Biologica Molecular; Agra, Maria de Fatima [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia. Departamento de Biotecnologia

    2014-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae) led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant. (author)

  20. From Conflict to Collaboration: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Coca Cultivation in Bolivia

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    Kathryn Ledebur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon his presidential election, Bolivian coca grower leader Evo Morales adopted a policy of promoting consensual coca reduction through social control, a sophisticated coca monitoring system, and economic development. That strategy is paying off. In 2011, coca cultivation decreased by 13 per cent according to the U.S. government. The Morales administration has also made significant progress facing the ongoing challenges of drug production and trafficking. Seizures of coca paste and cocaine and destruction of drug laboratories have steadily increased since President Morales took office. Despite continued tensions in bilateral relations, U.S.-Bolivian counter-drug cooperation continues and the signing of a new framework agreement in 2011 should lead to an exchange of ambassadors. Internationally, Bolivia has successfully gained acceptance of the right to the traditional use of coca within its own territory. But Bolivia’s efforts must be carried out in tandem with effective demand reduction strategies to shrink the global cocaine market.

  1. Intoxicação por Erythroxylum deciduum (Erythroxylaceae em ovinos Poisoning by Erythroxylum deciduum (Erythroxylaceae in sheep

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    Edson Moleta Colodel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação natural pelos frutos de Erythroxylum deciduum ("cocão" em ovinos, que ocorreu de janeiro a março de 2004, no município de Lagoa Vermelha, RS. A doença foi reproduzida pela administração dos frutos de E. deciduum por via oral a 5 ovinos. Destes, três adoeceram e morreram. Os frutos de E. deciduum foram tóxicos em dose única de 60g/kg ou quando fracionado em pelo menos 4 doses de 17 g/kg a cada 12 horas. Os principais sinais clínicos nos animais intoxicados natural e experimentalmente, foram neurológicos e caracterizados por ataxia, hiperexcitabilidade e tremores musculares que se pronunciavam durante o manejo. Próximo à morte, os ovinos apresentavam dispnéia com respiração abdominal e cianose. Na necropsia as alterações mais importantes, em 6 casos de intoxicação espontânea e os 3 ovinos experimentalmente intoxicados, foram edema e congestão pulmonar acentuada e a presença de frutos ou sementes de E. deciduum no conteúdo ruminal. Histologicamente, exceto edema e congestão pulmonar, não foram encontradas outras alterações significativas.The epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of natural poisoning caused by Erythroxylum deciduum fruits in sheep are reported. The outbreak occurred from January to March of 2004, in Lagoa Vermelha county, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The poisoning was experimentally reproduced by oral administration of E. deciduum fruits to 5 sheep.Three of them developed neurological signs and died. Poisoning was caused with a single dose of 60g/kg or when the dosage was fractioned into at least 4 doses of 17 g/kg given every 12 hours. The main clinical signs in natural and experimentally poisoned sheep were ataxia, hyperexcitability and muscular tremors which where more pronounced when the animals were moved. At the final stage, dyspnea with abdominal breathing and cyanosis was observed

  2. Transtornos mentais como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de abuso/dependência de cocaína: estudo caso-controle Mental disorders as risk factors for the development of cocaine abuse/dependence: case-control study

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    Claudia S Lopes

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel dos transtornos mentais e da dependência ao álcool como possíveis fatores de risco para o abuso/dependência de cocaína. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se o desenho caso-controle e a técnica de bola-de-neve (snowball technique para selecionar uma amostra de usuários de cocaína não tratados na comunidade (casos e parear casos e controles por sexo, idade e amizade. A coleta de dados foi feita através da utilização do questionário CIDI (Composite International Diagnostic Interview que gera diagnósticos de acordo com os critérios do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-R. A análise dos dados foi feita através de regressão logística condicional. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 208 indivíduos. Os principais resultados mostraram que história passada de dependência ao álcool era o principal fator associado a um aumento no risco de desenvolvimento de abuso de cocaína (OR=15,1; IC 95% 3,8-60,2; nenhum outro transtorno mental isolado manteve-se significativamente associado ao aumento deste risco após a análise multivariada. Aumento no risco de abuso de cocaína também foi encontrado entre os indivíduos que relataram pensamentos suicidas (OR=3,1; IC 95% 0,91-10,8, sugerindo associação entre quadros mais graves de depressão e abuso de cocaína. CONCLUSÕES: Esses achados sugerem que os programas voltados para a prevenção e tratamento do abuso de cocaína devem estar preparados para o manejo de questões relacionadas à co-morbidade do abuso de drogas com o álcool e outros distúrbios psiquiátricos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of psychiatric disorders and alcohol dependence as possible risk factors for cocaine abuse/dependence. METHODS: The case-control study used the "snowball" technique in order to select untreated cocaine users (cases and to match sex, age and friendship. Information was gathered using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, and computer diagnosis were

  3. Evaluation of heavy metals in the process of composting organic waste of coca leaves

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    Apaza-Condori Emma Eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to evaluate the total concentrations of the heavy metals in waste compost samples from coca leaf. This work was carried out Kallutaca Experimental Center, Biofertilizers module Career Agricultural Engineering at the Public University of El Alto, La Paz municipality of Laja. Posed treatments were: T1 (+ Yogurt Coca wastes; T2 (Coca wastes + whey; T3 (Coca wastes + yeast and T4 (Control. The design was completely randomized with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, mercury and chromium; they were categorized into Class A, for the four treatments according to the classifications established by Moreno & Moral (2008.

  4. Agranulocitosis por levamisol asociado a cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pellegrini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia en usuarios de cocaína es una condición de reciente reconocimiento en distintos países. Se debe a la utilización del levamisol, una antigua droga antiparasitaria e inmunomoduladora, como agente de corte. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con agranulocitosis por levamisol asociado a cocaína y una revisión de las características del cuadro, así como del control de estos pacientes. También se tratan los motivos vinculados al agregado cada vez más frecuente de levamisol a la cocaína. Este es el primer caso descrito en nuestro país, si bien es probable que existan muchos casos no reconocidos o no comunicados de esta enfermedad.

  5. New answers to an old problem: Social investment and coca crops in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davalos, Eleonora

    2016-05-01

    For more than 30 years, the main strategy to control illicit coca crops has been forced eradication. Despite the importance of social investment and persistent poverty in areas where illicit crops are grown, there is no empirical evidence of the effect of social expenditures on preventing and reducing the expansion of illicit crops. This paper analyses how social investment in conjunction with eradication affects new coca crops. The model is tested using a dataset consisting of annual data for 440 contiguous municipalities that had coca in any year between 2001 and 2010. The analysis includes the two main techniques used to control illicit crops, manual eradication and aerial spraying. Aerial spraying is effective in deterring farmers from increasing the size of their new coca fields, but this effect is small. Social investment, in addition to generating social welfare, has a significant negative relationship with new coca crops, 0.09-hectare reduction in new coca crops per additional 50-cent spent in social investment (human capital and infrastructure) per inhabitant. Social investment emerges as a complementary and effective strategy to control illicit crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brandimielikuvan muodostuminen : case: Coca-Cola

    OpenAIRE

    Mollberg, Janina; Helén, Rea

    2009-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää Coca-Cola-virvoitusjuoman brandimielikuvia suhteessa yläasteikäisten ostokäyttäytymiseen ja verrata saatuja tuloksia Coca-Cola-virvoitusjuoman asettamiin mielikuvatavoitteisiin ja brandin saavuttamaan laajaan suosioon. Tämän ohella toisena ongelmana oli tutkia sitä, minkä tekijöiden perusteella 7.-9.-luokkalaisten mielikuvat nuorten keskuudessa eroavat toisistaan. Lisäksi haluttiin pohtia, miksi yläasteikäiset ostavat Coca-Cola-virvoitusjuomaa. Tutkimuk...

  7. [Phytobezoar dissolution with Coca-Cola].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Juan, F; Martínez-Lapiedra, C; Picazo, V

    2006-05-01

    The treatment of phytobezoar is empiric. The various therapeutic choices include dietary modifications, prokinetic drugs, gastric lavage, enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic treatment, and surgery. We present two cases of phytobezoar with successful outcome after Coca-Cola administration.

  8. BRANDS AND BRANDING - EXAMPLE: COCA-COLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most valuable brand in the world is still "Coca Cola", and the highest increase was recorded value "Apple" because that's who entered the top ten most valuable brands. Coca-Cola HBC Serbia makes a significant contribution to the local economy. In three bottling plants, distribution centers and sales offices in Serbia and employ over 1500 people. Taxes that are paid regularly Serbian authorities are yet another way of contribution to the national economy.

  9. Protective Effect of the Plant Extracts of Erythroxylum sp. against Toxic Effects Induced by the Venom of Lachesis muta Snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coriolano de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins that induce toxic effects, such as edema, hemorrhage, and death. Lachesis muta has the highest lethality indices in Brazil. In most cases, antivenom fails to neutralize local effects, leading to disabilities in victims. Thus, alternative treatments are under investigation, and plant extracts are promising candidates. The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of crude extracts, fractions, or isolated products of Erythroxylum ovalifolium and Erythroxylum subsessile to neutralize some toxic effects of L. muta venom. All samples were mixed with L. muta venom, then in vivo (hemorrhage and edema and in vitro (proteolysis, coagulation, and hemolysis assays were performed. Overall, crude extracts or fractions of Erythroxylum spp. inhibited (20%–100% toxic effects of the venom, but products achieved an inhibition of 4%–30%. However, when venom was injected into mice before the plant extracts, hemorrhage and edema were not inhibited by the samples. On the other hand, an inhibition of 5%–40% was obtained when extracts or products were given before venom injection. These results indicate that the extracts or products of Erythroxylum spp. could be a promising source of molecules able to treat local toxic effects of envenomation by L. muta venom, aiding in the development of new strategies for antivenom treatment.

  10. Fiebre del oro blanco: la cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Marín Argüello

    1999-01-01

    La planta de coca, Erythroxylon coca es cultivada en la zona occidental de América del Sur exigiendo condiciones de suelo muy particulares. La mezcla de las hojas de cocaína con sustancias químicas origina un polvo cristalino blanco, conocido comúnmente como cocaína. Al producto obtenido del tratamiento de la cocaína con solventes se le denomina crack. El consumo de cocaína, las formas de administración más diversas y el estado fisiológico logrado por los usuarios, es denominado flash 0 high ...

  11. No harmful effect of different Coca-cola beverages after 6 months of intake on rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthová, Lubomíra; Hodosy, Július; Mettenburg, Kathryn; Fábryová, Helena; Wagnerová, Alexandra; Bábíčková, Janka; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Celec, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a 3-month exposure of rats to cola-like beverages induced sex hormone changes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of various types of Coca-cola intake with different composition for 6 months on oxidative status in testes and testosterone in adult male rats. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were divided into control group drinking water, and groups drinking different Coca-cola beverages (regular Coca-cola, Coca-cola caffeine-free, Coca-cola Light and Coca-cola Zero). Oxidative and carbonyl stress markers were measured in the testicular tissue to assess oxidative status together with testicular and plasma testosterone. StAR expression in testes as a marker of steroidogenesis was quantified. No significant differences were found between the groups in any of the measured parameters. In conclusion, oxidative and carbonyl stress in testicular tissue were not influenced by drinking any type of Coca-cola. Additionally, testosterone in testes and in plasma, as well as testicular StAR expression were comparable among the groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Análisis fitoquímico y actividad antiherpética in vitro de cuatro especies de Erythroxylum

    OpenAIRE

    González-Guevara, Johannes; González Lavaut, José Antonio; Pino-Rodríguez, Suley; García-Torres, Miladys; Carballo-González, María Teresa; Echemendía-Arana, Olga A.; Molina Torres Jorge; Prieto-González, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    Hojas de cuatro especies de Erythroxylum que crecen en Cuba fueron sometidas a análisis fitoquímico, identificándose alcaloides, triterpenoides/esteroides, lactonas/cumarinas, azúcares reductores, fenoles/taninos y flavonoides como sus principales metabolitos secundarios. Extractos hidroalcohólicos liofilizados de hojas de las cuatro especies de Erythroxylum estudiadas fueron ensayadas con respecto a su actividad sobre el virus del herpes simplex tipo 1. Los extractos hidroalco...

  13. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT : case study Coca-Cola Company

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational beverage corporation, a manufacturer, retailer and marketer of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups with its headquarter in Atlanta, Georgia. This thesis is aimed to affirm the superiority of the Coca-Cola Company and to find out its shortcomings in managing customer relationships based on studying the customer relationship management strategy for Coca-Cola Company and discussing the comparison between Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola, then...

  14. ACE inhibition by astilbin isolated from Erythroxylum gonocladum (Mart.) O.E. Schulz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Filho, M D; Silva, G C; Cortes, S F; Mares-Guia, T R; Perpétua Ferraz, V; Serra, C P; Braga, F C

    2010-04-01

    Erythroxylum species have several traditional uses in different countries, including the treatment of hypertension. The ethanol extract from E. gonocladum aerial parts, a species endemic to the Brazilian cerrado, elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (pIC(50)=4.53+/-0.05). Extract fractionation led to the isolation of two compounds, whose structures were assigned by spectrometric data as astilbin and beta-sitosterol, along with a mixture of palmitic, stearic and linolenic acids. This is the first report on the occurrence of these compounds on E. gonocladum. Astilbin promoted significant ACE inhibition in vitro (pIC(50)=5.86+/-0.33) and its activity did not differ from captopril, when both compounds were assayed at 10 microM concentration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Erythroxylum sideroxyloides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    showed that yield and purity of the DNA were unsatisfactory using the four protocols. Subsequent modifications of the Križman et al. (2006) protocol and the. CTAB protocol allowed RAPD-PCR DNA amplification and digestion. Results using these protocols showed heavy contamination of the DNA with polysaccharides and ...

  16. Composting system for waste treatment coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators in the Experimental Center Kallutaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Condori Emma Eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the composting process waste coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators (yogurt, whey and yeast. This work was carried out Kallutaca Experimental Center, Biofertilizers module Career Agricultural Engineering at the Public University of El Alto, La Paz municipality of Laja. Posed treatments were: T1 (+ Yogurt Coca wastes; T2 (Coca wastes + whey; T3 (Coca wastes + yeast and T4 (Control. The design was completely randomized with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The values in N are classified medium and high levels the quantities of P, K are classified as middle levels. The value obtained 7.9 pH, EC 12950 µS/cm and 61% organic matter belong to treatment T1. The decomposition time was a period of 105 days corresponds to treatment T3.

  17. Hardness of enamel exposed to Coca-Cola and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, H; Bassiouny, M A; Boston, D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of change in indentation hardness of enamel in permanent teeth exposed to Coca-Cola. In a further experiment, the ability of a commercially available artificial saliva to remineralize enamel treated with Coca-Cola was tested. Ten enamel specimens were randomly chosen to be treated with Coca-Cola (experimental groups) and seven with water (control group). The fluids were applied for 1, 2, 3 h and overnight (15 h), washed off with a few drops of water and the moist enamel indentation hardness tested after each interval. With Coca-Cola treatment, the mean enamel hardness was 92.6% (s.d. = 7.9) of the original baseline hardness after 1 h, 93.25% (s.d. = 10.15) after 2 h, 85.7% (s.d. = 12.03) after 3 h and 80.3% after 15 h. The mean indentation hardness of control specimens treated with water was 108.7% (s.d. = 16.09) of the original hardness after 1 h, 99.09% (s.d. = 18.98) after 2 h, 98.97% (s.d. =11.24) after 3 h and 98.42% (s.d. = 22.78) after 15 h. In a separate experiment, the hardness of 9 enamel specimens was tested, as previously described, before and after treatment with Coca-Cola overnight and again after application of artificial saliva for 3 min. Coca-Cola reduced the mean indentation hardness of enamel in the teeth, but the hardness was partially restored with artificial saliva (Salivart) and increased by 18% from the demineralized enamel hardness.

  18. Fiebre del oro blanco: la cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Marín Argüello

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La planta de coca, Erythroxylon coca es cultivada en la zona occidental de América del Sur exigiendo condiciones de suelo muy particulares. La mezcla de las hojas de cocaína con sustancias químicas origina un polvo cristalino blanco, conocido comúnmente como cocaína. Al producto obtenido del tratamiento de la cocaína con solventes se le denomina crack. El consumo de cocaína, las formas de administración más diversas y el estado fisiológico logrado por los usuarios, es denominado flash 0 high Los efectos neuro-fisiológicos son muy variados, provocando sobre todo un fuerte estímulo al Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC, producto de la liberación de dopamina en las terminaciones nerviosas.

  19. Edge effect and phenology in Erythroxylum tortuosum (Erythroxylaceae, a typical plant of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN. Ishino

    Full Text Available The edge of a forest fragment can be considered a zone of transition between the interior of the fragment and the surrounding habitat matrix. Plants along the edge are more exposed to disturbance and microclimate variation than interior plants, resulting in the so-called edge effect. In this study, we compared leaf area, fluctuating asymmetry and chemical (water, nitrogen and tannins leaf traits between Erythroxylum tortuosum plants inhabiting the edge with those growing in the interior of a cerrado fragment in Brazil. We also describe the temporal variation in the vegetative and reproductive phenological events of E. tortuosum plants throughout the season. Nitrogen, leaf area and fluctuating asymmetry did not differ between the two plant groups. Young leaves of the edge plants had significantly higher levels of tannins and lower levels of water than those of interior plants. We suggest that differences in leaf chemical concentrations between edge and interior plants may occur due to factors such as light intensity, wind, temperature and leaf age rather than plant stress. With respect to plant phenology, most reproductive events occurred during the spring. Leaf buds and young leaves prevailed during the rainy season. In the dry season, however, the vegetative events decreased due to leaf senescence followed by leaf abscission.

  20. Fallstudie SIG - Supply Chain Prototyp mit Coca Cola Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Senger, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    SIG, ein führender Lieferant von Verpackungsmaterialien für Getränke, hat mit Coca Cola CPFR, collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment realisiert. Das Unternehmen kann elektronisch und ohne Zeitverzug (vorher mit bis zu 15 Tagen Verspätung) auf die Lagerbestände und Verkaufsvorhersagen bei Coca Cola zugreifen. Coca Cola erhält die exakten Liefermengen und zeiten. Coca Cola konnte dadurch den Lagerbestand von Verpackungsmaterial um 50% senken. Dies reduziert die Bearbeitungszeit d...

  1. Peru: cultivo de coca, cocaína e combate ao narcotráfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma breve análise sobre a atual situação dos cultivos de coca, produção de cocaína e combate ao narcotráfico no Peru.

  2. Perbandingan Kadar Glukosa Darah Setelah Mengonsumsi Coca-cola Reguler Dan Coca-cola Zero Pada Populasi Non-diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hutapea, Gabriella Carolina; Ariosta, Ariosta; Hardian, Hardian

    2016-01-01

    Latar belakang : Diabetes melitus (DM) tipe II dan obesitas merupakan penyakit metabolik yang disebabkan oleh sejumlah faktor gaya hidup diantaranya adalah aktivitas fisik, merokok, konsumsi alkohol, pola diet. Coca-cola merupakan salah satu minuman yang digemari dan mengandung tinggi karbohidrat yang diduga meningkatkan risiko obesitas dan kejadian DM tipe II. Coca cola zero merupakan solusi yang diberikan oleh coca cola untuk mengurangi peningkatan glukosa darah.Tujuan : Mengetahui perbedaa...

  3. Influence of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on the absorption of itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, S; Kleepkaew, A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Coca-Cola in enhancing the absorption of itraconazole. Eight healthy volunteers were randomized to receive two treatment sequences in a two-way crossover design with a 1-week wash-out period separating each study treatment. Treatment 1, the control, consisted of 100 mg itraconazole with 325 ml water. Treatment II was identical to treatment I, except that itraconazole was administered with 325 ml of Coca-Cola (pH 2.5). Serum itraconazole concentrations, after administration with Coca-Cola (treatment II), were higher than after administration with water (treatment I). The mean AUC was 1.12 vs 2.02 micrograms.h.m1-1, the mean Cmax was 0.14 vs 0.31 micrograms.m1-1 and the mean tmax was 2.56 vs 3.38 h in treatments I and II, respectively. The absorption of itraconazole can be enhanced by Coca-Cola.

  4. Cambios histopatológicos de la mucosa gingival en masticadores de hoja de coca varones del distrito de Laraos, provincia de Yauyos

    OpenAIRE

    Ayón Haro, Esperanza Raquel; Chu Morales, María del Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Describe los cambios histopatológicos de la mucosa gingival. El estudio se realizó en el Puesto de Salud del Distrito de Laraos, provincia de Yauyos, en donde el hábito de la masticación de hojas de coca sigue vigente. El grupo de escogido estuvo conformado por 30 masticadores de hoja coca, varones de 40 a 61 años de edad y el grupo control por 30 no masticadores de hoja de coca, cuyas edades y características fueron similares al grupo de estudio. Para la selección de la muestra se u...

  5. "Coca got us here and now it's our weakness:" Fusarium oxysporum and the political ecology of a drug war policy alternative in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Zoe

    2016-07-01

    A strain of Fusarium oxysporum fungus is killing coca plants in the Chapare coca growing region of Bolivia. Coca farmers are already constrained in the amount of coca they can grow under the government's community-based coca control approach, "social control." Coca leaf is the main ingredient in cocaine, but it is also a traditional medicine and food, is economically vital to household incomes, and is a political symbol of the current government administration. Bolivia's approach to coca control, now administered without any United States military intervention, is an innovative example of experimentation with drug policy reform. This paper is based on ethnographic research including semi-structured interviews and observation. Coca growers are worried about the dire economic, social, and political consequences of the fungus' appearance and spread since summer 2013. They have two explanations for its origins: First, that it was sent by the United States government, which in the past was developing a strain of F. oxysporum for use in the drug war; Second, and the explanation of scientists, is that the outbreak is caused by the overuse of agrochemicals and other intensive agricultural practices. More than a matter of agroecology, the practices identified in the second explanation must be understood in terms of the persistence of the international drug prohibition regime. Bolivia's social control approach is a successful alternative to violent eradication measures, however the country is constrained to uphold the fundamental principles of supply-side control in order to be a respected partner in global drug control. The supply-side logics restricting social control make intensive agriculture practices attractive, but may have contributed to the fungus' proliferation and its continued spread. The fungus draws attention to the challenges of policy reform, new collateral damages of drug control, and role environmental factors can play in drug control politics. Copyright

  6. Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund: Los Angeles Program Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Los Angeles, CA.

    The Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund was created in response to the high school dropout problem in Los Angeles. The Fund enables the Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Los Angeles to build upon the successful relationship it has developed in the Hispanic community and maximizes the effectiveness of existing student support programs by directing needy…

  7. Observaciones sobre el efecto de la coca y de la cocaína en estados carenciales de Tiamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutiérrez-Noriega

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available Se demuestra en este trabajo que la privación de tiamina determina un discreto aumento de la sensibilidad del organismo a la cocaína; y que la administración cotidiana de coca en las palomas sometidas a dieta sir. tiamina agrava los síntomas avitaminósicos.

  8. Erythroxylum pungens elicits vasorelaxation by reducing intracellular calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle cells of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurylene C. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects elicited by the ethanolic extract obtained from the roots of Erythroxylum pungens O.E. Schulz, Erythroxylaceae (EEEP and the vasorelaxant effect induced by its main tropane alkaloid (pungencine were investigated. In normotensive rats, administration of EEEP (1, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg i.v., randomly produced dose-dependent hypotension (-2±1, -7±0.5 -17.6±1, -24±1 Δ mmHg, n=5 followed by tachycardia (3±0.5, 7±2, 7.1±1, 10±5 Δ bpm, n=5. In intact phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µM-pre-contracted rings, EEEP (0.01-500 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation (EC50 13.7±5.5 µg/mL, Maximal Response= 92±2.6%, and this effect was unchanged after the removal of the vascular endothelium (EC50 27.2±4.7 µg/ml, Maximal Response= 88.3±3.3 %. In KCl (80 mM-pre-contracted-endothelium-denuded rings, EEEP elicited concentration-dependent relaxation (EC50= 128.2±11.2 µg/mL, Maximal Response 76.8±3.4%. Vasorelaxation has also been achieved with tonic contractions evoked by the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644 (EC50 80.2±9.1 µg/mL, Maximal Response 86.3±8.3%. In addition, in a depolarizing medium, EEEP inhibited CaCl2 (30-500 µg/mL induced contractions and caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the relaxation curves. Lastly, the tropane alkaloid pungencine caused vasorelaxation in mesenteric arteries resembling to the EEEP responses. These results suggests that EEEP induces hypotension and vasorelaxation, at least in part, due to the reduction in [Ca2+]i in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  9. Aspectos neurobiológicos de la depresión en pacientes consumidores de cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Minguela, Mª Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo general es determinar si existen diferencias neurobiológicas entre la depresión mayor primaria (DMP) y la depresión mayor inducida (DI) por cocaína en pacientes con Trastorno por Dependencia de cocaína. Las posibles diferencias se estudiarán a través del estudio de la respuesta al estrés y la implicación del sistema serotonérgico. Diseño: estudio experimental aleatorizado, doble-ciego, con tres grupos de pacientes y un grupo de controles sanos. Sujetos: 54 sujetos: 20 co...

  10. Bottler of the Year: Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth Fuhrman

    2010-01-01

    .... Coca-Cola Bottling Co Consolidated, Charlotte, NC, has built its core business this year through innovative pricing strategies, enabling its sales force with new technology, grass roots marketing...

  11. Coca: High Altitude Remedy of the Ancient Incas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondich, Amy Sue; Joslin, Jeremy D

    2015-12-01

    The use of coca leaf for medicinal purposes is a centuries-old tradition of the native peoples of South America. Coca products are thought by many laypersons to provide risk-free benefits to users participating in strenuous activities at high altitude. Physiologic studies of coca have increased understanding of its possible mechanism of action as well as its potential impact on high altitude activities. This present work explores the role of coca throughout the history of the Andean peoples and explores whether this ancient remedy has a place in modern medicine. A focused summary of research articles with particular relevance to the field of wilderness medicine is also included to better provide the reader with lessons not only from history but also from another culture. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Corporate Citizenship: Case study of Coca-Cola Beverages Hrvatska

    OpenAIRE

    Tafra-Vlahović, Majda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether the corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy implemented by Coca-Cola Beverages Croatia during the past four years has had a positive impact on the reputation of this company and on the overall business. The researcher intended to explore attitudes of Coca-Cola Beverages employees about CSR and the mentioned community relations model in order to evaluate whether the CSR policy of the company has had an impact on internal stakehol...

  13. Efectos cardiovasculares de la cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubier Gómez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La cocaína es un alcaloide derivado de la planta de coca, la cual es nativa de Sur América. Hay datos arqueológicos de esta planta desde 300 años a. C. en los cuales se encontró la primera prueba del uso de coca en humanos. En este tiempo la coca fue reconocida por su habilidad de producir energía, quitar la fatiga y disminuir el hambre.
    La cocaína es la droga ilícita más usada después de la marihuana. La
    frecuencia es mayor en hombres entre los 18-25 años.
    En los años 70 y 80 con el desarrollo del freebase y el crack se revolucionó el uso de esta droga, proporcionando una forma que podría ser fumada.
    Los síntomas que relatan los pacientes que usan cocaína son principalmente en el sistema cardiovascular; otros son neurológicos,
    pulmonares, gastrointestinales, etc.

     

     

  14. Belgian coca-cola-related outbreak: intoxication, mass sociogenic illness, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, A; Van Loock, F; Demarest, S; Van der Heyden, J; Jans, B; Van Oyen, H

    2002-01-15

    An epidemic of health complaints occurred in five Belgian schools in June 1999. A qualitative investigation described the scenario. The role of soft drinks was assessed by using a case-control study. Cases were students complaining of headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or trembling. Controls were students present at school on the day of the outbreak but not taken ill. An analysis was performed separately for school A, where the outbreak started, and was pooled for schools B-E. In school A, the attack rate (13.2%) was higher than in schools B-E (3.6%, relative risk = 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5, 5.3). Exclusive consumption of regular Coca-Cola (school A: odds ratio (OR) = 29.7, 95% CI: 1.32, 663.6; schools B-E: OR = 7.3, 95% CI: 2.9, 18.0) and low mental health score (school A: OR = 16.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 201.9; schools B-E: OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5, 6.6) were independently associated with the illness. In schools B-E, consumption of Fanta, consumption of Coca-Cola light, and female gender were also associated with the illness. It seems reasonable to attribute the first cases of illness in school A to regular Coca-Cola consumption. However, mass sociogenic illness could explain the majority of the other cases.

  15. Chemical Profile of the Volatile Oil from the Leaves of Erythroxylum deciduum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae, Collected in Goiânia, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Muniz Vila Verde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae genus has about 130 species, which can be found in forest environments and cerrado. Studies with Erythroxylum species led to the isolation of secondary metabolites such as flavonóides, alkaloids, tannins, terpenes and phenylpropanoids that exhibit anti-oxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory activity among others to be operated with pharmaceutical purposes. In order to contribute to the chemical elucidation of Erythroxylum genus, this research aimed to evaluate the composition of the essential oil from the leaves of E. deciduum A. St.-Hil. The botanical material was collected in the peri-urban area of the city of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, it was identified and had a voucher specimen deposited in the Herbarium of the State University of Goiás. The essential oil extraction was performed by hydrodistillation adapted by Clevenger. The essential oil chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/ MS. The species studied showed as major components: himachalol (3.49%, sandaracopimarinal (4.87%, ethyl 8cedren-13-ol (5.65% and ternina (6.37% whose description on the literature, points to the antimicrobial and allelopathic activity. Thus, These volatile components may be viable in obtaining bioproducts or as prototypes in the synthesis of compounds of pharmacotherapeutic, food and agricultural interest.

  16. 76 FR 77253 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... classes of controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Coca Leaves (9040) II Thebaine (9333..., poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw, and coca leaves. Comments and requests for hearings on...

  17. Coca: The History and Medical Significance of an Ancient Andean Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sue Biondich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coca leaf products are an integral part of the lives of the Andean peoples from both a cultural and traditional medicine perspective. Coca is also the whole plant from which cocaine is derived. Coca products are thought to be a panacea for health troubles in regions of South America. This review will examine the toxicology of whole coca and will also look at medicinal applications of this plant, past, present, and future.

  18. Miks Coca-Cola enam ei kihise? / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Autor teeb USA äriajakirjanduse põhjal ülevaate Coca-Cola Company maine, turupositsiooni ja aktsiakursi langemise põhjustest alates 1997. aastast. Analüütikute sõnul on korporatsioon olnud ebaedukas tippkaadri voolavuse, sisekonfliktide, pidevate ümberkorralduste ja töötajate koondamiste tõttu. Praegune peadirektor Neville Isdelle on püstitanud eesmärgiks firma sisekultuuri parandamise, et keskenduda liidripositsiooni kindlustamisele turul. Diagramm: Karastusjookidel gaas väljas. Vt. samas: Coca-Cola ja Pepsi - üheskoos alla

  19. The Coca-Cola incident in Belgium, June 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemery, B; Fischler, B; Boogaerts, M; Lison, D; Willems, J

    2002-11-01

    The present paper describes the outbreak of health complaints that occurred in Belgium, in June 1999, among schoolchildren and members of the general public in relation to the consumption of Coca-Cola and other soft drinks. The outbreak took place in the wake of a major food crisis, caused by PCB/dioxin contamination of animal feed, that had erupted shortly before. The clinical features (absence of serious poisoning) and epidemiological characteristics of the Coca-Cola outbreak pointed to mass sociogenic illness, and no subsequent toxicological or other data have refuted this hypothesis.

  20. Results of long-term carcinogenicity bioassays on Coca-Cola administered to Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belpoggi, Fiorella; Soffritti, Morando; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Trabucco, Francesca

    2006-09-01

    Coca-Cola was invented in May 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia by a pharmacist who, by accident or design, mixed carbonated water with the syrup of sugar, phosphoric acid, caffeine, and other natural flavors to create what is known as "the world's favorite soft drink." Coca-Cola is currently sold in more than 200 countries and in early 2000, the company sold its 10 billionth unit case of Coca-Cola branded products. Given the worldwide consumption of Coca-Cola, a project of experimental bioassays to study its long-term effects when administered as substitute for drinking water on male and female Sprague-Dawley rats was planned and executed. The objective of the project was to study whether and how long-term consumption of Coca-Cola affects the basic tumorigram of test animals. The bioassays were performed on rats beginning at different ages, namely: (a) on males and females exposed since embryonic life or from 7 weeks of age; and (b) on males and females exposed from 30, 39, or 55 weeks of age. Overall, the project included 1999 rats. During the biophase, data were collected on fluid and feed consumption, body weight, and survival. Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death and underwent complete necropsy. The results indicate: (a) an increase in body weight in all treated animals; (b) a statistically significant increase of the incidence in females, both breeders and offspring, bearing malignant mammary tumors; (c) a statistically significant increase in the incidence of exocrine ademonas of the pancreas in both male and female breeders and offspring; and (d) an increased incidence, albeit not statistically significant, of pancreatic islet cell carcinomas in females, a malignant tumor which occurs very rarely in our historical controls. On the basis of the results of this study, excessive consumption of regular soft-drinks should be generally discouraged, in particular for children and adolescents.

  1. Hvorfor køber forbrugerne Coca Cola, når de bedst kan lide Pepsi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Coca Cola kan i modsætning til Pepsi Cola aktivere den præfrontale cortex – derfor er det selvfølgelig Coca, vi vil have!......Coca Cola kan i modsætning til Pepsi Cola aktivere den præfrontale cortex – derfor er det selvfølgelig Coca, vi vil have!...

  2. NATO palkas Coca-Colast mainekujundaja / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    NATO otsustas oma kaubamärgi värskendamiseks palgata viimased kaks aastat Coca-Cola mainet kujundanud Michael Stopfordi, kelle põhiülesandeks tõenäoliselt jääb tavakodanikele organisatsiooni tähtsuse ja rolli selgitamine

  3. The spermicidal potency of Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C Y; Shieh, C C; Wu, P; Chiang, B N

    1987-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of Old Coke, caffeine-free New Coke, New Coke, Diet Coke and Pepsi-Cola on human sperm motility was studied with a trans-membrane migration method. None of them could decrease sperm motility to less than 70% of control within one hour. A previous study which claimed a marked variation of spermicidal potencies among different formulations of Coca-Cola could not be confirmed. Even if cola has a spermicidal effect, its potency is relatively weak as compared with other well-known spermicidal agents.

  4. Catalepsia experimental producida por la Cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gutiérrez-Noriega

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado un caso de catalepsia producida por cocaína en un perro sometido a tratamiento crónico con esta droga. Las reacciones catalépticas se presentaron después de un mes de iniciado el tratamiento, y se hicieron progresivamente más intensas desde su comienzo en el curso de 14 meses de observación. Las conclusiones son las siguientes : 1. La intensidad y duración de las reacciones catalépticas eran proporcionales a la dosis de cocaína. Casi todas estas reacciones eran precedidas y seguidas por un estado de excitación motriz. 2. Con las dosis más altas disminuía el estado de excitación y se intensificaba la catalepsia. 3. La hipertermia cocaínica disminuía con la inmovilidad cataléptica, pero no llegaba a suprimirse. 4. La inyección de barbitúricos durante el estado cataléptico suprimía esta reacción, originando una intensa excitación motriz. 5. La inyección. de benzoato de cafeína practicada antes de la inyección de cocaína, intensificó notablemente la catalepsia producida por la última droga. 6. La inyección aislada de neuroestimulantes (cafeína, cardiazol y coramina no produjo catalepsia. 7. Durante la catalepsia cocaínica se observó discreto aumento de la glucemia y descenso del fósforo inorgánico sanguíneo. No se demostró modificaciones significativas de la fosfatasa alcalina de la sangre, de la úrea, reserva alcalina y del calcio. 8. Se discute el mecanismo fisiológico de la catalepsia cocaínica, considerándose] e como una excitación de los centros nerviosos más intensa que la excitación que produce la agitación motriz, pero menos intensa que la excitación del mal epiléptico cocaínico.

  5. QUALIDADE FITOSSANITÁRIA DAS CASCAS DE AROEIRA (Myrocroduon urundeuva Allemão) E CATUABA (Erythroxylum vacciniifolium Mart.) COMERCIALIZADAS EM FEIRAS MUNICIPAIS DE IMPERATRIZ, MA

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ricardo Vieira; Bezerra, Gustavo de Andrade; Nascimento, Ivaneide de Oliveira; Sousa, Thatyane Pereira de; Catunda, Paulo Henrique Aragão; Silva Araújo, Karuane Saturnino da

    2014-01-01

    O uso de plantas medicinais tornou-se muito representativo, pelo fato de ser comercializada como medicamento alternativo para a cura de determinadas doenças. Mesmo com o avanço da indústria farmacêutica e a evolução da ciência de medicamentos, o uso dessas plantas para a extração de substância ativa e material vegetativo ainda é indispensável. O presente trabalho objetivou realizar a análise fitossanitária em cascas de aroeira (Myrocroduon urundeuva Allemão) e catuaba (Erythroxylum vacciniifo...

  6. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate (Roundup® Active) and Cosmo-Flux®411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Muñoz, Liliana Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and a...

  7. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate (Roundup® Active) and Cosmo-Flux®411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Marcela Henao Muñoz; Claudia Marsela Montes Rojas; Manuel Hernando Bernal Bautista

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and a...

  8. Modificaciones psicológicas y fisiológicas producidas por la coca y la cocaína en los coqueros

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Zapata Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el efecto de la cocaína y de la coca en sujetos no habituados y habituados a la coca. Los resultados son los siguientes: 1. En los sujetos no habituados la cocaína produce un moderado retardo del tiempo de reacción sensorial para estímulos auditivos, a las dosis de 0.5, 1 y 1.5 mgrs. por kilo de peso corporal. 2. En los sujetos no habituados a la cocaína disminuye el tiempo de ejecución del test de Valdizán para el estudio de la atención (en el 88 % de los casos), pero aumenta...

  9. Effect of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S; Dixit, R K; Garg, S K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of carbamazepine was studied. In a two-way cross-over design with a 1 week washout period, 10 healthy volunteers were randomized to received 200 mg carbamazepine orally with 300 ml of Coca-Cola or water. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after drug administration. Plasma carbamazepine levels were higher with Coca-Cola as compared to water. The AUC0-infinity and Cmax of carbamazepine were significantly enhanced after Coca-Cola while tmax was achieved earlier with Coca-Cola. The results of the study indicate that concomitant administration of Coca-Cola enhances the rate and extent of absorption of carbamazepine.

  10. Preference of stevia level in Coca Cola: Preliminary findings in 50+ year olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panovská, Zdenka; Grosová, Stanislava; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Coca Cola Life was first introduced in Argentina in June 2013. In the following 15 months, it was launched also in Chile, Sweden, and the U.K. Since January 2015, it is available in many but not all countries. In the version of Coca Cola Life, which was produced till December 2016, 35% of sugar...... was replaced by stevia. In the version produced since January 2017, 45% of sugar is replaced by stevia. This opened a limited time-frame for studying preferences between regular Coca Cola, Coca Cola Life with 35% of stevia, and Coca Cola Life with 45% of stevia. The aim of the paper is to investigate if Big...... Five Inventory personality traits, gender, age, smoking, and drinking of any cola in general influence preferred amount of stevia. The research was conducted in the Czech Republic where Coca Cola Life is not available, so all respondents are equally unaware of (or equally not used to) the taste. All...

  11. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola company travel health kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lynne A; Bettinger, Julie; Dismukes, Roberta; Kozarsky, Phyllis E

    2002-01-01

    The Coca-Cola travel health kit has been used for about one decade for international travelers and required evaluation to see if the items contained were appropriate for the employees. Two hundred thirty-four travelers were sampled and filled out a voluntary survey including questions about demographic information, travel history, and usage and value of the contents of the travel health kit. One hundred eighty-one surveys were returned; 65% of the respondents were male, and the majority of travelers were between the ages of 36 and 45 years. The most useful items were analgesics and medications used for gastrointestinal problems. In general, the items identified as being the least useful were those requiring specialized use by a medical practitioner, such as needles and syringes. Suggestions of items to be added to the kit included vitamins, cough drops, sleep aids, and eye drops. A surprising result that Coca-Cola employees expressed the desire for brand name rather than generic items. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola Company travel health kit revealed it to be very useful to most corporate travelers. Suggestions that were made will be taken into consideration in designing a new kit, and consideration is being given to whether a basic travel health kit should be provided to which travelers can add other items depending on their personal needs.

  12. The Relationship Between Illicit Coca Production and Formal Economic Activity in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Peter L. Pedroni; Concha Verdugo Yepes

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between unrecorded economic activity associated with the production of illicit coca and formally recorded economic activity in Peru. It does so by attempting to construct new regional level estimates for coca production and by implementing recently developed panel time series methods that are robust to regional heterogeneity and unobserved regional inter-dependencies. The paper finds that on balance illicit coca production crowds out formal sector prod...

  13. The effect of Coca-Cola and fruit juices on the surface hardness of glass-ionomers and 'compomers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliping-McKenzie, M; Linden, R W A; Nicholson, J W

    2004-11-01

    The interaction of tooth-coloured dental restorative materials (a conventional glass-ionomer, two resin-modified glass-ionomers and two compomers) with acidic beverages has been studied with the aim of investigating how long-term contact affects solution pH and specimen surface hardness. For each material (ChemFil Superior, ChemFlex, Vitremer Core Build-Up/Restorative, Fuji II LC, Dyract AP and F2000) disc-shaped specimens were prepared and stored in sets of six in the following storage media: 0.9% NaCl (control), Coca-Cola, apple juice and orange juice. After time intervals of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 4 months, 6 months and 1 year, solution pH and Vickers Hardness Number were determined for each individual specimen. Differences were analysed by anova followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis. All materials were found to reduce the pH of the 0.9% NaCl, but to increase the pH of the acidic beverages. The conventional glass-ionomers dissolved completely in apple juice and orange juice, but survived in Coca-Cola, albeit with a significantly reduced hardness after 1 year. The other materials survived in apple juice and orange juice, but showed greater reductions in surface hardness in these beverages than in Coca-Cola. Fruit juices were thus shown to pose a greater erosive threat to tooth coloured materials than Coca-Cola, a finding which is similar to those concerning dentine and enamel towards these drinks.

  14. Acción de la cocaína sobre la resistencia a la fatiga en el perro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutiérrez-Noriega

    1944-12-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la acción de la cocaína sobre la resistencia a la fatiga en un grupo de perros, empleando como test un ejercicio de natación. Los resultados son los siguientes : 1. A la dosis de 4 mgr. x Kgr. por vía subcutánea la cocaína aumentó en los animales estudiados la resistencia a la fatiga, con una sola excepción. Los incrementos del período de actividad fluctúan entre 69 y 150%. 2. A la dosis de 8 mgr. x Kgr. la cocaína también aumenta la resistencia a la fatiga, pero los resultados son inferiores a la primera dosis (3.9 a 75 % . 3. Se observó que mientras los perros en los experimentos de control tratan de escapar del trabajo que se les impone, el perro cocainizado realiza este trabajo sin realizar ninguna tentativa de evasión. 4. La cafeína, a la dosis de 8 mgr. x Kgr., aumenta la resistencia a la fatiga. Los incrementos del período de actividad fluctúan entre 36.6 y 103 %. 5. El cardiazol a la dosis de 5 mgr. x Kgr. no modifica la resistencia a la fatiga.

  15. Coca-Cola ja Pepsi - vennad, nii et veri lendab / Argo Luude, Ave Peetri ; interv. Urmas Vahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luude, Argo

    2006-01-01

    Endine PepsiCo Eesti divisjoni juht ning Suurbritannia Coca-Cola suurte kaubanduskettide turundusjuht ettevõtete vahelisest konkurentsist. Vt. samas: Mida on vaja teada Coca-Colast?; Mida on tarvis teada Pepsi-Colast?

  16. Forests and drugs: coca-driven deforestation in tropical biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Bejarano, Adriana C; Hall, Mark A; Correa, H Leonardo; Corthals, Angelique; Espejo, Oscar J

    2011-02-15

    Identifying drivers of deforestation in tropical biodiversity hotspots is critical to assess threats to particular ecosystems and species and proactively plan for conservation. We analyzed land cover change between 2002 and 2007 in the northern Andes, Chocó, and Amazon forests of Colombia, the largest producer of coca leaf for the global cocaine market, to quantify the impact of this illicit crop on forest dynamics, evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas in this context, and determine the effects of eradication on deforestation. Landscape-level analyses of forest conversion revealed that proximity to new coca plots and a greater proportion of an area planted with coca increased the probability of forest loss in southern Colombia, even after accounting for other covariates and spatial autocorrelation. We also showed that protected areas successfully reduced forest conversion in coca-growing regions. Neither eradication nor coca cultivation predicted deforestation rates across municipalities. Instead, the presence of new coca cultivation was an indicator of municipalities, where increasing population led to higher deforestation rates. We hypothesize that poor rural development underlies the relationship between population density and deforestation in coca-growing areas. Conservation in Colombia's vast forest frontier, which overlaps with its coca frontier, requires a mix of protected areas and strategic rural development to succeed.

  17. 21 CFR 1304.32 - Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. 1304.32 Section 1304.32 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF REGISTRANTS Reports § 1304.32 Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. (a) Every...

  18. Bolivia. El país de la coca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dossier Comunicación y Drogas. En Bolivia, la industria de la coca es un importante factor en su balanza de pagos. Esta nueva transnacional es una preocupación constante de países consumidores de dorga como Estados Unidos. Pero sus esfuerzos son vanos frente a esta próspera agroindustria clandestina, que pretende convertirse en directriz de la economía de ese país. ¡Y también de los comunicadores!

  19. 75 FR 61141 - In the Matter of The Coca-Cola Company; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... the Matter of The Coca-Cola Company; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public... written comments electronically or in paper form. Comments should refer to ``The Coca- Cola Company, File... by using the following weblink: ( https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc/coca-cola ) and following...

  20. Coca-Cola : kasumi languses on süüdi Põhja-Euroopa kehv ilm / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 29. sept. lk. 6. Karastusjookide tootja Coca-Cola andis kasumihoiatuse. Ettevõtte majandustulemuste languse põhjustest. Diagramm: Coca-Cola aktsia aasta madalaimal tasemel. Vt. samas: Annika Matson. Coca-Cola jooksev kvartal Eestis saladus

  1. Coca and poppy eradication in Colombia: environmental and human health assessment of aerially applied glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Anadón, Arturo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Cerdeira, Antonio L; Marshall, Jon; Sanin, Luz-Helena

    2007-01-01

    The production of coca and poppy as well as the processing and production of cocaine and heroin involve significant environmental impacts. Both coca and poppy are grown intensively in a process that involves the clearing of land in remote areas, the planting of the crop, and protection against pests such as weeds, insects, and pathogens. The aerial spray program to control coca and poppy production in Colombia with the herbicide glyphosate is conducted with modern state-of-the-art aircraft and spray equipment. As a result of the use of best available spray and navigation technology, the likelihood of accidental off-target spraying is small and is estimated to be less than 1% of the total area sprayed. Estimated exposures in humans resulting from direct overspray, contact with treated foliage after reentry to fields, inhalation, diet, and drinking water were small and infrequent. Analyses of surface waters in five watersheds showed that, on most occasions, glyphosate was not present at measurable concentrations; only two samples had residues just above the method detection limit of 25 microg/L. Concentrations of glyphosate in air were predicted to be very small because of negligible volatility. Glyphosate in soils that are directly sprayed will be tightly bound and biologically unavailable and have no residual activity. Concentrations of glyphosate plus Cosmo-Flux will be relatively large in shallow surface waters that are directly oversprayed (maximum instantaneous concentration of 1,229microgAE/L in water 30cm deep); however, no information was available on the number of fields in close proximity to surface waters, and thus it was not possible to estimate the likelihood of such contamination. The formulation used in Colombia, a mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux, has low toxicity to mammals by all routes of exposure, although some temporary eye irritation may occur. Published epidemiological studies have not suggested a strong or consistent linkage between

  2. René Tapia Ormazábal. 1999. Mamã Coca, Coca-Cola, Cocaína: Três Pessoas Numa Droga Só. Notas para um Ensaio sobre a Economia Política do Narcotráfico. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Vasco (Orientador)

    2002-01-01

    Recensão crítica a René Tapia Ormazábal. 1999. Mamã Coca, Coca-Cola, Cocaína: Três Pessoas Numa Droga Só. Notas para um Ensaio sobre a Economia Política do Narcotráfico. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho. 199 pp. ISBN: 972-21-1236-8

  3. Coca-colonization of diets in the Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan

    2005-08-01

    Over the past three decades, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Mayan communities have become directly involved in the changing economy as the main source of inexpensive labor for construction and service jobs at tourism centers, and as sites of ecotourism and archeotourism. In this paper, we address how these macro-processes of change intersect locally with the commoditization of food systems, diets and nutrition in four Yucatec Mayan communities with differing relationships to the tourist economy. Yucatec Mayan diets have become increasingly dependent on purchased foods, and reflect a greater consumption of commercialized processed foods. Coca-Cola, an international icon of US culture, along with other local and internationally owned calorie-dense but nutrient-poor snack foods, is now a common element of Mayan diets, leading to what we call "coca-colonization." The consequences of this diet, likely exacerbated by the increased consumption of snack foods, include an apparent increase in overweight and obese adults as well as signs of growth stunting in children. The Maya we talked with recognize both the potential disruption that tourism brings to all aspects of their lives and the necessity of jobs that tourism creates to meet their families' basic needs.

  4. An Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis of Elemental Changes of a Persimmon Phytobezoar Dissolved in Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Higashi, Reiji; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Shin; Shiraha, Hidenori; Okada, Hiroyuki

    To investigate the mechanism of phytobezoar dissolution by Coca-Cola(®), persimmon phytobezoar pieces removed from a 60-year-old Japanese woman were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of calcium significantly decreased after dissolution treatment using Coca-Cola(®), suggesting a potential contribution of calcium to dissolution mechanisms. Moreover, immersion in Coca-Cola(®) for 120 hours on the exterior surface revealed that Coca-Cola(®) did not permeate persimmon phytobezoars. This is the first study to investigate the mechanisms of persimmon phytobezoar permeability and dissolution induced by Coca-Cola(®).

  5. Nuevas investigaciones sobre la acción anticonvulsivante de la Cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gutiérrez-Noriega

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. La cocaína inhibe la acción convulsivante de la estricnina y disminuye considerablemente la mortalidad originada por dosis letales máximas de este alcaloide. 2. También la cocaína disminuye la intensidad del ataque estrícnico, aumenta el período de latencia de las convulsiones y el tiempo de supervivencia. 3. A dosis iguales el efecto anticonvulsivante de la cocaína es muy superior al efecto anticonvulsivante del fenobarbital (observaciones en ratas . 4. En animales que han recibido una dosis letal máxima de estricnina (D. L. 100, se observó que mientras el efecto protector sobre la vida llega a su óptimo a la dosis de 40 mgrs. x Kgr., con la cocaína, dicho óptimo requiere dosis muy superiores de fenobarbital. 5. A dosis iguales, la cocaína disminuye la mortalidad de los animales intoxicados con estricnina principalmente porque impide la aparición de las convulsiones, mientras que el fenobarbital disminuye la mortalidad principalmente porque debilita la intensidad de las mismas. 6. No se observó sinergismo de las acciones anticonvulsivantes de la cocaína y del fenobarbital; por el contrario, el fenobarbital antagoniza la acción anticonvulsivante de la cocaína y su efecto antiletal. 7. Se discute el mecanismo de la acción anticonvulsivante de la cocaína. Las observaciones realizadas indican que la cocaína impide las convulsiones estrícnicas excitando el sistema nervioso.

  6. Drugs and Protected Areas: Coca Cultivation and Social Acceptance of Bahuaja-Sonene National Park in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is extracted from coca: a native bush from the Amazon rainforest. Coca is mostly grown in remote areas to avoid government intervention, and it has been increasingly cultivated inside protected areas (PAs. The effects of coca cultivation on the preservation of PAs are largely unknown. This research uses panel data (2006–2008 from a total of 684 farmers to evaluate the influence of coca growing on the acceptance of PAs, using as case study a farmer community located within the buffer zone of Bahuaja-Sonene National Park (Peru. All farmers are coffee growers and some complement their income with coca production. The area has not been subject of forced coca eradication activities. The data were analyzed using probit models with covariance matrix correction for cluster errors by year, with and without interaction effects. The results suggest that coca growers are more likely to state a positive opinion about the PA than non-coca growers. This may reflect the fact that non-coca growers need extensive areas of land for coffee cultivation in order to approach the economic benefits obtained by farmers who also grow coca. However the likelihood of stating a positive opinion by coca growers decreases the higher the perception that coca cultivation has increased in the region. Coca growers may be afraid that large coca areas would lead to the implementation of forced eradication activities. In such a case, the BSNP would restrict the access to remote land resources, which in turn decreases the support for this PA.

  7. [Two cases of phytobezoars treated by adminsitration of Coca-Cola by oral route].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jai; Kang, Hyoun Goo; Park, Se Young; Yi, Chea Yong; Na, Gyoung Jun; Lee, Tae Yeong; Kim, Sang Hyun; Song, Chul Soo

    2006-12-01

    Bezoars are concretions of foreign bodies found in the gastrointestinal tract. In the past, most common method for the treatment of bezoar was surgical management. However, the current treatment methods include chemical dissolution and endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy. There were few reports on the treatment of phytobezoars by nasogastric Cola lavage. However, there was no report succeeded by oral route alone. In our two cases, phytobezoars were treated by oral administration of Coca-Cola. Our patients drank 700-800 mL of Coca-Cola daily, and after two months, complete dissolutions of bezoars were achieved. We report two cases of phytobezoars completely treated by drinking Coca-Cola.

  8. Coca-colonization and hybridization of diets among the Tz'utujil Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Barg, Frances K; Valeggia, Claudia R; Bream, Kent D W

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical health professionals express increasing concern that rising consumption of soft drinks and processed foods in Mayan and Latin American eating patterns may lead to detrimental nutritional and health consequences. Scholars debate whether the pervading presence of Coca-Cola and Pepsi in developing countries represents "Coca-Colonization," synonymous with cultural imperialism, or cultural hybridization. Using mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods, including participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this study explores the development of Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization among the Tz'utujil Maya of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala. By specifically examining biomedical perspectives, cycles of conquest, the political economy, religion, celebrations, and the physical environment through the lens of soft drinks, this study finds that Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization are complementary rather than mutually exclusive processes that contribute to dietary transitions, economic development, and differential health beliefs related to soft drink consumption.

  9. Environmental Issues along Supply Chains of Multinational Organizations: The case of "The Coca-Cola Company"

    OpenAIRE

    Guttensohn, Andreas Josef

    2010-01-01

    I am looking at how CSR is embedded into organizations and governance processes, particularly in the multinational supply chain context. I previously did some work on Coca-Cola’s commitment to sustainable development and its commitment to achieve water neutrality. In my management project I would like to draw upon my original findings and extend them in 2 ways: Transference of issues across different national business systems in a multinational organization Analyze Coca-Cola...

  10. Pengaruh Implementasi CSR Yang Dilakukan Oleh PT. Coca-cola Bottling Indonesia Terhadap Pengembangan Masyarakat Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Zulfizar Syahputra

    2013-01-01

    Formulation of the problem in this research is: Is CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. The purpose of this research is to study and analyze how CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. This study is associative, ie research that connects two or more variables to see the effect of these variables. The data used in this study is primary data and secon...

  11. Acute intestinal obstruction caused by a persimmon phytobezoar after dissolution therapy with Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung Soo; Lee, Hyun Suk; Jung, Min Kyu; Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Chang Min; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Yong Hwan

    2007-12-01

    Bezoars are concretions or hard masses of foreign matter that are found in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent reports have demonstrated the efficacy of Coca-Cola administration for the dissolution of phytobezors. Here we report on a 73-year-old man with a very large gastric persimmon diospyrobezoar, and this caused small intestinal obstruction after partial dissolution with oral and injected Coca-Cola.

  12. Pepsi and Coca Cola in Delhi, India: availability, price and sales.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, FC; Satija, A; S; Khurana; Singh, G.; Ebrahim, S

    2010-01-01

    : India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of 'Pepsi' and 'Coca Cola' in their 'regular' and 'diet' forms in Delhi and London. : A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a surv...

  13. Price Competition Among Retailers Of Coca Cola Products In Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agboje Ifeoma Anestina; Awoyomi Femi; Yusuf Sulaiman Adeshina

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out on price competition among retail marketers of Coca-Cola products in Ibadan metropolis. A total of one hundred and ten retailers’ was randomly sampled from three Local Government Areas in Ibadan. Ordinary Least Square regression model was used for the analysis of the study. The findings of the study were that there were price variation in the Coca-Cola retail market that is monopolistically competitive in nature, and that these price variations were influenced by mun...

  14. Selling Local Modernization through the Global Corporation: Coca-Cola Bottling in Colombia, 1927-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ciafone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coca-Cola Company sold drink concentrates and licensed rights to its trademarked brands to contracted bottlers who produced and sold bottled drinks in designated geographic areas around the world, including Colombia, beginning in 1927. The franchise system enabled international expansion without large corporate growth or direct local employment allowing the company to externalize liability and financial risk. The franchise system helped the company situate the production of Coca-Cola within local economies, conscripting local elites and workers into its industry, and negotiating its representational forms to fit local contexts. The Coca-Cola Company thus benefited from the economic and political power of both the U.S. and the Colombian elite as it established its business in the country beginning in 1927. Examining print advertising from the 1920s and 1940s, the papers of Coca-Cola executives, and publications of the U.S. multinational and its Colombian franchise bottler, this article argues that The Coca-Cola Company tenuously constructed its industry, products, and brands as simultaneously global and local. While localizing the Coca-Cola industry, products, and brand, the company alluded to its modernity and global popularity, available for purchase by enterprising merchants and thirsty consumers in Colombia.

  15. Colonic obstruction secondary to sigmoid fecaloma endoscopically resolved with Coca-Cola®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontanilla Clavijo, Guillermo; León Montañés, Rafael; Sánchez Torrijos, Yolanda; López Ruiz, Teófilo; Bozada García, Juan Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Colonic obstruction is a relatively common condition in emergency care, with a mortality rate of up to 20%. In 90% of cases it results from colonic or rectal adenocarcinoma, volvulus, or stenosis secondary to diverticular disease. When fecal impaction is the underlying cause, the condition is usually managed conservatively, but may on occasion become complicated and even require surgical intervention. Based on the proven efficacy of Coca-Cola® to dissolve gastric phytobezoars, we report a case of colonic obstruction secondary to sigmoid fecaloma. A 58 years old woman arrived at the Emergency Room (ER) with persistent constipation for the last six days. An abdominal CT scan showed a large fecal mass at the sigmoid colon with retrograde dilated colonic loops. Cleansing enemas and oral lactulose were administered, which failed to resolve the clinical presentation, so we then proceeded to inject Coca-Cola® within the fecaloma using a sclerosing needle, and then washed the fecaloma surface also with Coca-Cola®. After a few minutes we started to fragment the fecalith, the consistency of which had been notably decreased. The use of Coca-Cola® for gastric washes in the management of phytobezoars is well established. Since fecaliths are partly composed of these same substances than phytobezoars, the use of Coca-Cola® might well be warranted against them as in our patient, without surgery. Our case report is the second one published in the literature, in which Coca-Cola® helped solve colonic obstruction secondary to fecaloma.

  16. Influence of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in healthy rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondal, A; Garg, S K

    2003-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in rabbits. In a cross-over study, phenytoin was given orally at a dose of 30 mg/kg and blood samples were taken at different intervals from 0-24 h. After a washout period of 7 days, Coca-Cola (5 ml/kg) was administered in combination with phenytoin (30 mg/kg) and blood samples were taken at various time intervals from 0-24 h. The same rabbits continued to receive Coca-Cola (5 ml/kg) for another 7 days. On the 8th day, Coca-Cola (5 ml/kg) in combination with phenytoin (30 mg/kg) was administered and blood samples were taken at similar intervals. Plasma was separated and assayed for phenytoin by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and various pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. It was concluded that an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) increases the extent of absorption of phenytoin by significantly increasing the Cmax and AUC(o-á) of phenytoin. These results warrant the reduction of phenytoin dose when administered in combination with Coca-Cola to avoid any toxicity. (c) 2003 Prous Science

  17. Influence of acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in healthy rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondal, Amit; Garg, S K

    2003-11-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of Coca-Cola on the pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in rabbits. In a cross-over study, ibuprofen was given orally in a dose of 56 mg/kg, prepared as 0.5% suspension in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and blood samples (1 ml) were drawn at different time intervals from 0-12 hr. After a washout period of 7 days, Coca-Cola in a dose of (5 ml/kg) was administered along with ibuprofen (56 mg/kg) and blood samples were drawn from 0-12 hr. To these rabbits, 5 ml/kg Coca-Cola was administered once daily for another 7 days. On 8th day, Coca-Cola (5 ml/kg) along with ibuprofen (56 mg/kg), prepared as a suspension was administered and blood samples (1 ml each) were drawn at similar time intervals. Plasma was separated and assayed for ibuprofen by HPLC technique and various pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The Cmax and AUC0-alpha of ibuprofen were significantly increased after single and multiple doses of Coca-Cola, thereby indicating increased extent of absorption of ibuprofen. The results warrant the reduction of ibuprofen daily dosage, frequency when administered with Coca-Cola.

  18. Regional Monopoly and Interregional and Intraregional Competition: The Parallel Trade in Coca-Cola between Shanghai and Hangzhou in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Godfrey; Mok, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a “principal-agent-subagent” analytical framework and data that were collected from field surveys in China to (1) investigate the nature and causes of the parallel trade in Coca-Cola between Shanghai and Hangzhou and (2) assess the geographic and theoretical implications for the regional monopolies that have been artificially created by Coca-Cola in China. The parallel trade in Coca-Cola is sustained by its intraregional rivalry with Pepsi-Cola in Shanghai, where Coca-Cola (...

  19. Anestesia no paciente usuário de cocaína Anestesia en el paciente usuario de cocaína Anesthesia in cocaine users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luft

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A cocaína é a droga ilícita mais freqüentemente associada a óbitos, e suas implicações perioperatórias nos pacientes agudamente intoxicados ou com história de uso crônico precisam ser bem conhecidas pelos anestesiologistas. O conhecimento da neurofisiologia, da farmacologia e das conseqüências fisiopatológicas decorrentes do uso da cocaína poderá facilitar o cuidado desses pacientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi revisar as informações sobre a cocaína e suas interações com a anestesia. CONTEÚDO: O artigo discute a farmacologia da cocaína, as conseqüências fisiopatológicas decorrentes do seu uso e as interações com a anestesia. CONCLUSÕES: A compreensão e o reconhecimento precoce das complicações associadas ao uso de cocaína são essenciais para o manuseio adequado de pacientes usuários desta droga. O anestesiologista deve estar preparado, pois tanto as anestesias regionais quanto a geral apresentam riscos significativos nesses pacientes.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La cocaína es la droga ilícita más frecuentemente asociada a decesos, y sus implicaciones perioperatorias en los pacientes agudamente intoxicados o con historial de uso crónico necesitan ser muy bien conocidas por los anestesiólogos. El conocimiento de la neurofisiología, de la farmacología y de las consecuencias fisiopatológicas provenientes del uso de la cocaína podrá facilitar el cuidado de esos pacientes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar las informaciones sobre la cocaína y sus interacciones con la anestesia. CONTENIDO: El artículo discute la farmacología de la cocaína, las consecuencias fisiopatológicas provenientes de su uso y las interacciones con la anestesia. CONCLUSIONES: La comprensión y el reconocimiento precoz de las complicaciones asociadas al uso de la cocaína son esenciales para el manejo adecuado de pacientes usuarios de esa droga. El anestesiólogo debe estar preparado, pues tanto las

  20. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Clover Trifolium spp. Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum. Coffee Coffea spp. Cola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola. Coriander Coriandrum... Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola. Laurel berries Laurus nobilis L. Laurel leaves...

  1. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (clary sage) Salvia sclarea L. Clover Trifolium spp. Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum. Coffee Coffea spp. Cola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola. Coriander Coriandrum sativum L. Cumin (cummin) Cuminum cyminum L. Curacao orange peel (orange...

  2. Efectos de la cocaína sobre los niveles de y-aminobutirato, glutamato y aspartato en el núcleo accumbens e hipocampo de rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Ulloque

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los efectos agudos y crónicos de la cocaína sobre los niveles de y-aminobutirato (GABA, glutamato y aspartato en el núcleo accumbens e hipocampo de ratas, para lo cual se administró cocaína en forma aguda y crónica (intraperitoneal a grupos de ratas. El primer grupo recibió 30 mglkg; la administración crónica se inició con 30 mg/kg y se incrementaron 5 mg/kg cada cuatro dias durante 20 días. Los grupos controles recibieron el respectivo volumen de solución salina, por la misma vía y por el tiempo respectivo. A los 30 minutos de administrada la cocaína en forma aguda y 24 horas después de la última dosis crónica, los animales fueron decapitados, los cerebros separados rápidamente del cráneo y colocados en solución salina normal a O OC durante 10 minutos. Posteriormente, se tomaron muestras del núcleo accumbens y del hipocampo. Se procedió igual con los grupos controles. Los niveles de GABA, glutamato y aspartato se determinaron utilizando técnicas enzimáticas y medidas espectrofotométricas. Los resultados muestran que la administración aguda o crónica de cocaína incrementa significativamente el glutamato y el aspartato tanto en el núcleo accumbens como en el hipocampo. Además, se observó un descenso significativo del GABA con la administración crónica. Estos resultados experimentales sustentan la hipótesis de que la administración de cocaína produce efectos excitadores, posiblemente, a través del incremento de las actividades glutaaspartatérgicas o a través de una disminución de actividad GABAérgica en el núcleo accumbens y en el hipocampo.

  3. Systematic review: Coca-Cola can effectively dissolve gastric phytobezoars as a first-line treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, S D; Kamberoglou, D; Karamanolis, G; Vlachogiannakos, J; Zouboulis-Vafiadis, I

    2013-01-01

    Gastric phytobezoars represent the most common bezoars in patients with poor gastric motility. A variety of dissolution therapies and endoscopic fragmentation techniques have been evaluated as conservative treatment so as to avoid surgery. To investigate the effectiveness of Coca-Cola for gastric phytobezoars dissolution. We performed a systematic search to identify publications on gastric phytobezoars to assess the efficacy of Coca-Cola as a dissolution therapy. Diospyrobezoars, formed after persimmon ingestion, are a distinct type of phytobezoars characterized by their hard consistency. Thus, these two subgroups of bezoars were compared in terms of successful dissolution. Over a 10-year period (2002-2012), 24 papers including 46 patients have been published. In 91.3% of the cases, phytobezoar resolution with Coca-Cola administration was successful, either as a single treatment (50%) or combined with further endoscopic techniques, whereas only 4 patients underwent surgery. Phytobezoars were more likely to dissolve after initial attempt with Coca-Cola compared with diospyrobezoars (60.6% vs. 23%, P = 0.022). Coca-Cola alone is effective in gastric phytobezoar dissolution in half of the cases and, combined with additional endoscopic methods, is successful in more than 90% of them. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Importancia dopaminérgica en farmacodinamia de cocaína evaluada por alteraciones de GABA y glutamato en el núcleo accumbens de ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Gélvez

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propuso demostrar la importancia del sistema dopaminérgico en la farmacodinamia de cocaína en el SNC de ratas. Este postulado se verificó evaluando las alteraciones de GABA y glutamato en el núcleo accumbens. Este enfoque se sustenta en la gran cantidad de evidencias que muestran, consistentemente alteraciones en la actividad dopaminérgica por cocaína. Además, el GABA y el glutamato tienen gran importancia en los efectos agudos y crónicos por cocaína. Es bien conocida la interrelación de GABA y glutamato con la actividad dopaminérgica en el núcleo accumbens. Se diseñó un estudio por 16 días de administración de cocaína a ratas a la dosis inicial de 30 mglkgldía (IP con incremento de 5 mglkg cada 4 días, a las cuales se les había lesionado la actividad dopaminérgica en el núcleo accumbens con la neurotoxina 6- hidroxidopamina en ácido ascórbico. Además, se conformó un grupo basal que recibió estereotáxicamante, en el núcleo accumbens, ácido ascórbico en solución salina 0,9% y se trató con un volumen correspondiente de solución salina (IP y, un grupo control, al cual estereotáxicamente, en el núcleo mencionado, se le administró 6-OHDA (en ácido ascórbico, recibiendo posteriormente como tratamiento solución salina (IP. La determinación de los niveles de GABA y glutamato se realizó por métodos enzimáticos. Se observó que la administración crónica de cocaína produce una disminución significativa en el nivel de GABA en el núcleo accumbens del grupo problema, con relación a los grupos basal y control. En tanto, el nivel de glutamato en el grupo problema mostró un incremento significativo con relación al grupo basal, pero, no con relación al grupo control. En conclusión, los resultados de este trabajo sostienen la hipótesis del papel importante que tiene la dopamina en la farmacoterapia de cocaína a través de las alteraciones en los niveles de GABA y glutamato o alteraciones en

  5. ATRIBUT KEPUASAN KONSUMEN PRODUK MINUMAN RINGAN COCA COLA DI KOTA BANDARLAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrina Yustitia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this research is to analyze the attributes that influence Coca Cola customer satisfaction. Gap analysis shows that the priority attributes must be improved performance were: interesting promotion (-0.83, color of the product (0.61, attractive design (-0.59, refill packaging (-0.58 and product safety (-0.08 while the other attributes have accordanced with customer expectations. Importance-Performance Analysis showed the top priority attributes (quadrant A were an interesting campaign, the next priority for the enhanced importance (quadrant C were the product color, attractive design, packaging, rechargeable and affordable prices. Coca Cola has been able to meet consumer expectations in reaching the level of satisfaction ( multi-attribute test : 1.78, total value of satisfaction (13,508. Keywords: attributes, coca cola, consumer expectations

  6. Happing: Nativos digitales al servicio de la imagen corporativa de Coca-Cola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Llorente Barroso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Happing, la comunidad de la gente que se atreve a ser feliz, es la nueva propuesta de la compañía Coca-Cola para su promoción web en España; su éxito entre los nativos digitales pone de manifiesto el acierto de esta gran marca internacional, que ha sabido aprovechar la creatividad de los nativos digitales que participan en la comunidad, para dar brillo a una Imagen Corporativa Intencional de sobra solvente. Los nativos digitales que contribuyen a la creación del mágico mundo Coca-Cola, participan gustosos de la oportunidad expresiva que les brida la compañía, fascinados por la filosofía de vida que siempre ha sido bandera de la Imagen de marca de Coca-Cola, ahora alimentada y, en parte, creada por esos nativos digitales.

  7. Colonic obstruction secondary to sigmoid fecaloma endoscopically resolved with Coca-Cola®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ontanilla-Clavijo

    Full Text Available Background: Colonic obstruction is a relatively common condition in emergency care, with a mortality rate of up to 20%. In 90% of cases it results from colonic or rectal adenocarcinoma, volvulus, or stenosis secondary to diverticular disease. When fecal impaction is the underlying cause, the condition is usually managed conservatively, but may on occasion become complicated and even require surgical intervention. Based on the proven efficacy of Coca-Cola® to dissolve gastric phytobezoars, we report a case of colonic obstruction secondary to sigmoid fecaloma. Case report: A 58 years old woman arrived at the Emergency Room (ER with persistent constipation for the last six days. An abdominal CT scan showed a large fecal mass at the sigmoid colon with retrograde dilated colonic loops. Cleansing enemas and oral lactulose were administered, which failed to resolve the clinical presentation, so we then proceeded to inject Coca-Cola® within the fecaloma using a sclerosing needle, and then washed the fecaloma surface also with Coca-Cola®. After a few minutes we started to fragment the fecalith, the consistency of which had been notably decreased. Discussion: The use of Coca-Cola® for gastric washes in the management of phytobezoars is well established. Since fecaliths are partly composed of these same substances than phytobezoars, the use of Coca-Cola® might well be warranted against them as in our patient, without surgery. Our case report is the second one published in the literature, in which Coca-Cola® helped solve colonic obstruction secondary to fecaloma.

  8. A pausa que refresca... Tempo e espaço nas propagandas da Coca-Cola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Furquim de Campos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Com base nas reflexões de Mikhail Bakhtin (1988 sobre cronótopo e nos estudos dos semióticos, principalmente no que tange ao percurso passional do sujeito, analisamos propagandas impressas e comerciais televisivos da Coca-Cola. O objetivo principal é traçar a trajetória discursiva da Coca-Cola desde sua entrada no Brasil, em 1941, até a campanha Gostoso é viver, lançada em 2001. O discurso da Coca-Cola apresenta valores positivos como a alegria, emoção e prazer. Entretanto, são eliminados valores negativos e ocultados interditos, como: Coca-Cola é um produto norte-americano e industrializado, portanto, não é natural, engorda e vicia. Constrói-se, assim, um discurso que privilegia aspectos temáticos voltados para os estados passionais eufóricos (paixão, emoção, alegria. A Coca-Cola também reforça a idéia de que está presente em todo tempo e lugar. Assim, as categorias espaço-temporais são elementos importantes para a construção de sentido de suas propagandas. Reafirmando os mesmos valores e mantendo as categorias cronotópicas para a construção de sentido de suas propagandas, a Coca-Cola consolida a idéia de onipotência, ou seja, ela tem o "poder" de refrescar, trazer alegria, provovar emoção e satisfazer prazeres. Cria-se, assim, um estilo, isto é, uma identidade calcada em categorias divinas, tais como onipresença e onipotência.

  9. The Image and Politics of Coca-Cola: From the Early Years to the Present

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Othman, Dalia

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the history of Coca-Cola from its early years to the present and discusses how the Company perpetuated the various images it sought for Coke through brilliant leadership, marketing, and the manipulation of events, and how it was able to develop and use its political connections to overcome government-created obstacles and cultural resistance to its products both within and without the United States. The paper will discuss the history of Coca-Cola’s inter...

  10. Bases psicobiológicas de la adicción a cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rodríguez-Jiménez; Ponce, G.; M.A. Jiménez-Arriero; Bagney, A; Cubillo, A.I.; Aragües, M; Rubio Valladolid, Gabriel; Palomo, T.

    2006-01-01

    El principal mecanismo de acción de la cocaína es la inhibición de la recaptación de dopamina y noradrenalina, produciendo un aumento de estos neurotransmisores en la sinapsis. El consumo agudo de cocaína produce una serie de cambios bastante conocidos en el sistema cerebral de recompensa. Sin embargo, el consumo crónico, produce, además, otra serie de cambios a nivel molecular que llevan al sujeto desde una situación de consumo puntual, a una situación de dependencia. Se han propuesto difere...

  11. A influ??ncia da coca??na no crescimento e desenvolvimento fetal e neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, J??ssica Lustosa Cabral

    2015-01-01

    Introdu????o: Pesquisas cient??ficas evidenciam uma associa????o entre a ingest??o de coca??na por gestantes e nutrizes, e a m?? forma????o fetal. Objetivo: O estudo tem como objetivo analisar as evid??ncias cient??ficas que sustentam a hip??tese de que o uso de coca??na pode ser prejudicial ao desenvolvimento infantil. M??todo: O estudo consiste em uma revis??o de literatura baseada em artigos cient??ficos buscados nas bases de dados Bireme, Lilacs, Pubmed, Scielo e Google acad??mico, por me...

  12. IDENTIFICATION AND IDENTITY OF THE COCA-COLA BRAND LEXICAL FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara VLIONCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite un problème très actuel dans le domaine de la linguistique, notamment les champs lexicaux. L’article démontre le fait que les champs lexicaux du brand “ Coca-Cola” se trouve à la frontière entre le langage commun et le langage de spécialité. Le but de l’article est de mettre en évidence les particularités des champs lexicaux des slogans du brand “Coca-Cola”. Le corpus analysé comprend des slogans du brand « Coca-Cola » à partir du XIXème siècle jusqu’au début du XXIème siècle. L’article délimite un cadre théorique et une démonstration pratique concernant les éléments distinctifs des champs lexicaux du brand « Coca-Cola ».Dans ce sens l’article présente et développe le problème des relations entre les champs lexicaux homogènes et hétérogènes, les micro champs lexicaux des slogans du brand « Coca-Cola » les éléments centraux et périphériques des champs lexicaux des slogans de ce brand, les structures syntagmatiques et paradigmatiques des champs lexicaux du brand « Coca-Cola ». L’article met en évidence des champs corrélatifs, multimodaux, pluridimensionnels, en série, récursifs etc. La prémisse dont on est parti a été celle que « jusqu'à présent le problème des champs lexicaux du brand « Coca-Cola » n’a pas été analysé en détail ».Cet article propose une perspective explicative et démonstrative de ces champs lexicaux à l’intention de contribuer à la réalisation d’une analyse linguistique pertinente concernant les champs lexicaux des slogans du brand américain « Coca-Cola ».

  13. Neumotórax hipertensivo por inhalación de cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    William José González Cogollo

    2002-01-01

    El uso de la cocaína causa complicaciones pulmonares, cardiacas, músculo esqueléticas, obstétricas y gastrointestinales. Se describe el caso de un varón joven quien presento barotrauma (neumotórax hipertensivo) posterior a la inhalación de cocaína. Basados en este caso y en una revisión de la literatura medica se recomienda interrogar exhaustivamente acerca del uso de drogas en todo paciente adulto o adolescente con neumotórax "espontáneo".The use of cocaine causes pulmonary, cardiac, obstetr...

  14. Examining spatially varying relationships between coca crops and associated factors in Colombia, using geographically weight regression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rincón-Ruiz, A.; Pascual, U.; Flantua, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the expansion of illicit crops (coca) and the associated socio-institutional and geographical drivers in Colombia between 2001 and 2008. The analysis is based on a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models and shows that the relationships between the analyzed variables

  15. An Analysis of Yip's Global Strategy Model, Using Coca-Cola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This concept, is what in the author's opinion, YIP calls a truly Global Strategy. This paper postulates that there is a weak fit between Yip's Global strategy and the beverage industry. The paper uses a reflective methodology to examine the Coca-Cola global strategy model and com-pares it with a few selected business cases ...

  16. Valuing Brazilian Youth: IDRA's Coca Cola Valued Youth Program in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecel, Maria Robledo

    2008-01-01

    Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) is an independent, non-profit organization with a vision for schools that work for all children. It partnered with Coca-Cola in 1984 and began a dropout prevention program just as it was conducting the first comprehensive study of school dropouts in Texas. Its annual studies since then have…

  17. Pepsi and Coca Cola in Delhi, India: availability, price and sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fiona C; Satija, Ambika; Khurana, Swati; Singh, Gurpreet; Ebrahim, Shah

    2011-04-01

    India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of 'Pepsi' and 'Coca Cola' in their 'regular' and 'diet' forms in Delhi and London. A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a survey of food and drink outlets within a 100 m radius of randomly selected Metro stations was conducted in both cities. Store vendors, owners and staff of food and drink outlets. Delhi, India; London, United Kingdom. In Delhi, of the outlets stocking regular Pepsi and Coca Cola, only 34% sold diet versions and these were more readily available in the most affluent areas than in the poorest areas (34% v. 6%, Z=3.67, PCoca Cola was observed in Delhi; however, profit margins were better for regular, relative to diet, Coca Cola. Sales of regular products were significantly greater than those of diet products (PCoca Cola in less affluent areas of Delhi is likely to exacerbate the obesity and diabetes trends. Price differentials to promote diet versions and other healthier or traditional low-energy drinks may be beneficial.

  18. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – AN IMPERATIVE OF INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES. CASE STUDY: COCA-COLA HBC ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin POPESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a summary of the concept, emphasizing that sustainable development is a strongly supported policy around the world. The case study examines specific aspects of sustainable development in Coca-Cola HBC Romania. Finally it presents the main obstacles and opportunities identified for adoption by Romanian companies in their business of sustainable competitiveness strategies.

  19. Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program offers secondary school students who are considered at risk of dropping out the opportunity to serve as tutors in elementary schools. By having these at-risk students serve as tutors, the program aims to improve their basic academic skills and self-esteem, with the goal of keeping them enrolled in school. The…

  20. Coca-Cola jõulukaravan tõi lastekodulastele palju rõõmu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vt. ka Linnaleht : Tartu 21. dets., lk. 13, Linnaleht : Pärnu 21. dets., lk. B5. Sel nädalal Eestis ringi sõitnud heategevuslik Coca-Cola jõulukaravan viis kingitusi 17 Tartu ja Tartumaa, Tallinna, Jõgevamaa ning Ida-Virumaa lastekodusse

  1. Stimulatory effect of Coca-Cola on gastroduodenal HCO3- secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Aihara, E; Ise, F; Kita, K; Takeuchi, K

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of various carbonated beverages, especially Coca-Cola, on the HCO3- secretion in the rat stomach and duodenum. Under urethane anaesthesia, a chambered stomach or a proximal duodenal loop was perfused with saline, and HCO3- secretion was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method and by adding 2 mM HCl. The amount of CO2 contained in these beverages was about 4-7 g/mL. Coca-Cola topically applied to the mucosa for 10 min significantly increased the HCO3- secretion in both the stomach and the duodenum. The HCO3- response in the duodenum was totally abolished by indomethacin and also partially inhibited by acetazolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. Likewise, the response in the stomach was also markedly inhibited by either acetazolamide or indomethacin. The mucosal application of Coca-Cola increased the PGE2 contents in both the stomach and the duodenum. Other carbonated beverages, such as sparkling water, Fanta Grape or cider, also increased the HCO3- secretion in these tissues. These results suggest that Coca-Cola induces HCO3- secretion in both the stomach and the duodenum, and these responses may be attributable to both the intracellular supply of HCO3- generated via carbonic anhydrase, and endogenous PGs, probably related to the acidic pH of the solution.

  2. Efectos de la exposición prenatal a cocaína en la conducta emocional en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Santacruz Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los efectos de la Exposición Prenatal a Cocaína (EPC (0,25 o 50 mg/kg/día en la conducta emocional de ratones hembras y machos en la adolescencia y la adultez temprana. Se asignaron 27 ratones CD1 hembras gestantes a 3 condiciones experimentales: un grupo control que se le administró solución salina y 2 experimentales a los que se le administró cocaína 25 mg/ kg/día y 50 mg/kg/día, desde el día octavo al veintiunavo de gestación. La conducta emocional de los hijos de estas madres se evaluó en la adolescencia y en la adultez temprana (5.ª y 7.ª semana de edad, respetivamente por medio del tablero de agujeros y el laberinto en cruz a través de diferentes índices de actividad exploratoria. Los datos se analizaron por medio de MANOVAS y ANOVAS con un valor α de 0.05. La EPC alteró de forma dosis-relacionada la conducta emocional; los sujetos sometidos a EPC 50 mg/kg/día exhibieron mayor ansiedad y temor, en cambio los tratados con EPC 25 mg/kg/día exploraron más, mostrando conductas de alto riesgo, características de la impulsividad e hiperactividad. Los efectos encontrados se mantuvieron en el tiempo, por lo que se concluye que la EPC perturbó permanente y significativamente la emoción.

  3. Coca cultivation and crop eradication in Colombia: The challenges of integrating rural reality into effective anti-drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Ruiz, Alexander; Correa, Hyarold Leonardo; León, Daniel Oswaldo; Williams, Stewart

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the positive and negative (or intended and unintended) impacts of anti-drug policies such as the aerial spraying of coca crops in Colombia. It provides spatial analysis of coca cultivation and crop eradication at a fine scale of resolution using the latest UNODC data. The findings suggest that anti-drug policy in Colombia between 2001 and 2012 has had some success with a significant decrease in overall levels of coca cultivation, but that it has also led to the displacement of coca cultivation, notably to areas within the Colombian Pacific region. Negative impacts include continued deforestation and damage to ecosystems, and the further marginalization of Afro-Colombian communities whose collective territories have been subject to increased coca cultivation between 2001 and 2012. Alternative development programs have not been well aligned with such areas where other illegal activities such as mining as well as coca cultivation now occur. Hence the importance of designing anti-drug policy that comprehensively integrates the local nuances of those peoples and places affected by coca cultivation and crop eradication according to their particular contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A economia do narcotráfico: o caso da cocaína na Bolívia

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Genaro Emílio Carrión

    1997-01-01

    Esta dissertação analisa o narcotráfico na Bolívia, dando ênfase, principalmente, à produção ilegal de folha de coca, matéria-prima essencial à fabricação da cocaína. Esta pesquisa revela que o fluxo migratório para as plantações de coca, além das características étnicas e culturais do produtor, fazem com que esta atividade se perpetue na Bolívia.

  5. Coca crops, forests, people and anti-drug policy in Colombia towards the understanding of a complex relationship /

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Ruiz, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    El cultivo de la hoja de coca (Erythroxylon coca) que es realizado principalmente por pequeños agricultores, es el primer paso y la base de lo que puede ser considerado el agro negocio ilegal más grande en el mundo: la producción de cocaína. La literatura sobre cultivos de uso ilícito considera generalmente los factores globales y nacionales que influyen en la expansión de los cultivos de uso ilícito, sin embargo poca atención se ha puesto en los factores locales asociados a las zonas cocaler...

  6. Lesión de paladar duro por uso crónico de cocaína. Reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis D’Addino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar una lesión inusual de gran tamaño comprometiendo paladar duro. Se describe su diagnóstico, manejo terapéutico y evolución. El paciente de raza blanca de 37 años, desde hace 12 meses presentaba lesión ulcerada con perforación de paladar duro. Dentro de los antecedentes personales se resalta el uso de cocaína desde hace 20 años, tabaquista desde hace 23 años. Como antecedentes familiares de importancia cabe citarse 2 casos de Hipertermia Maligna en familiares consanguíneos operados anteriormente. La biopsia de la lesión fue lesión benigna. Se intervino quirúrgicamente efectuándose un colgajo tipo Randal para el cierre del defecto y Rintala para la cobertura de la cara nasal del orificio. Se reforzó con malla de colágeno entre los dos colgajos. El último control a los 6 meses de seguimiento, mostraba buena evolución post quirúrgica aunque recayó en el consumo de cocaína y no regresó a la consulta. En conclusión, el uso crónico de cocaína suele destruir el tabique nasal y el paladar. La reparación resulta un desafió por lo dificultoso de la obtención de tejidos sumado a la escasa adhesión de los enfermos al abandono de la droga.

  7. Pesticides in Coca-Cola and Pepsi: Consumerism, Brand Image, and Public Interest in a Globalizing India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neeraj Vedwan

    2007-01-01

    ... in symbolic-political fields, remain contingent in their specific configurations. Coca-Cola and Pepsi as brands are hybrid embodiments of the larger dissonances constitutive of the present moment in Indian modernity...

  8. Developing Industry-Sponsored Entrepreneurship Education Programmes. The Experiences of the Coca-Cola National Enterprise Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Colette; Titterington, Albert; Wiseman, Kate

    1998-01-01

    A partnership among Dundalk Institute of Technology (Ireland), Coca Cola, and government encourages young entrepreneurs through formal education in business management, workshops, mentoring, and financial rewards provided by the corporation's National Enterprise Award. (SK)

  9. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola’s supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erika Linnander; Christina T Yuan; Shirin Ahmed; Emily Cherlin; Kristina Talbert-Slagle; Leslie A Curry

    2017-01-01

    ... from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system...

  10. Desenvolvimento de entrevista estruturada para avaliar consumo de cocaína e comportamentos de risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn John

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Criar uma entrevista estruturada em português, sensível à cultura brasileira, para avaliar usuários de cocaína. MÉTODO: Uma revisão da literatura foi usada para desenvolver uma "agenda oculta" que dirigiria as entrevistas exploratórias com 20 usuários de cocaína. Essas entrevistas ajudaram no processo de conceituar e operacionalizar as perguntas que seriam utilizadas na primeira versão do instrumento. Essa versão foi submetida a um estudo piloto com 40 usuários de cocaína vindos de diversos serviços de atendimento. Após cada entrevista, o questionário foi revisado até não haver modificações significativas. RESULTADOS: Na versão final da entrevista havia 245 questões que, em sua maioria, eram fechadas com respostas dicotômicas, numéricas ou de múltipla escolha. A entrevista continha 13 seções, sendo: (1 dados sociodemográficos, (2 uso de drogas lícitas, (3 uso de drogas ilícitas, (4 iniciação no uso da cocaína, (5 transições na via de administração, (6 padrão de consumo durante o período de uso mais intenso, (7 atividades criminais, (8 uso recente de cocaína, (9 história de injetar drogas, (10 experiência de tratamento, (11 "overdose", (12 história familiar do uso de álcool e drogas e (13 comportamentos de risco para a transmissão do vírus HIV. CONCLUSÃO: Essa é a primeira entrevista estruturada, detalhada e sensível à cultura brasileira criada no Brasil para avaliar usuários de cocaína, e que teve um estudo piloto extenso com uma amostra grande e diversificada.

  11. Los efectos globo en los cultivos de coca en la Región Andina (1990-2009) /Balloon effects in coca crops in the Andean region (1990-2009)/Os efeitos globo no cultivo de coca na região andina (1990-2009)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonardo Raffo López; Javier Andrés Castro; Alexander Díaz España

    2016-01-01

      The aim of this article is to contrast empirically the presence of balloon effects affecting coca crops in the geographic territory corresponding to the main producer countries (Colombia, Perú and Bolivia...

  12. Huge gastric diospyrobezoars successfully treated by oral intake and endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y W; Han, D S; Park, Y K; Son, B K; Paik, C H; Jeon, Y C; Sohn, J H

    2006-07-01

    A diospyrobezoar is a type of phytobezoar that is considered to be harder than any other types of phytobezoars. Here, we describe a new treatment modality, which effectively and easily disrupted huge gastric diospyrobezoars. A 41-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with lower abdominal pain and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed three huge, round diospyrobezoars in the stomach. He was made to drink two cans of Coca-Cola every 6 h. At endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were partially dissolved and turned to be softened. We performed direct endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola into each bezoar. At repeated endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were completely dissolved.

  13. [The use of coca leaves in traditional communities: perspectives in health, society, and culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Ivan Farias

    2013-06-01

    The article focuses on the sociocultural issues associated with the use of coca leaves in the Andes and Amazon regions. Approaching from a theoretical perspective, it explores scientific articles and magazine and newspaper interviews of distinguished professionals. The study's findings suggest that the tendency to indiscriminately link coca to cocaine, and consequently to drug-trafficking, stems from a historically constructed bias that eclipses the historical and cultural roots of the age-old use of this plant. It is up to psychology as a science to break the silence surrounding indigenous issues and come to understand the dynamics of these peoples' sociocultural processes so that it can figure in spaces where differentiated treatment is required.

  14. La coca en el intercambio mercante Atlántico-Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Villoslada, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available One approaches the passage of the coca to the Mediterranean and its relevancy in the medieval navigation. Superiority determined by the rudder of sternpost, know generically by the sailors of the mediterranean basin as bayonés, that is to say, of the Gulf of Biscay, whose skippers will arrive regularly to Majorca.

    Se aborda el paso de la coca al Mediterráneo y su relevancia en la náutica medieval. Primacía determinada por el timón de codaste, conocido genéricamente por los marinos de la cuenca mediterránea como bayonés, es decir, del Golfo de Vizcaya, cuyos patrones arribarán regularmente a Mallorca.

  15. Acción de la cocaína sobre la glucemia en el perro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pons Muzzo

    1944-09-01

    Full Text Available Se ha demostrado que la inyección subcutánea de cocaína determina un incremento, transitorio de la glucemia en el perro, que se manifiesta en forma ligera con 10 mgs. por kilo de peso y alcanza un valor superior al 100 de la cantidad normal, en algunos casos, con la dosis de 18 mgs. Esta hiperglucemia va seguida, la mayor parte de las veces, de una leve o moderada hipoglucemia.

  16. An internalization approach to joint ventures: the case of Coca-Cola in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Vincent; Dai, Xiudian; Yeung, Godfrey

    2002-01-01

    In the presence of high transaction costs due to market imperfections, it is normally less expensive for multinational corporations (MNCs) to conduct their business activities in new markets through their internal corporate structures rather than by relying on the markets. Based on a case study of Coca-Cola's entry into the Chinese market, this paper tests the applicability of internalization theory to explaining the entry mode choices of MNCs in developing countries. Internalization theory r...

  17. Environmental impact of coca cultivation and cocaine production in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourojeanni, M

    1992-01-01

    Little or nothing has been written about the environmental consequences of the cultivation of coca and the production of basic cocaine paste. Nevertheless, there is much evidence that both activities have a severe and irreparable impact on the ecosystems in which they are carried out. This chapter describes the situation in the Peruvian Amazon, discusses the consequences of these activities, and recommends measures to improve current conditions.

  18. The use of Coca-Cola in the management of bolus obstruction in benign oesophageal stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjia, N. D.; Rees, M.

    1993-01-01

    Oesophageal stricture is a complication of oesophageal reflux and may itself be complicated by bolus obstruction. We reviewed the records of patients presenting with dysphagia and who were found to have benign oesophageal strictures. We studied the outcome of bolus obstruction in 13 episodes affecting eight patients. In six episodes Coca-Cola was administered on the day before endoscopy, and in all these patients the bolus had cleared. In seven episodes nothing was administered before endoscopy, and in all seven a bolus was evident at endoscopy. In five of these seven the bolus was removed piecemeal and in each of these instances the endoscope had to be passed between two and five times. In the remaining two instances the procedure was abandoned and the patients returned to the ward for the administration of Coca-Cola. At subsequent endoscopy these patients were found to be clear of any bolus. These results suggest that the administration of Coca-Cola (or other aerated drinks) may clear a bolus in the acutely obstructed oesophagus. PMID:8476194

  19. Behaviour of hygrine and cuscohygrine in illicit cocaine production establishes their use as markers for chewing coca leaves in contrast with cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Nelida Cristina; Thurmann, Denise; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Pragst, Fritz

    2017-02-01

    Hygrine (HYG) and cuscohygrine (CUS) are natural alkaloids of coca leaves but are not found in illicit cocaine seizures. Therefore, they were proposed as markers for coca chewing in contrast to cocaine abuse in urine and hair testing. In order to examine at which step of the illegal cocaine production these compounds are lost, coca leaves were processed according to an authentic procedure by extraction with lime and kerosene, re-extraction with sulphuric acid, and precipitation of coca paste with ammonia. Non-extracted and extracted coca leaves, acidic extract and coca paste were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester (EME), cinnamoylcocaine (CIN), HYG, and CUS. It follows from the results that under these conditions, HYG and CUS are extracted only to a minor extent by kerosene and are not precipitated from the acidic re-extract in the coca paste. Due to this behaviour in illegal cocaine production, they fulfil the conditions as markers for coca chewing in an optimal way. However, for unambiguous discrimination between coca chewing and cocaine abuse in human samples, additional markers of manufactured cocaine are required. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cocaína: lendas, história e abuso Cocaine: myths, history and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Eugênio M Ferreira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A civilização ocidental tem estado envolvida com múltiplos problemas sociais, sendo o abuso de drogas um deles. A cocaína e os transtornos decorrentes de seu abuso tornaram-se um problema de saúde pública. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo colaborar pelo aprofundamento da investigação histórica desse tema. Há mais de 4500 anos, as folhas de coca são usadas por índios da América do Sul. Com a industrialização no século XIX, a cocaína chegou aos países desenvolvidos da época. Na medicina, essa substância também se mostrou presente, sendo usada, tanto por Freud quanto por outros médicos, na tentativa de curar inúmeras enfermidades. No entanto, a maior disponibilidade e a queda dos preços nos últimos 30 anos possibilitaram que essa droga fosse usada abusivamente por um número crescente de pessoas, trazendo conseqüências assustadoras para a saúde do indivíduo e para a sociedade como um todo.Western civilization is involved with multiple social problems and drug abuse is one of them. Cocaine and its abuse have become over the years a public health problem. This paper intends to provide a historical background to the subject. For more than 4,500 years, South America natives have been using coca leaves. After the industrial revolution in the 19th century, cocaine clorhydrate, an alkaloid present in the coca leaf, reached the developed countries. Many products, which main ingredient was cocaine, were consumed by famous people at that time, such as Vino Mariani, used by Pope Leo XVIII. In medicine, Freud and other doctors used cocaine with the purpose of healing various diseases. However, in the last 30 years, it became more available and its price dropped, making it accessible to an increasing number of people, resulting in alarming consequences to users' health as well as for the whole society.

  1. Dependência de álcool, cocaína e crack e transtornos psiquiátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Scheffer

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou verificar a frequência de transtornos psiquiátricos em dois grupos de dependentes químicos, cocaína/crack e álcool/cocaína/crack, por meio do Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I Plus. Foram entrevistados 32 indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idade média de 27,65 (DP=7,38 anos. A maioria tinha Ensino Fundamental incompleto (34,37%, era solteira (81,25% e relatou história familiar de consumo de álcool (76,5% - grupo cocaína/crack; 53,3% - grupo álcool/cocaína/crack. O período médio de abstinência era de 33,05 (DP=19,52 dias. Os resultados mostraram uma frequência maior de Transtorno do Humor nos dois grupos. Embora a diferença não tenha sido estatisticamente significativa, os dependentes de álcool/cocaína/crack apresentaram, adicionalmente, alta frequência de Transtorno de Personalidade, sugerindo a necessidade de tratamento diferencial para essa população.

  2. "We'll turn your water into Coca-Cola"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Rosanne; Köhne, Michiel; Roth, Dik

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses land control strategies and practices for development of large-scale oil palm plantations in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. In oil palm and "land grab" literature, much attention is paid to potential contributions of free, prior, and informed consent procedures. However, this

  3. Marit Kroon: just for fun pole mõtet Coca-Colas töötada / Marit Kroon ; intervjueerinud Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kroon, Marit

    2010-01-01

    Coca-Cola Eesti esinduses kogu Baltikumi turunduse eest vastutav Marit Kroon vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Coca-Colasse tööle saamist, esimesi tööülesandeid, töötamist ülemustest eemal, enese motiveerimist, enesekehtestamist ning valmisolekut kodust eemal töötamiseks

  4. O uso da folha de coca em comunidades tradicionais: perspectivas em saúde, sociedade e cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Farias Barreto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aborda as questões socioculturais que envolvem o uso da folha de coca nas regiões andina e amazônica. O estudo é de natureza teórica, sendo privilegiados artigos científicos e entrevistas com profissionais conceituados em revistas e jornais. Os resultados da pesquisa sugerem que a associação indiscriminada da coca à cocaína e, consequentemente, ao narcotráfico, parte de um preconceito construído historicamente que se sobrepõe às raízes históricas e culturais do uso milenar da planta. Cabe à psicologia, como ciência, romper o silêncio frente às questões indígenas e compreender a dinâmica dos processos socioculturais desses povos para se fazer atuar em espaços que exigem tratamentos diferenciados.

  5. Dependencia a ketamina y cocaína: Reporte de un caso.

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, James; Salinas, Joel; Ordóñez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de un paciente varón de 21 años de edad, quien tiene una historia de consumo de sustanciaspsicoactivas, con criterios de dependencia a cocaína y ketamina, además de probables desórdenes psiquiátricosrelacionados. La ketamina es un anestésico considerado dentro de las drogas de club, produce un cuadro de dependenciasevero y su uso se ha incrementado en los últimos años. (Rev Neuropsiquiatr 2010;73:62-65).

  6. Oesophageal food impaction in achalasia treated with Coca-Cola and nifedipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumi, Andriani; Panos, Marios Zenon

    2010-01-01

    Achalasia is characterised by the loss of peristaltic movement in the distal oesophagus and failure of the lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, which results in impaired oesophageal emptying. We report a case of a 92-year-old frail woman with a history of achalasia, who presented with acute oesophageal obstruction due to impaction of a large amount of food material. She was treated successfully with nifedipine, in combination with Coca-Cola (original product, not sugar free), so avoiding the risks associated with repeated endoscopic intubation and piecemeal removal of the oesophageal content.

  7. Bezoar in a Pediatric Oncology Patient Treated with Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naramore, Sara; Virojanapa, Amy; Bell, Moshe; Jhaveri, Punit N

    2015-01-01

    A bezoar is a mass of indigestible material. Bezoars can present with a gradual onset of non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. However, bezoars can result in more serious conditions such as intestinal bleeding or obstruction. Without quick recognition, particularly in susceptible individuals, the diagnosis and treatment can be delayed. Currently resolution is achieved with enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic fragmentation or surgery. We describe, to our knowledge, the first pediatric patient with lymphoma to have had a bezoar treated with Coca-Cola.

  8. The influence of "Coca-Cola" company over the quality of the environment of Zemun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry can be a significant source of environmental pollution, which depends on the type of food industry. In the industrial area “Gornji Zemun” there are at least ten larger factories. Among these Coca-Cola HBC Serbia, as a representative of the industry of non-alcoholic beverages, is the most active and has the biggest influence on the environment. The success in business is based on the sustainable development and the lesser influence over the environment, which will be proven by this article.

  9. Bezoar in a Pediatric Oncology Patient Treated with Coca-Cola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Naramore

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A bezoar is a mass of indigestible material. Bezoars can present with a gradual onset of non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. However, bezoars can result in more serious conditions such as intestinal bleeding or obstruction. Without quick recognition, particularly in susceptible individuals, the diagnosis and treatment can be delayed. Currently resolution is achieved with enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic fragmentation or surgery. We describe, to our knowledge, the first pediatric patient with lymphoma to have had a bezoar treated with Coca-Cola.

  10. Persimmon bezoar successfully treated by oral intake of Coca-Cola: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Naitoh, Itaru; Okumura, Fumihiro; Andoh, Tomoaki; Itoh, Takafumi; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Joh, Takashi

    2008-12-11

    An 82-year-old male presented with a chief complaint of upper abdominal pain. Subsequently, a bezoar and a gastric ulcer were detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The bezoar was dark green in color and extremely hard, having a major axis of 7 cm. After hospitalization, 500-1000 ml/day of Coca-Cola was orally administered continuously for 3 weeks. Thereafter, the bezoar decreased in size to a major axis of 4 cm and showed a softening trend. Therefore, lithotripsy was thereafter carried out under endoscopy using forceps.

  11. Corporate Brand Value Shifting from Identity to Innovation Capability: from Coca-Cola to Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray R. Gehani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate brand value, a key corporate asset, has traditionally relied on stakeholder interactions, heritage, and corporate identity. In dynamic fast clock-speed industries (information technology and consumer electronics, we note that brand values change dramatically within a few years based on their innovativeness. Using grounded theory approach and multi-case study method we examine how Apple, Samsung, Toyota, and Coca-Cola sustained their most valuable global brands while Kodak and General Motors eroded the same. Certain key dynamic innovative capabilities are identified as best practices. We conclude with implications for managers and future researchers, along with some limitations.

  12. La foglia di coca nella Bolivia di Evo Morales Ayma, fra tradizione e lotta al narcotraffico

    OpenAIRE

    Marzia Rosti

    2016-01-01

    L’articolo si propone di illustrare i risultati della nuova politica in materia di coltivazione di piante di coca promossa a livello nazionale e internazionale da Evo Morales, presidente della Bolivia dal 2006, che ha distinto l’uso della pianta e delle sue foglie, da una parte, per scopi legali nel rispetto delle tradizioni e della cultura nazionale e dunque da valorizzare e proteggere e, dall’altra parte, per scopi illegali/illeciti e quindi da proibire e punire. Parole chiave: piante d...

  13. Relationship of Coca-Cola Brazil and the communities participant of the social projects: (im) possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Vanessa Sobreira Casali

    2014-01-01

    Five years ago, Coca-Cola Brasil launched a program named “Coletivo Project”, with the purpose to enjoy an opportunity of increase on the potential consumption power of the low-income pyramid population that lived on the “favelas”. At the same time, it had the objective to offer to them a social and financial impact, which is a trust on the future, the first job for the young adults’ participant of this program and an increase on their family source of revenues, through salaries. This was...

  14. Caracterización patrimonial de las bodegas subterráneas de Moraleja de Coca

    OpenAIRE

    Llorente Pérez, Inés

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio e interpretación del conjunto de bodegas subterráneas de Moraleja de Coca, Segovia, desde un punto de vista constructivo y sobre todo cultural, como parte del patrimonio vernáculo de esta localidad. Para ello se han analizado y estudiado 11 de las 18 bodegas que encontramos en el denominado Cerro de las Bodegas. las 7 restantes, a las que no se ha podido acceder, se han interpretado en base a las semejanzas con las analizadas y a los testimonios reco...

  15. Differential effects of dopamine and opioid receptor blockade on motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior and associated changes in brain, skin and muscle temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, E A

    2010-05-05

    Although pharmacological blockade of both dopamine (DA) and opiate receptors has an inhibiting effect on appetitive motivated behaviors, it is still unclear which physiological mechanisms affected by these treatments underlie the behavioral deficit. To clarify this issue, we examined how pharmacological blockade of either DA (SCH23390+eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg each) or opioid receptors (naloxone 1 mg/kg) affects motor activity and temperature fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin associated with motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior in rats. In drug-free conditions, presentation of a cup containing 5 ml of Coca-Cola induced locomotor activation and rapid NAcc temperature increases, which both transiently decreased during drinking, and phasically increased again after the cup was emptied. Muscle temperatures followed this pattern, but increases were weaker and more delayed than those in the NAcc. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, remained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during post-consumption behavioral activation. By itself, DA receptor blockade induced robust decrease in spontaneous locomotion, moderate increases in brain and muscle temperatures, and a relative increase in skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic activation coupled with adynamia. Following this treatment (approximately 180 min), motor activation to cup presentation and Coca-Cola consumption were absent, but rats showed NAcc and muscle temperature increases following cup presentation comparable to control. Therefore, DA receptor blockade does not affect significantly central and peripheral autonomic responses to appetitive stimuli, but eliminates their behavior-activating effects, thus disrupting appetitive behavior and blocking consumption. Naloxone alone slightly decreased brain and muscle temperatures and increased skin temperatures, pointing at the enhanced heat loss and possible minor inhibition of basal

  16. We are Originarios …"we just aren't from here": coca leaf and identity politics in the Chapare, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffi, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the ways in which coca leaf acquired an important symbolic value in forging a counter-hegemonic discourse that wove together various strands of class and cultural identity struggles in the Chapare province, Bolivia. The second line of enquiry that runs through this article deals with the conflicts that arose when the coca union mutated into a governing political party. Now that the coca growers' leader, Evo Morales, is President of the Republic he is obliged by the international community to reduce the amount of land under coca cultivation. To do this President Morales has had to rhetorically pull coca leaf apart from Andean tradition. This presents a challenge to the integrity of indigenous-peasant based movements in the Chapare because it brings attention to their constructed nature and thus questions the authenticity of the originario identity.

  17. The good, the bad, the Jolly: Taste, image, and the symbolic resistance to the Coca-colonization of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Csaba, Fabian F.

    1999-01-01

    This inquiry examines the efforts of Denmark's once favoured national cola, Jolly Cola, to resist the advancement of Coca-cola and, to a lesser degree, Pepsi. In moving our looking glass to the struggles of this obscure Danish product, we seek to move the debate on globalization, consumption...... and culture home to our own back yard. From there we offer a refreshing story, drawing on our local narrative tradition and woven together with advertising imagery, about the symbolic resistance to the Coca-colonization....

  18. Depresión en jóvenes usuarios regulares de cocaína reclutados en la comunidad

    OpenAIRE

    Chahua, Marcela; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Brugal, María Teresa; de la Fuente, Luis; Bravo, María José

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar el perfil, la prevalencia de depresión y factores asociados en usuarios regulares de cocaína captados en la comunidad. Método: Estudio transversal de 630 usuarios regulares de cocaína que no consumían heroína. La depresión, el apoyo social y la dependencia se evaluaron con los instrumentos Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Duke-Functional Social Support Questionnaire y Severity Dependence Scale, respectivamente. Resultados: La edad media fue de 23 años ...

  19. Living on the Coke side of thirst: The Coca-Cola Company and responsibility for water shortage in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Holzendorff, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Making soft drinks requires fresh water – lots of it, and not only for the bottled content but more for the industrial production process. Water sourcing has become a critical issue for The Coca-Cola Company, the world’s leading beverage manufacturer, particularly for its India subsidiary. Coca-Cola India has come under intense criticism for competing for ground water with agriculture and household use in water-deprived regions. For some ten years, its bottling plants have been accused of ste...

  20. 77 FR 30025 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Stepan Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... registration as an importer of Coca Leaves (9040), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II... basic class of any controlled substance in schedule I or II are, and will continue to be, required to...

  1. Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotion Activities on Brand Loyalty: A Study on COCA COLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is descriptive in nature measuring the effect and relationship in between sales promotion activities and brand loyalty. The study is done on COCA COLA brand in the open market. The research problem observed here as to measure the efficiency of sales promotion and brand loyalty to get the real effectiveness on sales promotion activities. The research objectives formulated are to know the importance of component of sales promotion activities, to know the effect of advertising on sales promotion activities, to realize the importance of brand loyalty on sales promotion activities. A quantitative method was used to accomplish the purpose of the study. A survey instrument developed taking items to measure all variables with five points likert scale. A sample size of 159 (from 210 incorporated in the study having the reliability of 0.851(more than 0.7. The data analyzed using SPSS for descriptive statistics and regression to measure the effect of independent variable on dependent variable. It is recommend that COCA COLA should improve more on its different activities and produce different product and with tasty fast food or build up different production of equipment to expand its business in the whole world’s market .

  2. The Rhetoric of the iconic discourse within the Coca-Cola brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara VLIONCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article, tel que son nom de Rhétorique du discours iconique de la marque Coca-Cola l’annonce, a comme thème la structure de la rhétorique des publicités de la marque Coca-Cola. Ces dernières sont représentées, de manière conventionnelle, par deux annexes auxquelles se réfère cette analyse. Ce que ce débat, à caractère sémio-rhétorique, se propose en particulier, c’est de mettre en évidence les liens qui s’établissent entre l’énoncé iconique des réclames de la marque Coca-Cola et les éléments rhétoriques de celui-ci. Les deux composantes (iconique et rhétorique sont évaluées de la perspective d’un discours public, d’un message de nature promotionnelle qui caractérise le marché libre. Cette approche se propose de démontrer les particularités de la rhétorique iconique qui, par le phénomène de l’argumentation discursive, poursuit l’acceptation d’une idée en vertu de raisons pragmatiques ou d’intérêts actionnels. La présente analyse a comme but l’identification des composantes de l’iconicité rhétorique et de la spécificité de celle-ci. L’article trace en ce sens les contours d’une stratégie analytique peu commune ; son objectif consiste dans la présentation d’une liaison pouvant être faite entre l’image et les valeurs rhétoriquesde celle-ci. Le thème de l’analyse est basé sur une dimension théorique qui renvoie à la manière dont les publicités Coca-Cola donnent naissance à un discours qui peut être étudié à partir de catégories rhétoriques telles : ethos, mythos, pathos etc. La seconde partie de l’article représente une analyse de la narrativité iconique et met en évidence la caractéristique rhétorique des images de la marque soumise à l’étude. Cette recherche se veut une proposition d’ordre sémio-linguistique et rhétorique, une évaluation iconique des signes dans le cadre des publicités en général et des publicités de la marque Coca

  3. Cuando ya no se puede tomar trago ni chacchar coca. When alcohol can no longer be drunk or coca leaves chewed. the case of the “protestants” in the Peruvian central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Magny

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace mucho tiempo el alcohol y la coca ocupan un lugar central en las comunidades andinas. Hasta ahora en el distrito de Churcampa (Huancavelica, Perú, los católicos, mayoritarios, siguen explicando al visitante lo siguiente: “acá no se puede hacer nada sin trago ni coca”. No obstante, durante las ultimas décadas, muchas personas en este distrito – así como en muchos otros distritos de los Andes peruanos – se han convertido y siguen convirtiéndose al “protestantismo” (termino genérico usado por los católicos para referirse en forma general a las Iglesias evangélicas. Esta conversión implica, entre otras cosas, dejar completamente de masticar hojas de coca y de beber cualquier tipo de bebidas alcohólicas. En esta exposición proponemos analizar hasta qué punto y bajo qué modalidades estas restricciones alimenticias afectan a los conversos (quienes siguen siendo minoritarios en el distrito en su vida social cotidiana.Alcohol and coca have played a central role in Andean communities for many centuries. Nowadays, in the district of Churcampa (Huancavelica, Peru, the Catholic people, who are the majority, still explain to visitors that “here you can’t do anything without trago [alcohol] and coca”. Yet, over the past decades, many men and women in this district - as well as in many other districts of the Peruvian Andes - have been converting to “Protestantism” (a generic term used by Catholics to refer to the Evangelical Churches. This conversion implies, among other things, completely giving up chewing of coca leaves and drinking of any type of alcoholic drink. The aim of this article is to analyze to what extent and how these restrictions in the dietary habits affect converted people in their everyday social life.alcohol, coca leaves, religion, conversion, evangelic Churches, Peru

  4. Unique proline-benzoquinone pigment from the colored nectar of "bird's Coca cola tree" functions in bird attractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Yan; Hua, Juan; Niu, Xue-Mei; Jing, Shu-Xi; Zhao, Xu; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2012-08-17

    The major pigment responsible for the dark brown nectar of the "bird's Coca cola tree", Leucosceptrum canum (Labiatae), was isolated and identified as a unique symmetric proline-quinone conjugate, 2,5-di-(N-(-)-prolyl)-para-benzoquinone (DPBQ). Behavioral experiments with both isolated and synthetic authentic samples indicated that DPBQ functions mainly as a color attractant to bird pollinators.

  5. Klaaspudelist loobumine vähendab Coca-Cola brändi eeliseid / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    BRAND sense uuringu kohaselt, milles uuriti pakendi mõju brändilojaalusele, eelistab enam kui 60% Ameerika ja Suurbritannia tarbijaist juua kokakoolat klaaspudelist. Majanduslikel põhjustel on Coca-Cola Company aga viimased kümme aastat tegelenud klaaspudelite poelettidelt ära korjamisega. Diagramm

  6. A system dynamics approach to the study of Colombian coca cultivation and the counter-intuitive consequence of law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, Sebastian; Dyner, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    A large-scale expansion of the Colombian coca cultivation is one of the most revealing signs of a structural change in the illegal cocaine market in the Andean region. From being a modest and domestic production, in the space of five years Colombian coca cultivation supplied a competitive market, capable of substituting almost completely the foreign sources of supply. The purpose of this work is to explore the role and potential of system dynamics (SD) as a modeling methodology to better understand the consequences of drug policy. As a case study, this work tests the hypothesis that the outbreak of Colombian coca cultivations is a consequence of the take down of large cartels, leading to the surge of small drug-trafficking firms called "cartelitos." Using an SD model, and elements from the economic theory of the criminal firm, our work shows how the formation of these small firms might significantly contribute to the configuring of a more competitive domestic coca industry (and hence to a more efficient crime industry). We conclude that SD seems an appropriate dynamic modeling-based approach to address policy issues regarding drug markets. The methodology takes into account the dynamic nature of drug markets and their multi-dimensional responses to policy interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alterações neuropsicológicas em dependentes de cocaína/crack internados: dados preliminares Neuropsychological impairments in crack cocaine-dependent inpatients: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J Cunha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Embora o uso de cocaína seja um problema significativo de saúde pública, há uma relativa escassez de dados científicos sobre as conseqüências neurocognitivas decorrentes da exposição à substância. MÉTODOS: Esse estudo avaliou a associação entre dependência de cocaína e crack e desempenho cognitivo. Uma ampla bateria de testes neuropsicológicos foi aplicada a 15 dependentes de cocaína, em abstinência por duas semanas, em tratamento em regime de internação, e em 15 sujeitos controles, não usuários de drogas, pareados por idade, sexo, escolaridade, nível sócio-econômico, lateralidade e QI. RESULTADOS: Os resultados preliminares mostraram significação estatística (pOBJECTIVE: Although cocaine use is a significant public health problem, there is relative paucity of scientific data on long-term neurocognitive consequences of the exposure to the substance. METHODS: This study examined the association between crack cocaine dependence and neuropsychological performance. An extended battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 15 abstinent cocaine abusers, inpatients in abstinence for two weeks, and 15 non-drug-using control subjects matched for age, gender, education, socio-economic status, handedness and IQ. RESULTS: The preliminary findings showed statistical significance (p<0,05 on differences of performance in attention, verbal fluency, verbal memory, visual memory, learning ability and executive functions. CONCLUSIONS: These results represent evidences that cocaine abuse is associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, similar to cognitive disorders associated to prefrontal and temporal brain impairments. Knowledge of specific cognitive deficits in cocaine abusers may be useful for designing more effective substance abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  8. Estudio in vitro sobre los efectos de la cocaína sobre los tejidos duros del diente In vitro study on the effects of cocaine on the hard tissues of the tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduvigis Solórzano Navarro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de los derivados de la cocaína es un problema de salud pública en continuo crecimiento. Estas drogas son frecuentemente frotadas sobre la mucosa gingival, pero sus efectos son poco conocidos y de difícil diagnóstico. Con este trabajo se pretende demostrar in vitro, que la aplicación por frotación de la cocaína sobre la superficie dentaria produce erosión del esmalte. Se seleccionaron 30 dientes sanos, distribuidos aleatoriamente en 3 grupos, a los cuales se frotó sobre la superficie vestibular clorhidrato de cocaína, basuco y limón (grupo control respectivamente, durante 40 semanas. Las lesiones más características observadas fueron fractura y pérdida de sustancia dura, demostrando así que la aplicación tópica y continua de drogas en cavidad bucal produce lesiones en los tejidos duros del diente.The use of cocaine derivatives is an increasingly growing public health problem. These drugs are frequently rubbed on the gingival mucosa, but their efffects are little known and difficult to be diagnosed. This paper pretends to prove in vitro that the rubbing of cocaine on the dental surface produces enamel erosion. 30 healthy teeth were selected and distributed at random into 3 groups that were rubbed cocaine hydrochloride, bazuko and lemon (control group on the vestibular surface, respectively, during 40 weeks. The most observed characteristic lesions were fracture and loss of the dental hard substance, which showed that the topical and continual application of drugs on the oral cavity causes lesions in the hard tissues of the tooth.

  9. Arteriopatía periférica crónica inducida por cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pankl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La trombosis periférica aguda inducida por cocaína ha sido descripta en la literatura, siendo una complicación poco común. Si bien existen comunicaciones que reflejan los efectos crónicos de la cocaína sobre el sistema arterial periférico, no hay casos publicados de tal complicación en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 22 años de edad con antecedentes de consumo de cocaína intranasal de 3 gramos por semana durante un año, que consultó por claudicación intermitente a los 200 metros asociada a dolor y parestesias en miembro inferior izquierdo de 2 meses de evolución. El ecodoppler arterial evidenció una estenosis mayor del 70% en la arteria femoral superficial izquierda. Se realizaron estudios complementarios descartando otras etiologías probables. Se inició tratamiento con ácido acetilsalicílico, cilostazol y ejercicio reglado, asociado a terapia de apoyo para mantenimiento del cese del consumo de cocaína, con buena respuesta. Se destaca la importancia de la difusión de información a los pacientes, dado que la mayoría de la población desconoce las complicaciones cardiovasculares de dicha adicción. Es indispensable indagar sobre el consumo de cocaína en pacientes jóvenes con arteriopatía sin factores de riesgo aparentes.

  10. Neuroimagen y neurobiología de la adicción:un estudio sobre los cambios funcionales cerebrales en personas adictas a las cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer Medel, Vanessa; Romero, M. J.; Belloch, Vicente; F. J. Romero; Barrós Loscertales, Alfonso Roberto; López, E; Ávila Rivera, César

    2004-01-01

    Decenes Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 2004-2005) El consumo crónica de cocaína produce una reducción de la dopamina en ciertas áreas cerebrales, provocando una alteración en este sistema. (Volkow y cols., 1999; Wu y cols., 1997). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar mediante Resonancia Magnética Funcional, los efectos que el consumo crónico de cocaína provoca sobre el procesamiento emocional. Los participantes (10 pacientes adictos a la cocaína y 10 p...

  11. Fluorescent nanoparticles present in Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola: physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, biodistribution and digestion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shen; Jiang, Chengkun; Wang, Haitao; Cong, Shuang; Tan, Mingqian

    2018-02-01

    Foodborne nanoparticles (NPs) have drawn great attention due to human health concerns. This study reports the detection of the presence of fluorescent NPs, about 5 nm, in two of the most popular beverages, Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi-Cola (Pepsi). The NPs contain H, C and O, three elements with a tunable emission and with a quantum yield of 3.3 and 4.3% for Coke and Pepsi, respectively. The presence of sp 3 -hybridized carbon atoms of alcohols and ethers bonds was confirmed by NMR analysis. The NPs can be taken up by living cells and accumulate within cell membrane and cytoplasm. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of the NPs revealed that the BALB/c mice appeared healthy after administration of a single dose of 2 g kg -1 body weight. Analysis of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), urea and creatinine showed that there were statistically, but not biologically, significant differences in some of these biochemical parameters between the test and control groups. No obvious organ damage or apparent histopathological abnormality was observed in the tested mice. The biodistribution study in major organs indicated that the NPs were easily accumulated in the digestive tract, and they were able to cross the blood-brain barrier and dispersed in the brain. In vitro digestion of the NPs showed a significant fluorescence quenching of the NPs. This work represents the first report of foodborne fluorescent NPs present in Coke and Pepsi, and provides valuable insights into physicochemical properties of these NPs and their toxicity characteristics both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Coca-Cola : stratégie de l’immanence et narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Alen, Fanny

    2017-01-01

    L’essentiel de ce mémoire consiste à se pencher sur les deux stratégies mises en place par la firme The Coca-Cola Company, au travers ses annonces télévisées. Le leader mondial des sodas est devenu une multinationale qui ne cesse d’éblouir ses consommateurs au travers ses spots publicitaires. Comment y parvient-il ? L’objectif de cette recherche a été de parvenir à découvrir la recette magique, non pas du célèbre Coke, mais du mélange entre narration et immanence. Tour à tour, ...

  13. Fluorescent carbon nanodots facilely extracted from Coca Cola for temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feiming; Chen, Qiaoling; Cai, Zhixiong; Lin, Fangyuan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2017-12-01

    A novel method for the fabrication of carbon nanodots (CDs) is introduced: extracting CDs from the well-known soft drink Coca Cola via dialysis. The obtained CDs are of good monodispersity with a narrow size distribution (average diameter of 3.0 nm), good biocompatibility, high solubility (about 180 mg ml-1) and stable fluorescence even at a high salt concentration. Furthermore, they are sensitive to the temperature change with a linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and temperature from 5 °C-95 °C. The CDs have been applied in high stable temperature sensing. This protocol is quite simple, green, cost-effective and technologically simple, which might be used for a range of applications including sensing, catalysts, drug and gene delivery, and so on.

  14. Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca-Cola lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, Spiros D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalabos; Tassios, Pericles; Rokkas, Theodore; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2002-07-01

    Large gastric phytobezoars may occur in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. Treatment options include dissolution with enzymes, endoscopic fragmentation with removal or aspiration, and surgery. We report our experience with nasogastric cola lavage therapy. Over an 8-year period, five consecutive patients were referred to our unit for endoscopic treatment of large gastric phytobezoars. They included one patient with lobectomy for lung cancer and four patients with diabetic gastroparesis. An initial attempt of endoscopic fragmentation and removal was unsuccessful. Patients were treated with 3 l of Coca-Cola nasogastric lavage over 12 h. Nasogastric lavage was very well tolerated by the patients. Complete phytobezoar dissolution was achieved in one session in all cases. There were no procedure-related complications. The dissolution of large gastric phytobezoars with cola nasogastric lavage is a safe, rapid and effective method. Patients may be treated in the medical ward, avoiding therapeutic endoscopy or surgery.

  15. Treatment of gastric phytobezoars with Coca-Cola® given via oral route: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğrul, Gökhan; Coşkun, Murat; Sevinç, Mahsuni; Ertuğrul, Fisun; Toydemir, Toygar

    2012-01-01

    Background A 43-year-old female patient presented with a chief complaint of upper abdominal pain. As her complaints had lasted for 1 month, an upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy was performed and discovered a bezoar in the stomach. Case presentation The bezoar was quite hard and light green-yellow in color. Pathological examination revealed phytobezoar. The patient was hospitalized and given oral Coca-Cola® Zero for seven days at a dose of 500 mL three times daily. Conclusion The upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy performed at the end of 7 days showed that the phytobezoar had softened and become smaller. The phytobezoar was broken into pieces with biopsy forceps and washing was applied, so the phytobezoar pieces could pass through the pylorus. The patient was discharged after the procedure without problem. PMID:22393302

  16. Treatment of gastric phytobezoars with Coca-Cola given via oral route: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğrul, Gökhan; Coşkun, Murat; Sevinç, Mahsuni; Ertuğrul, Fisun; Toydemir, Toygar

    2012-01-01

    A 43-year-old female patient presented with a chief complaint of upper abdominal pain. As her complaints had lasted for 1 month, an upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy was performed and discovered a bezoar in the stomach. The bezoar was quite hard and light green-yellow in color. Pathological examination revealed phytobezoar. The patient was hospitalized and given oral Coca-Cola(®) Zero for seven days at a dose of 500 mL three times daily. The upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy performed at the end of 7 days showed that the phytobezoar had softened and become smaller. The phytobezoar was broken into pieces with biopsy forceps and washing was applied, so the phytobezoar pieces could pass through the pylorus. The patient was discharged after the procedure without problem.

  17. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  18. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  19. DESDE AMBROSETTI HASTA RABEY, SOBRE LA COCA Y EL COQUEO EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Igaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La hoja de coca, apreciada entre los pueblos indígenas desde sus primeros contactos y difundida por ellos hacia otros lugares durante milenios, entró a los complejos procesos conflictivos -tanto interculturales como internacionales- de estigmatización y marginalización desde el período colonial hasta el día de hoy. Argentina se encuentra dentro de estos procesos pues la coca es comúnmente usada en áreas andinas del norte del país. Este trabajo presenta a dos científicos sociales argentinos -Juan Bautista Ambrosetti y Mario Rabey- de dos épocas que no solamente separan por casi cien años la publicación de sus estudios sobre los usos de la hoja sino también otorgan diferentes significados en el objeto y objetivo del estudio. Mientras Ambrosetti representa y legitima con su lenguaje la hegemonía que estigmatiza la práctica cultural no europea, como lo son dichos usos, Rabey los reivindica como parte de la diversidad cultural entendida como diferencia cultural discriminada, con una postura crítica a la hegemonía idiosincrásica nacional. A través de la comparación entre ellos, este trabajo relata el cambio en la mirada antropológica y su posición como producto de un complejo desenvolvimiento de relaciones entre dicha diferencia y su significado en la ciencia y política.

  20. Komunikační strategie nové plastové láhve společnosti Coca-Cola.

    OpenAIRE

    Němcová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    The thesis relates to theorethical principles of marketing and commercial communications. The application part of the thesis relates to a concept of communication strategy of The Coca-Cola Company's new plastic bottle

  1. Quand on ne peut plus boire d’alcool ni mâcher de feuilles de coca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Magny

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcool et feuilles de coca occupent une place centrale dans les communautés andines depuis plusieurs siècles. Aujourd’hui, dans le district de Churcampa (Huancavelica, Pérou, les catholiques, majoritaires, continuent à expliquer au visiteur « qu’ici on ne peut rien faire sans trago [alcool] ni coca ». Au cours des dernières décennies, nombre d’hommes et de femmes du district - comme dans bon nombre d’autres districts des Andes péruviennes - se sont toutefois convertis au « protestantisme » (terme générique utilisé par les catholiques pour faire référence aux Églises évangéliques en général. Entre autres choses, cette conversion implique de cesser de mâcher des feuilles de coca et de boire des boissons alcoolisées. Je propose ici d’analyser jusqu’à quel point et selon quelles modalités ces restrictions alimentaires affectent les convertis dans leur vie sociale quotidienne.When alcohol can no longer be drunk or coca leaves chewed. The case of the “Protestants” in the Peruvian central AndesAlcohol and coca have played a central role in Andean communities for many centuries. Nowadays, in the district of Churcampa (Huancavelica, Peru, the Catholic people, who are the majority, still explain to visitors that “here you can’t do anything without trago [alcohol] and coca”. Yet, over the past decades, many men and women in this district - as well as in many other districts of the Peruvian Andes - have been converting to “Protestantism” (a generic term used by Catholics to refer to the Evangelical Churches. This conversion implies, among other things, to give up completely chewing of coca leaves and drinking of any type of alcoholic drink. The aim of this article is to analyse to what extent and how these restrictions in the dietary habits affect converted people in their everyday social life.

  2. Brain injury markers (S100B and NSE in chronic cocaine dependents Marcadores de lesão cerebral (S100B e NSE em dependentes crônicos de cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Henrique Paim Kessler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown signs of brain damage caused by different mechanisms in cocaine users. The serum neuron specific enolase and S100B protein are considered specific biochemical markers of neuronal and glial cell injury. This study aimed at comparing blood levels of S100B and NSE in chronic cocaine users and in volunteers who did not use cocaine or other illicit drugs. METHOD: Twenty subjects dependent on cocaine but not on alcohol or marijuana, and 20 non-substance using controls were recruited. Subjects were selected by consecutive and non-probabilistic sampling. Neuron specific enolase and S100B levels were determined by luminescence assay. RESULTS: Cocaine users had significantly higher scores than controls in all psychiatric dimensions of the SCL-90 and had cognitive deficits in the subtest cubes of WAIS and the word span. Mean serum S100B level was 0.09 ± 0.04 µg/l among cocaine users and 0.08 ± 0.04 µg/l among controls. Mean serum neuron specific enolase level was 9.7 ± 3.5 ng/l among cocaine users and 8.3 ± 2.6 ng/l among controls. CONCLUSIONS: In this first study using these specific brain damage markers in cocaine users, serum levels of S100B and neuron specific enolase were not statistically different between cocaine dependent subjects and controls.OBJETIVO: Estudos têm demonstrado sinais de lesão cerebral causadas por diferentes mecanismos em usuários de cocaína. A enolase sérica neurônio-específica e a proteína S100B são consideradas marcadores bioquímicos específicos de lesão neuronal e glial. Este estudo objetivou comparar os níveis sangüíneos de S100B e enolase sérica neurônio-específica em usuários crônicos de cocaína e em voluntários que não usam cocaína ou outras drogas ilícitas. MÉTODO: Vinte sujeitos dependentes de cocaína, mas não dependentes de álcool, maconha ou outra droga, e 20 sujeitos controles não usuários de drogas foram recrutados. Os sujeitos foram selecionados por

  3. Podnikatelské strategie pro čínský trh - příklad společnosti Coca-Cola, HBC

    OpenAIRE

    Kyselová, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the business strategy in the Chinese market, which is introduced a concrete example of the business strategy of Coca-Cola. According the breadth of the topic there is not included the overall business strategy of mentioned company, but corporate social responsibility, which is the third pillar of the strategy. The aim is to compare by values of social responsibility and setting the Coca-Cola's current situation on the Chinese market and local governments attitude to the...

  4. Asociación de otras drogas de abuso en la intoxicación por cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    JL Echarte Pazos; A Supervía Caparrós; C Clemente Rodríguez; ML Iglesias Lepine; N León Bertrán; V Labordeta de la Cal; I Puente Palacios; G Maldonado Duran; E Skaf Peters; A Aguirre Tejedo

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido llevar a cabo un análisis de las urgencias atendidas en un hospital urbano de tercer nivel que se han relacionado con el consumo de cocaína. Para ello se ha realizado un estudio retrospectivo, con exclusión del área de pediatría y ginecología, durante los años 2005 y 2006. Se revisaron todas las asistencias clínicas que consultaron por intoxicación por cocaína. Los datos fueron analizados con el paquete estadístico SPSS 15.0 para windows. Durante el pe...

  5. Aneurisma coronario en un paciente con síndrome coronario agudo secundario a cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gómez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia actual del consumo de cocaína hace necesario conocer las complicaciones cardiovasculares derivadas de su uso, como lo es el síndrome coronario agudo, condición que se presenta en personas jóvenes que consultan a los servicios de Urgencias con dolor torácico y alteraciones electrocardiográficas. El consumo de esta sustancia se asocia con aterosclerosis acelerada, vasoconstricción de arterias coronarias, vasoespasmo, arritmias, miocardiopatía, endocarditis, disección y ruptura aórtica, y muerte cardiaca súbita. Aunque la incidencia de aneurismas de arterias coronarias es extremadamente baja en la población general, existe una asociación con el consumo de cocaína que debe ser considerada en estos pacientes.

  6. Antipsicóticos na abordagem terapêutica da dependência em cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, João Galhardo Castilho Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz A dependência em qualquer substância de abuso é uma doença biológica com consequências graves para o ser humano. No caso da cocaína, o consuma desta continua a ser um grave problema de saúde pública, sendo que em 2012 foi estimado um valor entre 14 a 21 milhões de consumidores por todo o mundo. A apresentação desta droga ao público revela-se maioritariamente em dois tipos, cloreto de cocaína (...

  7. Sangue e Coca-Cola: a carnavalização e a literatura pop de Roberto Drummond

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    Ernest Bowes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo se propõe à reflexão sobre as obras de Roberto Drummond, mais especificamente Sangue de Coca-Cola – romance que integra o ciclo Coca-Cola do autor. A pesquisa se propõe a demonstrar que a arte pop não é estática e que se materializa através da interação com outras linguagens e com a cultura. Assim, o trânsito entre distintos campos discursivos como a Filosofia, Sociologia e a Teoria da Literatura apresentou-se, então, como a estratégia mais apropriada para discutir a questão.

  8. Impact of emotional stability and attitude on consumption decisions under risk: the Coca-Cola crisis in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Kenhove, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on consumer reactions during and after the Coca-Cola crisis of June 1999 in Belgium. The research tests for associations between the personality trait "emotional stability," attitude toward the brand, and self-reported behavior. Cross-sectional data are collected from a sample of Coca-Cola drinkers between 19 and 22 years old. The data are analyzed through the specification and estimation of a structural equation model and ANOVA. A direct and positive effect of attitude toward the brand on the behavioral response is found. No direct effect of emotional stability on behavior is revealed. However, indirect effects of personality mediated by attitude are discovered. Further, emotional stability is found to correlate negatively with importance attached to information during the crisis. Fast and transparent communication with specific attention to lower emotional stability groups, as well as the inclusion of personality and attitude measurements in future health and food safety studies, are recommended.

  9. Los efectos globo en los cultivos de coca en la Región Andina (1990-2009

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    Leonardo Raffo López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es poner a prueba estadísticamente la presencia de efectos globo en los cultivos de coca en el territorio geográfico correspondiente a los principales países productores en la región andina (Colombia, Perú y Bolivia durante el periodo 1990-2009. La metodología empírica se centra en la especificación y estimación de un modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas utilizando el método SUR, el cual permite explicar el comportamiento de las hectáreas cultivadas con coca en función de un conjunto de determinantes. Se concluye que hay evidencia empírica a favor de la presencia de efectos globo en la región andina a lo largo del periodo estudiado.

  10. »Über-coca«, »Über-sex«, »Über-ništavilo«

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbančić, Mario

    2015-01-01

    »Über-Coca«, »Über-Sex« i »Über-Ništavilo« metafore su određenih agregatnih stanja: »Über-Coca« odnosi se ne Freudove eksperimente s kokainom, otvorenu mogućnost da se sami začeci pa tako i cijela psihoanaliza farmakologizira; »Über-Sex« neprestana je težnja ne samo da se seksualnost kontrolira, regulira, nego, štoviše, koristi u samoj proizvodnji, kao svojevrsni motor proizvodnih snaga; »Über-Ništavilo« odnosi se na same granične situacije proizvedene u toj kontroli, na ontološke neizvjesnos...

  11. Obstructive Bezoars of the Small Bowel Treated with Coca-Cola Zero through a Long Intestinal Tube and Endoscopic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kei; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Takikawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-15

    An 82-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with abdominal fullness accompanied by lower abdominal pain. He presented with small bowel obstruction due to multiple diospyrobezoars. The bezoars were successfully removed without any surgical intervention by the administration of Coca-Cola Zero through a long intestinal tube and subsequent endoscopic manipulation. Such a combination may be the treatment of choice for small bowel obstruction due to bezoars.

  12. Pharmacological and Sociocultural factors of the Consumption of the Coca Leaf by the Kogui Natives in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano, Katiuska Vera; Vaca, Guillermo Helí Manrique

    2002-01-01

    The investigation compares pharmacological and sociocultural factors of the consumption of the coca leaf by the Kogui natives of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia. The pharmacological and sociocultural aspects of the consumption of cocaine in urban environments are also related with the concepts of tolerance and dependence to psychoactive substances. The results contribute to the development and design of programs of prevention, treatment and reduction of risk and damage in drug ad...

  13. Spatial dimensions of land administration and user rights over groundwater: Case study of Kerala, India vs. Coca Cola

    OpenAIRE

    Ghawana, T.; Hespanha, J.P.; Zevenbergen, J. A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Supporting the management of rights related to groundwater based on input from hydrogeology software is contributing to bridging the gap between the technical and administrative aspects of groundwater management. The research reported herein is focused on a specific example (or ‘use case’ in UML terminology), resulting from a court action by Kerala State in India, against the Coca-Cola company, on the overexploitation of the local groundwater aquifer. The use case reports on the economic and ...

  14. [Influence of Coca-Cola on early erosion and surface microhardness of human enamel: an in situ study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M; Zhang, Q; Gao, X J

    2016-06-01

    Assessed the effect of single dose attack of Coca-Cola on early erosion and surface microhardness of permanent human enamel, in order to provide diet instructions on minimum amount and frequency of carbonated beverage consumption. Eighty enamel slabs were prepared out of 10 extracted human mandibular third molars, and distributed into 8 groups with randomized block design(n=10). Ten generally healthy volunteers with normal saliva secretion wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 2 enamel slabs, with formation of a salivary pellicle 2 h ahead. The volunteers were instructed to drink 100 ml fresh Coca-Cola within 20 s. And then the alterations of the enamel slabs were measured using a Vicker's microhardness tester at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20 and 30 min after the consumption of Coca-Cola. For each volunteer, the experiment was carried out in four days, 2 samples were examined each time. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests(α =0.05). Significant decreases in surface microhardness(SMH)were observed in each time point(PCoca-Cola could lead to significant decrease of enamel microhardness and initiate erosion of enamel surface. Enamel surface microhardness decreased to the lowest points at 2-8 min, and began to recover after 10 min. The enamel surface microhardness could not fully recovered to the baseline level in 30 min if no intervention was performed.

  15. THE MEDDLING OF THE LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS WHIT THE LEXICAL FIELDS OF THE COCA-COLA BRAND SLOGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara VLIONCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet etude a été celui de presenter quelques aspects qui visent la liaison qui peut se faire entre les fonctions de la langue telles comme ells sont théorisées par le linguiste Roman Kakobson et les champs lexicaux des slogans de la marquee « Coca-Cola » qui peut être circonscrite à une structure théorique qui appartient à l’acte communicationnel. Les champs lexicaux d’un objet notionnel, respectivement le boisson gazéifié « Coca-Cola », et une structure théorique spécifique à un acte communicationnel base sur le langage. Pour chaque des fonctions du language, telles comme elles ont été théorisées par le linguiste Roman Jakobson, ont été trouvées des correspondances des champs lexicaux, appartenant aux slogans de la marque « Coca-Cola » . Ces champs lexicaux ont été considérablement étendus par des exemples prépondérente de la sphère verbale.

  16. Projekt managementu a marketingu sportovní akce na příkladu Coca-cola školského poháru na léta 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Jeřábek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    - Title: Project of management and marketing of event Coca-cola School Cup in time period 2009-2011 Work goal: Methods: Annotation: Results: Keywords: Analysis ofmarketing and management of event Coca-cola School Cup and advices of innovation for this event. Descriptive analysis, Interview with experts, SWOT analysis. The project Coca-Cola School Cup for the years 2009- 2011 involves innovation approaches in particular manager activities of this sport event. The innovation approaches result f...

  17. Por trás de uma tampinha de Coca-Cola um mundo de coisas boas!: propaganda no Brasil (1950-1960 = Behind a cover of Coca-Cola a world of good things!: propaganda in Brazil (1950-1960

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    Bammann, Kellen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como fonte de pesquisa os anúncios de Coca-Cola veiculados nas revistas brasileiras O Cruzeiro e Manchete entre 1950 e 1960. O ensaio procura demonstrar de que forma as campanhas publicitárias de Coca-Cola veiculadas nos dois magazines procuraram se adequar aos discursos de valorização da industrialização brasileira. Com o objetivo de evidenciar o auxílio da Coca-Cola no processo industrialização e desenvolvimento do Brasil

  18. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  19. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por folhas e frutos de Erythroxylum deciduum (cocão em ovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina

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    V. Borelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se uma enfermidade em ovinos de ocorrência sazonal, caracterizada por manifestações nervosas e morte rápida, nos municípios de Rancho Queimado e Ponte Alta do Sul, no estado de Santa Catarina. A doença foi reproduzida experimentalmente em ovinos com a administração de folhas de Erythroxylum deciduum coletados durante o verão, com doses letais a partir de 10g/kg de peso vivo. Em um único experimento com os frutos a dose de 15g/kg foi letal. O início da manifestação dos sinais clínicos, ocorreu entre 0 e 2 horas após a administração das folhas ou dos frutos e a evolução da doença foi de 10 minutos a 18 horas. Doses de até 20g/kg de folhas coletadas no período de inverno, produziram alterações clínicas discretas em dois ovinos. Os sinais clínicos foram depressão, sonolência e, quando os animais eram movimentados, incoordenação motora, desequilíbrio, quedas, dificuldade para se levantar e estação com os membros abertos. Também foi observado: salivação intensa, regurgitação, bruxismo, aumento das frequências cardíaca e respiratória. Os sinais clínicos se agravavam quando os animais eram movimentados e geralmente resultavam em morte. Os animais que morreram pelas intoxicações espontânea e experimental, não tinham alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas significativas. O corte das árvores de E. deciduum faz com que o tronco rebrote, favorecendo a ingestão da planta pelos ovinos. Este fato e a disponibilidade de frutos maduros que caem ao chão podem ser responsabilizados pela doença de ovinos com sinais nervosos e ausência de lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas, que ocorrem nos meses de verão, no Estado de Santa Catarina.

  20. La decisión de los agricultores del área tropical de Cochabamba (Bolivia de cultivar coca en lugar de los productos alternativos recomendados por el Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Barrientos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la prohibición estatal del cultivo de coca desde 1973 y de la reducción rápida de las plantaciones de coca hasta 2002, este arbusto todavía se cultiva en las zonas tropicales de Cochabamba (Bolivia. Tanto aspectos técnicos como económicos, son responsables de que muchos agricultores se decidan por el cultivo de la coca y no por el de cultivos alternativos. Técnicamente, el cultivo de la coca es más adaptable y menos exigente, en comparación con los cinco cultivos alternativos analizados en esta investigación: piña, banano, maracuyá, palmito y pimienta; que requieren mayores insumos o mayor capital, así como más experiencia y habilidades técnicas de parte de los productores. Desde el punto de vista económico, la demanda de hojas de la coca, contrariamente a la de los cultivos alternativos, excede a la oferta, por lo que los precios de la coca tienden a subir. El cultivo de coca es, en este sentido, más ventajoso, porque les deja a los agricultores mayores ingresos que aquéllos que reciben de los cultivos alternativos. La comercialización de las hojas de la coca, así como su transporte, es relativamente fácil, principalmente por la escasa exigencia de calidad por parte de los compradores. La posibilidad de venta rápida -y, en cierta medida, garantizada- de las hojas de coca favorece claramente su cultivo, comparada con la de los productos alternativos. Sin embargo, muchas de las ventajas mencionadas del cultivo de coca, respecto a las de los cultivos alternativos, se ven desfavorecidas por la prohibición y el combate a los cultivos de coca por parte del estado.

  1. Detección ecocardiográfica de alteraciones valvulares cardíacas en pacientes adictos a cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gullone

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La drogadicción endovenosa es un factor predisponente para el desarrollo de endocarditis infecciosa y la cocaína, en especial la administrada por vía endovenosa, puede producir daño a nivel del endotelio valvular que favorecería el desarrollo de la misma. Estudiamos un grupo de adictos a la cocaína para evaluar la posible existencia de alteraciones valvulares. Se estudiaron, con ecocardiografía y Doppler, a 98 pacientes adictos a la cocaína, por vía endovenosa y/o inhalatoria y se comparó con un grupo de 50 personas no drogadictas. Se definieron las lesiones valvulares como engrosamiento valvular y lesiones del tipo "arrosariado". La edad promedio de los drogadictos fue de 29.1 años (DS 8.31 con un máximo de 66 y mínimo de 14 años; 93 eran de sexo masculino y 45 admitieron adicción endovenosa. Veinte casos tuvieron serología positiva para virus HIV, de los cuales todos excepto uno, reconocieron utilizar la vía endovenosa. El grupo control tuvo una edad promedio de 26.78 años (DS 3.49 y 96% eran de sexo masculino. No hubo diferencias significativas en edad ni sexo entre los dos grupos. El 22.45% de los adictos presentaron lesiones valvulares mientras que no la presentó ninguno del grupo control (p=0.0007. La incidencia de lesiones fue significativamente mayor en la válvula tricúspide (p=0.0004. No se detectó disfunción valvular en ninguno de los casos estudiados, ni se halló diferencia en la presencia de alteraciones valvulares entre los pacientes con y sin reactividad para infección HIV. La prevalencia de afectación valvular en función de la vía de administración de la droga fue significativamente mayor en los pacientes con adicción endovenosa en relación con la vía inhalatoria, 40% versus 7.5% (p= 0.0001. En el presente estudio hemos observado que un porcentaje de adictos a la cocaína presentaba alteraciones valvulares, siendo la tricúspide la más comprometida y en ningún caso hemos encontrado insuficiencia

  2. ANALISIS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE PADA LINE 8/CARBONATED SOFT DRINK PT COCA-COLA BOTTLING INDONESIA CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto Pujotomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI Central Java merupakan salah satu perusahaan produsen minuman ringan yang terkemuka di Indonesia, dengan dua jenis kelompok produk yang dihasilkan yaitu minuman karbonasi/Carbonated Soft Drink (Coca-Cola, Sprite, dan Fanta dan non-karbonasi (Frestea dan Ades. Dalam usaha untuk mempertahankan mutu dan meningkatkan produktifitas, salah satu faktor yang harus diperhatikan adalah masalah perawatan fasilitas/mesin produksi.  Makalah ini membahas mengenai penyebab dan akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh breakdown mesin terjadi pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink, khususnya pada conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine. Untuk mendapatkan mesin yang dapat terjaga keterandalannya dibutuhkan suatu konsep yang baik. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM merupakan sebuah konsep yang baik untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut. Konsep ini, selain melibatkan semua personil dalam perusahaan, juga bertujuan untuk merawat semua fasilitas produksi yang dimiliki perusahaan.Data yang digunakan merupakan data breakdown conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine dari ME Monthly Report PT.CCBI selama bulan Januari-Desember 2005 khususnya line 8. Selain itu makalah ini juga membahas performance maintenance PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia-Central Java, dengan memperhitungkan nilai Mean Time Beetwen Failure (MTBF, Mean Time To Repair (MTTR, serta Availability mesin, dengan menggunakan data record Line 8 selama bulan Mei 2006 sampai bulan Juli 2006. Sehingga nantinya akan diketahui informasi keadaan aktual dari perusahaan tentang sistem perawatannya, khususnya pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink apakah baik atau buruk. Kata kunci : Total Production Maintenance, Conveyor, Filler Machine, Bottle Washer Machine, Performance Maintenance   PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI-Central Java represent one of notable light beverage producer company in Indonesia, with two product group type yielded is carbonated beverage/Carbonated Soft

  3. Le peuple et la coca. Populisme cocalero et restructuration de l’échiquier politique bolivien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Sommerer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available L’irruption du « Movimiento Al Socialismo » au premier plan de la vie politique bolivienne en juin 2002 est le fruit de la transformation progressive d’un mouvement social passé de la promotion d’intérêts purement sectoriels – la défense des producteurs de coca – à une logique d’expression privilégiée de la volonté populaire : le gain de représentativité du MAS a forcé l'élargissement de ses slogans mobilisateurs. Son leader, l'ancien syndicaliste Evo Morales, se présente comme le détenteur d’une souveraineté qu’il prétend restituer au peuple afin que celui-ci retrouve une parole que lui auraient confisquée les élites qui se partagent le pouvoir depuis la transition démocratique. Ce discours contestataire anti-impérialiste porte en lui la restructuration symbolique d'un échiquier partisan d'où sont exclus les partis traditionnels, rejetés hors du champ légitime de la nation réelle. Ainsi, entre respect de la diversité culturelle bolivienne et défense d'un peuple perçu comme une entité opaque et homogène, le MAS est aujourd'hui à un point d'incertitude entre repli populiste et renouvellement du jeu pluraliste au profit des institutions démocratiques.La irrupción del «Movimiento Al Socialismo» como protagonista de la vida política boliviana en de junio 2002 es el resultado de la transformación progresiva de un movimiento social desde la promoción de intereses puramente sectoriales – la defensa de los productores de coca – hasta una lógica de expresión privilegiada de la voluntad popular: el aumento de representatividad del MAS ha desembocado en la ampliación de sus eslóganes movilizadotes. Su líder, el antes sindicalista Evo Morales, se presenta como el poseedor privilegiado de una soberanía que pretende restituir al pueblo para que éste recobre la palabra que le habrían confiscado las elites que se reparten el poder desde la transición democrática. Este discurso

  4. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola's supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linnander

    Full Text Available Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania's Medical Stores Department (MSD. We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1 identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2 translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3 maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1 leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2 engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3 promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4 engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5 developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6 investing in local relationships, and (7 providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a

  5. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola’s supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Christina T.; Ahmed, Shirin; Cherlin, Emily; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Curry, Leslie A.

    2017-01-01

    Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania’s Medical Stores Department (MSD). We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1) identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2) translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3) maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1) leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2) engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3) promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4) engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5) developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6) investing in local relationships, and (7) providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a

  6. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola's supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnander, Erika; Yuan, Christina T; Ahmed, Shirin; Cherlin, Emily; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Curry, Leslie A

    2017-01-01

    Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania's Medical Stores Department (MSD). We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1) identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2) translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3) maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1) leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2) engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3) promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4) engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5) developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6) investing in local relationships, and (7) providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a partnership

  7. A influência da marca Coca Cola na atratividade e manutenção dos funcionários em uma afiliada no Rio Grande Do Sul

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine da Silva Schröeder

    2014-01-01

    O estudo analisou a influência da marca Coca-Cola na atratividade e manutenção de funcionários em uma empresa afiliada de uma franqueada da The Coca-Cola Company, denominada CVI Refrigerantes Ltda., identificando...

  8. A Hard Landing in the Soft Drink Market â۠MOFCOM’s Veto of the Coca-Cola & Huiyuan Deal

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Deng; Adrian Emch; Gregory Leonard

    2010-01-01

    We will examine several interesting aspects of MOFCOM’s decision o block the proposed takeover by The Coca-Cola Company (“Coca-Cola†) of China Huiyuan Juice Group Limited (“Huiyuan†).

  9. Quantitative capillary electrophoresis and its application in analysis of alkaloids in tea, coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjia; Zhou, Junyi; Gu, Xue; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Chao

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative CE (qCE) system with high precision has been developed, in which a 4-port nano-valve was isolated from the electric field and served as sample injector. The accurate amount of sample was introduced into the CE system with high reproducibility. Based on this system, consecutive injections and separations were performed without voltage interruption. Reproducibilities in terms of RSD lower than 0.8% for retention time and 1.7% for peak area were achieved. The effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in real samples, such as tea leaf, roasted coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

  10. Utilização do agonista dopaminérgico pergolida no tratamento da "fissura" por cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Focchi Guilherme R de Azevedo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O estudo avaliou a eficácia e a segurança terapêutica do agonista dopaminérgico pergolida no tratamento ambulatorial da ''fissura" por cocaína. MÉTODOS: Participaram de estudo controlado simples-cego, com duração de quatro semanas, em tratamento ambulatorial, 42 pacientes do sexo masculino com idade entre 18 e 50 anos, com diagnóstico de dependência de cocaína pelo DSM-IV e primeiro grau completo. Transtornos clínicos e/ou psiquiátricos que necessitassem de internação, uso de medicação psiquiátrica, quadros psicóticos prévios independentes do consumo de cocaína e hipersensibilidade à pergolida foram critérios de exclusão. Os pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: o primeiro recebeu pergolida (0,05-0,2 mg ao dia, e o segundo, placebo (1 a 4 comprimidos ao dia. Os grupos foram comparados quanto à ''fissura'' por cocaína e aos efeitos colaterais das medicações. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os dois grupos em relação à incidência de efeitos colaterais ou ao relato da redução da ''fissura'' por cocaína. CONCLUSÃO: A amostra pequena e o uso de medicação por tempo curto podem ter influído nos resultados. A pergolida se mostrou segura, com poucos efeitos colaterais. A pergolida não se mostrou superior ao placebo no tratamento da "fissura" por cocaína.

  11. Narcotráfico y conflicto: ¿por qué bajó el precio de la cocaína?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Raffo López

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjugando el enfoque de Ortiz con el de Mejía et al. este ensayo propone un nuevo modelo de narcotráfico y conflicto. En un marco de equilibrio general elabora una explicación del descenso del precio de la cocaína en las dos últimas décadas. El modelo muestra que la causa fundamental de esa tendencia es el aumento de la productividad de las actividades ilícitas, que ha contrarrestado los efectos de las políticas de represión de la oferta y el descenso registrado de la superficie de cultivos de coca.

  12. Una nueva acción farmacológica de la cocaína la acción anticonvulsivante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gutiérrez-Noriega

    1945-06-01

    Full Text Available Se han estudiado los efectos de la cocaína sobre el sistema nervioso central en relación a otros neuroestimulantes. Los resultados son los siguientes : 1. La cocaína a dosis subconvulsivantes actúa como antagonista del cardíazol a dosis convulsivante. Se demostró que en los ratones y conejillos disminuye la frecuencia de las convulsiones cardiazólicas y de otras reacciones originadas por la acción estimulante del cardiazol sobre el sistema nervioso central. También se observó que la cocaína disminuye la mortalidad del ratón tratado con dosis tóxicas de cardiazol. 2. En los perros, la cocaína a dosis subconvulsivantes disminuye la duración y la intensidad de las convulsiones producidas por el cardiazol. Se observó principalmente una reducción de la intensidad y duración de las convulsiones tónicas. 3. La cocaina a dosis subconvulsivantes y convulsivantes actúa como antagonista de la estricnina a dosis convulsivantes y letales. Se demostró que en los ratones disminuye la intensidad y frecuencia de las convulsiones correspondientes a dosis convulsivantes y letales máximas (D. C. 100 y D. L. 100 de estricnina. La cocaína también antagoniza el efecto letal de dosis tóxicas de estricnina. 4. En los perros no anestesiados no se observó ni antagonismo ni sinergismo entre cocaína y estricnina, pero en el perro con anestesia por cloralosa se demostró que la cocaína suprime en muchos casos las convulsiones estrícnicas. 5. En el perro curarizado no se observó ni antagonismo ni sinergismo entre los efectos hipertensivos de la cocaína y de otros neuroestimulantes, pero se demostró que la cocaína suprime en muchos casos las reacciones hipertensivas del cardiazol coincidentes con las descargas convulsivas, en el curso del mal epiléptico. También se observó que la cocaína debilita o suprime ciertas reacciones vasculares de origen reflejo en los perros curarizados y estimulados por neuroestimulantes. 6. Se discute el

  13. Vasculite cerebral e uso de cocaína e crack Cerebral vasculitis and cocaine and crack abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Madalena Volpe

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O abuso de cocaína e crack está associado com importante parcela dos acidentes vasculares cerebrais, especialmente em pacientes jovens. O presente estudo relata o caso de um usuário de cocaína e crack que desenvolveu vasculite do sistema nervoso central, resultando em infartos cerebrais e edema extensos, levando à demência com alterações comportamentais e convulsões. Ressalta-se a importância de suspeitar do uso de drogas em jovens que se apresentam com acidente vascular cerebral, assim como avaliar possíveis lesões cerebrais em usuários de drogas com deterioração cognitiva.Cocaine and crack abuse is strongly related to stroke, particularly in young patients. The present study reports the case of a cocaine and crack abuser who developed central nervous system vasculitis, resulting in extensive cerebral infarctions, leading to dementia, behavioural disturbances and seizures. The relevance of detecting drug abuse in young stroke patients is stressed. Assessing possible brain lesions in drug abusers with cognitive impairment is also important.

  14. Dependencia de la cocaína y psicopatología a través del SCL-90-R

    OpenAIRE

    López Durán, Ana; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

    2006-01-01

    Analizar las características psicopatológicas de las personas con dependencia de la cocaína que demandan tratamiento en centros de drogodependencias es un tema relevante, dado el importante incremento de estas demandas en los últimos años. El objetiv

  15. La hoja transfronteriza. El consumo de coca en las faenas mineras salitreras en el Norte Grande de Chile (1900-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian workers have crossed the Andes and participated in the nitrate-mining projects from the beginning of the cycle of expansion of that industry in the 19th century until its definitive ending with the crisis of 1930. Along with the arrival of these workers in the towns and camps of Tarapacá and Antofagasta, came a variety of goods that formed an essential part of their diet, including coca leaves. Although the consumption of this product is associated with high-altitude mining and underground mining, this article studies the importance it had in desert and open-pit mining. It also analyzes the commerce of coca in the local stores known as pulperías, and the opinion of public officials regarding the social and labor impact of this cross-border leaf. A historiographical study was done of press archives and official documents located in Chile and Bolivia, to contrast the hypotheses on the subject, leading to conclude that the consumption of coca was generalized among workers of almost all types in the nitrate-mining industry. With respect to nationalities, the consumption of coca was not limited exclusively to Bolivians, but was common among Peruvian and Chilean workers as well.

  16. Repercussões otorrinolaringológicas do abuso de cocaína e/ou crack em dependentes de drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassif Filho A.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de pacientes viciados em cocaína e/ou crack parece estar aumentando; portanto, o médico deve estar preparado para diagnosticar o uso de drogas. OBJETIVOS. Determinar se existem sinais típicos de uso de cocaína e/ou crack no trato respiratório superior ou na orofaringe em exame otorrinolaringológico comum. Orientar o médico no diagnóstico dos pacientes viciados nessas drogas. MÉTODOS. Foram estudados 18 pacientes viciados em cocaína e/ou crack, que estavam internados em clínica psiquiátrica, através de anamnese e exame otorrinolaringológico simples (rinoscopia anterior e orofaringoscopia. RESULTADOS. Foi impossível estabelecer uma correlação entre o tempo de uso, quantidade e freqüência no uso das drogas quanto aos sintomas e exame otorrinolaringológico. CONCLUSÃO. Devido à inespecíficidade no exame otorrinolaringológico do paciente viciado em cocaína e/ou crack, é necessário que o médico suspeite do abuso de drogas na história clínica; caso contrário, poderá não realizar este importante diagnóstico.

  17. Supply-side harm reduction strategies: Bolivia's experiment with social control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Linda; Kohl, Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    Harm reduction approaches to drug control have almost exclusively focussed on consumers in northern countries. This article supports recent analysis that indicates that such policies also hold relevance for producer countries by drawing on recent policy innovations in Bolivia. When Evo Morales, the president of the national coca grower confederation, was elected the country's first indigenous president in 2005, he promised to fundamentally change 25 years of the U.S.-funded "drug war" that had generated repeated human rights violations. The new policy, which implicitly incorporates harm reduction principles combined with respect for human rights, recognizes coca leaf's traditional use and cultural importance and relies on vigorous local organizations to implement a community-based programme called social control. Results to date indicate that Bolivia's social control experience has reduced violence in coca growing communities, ensured small farmers a subsistence income from coca and increased sovereignty, while making a modest contribution to containing expansion of coca cultivation. The programme has registered 50,000 farmers who are allowed to cultivate limited quantities of coca to supply traditional users and helped them gain secure title to their land. This registration is combined with satellite surveillance to guarantee that farmers do not exceed limits established by law. To date, the programme's reach is incomplete and coca is still diverted to the drug trade. Nonetheless, the approach may offer lessons for other drug producer countries, particularly where strong socio-political organizations are found in combination with closeknit communities holding shared cultural values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A prospective randomized trial on the use of Coca-Cola Zero(®) vs water for polyethylene glycol bowel preparation before colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow-En, I; Seow-Choen, F

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine whether Coca-Cola (Coke) Zero is a safe and effective solvent for polyethylene glycol (PEG). Between December 2013 and April 2014, 209 healthy adults (115 men, 95 women) scheduled for elective colonoscopy were randomized to use either Coke Zero (n = 100) or drinking water (n = 109) with PEG as bowel preparation. Each patient received two sachets of PEG to dissolve in 2 l of solvent, to be completed 6 h before colonoscopy. Serum electrolytes were measured before and after preparation. Bowel cleanliness and colonoscopy findings were recorded. Palatability of solution, adverse effects, time taken to complete and willingness to repeat the preparation were documented via questionnaire. Mean palatability scores in the Coke Zero group were significantly better compared with the control group (2.31 ± 0.61 vs 2.51 ± 0.63, P = 0.019), with a higher proportion willing to use the same preparation again (55% vs 43%). The mean time taken to complete the PEG + Coke Zero solution was significantly faster (74 ± 29 min vs 86 ± 31 min, P = 0.0035). The quality of bowel cleansing was also significantly better in the Coke Zero group (P = 0.0297). There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events (P = 0.759) or the polyp detection rate (32% vs 31.2%). Consumption of either preparation did not significantly affect electrolyte levels or hydration status. Coke Zero is a useful alternative solvent for PEG. It is well tolerated, more palatable, leads to quicker consumption of the bowel preparation and results in better quality cleansing. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. PERANCANGAN MEJA ADJUSTABLE DENGAN MEMPERHATIKAN POSTUR KERJA PEKERJA MANUAL MATERIAL HANDLING (Studi Kasus di PT. Coca – Cola Bottling Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singgih Saptadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PT Coca Cola Bottling Indonesia adalah salah satu perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang minuman ringan baik berupa carbonated soft drink (coca-cola, fanta, sprite maupun non-carbonated soft drink (frestea, ades. Penanganan material pada pabrik ini masih dilakukan secara manual (Manual Material Handling/MMH. Pekerjaan ini dimulai dengan pengangkatan kontainer dari atas conveyor kemudian dipindahkan dan disusun di atas pallet (proses palletizing.Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA adalah salah satu metode yang digunakan untuk menilai postur kerjakaitanya dengan cedera otot akibat bekerja. Pada metode ini juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor coupling, beban eksternal serta aktivitas pekerja yang dialami oleh subjek pengamatan. Implementasi REBA dilakukan pada postur penanganan material khususnya pada pengangkatan krat dan penyusunan krat. Dari hasil penilaian menunjukkan action level didominasi pada level 3 dan level 4, untuk itu perlu dilakukan tindakan perbaikan segera/saat itu juga. Dalam melakukan rekomendasi perbaikan postur penulis melakukan perancangan fasilitas yang disesuaikan dengan data antropometri dan didasarkan pada jenis aktifitasnya serta memberikan usulan fasilitas berupa meja adjustable. Penulis memvisualisasikan hasil rancangan melalui sofware 3DS max, dimana sofware ini juga digunakan sebagai analisis postur pada fasilitas kerja usulan. Kata kunci : Manual Material Handling, REBA, perancangan fasilitas kerja, meja adjustable, 3DS max                Coca Cola Bottling Indonesia is one of the company which move on soft drink areas like carbonated soft drinks (coca-cola, fanta, sprite or non-carbonated soft drinks (frestea,ades. Material handling in this factory is still done manually. This work is started by lifting the container from conveyor  then move it and arrange it above the pallet ( proses palletizing.              Rapid Entire Body Assesment ( REBA is one of the method by which is used to score working

  20. Polimorfismos del gen Butirilcolinesterasa responsables de reacciones adversas en pacientes consumidores de “cocaína”

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada Serrato, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    La butirilcolinesterasa humana (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8) es una enzima polimórfica sintetizada en el hígado y en el tejido adiposo, ampliamente distribuida en el organismo y encargada de hidrolizar algunos ésteres de colina como la procaína, ésteres alifáticos como el ácido acetilsalicílico, fármacos como la metilprednisolona, el mivacurium y la succinilcolina y drogas de uso y/o abuso como la heroína y la cocaína. Es codificada por el gen BCHE (OMIM 177400), habiéndose identificado más de 100 varia...

  1. Brand Sponsorship and Social Media. Coca Cola and Carlsberg Illustrated with an Example of the European Football Championship 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Komańda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Presentation of the issue of brand sponsorship of events in the light of the use of social media for the purposes of brand management in the customer-based brand equity paradigm. Methodology/methods: Two brands (CocaCola and Carlsberg which were the official sponsors of a sports event (EURO 2016 were monitored in social media. For this purpose information gathered by socialmention.com and likemore.pl were used. Presentation of the results of the analysis required the use of descriptive statistics as well as the Wilcoxon test and a network graph. Scientific aim: Determination of the scope and nature of the influence of sponsorship of an international sports event on the way a brand is perceived by social media users based on a selected set of data derived from brand monitoring. Findings: In case of Carlsberg the attitude of social media users did not change during EURO 2016, however, majority of their statements was connected with the issues related to this sports event. In case of Coca Cola, the perception of the brand by its clients changed within the studied period of time, however, the issues related to EURO 2016 were only one of many other issues raised by them. Conclusions: Assessment of the influence of brand sponsorship of an event on social media users’ perception faces the following difficulties: scope of monitoring, its efficiency, choice of data set generated by the monitoring tool for the analysis, level of recognition of brands and brand multi-sponsorship (parallel engagement of the brand in many events.

  2. Análisis de cocaína en diferentes muestras por cromatografía de gases con detector de ionización de llama (CG-FID)

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela M. López C.; William F. Garzón M; Milton Rosero-Moreano; Gonzalo Taborda O.

    2015-01-01

    En este estudio se realizó la validación de los métodos establecidos por la UNODC para la cuantificación y extracción de benzometilecgonina (cocaína) presente en las hojas de Erythhroxylum coca, en té de coca y en clorhidrato de cocaína. El primer método de extracción, recomendado por la UNODC, es una extracción solido-líquido (ESL), sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos indican que esta no es lo suficientemente eficiente para lograr una señal de analito distinguible de la relación señal a ru...

  3. Análisis de cocaína en diferentes muestras por cromatografía de gases con detector de ionización de llama (CG-FID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela M. López C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se realizó la validación de los métodos establecidos por la UNODC para la cuantificación y extracción de benzometilecgonina (cocaína presente en las hojas de Erythhroxylum coca, en té de coca y en clorhidrato de cocaína. El primer método de extracción, recomendado por la UNODC, es una extracción solido-líquido (ESL, sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos indican que esta no es lo suficientemente eficiente para lograr una señal de analito distinguible de la relación señal a ruido (S/N para las muestras de hojas de Erythhroxylum coca y té de coca. El segundo método propuesto es la extracción soxhlet, los resultados indican que esta resulta más eficiente para aislar y cuantificar el analito de interés por cromatografía de gases acoplada a un detector de ionización por llama (CG-FID. Después de someter las muestras al proceso de extracción soxhlet y cuantificación por CG-FID se encontró que la hoja de té posee 7,66×102 mg de cocaína/kg de muestra, las hojas de coca 17,15 mg de cocaína/kg de muestra y el clorhidrato de cocaína 7,15×105 mg de cocaína/kg de muestra. El método de análisis escogido se caracteriza por arrojar bajos límites de detección (0,169 mg/L y por poseer parámetros estadísticos y cromatográficos ideales.

  4. Gastric Outlet Obstruction--An Unexpected Complication during Coca-Cola Therapy for a Gastric Bezoar: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are concretions of undigested material, and Coca-Cola therapy is an easy, efficacious and safe approach for bezoar treatment. Gastric outlet obstruction due to a migratory gastric bezoar during Coca-Cola therapy is an uncommon presentation and, to the best of our knowledge, no cases have been previously reported. We herein describe one such case with no known predisposing factors that recovered via the endoscopic technique. A thorough literature search was performed, which yielded eight relevant patients from seven publications, all of who developed gastrointestinal obstruction during dissolution treatment and recovered uneventfully after surgical intervention. In conclusion, this potential complication should be kept in mind in the event that alternative treatment is necessary.

  5. Abordagens metodológicas que auxiliam na identificação química da cocaína apreendida no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Isaias da Silva Freitas; Caroline de Noronha Marinho da Silva; Antony de Paula Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    O tráfico de drogas proscritas no Brasil tem aumentado consideravelmente. Um dos reflexos desse crescimento se dá pelo quantitativo apreendido pelos órgãos de segurança pública de drogas sintéticas, canabinóides e, em sua maioria, por cocaína. O Brasil encontra-se geograficamente localizado em uma área onde o cultivo de espécies da família Erythroxylaceae é beneficiado, além disso, faz fronteiras com os principais países produtores de cocaína no mundo, o que dificulta, sobremaneira, o combate...

  6. Identification of wheat sensitization using an in-house wheat extract in Coca-10% alcohol solution in children with wheat anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacharn, Punchama; Kumjim, Sasaros; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Piboonpocanun, Surapon

    2016-06-01

    Identification of wheat sensitization by a skin prick test (SPT) is essential for children with wheat-induced anaphylaxis, since oral food challenge can cause serious adverse effects. Wheat allergens are both water/salt and alcohol soluble. The preparation of wheat extract for SPT containing both water/salt and alcohol soluble allergen is needed. To determine if a wheat extract using Coca's solution containing 10% alcohol (Coca-10% EtOH), prepared in-house, contians both water/salt and alcohol soluble allergens. Serum of children with a history of anaphylaxis after wheat ingestion was used. Wheat flour was extracted in Coca-10% alcohol solution. An SPT with both commercial and in-house wheat extracts was performed as well as specific IgE (sIgE) for wheat and omega-5 gliadin. Direct and IgE inhibition immunoblots were performed to determine serum sIgE levels against water/salt as well as alcohol soluble (gliadins and glutenins) allergens in the extracts. Six children with history of wheat anaphylaxis had positive SPT to both commercial and in-house extracts. They also had different levels of sIgE against wheat and omega-5 gliadin allergens. The results of direct immunoblotting showed all tested sera had sIgE bound to ~35 kDa wheat protein. Further IgE inhibition immunoblotting identified the ~35 kDa wheat protein as gliadin but not gluten allergen. The in-house prepared Coca-10% EtOH solution could extract both water/salt and alcohol soluble allergens. The ~35 kDa gliadin appears to be a major wheat allergen among tested individuals.

  7. Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Janšáková, Katarína; Tábi, Tamás; Szökő, Éva; Somoza, Veronika; Šebeková, Katarína; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the impact of prenatal exposure to Maillard reaction products (MRPs) -rich diet and postnatal Coca-Cola consumption on metabolic status of female rats. Diet rich in MRPs and consumption of saccharose/fructose sweetened soft drinks is presumed to impose increased risk of development of cardiometabolic afflictions, such as obesity or insulin resistance. Methods At the first day of pregnancy, 9 female Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, pair-fed either with standard rat chow (MRP-) or MRPs-rich diet (MRP+). Offspring from each group of mothers was divided into two groups and given either water (Cola-) or Coca-Cola (Cola+) for drinking ad libitum for 18 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed. Results MRP+ groups had higher weight gain, significantly so in the MRP+/Cola- vs MRP-/Cola-. Both prenatal and postnatal intervention increased carboxymethyllysine levels and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity, both significantly higher in MRP+/Cola + than in MRP-/Cola-. Total antioxidant capacity was lower in MRP+ groups, with significant decrease in MRP+/Cola + vs MRP-/Cola+. Rats drinking Coca-Cola had higher insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, heart rate, advanced oxidation of protein products, triacylglycerols, and oxidative stress markers measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to rats drinking water, with no visible effect of MRPs-rich diet. Conclusion Metabolic status of rats was affected both by prenatal and postnatal dietary intervention. Our results suggest that combined effect of prenatal MRPs load and postnatal Coca-Cola drinking may play a role in development of metabolic disorders in later life. PMID:25891868

  8. Implementasi Program Perpuseru Dalam Upaya Meningkatkan Pelayanan Perpustakaan (Studi Kasus Pada Corporated Social Responsibility Coca Cola Foundation Indonesia Di Perpustakaan Kabupaten Sidoarjo)

    OpenAIRE

    Safira, Fidan

    2015-01-01

    : Implementation PerpuSeru Program in Effort to Improve Library Services (Case Study on Corporated Social Responsibility Coca Cola Foundation Indonesia in Sidoarjo General Library). The library as a source of information can't do an independent service. Because of it, libraries need cooperation. One cooperation that can be built with the library is private institutions through the programhis CSR. This research aims described an example of cooperation between libraries and CSR company that suc...

  9. Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Janšáková, Katarína; Tábi, Tamás; Szökő, Éva; Somoza, Veronika; Šebeková, Katarína; Celec, Peter

    2015-04-01

    To assess the impact of prenatal exposure to Maillard reaction products (MRPs) -rich diet and postnatal Coca-Cola consumption on metabolic status of female rats. Diet rich in MRPs and consumption of saccharose/fructose sweetened soft drinks is presumed to impose increased risk of development of cardiometabolic afflictions, such as obesity or insulin resistance. At the first day of pregnancy, 9 female Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, pair-fed either with standard rat chow (MRP-) or MRPs-rich diet (MRP+). Offspring from each group of mothers was divided into two groups and given either water (Cola-) or Coca-Cola (Cola+) for drinking ad libitum for 18 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed. MRP+ groups had higher weight gain, significantly so in the MRP+/Cola- vs MRP-/Cola-. Both prenatal and postnatal intervention increased carboxymethyllysine levels and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity, both significantly higher in MRP+/Cola + than in MRP-/Cola-. Total antioxidant capacity was lower in MRP+ groups, with significant decrease in MRP+/Cola + vs MRP-/Cola+. Rats drinking Coca-Cola had higher insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, heart rate, advanced oxidation of protein products, triacylglycerols, and oxidative stress markers measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to rats drinking water, with no visible effect of MRPs-rich diet. Metabolic status of rats was affected both by prenatal and postnatal dietary intervention. Our results suggest that combined effect of prenatal MRPs load and postnatal Coca-Cola drinking may play a role in development of metabolic disorders in later life.

  10. Entidades clínicas cardiovasculares asociadas al consumo de cocaína por vía nasal en una población peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Razzeto-Ríos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la frecuencia de entidades clínicas cardiovasculares asociadas al empleo de cocaína por vía nasal en consumidores peruanos. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo, tipo serie de casos. Lugar: Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, EsSalud, hospital docente, y Clínica San Felipe. Participantes: Pacientes atendidos entre los años 1991 y 2006. Principales medidas de resultados: Síntomas y entidades clínicas asociadas al consumo de cocaína vía nasal. Resultados: En los 63 pacientes evaluados, la mediana de edad fue 35 años, 53 (84% eran de sexo masculino, 86% afirmó haber ingerido cocaína previamente. Los síntomas aparecieron antes de las 2 horas en 78% de los pacientes y 81% presentó trastornos del electrocardiograma. Los síntomas reportados fueron dolor torácico (59%, palpitaciones (27%, convulsiones (5%, hipertermia (3% y cefalea (6%. Las entidades clínicas asociadas fueron: síndromes coronarios agudos (49%, arritmia ventricular (25%, infarto agudo de miocardio (10%, crisis hipertensiva (5% y muerte súbita (11%. Durante el seguimiento, la reincidencia en el consumo se produjo en 76%, siendo esta predominantemente en los primeros 6 meses (63%. Conclusiones: El empleo de cocaína intranasal se asocia a importantes entidades clínicas cardiovasculares, la mayoría de ellas graves. Se aconseja la evaluación de los pacientes en emergencia, incluyendo una anamnesis completa dirigida a la evaluación del consumo de sustancias ilícitas.

  11. A study on beverage MNCs’ entry mode decisions and determinant factors in internationalization in China: Case studies of Coca-Cola and Red bull

    OpenAIRE

    Tonsuwan, Pantitra

    2015-01-01

    The economic reform and liberalized government regulations toward business operations in 1980s make China a new target of international investments by multinational corporations (MNCs). How to enter this growth market and what entry mode should be implemented remain inconclusive. This paper analyses how two beverage companies- Coca-Cola and Red Bull that are operating in China, evaluate the influences and implications of the factors on their entry mode decisions since they initially came to C...

  12. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with coca cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wei-Keung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f.) as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  13. Successful Treatment with a Combination of Endoscopic Injection and Irrigation with Coca Cola for Gastric Bezoar-induced Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Sheng Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  14. Acción de la cocaína sobre el fósforo inorgánico del suero

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    Julio Pons Muzzo

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la acción de la cocaína sobre el fósforo inorgánico del suero en el perro, obteniendo los siguientes resultados: A las dosis de 5, 10 y 15 mgr. x kilo de peso y por vía subcutánea, la cocaína produce con frecuencia una significativa disminución del fósforo inorgánico del suero. A dosis convulsivantes su acción es en sentido inverso, determinando en la mayor parte de los casos un marcado incremento de este constituyente sanguíneo. Se sugiere que la disminución del fósforo inorgánico del suero puede ser resultado de un aumento de la secreción de insulina, lo cual se debería a la hiperglucemia que suele producir la cocaína, o a una acción directa de esta droga sobre el vago. El aumento del fósforo que se observó con las altas dosis tendría un mecanismo diferente al anterior, relacionado probablemente con las crisis convulsivas.

  15. Modelo preditivo do uso de cocaína em prisões do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Predictive model for cocaine use in prisons in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Márcia Lazaro de Carvalho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar variáveis preditoras e grupos mais vulneráveis ao uso de cocaína em prisão. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 376 presos com história de uso de cocaína em prisão (casos e 938 presos sem história de uso de cocaína na vida (controles, que cumpriam pena no sistema penitenciário do Rio de Janeiro em 1998. A análise considerou as variáveis de exposição em três níveis de hierarquia: distal, intermediário e proximal. Na análise bivariada utilizou-se regressão logística e na multivariada, regressão hierarquizada, resultando em valores de odds ratio. RESULTADOS: As variáveis associadas ao uso de cocaína na prisão, no nível proximal, foram uso de álcool e maconha e tempo de reclusão em anos. O efeito das variáveis de vulnerabilidade social (nível distal é intermediado pelas variáveis dos níveis seguintes. Considerando apenas os níveis distal e intermediário, o uso de maconha antes de ser preso (OR=4,50; IC 95%: 3,17-6,41 e o fato de ter cometido delito para obter droga (OR=2,96; IC 95%: 1,79-4,90 são as mais fortemente associadas ao desfecho. Para cada ano a mais que se passa na prisão, a chance de usar cocaína aumenta em 13% (OR=1,13; IC 95%: 1,06-1,21. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando os níveis distal e intermediário, o uso de maconha antes da prisão e delito para obtenção de droga foram as variáveis com maior poder de predição. O modelo final revelou o uso de álcool, de maconha na prisão e o tempo de cumprimento de pena são importantes preditores do desfecho. O ambiente carcerário aparece como fator estimulante da continuidade do uso de drogas.OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of and groups vulnerable to cocaine use in prison. METHODS: We selected 376 inmates with history of cocaine use in prison (cases and 938 inmates with no history of drug use (controls serving sentences in the Rio de Janeiro State prison system in 1998. The analysis included exposure variables divided into three

  16. La experiencia enlatada del compartir. Análisis de la regulación de las sensaciones en “Comparte tu Coca-Cola con” en las campañas de Coca-Cola 2014-2015

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    Eliana Isabel Abraham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo pretende analizar los procesos de regulación de las sensaciones que construye el capitalismo sobre la experiencia social del “compartir/compartir con otros” en las campañas de Coca-Cola 2014-2015. Se tomara como horizonte epistemológico las contribuciones de una sociología de las emociones para desentramar los operativos ideológicos que subyacen en el montaje de las distintas instantáneas de consumo en torno a la campaña. Será pertinente para este caso, realizar una genealogía de las interpelaciones a lo sensible que construyó la empresa desde su llegada al país en 1942 y el especial tratamiento que reside en esta última apuesta del monopolio de la bebida al asalto de las experiencias. Por último, siguiendo el dictum benjaminiano, algunas imágenes publicitarias de la campaña que circulan en redes sociales para pensar el escenario mediático que refuerza los procesos de regulación a lo sensible.

  17. Arteriopatía periférica crónica inducida por cocaína Chronic peripheral arterial disease induced by cocaine

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    Sonia Pankl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La trombosis periférica aguda inducida por cocaína ha sido descripta en la literatura, siendo una complicación poco común. Si bien existen comunicaciones que reflejan los efectos crónicos de la cocaína sobre el sistema arterial periférico, no hay casos publicados de tal complicación en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 22 años de edad con antecedentes de consumo de cocaína intranasal de 3 gramos por semana durante un año, que consultó por claudicación intermitente a los 200 metros asociada a dolor y parestesias en miembro inferior izquierdo de 2 meses de evolución. El ecodoppler arterial evidenció una estenosis mayor del 70% en la arteria femoral superficial izquierda. Se realizaron estudios complementarios descartando otras etiologías probables. Se inició tratamiento con ácido acetilsalicílico, cilostazol y ejercicio reglado, asociado a terapia de apoyo para mantenimiento del cese del consumo de cocaína, con buena respuesta. Se destaca la importancia de la difusión de información a los pacientes, dado que la mayoría de la población desconoce las complicaciones cardiovasculares de dicha adicción. Es indispensable indagar sobre el consumo de cocaína en pacientes jóvenes con arteriopatía sin factores de riesgo aparentes.Cocaine induced acute peripheral thrombosis, though a rare complication, has been described in the literature. Although there are reports describing the chronic effects of cocaine on the peripheral arterial system, there are no published cases of this complication when other risk factors are lacking. We report on a 22 year old female patient, with intranasal consumption of 3 grams of cocaine per week for a year, who consulted for intermittent claudication at 200 meters, associated to left lower limb pain and paresthesiae for the last two months. Arterial Doppler ultrasonography showed a stenosis greater than 70% in the superficial left femoral artery. Other

  18. Palavra de coca e de tabaco como "conhecimento tradicional": cultura, política e desenvolvimento entre os uitoto-murui do rio Caraparaná (CO The word of coca and tobacco as 'traditional knowledge': culture, politics and development among the uitoto-murui of the Cara Paraná River (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Pereira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre 2000-2001, um debate mobilizou os aldeamentos uitoto-murui do rio Caraparaná tendo como tema a noção de "desenvolvimento". Alguns deles sediaram reuniões entre indígenas (locais e de órgãos de representação política nacional e não indígenas (técnicos de Estado, de ONGs e militares na produção de "diagnósticos" e "projetos". Nesse contexto, o aldeamento de San Rafael, em articulação entre seu cacique, Don Ángel Ortiz, e o cabildo local, propõe um projeto baseado nos "conhecimentos" das rodas noturnas de diálogo e consumo ritual da coca (Erythroxylon coca var. ipadu e do tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum, no conjunto de conhecimentos materiais, simbólicos e ético-morais chamado de "Palavra de Coca e de Tabaco" (jiibina uai diona uai. Este conjunto de "conhecimentos" (do mítico-cosmológico ao médico-terapêutico e as formas de governança é o resultado das articulações socioculturais vividas pelos grupos indígenas que habitam o interflúvio dos rios Caquetá-Putumayo (que têm a coca e o tabaco como epicentros simbólicos, em especial após a década de 1930, com o fim da escravidão caucheira e do conflito Peru-Colômbia. No calor dos debates, a noção de "desenvolvimento" ganha, então, contornos "indígenas", passando a ser lida e articulada a partir dos "usos e costumes" locais, como demanda a Constituição de 1991. Do mesmo modo, diante das demandas da arena do desenvolvimento, um perfil discreto e acabado do que seja a Palavra de Coca e de Tabaco é também apresentado.Throughout 2000 and 2001 the Uitoto-Murui communities of the Cara Paraná River were mobilized by a debate on the notion of 'development.' Meetings were held between the indigenous population (including both local villagers and representatives of national organizations and the non-indigenous population (government officials, NGOs and the military to discuss the theme with the aim of producing 'diagnoses' and 'projects.' As part of this context, the

  19. Retardo del crecimiento intrauterino asociado con el consumo de pasta básica de cocaína por mujeres gestantes de Bogotá, D.C., Colombia

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    Oscar Ramírez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar una posible asociación entre el consumo de pasta ásica de cocaína o 'basuco' entre mujeres embarazadas y el crecimiento intrauterino de sus productos vivos en dos hospitales de tercer nivel en Bogotá, Colombia. Con un diseño de cohorte retrospectiva, se encuestaron 1.878 mujeres en el puerperio mediato para indagar, entre otras variables, la historia sobre el consumo de drogas ilicitas. Tanto a las madres como a sus recién nacidos se les realizaron mediciones antropométricas estandarizadas. Se comparó la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (BPN, parto prematuro (PP y retardo del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU con la historia de consumo de drogas ilicitas durante el embarazo por medio de modelos de regresión lineal múltiple y regresión logística múltiple, para ajustar el efecto de posibles confusores como edad materna, estado nutricional y patologias maternas, nivel socioeconómico, escolaridad y tabaquismo, entre otros. Los resultados mostraron que una de cada 189 mujeres consumió sustancias ilegales durante el embarazo, comúnmente Cannabis safiva o pasta básica de cocaina. Las consumidoras de ostos productos tipicamente tenían menor escolaridad, eran de nivel socioeconomico más bajo. eran más delgadas, con una historia de control prenatal inadecuado, primigestantes o multigestantes y, con frecuencia, también fumaban tabaco y bebían alcohol. Se halló una asociación entre el consumo de las sustancias ilegales con RCIU (cociente de suertes de prevalencias de 5.24, IC95%: 1,3-21.0, y un déficit de 0.7 desvios estándares del peso para la edad gestacional (p=0.03. Además, se encontró un cociente de suertes ajustado de 7,78 con IC95%: 1,O-62, entre el consumo de pasta básica de cocaina y RCIU. Aunque es probable que a través de entrevistas se subestime la prevalencia de consumo de drogas y a pesar del limitado poder del estudio, éste fue capaz de identificar un efecto importante

  20. Etude de la toxicité hépatique de la cocaïne associée à de l'alcool: Effets de l'éthanol sur le métabolisme de la cocaïne dan les hépatocytes de rat en suspension et dans un modèle enzymatique humain

    OpenAIRE

    Berthoin, K.

    2000-01-01

    Le but essentiel de notre travail a été d?étudier la capacité du foie, premier organe de métabolisation des xénobiotiques, à dégrader la cocaïne en présence d?éthanol, à l?aide de deux modèles expérimentaux, à savoir un modèle cellulaire (les hépatocytes de rat en suspension) et un modèle acellulaire (modèle reconstitué in vitro à partir d?enzymes purifiées de foie humain). La première partie a pour objectifs de rechercher les voies de métabolisation de la cocaïne qui sont inhibées et / ou st...

  1. Etude de la toxicité hépatique de la cocaïne associée à de l'alcool: Effets de l'éthanol sur le métabolisme de la cocaïne dan les hépatocytes de rat en suspension et dans un modèle enzymatique humain

    OpenAIRE

    Berthoin, Karine; Barret, Luc; Mangin,Patrice

    2004-01-01

    Le but essentiel de notre travail a été d’étudier la capacité du foie, premier organe de métabolisation des xénobiotiques, à dégrader la cocaïne en présence d’éthanol, à l’aide de deux modèles expérimentaux, à savoir un modèle cellulaire (les hépatocytes de rat en suspension) et un modèle acellulaire (modèle reconstitué in vitro à partir d’enzymes purifiées de foie humain). La première partie a pour objectifs de rechercher les voies de métabolisation de la cocaïne qui sont inhibées et / ou st...

  2. Efectos a largo plazo de la exposición al alcohol y a la cocaína durante la adolescencia en modelos animales: factores de riesgo y posibles tratamientos en la adicción a la cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos García, Ana

    2016-01-01

    El primer contacto con las drogas se produce mayoritariamente en la adolescencia, pero la transición del uso voluntario a la dependencia, desarrollando un trastorno por el uso de sustancias, solo se manifiesta en un cierto porcentaje de individuos. El presente trabajo evalúa la influencia que a largo plazo presentan ciertas variables ambientales, individuales y biológicas durante la adolescencia, sobre la vulnerabilidad a los efectos reforzantes de la cocaína y su nivel de ...

  3. A publicidade da Coca-Cola “Happiness Factory” e o imaginário do sistema produtivo na sociedade de consumo

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    João Carrascoza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe a reflexão sobre o universo simbólico da marca Coca-Cola com base no comercial “Happiness Factory” (“Fábrica de Felicidade”, 2006, em que a esfera produtiva da corporação é recuperada como espetáculo, como apoteose, para servir ao imaginário do consumo. Trata-se de estudo preliminar sobre os processos simbólicos de reconstrução, de esvaziamento, de harmonização das tensões e dialéticas que envolvem o mundo do trabalho, para servir à publicidade da marca – esta entendida como ente social, mediador da negociação simbólica entre anunciantes e consumidores. A metodologia de análise é baseada no quadro teórico da análise do discurso de linha francesa e de conceitos- chave da obra de Mikhail Bakhtin, entre outros autores. Palavras-chave: Publicidade; consumo simbólico; trabalho.ABSTRACT This article presents a reflection on the symbolic universe of the Coca-Cola brand based on the comercial “Happiness Factory” (2006, in which the productive sphere of the corporation is transformed and presented as a spectacle, as an apotheosis in order to meet the purposes of consumption imaginary. This is a preliminary study on the symbolic processes of reconstruction, of emptying and of the harmonization of tensions and dialectics which involve the world of labour in order to meet the requirements of the publicity of the Coca-Cola brand – which is understood as a social being, mediator of the symbolic negotiation between advertisers and consumers. Our methodology of analysis is based on the theoretical framework of the French line of discourse analysis and key concepts of Mikhail Bakhtin, among other authors. Keywords: Advertising; symbolic consumption; brands.

  4. A influência da marca Coca Cola na atratividade e manutenção dos funcionários em uma afiliada no Rio Grande Do Sul

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    Carla Cavalheiro Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisou a influência da marca Coca-Cola na atratividade e manutenção de funcionários em uma empresa afiliada de uma franqueada da The Coca-Cola Company, denominada CVI Refrigerantes Ltda., identificando o nível de conhecimento prévio dos colaboradores da empresa sobre a mesma, verificando os atributos relacionados à marca na visão destes e diagnosticando fatores considerados decisivos no momento da escolha da empresa como empregadora. Foi realizada análise documental e de entrevistas  semiestruturadas com funcionários. Constata-se que a imagem e o nome da marca Coca-Cola constituem, para os funcionários, fortes atrativos, além dos benefícios e oportunidades de crescimento oferecidos.

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of inhalable mixed-oxides (U, Pu) O{sub 2} made according to COCA and MIMAS processes; Caracterisation physico-chimique des poudres inhalables d`oxydes mixtes (U, Pu)O{sub 2} issues des procedes COCA et MIMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massiot, P.; Le Naour, H.; Lizon, C.; Rateau, G.; Grillon, G.; L`Huillier, I.; Fritsch, P. [CEA Centre Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie

    1997-12-01

    Physico-chemical characterization of inhalable mixed-oxides (U, Pu)O{sub 2} made according to COCA and MIMAS processes. We have studied physico-chemical properties of mixed oxides (U, Pu)O{sub 2}, inhalable particles made according to COCA or MIMAS process, collecting at the grinding step, which contained 5.3 and 4.7 % Pu respectively. These particles were studied after inhalation exposure of rats, in entire alveolar macrophages extracted by pulmonary lavage. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) performed by electron microscopy demonstrated a large heterogeneity at the nano-metric level. Most of the particles corresponded to aggregates. More than 60 % of the unitary particles were `pure` UO{sub 2} according to the EDS, whereas the remaining one`s were either `pure` PuO{sub 2} or (U, Pu)O{sub 2} containing Pu in range up to 30 %. The semi-quantitative results showed that the MIMAS and COCA powders were heterogeneous. The heterogeneity was confirmed by the autoradiography study that visualized the large heterogeneity of the dose delivered to lung tissues after inhalation. (authors)

  6. Why do consumers buy brands they do not find ethical? A study on the ambivalence towards Coca-Cola, Inc. and Ferrero, S.p.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiers, Jeanne; Herbeuval, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we touch the subject of consumer ambivalence, ie the simultaneous or sequential experience of positive and negative feelings towards an object, specifically towards Coca Cola and Ferrero and on the subject of CSR/CSI activities. We want to uncover the sources of this ambivalence, the reasons for which these consumers still buy the brands if they do not find them ethical and respectable, and what would possibly make them stop. We also want to touch on the subject of the de-respo...

  7. “Viver positivamente”: as lições ensinadas por peças publicitárias da Coca-Cola Company

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    Daniela Ripoll

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a campanha publicitária da Coca-Cola Company Brasil, “Viva positivamente!”. A partir dos Estudos Culturais, dos Estudos de Mídia e das discussões pós-modernas acerca do consumo do corpo e de determinados estilos de vida na mídia, discute-se o crescente movimento de “redenção” ou, ainda, de “absolvição” do consumo, construído pedagógica e culturalmente como algo positivo e relacionado à melhora do corpo e da qualidade de vida dos sujeitos na contemporaneidade.

  8. Impulsividad y compulsividad en individuos dependientes de cocaína

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Serrano, María José; Perales López, José César; Moreno López, Laura; Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Pérez García, Miguel; Verdejo García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recientes modelos neurobiológicos conciben la adicción como una transición del control de la conducta a lo largo del eje que va de la impulsividad a la compulsividad. La naturaleza dinámica de esta transición hace difícil detectar la posición de los adictos en este continuo, pero una de las aproximaciones mejor validadas es la caracterización de su estado mediante índices neuropsicológicos de impulsividad (o desinhibición) y compulsividad (o perseverancia). En esta investigación se pretende e...

  9. Plan estratégico de comunicación de responsabilidad social corporativa de Coca Cola. Análisis y evaluación de sus acciones para detectar nuevas ideas y mejoras.

    OpenAIRE

    Mairal Reinoso, María

    2017-01-01

    El presente Trabajo de Final de Master trata sobre el plan estratégico de comunicación que lleva a cabo Coca Cola en relación a su política en Responsabilidad Social Corporativa. Se pretende estudiar hasta que punto se cumple el nuevo modelo de actuación empresarial sostenible, ético y responsable, que impera en el entorno y en los mercados, para plantear estrategias con tácticas adecuadas para mejorar sus puntos débiles. This Master's Final Paper deals with Coca Cola's strategic communica...

  10. Tratamientos farmacológicos en la coadministración de alcohol y cocaína: efectos en la expresión de genes en el córtex prefrontal de la rata

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverry Alzate, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    El consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, y en concreto el consumo simultáneo de alcohol y cocaína, es una práctica frecuente en la población general. Así mismo, se ha visto que el consumo de cocaína incrementa el riesgo de desarrollar dependencia de alcohol, y viceversa. Actualmente existen 4 tratamientos farmacológicos aprobados para la dependencia de alcohol, siendo el disulfiram el primer tratamiento aprobado, posteriormente lo fueron la naltrexona y el acamprosato, y recientemente el nalmef...

  11. Influencia de la cocaína en la transcripción de receptores relacionados con la adicción: expresión de receptores opioides

    OpenAIRE

    López Bellido, Roger

    2009-01-01

    [ES]La cocaína, es una de las drogas de uso recreativo más consumida, y la que más problemas de adicción ocasiona, por lo que es considerada droga de abuso. El consumo prolongado de cocaína da lugar a graves efectos no sólo a nivel de Sistema Nervioso Central, sino también en el sistema circulatorio y respiratorio. [EN]Cocaine is one of the most recreational drugs consumed and the addiction that causes more problems, so it is considered drug abuse. Prolonged use of cocaine l...

  12. Cocaínomanía, adicción y embarazo: tres años después Cocainemania, Addiction and pregnancy: three years later

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    Miguel Lugones Botell

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 22 años adicta a la cocaína desde la adolescencia, la cual presentó su primer embarazo y parto hace 3 años, y en el que se obtuvo un recién nacido bajo peso de 2 350 g producto de una cesárea con sufrimiento fetal agudo. Durante su gestación mostró rechazo al producto de la concepción, y después de ocurrido el parto mostró cierto interés por su hijo durante los primeros días del puerperio, pero posteriormente este fue rechazado totalmente por ella y comenzó a dejarlo con vecinos y amistades para poder consumir. Se han realizado varios intentos de desintoxicación, pero la paciente los ha rechazado, manifestando que si lo hace "deja de ser ella". Tuvo un intento suicida. Se logró insertarla en un centro de trabajo, pero tuvo nuevamente la recaída en la que se encuentra en estos momentos, con deterioro de su persona y calidad de vida. El niño se ha mantenido una gran parte del tiempo con vecinos y amistades y en instituciones infantiles. Tiene como características ser muy intranquilo, presentar tartamudez y enuresis diurna, no obedece las órdenes y tiene retardo en algunos procesos intelectuales, poca información general y tampoco logra el control muscular. En sentido general, es un niño necesitado de afecto y aprobación social.The case of a 22-year-old patient addict to cocaine since adolescence is reported. Her first pregnancy and delivery took place 3 years ago. She had a child that weighted under 2 350 g resulting from a cesarean section with acute fetal suffering. During gestation, she rejected the product of conception and after delivery she showed certain interest in her child during the first days of puerperium, but later she totally rejected the baby and began to leave him with neighbors and friends to consume cocaine.Several efforts have been made to detoxicate her, but she she has refused saying that if she does so, she no longer be herself. She attempted suicide once. She

  13. Réflexion sur le développement alternatif à la culture de la coca en Amérique andine

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    Follin Jean-Claude

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les années 1965-1975, on observe un développement très important des cultures illicites et de la consommation de drogues, qui s’accentue encore dans la décennie suivante. Ce développement est concomitant à deux phénomènes mondiaux indépendants : d’une part, l’ouverture des agricultures du Sud à l’économie de marché et, d’autre part, des changements culturels profonds dans les pays du Nord, avec les premières manifestations de dérégulation sociale. Les premières actions internationales, dans le domaine de la réduction de l’offre, pour le contrôle de la culture des plantes productrices de drogues ont commencé au milieu des années 70 en Asie sur la culture du pavot (au travers du Pnucid - programme des Nations unies pour le contrôle international des drogues ; elles se sont ensuite développées en Amérique latine sur la culture de la coca (création de la Comisión interamericana para el control del abuso de drogas - Cicad, en 1986, puis dans le bassin méditerranéen au début des années 90 sur la culture du chanvre (programmes UE/MED. Les premières années, cette lutte s’est opérée sous le concept de cultures de substitution (ou cultures alternatives : les parcelles de culture illicites étaient arrachées et remplacées par d’autres productions. L’analyse des échecs répétés de ce type d’intervention a montré que les régions productrices étaient presque toujours des régions marginalisées d’un point de vue socio-économique et que la lutte contre les cultures illicites n’était pas uniquement une affaire de développement de nouvelles cultures. Il était, en fait, nécessaire de créer les conditions d’une nouvelle économie agricole. Ainsi, le concept de développement alternatif a peu à peu émergé pour aboutir aux grands principes de base énoncés, en 33 points, lors de l’assemblée générale des Nations unies du 8 septembre 1998 1.

  14. El proyecto hidroeléctrico Coca Codo Sinclair y la gobernanza energética en la Amazonía ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor López

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Las condiciones en las que el Estado impulsa el cambio de la matriz energética, configuran problemas de gobernanza y retos para una gestión de energías renovables en la Amazonía, acorde con la Constitución y la planificación estatal del desarrollo. Coca Codo Sinclair (CCS es el mayor proyecto hidroeléctrico en implementación y apuntala las políticas de soberanía y eficiencia energética del gobierno, sin que se evidencien criterios de gestión integrada del recurso hídrico y equidad regional para las poblaciones locales.

  15. O episódio de Freud com a cocaína: o médico e o monstro

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    Decio Gurfinkel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é uma avaliação dos possíveis "restos" que o episódio de Freud com a cocaína tenha deixado para a criação da psicanálise, realizada através do reexame retrospectivo, crítico e analítico desse episódio. O resultado desta avaliação pôs em destaque quatro elementos: o surgimento de um Freud psiquiatra e farmacologista e o progressivo abandono desta via; o surgimento da adicção como objeto de investigação; o modelo da auto-administração como método de pesquisa; e a crença e abandono subseqüente de um projeto de "cura mágica".

  16. Un model senzill per predir la presència de cocaïna al sistema hídric de les ciutats

    OpenAIRE

    Peral Pérez, José

    2010-01-01

    El consum de cocaïna provoca la presència d'aquest alcaloide i els seus metabòlits al sistema hídric de les ciutats. Un cop són excretats, principalment per l'orina, acaben a les aigües residuals, que són processades a les plantes de tractament d'aigües. La mínima part que no és eliminada per aquests processos roman al medi ambient. Aquesta recerca ha desenvolupat un senzill model que permet predir la presència de contaminants sintètics en el medi ambient, tenint un compte només uns pocs parà...

  17. Prevención del VIH en diagnóstico de dependencia a la cocaína y trastorno esquizoafectivo

    OpenAIRE

    Baquero Escribano, Abel

    2011-01-01

    Tras analizar brevemente la situación de los pacientes con diagnósticos múltiples e infección por VIH, en este trabajo se expone la actuación preventiva para la transmisión del VIH en un caso de un paciente portador con diagnóstico de dependencia a la cocaína vía parenteral coexistente con un trastorno esquizoafectivo. Se describe la intervención terapéutica realizada a lo largo de las sesiones, como la evolución clínica y resultados obtenidos. El interés en este caso reside principalmente en...

  18. Profile of cocaine and crack users in Brazil Perfil dos usuários de cocaína e crack no Brasil

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    Lígia Bonacim Duailibi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to systematize the profile of cocaine and crack users in Brazil. The study adopted a literature review of the MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library databases and CAPES thesis/dissertation database. Data were grouped in thematic categories: national household surveys, surveys of specific population groups, profile of patients that seek treatment, and mortality and morbidity. Within each category the principal findings from the Brazilian literature were described and then discussed. The article concludes that the information on cocaine and crack consumption in Brazil is still incipient, but that the scientific community can already draw on a relevant theoretical corpus that can be used to update current public policies on this issue.Este artigo tem como objetivo sintetizar o perfil dos usuários de cocaína e crack no Brasil. Foi construído por meio de revisão da literatura com base em dados (MEDLINE, LILACS e Biblioteca Cochrane e no banco de teses da CAPES. Os dados foram agrupados em categorias temáticas, quais sejam: levantamentos domiciliares nacionais, populações específicas, perfil dos pacientes que procuram tratamento, mortalidade e morbidade. Dentro de cada categoria os principais achados da literatura nacional foram descritos e posteriormente discutidos. O artigo conclui que informações relacionadas ao consumo de cocaína e crack no Brasil ainda são incipientes, mas já temos à disposição da comunidade científica um conjunto teórico relevante que pode ser utilizado visando à atualização das atuais políticas públicas referentes a este tema.

  19. La «i-Generación» y su interacción en las redes sociales. Análisis de Coca-Cola en Tuenti

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    Carmen Marta Lazo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los adolescentes y jóvenes utilizan cada vez más las redes sociales como medio para interactuar y participar en la construcción de un discurso múltiple. Las empresas aprovechan las opciones de relación directa con los seguidores en las redes y utilizan estas estructuras virtuales para acercarse a su «target». El objeto de este artículo es estudiar, mediante una metodología empírica y observacional, cómo construye «Coca-Cola» su imagen de marca en «Tuenti», la red más seguida por este sector del público. Entre otros aspectos, observaremos de qué modo interviene la marca y cómo los seguidores; cuáles son los temas que se introducen en las entradas y a través de qué tipo de formatos. Como conclusión, advertimos que el interés de la marca de dejar libertad de expresión a los seguidores es solo una estrategia, en realidad las entradas de «Coca-Cola» son muy escasas pero todas ellas tienen un elevado efecto «gancho», pues con un lenguaje que interpela al usuario para que se active y retome su discurso de manera dirigida. Además, no existe ningún tipo de mecanismo diferenciador entre la información, el entretenimiento y la publicidad, lo que, unido a la exposición continuada a impactos publicitarios a través de diferentes formatos, nos lleva a proponer la necesidad de una educación mediática para fomentar el uso responsable y crítico de las redes sociales por parte de los jóvenes.

  20. Investigación de cocaína y marihuana en meconio de neonatos atendidos en un hospital público: Primera experiencia realizada en la ciudad Córdoba, Argentina Screening of cocaine and marijuana in meconium of newborns from a public hospital of city of Córdoba, Argentina

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    Andrés Suárez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron cocaína y marihuana en meconio de neonatos nacidos en la Maternidad Provincial de la Ciudad de Córdoba y se relacionaron los resultados con las semanas de gestación y los pesos al nacer. Las determinaciones se realizaron utilizando inmunoensayo y cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas. Se analizaron 48 muestras de meconio recolectadas durante un año (2007-2008. De los 48 meconios analizados, 17 correspondieron a neonatos masculinos y 31 a neonatos femeninos. Se procesaron en paralelo 15 muestras de meconio como controles normales (niños no expuestos a drogas seleccionados por historia clínica y controles prenatales. De las 48 muestras de meconio 13 fueron positivas para cocaína y/o marihuana. El peso y las semanas de gestación de los neonatos cuyas muestras fueron positivas se compararon frente a un grupo control normal, hallándose mayores diferencias estadísticamente significativas (α=0,05 - pWe investigated cocaine and marijuana in meconium of newborns attended at the Hospital Materno Provincial of Córdoba City and the results were correlated with birthweight and weeks of pregnancy. The samples were analyzed using immunoassay (FPIA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS for confirmation. Forty eight samples of meconium were collected during one year period (2007-2008. Of the 48 samples screened, 17 correspond to masculine sex and 31 to feminine. Fifteen samples of meconium from normal newborns (newborns not exposed to drugs selected by maternal self report, pregnancy controls were processed as control group. The results obtained in 48 samples of meconium showed 13 cases tested positive for cocaine and/or marijuana. Birth weight and weeks of gestation of newborn with positive sample results were compared with a control group. A statistically significant difference (α= 0.05 - p<0.0001 was found in relation to birth weight. Although these results arise from a small number of samples, these data have

  1. Complicações cardiovasculares em usuário de cocaína: relato de caso Cardiovascular complications related to cocaine use: case report

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    Fernanda Martins Gazoni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A cocaína é uma droga ilícita amplamente utilizada e o seu uso tem sido associado a efeitos decorrentes da toxicidade aguda e crônica em praticamente todos os órgãos, particularmente no sistema cardiovascular. Este artigo visou descrever um caso de cardiomiopatia em paciente jovem usuário crônico de cocaína. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 19 anos, usuário de cocaína por inalação e crack desde os 15 anos de idade. Foi internado em fevereiro de 2006 devido a dispnéia progressiva aos mínimos esforços e expectoração sanguinolenta. Ao exame físico apresentava edema nos membros inferiores, estase jugular e dispnéia em repouso. Foram observados no ecocardiograma: dilatação das quatro câmaras cardíacas, com hipocinesia difusa de ventrículo esquerdo (VE, trombo mural em VE de 17 mm e fração de ejeção de 12%. Realizada broncoscopia pulmonar que identificou sangramento em língula ativo, tratado com embolização. Após 48h do procedimento, o paciente manteve-se assintomático e sem expectoração sanguinolenta. Iniciado tratamento antitrombótico com warfarina e enoxaparina. A cineangiocoronariografia não evidenciou lesões obstrutivas e o paciente recebeu alta após melhora clínica. Re-internado em julho de 2006 com dor precordial de forte intensidade e dispnéia de repouso. Nova cineangiocoronariografia evidenciou oclusão de terço médio da artéria descendente anterior. CONCLUSÕES: Os efeitos agudos da cocaína freqüentemente motivam atendimento de emergência. Já as suas manifestações crônicas, como as doenças cardiovasculares, podem produzir alterações de difícil correlação futura ao seu consumo prévio. O uso prolongado da cocaína está relacionado à alteração da função sistólica ventricular esquerda por hipertrofia ou dilatação miocárdica, aterosclerose, disritmias cardíacas, apoptose de cardiomiócitos e lesão simpática.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

  2. Influência dos grupos terapêuticos em Centro de Atenção Psicossocial entre usuários com dependência de cocaína/crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Noé da Fonseca

    Full Text Available Analisa a influência dos grupos terapêuticos em Centro de Atenção Psicossocial entre usuários com dependência de cocaína/crack, em Fortaleza - Ceará. Estudo descritivo e retrospectivo, entre 2009 e 2010. Realizou-se uma análise bivariada entre as variáveis dependentes e independentes. Os grupos terapêuticos foram influenciados pela profissão, por abandono de tratamento, drogas ilícitas, número de consultas e prescrições. Observa-se a necessidade de elaborar estratégias para melhorar as ações preventivas comunitárias, visando a aumentar a adesão dos dependentes de cocaína/crack às atividades terapêuticas, conforme a legislação vigente de saúde mental.

  3. Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer: Analysis of linkage to 2p 15-16 places the COCA1 locus telomeric to D2S123 and reveals genetic heterogeneity in seven Canadian families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.C.; Young, T.L. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada)); Narod, S.A.; Tonin, P.; Ginsburg, O.; Miller, S. (Montreal General Hospital, Montreal (Canada) Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)); Morasse, J. (Hopital St-Francois d' Assise, Quebec City (Canada)); Cox, J.; Fitzgerald, G.W.N. (Grenfell Regional Health Services, St. Anthony, Newfoundland (Canada)); Jothy, S. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)) (and others)

    1994-06-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait responsible for approximately 6% of colorectal cancers. Linkage of the HNPCC trait to the D2S123 locus on 2p 15-16 has previously been reported in two families. This HNPCC locus is now designated [open quotes]COCA1[close quotes]. The authors have tested seven Canadian HNPCC families, who have a variety of clinical presentations, for linkage to a panel of microsatellite polymorphisms in the vicinity of D2S123. One family was clearly linked to the COCA1 locus (LOD = 4.21), and a second family is likely to be linked (LOD = 0.92). In three families linkage was excluded. In the remaining two families the data were inconclusive. In the linked family, individuals with cancer of the endometrium or ureter share a common haplotype with 12 family members with colorectal cancer. This supports the suspected association between these extracolonic neoplasms and the HNPCC syndrome. In addition, five of the six individuals with adenomatous polyps (but no colorectal cancer) have the same haplotype as the affected individuals, while the sixth carries a recombination. One individual with colorectal cancer carries a recombination that places the COCA1 locus telomeric to D2S123. This study localizes the COCA1 gene to an 8-cM region that is consistent with the location of the hMSH2 gene. The authors also confirm that families presently classified as HNPCC are genetically heterogeneous. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. OCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CULTIVATION OF COCA IN AFROCOLOMBIAN COMMUNITIES IN CAQUETÁ: ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE ILLICIT ECONOMY, THE TRADITIONAL FARMING PRACTICES, AND THEIR ROLE IN FOOD SECURITY. CONSECUENCIAS SOCIALES DEL CULTIVO DE LA COCA EN COMUNIDADES AFROCOLOMBIANAS DEL CAQUETÁ: ANÁLISIS DE LA RELACIÓN ENTRE LA ECONOMÍA ILÍCITA, LAS PRÁCTICAS CAMPESINAS TRADICIONALES Y SU PAPEL EN LA SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Carrillo González.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of an investigation into the consequences of the adoption of the cultivation of coca, the productive logic of the illicit economy, and anti-drug policies of the Colombian State have meant for the safety and food sovereignty of Afrocolombian communities in the State of Caquetá. The work was based on extensive field work carried out in the rural area of inspection of Rionegro, Municipality of Puerto Rico. The text examines the role played by the regional history, the social and economic context in the reasons that help to explain the reason for the presence of coca. It gives an account of the main features of the mode of family production that characterizes the coca in the region and finally, and it shows the impact that the counter-narcotics policy has on food security of the communities in the study area. In order to provide elements for the discussion of the alternatives to the cultivation of coca, the article shows how the production practices in the region, both legal and illegal, do not pass through the construction of a project of food sovereignty and fail to meet the basics of food safety. RESUMEN: El artículo expone los principales resultados de una investigación sobre las consecuencias que la adopción del cultivo de coca, las lógicas productivas de la economía ilícita, y las políticas antinarcóticos del estado Colombiano han significado para la seguridad y soberanía alimentaria de comunidades afrocolombianas en el departamento del Caquetá. El trabajo se sustentó en un extenso trabajo de campo realizado en la zona rural de la inspección de Rionegro, municipio de puerto Rico. En el texto se analiza el papel que juegan la historia regional, el contexto social y económico en las razones que permiten explicar el por qué de la presencia de la coca. Se da cuenta de las principales características de la modalidad de producción familiar que caracteriza la coca en la región y finalmente, y

  5. EVALUASI PENERAPAN ABg (AKTIF BERBAGI SISTEM SEBAGAI UPAYA MENGURANGI ANGKA KECELAKAAN KERJA DI PT. COCA-COLA AMATIL INDONESIA CENTRAL JAVA

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    Asep Alvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PT. Coca-Cola Amatil Indonesia Central Java (CCAI-CJ pada tahun 2013 telah menerapkan program ABg (Aktif Berbagi Sistem, pada tahun tersebut terdapat peningkatan kasus kecelakaan kerja di area kerja dari tahun sebelumnya sebanyak 2 kasus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran evaluasi dan rekomendasi dari kendala-kendala dalam penerapan ABg Sistem sebagai upaya mengurangi angka kecelakaan kerja di PT. CCAI-CJ. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan menggunakan pendekatan etnografi. Teknik pengambilan sumber informasi yang digunakan adalah teknik snowball sampling, jumlah informan awal yaitu dua orang. Hasil penelitian didapatkan masih terdapat kendala dalam penerapan ABg Sistem yaitu: pelaksanaan pengawasan Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja (K3 yang belum berjalan konsisten. Konsistensi penerapan peraturan dan prosedur K3 yang belum optimal serta adanya sanksi yang tidak sesuai dengan prosedur penerapan ABg Sistem. Kurangnya komunikasi antara manajemen dengan pekerja dan kurangnya pemahaman pekerja tentang informasi K3. Kurangnya keterlibatan pekerja dalam pelaporan kejadian kecelakaan/kondisi berbahaya. Saran yang dapat diberikan yaitu: konsistensi pelaksanaan pengawasan K3 sesuai prosedur, sanksi yang diberikan lebih baik berupa arahan bagi pekerja untuk dapat bekerja lebih aman, melakukan komunikasi kepada pekerja sesuai dengan prosedur komunikasi internal, diadakan peningkatan kompetensi melalui pelatihan awareness K3, serta dilakukan pelatihan mengenai prosedur pelaporan kecelakaan/kondisi berbahaya kepada pekerja. PT. Coca-Cola Amatil Indonesia Central Java (CCAI-CJ in 2013 has implemented ABg (Aktif Berbagi system program, there are two accident cases increase in 2013 at the working areas. The purpose of this study is to describe the evaluation and recommendation of the constraints in the implementation of ABg System as an effort to reduce the number of accidents in the workplace. This research design is a

  6. Padrão de uso de cannabis em dependentes de crack/cocaína internados para desintoxicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Baptista Lewgoy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o padrão de uso de cannabis em dependentes de crack/cocaína internados para desintoxicação em uma unidade de internação especializada. Métodos: Pesquisa quantitativa com delineamento exploratório e transversal em amostra não aleatória (n=109 de dependentes de crack/cocaína segundo os critérios da Classificação Internacional de Doenças (CID-10. O protocolo de coleta foi composto por: informações sociodemográficas e descrição do padrão de uso de substâncias psicoativas, Inventário Beck de Ansiedade (BAI e Inventário Beck de Depressão (BDI. Resultados: Os participantes, com média de idade de 27,82 anos (DP=6,68; 18-49 e com 8,19 (2,56; 4-16 de anos de estudo, estavam internados há cerca de 14,81 dias (DP=11,51; 7-64. Verificou-se que a idade média de início do uso de cannabis (15,17 +-3,29 é bastante inferior à idade de início do uso de crack (22,76 +-6,28. Achados indicam que a cannabis foi a primeira droga ilícita a ser consumida pelos dependentes de crack, sendo que 96,33% desses sujeitos apresentavam dependência de cannabis. Conclusão: Foi encontrada uma correlação positiva (r=0,385 de intensidade baixa entre a idade de início de consumo de crack e de cannabis, concluindo-se que, quanto mais cedo é iniciado o uso de cannabis, mais cedo é iniciado o uso de crack.

  7. Metodología de reclutamiento y características de una cohorte de jóvenes consumidores habituales de cocaína de tres ciudades españolas (Proyecto Itínere-cocaína Recruitment methodology and characteristics of a cohort of young regular cocaine users in three Spanish cities (the Itinere-cocaine Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pulido

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los sistemas de información sociosanitaria que monitorizan el consumo de drogas no profundizan en el análisis de las características sociodemográficas y de los patrones de consumo, ni en los factores que condicionan los problemas de salud. Se describe la metodología de reclutamiento y las características de una cohorte de jóvenes consumidores de cocaína. Métodos: Cohorte prospectiva de 720 consumidores de cocaína que no consumen habitualmente heroína, captados en la comunidad, independientemente de los servicios asistenciales, mediante métodos de referencia en cadena en las áreas metropolitanas de Madrid, Barcelona y Sevilla. Cuestionario administrado por ordenador y parcialmente autoadministrado. Análisis estratificado por ciudad y por frecuencia de consumo de cocaína base. Resultados: En los últimos 12 meses el 58,8% había consumido cocaína entre 1 y 2 días por semana; el 91,9% habitualmente la había esnifado, un 5,3% fumado y sólo un 2,8% inyectado; el 6,1% la había utilizado la mitad de las veces o más en forma de base. Hubo policonsumo con cannabis (93,6%, éxtasis (73,2% y anfetaminas (60,6%; un 4,0% se había inyectado alguna droga. Los que habían usado «crack» (22,1% tenían un menor nivel educativo, un consumo de cocaína más intenso, mayor prevalencia de consumo de otras drogas, en especial opioides, y prevalencia de inyección mucho más alta. Conclusiones: El estudio confirma y completa el perfil sociodemográfico y de consumo ofrecido por los sistemas de información basados en servicios o las encuestas poblacionales, en especial que una gran parte de los consumidores jóvenes son esporádicos y que existen dos subpoblaciones muy diferenciadas según el consumo o no de cocaína base.Background: Health information systems that monitor drug use do not perform in-depth analyses of sociodemographic characteristics and patterns of use, or of the factors that influence health problems. We describe

  8. Quality of cocaine seized in 1997 in the street-drug market of São Paulo city, Brazil Qualidade da cocaína traficada em 1997 na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Débora Gonçalves de Carvalho

    2003-03-01

    carbonates and bicarbonates (19.2%; silicates (13.8%, sugars (9.59%; starch (5.6%, borate (3.8% and sulphates(2.8%. Contaminants (secondary products originated from coca paste refining or decomposition processes were not analysed.Teores de cocaína e adulterantes bem como vários diluentes foram determinados em 389 amostras de pó branco apreendidas na cidade de São Paulo, no ano de 1997. Cocaína e seus adulterantes foram analisados por cromatografia em camada delgada, cromatografia em fase gasosa (detetor de ionização de chama e cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplado a espectrometria de massa (CG/MS. Diluentes foram analisados através de "spot tests" e da cromatografia em camada delgada. Foram obtidos os seguintes resultados: em 4,4% das amostras não foram detectados cocaína e adulterantes; de todas as amostras positivas para cocaína, 14% não continham mais que 200 mg/g de pó; em 70% a pureza da cocaína variou de 201 a 550 mg/g e em 16% não foi maior que 700 mg/g. Os anestésicos locais lidocaína e procaína foram detectados em 19 amostras em concentrações que variaram de 10 a 602 mg/g de pó. Cafeína foi encontrada em duas amostras. Os principais diluentes detectados foram: carbonatos e bicarbonatos, silicatos, açúcares, amido, borato e sulfatos. Contaminantes (produtos secundários originários do refino da pasta de coca ou de processos de decomposição não foram analisados.

  9. The decision of farmers from the tropical region of Cochabamba in Bolivia to cultivate coca instead of state-recommended alternative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos Juan Carlos

    2006-06-01

    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    Despite national coca cultivation having been prohibited from 1973 onwards and the rapid reduction of coca plantations up to 2000, coca is still being cultivated in the tropical region of  Cochabamba. Technical and economic aspects are responsible for many farmers deciding to continue to cultivate coca and not to cultivate alternative crops. Coca cultivation

  10. Basic elements for a national comprehensive plan for drug abuse control in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Agreda, R

    1987-01-01

    The first part of the article describes the nature and extent of drug abuse in Peru, with particular reference to the illicit cultivation of the coca plant and the national responses to these problems. It is estimated that between 150,000 and 200,000 hectares are under illicit coca plant cultivation, although less than 18,000 hectares are sufficient for meeting the legitimate needs for this plant in the country. It was estimated that 1.3 million children and youth were at risk of drug abuse in 1985. Both the problems and national responses are analysed in the context of historical and current developments that have influenced Peruvian drug abuse control policy, as well as in terms of the adequacy of programmes carried out within the social sectors involved in such control. The second part of the article summarizes the salient points extracted from the new national comprehensive plan for drug abuse control, which is intended to achieve a maximum reduction in drug abuse concurrently with the elimination of drug trafficking and the eradication of illicit coca plant cultivation in the country. The plan clearly defines the objectives, the strategies and the division of responsibilities in its implementation, involving the following four major sectors of activity: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation; control and monitoring of substances used for legitimate purposes; suppression of the illicit drug traffic; and the eradication of illicit coca plant growing together with the promotion of agricultural, agro-industrial and forestial development. It is pointed out that the whole nation needs to be mobilized in the implementation of the plan in order to achieve its objectives fully.

  11. Consecuencias del uso de cocaína en las personas que ejercen la prostitución Consequences of cocaine use among prostitutes

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    Carmen Meneses Falcón

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las circunstancias y las consecuencias del consumo de cocaína en el entorno del ejercicio de la prostitución. Material y métodos: Estudio cualitativo sobre una muestra de 60 personas, de 18-50 años de edad, que ejercen la prostitución en la calle, apartamentos y clubs de 6 ciudades españolas, mediante entrevista semiestructurada. Resultados: El alcohol y la cocaína son las principales sustancias de consumo en este contexto. Se trata de consumos ocasionales e instrumentales que permiten a las personas que ejercen la prostitución sobrellevar la actividad que realizan, resistir muchas horas la prestación de prácticas sexuales con diferentes clientes, obtener mayores beneficios económicos y eludir los servicios sexuales. Las consecuencias del consumo por parte de estas personas pueden llevar a la desprotección en las prácticas sexuales y a ser víctimas de agresión o violencia por parte del cliente. Las personas prostituidas desarrollan estrategias de disminución del consumo: reducción de las dosis de consumo, simulación del uso de drogas o selección de los clientes consumidores. Conclusiones: El estudio destaca que los consumos de drogas se encuentran asociados al contexto de realización de los servicios sexuales. Sin embargo, las consecuencias de éstos pueden implicar riesgos para la salud por la desprotección de las prácticas sexuales que demanda el cliente.Objective: To describe the circumstances and consequences of cocaine use in the setting of prostitution. Material and method: We performed a qualitative study with fieldwork in 6 Spanish cities. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to 60 persons aged between 18 and 50 years old involved in prostitution in different settings: street, flat and brothel. Results: The main substances used in prostitution were alcohol and cocaine. Consumption was occasional and instrumental and helped to reduce psychological barriers or inhibition and increase

  12. Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (glyphos) and cosmo-flux to larval and juvenile colombian frogs 2. Field and laboratory microcosm acute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, M H; Solomon, K R; Carrasquilla, G

    2009-01-01

    The spraying of coca (Erythroxylum coca) with glyphosate (coca mixture, a combination of formulated glyphosate, Glyphos, and an adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux) in Colombia has raised concerns about possible impacts on amphibians. Although acute LC50 for 8 species of Colombian frogs ranged from 1.2 to 2.78 mg acid equivalents (a.e.)/L, these exposures were conducted in the laboratory in the absence of sediments and organic matter such as would occur under realistic field conditions. In order to assess the effects of overspray of frog habitat under field conditions, Gosner stage 25 tadpoles of Rhinella granulosa, R. marina, Hypsiboas crepitans, and Scinax ruber were placed in outdoor microcosms made from polyethylene plastic fish ponds (2.07 m in diameter, 37 cm high) in an experimental area in Tolima, Colombia. The bottoms of the microcosms were covered with a 3-cm layer of local soil and they were filled to a depth of 15 cm (above the sediment) with local spring water. After up to 100 tadpoles of each frog species were placed in the microcosms, they were sprayed with the coca mixture at concentrations greater and less than the normal application rate (3.69 kg glyphosate a.e./ha). Mortality at 96 h in the control microcosms was between 0 and 16% and LC50 values were between 8.9 and 10.9 kg glyphosate a.e./ha (equivalent to initial concentrations of 5963 to 7303 microg glyphosate a.e./L). Mortality >LC50 was only observed in the tested species when the application rate was >2-fold the normal application rate. In other experiments, juvenile and adult terrestrial stages of frogs were exposed by direct spraying to a range of concentrations of coca mixture. Juveniles and adults were exposed in plastic food containers (19 x 19 cm). The bottom of the container was filled with moistened soil and leaf litter to a depth of 1 cm and 0.5 cm, respectively. Mortality in the controls was low, from 0 to 10%, and from 0 to 35% at the normal application rate. LC50 values ranged between 4.5 kg

  13. hnCOcaNH and hncoCANH pulse sequences for rapid and unambiguous backbone assignment in (13C, 15N) labeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Reddy, Jithender G; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2010-09-01

    Time-saving in data acquisition is a major thrust of NMR pulse sequence development in the context of structural proteomics research. The conventional HNCA and HN(CA)CO pulse sequences, routinely used for sequential backbone assignment, have the limitation that they cannot distinguish inter- and intra-residue correlations. In order to remove this ambiguity, one has to record HNCO and HN(CO)CA or sequential HNCA experiments which provide unambiguous information of sequential correlations. However, this almost doubles the experimental time. Besides, they require repeated scanning through the (15)N planes to search for the matching peaks along the carbon dimension. In this background, we present here two pulse sequences, termed as hncoCANH and hnCOcaNH that lead to spectra equivalent to HNCA and HN(CA)CO spectra, respectively, but with direct distinction of inter- and intra-residue peaks; these occur with opposite signs in the new experiments. The two pulse sequences have been derived by simple modification of the previously described HN(C)N pulse sequence [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147] to frequency-label (13)C(alpha) or (13)C' instead of (15)N during the t(1) period. Like HN(C)N, these spectra also exhibit special patterns of self and sequential peaks around glycines and prolines, which enable direct identification of certain triplets of residues and thus provide internal checks during the sequential assignment walk. The spectra enable rapid and unambiguous assignment of H(N), (15)N and (13)C(alpha) (or (13)C') in a single experiment, and thus would be of great value in high-throughput structural proteomics. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Entre Carlos Lehder y los vaqueros de la cocaína. La consolidación de las redes de narcotraficantes colombianos en Miami en los años 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz Rovner Eduardo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available
    Este artículo estudia las importaciones de cocaína y marihuana colombianas a Miami durante la
    década de 1970. Describe las redes organizadas para estas actividades ilícitas y señala que los
    colombianos cooperaban con traficantes de otras nacionalidades (principalmente cubanos y
    norteamericanos. Por último, se muestra que la violencia desatada por los narcotraficantes
    colombianos en Miami a finales de los años 70 iba plenamente dirigida a bandas rivales de la
    misma nacionalidad

  15. Efecto del mate de coca en la función hormonal en sujetos jóvenes sometidos a ejercicio sub-máximo, en la exposición aguda a la altura

    OpenAIRE

    Mujica, Elydia; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Saavedra, Carlos; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Huamán, Julio; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Díaz, Jesús; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Ronceros, Gerardo; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Zúñiga, Haydée; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Aliaga, José; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Casikar, Vidyasagar; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Cebreros, Hugo; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Ortiz, José; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Carranza, Elizabeth; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Florentino, Edgar; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudiar el efecto del mate de coca en los niveles hormonales: GH, PRL, ACTH, cortisol, FSH, LH, T, E2. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Instituto Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Participantes: Varones jóvenes nativos del nivel del mar. Intervenciones: Se evaluó los parámetros metabólicos en estudio en Lima, 150 m (NM), al arribo a Huancayo, 3 280 m (ALT), después de un ejercicio submáximo ...

  16. Salud mental en jóvenes consumidores de cocaína y heroína: factores relacionados, diferencias de género e impacto sobre la calidad de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Chahua Huarachi, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Existen muy pocos estudios respecto de los problemas en salud mental relacionados con el consumo de drogas en usuarios jóvenes que son captados al margen de los servicios asistenciales. El objetivo general de la tesis doctoral fue estudiar la comorbilidad psiquiátrica en consumidores de cocaína y o heroína del entorno comunitario, así como el análisis de su impacto en salud en términos de Calidad de Vida. Estudio transversal basado en los datos proporcionados por dos cohortes de usuarios regu...

  17. Estudo in situ do efeito da freqüência de ingestão de Coca-Cola na erosão do esmalte-dentina e reversão pela saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUSHIDA Claudia Emy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi uma avaliação intra-oral do efeito erosivo de refrigerante no esmalte-dentina e a capacidade da saliva em reverter as alterações, considerando a adequação do modelo e a inexistência de pesquisas em relação à dentina. Para tanto, foram utilizados dentes bovinos, a partir dos quais prepararam-se blocos de esmalte e dentina radicular adequados para determinação de microdureza superficial. Nove voluntários, utilizando dispositivos intra-orais palatinos contendo 4 blocos de esmalte e 4 de dentina, participaram deste estudo de 4 etapas, nas quais Coca-Cola foi ingerida de 1 a 8 vezes ao dia. Foram feitas determinações de microdureza superficial utilizando-se o aparelho SHIMADZU HMV 2000, e cargas de 50,0 e 15,0 g, respectivamente para esmalte e dentina, durante 5,0 segundos. Os resultados mostraram que, em função da freqüência de ingestão de Coca-Cola, a porcentagem de perda de dureza foi de 18,7 a 27,9 para o esmalte e de 24,6 a 32,6 para a dentina. Estas reduções foram estatisticamente significativas a 5% (teste "t" pareado. A porcentagem de recuperação de dureza pela ação da saliva foi parcial, porém significativa (p < 0,05, variando de 43,6 a 35,6 para o esmalte e de 40,5 a 34,6 para a dentina. Houve também uma correlação significativa entre freqüência de ingestão de Coca-Cola e % de perda de dureza, sendo de 0,97 para o esmalte e de 0,72 para a dentina. Por outro lado, em termos de recuperação de dureza, a correlação foi negativa, -0,70 para o esmalte e -0,74 para a dentina. Conclui-se que em função da freqüência de ingestão de Coca-Cola há perdas proporcionais e irreversíveis da estrutura superficial tanto do esmalte como da dentina.

  18. 77 FR 4831 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... substances: Drug Schedule Methylphenidate (1724) II Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Oxycodone..., and coca leaves. As explained in the Correction to Notice of Application pertaining to 72 FR 3417...

  19. 75 FR 36681 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Bezitramide (9800) II Carfentanil (9743) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Cocaine (9041) II Codeine (9050) II... registration or re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw, and coca leaves...

  20. 75 FR 1812 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... schedule II: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw..., poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw or coca leaves. As explained in the Correction to Notice of...

  1. Estudio de los mecanismos subyacentes a las alteraciones mediadas por cocaína y metilfenidato en el sistema tálamo-cortical de ratón. Rol de la serotonina en la modulación de la transmisión GABAérgica talámica

    OpenAIRE

    Goitia, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Los efectos de la cocaína sobre la transmisión GABAérgica del sistema tálamocortical son similares a los previamente descritos para un conjunto de patologías psiquiátricas y neurológicas englobadas bajo el nombre de síndrome de disritmia tálamocortical, que presenta coherencia anormal entre bajas y altas frecuencias a nivel tálamocortical. Se cree que la presencia de bajas frecuencias en individuos despiertos puede subyacer un procesamiento sensorial anormal. La cocaína ejerce sus propiedades...

  2. A elaboração da face em comunidades virtuais de marca: um estudo de caso sobre uma comunidade virtual de consumidores da Coca-Cola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayci Kelli Alexandre de Freitas

    Full Text Available As mudanças por que passam a sociedade e as pessoas, em campos como comunicação, consumo e organização social, desde a concepção da modernidade, colocaram em xeque muitos conceitos que embasavam a compreensão a respeito das pessoas e das suas relações sociais, incluídas as de consumo. Destacamos, neste quadro, as interações sociais encenadas pelas pessoas e os caminhos que percorrem para a elaboração dos seus "eus". Partindo de uma realidade cujo uso massivo da Internet e o surgimento das comunidades virtuais são enfatizados, recortamos uma comunidade virtual da marca Coca-Cola como terreno para compreendermos que faces são elaboradas pelas pessoas quando se utilizam de signos marcários como mediadores em interações virtuais. Para tanto, adotamos as noções de "eu" e elaboração da face conforme concebidas por Goffman (2006, juntamente com a concepção de marca numa dimensão simbólica, enquanto recurso de representação social. Sob este arcabouço teórico, seguimos a perspectiva interpretativista para realizar este estudo de caso netnográfico por meio da análise de discurso funcional. Juntamente com estas orientações ontoepistemológicas e metodológicas, adotamos o método elaborado por Leão (2007 para acessarmos as interações virtuais concebidas como face a face. Catorze faces foram identificadas. Estas são descritas por meio de exemplos extraídos das observações, os quais são elucidativos do papel da marca estudada na dinâmica de negociação interacional entre os participantes, que caracteriza o processo de elaboração de faces. Contribuições para o conhecimento, bem como implicações gerenciais são consideradas.

  3. Lesões destrutivas da linha média induzidas por cocaína com ANCA positivo mimetizando a granulomatose de Wegener Cocaine-induced midline destruction lesions with positive ANCA test mimicking Wegener's granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Stahelin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso crônico de cocaína por inalação pode causar lesões destrutivas de linha média (LDLMIC, que podem ser difíceis de distinguir das lesões da granulomatose de Wegener (GW nos ouvidos, nariz e garganta. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 43 anos admitida com história de dois anos de obstrução nasal e rinorreia. Ela havia recebido o diagnóstico de GW há cinco meses e estava em tratamento com prednisona e ciclofosfamida. Ao exame físico apresentava perfuração de septo nasal e palato. Exames de laboratório mostraram elevação das proteínas de fase aguda e teste p-ANCA positivo. Ensaios ELISA antiproteinase 3 e mieloperoxidase foram negativos. Tomografia computadorizada (TC dos seios paranasais mostrou destruição de septo nasal e palato, bem como sinusite maxilar bilateral. TC de tórax resultou normal. Biópsia da mucosa nasal revelou infiltrado inflamatório sem granuloma ou vasculite. Quando questionada, admitiu ser usuária de cocaína há cinco anos. Os imunossupressores foram suspensos e a paciente não mais fez uso da droga. Ela está sendo monitorada há seis meses e não desenvolveu novas lesões ou sintomas de outros órgãos. O diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes com LDLMIC pode ser desafiador. A avaliação deve incluir pesquisa de uso intranasal de cocaína. Embora o teste de ANCA não diferencie claramente o ANCA encontrado em alguns pacientes com LDLMIC daqueles em pacientes com GW, o envolvimento localizado e os achados de biópsia não típicos de vasculite granulomatosa de pequenos vasos devem ser reconhecidos como características das lesões induzidas por cocaína.Chronic use of cocaine by inhalation may induce midline destructive lesions (CIMDL, which can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from the ear, nose and throat lesions of Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG. We describe the case of a 43-year-old female patient admitted with a two-year history of nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. She had been

  4. Efecto del mate de coca en la función cardio-respiratoria en sujetos jóvenes sometidos a ejercicio sub-máximo, en la exposición aguda a la altura

    OpenAIRE

    Mujica, Elydia; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Saavedra, Carlos; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Huamán, Julio; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Díaz, Jesús; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Carrión, Mario; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Zúñiga, Haydée; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Aliaga, José; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Ortiz, José; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Cebreros, Hugo; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Casikar, Vidyasagar; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Córdova, Harold; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; López, Néstor; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM; Murillo, Alan; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudiar el efecto del mate de coca en la función cardio-respiratoria en jóvenes sometidos a ejercicio sub- máximo, en la exposición aguda a la altura. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina y Sección Fisiología, Facultad Medicina, UNMSM. Participantes: Varones del nivel del mar. Intervenciones: Se evaluó la función respiratoria y cardiovascular en Lima, a 150 m (NM) y al arribo a Huancayo, a 3 280 m (ALT), después de un ejercicio sub máximo y lueg...

  5. Simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero by on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection and ultraviolet detection coupled two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wu, Shing-Chen

    2011-05-20

    An innovative two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for the simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero. A C8 reversed-phase chromatographic column with ultraviolet detection was used as the first dimension for the determination of aspartame, and a ligand-exchange chromatographic column with on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection was employed as the second dimension for the analysis of amino acid enantiomers. The fluorimetric derivative reagent of amino acid enantiomers was o-phthaldialdehyde. The hydrolysis of aspartame in Coca-Cola Zero was induced by electric-heating or microwave heating. Aspartame was quantified by the matrix matched external standard calibration curve with a linear concentration range of 0-50 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9984). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.3 μg mL(-1) and 4.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The amino acid enantiomers was analyzed by the matrix matched internal standard calibration method (D-leucine as the internal standard) with a linear concentration range of 0-10 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9988-0.9997). The LODs and LOQs for L- and D-aspartic acid and L- and D-phenylalanine were 0.16-0.17 μg mL(-1) and 0.52-0.55 μg mL(-1), respectively, that was 12-13 times more sensitive than ultraviolet detection. The overall analysis accuracy for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 90.2-99.2% and 90.4-96.2%, respectively. The overall analysis precision for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 0.1-1.7% and 0.5-6.7%, respectively. Generally, the extent of aspartame hydrolysis increases with the increase of electro-thermal temperature, microwave power, and the duration of hydrolysis time. D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine can be observed with the electro-thermal racemization at the hydrolysis temperature 120°C for 1 day and only D-aspartic acid can be observed at the hydrolysis temperature 90°C for 2 and 3 days. For

  6. Atividades Marcárias como Recursos de Elaboração da Face em Comunidades Virtuais de Marca: Análise de uma Comunidade Virtual de Consumidores Da Coca-Cola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As relações interpessoais sofreram mudanças expressivas após a inserção da internet na vida social. Deste contexto, podemos destacar as comunidades virtuais e, mais especificamente, comunidades virtuais de marcas. Assumindo que o “eu” seja uma construção social promovida nas interações sociais, este estudo objetiva analisar o comportamento verbal de participantes de comunidades virtuais de marcas em relação a estas como meio de elaboração de suas faces (Goffman, 2006. Neste sentido, assumimos a noção de o que e como dizemos as coisas são comportamentos sociais (Austin, 1990 e utilizamos o conceito de “atividades marcárias”, desenvolvido por Leão e Mello (2009. Para tal, selecionamos uma comunidade de consumidores da Coca-Cola como terreno investigativo, onde realizamos uma “netnografia da comunicação”, suportada por uma análise de discurso funcional. Por fim, aspectos teóricos e práticos são considerados. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i2.2168

  7. Sintomas psiquiátricos e características sociodemográficas associados à tentativa de suicídio de usuários de cocaína e crack em tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiordan Cardoso da Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as características sintomatológicas e sociodemográficas associadas ao histórico de tentativa de suicídio (TS de usuários de cocaína e crack internados para tratamento. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo transversal envolvendo 160 participantes que responderam a uma entrevista clínica semiestruturada e ao instrumento Adult Self-Report (ASR. O modelo de Regressão Logística foi utilizado para testar os sintomas psicológicos associados à TS dessa amostra. Resultados As diferenças entre o grupo com TS e sem TS foram significativas (p < 0,001, e, do total da amostra, 30,6% (n = 49; p = 0,428 possuíam histórico de TS e 30,5% (n = 20 relataram ideação suicida no atual tratamento. A etnia, os sintomas de depressão e os problemas de pensamento estiveram associados à TS, enquanto comportamentos intrusivos, de quebra de regras e problemas internalizantes serviram de proteção à TS. Conclusões Os achados reforçam a necessidade da avaliação psiquiátrica dos estados emocionais, de comorbidades e do risco de suicídio no ingresso e durante o tratamento para dependência química.

  8. Perfil sociodemográfico e de padrões de uso entre dependentes de cocaína hospitalizados Epidemiological profile of cocaine users on treatment in psychiatrics hospitals, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil sociodemográfico e o padrão de uso da cocaína entre usuários de drogas hospitalizados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com dependentes químicos maiores de 18 anos, internados em alguns hospitais psiquiátricos da região metropolitana da Grande São Paulo, Brasil, com condições clínicas de responder a questionário padronizado e que concordaram em participar do estudo. Foram selecionados seis hospitais psiquiátricos que recebiam, por procura espontânea, pacientes da rede pública e privada de toda a região da Grande São Paulo. A coleta de informações foi feita por meio de entrevistas estruturadas, aplicada individualmente por psicóloga treinada. Para análise estatística utilizou-se do teste t de Sudent e Qui-quadrado, e o nível de significância foi fixado em 5%. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se maior taxa (38,4% de usuários de crack e pequena prevalência (1,6% de usuários de drogas injetáveis. Os dependentes de cocaína fumada apresentavam baixa escolaridade, encontravam-se mais freqüentemente desempregados, haviam morado nas ruas, usavam maiores quantidades de droga e tinham sido presos em maior número de vezes do que aqueles que usavam outras vias de administração da droga. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que o uso de drogas é um grave problema de saúde pública na Grande São Paulo, mostrado pelo número de internações hospitalares por dependência. Os usuários de crack apresentam pior condição socioeconômica e maior envolvimento com a violência e a criminalidade.OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological profile and patterns of cocaine use among hospitalized drug users. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among drug users, aged 18 years or more, hospitalized in one out six selected psychiatric hospitals in the metropolitan area of Greater São Paulo, whose clinical conditions allowed them to reliably answer to a standardized questionnaire and who agreed to participate. Six

  9. Normas percibidas por los estudiantes universitarios hondureños acerca de sus pares y el uso de tabaco, alcohol, marihuana y cocaína Normas percebidas pelos estudantes universitários hondurenhos sobre os pares e o uso de tabaco, álcool, maconha e cocaína Perceived norms among honduran university students about peers and tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syntia Dinora Santos Figueroa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue estimar la diferencia entre las normas percibidas sobre el uso de drogas por los pares y el uso real informado por estudiantes universitarios, entre 18 a 24 años, del segundo y tercer año en el área de Educación. La teoría de las Normas Sociales fue usada como marco referencial. 286 estudiantes participaron en el estudio, el 67% expresó haber consumido alcohol al menos una vez en la vida y el 28% declaró consumirlo diariamente. Los estudiantes percibieron que 62% de sus compañeros consumen tabaco y el 63% alcohol. El estándar percibido de consumo de drogas fue ligeramente más alto entre las mujeres que en los hombres. Se concluye que los resultados indican una sobreestimación al compararse el estándar percibido con el consumo informado de tabaco y alcohol así como de marihuana y cocaína.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a diferença entre as normas percebidas sobre o uso de drogas pelos pares e o próprio uso em estudantes universitários, entre 18 e 24 anos, do segundo e terceiro ano da área de educação. A teoria das Normas Sociais foi usada como marco referencial. Participaram do estudo 286 estudantes, sendo que 67% declararam ter consumido álcool ao menos uma vez na vida e 28%, diariamente. Os estudantes estimaram que 62% dos pares consomem tabaco e 63%, álcool. A norma percebida para o consumo de drogas foi ligeiramente mais alta em mulheres do que em homens. Como conclusão os resultados indicaram hiperestimativa ao se comparar a norma percebida com o próprio consumo, em relação ao tabaco, ao álcool, à maconha e à cocaína.The purpose of this study was to assess the difference between perceived norms and peers' drug use among sophomore and junior university students (from the field of education aged 18 to 24 years. The Social Norms Theory was used as the theoretical framework. In total, 286 students participated in the study, 67% of which reported having consumed

  10. Estudio de parámetros metabólicos en sujetos jóvenes sometidos a ejercicio sub-máximo después de la administración de mate de coca, en la exposición aguda de altura

    OpenAIRE

    Mujica, Elydia; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Ronceros, Gerardo; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Torres, Javier; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Pinto, Rogelio; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Ponciano, Walter; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Bravo, Yelitz; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; López, Milena; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Gallardo, Duber; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Salinas, César; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Calderón, Segundo; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Villareal, Carmen; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Yampufé, Manuel; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar los parámetros metabólicos glucosa, colesterol, triglicéridos, HDL, en sujetos jóvenes sometidos a ejercicio sub-máximo después de la administración de mate de coca, en exposición aguda de altura. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina. Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas y Sección Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Participantes: Estudiantes universitarios varones nativos del nivel del mar. Intervenciones: Se estudi...

  11. Controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Tůmová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on the problems of operational controllership and the instruments used for their solution. In connection with these issues the thesis also defines the role of the controller, in particular his authorities and responsibilities. The theoretical part of the work looks at the academic conception of controlleship. The practical part describes the main functions, duties, activities and the system of cooperation in between controllership and other departments in particular...

  12. a la cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Crespo-Fernández

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de drogas es uno de los principales problemas de salud pública al que se enfrentan las sociedades actuales. Durante varias décadas se ha generado un amplio grupo de trabajos científicos, desde la perspectiva de las neurociencias, que han logrado esclarecer variables importantes implicadas en el proceso de adicción y en los de mantenimiento y recaída. Se ha encontrado la implicación directa de circuitos neurales como el mesolímbico-mesocortical o la participación activa de sistemas de neurotransmisores como los dopaminérgicos y los glutamatérgicos. Además, se han esclarecido los sustratos conductuales de la adicción mediante técnicas procedentes de la Psicología del Aprendizaje, lo cual ha sido de gran utilidad a la hora de evaluar los componentes de este comportamiento complejo. En este artículo se hará una revisión de estos hallazgos destacando la importancia del estudio conjunto de las bases neuroquímicas y neuroanatómicas junto con los procesos conductuales.

  13. Considerazioni sulla cocaina: presentazione ed analisi di una casistica / Considérations sur la cocaïne : présentation et analyse d’une liste de cas / Considerations about cocaine: analysis and presentation of a case-record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoni Francesco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available L’usage de cocaïne représente un danger pour la santé et notre pays a prévu une norme détaillée en la matière, le DPR n° 309/90, modifié suite à un référendum abrogatif en 1993 qui a dépénalisé la détention de drogue pour usage personnel (ce dernier est reconnu sur la base de la quantité de drogue au moment de la saisie. En ce qui concerne la cocaïne, la limite à ne pas dépasser pour être reconnu comme utilisateur et non comme dealer est 750 mg de principe actif ; en outre, la quantité de substance altérant la dose est particulièrement importante. Cette étude propose des considérations sur la prévalence de substances qui altèrent les doses sur le marché des stupéfiants, en particulier en ce qui concerne la cocaïne dans la région du Latium à travers l’analyse des activités du laboratoire de l’Agence Régionale de la Protection de l’Environnement du Latium, afin de développer des considérations utiles aussi au traitement du patient intoxiqué. Cocaine consumption represents a serious danger for human health and our Country has provided a detailed set of rules to this regard by DPR 309/90 amended after the referendum of 1993 which decriminalizes the possession of drug for personal use according to established amounts during confiscation. As far as cocaine is concerned the established limited quantity is 750 mg of main active ingredient (so as to be considered consumer and not drug-dealer. What is particularly important is the amount of adulterants contained in the drug dose, which is particularly dangerous and harmful.This study proposes some considerations about the prevalence of adulterants in drug-trafficking in particularly in cocaine in Lazio region through the laboratory sampling tests of the Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente del Lazio, in order to draw useful considerations regarding the treatment of intoxicated patients.

  14. Prevalência da exposição pré-natal à cocaína em uma amostra de recém-nascidos de um hospital geral universitário Prevalence of prenatal exposure to cocaine in a sample of newborns from a university teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle B. da Cunha

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência da exposição pré-natal à cocaína em uma amostra de recém-nascidos utilizando dois métodos: a fluorescência polarizada por imunoensaio no mecônio e a entrevista materna. MÉTODO: estudo transversal realizado num hospital geral universitário, abrangendo todos os recém-nascidos nascidos vivos no centro obstétrico do hospital durante o período de 23 de março de 1999 a 1 de junho de 1999 (847 recém-nascidos. A presença de exposição pré-natal à cocaína foi definida por um teste de fluorescência polarizada por imunoensaio positivo para benzoilecgonina no mecônio do RN e/ou por uma entrevista materna positiva. RESULTADOS: a taxa da exposição pré-natal à cocaína foi de 16 casos (2,4%, através da entrevista, e de 25 casos (3,4% através da testagem do mecônio. Foram encontrados 34 casos, com uma prevalência de 4,6%, quando os métodos para a detecção foram considerados de forma complementar. CONCLUSÕES: através deste estudo, foi observado que a testagem meconial é mais eficaz que a entrevista materna no diagnóstico da exposição pré-natal à cocaína. A entrevista aumentou, em relação à testagem do mecônio, em 26% a possibilidade do diagnóstico da exposição; e a testagem do mecônio, em relação à entrevista, aumentou em 53,4% o diagnóstico da exposição.OBJECTIVE: to assess the prevalence of prenatal exposure to cocaine in a sample of newborns using two methods: fluorescence polarization immunoassay and interview with the mother. METHODS: this cross-sectional study was carried out in a university teaching hospital. The population included all live births between March 23, 1999 and June 01, 1999 (n=847. Exposure was determined by a benzoylecgonine-positive meconium specimen and/or by a positive interview with the mother. RESULTS: the prevalence of prenatal exposure to cocaine in this sample was 2.4% (16 cases according to the interviews, and 3.4% (25 cases according to

  15. Korporatīvā sociālā atbildība: patērētāju uztveres un korporāciju komunikācijas analīze starptautiskajos tirgos uz McDonald's un Coca-Cola piemēra.

    OpenAIRE

    Teterins, Pāvels

    2016-01-01

    Korporatīvās sociālās atbildības (KSA) komunikācijas efektivitātes pamats ir pielāgošanās patērētāju prasībām. Pētījuma mērķis bija uz McDonald’s un Coca-Cola sociālo tīklu KSA komunikācijas piemēra, izvērtēt to, vai kompānijas pielāgo KSA komunikāciju patērētāju vērtējumam par atbildīgu uzņēmējdarbību, un piedāvāt optimālu KSA komunikācijas struktūru. Demogrāfisko faktoru ietekme uz Latvijas, Vācijas un Austrālijas KSA vērtējumu praktiski netika novērota. Savukārt, salīdzinot valstis savā st...

  16. Comportamento motor oral e global de recém-nascidos de mães usuárias de crack e/ou cocaína Oral and general motor behavior of newborns from crack and/or cocaine using mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Gasparin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento motor oral e global de recém-nascidos de mães que fizeram uso de crack e/ou cocaína durante a gestação e verificar se há relação entre o desenvolvimento dos sistemas sensório motor oral (SSMO e motor global. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, em que foram avaliados 25 recém-nascidos prematuros e a termo de mães usuárias de crack e/ou cocaína, pareados com outro grupo de 25 recém-nascidos sem o fator em estudo. As avaliações do SSMO e motor global foram realizadas por meio do Instrumento de Avaliação da Prontidão do Prematuro para Início da Alimentação Oral e do Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP, respectivamente. Os resultados compararam os escores encontrados nas duas escalas e a relação destes com o uso materno do crack e/ou cocaína durante a gestação. RESULTADOS: No TIMP não foi constatada diferença na comparação entre os escores de recém-nascidos de mães usuárias de crack e/ou cocaína e os de mães não usuárias. No Instrumento de Avaliação da Prontidão do Prematuro para Início da Alimentação Oral, os resultados apresentaram diferença. Foi observada associação entre os resultados de bebês que apresentaram atraso no TIMP com menor escore no Instrumento de Avaliação da Prontidão do Prematuro para Início da Alimentação Oral. CONCLUSÃO: O baixo desempenho observado no Instrumento de Avaliação da Prontidão do Prematuro para Início da Alimentação Oral sugere que as respostas motoras orais estão alteradas pelo uso materno das drogas. A correlação entre os dois instrumentos mostra que o desenvolvimento do SSMO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento motor global.PURPOSE: analyzing the oral and general motor behavior of newborns from women who used crack and/or cocaine during pregnancy, and verifying if there is a relation between the development of the oral and general sensory motor system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 25 premature and full

  17. Cocaína: complicaciones obstétricas, médicas y perinatales. Características clínicas y tratamiento a estas pacientes Cocaine: obstetric, medical and perinatal complications. Clinical characteristics and treatment of these patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre los efectos generales de la cocaína, y en particular, sobre el embarazo y el recién nacido, en la que se enfatiza en los efectos deletéreos que tiene esta droga sobre la gestación, entre los que se destacan el bajo peso al nacer, el hematoma retroplacentario, la hipertensión arterial y la muerte fetal, entre otras complicaciones, así como también las consecuencias negativas que provoca sobre el producto de la concepción. Se hacen consideraciones acerca del manejo integral que hay que tener sobre estas pacientes.A review on the general effects of cocaine and, in particular, on its effects on pregnancy and the newborn infant, was made. Low birth weight, retroplacental hematoma, arterial hypertension and fetal death, are some of the deleterious effects of this drug on gestation that were emphazised, among other complications, as well as its negative consequences for the product of conception. Considerations are made on the comprehensive management of these patients.

  18. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate (Roundup® Active and Cosmo-Flux®411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Marcela Henao Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux®411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup® Active and Cosmo-Flux®411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50=3 904µg a.e./L; LC50=2 799µg a.e./L, respectively, while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203µg a.e./L; LC50=1 424µg a.e./L, respectively were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated, or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76kg glyphosate a.e./ha the highest field application rate of 3

  19. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate (Roundup Active) and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao Muñoz, Liliana Marcela; Montes Rojas, Claudia Marsela; Bernal Bautista, Manuel Hernando

    2015-03-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux 411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance) of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup Active and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 3904 microg a.e./L; LC50=2 799 pg a.e./L, respectively), while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203 microg a.e./L; LC50=1424 microgg a.e./L, respectively) were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated), or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76 kg glyphosate a.e./ha) the highest field application rate of 3

  20. Using thought mapping and structured stories to decrease HIV risk behaviors among cocaine injectors and crack smokers in the South of Brazil A utilização do mapeamento cognitivo e de histórias estruturadas para diminuir comportamentos de risco para a contaminação pelo HIV entre consumidores de cocaína injetável e de crack no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Pechansky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in AIDS knowledge and risk behaviors among Brazilian cocaine users in an intervention trial. METHOD: 119 participants were randomly assigned to either a standard or a standard plus "thought mapping" intervention, and re-interviewed 2 and 8 weeks after intake using standardized data collection instruments. Intervention effects were examined using generalized estimated equation model. RESULTS: Significant increases in AIDS knowledge and condom use were observed in the experimental group, as well as significant changes in the subscores for sexual and drug risks. The experimental intervention was less successful in decreasing mean days of cocaine use when compared to the standard. CONCLUSION: Although not robust, the findings nevertheless suggest that components of the experimental thought-mapping model might be useful in combination with other approaches.OBJETIVOS: Comparar as mudanças em conhecimento sobre AIDS e comportamentos de risco em usuários de cocaína brasileiros submetidos a uma intervenção experimental. MÉTODO: 119 sujeitos foram aleatoriamente designados para uma intervenção padrão ou uma intervenção padrão adicionada a um "mapa cognitivo", e re-entrevistados duas e oito semanas após admissão no estudo, utilizando-se instrumentos de coleta padronizados. Os efeitos da intervenção foram examinados utilizando modelo de equações de estimação generalizadas. RESULTADOS: Foram observados aumentos significativos no conhecimento sobre AIDS e uso de preservativos no grupo experimental, bem como modificações significativas nos subescores para risco sexual e uso de drogas. A intervenção experimental teve menos sucesso em diminuir dias de uso de cocaína quando comparada com a intervenção padrão. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de não serem robustos, os achados sugerem que os componentes do modelo de mapa cognitivo experimentados poderiam ser úteis em combinação com outras abordagens.

  1. “I hate coke”: an nethnographic analysis about speech anti-brand of the virtual community on orkut “Eu odeio Coca-Cola”: uma análise netnográfica sobre o discurso antimarca da comunidade virtual do orkut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Moutinho Abdalla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} It is evident broad organizational concerns regarding the management and maintenance of their brands. Retaliatory and repudiation action against product and services brands are shown as imposing barriers to be implemented by organizations. Thus, this study aims to deepen understanding of the subject by analyzing the speech of members of the virtual community antibrand "eu odeio coca-cola (I hate Coke" in Orkut social network, besides seeking the motivations that led these members to express their opinions. As research procedures, drew on an exploratory analysis by conducting a search netnography, which led the researchers to immerse themselves in the community for a period of one year, featuring a longitudinal study. For the analysis of information, was employed discourse analysis, which enabled the categorization of the motivations for community members to express their opinions. As a result, we found six categories of behavior, which were (1 negative experience of consumption, (2 brand association with health/aesthetics problems, (3 presumed use of illicit material in the product, (4 concern with the effects of globalization, and

  2. Alergia a cocaína. Importancia social

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Gómez, Clara

    2017-01-01

    En las últimas investigaciones se ha podido constatar que muchos cuadros etiquetados como secundarios a toxicidad producidas por drogas de abuso eran en realidad producidos por hipersensibilidad alérgica. Por ello, este trabajo ha consistido en intentar demostrar este hecho seleccionando diferentes grupos de pacientes (clínica alérgica con heroína, cannabis y/o tomate, asma polínico, asma relacionado con tabaquismo, pacientes con riesgo de manipulación de anestésicos: ATS, dentistas, médicos,...

  3. Psicoanálisis de coca y bravura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gutiérrez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Usando una analogía entre el psicoanálisis individual y una clínica social, se examina la cultura colombiana. A partir de la imposibilidad de remediar el síntoma social implicado por un grupo colombiano divergente, los gamines, representativo del atrevimi

  4. Wine and Coca Cola: Serendipity and Entrepreneurial success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Philip

    2007-03-01

    Starting a new company from scratch depends critically on identifying a product for which there will be enough demand to generate a profit after a reasonable time period. Many start-ups nowadays obtain early Government grants or contracts (e. g. the so-called SBIR programs), but until such contracts begin (if ever!) to provide positive cash flow, a source of other funds become essential. Despite contracts, venture capital, and some friends willing to ``gamble,'' our first entrepreneurial venture ended not with a bang, but a whimper! We had chosen the wrong market. On the day before the company closed its doors, an unanticipated event occurred. We had opened a few bottles of wine for our final farewell but, as we began drinking, we decided to study their laser-scattering properties with our unappreciated and failed instrumentation. The resulting press coverage of a paper reporting that ``tasting'' was phenomenal, though it was published too late to save the company. Starting a second entrepreneurial venture was far more difficult as the first ``angels'' were nowhere to be found. A forgotten proposal by that failed first venture was suddenly funded providing, thereby, the means to start the second. As the second venture began, the success of the wine paper suggested that trying the same method with cola drinks might prove interesting. A new paper reporting on those results was immediately picked up by Applied Optics for an issue cover. At first, a particular cola manufacturer was not amused. However, it soon recognized the significance of laser scattering and began to contribute to the Company's support. Complemented by their largesse and the newly funded contract, the Company's instrumentation commercialization programs became sharply focused: refine the development and sale of a new type of absolute light scattering photometer incorporating a laser. We never looked back.

  5. Coca-Cola otdõhhajet / Viktoria Panova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Panova, Viktoria

    2006-01-01

    10. Pimedate Ööde Filmifestival algab. Festivali toimumispaikadest, filmiprogrammidest, alafestivalidest : animafestival Animated Dreams, tudengifilmifestival Sleepwalkers, laste- ja noortefilmi festival Just

  6. Two boys and a can of coca-cola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partensky, Michael B.

    2002-02-01

    A barometric analogy imposes a limit ˜10 meters for a height from which one can sip Coke through a straw from a can placed on the ground. How did Jeff manage to overcome this restriction without using anyone's help or tools? One possible solution is offered.

  7. The monitoring of trade in and control of psychotropic substances to guard against their diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, I

    1983-01-01

    The establishment of international control of opiates has been an important achievement of the international community; this is substantiated by the fact that, at the beginning of this century, legally manufactured morphine and heroin were the principal sources of illicit supply, whereas at present the illicit traffic in these drugs is supplied from illicit sources. The poppy straw process has helped to promote measures to control opium poppy cultivation in a number of European countries; Turkey has been a successful example of such control. The present large-scale illicit traffic in cannabis resin and cocaine is the consequence of the lack of the implementation of provisions of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, to control the cannabis plant and the coca bush at the national level. The provisions of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, being largely a result of international compromise, are not designed in the best possible way to prevent the diversion of psychotropic substances from legal sources to illicit channels. There are no appropriate provisions for the control and monitoring of international transactions. There is a discrepancy between the rather limited scope of international control of substances listed in schedules III and IV of the 1971 Convention and the much larger scope of control of hypnotics, sedatives and tranquillizers at national levels. The provisions of the 1971 Convention, however, constitute a legal basis for bilateral and multilateral actions for the detection of suspected diversion cases, and offer possibilities of promoting the prevention of diversion of psychotropic substances. At present, the relationship between the control of psychotropic drugs, including the prevention of diversion and the organization of the national drug supply system, as well as the efficacy of national control over pharmaceutical products, has not been fully recognized by the international community.

  8. Plant tropane alkaloid biosynthesis evolved independently in the Solanaceae and Erythroxylaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirschitzka, Jan; Schmidt, Gregor W; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; D'Auria, John Charles

    2012-06-26

    The pharmacologically important tropane alkaloids have a scattered distribution among angiosperm families, like many other groups of secondary metabolites. To determine whether tropane alkaloids have evolved repeatedly in different lineages or arise from an ancestral pathway that has been lost in most lines, we investigated the tropinone-reduction step of their biosynthesis. In species of the Solanaceae, which produce compounds such as atropine and scopolamine, this reaction is known to be catalyzed by enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. However, in Erythroxylum coca (Erythroxylaceae), which accumulates cocaine and other tropane alkaloids, no proteins of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family were found that could catalyze this reaction. Instead, purification of E. coca tropinone-reduction activity and cloning of the corresponding gene revealed that a protein of the aldo-keto reductase family carries out this reaction in E. coca. This protein, designated methylecgonone reductase, converts methylecgonone to methylecgonine, the penultimate step in cocaine biosynthesis. The protein has highest sequence similarity to other aldo-keto reductases, such as chalcone reductase, an enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis, and codeinone reductase, an enzyme of morphine alkaloid biosynthesis. Methylecgonone reductase reduces methylecgonone (2-carbomethoxy-3-tropinone) stereospecifically to 2-carbomethoxy-3β-tropine (methylecgonine), and has its highest activity, protein level, and gene transcript level in young, expanding leaves of E. coca. This enzyme is not found at all in root tissues, which are the site of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in the Solanaceae. This evidence supports the theory that the ability to produce tropane alkaloids has arisen more than once during the evolution of the angiosperms.

  9. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern Estudo caso-controle sobre distúrbios psiquiátricos e com álcool como fatores de risco para padrão de abuso de drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Lopes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.Avaliou-se os transtornos mentais e a dependência de álcool como fatores de risco para padrão de abuso de drogas em um estudo caso-controle (370 adultos. Casos (usuários de drogas e controles foram selecionados na comunidade segundo a técnica de "bola de neve" e pareados por sexo, idade e amizade. A coleta de dados foi feita por meio do CIDI (Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Considerou-se três padrões de abuso/dependência de drogas de acordo com o tipo utilizado: abuso/dependência de qualquer droga, apenas maconha e cocaína, e outras drogas. Na regressão logística condicional, dependência ao álcool, associou-se fortemente ao padrão de abuso/dependência de drogas. Comparado ao grupo de "não usuários de drogas", o

  10. El impacto de los problemas de implementación del régimen de control de insumos químicos en la cadena del tráfico ilícito de drogas entre los años 2007 y 2011 en las principales cuencas cocaleras del Perú .

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcarra Castillo, Sofia Isabel

    2014-01-01

    El tráfico ilícito de drogas cocaínicas, como toda actividad agro- industrial de transformación de materia prima, necesita de diversos factores de producción para poder elaborar el producto finalizado: el clorhidrato de cocaína y sus derivados. Si bien el insumo esencial es la hoja de coca, hay otros insumos necesarios para poder completar el proceso de transformación. Estos son los insumos y precursores químicos, sustancias que, por sus propiedades químicas, ayudan a separar y refinar el alc...

  11. Contextual priming in grapheme-color synesthetes and yoked controls: 400 msec in the life of a synesthete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Kanai, Stanley; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-07-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a heritable trait where graphemes ("2") elicit the concurrent perception of specific colors (red). Researchers have questioned whether synesthetic experiences are meaningful or simply arbitrary associations and whether these associations are perceptual or conceptual. To address these fundamental questions, ERPs were recorded as 12 synesthetes read statements such as "The Coca-Cola logo is white and 2," in which the final grapheme induced a color that was either contextually congruous (red) or incongruous ("...white and 7," for a synesthetes who experienced 7 as green). Grapheme congruity was found to modulate the amplitude of the N1, P2, N300, and N400 components in synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia impacts perceptual as well as conceptual aspects of processing. To evaluate whether observed ERP effects required the experience of colored graphemes versus knowledge of grapheme-color pairings, we ran three separate groups of controls on a similar task. Controls trained to a synesthete's associations elicited N400 modulation, indicating that knowledge of grapheme-color mappings was sufficient to modulate this component. Controls trained to synesthetic associations and given explicit visualization instructions elicited both N300 and N400 modulations. Lastly, untrained controls who viewed physically colored graphemes ("2" printed in red) elicited N1 and N400 modulations. The N1 grapheme congruity effect began earlier in synesthetes than colored grapheme controls but had similar scalp topography. Data suggest that, in synesthetes, achromatic graphemes engage similar visual processing networks as colored graphemes in nonsynesthetes and are in keeping with models of synesthesia that posit early feed-forward connections between form and color processing areas in extrastriate cortex. The P2 modulation was unique to the synesthetes and may reflect neural activity that underlies the conscious experience of the synesthetic induction.

  12. Perancangan Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djunaidi Santoso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In making controller, there must be knowledge about component controlling functions that used for controller designing. In the control unit, it needs simple method as micro programming. This micro programming is to create a micro program in binary numbering that used for controlling pin’s component controller and outside the controller. Controller design in general needs several prerequisites, which are digital system and controller and assembly language. 

  13. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  14. Dream controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  15. Controllable dose; Dosis controlable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jtar@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  16. Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... Repellent that is Right for You DEET Mosquito Control Methods Success in mosquito control: an integrated approach ...

  17. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  18. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    signal. The control unit comprises a first signal processing unit, a second signal processing unit, and a combiner unit. The first signal processing unit has an output and is supplied with a first carrier signal and an input signal. The second signal processing unit has an output and is supplied...... with a second carrier signal and the input signal. The combiner unit is connected to the first and second signal processing units combining the outputs of the first and the second signal processing units to form a signal representative of the control signal......A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  19. Neurofuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994).......These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994)....

  20. Helicopter controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Carico, Dean

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The concept of helicopter controllability is explained. A background study reviews helicopter development in the U.S. General helicopter configurations, linearized equations of motion, stability, and piloting requirements are discussed. Helicopter flight controls, handling qualities, and associated specification are reviewed. Analytical, simulation and flight test methods for evaluating helicopter automatic flight control systems ar...

  1. Gaining control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enden, van der E.; Laan, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the efforts of companies to find a solution for tax risk management, tax accounting and being in control. In trying to find a solution, companies work towards an integrated tax control framework (TCF), a tax risk management and control environment embedded in the internal

  2. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  3. CONTROL ORGANIZACIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Granda Carazas, Segundo Eloy; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    El concepto de control puede ser muy general y empleársele como punto focal para el sistema administrativo. Por ejemplo la planeación puede ser imaginada como medio para lograr el control del comportamiento individual u organizacional. En forma similar, la tarea de organización puede ser construida de manera que proporcione un medio para el control de las actividades.

  4. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have sex makes sense Talking to your parents about sex Deciding about sex Birth control Types of birth ... not planned. Some young people are afraid their parents will find out they’re having sex. If you get birth control from a doctor, ...

  5. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  6. Taking Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast gives action steps and reasons to control diabetes.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/2/2007.

  7. Detonation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2016-10-25

    Detonation control modules and detonation control circuits are provided herein. A trigger input signal can cause a detonation control module to trigger a detonator. A detonation control module can include a timing circuit, a light-producing diode such as a laser diode, an optically triggered diode, and a high-voltage capacitor. The trigger input signal can activate the timing circuit. The timing circuit can control activation of the light-producing diode. Activation of the light-producing diode illuminates and activates the optically triggered diode. The optically triggered diode can be coupled between the high-voltage capacitor and the detonator. Activation of the optically triggered diode causes a power pulse to be released from the high-voltage capacitor that triggers the detonator.

  8. Control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, S

    2008-01-01

    In engineering and mathematics, control theory deals with the behaviour of dynamical systems. The desired output of a system is called the reference. When one or more output variables of a system need to follow a certain reference over time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired effect on the output of the system. Rapid advances in digital system technology have radically altered the control design options. It has become routinely practicable to design very complicated digital controllers and to carry out the extensive calculations required for their design. These advances in implementation and design capability can be obtained at low cost because of the widespread availability of inexpensive and powerful digital processing platforms and high-speed analog IO devices.

  9. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  10. Losing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Lust, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders...... with respondents without lifetime assaultive behavior, those with a history of assaultive or destructive behavior reported more depressive symptoms, more stress, and higher rates of a range of impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, and skin...... picking disorder). CONCLUSIONS: Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant...

  11. Role of triple fixed combination valsartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide in controlling blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Doménech

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Monica Doménech, Antonio CocaHypertension Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Hospital Clinic (IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Hypertension is one of the main risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and the search for new therapeutic strategies aimed at optimizing its control remains an ongoing research and clinical challenge. In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of combinations of antihypertensive drugs with complementary mechanisms of action, with the aims of reducing blood pressure levels more rapidly and vigorously than strategies employing monotherapy and improving treatment compliance and adhesion. Therefore, as recommended by the 2009 reappraisal of the European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology Guidelines, the use of a triple combination that combines a calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin II receptor blocker and a thiazide diuretic seems a reasonable and efficacious combination for the management of hypertensive patients with moderate, high or very high risk. This article reviews the clinical trials carried out with the fixed combination of amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide at the doses recommended for each drug in monotherapy. The data show that this combination achieved greater reductions in mean sitting diastolic and systolic blood pressure than amlodipine, valsartan or hydrochlorothiazide in monotherapy, with favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. The triple combination at high single doses should be used with caution in elderly patients and those with renal or liver failure. Although the tolerability and safety of the triple combination are good, the mostfrequently reported adverse effects were peripheral edema, headache and dizziness. Analytical alterations were consistent with the already-known biochemical effects of amlodipine, valsartan or hydrochlorothiazide in

  12. Sistema de gestão ambiental como suporte na identificação dos custos com controle, preservação e recuperação do meio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sirlene Leonardo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista que a adequação ambiental gera um custo adicional que pode ser identificado a partir da implantação de sistemas de gestão ambiental, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo mapear os custos relativos ao controle, à preservação e recuperação do meio ambiente a partir do Sistema de Gestão Ambiental (SGA implantado. A pesquisa descritiva foi desenvolvida por meio de estudo de caso realizada em uma empresa fabricante dos produtos Coca-Cola, pois este é um dos setores nos quais a internalização da variável ambiental é de grande relevância, devido à grande competitividade nos mercados globalizados. As informações foram coletadas por meio de questionários e da entrevista semiestruturada, e os resultados mostraram que a identificação e o registro dos custos ambientais estão apoiados no SGA implantado. Conclui-se que, no sistema SAP, as contas representativas dos custos de controle, preservação e recuperação da cadeia produtiva estão classificadas no centro de custos com os demais custos indiretos de fabricação e estão incorporados ao produto final. São custos com programa de qualificação de fornecedores e funcionários; controle da fuligem; tratamento de efluentes; destinação de resíduos industriais; recuperação de água, de filtros de carvão, areia e rinser; investigação da contaminação em solo; e teste e medição dos níveis de contaminação - Due Dilligence de terrenos.

  13. CYCLE CONTROL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changed to gestodene. Although large- scale comparative trials are needed to confirm this finding, evidence suggests that cycle control with gestodene is better than for monophasic preparations containing desogestrel, norgestimate or levonorgestrel,10 as well as for levonorg- estrel-or norethisterone-containing triphasics.

  14. Associational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    2010-01-01

    significance in the modern workplace which is simultaneously characterized by self-management and standardization. It is concluded that the concept of control remains important, but needs to evolve from its focus on the work of individuals to a focus on the associational aspects of work if it is to retain its...

  15. JPRS Report Latin America Reference Aid Abbreviations and Acronyms in the Latin American Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-26

    Asociaciön de Profesionales de la Planta Siderürgica del 0 r i noco Association of Orinoco Iron and Steel Mill Professionals (Ve) APRA Alianza... Cultivo de Coca en el Alto Huallaga Upper Huallaga Coca Control and Reduction Agency (Pe) CORCOP Corporaciön Comercial del Pueblo People’s...Cubana Importadora de Plantas Completas Cuban Enterprise for Importing Complete Plants (Cu) CUBAMETALES Empresa Importadora de Metales Cuban

  16. The Role of Security Assistance in the Andean Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    national values and institutions, and the domestic violence generated by the trade in drugs is all to familiar . President George Bush, in National...of radio reports. One must keep in mind that the use of such a service is not without potential pitfalls. One pitfall is a lack of familiarity with the...monopoly, ENACO ( Empresa Nacional de la Coca) , with two purposes: 1) 53 to control the flow of coca leaves between producers and consumers; and 2) to

  17. Etika u menadžmentu na primjeru Coca-Cola, HBC, Hrvatska

    OpenAIRE

    Meseljević, Ankica

    2017-01-01

    Kroz ovaj diplomski rad nastojalo se ukazati na važnost integriranja poslovne etike u poslovanje poduzeća u današnjem poslovnom svijetu. Poslovna etika ne predstavlja, po mišljenju mnogih, trošak za poduzeće već glavni faktor uspješnog i održivog budućeg rast a i razvoja poduzeća. Činjenica je kako danas profit ne predstavlja jedini razlog poslovanja poduzeća, već je cjelokupno djelovanje usmjereno na postizanje konkurentske prednosti na tržištu. Mnoga svjetska poduzeć...

  18. HN(CA)N and HN(COCA)N experiments for assignment of large disordered proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao; Yang, Daiwen, E-mail: dbsydw@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore, Department of Biological Sciences (Singapore)

    2013-10-15

    Two new 3D HN-based experiments are proposed for backbone assignment of large disordered proteins. The spectra obtained with the new pulse schemes are free of redundant diagonal peaks (H{sub i}N{sub i}-N{sub i}) and provide sequential correlations (H{sub i}N{sub i}-N{sub i+1} and H{sub i}N{sub i}-N{sub i-1}) not only between adjacent non-proline residues but also between non-proline and proline residues. The experiments have been demonstrated on an intrinsically disordered protein with 306 amino acids including 64 proline residues. Using the two experiments, we obtained nearly complete assignments of backbone amides and proline {sup 15}N spins except for 4 proline and 4 non-proline residues.

  19. A Semantic Prosody Analysis of Three Adjective Synonymous Pairs in COCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H. C. Marcella

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades the concept of semantic prosody has attracted considerable research interest since Sinclair (1991) observed that "many uses of words and phrases show a tendency to occur in a certain semantic environment" (p. 112). Sinclair (2003) also noted that semantic prosody conveys its pragmatic meaning and attitudinal…

  20. Anticonvulsiva bij agressie, angststoornissen, psychotische stoornissen en alcohol- en cocaïneonttrekkingsverschijnselen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth-Van Veldhuizen, H.G.J.; Reinders, C.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Nolen, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in the treatment of psychiatric symptoms with anticonvulsants, especially in the treatment of refractory patients. It is questionable whether or not the efficacy of anticonvulsants as psychotropic drugs is sufficiently verified. AIM: To examine the

  1. Piip ja Tuut ootavad Amarillosse ja Coca-Cola Plazasse perepäevale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Kord kuus, septembrist 2004 kuni 2005.a. maini korraldatavatest perepäevadest. C-C Plazas on perepäevade ajal kavas eriprogramm ja enne või pärast filmi on pered oodatud Viru hotelli restorani Amarillo, kus kavas spetsiaalne lasteprogramm klounidelt Piip ja Tuut

  2. The Governmentality of Childhood Obesity: Coca-Cola, Public Health and Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Darren; Gard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the emergence of what might seem an unexpected policy outcome--a large multinational corporation, frequently blamed for exacerbating childhood obesity, operating as an officially sanctioned driver of anti-obesity initiatives in primary schools across the globe. We draw on Foucault's notion of governmentality to examine…

  3. Pepsi kerkib Coca-Cola varjust / Andrew Ward ; tõlk. Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ward, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Firma PepsiCo edust viimastel aastatel. Autori sõnul on suurim firma ees seisev väljakutse Põhja-Ameerika ja Lääne-Euroopa tarbija üha kasvav mure ülekaalu pärast, firma juht Steve Reinemund näeb selles firmale pigem võimalusi kui ohtu. Firma on USA-s kasutusele võtnud märgisüsteemi, et näidata, millised tooted on tervislikumad. Diagrammid: Kasumiallikad; Turuliidrid. Lisa: Vastasseis

  4. Coca-Cola's Global Lessons: From Education for Corporate Globalization to Education for Global Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    Many critics do censure marketers of junk food for their part in inundating every private and public space with health-harming products and slick advertisements. The author focuses on one such company to illustrate how the dangerous influences of corporate ideology on schooling effect much more than public health--they also work to shape the ways…

  5. Deviant Globalization and the Unintended Consequences of Coca Eradication in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    companies now receive over 50% of their income from overseas, while “global diversification ” continues to be a key goal of most of the remaining...production for their livelihood that they would fight any government attempt to eliminate it. Colombia’s dire economic conditions and limited reach... livelihood . For example, many alternative development programs have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and other deficiencies. As one NGO expert

  6. Psicopatología asociada al consumo de cocaína y alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Zamora, Pilar; Sirvent Ruiz, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Cada vez resulta más frecuente encontrar en la clínica trastornos psiquiátricos asociados al consumo de drogas. Además, la evolución de la realidad asistencial no deja lugar a dudas: lo que hace unos años era una prospección de futuro que a todos nos preocupaba hoy se ha convertido y con todas las consecuencias en el día a día. La comorbilidad psiquiátrica es más frecuente en adictos que en la población general.El consumo de alcohol por parte de los cocainómanos, y viceversa, es muy frecu...

  7. Nationalismus im Sonderangebot – Coca-Cola-Werbung zwischen Lifestyle-Kreation und politischer Mythenbildung

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Frisch; Universität Heidelberg

    2009-01-01

    Nationalism in the sense of symbols or actions glorifying the fatherland can be detected in many Chinese commercials today. In the form of a mythical narration, various aspects of an idealized China image are communicated, an image designed to bring about a sense of identity for all Chinese people. While first and foremost serving consumer preferences, these emotionally charged constructions of a “super nation” can also be interpreted in an ideological sense. Seen against the background of th...

  8. La evolución de las marcas y de los consumidores. El caso Coca Cola

    OpenAIRE

    García Pastor, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    El estudio es en esencia, un análisis del recorrido histórico desde los orígenes hasta la actualidad, de las marcas comerciales y de los consumidores. En él se trata de plasmar los distintos cambios que se han ido dando y que han ido modificando, tanto su relevancia en la sociedad como la relación entre ambos. Esta evolución, es utilizada como base para la explicación de la reciente crisis de imagen de marca, sufrida en España por una de las empresas internacionales con mayor peso dentro del...

  9. Different Modes to Enter India: Case of McDonalds and Coca-Cola

    OpenAIRE

    Sodhi, Gursharan Singh

    2007-01-01

    This research is to discuss the different entry modes used by MNCs to enter international market and what are the factors responsible for choosing the specific mode of entry. This research also shows that why the international companies adopt to the different entry modes for various countries depending on the market conditions. It is observed that in this world of globalization, all the international companies are looking to expand in different parts of the world but with different approaches...

  10. Control Cognitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pavón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las respuestas obtenidas permitieron dilucidar tanto las diversas situaciones en que las personas intentan controlar cognitivamente sus emociones, así como las estrategias que utilizan para lograr dicho fin. A partir de un análisis de contenido centrado en las respuestas, surgieron dos sistemas clasificatorios: el primero hace referencia a los motivos que hacen que una persona controle cognitivamente sus emociones y contiene las siguientes dimensiones: según valencia de emoción, intensidad de la emoción, según tipo de relación, según situación o contexto y según grado de simetría. El segundo sistema clasificatorio mencionado, refiere a los mecanismos de control que las personas entrevistadas utilizan. Esta clasificación consta de 4 dimensiones: distracción, evitación reflexión y supresión emocional. Los resultados indican tanto similitudes como diferencias entre los grupos. Respecto a estas últimas, las más relevantes se encontraron entre el grupo de personas de 20 a 30 años y las de 80 a 90. Se ha encontrado que con el correr de los años, las personas empiezan a poner énfasis en el valor de la experiencia para afrontar y controlar las diferentes situaciones.

  11. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Corticosteroid inhaler - COPD - control ...

  12. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  13. Custom controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butell, Bart

    1996-02-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic (VB) and Borland's Delphi provide an extremely robust programming environment for delivering multimedia solutions for interactive kiosks, games and titles. Their object oriented use of standard and custom controls enable a user to build extremely powerful applications. A multipurpose, database enabled programming environment that can provide an event driven interface functions as a multimedia kernel. This kernel can provide a variety of authoring solutions (e.g. a timeline based model similar to Macromedia Director or a node authoring model similar to Icon Author). At the heart of the kernel is a set of low level multimedia components providing object oriented interfaces for graphics, audio, video and imaging. Data preparation tools (e.g., layout, palette and Sprite Editors) could be built to manage the media database. The flexible interface for VB allows the construction of an infinite number of user models. The proliferation of these models within a popular, easy to use environment will allow the vast developer segment of 'producer' types to bring their ideas to the market. This is the key to building exciting, content rich multimedia solutions. Microsoft's VB and Borland's Delphi environments combined with multimedia components enable these possibilities.

  14. Hierarchical Control of Thermostatically Controller Loads for Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical control of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) to provide primary frequency control support. The control architecture is comprised of three levels. At the high level, an aggregator coordinates multiple distribution substations and dispatches the primary...... reserve references. At the middle level, distribution substations estimate the available power of TCLs based on the aggregated bin model, and dispatch control signals to individual TCLs. At the local level, a supplementary frequency control loop is implemented at the local controller, which makes TCLs...

  15. Adaptive Vehicle Traction Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyeongcheol; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    1995-01-01

    This report presents two different control algorithms for adaptive vehicle traction control, which includes wheel slip control, optimal time control, anti-spin acceleration and anti-skid control, and longitudinal platoon control. The two control algorithms are respectively based on adaptive fuzzy logic control and sliding mode control with on-line road condition estimation. Simulations of the two control methods are conducted using a complex nonlinear vehicle model as well as a simple linear ...

  16. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  17. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae, Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae, Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae, Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. March. (Burseraceae, as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  19. Contact Control, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-21

    The contact control code is a generalized force control scheme meant to interface with a robotic arm being controlled using the Robot Operating System (ROS). The code allows the user to specify a control scheme for each control dimension in a way that many different control task controllers could be built from the same generalized controller. The input to the code includes maximum velocity, maximum force, maximum displacement, and a control law assigned to each direction and the output is a 6 degree of freedom velocity command that is sent to the robot controller.

  20. Quantum feedback control and classical control theory

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Andrew C.; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt; Mabuchi, Hideo; Tan, Sze M.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce and discuss the problem of quantum feedback control in the context of established formulations of classical control theory, examining conceptual analogies and essential differences. We describe the application of state-observer based control laws, familiar in classical control theory, to quantum systems and apply our methods to the particular case of switching the state of a particle in a double-well potential.

  1. PID control with robust disturbance feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawai, Fukiko; Vinther, Kasper; Andersen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance Feedback Control (DFC) is a technique, originally proposed by Fuji Electric, for augmenting existing control systems with an extra feedback for attenuation of disturbances and model errors. In this work, we analyze the robustness and performance of a PID-based control system with DFC...... and performance (if such gains exist). Finally, two different simulation case studies are evaluated and compared. Our numerical studies indicate that better performance can be achieved with the proposed method compared with a conservatively tuned PID controller and comparable performance can be achieved when...... compared with an H-infinity controller....

  2. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible...... in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important...... role. If it can be emphasis on control design. The models have beenvalidated by experimental data obtained from an existing wind turbine. The e ective wind speed experienced by the rotor of a wind turbine, which is often required by some control methods, is estimated by using a wind turbine as a wind...

  3. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  4. PID controllers' fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Víctor M

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an index for measuring fragility of proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers is proposed. This index relates the losses of robustness of the control loop when controller parameters change, to the nominal robustness of the control loop. Furthermore, it defines when a PID controller is fragile, nonfragile or resilient.

  5. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  6. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  7. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  8. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  9. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  10. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 579 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  11. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  12. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  13. Fuzzy controller adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myravyova, E. A.; Sharipov, M. I.; Radakina, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    During writing this work, the fuzzy controller with a double base of rules was studied, which was applied for the synthesis of the automated control system. A method for fuzzy controller adaptation has been developed. The adaptation allows the fuzzy controller to automatically compensate for parametric interferences that occur at the control object. Specifically, the fuzzy controller controlled the outlet steam temperature in the boiler unit BKZ-75-39 GMA. The software code was written in the programming support environment Unity Pro XL designed for fuzzy controller adaptation.

  14. Dynamic power flow controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  15. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust against violations of the basic assumptions, like normality. The effect of using robust or other alternative estimators has not been investigated thoroughly in perspective of control charting literature....

  16. Space Digital Controller for Improved Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nunes, Samuel; Daras, Gaetan; Dehez, Bruno; Maillard, Christophe; Bekemans, Marc; Michel, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Performing digital motor control into space equipment is a new challenge. The new DPC (Digital Programmable Controller) is the first chip that we can use as a micro-controller, allowing us to drive motors with digital control schemes. In this paper, the digital control of hybrid stepper motors is considered. This kind of motor is used for solar array rotation and antenna actuation. New digital control technology brings a lot of advantages, allowing an important reduction of thermal losses inside the motor, and a reduction of thermal constraints on power drive electronic components. The opportunity to drive motors with a digital controller also brings many new functionalities like post-failure torque analysis, micro- vibrations and cogging torque reduction, or electro- mechanical damping of solar array oscillations. To evaluate the performance of the system, Field-Oriented Control (FOC) is implemented on a hybrid stepper motor. A test-bench, made of an active load, has been made to emulate the mechanical behaviour of the solar array, by the use of a torsionally-compliant model. The experimental results show that we can drastically reduce electrical power consumption, compared with the currently used open-loop control scheme.

  17. Control and optimal control theories with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Burghes, D N

    2004-01-01

    This sound introduction to classical and modern control theory concentrates on fundamental concepts. Employing the minimum of mathematical elaboration, it investigates the many applications of control theory to varied and important present-day problems, e.g. economic growth, resource depletion, disease epidemics, exploited population, and rocket trajectories. An original feature is the amount of space devoted to the important and fascinating subject of optimal control. The work is divided into two parts. Part one deals with the control of linear time-continuous systems, using both transfer fun

  18. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  19. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust

  20. Control of Bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    industries. It also provides a number of typical control loops for different objectives. A brief introduction to the general principles of process control, the PID control algorithm is discussed, and the design and effect of tuning are shown in an example. Finally, a discussion of novel, model-free control...

  1. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  2. Applied predictive control

    CERN Document Server

    Sunan, Huang; Heng, Lee Tong

    2002-01-01

    The presence of considerable time delays in the dynamics of many industrial processes, leading to difficult problems in the associated closed-loop control systems, is a well-recognized phenomenon. The performance achievable in conventional feedback control systems can be significantly degraded if an industrial process has a relatively large time delay compared with the dominant time constant. Under these circumstances, advanced predictive control is necessary to improve the performance of the control system significantly. The book is a focused treatment of the subject matter, including the fundamentals and some state-of-the-art developments in the field of predictive control. Three main schemes for advanced predictive control are addressed in this book: • Smith Predictive Control; • Generalised Predictive Control; • a form of predictive control based on Finite Spectrum Assignment. A substantial part of the book addresses application issues in predictive control, providing several interesting case studie...

  3. Foundations Of Fuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well...... as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID...

  4. Self adapting control charts

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W. C. M.

    2004-01-01

    When the distributional form of the observations differs from normality, standard control charts are often seriously in error. Such model errors can be avoided with (modified) nonparametric control charts. Unfortunately, these control charts suffer from large stochastic errors due to estimation. In between are so called parametric control charts. All three of them are discussed in this paper as well as a combined chart, which chooses one of the three control charts according to the appropriat...

  5. Robo-Wrist Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Faraquddin Ahamed, Mohamed Athiq

    2015-01-01

    Robo-wrist controller is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) based application designed and developed to control, and monitor a wrist exoskeleton driven by micro-controllers. The software application is developed to better assist a physiotherapist in administering physical therapy to stroke patients with the help of the exoskeleton. Since the micro-controller device that directly controls the exoskeleton is not very intuitive to use and lacks visual feedback, a software application fills these g...

  6. Controller Architectures for Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigate different controller architectures in connection with controller switching. The controller switching is derived by using the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. A number of different architectures for the implementation of the YJBK parameterization...... are described and applied in connection with controller switching. An architecture that does not include inversion of the coprime factors is introduced. This architecture will make controller switching particular simple....

  7. Fuzzy and neural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1992-01-01

    Fuzzy logic and neural networks provide new methods for designing control systems. Fuzzy logic controllers do not require a complete analytical model of a dynamic system and can provide knowledge-based heuristic controllers for ill-defined and complex systems. Neural networks can be used for learning control. In this chapter, we discuss hybrid methods using fuzzy logic and neural networks which can start with an approximate control knowledge base and refine it through reinforcement learning.

  8. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  9. Switching Between Multivariable Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Abrahamsen, Rune

    2004-01-01

    it is possible to smoothly switch between multivariable controllers with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This includes also the case where one or more controllers are unstable. The concept for smooth online changes of multivariable controllers based on the YJBK architecture can also handle the start up......A concept for implementation of multivariable controllers is presented in this paper. The concept is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. By using this architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers, it is shown how...... and shut down of multivariable systems. Furthermore, the start up of unstable multivariable controllers can be handled as well. Finally, implementation of (unstable) controllers as a stable Q parameter in a Q-parameterized controller can also be achieved....

  10. Robot welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  11. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  12. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  13. Switching Systems: Controllability and Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-25

    TERMS EOARD, Navigation, Comunications & Guidance, Complex Systems 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON JAMES LAWTON Ph...Switching Systems : Controllability and Control Design 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Professor...ABSTRACT Motivated by the need of dealing with physical systems that exhibit a more complicated behavior than those normally described by

  14. Ontology Based Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgü CAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As computer technologies become pervasive, the need for access control mechanisms grow. The purpose of an access control is to limit the operations that a computer system user can perform. Thus, access control ensures to prevent an activity which can lead to a security breach. For the success of Semantic Web, that allows machines to share and reuse the information by using formal semantics for machines to communicate with other machines, access control mechanisms are needed. Access control mechanism indicates certain constraints which must be achieved by the user before performing an operation to provide a secure Semantic Web. In this work, unlike traditional access control mechanisms, an "Ontology Based Access Control" mechanism has been developed by using Semantic Web based policies. In this mechanism, ontologies are used to model the access control knowledge and domain knowledge is used to create policy ontologies.

  15. Controls and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    King, Q

    2015-01-01

    Reliable powering of accelerator magnets requires reliable power converters and controls, able to meet the powering specifications in the long term. In this paper, some of the issues that will challenge a power converter controls engineer are discussed.

  16. Switching Between Multivariable Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, H.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Abrahamsen, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    A concept for implementation of multivariable controllers is presented in this paper. The concept is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. By using this architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers, it is shown how it is p...... it is possible to smoothly switch between multivariable controllers with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This includes also the case where one or more controllers are unstable. Udgivelsesdato: MAR-APR......A concept for implementation of multivariable controllers is presented in this paper. The concept is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. By using this architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers, it is shown how...

  17. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When a ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  18. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  19. Tight Diabetes Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A Listen En Español Tight Diabetes Control Managing blood glucose can prevent or slow the ... prevents or slows some complications. For the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), researchers followed 1,441 ...

  20. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  1. TIPONLINE Control Table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The tiponline application is quite complex.It contains code, control,use local lists and control data. Those whou care about the inter workings of the application...

  2. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  3. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay....

  4. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...... signal in response to the oscillation indicating signal, by processing the oscillation damping control signal in a signal processing chain. The signal processing chain includes a filter configured for passing only signals within a predetermined frequency range....

  5. Distributed Power Flow Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Z

    2010-01-01

    In modern power systems, there is a great demand to control the power flow actively. Power flow controlling devices (PFCDs) are required for such purpose, because the power flow over the lines is the nature result of the impedance of each line. Due to the control capabilities of different types of PFCDs, the trend is that mechanical PFCDs are gradually being replaced by Power electronics (PE) PFCDs. Among all PE PFCDs, the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is the most versatile device. How...

  6. Adaptive, predictive controller for optimal process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.K.; Baum, C.C.; Bowling, P.S.; Buescher, K.L.; Hanagandi, V.M.; Hinde, R.F. Jr.; Jones, R.D.; Parkinson, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    One can derive a model for use in a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) from first principles or from experimental data. Until recently, both methods failed for all but the simplest processes. First principles are almost always incomplete and fitting to experimental data fails for dimensions greater than one as well as for non-linear cases. Several authors have suggested the use of a neural network to fit the experimental data to a multi-dimensional and/or non-linear model. Most networks, however, use simple sigmoid functions and backpropagation for fitting. Training of these networks generally requires large amounts of data and, consequently, very long training times. In 1993 we reported on the tuning and optimization of a negative ion source using a special neural network[2]. One of the properties of this network (CNLSnet), a modified radial basis function network, is that it is able to fit data with few basis functions. Another is that its training is linear resulting in guaranteed convergence and rapid training. We found the training to be rapid enough to support real-time control. This work has been extended to incorporate this network into an MPC using the model built by the network for predictive control. This controller has shown some remarkable capabilities in such non-linear applications as continuous stirred exothermic tank reactors and high-purity fractional distillation columns[3]. The controller is able not only to build an appropriate model from operating data but also to thin the network continuously so that the model adapts to changing plant conditions. The controller is discussed as well as its possible use in various of the difficult control problems that face this community.

  7. Cooperative Control Method of Active and Semiactive Control: New Framework for Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiko Hiramoto

    2014-01-01

    A new control design framework for vibration control, the cooperative control of active and semiactive control, is proposed in the paper. In the cooperative control, a structural system having both of an actuator and a semiactive control device, for example, MR damper and so forth, is defined as the control object. In the proposed control approach, the higher control performance is aimed by the cooperative control between the active control with the actuator and the semiactive control with th...

  8. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that use hormones, such as the birth control pill or birth control ring , a girl uses the birth control patch based on her monthly menstrual cycle. She puts on the patch on the first day of her menstrual cycle or the first Sunday after her menstrual cycle begins. She will change the ...

  9. SPS : the control system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Neyrac Films

    1975-01-01

    English version. Part of the series of films produced by CERN about the SPS. "More than 10.000 things to control, 7,00 things to measure and 30,000 ? to survey, distributed over more than 10 square km. That was the problem which faced the controls group." Comments: images of control room, computer screens, and computer centre rather dark

  10. Fuzzy Control Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotoli, M.; Jantzen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The tutorial concerns automatic control of an inverted pendulum, especially rule based control by means of fuzzy logic. A ball balancer, implemented in a software simulator in Matlab, is used as a practical case study. The objectives of the tutorial are to teach the basics of fuzzy control...

  11. Finite Control in Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kum Young

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

  12. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  13. Distributed Power Flow Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In modern power systems, there is a great demand to control the power flow actively. Power flow controlling devices (PFCDs) are required for such purpose, because the power flow over the lines is the nature result of the impedance of each line. Due to the control capabilities of different types of

  14. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-21

    Intersoft- ware, Logic Control Control y Aplicaciones , Dielsa, Eliop, EISA, Sainco CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Standard CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Piher...regulation systems Industrial turbine of advanced design Alfa Sewing Machines Control y Aplicaciones , Danobat, Etxe-Tar C02, CO and ultraviolet lasers

  15. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  16. Global marketing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John Rance; Galina Zhiltsova

    2009-01-01

    The reasoning issue of this work is to research and define the efficient methods of global marketing control. The report is focused on the following aspects: the importance of the control systems in global marketing environment, the relationship between planning and controlling, types and the

  17. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  18. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  19. Feedback control of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    This thesis is concerned with the development an application of feedback control techniques for active sound control. Both fixed and adaptive controllers are considered. The controller design problem for active sound control is formulated as a constrained optimisation problem with an H2 performance objective, of minimising the variance of the control error, and H2 and H∞ design constraints involving control power output, disturbance enhancement, and robust stability. An Internal Model Controller with an FIR control filter is assumed. Conventional H2 design methods for feedback controllers are studied first. Although such controllers can satisfy the design constraints by employing effort terms in the quadratic cost function, they do not achieve the best possible performance, and when adapted using LMS-based algorithms, they suffer from instabilities if the plant response varies significantly. Improved H2/H∞ design methods for fixed and adaptive controllers are then developed, which achieve the best H2 performance under the design constraints, offer an improved stability when made adaptive, and in general outperform the conventional H2 controllers. The H2/H∞ design problems employ convex programming to ensure a unique solution. The Sequential Quadratic Programming methods is used for the off-line design of fixed controllers, and penalty and barrier function methods, together with frequency domain LMS-based algorithms are employed in the H2/H∞ adaptive controllers. The controllers studied and developed here were applied to three active sound control systems: a noise-reducing headset, an active headrest, and a sound radiating panel. The emphasis was put on developing control strategies that improve system performance. First, a high performance controller for the noise-reducing headset was implemented in real-time, which combines analogue and adaptive digital controllers, and can thus reject disturbances which has both broad-band and periodic components. Then

  20. Control of wastewater using multivariate control chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Jaka; Fatimah, Is; Prabowo, Rino Galang

    2017-03-01

    Wastewater treatment is a crucial process in industry cause untreated or improper treatment of wastewater may leads some problems affecting to the other parts of environmental aspects. For many kinds of wastewater treatments, the parameters of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and the Total Suspend Solid (TSS) are usual parameters to be controlled as a standard. In this paper, the application of multivariate Hotteling T2 Individual was reported to control wastewater treatment. By using wastewater treatment data from PT. ICBP, east Java branch, while the fulfillment of quality standards are based on East Java Governor Regulation No. 72 Year 2013 on Standards of Quality of Waste Water Industry and / or Other Business Activities. The obtained results are COD and TSS has a correlation with BOD values with the correlation coefficient higher than 50%, and it is is also found that influence of the COD and TSS to BOD values are 82% and 1.9% respectively. Based on Multivariate control chart Individual T2 Hotteling, it is found that BOD-COD and BOD-TSS are each one subgroup that are outside the control limits. Thus, it can be said there is a process that is not multivariate controlled, but univariately the variables of BOD, COD and TSS are within specification (standard quality) that has been determined.

  1. Control and optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  2. Internet congestion control

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Subir

    2015-01-01

    Internet Congestion Control provides a description of some of the most important topics in the area of congestion control in computer networks, with special emphasis on the analytical modeling of congestion control algorithms. The field of congestion control has seen many notable advances in recent years and the purpose of this book, which is targeted towards the advanced and intermediate reader, is to inform about the most important developments in this area. The book should enable the reader to gain a good understanding of the application of congestion control theory to a number of applic

  3. Self control in diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Suljić, E.; Alajbegović, A.; B. Heljić; S. Alajbegović; Resić, H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent patients in Zenica-Doboj Canton suffering from diabetes conducted self-control of glycemia and glycosuria, what was a weekly average of glycemia self-control and frequency of feet self-control. In 278 patients suffering from diabetes (58 with type 1 diabetes 1 and 220 with type 2 diabetes) we studied a conduct of self-control with these parameters in 1999 and 2004. In 1999 self-control of glycemia was conducted by 44.83% persons with type ...

  4. Measuring Self-Control

    OpenAIRE

    John Ameriks; Andrew Caplin; John Leahy; Tom Tyler

    2004-01-01

    How significant are individual differences in self-control? Do these differences impact wealth accumulation? From where do they derive? Our survey-based measure of self-control provides insights into all three questions: 1.There are individual differences in self-control not only of a quantitative but also of a qualitative nature. In our sample, standard self-control problems of over-consumption are no more prevalent than are problems of under-consumption. 2.Standard self-control problems do ...

  5. Optimal magnetic attitude control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic......Magnetic torquing is attractive as means of control for small satellites. The actuation principle is to use the interaction between the earth's magnetic field and a magnetic field generated by a coil set in the satellite. This control principle is inherently time-varying, and difficult to use...

  6. Customs control of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research question, consists in defining the moment of customs control pre or post-clearance control of goods.

  7. Combat damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2008-07-01

    Although the use of damage control surgery for blunt and penetrating injury has been widely reported and defined, the use of damage control surgery on the battlefield (combat damage control surgery) has not been well detailed. Damage control surgery is now well established as the standard of care for severely injured civilian patients requiring emergent laparotomy in the United States. The civilian damage control paradigm is based on a "damage control trilogy." This trilogy comprises an abbreviated operation, intensive care unit resuscitation, and a return to the operating room for the definitive operation. The goal of damage control surgery and the triology is avoidance of irreversible physiological insult termed the lethal triad. The lethal triad comprises the vicious cycle of hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy. Although the damage control model involves the damage control trilogy, abbreviated operation, intensive care unit resuscitation, and definitive operation, all in the same surgical facility, the combat damage control paradigm must incorporate global evacuation through several military surgical facilities and involves up to ten stages to allow for battlefield evacuation, surgical operations, multiple resuscitations, and transcontinental transport. Combat damage control surgery represents many unique challenges for those who care for the severely injured patients in a combat zone.

  8. Control, salud y bienestar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas-Auvert, Jesús A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En resumen, a pesar de que en algunas circunstancias, la exagerada percepción o necesidad de control es contraproducente para la adaptación y crecimiento psicológico, la aceptación general es que, al menos en grado moderado, el control percibido y control real son beneficios para las personas y un recurso valioso para enfrentar las dificultades en la vida. Por ello, las personas, grupos y naciones buscan sentirse dueñas de sus destinos y no víctimas de las circunstancias. Las personas y los pueblos con control son las que moldean y transforman las circunstacias, los que construyen un futuro mejor. Por ello, con objetivos preventivos y remediativos, los profesionales de la salud mental debemos promover el desarrollo y optimizacion de un control moderado y flexible como nutriente del crecimiento psicológico y bienestar biopsicosocial individual y colectivo. El trabajo aborda el significado del control, el desarrollo del control real y percibido, la relación entre control, salud y enfermedad, control, bienestar y psicopatología, la renuncia a los intentos de control, y control y terapia cognitivo-conductual.

  9. Control in Complex Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennstam, Jens; Kärreman, Dan

    The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily for their ......The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily......, and the concepts of constructive disobedience, translation, and peer reviewing as ways of understanding how control work is exercised at the operative level....

  10. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  11. Controlling chaos faster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Christian [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience (BCCN), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Mathematics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); Kolodziejski, Christoph [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); III. Physical Institute—Biophysics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Nonlinear Dynamics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.

  12. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  13. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

  14. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered dire...

  15. At the Reception Desk of the Public Information Office, left to right, Chantal Berthet, Coca Roth and Regine Chareyron.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    In keeping with Article II of the Convention, which stipulates that "the results of its (...) work shall be published or otherwise made available," CERN was already organising visits for the general public in the late 1950s, with members of the personnel doubling up as voluntary tour guides. By 1959, the Laboratory was opening its doors to almost 2 500 visitors a year. Ten years down the line, that number had risen to 12 700.

  16. Pesticides in Coca-Cola and Pepsi: Consumerism, Brand Image, and Public Interest in a Globalizing India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neeraj Vedwan

    2007-01-01

    In India, and elsewhere, the effects of globalization, especially increased consumerism, in expanding the circulation of branded goods, has produced a complex mix of responses and readings that are often contradictory...

  17. MEMBANGUN MEREK DENGAN MENGAKUISISI PERUSAHAAN : REALITAS MEREK-MEREK YANG BERHASIL (STUDI KASUS – COCA COLA, STARBUCKS & HM SAMPOERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pantja Djati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Membangun sebuah merek sebagai investasi yang cukup panjang dan akan menghasilkan suatu keuntungan besar bagi perusahaan. Pada kenyataannya banyak merek-merek internasional yang sudah berhasil untuk jangka waktu yang panjang sampai saat ini, sebab ia sudah berhasil dalam merencanakan suatu merek. Pada beberapa waktu ternyata nilai suatu merek melebihi dari total asset perusahaan, tanah dan mesin yang dimiliki perusahaan, karena citra merek yang tinggi bisa mendatangkan keuntungan yang besar. Pada beberapa kasus di perusahaan pada dasarnya investasi dengan membeli perusahaan memiliki kecenderungan untuk mempertahankan merek mula-mula, yaitu merek yang sejak awal dibeli yang sudah cukup kuat di benak konsumen. Membuat merek baru lebih beresiko dan perlu biaya mahal. Justru dengan mengakuisisi perusahaan untuk menambah portofolio merek perusahaan.

  18. Spatial dimensions of land administration and user rights over groundwater : Case study of Kerala, India vs. Coca Cola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghawana, T.; Hespanha, J.P.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Supporting the management of rights related to groundwater based on input from hydrogeology software is contributing to bridging the gap between the technical and administrative aspects of groundwater management. The research reported herein is focused on a specific example (or ‘use case’ in UML

  19. A "coca-cola" shape: cultural change, body image, and eating disorders in San Andrés, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Fye, Eileen P

    2004-12-01

    Eating disorders have been associated with developing nations undergoing rapid social transition, including participation in a global market economy and heavy media exposure. San Andrés, Belize, a community with many risk factors associated with the cross-cultural development of eating disorders, has shown remarkable resistance to previously documented patterns, despite a local focus on female beauty. Drawing on longitudinal person-centered ethnography with adolescent girls, this article examines why this community appears exceptional in light of the literature. First, community beauty and body image ideals and practices are explicated. Then, a protective ethnopsychology is proposed as a key mediating factor of the rapid socio-cultural change among young women. Finally, possible nascent cases of eating disordered behavior are discussed in light of their unique phenomenology: that is, having to do more with economic opportunity in the tourism industry and less with personal distress or desire for thinness. Close, meaning-centered examination of eating and body image practices may aid understanding and prevention of eating disorders among adolescents undergoing rapid social change in situations of globalization and immigration.

  20. Contact technique and concussions in the South African under-18 Coca-Cola Craven Week Rugby tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; O'connor, Sam; Lambert, Michael; Brown, James; Burger, Nicholas; Mc Fie, Sarah; Readhead, Clint; Viljoen, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In rugby union, understanding the techniques and events leading to concussions is important because of the nature of the injury and the severity and potential long-term consequences, particularly in junior players. Proper contact technique is a prerequisite for successful participation in rugby and is a major factor associated with injury. However, the execution of proper contact technique and its relationship to injury has yet to be studied in matches. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare contact techniques leading to concussion with a representative sample of similarly matched non-injury (NI) contact events. Injury surveillance was conducted at the 2011-2013 under-18 Craven Week Rugby tournaments. Video footage of 10 concussive events (5 tackle, 4 ruck and 1 aerial collision) and 83 NI events were identified (19 tackle, 61 ruck and 3 aerial collisions). Thereafter, each phase of play was analysed using standardised technical proficiency criteria. Overall score for ruck proficiency in concussive events was 5.67 (out of a total of 15) vs. 6.98 for NI events (n = 54) (effect size = 0.52, small). Overall average score for tackler proficiency was 7.25 (n = 4) and 6.67 (n = 15) for injury and NI tackles, respectively (out of 16) (effect size = 0.19, trivial). This is the first study to compare concussion injury contact technique to a player-matched sample of NI contact techniques. Certain individual technical criteria had an effect towards an NI outcome, and others had an effect towards a concussive event, highlighting that failure to execute certain techniques may substantially increase the opportunity for concussion.

  1. Cultural Variance as a Challenge to Global Public Relations: A Case Study of the Coca-Cola Scare in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Explores cultural variability, especially uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and examines how it affects public response to crisis. Presents an analysis of the national cultures of six European countries that showed that publics who live in nations that are high in uncertainty avoidance and power distance tend to react more strongly, and…

  2. Deterioro de los sistemas de memoria asociado al consumo de cocaína, cannabis y heroína

    OpenAIRE

    Mayayo Mendoza, Belén

    2012-01-01

    El autor comienza hablando sobre la drogadicción, tipos de drogas y las alteraciones cognitivas que estas producen. Pasa después a tratar los diferentes sistemas de memoria. Por último realiza distintas pruebas sobre sujetos reales consumidores habituales de droga y otros que no son consumidores.

  3. Lin Xiaoping, Children of Marx and Coca-Cola. Chinese Avant-garde art and independent cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Dubouloz, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    Xiaoping, currently associate professor at Queens College, New York, says in his introduction that he lived in China before moving to the United States, where he obtained a doctorate in 1993 at Yale. His book, second in the Critical Interventions series published by the University of Hawaii, offers a complementary study of the artistic avant-garde and of independent Chinese cineastes against the background of a post-socialist China in the throes of capitalist globalisation. Lin focuses his st...

  4. Instructional Prescriptions for Learner Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jaesam; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of learner control in instructional management describes six learner control methods: (1) content control; (2) sequence control; (3) pace control; (4) display or strategy control; (5) internal processing control; and (6) advisor strategies. Relevant literature, both theoretical and empirical, is reviewed, and learner control and…

  5. Contouring controller for precise motion control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Golubovic, Edin; Baran, Eray Abdurrahman; Şabanoviç, Asif; Sabanovic, Asif

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the trajectory generation algorithm, contour error construction method and finally the contour controller design. In the trajectory generation algorithm combination of elliptical Fourier descriptors (EFD) and time based spline approximation (TBSA) is used to generate position, velocity and acceleration references.Contour error is constructed using transformation of trajectory tracking errors. Transformation is computationally efficient and requires only reference velocity...

  6. Controllability of Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2011-03-01

    The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. While control theory offers mathematical tools to steer engineered systems towards a desired state, we lack a general framework to control complex self-organized systems, like the regulatory network of a cell or the Internet. Here we develop analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network, identifying the set of driver nodes whose time-dependent control can guide the system's dynamics. We apply these tools to real and model networks, finding that sparse inhomogeneous networks, which emerge in many real complex systems, are the most difficult to control. In contrast, dense and homogeneous networks can be controlled via a few driver nodes. Counterintuitively, we find that in both model and real systems the driver nodes tend to avoid the hubs. We show that the robustness of control to link failure is determined by a core percolation problem, helping us understand why many complex systems are relatively insensitive to link deletion. The developed approach offers a framework to address the controllability of an arbitrary network, representing a key step towards the eventual control of complex systems.

  7. Advanced Control Strategies of Induction Machine: Field Oriented Control, Direct Torque Control and Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxiang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Field oriented control (FOC, direct torque control (DTC and finite set model predictive control (FS-MPC are different strategies for high performance electrical drive systems. FOC uses linear controllers and pulse width modulation (PWM to control the fundamental components of the load voltages. On the other hand, DTC and FS-MPC are nonlinear strategies that generate directly the voltage vectors in the absence of a modulator. This paper presents all three methods starting from theoretic operating principles, control structures and implementation. Experimental assessment is performed to discuss their advantages and limitations in detail. As main conclusions of this work, it is affirmed that different strategies have their own merits and all meet the requirements of modern high performance drives.

  8. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  9. Quality Control Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2013-01-01

    Quality control is a constant priority in electrical, mechanical, aeronautical, and nuclear engineering – as well as in the vast domain of electronics, from home appliances to computers and telecommunications. Quality Control Applications provides guidance and valuable insight into quality control policies; their methods, their implementation, constant observation and associated technical audits. What has previously been a mostly mathematical topic is translated here for engineers concerned with the practical implementation of quality control. Once the fundamentals of quality control are established, Quality Control Applications goes on to develop this knowledge and explain how to apply it in the most effective way. Techniques are described and supported using relevant, real-life, case studies to provide detail and clarity for those without a mathematical background. Among the many practical examples, two case studies dramatize the importance of quality assurance: A shot-by-shot analysis of the errors made ...

  10. Fuzzy logic controller optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael

    2004-03-23

    A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.

  11. Tautological control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a description of a new modelling framework for nonlinear/geometric control theory. The framework is intended to be—and shown to be—feedback-invariant. As such, Tautological Control Systems provides a platform for understanding fundamental structural problems in geometric control theory. Part of the novelty of the text stems from the variety of regularity classes, e.g., Lipschitz, finitely differentiable, smooth, real analytic, with which it deals in a comprehensive and unified manner. The treatment of the important real analytic class especially reflects recent work on real analytic topologies by the author. Applied mathematicians interested in nonlinear and geometric control theory will find this brief of interest as a starting point for work in which feedback invariance is important. Graduate students working in control theory may also find Tautological Control Systems to be a stimulating starting point for their research.

  12. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  13. Control Multivariable por Desacoplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Morilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La interacción entre variables es una característica inherente de los procesos multivariables, que dificulta su operación y el diseño de sus sistemas de control. Bajo el paradigma de Control por desacoplo se agrupan un conjunto de metodologías, que tradicionalmente han estado orientadas a eliminar o reducir la interacción, y que recientemente algunos investigadores han reorientado con objetivos de solucionar un problema tan complejo como es el control multivariable. Parte del material descrito en este artículo es bien conocido en el campo del control de procesos, pero la mayor parte de él son resultados de varios años de investigación de los autores en los que han primado la generalización del problema, la búsqueda de soluciones de fácil implementación y la combinación de bloques elementales de control PID. Esta conjunción de intereses provoca que no siempre se pueda conseguir un desacoplo perfecto, pero que sí se pueda conseguir una considerable reducción de la interacción en el nivel básico de la pirámide de control, en beneficio de otros sistemas de control que ocupan niveles jerárquicos superiores. El artículo resume todos los aspectos básicos del Control por desacoplo y su aplicación a dos procesos representativos: una planta experimental de cuatro tanques acoplados y un modelo 4×4 de un sistema experimental de calefacción, ventilación y aire acondicionado. Abstract: The interaction between variables is inherent in multivariable processes and this fact may complicate their operation and control system design. Under the paradigm of decoupling control, several methodologies that traditionally have been addressed to cancel or reduce the interactions are gathered. Recently, this approach has been reoriented by several researchers with the aim to solve such a complex problem as the multivariable control. Parts of the material in this work are well known in the process control field; however, most of them are

  14. Artificial locomotion control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, Christine; Poignet, Philippe; Espiau, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns the simultaneous synthesis and control of walking gaits for biped robots. The goal is to propose an adaptable and reactive control law for two-legged machines. The problem is addressed with human locomotion as a reference. The starting point of our work is an analysis of human...... walking from descriptive (biomechanics) as well as explicative (neuroscience and physiology) points of view, the objective being to stress the relevant elements for the approach of robot control. The adopted principles are then: no joint trajectory tracking; explicit distinction and integration...... of postural and walking control; use of evolutive optimization objectives; on-line event handling and environment adaptation and anticipation. This leads to the synthesis of an original control scheme based on non-linear model predictive control: Trajectory Free NMPC. The movement is specified implicitly...

  15. Debt Out of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Anja; Hubert, Marco; Kenning, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a representative sample of the German population (n = 946), we explored the links between self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Participants completed the self-control scale (Tangney, Boone, & Baumeister, 2004) and the German Addictive Buying Scale (Raab, Neuner, Reisch, & Scherhorn, 2005......). Additionally, they gave information about their real debts. It was observed that self-control was negatively related to debts while compulsive buying was positively related to debts. Detailed analyses revealed that the link between self-control and debts was fully mediated by compulsive buying. Finally......, there was a gender effect on compulsive buying: women were more prone to compulsive buying than men. Age also was significantly negatively related to compulsive buying and positively linked to self-control. Household income was not linked to self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Implications for practice...

  16. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  17. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis......This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... that carried the control system designer through the steps necessary to consider fault handling in an early design phase. It was shown how an existing control loop with interface to the plant wide control system could be extended with three additional modules to obtain fault tolerance: Fault detection...

  18. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  19. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  20. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  1. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  2. SDN controllers security issues

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is essentially varying the way we design and manage networks, which makes a communication network programmable. In SDN, a logically centralized controller has straight control over the packet-handling functions of the network switches, using a standard, open API (Application Programming Interface) such as OpenFlow. OpenFlow is a broadly used protocol for software-defined networks (SDNs) that presents a new model in which the control plane is inattentive from ...

  3. Unpacking Self-Control

    OpenAIRE

    Duckworth, Angela; Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Self-controlled behavior refers to actions aligned with valued, longer-term goals in the face of conflicting impulses to seek immediate gratification. In this article, we argue that the psychological processes that contribute to self-controlled behavior can be grouped into two functionally distinct categories: Volitional processes facilitate self-controlled behavior and include executive functions as well as learned metacognitive strategies like planning, attention deployment, and psychologic...

  4. Intelligent PID controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Intelligent PID controllers, or i-PID controllers, are PID controllers where the unknown parts of the plant, which might be highly nonlinear and/or time-varying, are taken into account without any modeling procedure. Our main tool is an online numerical differentiator, which is based on easily implementable fast estimation and identification techniques. Several numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency of our method when compared to more classic PID regulators.

  5. Molluscicides in schistosomiasis control

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, F. S.; Gayral, Ph.; DUNCAN, J; Christie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Although mollusciciding can be a cost-effective method of controlling schistosomiasis transmission, only one organic molluscicide, niclosamide, is now being produced commercially, and only a few compounds are at present being tested in the laboratory. In future, improved cost-effective use of molluscicides will require more precise knowledge of schistosomiasis transmission patterns in each endemic area and improved application techniques. In snail control studies using controlled-release form...

  6. Statistical Engine Knock Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    A new statistical concept of the knock control of a spark ignition automotive engine is proposed . The control aim is associated with the statistical hy pothesis test which compares the threshold value to the average value of the max imal amplitud e of the knock sensor signal at a given freq uency...... which includ es generation of the amplitud e signals, a threshold value d etermination and a knock sound mod el is d eveloped for evaluation of the control concept....

  7. Gun Control Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    for and against greater gun control . Past legislative proposals have raised the following questions: What restrictions on firearms are permissible...under the Constitution? Does gun control help reduce violent crime? Would household, street corner, and schoolyard disputes be less lethal if firearms...were more difficult to acquire? Or, would more restrictive gun control policies diminish an individual’s ability to defend himself? Speaking to these

  8. Computer aided manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  9. Biomechanics in Molar Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rendón Giraldo, Juan Esteban; Castaño, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate molar control is one of the difficulties that arise during mechanical treatment. When molar control is handled efficiently, it facilitates precise control of forces and moments, which increases the effectiveness of biomechanics. Knowledge of 4 x 2, 6 x 2 partial systems and the transpalatal bar with its different forms of activation offer a number of advantages that make it possible to optimize orthodontic results. The aim of this article is to clarify concepts, specify possible tr...

  10. Proxemic-aware controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledo, David; Greenberg, Saul; Marquardt, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Remote controls facilitate interactions at-a-distance with appliances. However, the complexity, diversity, and in-creasing number of digital appliances in ubiquitous com-puting ecologies make it increasingly difficult to: (1) dis-cover which appliances are controllable; (2) select a par...... to create a dynamic appliance control interface. Specifically, a person can discover and select an appliance by the way one orients a mobile device around the room, and then progressively view the appliance's status and control its features in in-creasing detail by simply moving towards it. We illus...

  11. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  12. Detonation command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-31

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  13. Detonation command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2015-11-10

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  14. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  15. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  16. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  17. Detonation command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan Lee; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2017-12-05

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  18. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  19. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  20. Intelligent networked teleoperation control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a unified framework for networked teleoperation systems involving multiple research fields: networked control systems for linear and nonlinear forms, bilateral teleoperation, trilateral teleoperation, multilateral teleoperation and cooperative teleoperation. It closely examines networked control as a field at the intersection of systems & control and robotics and presents a number of experimental case studies on testbeds for robotic systems, including networked haptic devices, robotic network systems and sensor network systems. The concepts and results outlined are easy to understand, even for readers fairly new to the subject. As such, the book offers a valuable reference work for researchers and engineers in the fields of systems & control and robotics.

  1. Automatic control of bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, Marc; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, different approaches for open-loop and closed-loop control applied in bioprocess automation are discussed. Although in recent years many contributions dealing with closed-loop control have been published, only a minority were actually applied in real bioprocesses, the majority being simulations. As a result of the diversity of bioprocess requirements, a single control algorithm cannot be applied in all cases; rather, different approaches are necessary. Most publications combine different closed-loop control techniques to construct hybrid systems. These systems are supposed to combine the advantages of each approach into a well-performing control strategy. The majority of applications are soft sensors in combination with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The fact that soft sensors have become this importance for control purposes demonstrates the lack of direct measurements or their large additional expense for robust and reliable online measurement systems. The importance of model predictive control is increasing; however, reliable and robust process models are required, as well as very powerful computers to address the computational needs. The lack of theoretical bioprocess models is compensated by hybrid systems combining theoretical models, fuzzy logic, and/or artificial neural network methodology. Although many authors suggest a possible transfer of their presented control application to other bioprocesses, the algorithms are mostly specialized to certain organisms or certain cultivation conditions as well as to a specific measurement system.

  2. Control functions in MFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) has been proposed as a tool for representing goals and functions of complex industrial plants and suggested as a basis for reasoning about control situations. Lind presents an introduction to MFM but do not describe how control functions are used in the modeling....... The purpose of the present paper is to serve as a companion paper to this introduction by explaining the basic principles used in MFM for representation of control functions. A theoretical foundation for modeling control functions is presented and modeling examples are given for illustration....

  3. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  4. MOSFET Power Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J.; Jones, K.

    1986-01-01

    High current and voltage controlled remotely. Remote Power Conroller includes two series-connected banks of parallel-connected MOSFET's to withstand high current and voltage. Voltage sharing between switch banks, low-impedance, gate-drive circuits used. Provided controlled range for turn on. Individually trimmable to insure simultaneous switching within few nanoseconds during both turn on and turn off. Control circuit for each switch bank and over-current trip circuit float independently and supplied power via transformer T1 from inverter. Control of floating stages by optocouplers.

  5. Records Control Schedules Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Records Control Schedules (RCS) repository provides access to scanned versions of records schedules, or Standard Form 115, Request for Records Disposition...

  6. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design....... For this reason, the book puts emphasis on the state-space approach. The main contents of the book includes state-space representation of dynamic systems, analysis of linear control systems, feedback control and observer design. Both continuous-time and discrete-time systems have been addressed in this book....

  7. Χρηματοοικονομική ανάλυση και αποτίμηση επιχειρήσεων : η περίπτωση των εισηγμένων στο Χ.Α. επιχειρήσεων Vivartia Α.Β.Ε.Ε. και Coca Cola H.B.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Λυμπερόπουλος, Αντώνιος

    2009-01-01

    Η εργασία αποτελείται από τρία κεφάλαια. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο γίνεται θεωρητική προσέγγιση της χρηματοοικονομικής ανάλυσης, των διαφόρων κατηγοριών ενδιαφερομένων ατόμων που ασχολούνται με αυτή, συνοπτική παρουσίαση των κυριοτέρων αριθμοδεικτών καθώς και των περισσότερο διαδεδομένων μεθόδων αποτίμησης επιχειρήσεων ή μεμονωμένων περιουσιακών στοιχείων. Στο δεύτερο κεφάλαιο γίνεται εταιρική παρουσίαση των δύο υπό εξέταση εταιρειών, VIVARTIA ABEE και COCA COLA HBC, χρηματοοικονομική ανάλυση...

  8. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  9. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... written to simulate an example of a randomly generated system. This paper can serve as tutorial to anyone interested in this area of research. Keywords: model predictive control, linear systems, discrete-time systems, constraints, quadratic programming. 1. Introduction. Model Predictive Control (MPC), also ...

  10. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  11. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  12. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust and con...

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  14. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  15. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of difficulties associated with control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performan...

  16. Modern process-control

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    Today's control system architectures will be explained, using their historical development and advances in computer technologies as a guide. These developments will be documented with the example of CERN's accelerator control systems. Having an overview of current systems allows a closer look at the constituents: operator consoles, front-end computers, embedded processors and the networks and buses interconnecting them.

  17. Model Indepedent Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jing

    2010-01-01

    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  18. Counter Weapon Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Laws”. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 4(2):109–115, 1981. 2. Baba, Yoriaki, Makoto Yamaguchi, and Robert M Howe. “Generalized Guid- ance...Line-of-Sight Intercept Guidance for Aircraft Defense”. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 36(3):898–902, 2013. 22. Yuan, Luke Chia -Liu

  19. Rethinking Coercive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Evan

    2009-12-01

    The critical appraisals of Coercive Control focus largely on what my analysis implies for intervention, a matter to which the book devotes only limited space. In this reply, I reiterate core concepts in the book and acknowledge that much more work is needed to translate the realities of coercive control into practical legal and advocacy strategies. I review how coercive control differs from partner assaults and so why it merits a distinct response; the extent to which coercive control targets gender identity; the wisdom of complementing the focus on violence with an emphasis on male domination, sexual inequality and personal liberty; what this implies for shelters and the law; why sexual inequality differentiates coercive control from female partner abuse of men; how sexual equality can be both cause and antidote for coercive control; why I think an affirmative concept of freedom is essential to grasp the human rights violations inflicted by coercive control; and what it means to "story" coercive control by integrating women into the larger liberty narrative on which our national identity rests.

  20. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Birth Control Methods - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Family Tree Clinic Teen Wise Minnesota Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ... Dari) PDF Birth Control Methods - دری (Dari) MP3 Family Tree Clinic Teen Wise Minnesota Farsi (فارسی) Expand Section ...